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Sample records for beryllium disease related

  1. Beryllium Related Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylord, R F

    2008-12-23

    In recent months, LLNL has identified, commenced, and implemented a series of interim controls, compensatory measures, and initiatives to ensure worker safety, and improve safety processes with regards to potential worker exposure to beryllium. Many of these actions have been undertaken in response to the NNSA Independent Review (COR-TS-5/15/2008-8550) received by LLNL in November of 2008. Others are the result of recent discoveries, events or incidents, and lessons learned, or were scheduled corrective actions from earlier commitments. Many of these actions are very recent in nature, or are still in progress, and vary in the formality of implementation. Actions are being reviewed for effectiveness as they progress. The documentation of implementation, and review of effectiveness, when appropriate, of these actions will be addressed as part of the formal Corrective Action Plan addressing the Independent Review. The mitigating actions taken fall into the following categories: (1) Responses to specific events/concerns; (2) Development of interim controls; (3) Review of ongoing activities; and (4) Performance improvement measures.

  2. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  3. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) (63 FR 66940). After considering the comments received, DOE... CFR Part 850 RIN 1992-AA39 Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program AGENCY: Office of Health... beryllium disease prevention program. The Department solicits comment and information on the...

  4. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Terry

    2013-01-25

    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify

  5. Clinical approach to chronic beryllium disease and other nonpneumoconiotic interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa A

    2002-10-01

    Exposures in the workplace result in a diverse set of diseases ranging from the pneumoconiosis to other interstitial lung diseases to acute lung injury. Physician awareness of the potential disease manifestations associated with specific exposures is important in defining these diseases and in preventing additional disease. Most occupational diseases mimic other forms of lung disease, including pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and bronchiolitis. A "sarcoidosis"-like syndrome, usually limited to the lungs, may result from exposure to bioaerosols and a number of metals. Exposure to beryllium in the workplace produces a granulomatous lung disease clinically indistinguishable from sarcoidosis, chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Beryllium's ability to produce a beryllium-specific immune response is used in the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests to confirm a diagnosis of CBD and exclude sarcoidosis. Exposure to other metals must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis. When an individual presents acutely with ARDS or acute lung injury, an acute inhalational exposure must be considered. Exposure to a number of irritant substances at high levels may cause a "chemical pneumonitis" or acute lung injury, depending on the solubility and physicochemical properties of the substance. Some of the most notable agents include nitrogen and sulfur oxides, phosgene, and smoke breakdown products. Ingestion of paraquat may also result in an ARDS syndrome, with pulmonary fibrosis eventually resulting. Bronchiolitis is a rare manifestation of inhalational exposures but must also be considered in the clinical evaluation of inhalational exposure. PMID:12362066

  6. Work-related lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Ainsley

    2011-01-01

    Work-related respiratory diseases affect people in every industrial sector, constituting approximately 60% of all disease and injury mortality and 70% of all occupational disease mortality. There are two basic types: interstitial lung diseases, that is the pneumoconioses (asbestosis, byssinosis, chronic beryllium disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), silicosis, flock workers' lung, and farmers' lung disease), and airways diseases, such as work-related or exacerbated asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiolitis obliterans (a disease that was recognized in the production of certain foods only 10 years ago). Common factors in the development of these diseases are exposures to dusts, metals, allergens and other toxins, which frequently cause oxidative damage. In response, the body reacts by activating primary immune response genes (i.e. cytokines that often lead to further oxidative damage), growth factors and tissue remodelling proteins. Frequently, complex imbalances in these processes contribute to the development of disease. For example, tissue matrix metalloproteases can cause the degradation of tissue, as in the development of CWP small profusions, but usually overexpression of matrix metalloproteases is controlled by serum protein inhibitors. Thus, disruption of such a balance can lead to adverse tissue damage. Susceptibility to these types of lung disease has been investigated largely through candidate gene studies, which have been characteristically small, often providing findings that have been difficult to corroborate. An important exception to this has been the finding that the HLA-DPB11(E69) allele is closely associated with chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitivity. Although chronic beryllium disease is only caused by exposure to beryllium, inheritance of HLA-DPB1(E69) carries an increased risk of between two- and 30-fold in beryllium exposed workers. Most, if not all, of these occupationally related diseases are

  7. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is

  8. Analysis of HLA-DP association with beryllium disease susceptibility in pooled exposed populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesare Saltini, Massimo Amicosante

    2009-12-19

    in each immunogenetic study. In this context, the populations of the study already performed in this field by the University of Modena and Rome (by Prof. C. Saltini) and the University of Pennsylvania (by Prof. M. Rossman) have been evaluated by using similar HLA molecular typing methodologies and that both populations have now been followed up for a period of 4 to 7 years. The general objective of this study has to generate a larger data base comprising the two population with which analyze gene disease association with greater statistical power and ascertain the effect of lesser common gener variants which may be missed when analyzing associations on small populations. In particular addressing the role suggested in previous study such as: (1) the role of HLA-DP rare alleles and polymorphisms, and (2) the role of the HLA markers in disease progression from sensitization. The two populations from the already published studies (Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94) present similar aspects about: ethnicity, type and length of exposure to Be dust, a broadly similar association between beryllium related abnormalities and HLA. The two population have been pooled and evaluated using common criteria of diagnosis (Sensitized subject: at least 2 positive BeLPT tests each with 2 positive wells; CBD-affected subject: identification of well formed non-caseating granulomas on biopsy), follow up and HLA typing technique (complete HLA-DRB, DQB, DPB high resolution typing using amplification with sequence specific primers or sequence based typing). The two populations included 137 subjects with Beryllium hypersensitized (BH) and 155 Be-exposed controls. Inclusion criteria were met by one hundred and six subjects with Be-hypersensitivity of whom 55 were affected by CBD (age 52 {+-} 11 years; 50 caucasians, 2 African-Americans 2 Hispanics and 1 Asian; 46 males and 9 females; mean duration of Be-exposure 15 {+-} 9 years

  9. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  10. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  11. Structural Basis of Chronic Beryllium Disease: Linking Allergic Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Gina M.; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Falta, Michael T.; Bowerman, Natalie A.; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Dai, Shaodong; John W Kappler

    2014-01-01

    T cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. We show here that the T cell ligand is created when a Be2+ cation becomes bu...

  12. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  13. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  14. Structural basis of chronic beryllium disease: linking allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W

    2014-07-01

    T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. Here, we show that the T cell ligand is created when a Be(2+) cation becomes buried in an HLA-DP2/peptide complex, where it is coordinated by both MHC and peptide acidic amino acids. Surprisingly, the TCR does not interact with the Be(2+) itself, but rather with surface changes induced by the firmly bound Be(2+) and an accompanying Na(+) cation. Thus, CBD, by creating a new antigen by indirectly modifying the structure of preexisting self MHC-peptide complex, lies on the border between allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:24995984

  15. Beryllium 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Roskill report on beryllium gives information on the occurrence and reserves, production technology, geographic distribution, consumption and end-uses, stocks, prices and beryllium and health. There is an appendix on international trade statistics. (author).

  16. Beryllium Desorption from Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, V.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Beryllium isotopes have provided a useful tool in the field of geochronology and geomorphology over the last 25 years. The amount of cosmogenic meteoric 10Be and native 9Be absorbed to soils often scales with the residence time and chemical weathering of sediments in a landscape, respectively. Thus, the concentrations in river sediment may be used to quantify the denudation of specific watersheds. When deposited in ocean sediment, these concentrations are thought to record the history of denudation on Earth over the last ~10 Ma. The use of both isotopes often relies on the premise of beryllium retention to sediment surfaces in order to preserve a landscape's erosion and weathering signature. Changes in setting, en route from the soil to fluvial system to the ocean, can cause beryllium desorption and may preclude some applications of the 10Be/9Be system. Four mechanisms were tested to determine the desorption potential of beryllium including a reduction in pH, an increase in ionic strength and complexation with soluble organic and inorganic species. These processes have the potential to mobilize beryllium into solution. For example, by both reducing the pH and increasing the ionic strength, competition for adsorption sites increases, potentially liberating beryllium from the sediment surface. In addition, organic and inorganic ligands can complex beryllium causing it to become mobilized. To determine which of these alterations influence beryllium desorption and to quantify the effect, we prepared separate solutions of beryllium bound to minerals and organic compounds and measured beryllium concentrations in solution before and after adjusting the pH, ionic strength, and changing inorganic and organic ligand concentrations. We conclude from our observations that overall, beryllium sorbed to organic compounds was more resistant to desorption relative to mineral-associated beryllium. Among the methods tested, a reduction in pH resulted in the greatest amount of

  17. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  18. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

  19. Beryllium. Its minerals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this work a series of reports begins, under the generic name 'Beryllium', related to several aspects of beryllium technology. The target is to update, with critical sense, current bibliographic material in order to be used in further applications. Some of the most important beryllium ores, the Argentine emplacement of their deposits and world occurrence are described. Argentine and world production, resources and reserves are indicated here as well. (Author)

  20. Beryllium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  1. Beryllium. Beryllium oxide, obtention and properties. Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of the 'Beryllium' series this work reviews several methods of high purity beryllia production. Diverse methods of obtention and purification from different beryllium compounds are described. Some chemical, mechanical and electrical properties related with beryllia obtention methods are summarized. (Author)

  2. Extraction of beryllium from refractory beryllium oxide with dilute ammonium bifluoride and determination by fluorescence: a multiparameter performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldcamp, Michael J; Goldcamp, Diane M; Ashley, Kevin; Fernback, Joseph E; Agrawal, Anoop; Millson, Mark; Marlow, David; Harrison, Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    Beryllium exposure can cause a number of deleterious health effects, including beryllium sensitization and the potentially fatal chronic beryllium disease. Efficient methods for monitoring beryllium contamination in workplaces are valuable to help prevent dangerous exposures to this element. In this work, performance data on the extraction of beryllium from various size fractions of high-fired beryllium oxide (BeO) particles (from bifluoride (ABF) solution were obtained under various conditions. Beryllium concentrations were determined by fluorescence using a hydroxybenzoquinoline fluorophore. The effects of ABF concentration and volume, extraction temperature, sample tube types, and presence of filter or wipe media were examined. Three percent ABF extracts beryllium nearly twice as quickly as 1% ABF; extraction solution volume has minimal influence. Elevated temperatures increase the rate of extraction dramatically compared with room temperature extraction. Sample tubes with constricted tips yield poor extraction rates owing to the inability of the extraction medium to access the undissolved particles. The relative rates of extraction of Be from BeO of varying particle sizes were examined. Beryllium from BeO particles in fractions ranging from less than 32 microm up to 212 microm were subjected to various extraction schemes. The smallest BeO particles are extracted more quickly than the largest particles, although at 90 degrees C even the largest BeO particles reach nearly quantitative extraction within 4 hr in 3% ABF. Extraction from mixed cellulosic-ester filters, cellulosic surface-sampling filters, wetted cellulosic dust wipes, and cotton gloves yielded 90% or greater recoveries. Scanning electron microscopy of BeO particles, including partially dissolved particles, shows that dissolution in dilute ABF occurs not just on the exterior surface but also via accessing particles' interiors due to porosity of the BeO material. Comparison of dissolution kinetics data

  3. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented

  4. Beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage and alteration in the expression patterns of DNA repair-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Sabry M; Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Hassan, Memy H; Bakheet, Saleh A

    2013-09-01

    Beryllium metal has physical properties that make its use essential for very specific applications, such as medical diagnostics, nuclear/fusion reactors and aerospace applications. Because of the widespread human exposure to beryllium metals and the discrepancy of the genotoxic results in the reported literature, detail assessments of the genetic damage of beryllium are warranted. Mice exposed to beryllium chloride at an oral dose of 23mg/kg for seven consecutive days exhibited a significant increase in the level of DNA-strand breaking and micronuclei formation as detected by a bone marrow standard comet assay and micronucleus test. Whereas slight beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage was detected following formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase digestion, digestion with endonuclease III resulted in considerable increases in oxidative DNA damage after the 11.5 and 23mg/kg/day treatment as detected by enzyme-modified comet assays. Increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was also directly correlated with increased bone marrow micronuclei formation and DNA strand breaks, which further confirm the involvement of oxidative stress in the induction of bone marrow genetic damage after exposure to beryllium chloride. Gene expression analysis on the bone marrow cells from beryllium chloride-exposed mice showed significant alterations in genes associated with DNA damage repair. Therefore, beryllium chloride may cause genetic damage to bone marrow cells due to the oxidative stress and the induced unrepaired DNA damage is probably due to the down-regulation in the expression of DNA repair genes, which may lead to genotoxicity and eventually cause carcinogenicity.

  5. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  6. Beryllium usage in fusion blankets and beryllium data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing numbers of designers are choosing beryllium for fusion reactor blankets because it, among all nonfissile materials, produces the highest number (2.5 neutron in an infinite media) of neutrons per 14-MeV incident neutron. In amounts of about 20 cm of equivalent solid density, it can be used to produce fissile material, to breed all the tritium consumed in ITER from outboard blankets only, and in designs to produce Co-60. The problem is that predictions of neutron multiplication in beryllium are off by some 10 to 20% and appear to be on the high side, which means that better multiplication measurements and numerical methods are needed. The n,2n reactions result in two helium atoms, which cause radiation damage in the form of hardening at low temperatures (300/degree/C). The usual way beryllium parts are made is by hot pressing the powder. A lower cost method is to cold press and then sinter. There is no radiation damage data on this form of beryllium. The issues of corrosion, safety relative to the release of the tritium built-up inside beryllium, and recycle of used beryllium are also discussed. 10 figs

  7. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R

    1987-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of a number of beryllium compounds has been confirmed in experiments on laboratory animals and this metal has to be treated as a possible carcinogenic threat to man. These carcinogenic properties are associated with mutagenic activity as shown by the results of short-term tests performed in vitro with beryllium chloride and beryllium sulfate. These soluble beryllium compounds can produce some infidelity of in vitro synthesis, forward gene mutations in microorganisms and in mammalian cells. They are also able to induce cell transformation. In addition to the positive results obtained in several short-term assays beryllium compounds have been found to bind to nucleoproteins, to inhibit certain enzymes needed for DNA synthesis, to bind nucleic acids to cell membranes and to inhibit microtubule polymerization. The teratogenicity of beryllium salts is relatively unknown and needs additional investigation.

  8. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  9. Beryllium facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its unique combination of physical, mechanical, thermal and nuclear properties, beryllium is indispensable for many applications in the fields of nuclear and space sciences. Beryllia and copper beryllium alloys have also found extensive applications in the electrical and electronic industries. Beryllium facilities at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) have been set up to meet indigenous requirements for these materials. Besides developing beryllium technology, the project team has also designed and developed a number of special purpose equipment. (Author)

  10. Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium

  11. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-12-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described.

  12. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  13. Characterization of phagolysosomal simulant fluid for study of beryllium aerosol particle dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, A B; Guilmette, R A; Day, G A; Hoover, M D; Breysse, P N; Scripsick, R C

    2005-02-01

    A simulant of phagolysosomal fluid is needed for beryllium particle dissolution research because intraphagolysosomal dissolution is believed to be a necessary step in the cellular immune response associated with development of chronic beryllium disease. Thus, we refined and characterized a potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) buffered solution with pH 4.55, termed phagolysosomal simulant fluid (PSF), for use in a static dissolution technique. To characterize the simulant, beryllium dissolution in PSF was compared to dissolution in the J774A.1 murine cell line. The effects of ionic composition, buffer strength, and the presence of the antifungal agent alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDC) on beryllium dissolution in PSF were evaluated. Beryllium dissolution in PSF was not different from dissolution in the J774A.1 murine cell line (p = 0.78) or from dissolution in another simulant having the same pH but different ionic composition (p = 0.73). A buffer concentration of 0.01-M KHP did not appear adequate to maintain pH under all conditions. There was no difference between dissolution in PSF with 0.01-M KHP and 0.02-M KHP (p = 0.12). At 0.04-M KHP, beryllium dissolution was increased relative to 0.02-M KHP (p = 0.02). Use of a 0.02-M KHP buffer concentration in the standard formulation for PSF provided stability in pH without alteration of the dissolution rate. The presence of ABDC did not influence beryllium dissolution in PSF (p = 0.35). PSF appears to be a useful and appropriate model of in vitro beryllium dissolution when using a static dissolution technique. In addition, the critical approach used to evaluate and adjust the composition of PSF may serve as a framework for characterizing PSF to study dissolution of other metal and oxide particles.

  14. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

    2002-10-01

    Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern. PMID:12442995

  15. Safety handling of beryllium for fusion technology R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility of beryllium use as a blanket neutron multiplier, first wall and plasma facing material has been studied for the D-T burning experiment reactors such as ITER. Various experimental work of beryllium and its compounds will be performed under the conditions of high temperature and high energy particle exposure simulating fusion reactor conditions. Beryllium is known as a hazardous substance and its handling has been carefully controlled by various health and safe guidances and/or regulations in many countries. Japanese regulations for hazardous substance provide various guidelines on beryllium for the protection of industrial workers and environment. This report was prepared for the safe handling of beryllium in a laboratory scale experiments for fusion technology R and D such as blanket development. Major items in this report are; (1) Brief review of guidances and regulations in USA, UK and Japan. (2) Safe handling and administration manuals at beryllium facilities in INEL, LANL and JET. (3) Conceptual design study of beryllium handling facility for small to mid-scale blanket R and D. (4) Data on beryllium toxicity, example of clinical diagnosis of beryllium disease, and environmental occurence of beryllium. (5) Personnel protection tools of Japanese Industrial Standard for hazardous substance. (author) 61 refs

  16. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth; Casse, Michel; Audouze, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to...

  17. Aspergillus-Related Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Al-Alawi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a ubiquitous dimorphic fungus that causes a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening, depending on the host response. An intact host defence is important to prevent disease, but individuals with pre-existing structural lung disease, atopy, occupational exposure or impaired immunity are susceptible. Three distinctive patterns of aspergillus-related lung disease are recognized: saprophytic infestation of airways, cavities and necrotic tissue; allergic disease including extrinsic allergic alveolitis, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia; and airway and tissue invasive disease -- pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopneumonia, angioinvasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis and invasive pleural disease. A broad knowledge of these clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of the potentially lethal manifestations of aspergillus-related pulmonary disease. In the present report, the clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of the various aspergillus-related lung diseases are briefly reviewed.

  18. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  19. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  20. Beryllium development programme in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has fairly large deposits of beryl. The requirement of beryllium and copper-beryllium alloys in space and electronic industries has provided the incentive for the setting up of an indigenous base for the development of beryllium process metallurgy. The paper presents the developmental work carried out, in the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, on the preparation of beryllium metal and its alloys starting from Indian beryl. A laboratory facility incorporating essential precautionary measures has been set up for the safe handling of beryllium and its compounds. Based on the laboratory investigations a flow-sheet suitable to Indian conditions has been developed. The flow-sheet involves preparation of anhydrous beryllium fluoride from beryl through the silico-fluoride route, magnesiothermic reduction of beryllium fluoride for the production of beryllium metal or its master alloy with copper or aluminium, and fabrication of beryllium metal. (author)

  1. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Day, Gregory A; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Stanton, Marcia L; Deubner, David C; Kent, Michael S; Schuler, Christine R; Virji, M Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  2. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  3. Aspiration-related lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Andrew D; Smith, Tristan R; Poletto, Dana M; Tavora, Fabio; Chung, Jonathan H; Nallamshetty, Leelakrishna; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A

    2014-09-01

    Aspiration is a common but underrecognized clinicopathologic entity, with varied radiographic manifestations. Aspiration represents a spectrum of diseases, including diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, aspiration pneumonitis, airway obstruction by foreign body, exogenous lipoid pneumonia, interstitial fibrosis, and aspiration pneumonia with or without lung abscess formation. Many patients who aspirate do not present with disease, suggesting that pathophysiology is related to a variety of factors, including decreased levels of consciousness, dysphagia, impaired mucociliary clearance, composition of aspirate, and impaired host defenses. In this pictorial essay, we will review the different types of aspiration lung diseases, focusing on their imaging features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24911122

  4. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disease; or (iii) Pulmonary function or exercise testing showing pulmonary deficits consistent with...)) abnormalities. (B) Restrictive or obstructive lung physiology testing or diffusing lung capacity defect....

  5. Spectrographic determination of impurities in beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the spectrographic determination of Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, NaNi, Si and Zn in nuclear grade beryllium oxide has been developed. The determination of Co, Al, Na and Zn is besed upon a carrier distillation technique. Better results were obtained with 2% Ga2O3 as carrier in beryllium oxide. For the elements B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mg, Ni and Si the sample is loaded in a Scribner-Mullin shallow cup electrode, covered with graphite powder and excited in DC arc. The relative standard deviation values for different elements are in the range of 10 to 20%. The method fulfills requirements of precision and sensitivity for specification analysis of nuclear grade beryllium oxide.(Author)

  6. Nanoimaging for prion related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V; Portillo, Alexander M; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Deckert, Volker; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2010-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of prion proteins is linked to a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) and its variants: Kuru, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. In prion diseases, infectious particles are proteins that propagate by transmitting a misfolded state of a protein, leading to the formation of aggregates and ultimately to neurodegeneration. Prion phenomenon is not restricted to humans. There are a number of prion-related diseases in a variety of mammals, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, also known as "mad cow disease") in cattle. All known prion diseases, collectively called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are untreatable and fatal. Prion proteins were also found in some fungi where they are responsible for heritable traits. Prion proteins in fungi are easily accessible and provide a powerful model for understanding the general principles of prion phenomenon and molecular mechanisms of mammalian prion diseases. Presently, several fundamental questions related to prions remain unanswered. For example, it is not clear how prions cause the disease. Other unknowns include the nature and structure of infectious agent and how prions replicate. Generally, the phenomenon of misfolding of the prion protein into infectious conformations that have the ability to propagate their properties via aggregation is of significant interest. Despite the crucial importance of misfolding and aggregation, very little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms of these processes. While there is an apparent critical need to study molecular mechanisms underlying misfolding and aggregation, the detailed characterization of these single molecule processes is hindered by the limitation of conventional methods. Although some issues remain unresolved, much progress has been recently made primarily due to the application of nanoimaging tools. The use of nanoimaging methods shows

  7. Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 μm hr-1 were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates

  8. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Day, Gregory A.; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Stanton, Marcia L.; Deubner, David C.; Kent, Michael S.; Schuler, Christine R.; Virji, M. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  9. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are ... as the peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location ...

  10. Beryllium solubility in occupational airborne particles: Sequential extraction procedure and workplace application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Davy; Durand, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Modification of an existing sequential extraction procedure for inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and in working areas is described. The speciation protocol was adapted to carry out beryllium extraction in closed-face cassette sampler to take wall deposits into account. This four-step sequential extraction procedure aims to separate beryllium salts, metal, and oxides from airborne particles for individual quantification. Characterization of the beryllium species according to their solubility in air samples may provide information relative to toxicity, which is potentially related to the different beryllium chemical forms. Beryllium salts (BeF(2), BeSO(4)), metallic beryllium (Bemet), and beryllium oxide (BeO) were first individually tested, and then tested in mixtures. Cassettes were spiked with these species and recovery rates were calculated. Quantitative analyses with matched matrix were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method Detection Limits (MDLs) were calculated for the four matrices used in the different extraction steps. In all cases, the MDL was below 4.2 ng/sample. This method is appropriate for assessing occupational exposure to beryllium as the lowest recommended threshold limit values are 0.01 µg.m(-3) in France([) (1) (]) and 0.05 µg.m(-3) in the USA.([ 2 ]) The protocol was then tested on samples from French factories where occupational beryllium exposure was suspected. Beryllium solubility was variable between factories and among the same workplace between different tasks. PMID:26327570

  11. A historical perspective of some occupationally related diseases of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, P F; Pesák, J

    1994-08-01

    The study of occupational diseases among women has been minimal, and when observations of adverse health effects have been made, they often have been obscured, ignored, or mismanaged. Occupational exposures of women to beryllium, benzene, and vinyl chloride serve as past examples of indifference to the plight of women in the workplace. The lack of regulation for waste anesthetic gases and antineoplastic drugs to protect health care workers and veterinarians indicates that this indifference continues today.

  12. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tatenuma, K. [KAKEN Co., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  13. Joining of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    A handbook dealing with the many aspects of beryllium that would be important for the users of this metal is currently being prepared. With an introduction on the applications, advantages and limitations in the use of this metal the following topics will be discussed in this handbook: physical, thermal, and nuclear properties; extraction from the ores; purification and casting of ingots; production and types of beryllium powders; consolidation methods, grades, and properties; mechanical properties with emphasis on the various factors affecting these properties; forming and mechanical working; welding, brazing, bonding, and fastening; machining; powder deposition; corrosion; health aspects; and examples of production of components. This report consists of ''Section X--Joining'' from the handbook. The prefix X is maintained here for the figures, tables and references. In this section the different methods used for joining beryllium and the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each are presented. The methods discussed are fusion welding, brazing, solid state bonding (diffusion bonding and deformation bonding), soldering, and mechanical fastening. Since beryllium has a high affinity for oxygen and nitrogen with the formation of oxides and nitrides, considerable care must be taken on heating the metal, to protect it from the ambient atmosphere. In addition, mating surfaces must be cleaned and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses as well as locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part is subjected to moisture or to any type of corroding environment. This becomes a problem if the less noble (anodic) metal has a significantly smaller area than the more noble (cathodic) metal since the ions (positive charges) from the anodic (corroding) metal must correspond to the number of electrons (negative charges) involved at the cathode. Beryllium

  14. Fallout beryllium-7 as a soil and sediment tracer in river basins: current status and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex; Blake, Will H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Mabit, Lionel; Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2013-04-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant natural production and fallout via precipitation coupled with its ability to bind to soil particles have underpinned its application as a sediment tracer. The short half-life of beryllium-7 (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing sediment dynamics over short time periods, thus, enabling assessment of the effect of land use change upon soil redistribution. Although beryllium-7 has been widely applied as a tracer to date, there remain crucial gaps in understanding relating to the assumptions for its use. To further support the application of beryllium-7 as a tracer across a range of environments requires consideration of both the current strengths and shortcomings of the technique to direct research needs. Here we review research surrounding the assumptions underpinning beryllium-7 use as a tracer and identify key knowledge gaps relating to i) the effects of rain shadowing and vegetation interception upon beryllium-7 fallout uniformity at the hillslope-scale; ii) the effect of preferential flow pathways upon beryllium-7 depth distribution in soil and overland flow upon beryllium-7 inventory uniformity and iii) the potential for beryllium-7 desorption in saline and reducing environments. To provide continued support for the use of beryllium-7 as a hillslope and catchment-scale tracer, there is an urgent need to undertake further research to quantify the effect of these factors upon tracer estimates.

  15. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Its 25th Anniversary With #25FOR25 Campaign During National Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month AARDA officially kicks of National Autoimmune ... will benefit AARDA. Click here to read more. Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month AARDA and the NCAPG held two ...

  16. The results of medical surveillance of beryllium production personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of surveillance of 1836 workers of beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant JSC with the acute and chronic forms of occupation diseases for 52 years of its operation. The dependence of acute and chronic occupation lesions on the protection degree is shown. It has been found out that, the risk of getting an occupation disease increases sharply at the moments of experimental works and at the time of reconstruction and some other extreme conditions in the production, that is supported by fixed lesions of eye mucous coat, skin and lung lesions. In this case, the readiness of people for their work in deleterious conditions and their personal responsibility for following the regulations of safety occupational standards plays a definite role. Therefore, the issues of protection are of paramount importance in prophylaxis both of acute and chronic exposure to beryllium. An influence of duration of service and occupation on chronic beryllium diseases is shown. A parallel between the lung beryllium disease and skin lesions by insoluble beryllium compounds is drawn for the first time. (author)

  17. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H. [JET Joint undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m{sup 2} to 5 MW/m{sup 2} and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m{sup 2}. These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures {le} 600{degrees}C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T{sub max} {le} 750{degrees}C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with {Phi} = 25 MW/m{sup 2} and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed.

  18. Estrogen-related and other disease diagnoses preceding Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latourelle, Jeanne C; Dybdal, Merete; Destefano, Anita L;

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen exposure has been associated with the occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as many other disorders, and yet the mechanisms underlying these relations are often unknown. While it is likely that estrogen exposure modifies the risk of various diseases through many different...... mechanisms, some estrogen-related disease processes might work in similar manners and result in association between the diseases. Indeed, the association between diseases need not be due only to estrogen-related factors, but due to similar disease processes from a variety of mechanisms....

  19. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found.

  20. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to navigate the health-care system in the age of the Affordable Care Act. News in the world of AARDA’s Grassroots ... was the “Status of Autoimmune Disease in the Age of the Affordable Care Act. Watch the briefing video View the power ...

  1. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Scholz, M.; Igielski, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS (IFJPAN), Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Karpinski, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock - Swierk (Poland)

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  2. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-01

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, α)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting β- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  3. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET

  4. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ray Surveillance Program (CWXSP) Frequently Asked Questions Coal Miner Health Surveillance Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases CWHSP Data Query System CWHSP Public Data Digital Imaging Activity ...

  5. Release of beryllium from mineral ores in artificial lung and skin surface fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duling, Matthew G; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Lawrence, Robert B; Chipera, Steve J; Virji, M Abbas

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to some manufactured beryllium compounds via skin contact or inhalation can cause sensitization. A portion of sensitized persons who inhale beryllium may develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Little is understood about exposures to naturally occurring beryllium minerals. The purpose of this study was to assess the bioaccessibility of beryllium from bertrandite ore. Dissolution of bertrandite from two mine pits (Monitor and Blue Chalk) was evaluated for both the dermal and inhalation exposure pathways by determining bioaccessibility in artificial sweat (pH 5.3 and pH 6.5), airway lining fluid (SUF, pH 7.3), and alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (PSF, pH 4.5). Significantly more beryllium was released from Monitor pit ore than Blue Chalk pit ore in artificial sweat buffered to pH 5.3 (0.88 ± 0.01% vs. 0.36 ± 0.00%) and pH 6.5 (0.09 ± 0.00% vs. 0.03 ± 0.01%). Rates of beryllium released from the ores in artificial sweat were faster than previously measured for manufactured forms of beryllium (e.g., beryllium oxide), known to induce sensitization in mice. In SUF, levels of beryllium were below the analytical limit of detection. In PSF, beryllium dissolution was biphasic (initial rapid diffusion followed by latter slower surface reactions). During the latter phase, dissolution half-times were 1,400 to 2,000 days, and rate constants were ~7 × 10(-10) g/(cm(2)·day), indicating that bertrandite is persistent in the lung. These data indicate that it is prudent to control skin and inhalation exposures to bertrandite dusts. PMID:21866318

  6. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  7. Status of beryllium materials for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible use of beryllium as a material for fusion reactors is discussed. Based on the results of recent Russian elaborations, which were not covered previously in the scientific literature, an attempt of complex analysis of the techniques of using beryllium is made. The specific requirements on beryllium as a protective material for first wall and divertor are considered. Also the possibility of creating a fusion grade of beryllium is discussed and an optimum strategy is suggested. (orig.)

  8. Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses for integral beryllium experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, U; Tsige-Tamirat, H

    2000-01-01

    The novel Monte Carlo technique for calculating point detector sensitivities has been applied to two representative beryllium transmission experiments with the objective to investigate the sensitivity of important responses such as the neutron multiplication and to assess the related uncertainties due to the underlying cross-section data uncertainties. As an important result, it has been revealed that the neutron multiplication power of beryllium can be predicted with good accuracy using state-of-the-art nuclear data evaluations. Severe discrepancies do exist for the spectral neutron flux distribution that would transmit into significant uncertainties of the calculated neutron spectra and of the nuclear blanket performance in blanket design calculations. With regard to this, it is suggested to re-analyse the secondary energy and angle distribution data of beryllium by means of Monte Carlo based sensitivity and uncertainty calculations. Related code development work is underway.

  9. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  10. IgG4-related sclerosing disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terumi Kamisawa; Atsutake Okamoto

    2008-01-01

    Based on histological and immunohistochemical examination of various organs of patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a novel clinicopathological entity of IgG4-related sclerosing disease has been proposed. This is a systemic disease that is characterized by extensive IgG4-positive plasma cells and T-lymphocyte infiltration of various organs. Clinical manifestations are apparent in the pancreas, bile duct, gallbladder, salivary gland, retroperitoneum, kidney, lung, and prostate, in which tissue fibrosis with obliterative phlebitis is pathologically induced. AIP is not simply pancreatitis but, in fact, is a pancreatic disease indicative of IgG4-related sclerosing diseases. This disease includes AIP, sclerosing cholangitis, cholecystitis, sialadenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, interstitial pneumonia, prostatitis, inflammatory pseudotumor and lymphadenopathy, all IgG4-related. Most IgG4-related sclerosing diseases have been found to be associated with AIP, but also those without pancreatic involvement have been reported. In some cases, only one or two organs are clinically involved, while in others, three or four organs are affected. The disease occurs predominantly in older men and responds well to steroid therapy. Serum IgG4 levels and immunostaining with anti-IgG4 antibody are useful in making the diagnosis. Since malignant tumors are frequently suspected on initial presentation, IgG4-related sclerosing disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  11. [Insomnia and lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimura, Naohisa

    2012-07-01

    As both insomnia and lifestyle-related diseases are associated with a variety of underlying factors, they have been considered to occur as a complication of each other. Moreover, evidence has been presented in recent studies that they are closely related to each other as risks of development and exacerbation. As unhealthy lifestyle-habits have long been recognized to increase the risks of lifestyle-related diseases and their worsening, it is natural that sleep, which takes up one third of a person's life, is markedly associated with disorders such as hypertension and diabetes. It is important to provide interventions for insomnia and other sleep disorders based on the same viewpoint as for lifestyle-related diseases, and understand that lifestyle advice, including sleep hygiene, and drug treatment with sleeping pills are also effective for the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases themselves. PMID:22844789

  12. Imaging of macrophage-related lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Katharina; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Macrophage-related pulmonary diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by macrophage accumulation, activation or dysfunction. These conditions include smoking-related interstitial lung diseases, metabolic disorders such as Niemann-Pick or Gaucher disease, and rare primary lung tumors. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include pulmonary ground-glass opacification secondary to infiltration by macrophages, centrilobular nodules or interlobular septal thickening reflecting peribronchiolar or septal macrophage accumulation, respectively, emphysema caused by macrophage dysfunction, and honeycombing following macrophage-related lung matrix remodeling. (orig.)

  13. Imaging of macrophage-related lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrophage-related pulmonary diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by macrophage accumulation, activation or dysfunction. These conditions include smoking-related interstitial lung diseases, metabolic disorders such as Niemann-Pick or Gaucher disease, and rare primary lung tumors. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include pulmonary ground-glass opacification secondary to infiltration by macrophages, centrilobular nodules or interlobular septal thickening reflecting peribronchiolar or septal macrophage accumulation, respectively, emphysema caused by macrophage dysfunction, and honeycombing following macrophage-related lung matrix remodeling. (orig.)

  14. Modes of Occurrence and Geological Origin of Beryllium in Coals from the Pu'an Coalfield, Guizhou, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianye

    2007-01-01

    The concentration, modes of occurrence and geological origin of beryllium in five workable coal beds from the Pu'an Coalfield of Guizbou were studied using the inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), floating and sinking experiments (FSE) and sequential chemical extraction procedures (SCEP). The results show that the average concentration of beryllium in coals from the Pu'an Coalfield is 1.54 μg/g, much lower than that in most Chinese and worldwide coals.Beryllium in the Pu'an coals was not significantly enriched. However, it should be noted that the No. 8 coal bed from the study area has a high concentration of beryllium, 6.89 μg/g, three times higher than the background value of beryllium in coal. Beryllium in coal mainly occurs as organic association and has predominantly originated from coal-forming plants when its concentration is relatively low. The concentration of beryllium occurring as organic association is close to that distributed in inorganic matter when beryllium concentration of coal is similar to its background value, and in addition to coal-forming plants, beryllium is mainly derived from detrital materials of terrigenous origin. When beryllium is anomalously enriched in coal, it mainly occurs as organic association and is derived from volcanic tonsteins leached for a long geological time and then adsorbed by organic matter in peat mire.

  15. Photochemical Behavior of Beryllium Complexes with Subporphyrazines and Subphthalocyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2016-07-14

    Structures of beryllium subphthalocyanines and beryllium subporphyrazines complexes with different substituents are explored for the first time. Their photochemical properties are studied using time-dependent density functional theory calculations and compared to boron-related compounds for which their photochemical activity is already known. These beryllium compounds were found to be thermodynamically stable in a vacuum and present features similar to those of boron-containing analogues, although the nature of bonding between the cation and the macrocycle presents subtle differences. Most important contributions to the main peak in the Q-band region arise from HOMO to LUMO transitions in the case of subphthalocyanines and alkyl subporphyrazine complexes, whereas a mixture of that contribution and a HOMO-2 to LUMO contribution are present in the case of thioalkyl subporphyrazines. The absorption in the visible region could make these candidates suitable for photochemical devices if combined with appropriate donor groups. PMID:26812068

  16. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto [eds.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Tritium release from highly neutron irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu; Rolli, R.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • For the irradiated constrained beryllium pebbles, the tritium release occurs easier than for the unconstrained ones. • Tritium retention in the irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. • Formation of sub-grains in the constrained beryllium pebbles facilitate the open porosity network formation. - Abstract: Beryllium is the reference neutron multiplier material in the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket of fusion power plants. Significant tritium inventory accumulated in beryllium as a result of neutron-induced transmutations could become a safety issue for the operation of such blankets as well as for the nuclear waste utilization. To provide a related materials database, a neutron irradiation campaign of beryllium pebbles with diameters of 0.5 and 1 mm at 686–1006 K, the HIDOBE-01 experiment, has been performed in the HFR in Petten, the Netherlands, producing up to 3020 appm helium and 298 appm tritium. Thermal desorption tests of irradiated unconstrained and constrained beryllium pebbles were performed in a purge gas flow using a quadrupole mass-spectrometer (QMS) and an ionization chamber. Compared to unconstrained pebbles, constrained beryllium pebbles have an enhanced tritium release at all temperatures investigated. Small elongated sub-grains formed under irradiation in the constrained pebbles promote formation of numerous channels for facilitated tritium release.

  19. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis

  20. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2015-01-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, an...

  1. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kato, M. [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Aichi-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700{degrees}C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper).

  2. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  3. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, 'Minnema Report.'

  4. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases.

  5. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Aykac, Kubra

    2016-01-01

    We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases. PMID:27403229

  6. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a ''window'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in ''windows'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed

  7. Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism for

  8. Drug-related cardiac valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Cardiac valve disease can involve one or more of the four heart valves. Chronic valve damage may remain asymptomatic for long periods but ultimately leads to haemodynamic overload of the heart. The most common causes of valve disease are rheumatic diseases, infections, chronic renal failure, malformations, and genetic diseases. Valve disease is often attributed to degeneration with no known cause.The frequency of drug-related valve disease has long been underestimated. Most implicated drugs have serotonergic properties, such as fenfluramine-derived amphetamines, including benfluorex. Rye ergot derivatives can also be implicated: these include dopamine agonists (bromocriptine, lisuride, pergolide and cabergoline), migraine treatments (methysergide, ergotamine and dihydroergotamine), and drugs used for cognitive and neurosensory deficits (nicergoline, dihydroergocryptine, etc.). "Ecstasy", an amphetamine, is sometimes also involved. The risk increases after a few months of exposure. Drug withdrawal is sometimes followed by an improvement. Patients exposed to a drug known to cause valve damage should be informed of the risk and receive long-term monitoring to detect these lesions before they become irreversible. The possible role of a drug should always be considered when cardiac valve disease is diagnosed, in order to facilitate active research and to avoid exposing other patients to this risk. PMID:24600729

  9. Exposure-related diffuse lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cecile S; Lynch, David A; Cool, Carlyne D

    2008-12-01

    Practicing pulmonologists are often faced with the question of whether a lung disease is related to something in the patient's workplace, home, or recreational environment. Recognizing a lung disease as exposure related creates both opportunities and obligations for clinicians. In addition to managing the patient, the obligation to consider risks to others and to prevent ongoing exposure is a challenge that requires diagnostic clarity and collaboration between multiple specialists. We present five illustrative case studies of patients with diffuse lung diseases from environmental and occupational exposures in which communication between the pulmonologist, radiologist, and pathologist was essential for both medical and public health management. Diagnostic and treatment strategies as well as social and preventive interventions are reviewed, with key points for the practicing pulmonologist. PMID:19221960

  10. Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

  11. Folate and age-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durga, J.

    2004-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders and an increase in their risk factors, such as decreased concentrations of folate and increased concentrations of homocysteine. The association of folate and homocysteine with age-related disease and, most impo

  12. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined form the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing(HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  13. Massachusetts Beryllium Screening Program for Former Workers of Wyman-Gordon, Norton Abrasives, and MIT/Nuclear Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, L. D.

    2008-05-21

    The overall objective of this project was to provide medical screening to former workers of Wyman-Gordon Company, Norton Abrasives, and MIT/Nuclear Metals (NMI) in order to prevent and minimize the health impact of diseases caused by site related workplace exposures to beryllium. The program was developed in response to a request by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that had been authorized by Congress in Section 3162 of the 1993 Defense Authorization Act, urging the DOE to carry out a program for the identification and ongoing evaluation of current and former DOE employees who are subjected to significant health risks during such employment." This program, funded by the DOE, was an amendment to the medical surveillance program for former DOE workers at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This program's scope included workers who had worked for organizations that provided beryllium products or materials to the DOE as part of their nuclear weapons program. These organizations have been identified as Beryllium Vendors.

  14. The development and advantages of beryllium capsules for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsules with beryllium ablators have long been considered as alternatives to plastic for the National Ignition Facility laser; now the superior performance of beryllium is becoming well substantiated. Beryllium capsules have the advantages of relative insensitivity to instability growth, low opacity, high tensile strength, and high thermal conductivity. 3-D calculation with the HYDRA code NTIS Document No. DE-96004569 (M. M. Marinak et.al. in UCRL-LR-105821-95-3) confirm 2-D LASNEX U. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasmas Phys. Controlled Thermonucl. Fusion, 2, 51(2975) results that particular beryllium capsule designs are several times less sensitive than the CH point design to instability growth from DT ice roughness. These capsule designs contain more ablator mass and leave some beryllium unablated at ignition. By adjusting the level of copper dopant, the unablated mass can increase or decrease, with a corresponding decrease or increase in sensitivity to perturbations. A plastic capsule with the same ablator mass as the beryllium and leaving the same unablated mass also shows this reduced perturbation sensitivity. Beryllium's low opacity permits the creation of 250 eV capsule designs. Its high tensile strength allows it to contain DT fuel at room temperature. Its high thermal conductivity simplifies cryogenic fielding

  15. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force White Paper #2 -- Uses of Uncensored Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-10-10

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: (1) reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors; (2) minimize the levels of, and potential for, exposure to beryllium; and (3) establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease. On January 4, 2001, DOE issued DOE G 440.1-7A, Implementation Guide for use with 10 CFR 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program, to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing the CBDPP. That guide describes methods and techniques that DOE considers acceptable in complying with the Rule. In 2005 a draft DOE Technical Standard ''Management of Items and Areas Containing Low Levels of Beryllium'' (SAFT 0103; hereafter referred to as the ''TS'') was circulated for comment (http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/techstds/tsdrafts/saft-0103.pdf). DOE technical standards are voluntary consensus standards developed when industry standards do not exist (see http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/techstds/index.html for more information). DOE does not require its field elements to implement DOE technical standards, but field elements may choose to adopt these standards to meet specific needs. This beryllium TS is intended to provide best practices and lessons learned for manageing items and areas that contain low levels of beryllium, which has been a costly and technically challenging component of CBDPPs. The TS is also intended to provide guidance for determining if the Rule's housekeeping and release criteria are met. On challenge the TS addressed was the statistical interpretation of data sets with non-detected results, a topic for which no strong consensus exists. Among the many comments on the draft

  16. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

  17. US perspective on gluten-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard MM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maureen M Leonard,1 Brintha Vasagar1,2 1Center for Celiac Research, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA, 2Department of Family Medicine, Spartanburg Regional Healthcare System, Spartanburg, SC, USA Abstract: The incidence of allergy and autoimmune disease in the US and other industrialized nations is increasing, and gluten-related disorders are no exception. The US has documented a profound rise in celiac disease that cannot be fully explained by improved serological techniques or better recognition by physicians. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, a condition only recently recognized by the medical community, has become a commonly diagnosed entity. Proteins, including gluten are increasingly being identified as a source of wheat allergy. Although the gluten free diet represents a safe and effective treatment for these conditions, there is still much to be learned about the development of gluten-related disorders and the apparent increase in incidence within the US. In this article, we present a review of current knowledge on the epidemiology of gluten-related disorders within a global context, with a focus on diagnostic trends and the evaluation of potential risk factors. Keywords: celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, wheat allergy, risk factors, review, epidemiology

  18. Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. (orig.)

  19. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  20. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  1. Assessment of LANL beryllium waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to determine present status of the preparation and implementation of the various high priority documents required to properly manage the beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory. The documents being assessed are: Waste Acceptance Criteria, Waste Characterization Plan, Waste Certification Plan, Waste Acceptance Procedures, Waste Characterization Procedures, Waste Certification Procedures, Waste Training Procedures and Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Beryllium is regulated (as a dust) under 40 CFR 261.33 as ''Discarded commercial chemical products, off specification species, container residues and spill residues thereof.'' Beryllium is also identified in the 3rd thirds ruling of June 1, 1990 as being restricted from land disposal (as a dust). The beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory is handled separately because beryllium has been identified as a highly toxic carcinogenic material

  2. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  3. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  4. Effects of beryllium-compounds on the hen. 2. Comm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After oral application of 7Be2+ this cation is relative slowly absorbed from the intestine. The highest proportion of 7Be appeared in the feces. The absorbed 7Be has been found in the feathers, the bones and in the muscles as well as in the mucosa of the stomach and the intestine. Relative low is the accumulation in the liver and the kidneys as well as in the brain and the spinal cord. After i.v. application a high proportion of 7Be has been observed in the eggs. The rest of the applied radio-beryllium has been accumulated 7Be in the metabolically active tissues is removed very slowly. In contrast to this observation radio-beryllium disappeared relatively rapidly from the blood. (orig.)

  5. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P;

    2012-01-01

    and associated factors such as comorbidities and risk factors. This uniform definition will allow a better definition of the phenotypes of severe allergic (and related) diseases for clinical practice, research (including epidemiology), public health purposes, education and the discovery of novel therapies.......-up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic...... and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis) in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness...

  6. Off the Beaten Track-A Hitchhiker's Guide to Beryllium Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglav, Dominik; Buchner, Magnus R; Bendt, Georg; Kraus, Florian; Schulz, Stephan

    2016-08-26

    This Minireview aims to give an introduction to beryllium chemistry for all less-experienced scientists in this field of research. Up to date information on the toxicity of beryllium and its compounds are reviewed and several basic and necessary guidelines for a safe and proper handling in modern chemical research laboratories are presented. Interesting phenomenological observations are described that are related directly to the uniqueness of this element, which are also put into historical context. Herein we combine the contributions and experiences of many scientist that work passionately in this field. We want to encourage fellow scientists to reconcile the long-standing reservations about beryllium and its compounds and motivate intense research on this spurned element. Who on earth should be able to deal with beryllium and its compounds if not chemists? PMID:27364901

  7. Geochemistry of beryllium in Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazy, Greta M. [Geology Department, University of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' , Tzar Osvoboditel 15, Sofia 1504 (Bulgaria)

    2006-04-03

    The beryllium content of about 3000 samples (coal, coaly shales, partings, coal lithotypes, and isolated coalified woods) from 16 Bulgarian coal deposits was determined by atomic emission spectrography. Mean Be concentrations in coal show great variability: from 0.9 to 35 ppm for the deposits studied. There was no clear-cut relationship between Be content and rank. The following mean and confidence interval Be values were measured: lignites, 2.6+/-0.8 ppm; sub-bituminous coals, 8.2+/-3.3 ppm; bituminous coals, 3.0+/-1.2 ppm; and anthracites, 19+/-9.0 ppm. The Be contents in coal and coaly shales for all deposits correlated positively suggesting a common source of the element. Many samples of the coal lithotypes vitrain and xylain proved to be richer in Be than the hosting whole coal samples as compared on ash basis. Up to tenfold increase in Be levels was routinely recorded in fusain. The ash of all isolated coalified woods was found to contain 1.1 to 50 times higher Be content relative to its global median value for coal inclusions. Indirect evidence shows that Be occurs in both organic and inorganic forms. Beryllium is predominantly organically bound in deposits with enhanced Be content, whereas the inorganic form prevails in deposits whose Be concentration approximates Clarke values. The enrichment in Be exceeding the coal Clarke value 2.4 to 14.5 times in some of the Bulgarian deposits is attributed to subsynchronous at the time of coal deposition hydrothermal and volcanic activity. (author)

  8. The mechanobiology of obesity and related diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Benayahu, Dafna

    2015-01-01

    This volume describes the state-of-knowledge in the study of the relationships between mechanical loading states in tissues and common pathophysiologies related to increase in mass of adipose tissues and/or hyperglycemia which eventually lead to obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, metabolic inflammations, certain types of cancer and other related diseases. There appears to be an interaction between the loading states in tissues and cells and these chronic conditions, as well as with factors such as age, gender and genetics of the individual. Bioengineering has made key contributions to this research field in providing technologies for cell biomechanics experimentation, microscopy and image processing, tissue engineering and multi-scale, multi-physics computational modeling. Topics at the frontier of this field of study include: the continuous monitoring of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation in response to mechanical factors such as stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and...

  9. IgG4-related skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokura, Y; Yagi, H; Yanaguchi, H; Majima, Y; Kasuya, A; Ito, T; Maekawa, M; Hashizume, H

    2014-11-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently established clinical entity characterized by high levels of circulating IgG4, and tissue infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells. IgG4-RD exhibits a distinctive fibroinflammatory change involving multiple organs, such as the pancreas and salivary and lacrimal glands. The skin lesions of IgG4-RD have been poorly characterized and may stem not only from direct infiltration of plasma cells but also from IgG4-mediated inflammation. Based on the documented cases together with ours, we categorized the skin lesions into seven subtypes: (1) cutaneous plasmacytosis (multiple papulonodules or indurations on the trunk and proximal part of the limbs), (2) pseudolymphoma and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (plaques and papulonodules mainly on the periauricular, cheek and mandible regions), (3) Mikulicz disease (palpebral swelling, sicca syndrome and exophthalmos), (4) psoriasis-like eruption (strikingly mimicking psoriasis vulgaris), (5) unspecified maculopapular or erythematous eruptions, (6) hypergammaglobulinaemic purpura (bilateral asymmetrical palpable purpuric lesions on the lower extremities) and urticarial vasculitis (prolonged urticarial lesions occasionally with purpura) and (7) ischaemic digit (Raynaud phenomenon and digital gangrene). It is considered that subtypes 1-3 are induced by direct infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells, while the other types (4-7) are caused by secondary mechanisms. IgG4-related skin disease is defined as IgG4(+) plasma-cell-infiltrating skin lesions that form plaques, nodules or tumours (types 1-3), but may manifest secondary lesions caused by IgG4(+) plasma cells and/or IgG4 (types 4-7). PMID:25065694

  10. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure

  11. Preliminary proposal for a beryllium technology program for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program was designed to provide the answers to the critical issues of beryllium technology needed in fusion blanket designs. The four tasks are as follows: (1) Beryllium property measurements needed for fusion data base. (2) Beryllium stress relaxation and creep measurements for lifetime modelling calculations. (3) Simplified recycle technique development for irradiated beryllium. (4) Beryllium neutron multiplier measurements using manganese bath absolute calibration techniques

  12. Rare disease relations through common genes and protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Novo, Sara; Pazos, Florencio; Chagoyen, Monica

    2016-06-01

    ODCs (Orphan Disease Connections), available at http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/odcs, is a novel resource to explore potential molecular relations between rare diseases. These molecular relations have been established through the integration of disease susceptibility genes and human protein-protein interactions. The database currently contains 54,941 relations between 3032 diseases.

  13. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  14. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

  15. Monitoring beryllium during site cleanup and closure using a real-time analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; French, P.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Beryllium metal has a number of unique properties that have been exploited for use in commercial and government applications. Airborne beryllium particles can represent a significant human health hazard if deposited in the lungs. These particles can cause immunologically-mediated chronic granulomatous lung disease (chronic beryllium disease). Traditional methods of monitoring airborne beryllium involve collecting samples of air within the work area using a filter. The filter then undergoes chemical analysis to determine the amount of beryllium collected during the sampling period. These methods are time-consuming and results are known only after a potential exposure has occurred. The need for monitoring exposures in real time has prompted government and commercial companies to develop instrumentation that will allow for the real time assessment of short-term exposures so that adequate protection for workers in contaminated environments can be provided. Such an analyzer provides a tool that will allow government and commercial sites to be cleaned up in a more safe and effective manner since exposure assessments can be made instantaneously. This paper describes the development and initial testing of an analyzer for monitoring airborne beryllium using a technique known as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Energy from a focused, pulsed laser is used to vaporize a sample and create an intense plasma. The light emitted from the plasma is analyzed to determine the quantity of beryllium in the sampled air. A commercial prototype analyzer has been fabricated and tested in a program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, and ADA Technologies, Inc. Design features of the analyzer and preliminary test results are presented.

  16. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-12-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  17. Aging, frailty and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, T; Larbi, A; Witkowski, J M; McElhaney, J; Loeb, M; Mitnitski, A; Pawelec, G

    2010-10-01

    The concept of frailty as a medically distinct syndrome has evolved based on the clinical experience of geriatricians and is clinically well recognizable. Frailty is a nonspecific state of vulnerability, which reflects multisystem physiological change. These changes underlying frailty do not always achieve disease status, so some people, usually very elderly, are frail without a specific life threatening illness. Current thinking is that not only physical but also psychological, cognitive and social factors contribute to this syndrome and need to be taken into account in its definition and treatment. Together, these signs and symptoms seem to reflect a reduced functional reserve and consequent decrease in adaptation (resilience) to any sort of stressor and perhaps even in the absence of extrinsic stressors. The overall consequence is that frail elderly are at higher risk for accelerated physical and cognitive decline, disability and death. All these characteristics associated with frailty can easily be applied to the definition and characterization of the aging process per se and there is little consensus in the literature concerning the physiological/biological pathways associated with or determining frailty. It is probably true to say that a consensus view would implicate heightened chronic systemic inflammation as a major contributor to frailty. This review will focus on the relationship between aging, frailty and age-related diseases, and will highlight possible interventions to reduce the occurrence and effects of frailty in elderly people. PMID:20559726

  18. Epidemiological trends in stomach-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Tomica; Kostić-Milosavljević, Mirjana; Krstić, Miodrag; Sokić-Milutinović, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is a study of disease variations by geography, population demographics and time. Temporal influences can manifest themselves as age effects, period effects, cohort effects, seasonal or monthly variations. The acquisition of Helicobacter pylori infection during early childhood and the ensuing risk for the future development of peptic ulcer or gastric cancer represents a typical example for a cohort effect in digestive diseases. The incidence and prevalence of uncomplicated peptic ulcer have decreased in recent years, largely because of the availability of treatment to eradicate H. pylori and the decreasing prevalence of H. pylori infection. Nowadays, gastric and duodenal ulcers tend to occur in older people, who were more likely to have been exposed to H. pylori in their childhood than recently born generations. The overall incidence of gastric cancers is declining; however, there has been a relative increase in the incidence of tumors of the esophagogastric junction and gastric cardia. Thus, by extrapolating the strong, stable and consistent mortality rate declines in recent decades, gastric cancer was projected to become increasingly less important as a cause of death in Europe in the next decades. PMID:24732185

  19. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    This dissertation investigates novel markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both CVD and AD are among the large diseases counted in morbidity and mortality in the western world, which makes them huge and increasing problems. By investigating and learning character...

  20. Using U-series and beryllium isotopes to reveal the occurrence and relative timing of crustal and mantle processes in the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L. B.; Reubi, O.; Dungan, M. A.; Bourdon, B.; Langmuir, C. H.; Turner, S. J.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Magmas erupted from subduction zone volcanoes represent the end products of multiple magmatic processes occurring in the asthenospheric mantle wedge and overlying lithosphere (i.e., fluid addition, melting, assimilation, and crystal fractionation). To resolve the contributions of diverse processes and components, and the relative timing of these events, we have determined U-series activities (U-Th-Ra-Pa) for 60 and 10Be compositions for 20 historic or very young lavas carefully chosen on the basis of major and trace element analyses of 625 samples from six volcanoes in the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile (37.6-41.1°S: Nevados de Chillán, Antuco, Llaima, Lonquimay, Villarrica, and Osorno). Our dataset demonstrates that each of these volcanoes reflects a unique combination and sequence of magmatic processes that are only revealed through analysis of multiple samples spanning the extent of intra-volcano and intra-eruption chemical variation. Sigmarsson et al. (1990; 2002) identified a regional trend using U-series and Be from mostly single samples, which they interpreted to represent along-strike variations in the flux of slab-derived fluids into the wedge [from 230Th-excess plus 226Ra-deficit plus low 10Be/9Be at Chillán towards progressively higher 238U- and Ra-excesses and 10Be/9Be at Villarrica and Osorno]. These data fall within the much broader array defined by our results, but we infer the operation of assimilation (e.g., Llaima; Reubi et al., 2011) and aging of subduction zone components of variable compositions and proportions in the mantle prior to partial melting as important factors in generating the highly individualized and complex U-series systematics observed at each of these six volcanoes. All of the volcanoes exhibit evidence of assimilation, with the exception of Lonquimay which has undergone mostly closed-system fractional crystallization. At Llaima and Chillán the assimilant is crustal. At Villarica, flux-related melts that dominate in

  1. Electron microscope study of thin beryllium lamellae (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin SR beryllium lamellae are examined by electron microscopy after various treatments, together with other samples made up of Be - Fe at 1 per cent and 0.2 per cent iron. The SR beryllium is examined after annealing at 750 deg C and 900 deg C, strongly cold-worked and quenched at 900 deg C. At 950 deg C the metal is perfectly annealed; at 750 deg C the polygonisation is almost complete, the dislocations are arranged either is dislocation walls in the prismatic planes, or in hexagonal lattices with non-dissociated nodes suggesting a high stacking defect energy. The cold-worked structure has a high dislocation density and already existing crystal walls. In the quenched state, the few dislocations are very straight and are aligned in the crystallographic directions. Iron-precipitation is studied in two alloys during tempering at 660 deg after quenching in salt water. The precipitate appears at the grain boundaries and then spreads through the matrix leaving a depleted zone in the neighbourhood of the joints. These precipitates, in the form of platelets parallel to the base planes of the beryllium lattice have been identified as the inter metallic phase Be11 Fe oriented in relation to the matrix (0 0 0 1)//(0 0 0 1) (1 0 1-bar 0)//(1 1 2-bar 0). (authors)

  2. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  3. Long-term follow-up of beryllium sensitized workers from a single employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Anne M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 12% of beryllium-exposed American workers would test positive on beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT screening, but the implications of sensitization remain uncertain. Methods Seventy two current and former employees of a beryllium manufacturer, including 22 with pathologic changes of chronic beryllium disease (CBD, and 50 without, with a confirmed positive test were followed-up for 7.4 +/-3.1 years. Results Beyond predicted effects of aging, flow rates and lung volumes changed little from baseline, while DLCO dropped 17.4% of predicted on average. Despite this group decline, only 8 subjects (11.1% demonstrated physiologic or radiologic abnormalities typical of CBD. Other than baseline status, no clinical or laboratory feature distinguished those who clinically manifested CBD at follow-up from those who did not. Conclusions The clinical outlook remains favorable for beryllium-sensitized individuals over the first 5-12 years. However, declines in DLCO may presage further and more serious clinical manifestations in the future. These conclusions are tempered by the possibility of selection bias and other study limitations.

  4. Interaction of beryllium and hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been considered that in the plasma nuclear fusion experimental devices of magnetic field confinement type, in order to reduce the energy loss due to bremsstrahlung, the use of the plasma-facing materials (PFM) of low atomic number like carbon is indispensable at present. Attention is paid to beryllium which is one of the PFMs, and its effectiveness was rocognized by the practical use in JET. When Be is considered as a PFM, it is necessary to accumulate many data on the diffusion, dissolution, permeation and surface recoupling of hydrogen isotopes, which regulate the recycling and inventory of deuterium and tritium fuel, and the relation of these factors with the physical and chemical states of Be. In this research, as the first phase of understanding the characteristics of Be as a PFM, the change of the surface condition by heating Be was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the chemical form of the Be-related substances emitted from the surface by argon or deuterium ion sputtering and their thermal behavior were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The sample, the measurement and the results are reported. The diversified secondary ions of Be, Be cluster, Be oxide, hydroxide, hydride and deuteride were observed by the measurement, and their features are shown. (K.I.)

  5. Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis. Relation to systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, T M; Comacchi, C; Ghersetich, I

    1999-01-01

    Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis (CNV) is a complex multisystem disease generally involving the skin and mucous membranes, often accompanied by renal, gastrointestinal, pericardial, neurological, and articular signs and symptoms. CNV may be idiopatical or occur in association with a drug, infection, or underlying disease. CNV has been shown in patients with chronic infections (viral, bacterial, protozoa, helminthic), serum sickness, a variety of collagen vascular diseases (systemic lupus erythematous, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Behçet's disease) hyperglobulinemic states, cryoglobulinemia, bowel bypass syndrome, ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and HIV infection. Association with malignancies is not frequent. Lymphoproliferative disorders (Hodgkin's disease, mycosis fungoides, lymphosarcoma, adult T-cell leukemia, multiple mieloma) and solid tumors (lung cancer, colon carcinoma, renal, prostate, head and neck cancer and breast cancer) may be associated with CNV. Whenever possible, treatment is directed at the elimination of the cause. In other cases after adequate laboratory screening local and systemic therapy are recommended. PMID:10599332

  6. Challenges for risk management related to emerging animal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Taina

    2010-01-01

    The uncertainties related to climate change and its effects on the spreading of animal diseases causes the most difficulties for the risk management. Preparedness and contingency planning for serious animal diseases in EU has mainly focused on conventional animal diseases, like foot- and-mouth-disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza.

  7. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armanios, M.; Cabo, R. de; Mannick, J.; Partridge, L.; Deursen, J. van; Villeda, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing thr

  8. Beryllium. Health hazards and their control. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work (continuation of 'Beryllium' series) health hazards, toxic effects, limits of permissible atmospheric contamination and safe exposure to beryllium are described. Guidelines to the design, control operations and hygienic precautions of the working facilities are given. (Author)

  9. 20 CFR 410.462 - Presumption relating to respirable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presumption relating to respirable disease... Pneumoconiosis § 410.462 Presumption relating to respirable disease. (a) Even though the existence of... was employed for 10 years or more in the Nation's coal mines and died from a respirable disease,...

  10. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  11. Therapy of Human Papillomavirus-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Peter L.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Hampson, Ian N.; Broker, Thomas; Fiander, Alison; Lacey, Charles J.; Kitchener, Henry C.; Einstein, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the current treatment of chronic and neoplastic HPV-associated conditions and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Surgical excision of HPV-associated lower genital tract neoplasia is very successful but largely depends on secondary prevention programmes for identification of disease. Only high-risk HPV-driven chronic, preneoplastic lesions and some very early cancers cannot be successfully treated by surgical procedures alone. Chemoradiation therapy of cervical cancer contributes to the 66–79% cervical cancer survival at 5 years. Outlook for those patients with persistent or recurrent cervical cancer following treatment is very poor. Topical agents such as imiquimod (immune response modifier), cidofovir (inhibition of viral replication; induction apoptosis) or photodynamic therapy (direct damage of tumour and augmentation of anti-tumour immunity) have all shown some useful efficacy (~50–60%) in treatment of high grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Provider administered treatments of genital warts include cryotherapy, trichloracetic acid, or surgical removal which has the highest primary clearance rate. Patient applied therapies include podophyllotoxin and imiquimod. Recurrence after “successful” treatment is 30–40%. Further improvements could derive from a rational combination of current therapy with new drugs targeting molecular pathways mediated by HPV in cancer. Small molecule inhibitors targeting the DNA binding activities of HPV E1/E2 or the anti-apoptotic consequences of E6/E7 oncogenes are in preclinical development. Proteasome and histone deacetylase inhibitors, which can enhance apoptosis in HPV positive tumour cells, are being tested in early clinical trials. Chronic high-risk HPV infection/neoplasia is characterised by systemic and/or local immune suppressive regulatory or escape factors. Recently two E6/E7 vaccines have shown some clinical efficacy in high grade VIN patients and this correlated with strong

  12. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  13. Unsolved issues related to human mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombès, Anne; Auré, Karine; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Gilleron, Mylène; Jardel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Human mitochondrial diseases, defined as the diseases due to a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect, represent a large group of very diverse diseases with respect to phenotype and genetic causes. They present with many unsolved issues, the comprehensive analysis of which is beyond the scope of this review. We here essentially focus on the mechanisms underlying the diversity of targeted tissues, which is an important component of the large panel of these diseases phenotypic expression. The reproducibility of genotype/phenotype expression, the presence of modifying factors, and the potential causes for the restricted pattern of tissular expression are reviewed. Special emphasis is made on heteroplasmy, a specific feature of mitochondrial diseases, defined as the coexistence within the cell of mutant and wild type mitochondrial DNA molecules. Its existence permits unequal segregation during mitoses of the mitochondrial DNA populations and consequently heterogeneous tissue distribution of the mutation load. The observed tissue distributions of recurrent human mitochondrial DNA deleterious mutations are diverse but reproducible for a given mutation demonstrating that the segregation is not a random process. Its extent and mechanisms remain essentially unknown despite recent advances obtained in animal models.

  14. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F

    1992-05-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls.

  15. [Effects of beryllium chloride on cultured cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T; Sakaguchi, S; Nakamura, I; Kagami, M

    1984-05-01

    The effects of beryllium on cultured cells were investigated. Three cell-lines (HeLa-S3, Vero, HEL-R66) were used in these experiments and they were cultured in Eagle's MEM plus 5 or 10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) containing beryllium in various concentrations. HeLa cells or Vero cells were able to grow in the medium with 10 micrograms Be/ml (1.1 mM). On the other hand, the growth of HEL cells were strongly inhibited, even when cultured in the medium with 1 microgram Be/ml (1.1 X 10(-1) mM) and the number of living cells showed markedly low level as compared to that of the control samples cultured in the medium without beryllium. The cytotoxic effects of beryllium on these cells, which were cultured for three days in the medium with beryllium, were observed. None of cytotoxic effects were found on HeLa cells cultured with 0.5 micrograms/ml (5.5 X 10(-2) mM) and on Vero cells cultured with 0.05 micrograms Be/ml (5.5 X 10(-3) mM), while HEL cells received cytotoxic effects even when cultured in the medium containing 0.05 micrograms Be/ml (5.5 X 10(-3) mM), and these effects on the cells appeared strong when cultured in the medium without FBS. It was revealed from these experiments that HEL cells are very sensitive in terms of toxic effects of beryllium. Therefore, there cells can be used for the toxicological study on low level concentrations of the metal.

  16. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease: autoimmune pancreatitis and extrapancreatic manifestations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Daniel Alvarenga; Kido, Ricardo Yoshio Zanetti; Barros, Ricardo Hoelz de Oliveira; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Penachim, Thiago José; Caserta, Nelson Marcio Gomes

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease with pancreatic and extrapancreatic involvement, including the biliary and renal systems. Given the importance of imaging methods for the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease and its differentiation from pancreatic adenocarcinoma, we emphasize important abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings related to this recently recognized systemic autoimmune disease. PMID:27141136

  17. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2006-01-01

    Beryllium metal is lighter than aluminum and stiffer than steel. These and other properties, including its strength, dimensional stability, thermal properties and reflectivity, make it useful for aerospace and defense applications, such as satellite and space-vehicle structural components. Beryllium’s nuclear properties, combined with its low density, make it useful as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Because it is transparent to most X rays, beryllium is used as X-ray windows in medical, industrial and analytical equipment.

  18. Travel related diseases and optimizing preventive strategies

    OpenAIRE

    R.W. Wieten

    2016-01-01

    With the figure of 1 billion annual travellers continuously increasing, travel is becoming more and more common. The binding element of this thesis is the aim to contribute to the improvement of pre-travel healthcare. The diseases studied either carry a high mortality (rabies, malaria, yellow fever) or morbidity (hepatitis A) rate. At the Academic Medical Center’s travel clinic, pre-travel guidelines were well adhered to. At Schiphol Airport (Amsterdam), we found that just over half of the VF...

  19. MHC Region and Its Related Disease Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most gene dense regions in the human genome and many disorders, including primary immune deficiencies, autoimmune conditions, infections, cancers and mental disorder have been found to be associated with this region. However, due to a high...... detection as well as HLA gene typing and large structural variation detection using optical mapping technic, to provide comprehensive and accurate information of the MHC region and apply them into disease causal mutation’s fine-mapping....

  20. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques.

  1. Time-lapse cinematographic analysis of beryllium--lung fibroblast interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absher, M; Sylwester, D; Hart, B A

    1983-02-01

    The proliferative response to beryllium chloride of cells in a population of human lung fibroblasts was quantitatively assessed using time-lapse cinematography. A dose of 0.02 microgram Be/ml, known to decrease the growth rate of fibroblasts, affects an estimated 75% of the cells in the population, increasing their interdivision time (IDT) by approximately 5 hr. The differences in mean 1n(IDT) between treated and control cells were essentially constant for comparable culture sizes ranging from 25 to 250 cells. There was no correlation between mother and daughter cell IDTs in control or treated culture at any culture size. IDTs of sister pairs were highly correlated in control cultures at selected culture sizes while sister pair IDTs of treated cultures were not. The data suggest that while beryllium alters the IDT of fibroblasts, an effect not related to culture size, any given cell affected by beryllium does not impart effects of the mineral to its progeny.

  2. A comparison between beryllium and graphite as materials for JET limiters and wall surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JET has always been operated with graphite limiters. Carbonisation has been performed from time to time resulting in a temporary reduction of Zeff. However, the latest results at high power (up to 30 MW) indicate that in most cases the impurity content in the plasma is too large to reach near reactor conditions. To reduce the impurity content to a level acceptable in a reactor, it is proposed to use beryllium as a material for the limiters and wall surfaces in JET. This proposal was first made four years ago on the basis of a report comparing the relative merits of beryllium and carbon. This report is now updated in the present paper, which contains three parts, covering the effects of impurities on the plasma performance, the physical and chemical properties of graphite and beryllium and a simple model for the impurity production at the plasma edge. (author)

  3. Validation of Parkinsonian Disease-Related Metabolic Brain Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, Laura K.; Renken, Remco J.; Mudali, Deborah; De Jong, Bauke M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to validate disease-related metabolic brain patterns for Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Methods: The study included 20 patients with Parkinson’s disease, 21 with multiple system atrophy, and 17 with progre

  4. A Case of IgG4-Related Lung Disease Presenting as Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jee Hwan; Hong, Sun In; Cho, Dong Hui; Chae, Eun Jin; Song, Joon Seon; Song, Jin Woo

    2014-08-01

    Intrathoracic involvement of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease has recently been reported. However, a subset of the disease presenting as interstitial lung disease is rare. Here, we report a case of a 35-year-old man with IgG4-related lung disease with manifestations similar to those of interstitial lung disease. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities and rapidly progressive pleural and subpleural fibrosis in both upper lobes. Histological findings showed diffuse interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells. Serum levels of IgG and IgG4 were also increased. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-related lung disease, treated with anti-inflammatory agents, and showed improvement. Lung involvement of IgG4-related disease can present as interstitial lung disease and, therefore, should be differentiated when evaluating interstitial lung disease.

  5. Hepatic perfusion disorders: Etiopathogenesis and related diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Lin Tian; Jin-Shan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed the hepatic perfusion disorder (HPD), etiopathogenesis of HPD and corresponding diseases. Review of the literature was based on computer searches (PubMed, Index Medicus)and personal experiences. We considered HPD reflects perfusion differences due to redistribution of arterial blood flow among segments, subsegments and lobes of the liver. The plain CT scan findings of HPD manifests as triangular or wedge-shaped areas of low attenuation.On contrast-enhanced CT scan, HPD manifests multiple (or single) transient wedge-shaped, rotundloid or irregular appearance, homogeneous hyperattenuation (in less cases, hypoattenuation) during the hepatic arterial phase (HAP) and isoattenuated or slightly hyperattenuated areas during the portal arterial phase.Dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) features are similar to enhanced CT scan. Angiographic findings include non-opacification of portal vein on portograms or wedge-shaped segmental staining in arterial and parenchymal phases on hepatic angiograms. The causes of HPD are arterioportal shunts (APS), intrahepatic vascular compressions and portal vein occlusion,steal phenomenon by hypervascular tumors, vascular variations and any other unknown reasons. It is very important for radiologists to be familiar with the various appearances of HPD to avoid false-positive diagnosis of pseudolesions and not to overestimate the extent of the disease.

  6. Cirrhosis-related musculoskeletal disease: radiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ankur; Rajesh, S; Bansal, Kalpana; Sureka, Binit; Patidar, Yashwant; Thapar, Shalini; Mukund, Amar

    2016-10-01

    Musculoskeletal problems in patients with liver disease are common; however, they are not so well described in the literature. Therefore, there is a need to collate information on these disorders, as their incidence is on a constant rise and some of these pathologies can severely debilitate the patient's quality of life. These disorders are parietal wall varices with or without bleeding, spontaneous intramuscular haematoma (e.g. rectus sheath), abdominal wall hernia, anasarca, hepatic osteodystrophy, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, necrotizing fasciitis, osseous metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma etc. While portal hypertension plays a key role in disorders, in others, dysregulation of the coagulation system or a compromised immune system are responsible. Imaging plays an essential role in the assessment of these complications and awareness of these musculoskeletal manifestations is vital for establishing a timely diagnosis and planning of appropriate therapy, as these disorders can significantly impact the morbidity and mortality and also influence candidacy for liver transplantation. We herein comprehensively appraise various musculoskeletal complications associated with chronic liver disease/liver cirrhosis especially from an imaging perspective which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been collectively described in English literature. PMID:27356209

  7. Oxide segregation and melting behavior of transient heat load exposed beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, B.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-10-01

    In the experimental fusion reactor ITER, beryllium will be applied as first wall armor material. However, the ITER-like wall project at JET already experienced that the relatively low melting temperature of beryllium can easily be exceeded during plasma operation. Therefore, a detailed study was carried out on S-65 beryllium under various transient, ITER-relevant heat loads that were simulated in the electron beam facility JUDITH 1. Hereby, the absorbed power densities were in the range of 0.15-1.0 GW m-2 in combination with pulse durations of 1-10 ms and pulse numbers of 1-1000. In metallographic cross sections, the emergence of a transition region in a depth of ~70-120 µm was revealed. This transition region was characterized by a strong segregation of oxygen at the grain boundaries, determined with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy element mappings. The oxide segregation strongly depended on the maximum temperature reached at the end of the transient heat pulse in combination with the pulse duration. A threshold for this process was found at 936 °C for a pulse duration of 10 ms. Further transient heat pulses applied to specimens that had already formed this transition region resulted in the overheating and melting of the material. The latter occurred between the surface and the transition region and was associated with a strong decrease of the thermal conductivity due to the weakly bound grains across the transition region. Additionally, the transition region caused a partial separation of the melt layer from the bulk material, which could ultimately result in a full detachment of the solidified beryllium layers from the bulk armor. Furthermore, solidified beryllium filaments evolved in several locations of the loaded area and are related to the thermally induced crack formation. However, these filaments are not expected to account for an increase of the beryllium net erosion.

  8. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Donne, M.D. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Neutronphysik and Reaktortechnik; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. [McMaster Univ., Ontario, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1994-05-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma facing component of first wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold isostatic pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.

  9. Antioxidant Micronutrients in the Prevention of Age-related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polidori M

    2003-01-01

    The role and functions of antioxidant micronutrients such as ascorbate (vitamin C), a-tocopherol (vitamin E) and carotenoids that are provided through the diet in aging and in the prevention of age-related diseases are discussed in the present work. In general, a healthy lifestyle involving regular exercise and avoidance of tobacco or alcohol abuse are the key to the prevention of several age-related diseases including cardiovascular diseases, dementia and cancer. A balanced and regular nutri...

  10. Autoimmune Disease in First-Degree Relatives and Spouses of Individuals With Celiac Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilsson, Louise; Wijmenga, Cisca; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases. We assessed the risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac d

  11. Sub-micro level monitoring of beryllium ions with a novel beryllium sensor based on 2,6-diphenyl-4-benzo-9-crown-3-pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Moghimi, Abolghasem; Faal-Rastegar, Madjid; Borhany, Shahin; Namazian, Mansour

    2004-07-01

    The 2,6-diphenyl-4-benzo-9-crown-3-pyridine (DPCP) was used as an excellent ionophore in construction of a coated graphite poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 30% poly(vinyl chloride), 60% o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE), 5% 2,6-diphenyl-4-benzo-9-crown-3-pyridine and 5% sodium tetraphenyl borate (TBP). This sensor shows very good selectivity and sensitivity towards beryllium ion over a wide variety of cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor revealed a great enhancement in selectivity coefficients and sensitivity for beryllium, in comparison with the previously reported beryllium electrodes. The electrode exhibits a Nernstian behavior (with slope of 29.6mV per decade) over a very wide concentration range (1.0x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-1)) with a detection limit of 4.0x10(-8)M (360pgml(-1)). It shows relatively fast response time, in whole concentration range (beryllium in mineral ore.

  12. United Kingdom Beryllium Registry: mortality and autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W J

    1996-01-01

    This report is based on 30 deaths from chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in the United Kingdom with details of 19 autopsies. The majority were fluorescent lamp workers and machinists who died from respiratory failure. There were no cases of lung cancer. The survival times ranged from less than 1 to 29 years and was longest in machinists. All of the workers showed interstitial pulmonary fibrosis with varying degrees of cystic change. The majority showed hyalinized, and a few active sarcoid-type, granulomas. Extrathoracic granulomas, as in a U.K. sarcoid autopsy series, were rare. A notable difference was the absence of myocardial involvement in CBD compared to an incidence of 20% in the sarcoid autopsies. The detection of beryllium in the criteria for diagnosis is emphasized and the cases classified as definite include 12 of 19 positive analysis, 6 of 19, negative or unavailable analysis. The remaining case was classified as dubious because, despite a positive analysis, granulomas were absent. The main differential diagnosis is sarcoidosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8933040

  13. A non-chemical spectroscopic determination of atmospheric beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium in the atmosphere is determined by emission spectroscopy using a non-chemical method of analysis. Long term effects of beryllium poisoning result in respiratory and skin disease, and this is partly reflected by the low threshold limits (0.002 mg/m3). In comparison the threshhold values for lead and cadmium are 0.2 and 0.16 mg/m3 respectively. Air samples are collected at 2 litres/ minute using cellulose filters, and sampling time is dependent on the individual process being monitored, but can be as short as five minutes, eg. dental laboratories. The filters are initially divided in two parts, and one portion is carefully pelletised using a steel press. The pellet is placed in an electrode cup and 'wetted' using isopropanol and ethylene glycol. Wetting is necessary because the pellets tended to explode out of the arcing zone. Calibration graphs were produced using an internal cobalt standard, and the 234.8 nm, 313.0 nm emission lines were used. No spectral and inter-element effects were observed, and the minimum detection limit was one nanogram. Under normal working conditions a 25% precision was obtained. (author)

  14. Model study in chemisorption: atomic hydrogen on beryllium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauschlicher, C.W. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The interaction between atomic hydrogen and the (0001) surface of Be metal has been studied by ab initio electronic structure theory. Self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations have been performed using minimum, optimized minimum, double zeta and mixed basis sets for clusters as large as 22 Be atoms. The binding energy and equilibrium geometry (the distance to the surface) were determined for 4 sites. Both spatially restricted (the wavefunction was constrained to transform as one of the irreducible representations of the molecular point group) and unrestricted SCF calculations were performed. Using only the optimized minimum basis set, clusters containing as many as 22 beryllium atoms have been investigated. From a variety of considerations, this cluster is seen to be nearly converged within the model used, providing the most reliable results for chemisorption. The site dependence of the frequency is shown to be a geometrical effect depending on the number and angle of the bonds. The diffusion of atomic hydrogen through a perfect beryllium crystal is predicted to be energetically unfavorable. The cohesive energy, the ionization energy and the singlet-triplet separation were computed for the clusters without hydrogen. These quantities can be seen as a measure of the total amount of edge effects. The chemisorptive properties are not related to the total amount of edge effects, but rather the edge effects felt by the adsorbate bonding berylliums. This lack of correlation with the total edge effects illustrates the local nature of the bonding, further strengthening the cluster model for chemisorption. A detailed discussion of the bonding and electronic structure is included. The remaining edge effects for the Be/sub 22/ cluster are discussed.

  15. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma-facing component of first-wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold-isostatic-pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well as its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.In this current work, the range of anticipated fusion operating conditions is reviewed. The thermal, mechanical, chemical compatibility, tritium retention/release, and helium retention/swelling databases are then reviewed for fabrication methods and fusion operating conditions of interest. Properties correlations and uncertainty ranges are also discussed. In the case of the more complex phenomena of tritium retention/release and helium-induced swelling, fundamental mechanisms and models are reviewed in more detail. Areas in which additional data are needed are highlighted, along with some trends which suggest ways of optimizing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications. (orig.)

  16. Nanotechnology inspired tools for mitochondrial dysfunction related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ru; Banik, Bhabatosh; Pathak, Rakesh K; Kumar, Anil; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Dhar, Shanta

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunctions are recognized as major factors for various diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological disorders, and a group of diseases so called "mitochondrial dysfunction related diseases". One of the major hurdles to gain therapeutic efficiency in diseases where the targets are located in the mitochondria is the accessibility of the targets in this compartmentalized organelle that imposes barriers toward internalization of ions and molecules. Over the time, different tools and techniques were developed to improve therapeutic index for mitochondria acting drugs. Nanotechnology has unfolded as one of the logical and encouraging tools for delivery of therapeutics in controlled and targeted manner simultaneously reducing side effects from drug overdose. Tailor-made nanomedicine based therapeutics can be an excellent tool in the toolbox for diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions. In this review, we present an extensive coverage of possible therapeutic targets in different compartments of mitochondria for cancer, cardiovascular, and mitochondrial dysfunction related diseases. PMID:26776231

  17. P73 and age-related diseases: is there any link with Parkinson Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Grespi, Francesca; Melino, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    P73 is a member of the p53 transcription factors family with a prominent role in neurobiology, affecting brain development as well as controlling neuronal survival. Accordingly, p73 has been identified as key player in many age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, neuroAIDS and Niemann-Pick type C disease. Here we investigate possible correlations of p73 with Parkinson disease. Tyrosine hydroxylase is a crucial player in Parkinson disease being the enzyme necessary...

  18. Preparation, characterization and thermal behaviour study of double selenates of lanthanides, yttrium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) double selenates were studied using common analytical methods, atomic absorption, X-ray diffraction infra-red absorption, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. These compounds were prepared from the mixture of lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) selenates aqueous solution and basic beryllium selenates aqueous solution, obeying equimolar relation (1:1) to the cation

  19. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson's Disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Very little is currently known about air pollutants' adverse effects on neurodegenerative diseases even though recent studies have linked particulate exposures to brain pathologies associated with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Here we investigate long-term exposure to traffic......-related air pollution and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a case-control study of 1,696 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients identified from Danish hospital registries and diagnosed 1996-2009 and 1,800 population controls matched by gender and year of birth we assessed long-term traffic-related air pollutant...

  20. Dietary approaches that delay age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Arthur V; Hilmer, Sarah N; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S; Morris, Brian J; Le Couteur, David G

    2006-01-01

    Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2-15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energy balance by reducing body weight such as physical exercise can also delay the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In general, clinical trials are suggesting that diets high in calories or fat along with overweight are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and dementia. There is a growing literature indicating that specific dietary constituents are able to influence the development of age-related diseases, including certain fats (trans fatty acids, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats) and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease, glycemic index and fiber for diabetes, fruits and vegetables for cardiovascular disease, and calcium and vitamin D for osteoporosis and bone fracture. In addition, there are dietary compounds from different functional foods, herbs, and neutraceuticals such as ginseng, nuts, grains, and polyphenols that may affect the development of age-related diseases. Long-term prospective clinical trials will be needed to confirm these diet-disease relationships. On the basis of current research, the best diet to delay age-related disease onset is one low in calories and saturated fat and high in wholegrain cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables, and which maintains a lean body weight. Such a diet should become a key component of healthy aging, delaying age-related diseases and perhaps intervening in the aging process itself. Furthermore, there are studies suggesting that nutrition in childhood and

  1. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum. PMID:24459193

  2. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum.

  3. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V

    2003-04-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed.

  4. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed

  5. Study on neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as neutron multiplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    More than 300 tons beryllium is expected to be used as a neutron multiplier in ITER, and study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) were performed to get the engineering data for fusion blanket design. This study started as the study on the tritium behavior in beryllium neutron reflector in order to make clear the generation mechanism on tritium of JMTR primary coolant since 1985. These experiences were handed over to beryllium studies for fusion study, and overall studies such as production technology of beryllium pebbles, irradiation behavior evaluation and reprocessing technology have been started since 1990. In this presentation, study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with JMTR was reviewed from the point of tritium release, thermal properties, mechanical properties and reprocessing technology. (author)

  6. Status of material development for lifetime expansion of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been used as the reflector element material in the reactor, specifically S-200F structural grade beryllium manufactured by Materion Brush Beryllium and Composites (former, Brush Wellman Inc.). As a part of the reactor upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) also has carried out the cooperation experiments to extend the operating lifetime of the beryllium reflector elements. It will first be necessary to determine which of the material's physical, mechanical and chemical properties will be the most influential on that choice. The irradiation testing plans to evaluate the various beryllium grades are also briefly considered and prepared. In this paper, material selection, irradiation test plan and PEI development for lifetime expansion of beryllium are described for material testing reactors. (author)

  7. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride; Rueckhaltemechanismen fuer Wasserstoff in metallischem Beryllium und Berylliumoxid sowie Eigenschaften von ioneninduziertem Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-09-22

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of plasma sprayed beryllium ITER first wall mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.

    1998-01-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/m{sup 2} without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface. (author)

  9. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  10. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases; Interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen bei Rauchern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar, Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-03-15

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Plasma cleaning of beryllium coated mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Newman, M.; Widdowson, A.; Ivanova, D.; Likonen, J.; Petersson, P.; Pintsuk, G.; Rubel, M.; Meyer, E.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Cleaning systems of metallic first mirrors are needed in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems from ITER to avoid reflectivity losses. Currently, plasma sputtering is considered as one of the most promising techniques to remove deposits coming from the main wall (mainly beryllium and tungsten). This work presents the results of plasma cleaning of rhodium and molybdenum mirrors exposed in JET-ILW and contaminated with typical tokamak elements (including beryllium and tungsten). Using radio frequency (13.56 MHz) argon or helium plasma, the removal of mixed layers was demonstrated and mirror reflectivity improved towards initial values. The cleaning was evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis.

  12. Asbestos-related diseases in Thailand and review literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhannachart, Ponglada; Dumavibhat, Narongpon; Siriruttanapruk, Somkiat

    2012-08-01

    Asbestos is a harmful substance that can cause both malignancy and non-malignancy in humans. Although it has been used in Thailand for several years, few cases of asbestos-related diseases were reported. Concerning about high consumption and long exposure of asbestos in the country, the incurable but preventable diseases caused by asbestos will be the health problem in the near future. The authors presented 2 cases with asbestos-related diseases, one diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma and the other as asbestosis.

  13. Antioxidant Micronutrients in the Prevention of Age-related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polidori M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The role and functions of antioxidant micronutrients such as ascorbate (vitamin C, a-tocopherol (vitamin E and carotenoids that are provided through the diet in aging and in the prevention of age-related diseases are discussed in the present work. In general, a healthy lifestyle involving regular exercise and avoidance of tobacco or alcohol abuse are the key to the prevention of several age-related diseases including cardiovascular diseases, dementia and cancer. A balanced and regular nutrition with at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day is a critical constituent of such a healthy lifestyle.

  14. Behavior of beryllium pebbles under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik; Baldwin, D.L.; Gelles, D.S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Kawamura, H.; Oliver, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium pebbles are being considered in fusion reactor blanket designs as neutron multiplier. An example is the European `Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket.` Several forms of beryllium pebbles are commercially available but little is known about these forms in response to fast neutron irradiation. Commercially available beryllium pebbles have been irradiated to approximately 1.3 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 390degC. Pebbles 1-mm in diameter manufactured by Brush Wellman, USA and by Nippon Gaishi Company, Japan, and 3-mm pebbles manufactured by Brush Wellman were included. All were irradiated in the below-core area of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho Falls, USA, in molybdenum alloy capsules containing helium. Post-irradiation results are presented on density change measurements, tritium release by assay, stepped-temperature anneal, and thermal ramp desorption tests, and helium release by assay and stepped-temperature anneal measurements, for Be pebbles from two manufacturing methods, and with two specimen diameters. The experimental results on density change and tritium and helium release are compared with the predictions of the code ANFIBE. (author)

  15. Dynamic behaviour of S200F beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compression tests have been made on a large scale of strain, strain rate (up to 2000 s-1) and temperature (between 20 C and 300 C). From these experiences, we have calculated a constitutive model for beryllium S200F, which can be used by computer codes. Its formulation is not far from Steinberg, Cochran and Guinan's. But in our case, the influences of temperature and strain rate appear clearly within the expression. To validate our equation, we have used it in a computer code. Its extrapolation for higher strain rates is in good agreement with experiments such as Taylor impact tests or plate impact tests (strain rates greater than 104 s-1). With micrography, we could settle a link between the main strain mode within the material, and the variation of one parameter of the model. Beside the constitutive model, we have shown that shock loaded beryllium behaves in two different ways. If the strain rate is lower than 5.106 s-1, then it is proportional to the squared shock pressure. Beyond, it is a linear function of shock pressure to the power of four. By a spall study on beryllium, we have confirmed that it is excessively fragile. Its fracture is sudden, at a strength near 1 GPa. (author)

  16. Interaction of nitrogen ions with beryllium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobes, Katharina [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Association EURATOM ÖAW, Vienna (Austria); Köppen, Martin [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oberkofler, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lungu, Cristian P.; Porosnicu, Corneliu [National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Höschen, Till; Meisl, Gerd [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Linsmeier, Christian [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Aumayr, Friedrich, E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Association EURATOM ÖAW, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of energetic nitrogen projectiles with a beryllium surface is studied using a highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance technique. The overall mass change rate of the beryllium sample under N{sub 2}{sup +} ion impact at an ion energy of 5000 eV (i.e. 2500 eV per N) is investigated in situ and in real-time. A strong dependency of the observed mass change rate on the nitrogen fluence (at constant flux) is found and can be attributed to the formation of a nitrogen-containing mixed material layer within the ion penetration depth. The presented data elucidate the dynamics of the interaction process and the surface saturation with increasing nitrogen fluence in a unique way. Basically, distinct interaction regimes can be discriminated, which can be linked to the evolution of the surface composition upon nitrogen impact. Steady state surface conditions are obtained at a total cumulative nitrogen fluence of ∼80 × 10{sup 16} N atoms per cm{sup 2}. In dynamic equilibrium, the interaction is marked by continuous surface erosion. In this case, the observed total sputtering yield becomes independent from the applied nitrogen fluence and is of the order of 0.4 beryllium atoms per impinging nitrogen atom.

  17. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  18. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...

  19. Perception of schizophrenic’s relatives about the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmille Morais Xavier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the perception of schizophrenic’s relatives about the disease. Methods: This is a descriptive, qualitative study performed with ten family members of people with medical diagnosis of schizophrenia treated by the Center for Psychosocial Care (CAPS in a municipality of Ceará. Unstructured interview was used as a strategy to collect data. Data analysis was based on the method of content analysis proposed by Bardin (1997. Results: The identified categories were: identification of disease; treatment of schizophrenia; difficulties experienced by relatives; search for quality of life by people with schizophrenia. Conclusion: In the speech of schizophrenic’s relatives, gaps are perceived in knowledge concerning the diagnosis of the disease, which point at the importance of this aspect being clarified during the meetings between professionals, users and family members. However, other aspects of the disease, such as behavioral disorders and types of treatments, were mentioned by the study participants.

  20. The credit analysis of recycling beryllium and uranium in BeO-UO2 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study quantifies the credits of beryllium and uranium which are used as the raw materials for BeO-UO2 nuclear fuel by analyzing the influence of their credits on the nuclear fuel cycle cost was analyzed, where the credit was defined as the value of raw materials recovered from spent fuel and the raw materials that were re-cycled. The credits of beryllium and uranium at 60 MWD/kg burn-up were -0.22 Mills/kWh and -0.14 Mills/kWh, respectively. These findings were based on the assumption that the optimal mixing proportion of beryllium in the BeO-UO2 nuclear fuel is 4.8 wt%. In sum, the present study verified that the credits of beryllium and uranium in relation to BeO-UO2 nuclear fuel are significant cost drivers in the cost of the nuclear fuel cycle and in estimating the nuclear fuel cycle of the reprocessing option for spent nuclear fuels. (author)

  1. Bovine Ephemeral Fever As A Disease Related To Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF is one of arbovirus diseases infecting in ruminants especially cattle and buffaloes, which is transmitted by mosquito vectors. In general, vector borne disease is also related to climate change, that mosquito as a vector will significantly increase when the environment temperature increases. The disease was found in many countries in Asia, Africa and Australia. The clinical sign of the disease such as fever to paralysis causes economical impact to the farmer, eventhough the mortality is very low. This review will discuss the disease in relation to climate change, which affects vector population that spread the disease. The more population of vector is the higher chance of animal to be infected. This condition describes that the spread of BEF will depend on some factors included the increase of vectors, the availability of susceptible host and vector media facilities, climate condition and supportive ecology. This paper will discuss the feature of BEF, mode of transmission, the impact of environment and climate change, disease prevention and control, and other aspects to prevent further economical impact. It will also discuss how to the transmission, prevention and control of disease BEF. The information can be taken as an input for policy makers to prevent BEF infection in Indonesia.

  2. Telomere length variations in aging and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined effect of oxidative stress, inflammation and repeated cell replication on it, and thus forming an association between telomere length and chronological aging and related diseases. Thus, decrease in telomere length was found to be important in determining both, the variations in longevity and age-related diseases in an individual. Ongoing and progressive research in the field of telomere length dynamics has proved that aging and age-related diseases apart from having a synergistic effect on telomere length were also found to effect telomere length independently also. Here a short description about telomere length variations and its association with human aging and age-related diseases is reviewed.

  3. Unprecedented Disease-Related Coral Mortality in Southeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precht, William F.; Gintert, Brooke E.; Robbart, Martha L.; Fura, Ryan; van Woesik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Anomalously high water temperatures, associated with climate change, are increasing the global prevalence of coral bleaching, coral diseases, and coral-mortality events. Coral bleaching and disease outbreaks are often inter-related phenomena, since many coral diseases are a consequence of opportunistic pathogens that further compromise thermally stressed colonies. Yet, most coral diseases have low prevalence (coral-bleaching event and affected at least 13 coral species. Eusmilia fastigiata, Meandrina meandrites, and Dichocoenia stokesi were the most heavily impacted coral species, and were reduced to coral species, including Colpophyllia natans, Pseudodiploria strigosa, Diploria labyrinthiformis, and Orbicella annularis were reduced to corals affected suggests this disease outbreak is arguably one of the most lethal ever recorded on a contemporary coral reef. PMID:27506875

  4. Unprecedented Disease-Related Coral Mortality in Southeastern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precht, William F; Gintert, Brooke E; Robbart, Martha L; Fura, Ryan; van Woesik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Anomalously high water temperatures, associated with climate change, are increasing the global prevalence of coral bleaching, coral diseases, and coral-mortality events. Coral bleaching and disease outbreaks are often inter-related phenomena, since many coral diseases are a consequence of opportunistic pathogens that further compromise thermally stressed colonies. Yet, most coral diseases have low prevalence (coral-bleaching event and affected at least 13 coral species. Eusmilia fastigiata, Meandrina meandrites, and Dichocoenia stokesi were the most heavily impacted coral species, and were reduced to coral species, including Colpophyllia natans, Pseudodiploria strigosa, Diploria labyrinthiformis, and Orbicella annularis were reduced to corals affected suggests this disease outbreak is arguably one of the most lethal ever recorded on a contemporary coral reef. PMID:27506875

  5. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanios, Mary; de Cabo, Rafael; Mannick, Joan; Partridge, Linda; van Deursen, Jan; Villeda, Saul

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing through the use of model organisms, how to apply this knowledge in the clinic is less clear. In September, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, hosted a conference at the beautiful Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover, Germany with the goal of broadening our understanding of the aging process and its meaning as a 'risk factor' in disease. Here, several of the speakers at that conference answer questions posed by Nature Medicine. PMID:26646495

  6. Early diagnosis of connective tissue disease-related pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Funauchi, Masanori; Kishimoto, Kazuya; Yano, Tomohiro; Hino, Shoichi; Kinoshita, Koji

    2009-01-01

    It is known that prognosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH), especially connective tissue disease related PH (CTD-PH), is serious. CTD-PH is caused by not only pulmonary arterial hypertension, but also interstitial pneumonitis, hypoxia, chronic thromboembolism of pulmonary artery, or left heart diseases. Recently, prognosis of PH has improved by progress of diagnostic measures including echocardiography and development of effective vasodilators. However, early diagnosis of PH is necessary for f...

  7. Arsenic-related Bowen's disease, palmar keratosis, and skin cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cöl, M; Cöl, C; Soran, A; Sayli, B S; Oztürk, S

    1999-01-01

    Chronic arsenical intoxication can still be found in environmental and industrial settings. Symptoms of chronic arsenic intoxication include general pigmentation or focal "raindrop" pigmentation of the skin and the appearance of hyperkeratosis of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. In addition to arsenic-related skin diseases including keratosis, Bowen's disease, basal-cell-carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma, there is also an increased risk of some internal malignancies. Arsenic...

  8. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Ying Wu; E Xiao; Dana T Graves

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  9. Health-related quality of life in pituitary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Iris; Valassi, Elena; Santos, Alicia; Webb, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    In the last 15 years, worse health-related quality of life (QoL) has been reported in patients with pituitary diseases compared with healthy individuals. Different QoL questionnaires have shown incomplete physical and psychological recovery after therapy. Residual impairments often affect QoL even long-term after successful treatment of pituitary adenomas. In this article, knowledge of factors that affect QoL in pituitary diseases is reviewed. The focus is on 5 pituitary diseases: Cushing syndrome, acromegaly, prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, and hypopituitarism.

  10. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...

  11. Inflammatory bowel disease related innate immunity and adaptive immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Chen, Zhonge

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Its pathogenesis remains not yet clear. Current researchers believe that after environmental factors act on individuals with genetic susceptibility, an abnormal intestinal immune response is launched under stimulation of intestinal flora. However, previous studies only focused on adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of IBD. Currently, roles of innate immune response in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation have also drawn much attention. In this study, IBD related innate immunity and adaptive immunity were explained, especially the immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:27398134

  12. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2016-10-01

    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  13. Experiments on studying beryllium - steam interaction, determination of oxidated beryllium emissivity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of beryllium emissivity factor measurements within 700-1300 K temperature range. The tests were conducted at Institute of Atomic Energy of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan to receive experimental data for verification of calculation programs describing an accident involving water coolant discharge into ITER reactor vacuum cavity. (author)

  14. NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decreased nitric oxide (NO availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases.

  15. Beryllium toxicity testing in the suspension culture of mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössner, P; Bencko, V

    1980-01-01

    Suspension culture of mouse fibroblast cell line L-A 115 was used to test beryllium toxicity in the presence of magnesium ions. Beryllium added to the MEM cultivation medium was bound in a complex with sulphosalicylic acid BeSSA complex, because the use of beryllium chloride turned out to yield ineffective beryllium phosphate that formed macroscopically detectable insoluble opacities. The BeSSA complex was used in the concentration range: 10(-3)--10(-9)M, magnesium was used in 3 concentrations: 10(-1)M, 5 x 10(-2)M and 10(-2)M. Growth curve analysis revealed pronounced beryllium toxicity at the concentration of 10(-3)M, magnesium-produced toxic changes were observed only at the concentration of 10(-1)M. No competition between the beryllium and magnesium ions was recorded. It is assumed that the possible beryllium-magnesium competition was significantly modified by the use of BeSSA complex-bound beryllium.

  16. Ionization energies of beryllium in strong magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANXiao-xu; ZHANGYue-xia

    2004-01-01

    We have develop an effective frozen core approximation to calculate energy levels and ionization enegies of the beryllium atom in magnetic field strengths up to 2.35 × 105T. Systematic improvement over the Hartree-Fock results for the beryllium low-lying states has been accomplished.

  17. Joining of beryllium by braze welding technique: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaim, P.; Abramov, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Zalkind, S.; Eden, S.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of some applications, there is a need to join beryllium parts to each other. Gas Tungsten Arc Braze Welds were made in beryllium using 0.3 mm commercially Aluminum (1100) shim preplaced at the joint. The welds exhibited a tendency to form microcracks in the Fusion Zone and Heat Affected Zone. All the microcracks were backfilled with Aluminum. (author)

  18. Transferrin microheterogeneity in rheumatoid arthritis - Relation with disease activity and anemia of chronic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Feelders (Richard); G. Vreugdenhil (Gerard); G. de Jong (G.); A.J.G. Swaak (Antonius); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the relation between disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the microheterogeneity of transferrin. Using crossed immuno isoelectric focusing, transferrin microheterogeneity patterns were analyzed in sera of healthy individuals, nonanemic RA patients, iron deficient

  19. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  20. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Beryllium by Mean Centering of Ratio Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Samghani, Kobra; Arbab-Zavar, Mohammad Hossein; Heidari, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Trace amounts of beryllium has been determined by spectrofluorimetric method that used morin as fluorimetric reagent. Beryllium gives a highly fluorescent complex with morin. The excitation wavelength of morin and Be-morin complex were 410 and 430. The fluorescence spectra of morin and Be-morin complex were overlaped in excitation wavelength of 430 nm. A method based on mean centering of ratio spectra has been performed to remove the interference caused by morin as it overlaps with the Be-morin spectra. The linear range of beryllium concentration is in 0.2-200 ppb range. The parameters of detection limit and RSD were 0.18 ppb and 4.6 % respectively. This method was used for determination of beryllium in copper-beryllium alloy as a real sample. In determination of Be(II), the interference by Cu(II) was very serious, which was eliminated by adding triethanolamine. PMID:27265354

  1. Ultra-trace determination of beryllium in occupational hygiene samples by ammonium bifluoride extraction and fluorescence detection using hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Kevin; Agrawal, Anoop; Cronin, John; Tonazzi, Juan; McCleskey, T Mark; Burrell, Anthony K; Ehler, Deborah S

    2007-02-19

    A highly sensitive molecular fluorescence method for measuring ultra-trace levels of beryllium has been previously described. The method entails extraction of beryllium workplace samples by 1% ammonium bifluoride (NH(4)HF(2), aqueous), followed by fluorescence detection using hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate (HBQS). In this work, modification of the existing procedure resulted in a significant improvement in detection power, thereby enabling ultra-trace determination of beryllium in air filter and surface wipe samples. Such low detection limits may be necessary in view of expected decreases in applicable occupational exposure limits (OELs) for beryllium. Attributes of the modified NH(4)HF(2) extraction/HBQS fluorescence method include method detection limits (MDLs) of <0.8 ng to approximately 2 ng Be per sample (depending on the fluorometer used), quantitative recoveries from beryllium oxide, a dynamic range of several orders of magnitude, and freedom from interferences. Other key advantages of the technique are field portability, relatively low cost, and high sample throughput. The method performance compares favorably with that of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  2. Ultra-trace determination of beryllium in occupational hygiene samples by ammonium bifluoride extraction and fluorescence detection using hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Kevin [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, M.S. R-7, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998 (United States)]. E-mail: kashley@cdc.gov; Agrawal, Anoop [Berylliant, Inc., 4541 E. Fort Lowell Road, Tucson, AZ 85712 (United States); Cronin, John [Berylliant, Inc., 4541 E. Fort Lowell Road, Tucson, AZ 85712 (United States); Tonazzi, Juan [Berylliant, Inc., 4541 E. Fort Lowell Road, Tucson, AZ 85712 (United States); McCleskey, T. Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Burrell, Anthony K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ehler, Deborah S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-02-19

    A highly sensitive molecular fluorescence method for measuring ultra-trace levels of beryllium has been previously described. The method entails extraction of beryllium workplace samples by 1% ammonium bifluoride (NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2}, aqueous), followed by fluorescence detection using hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate (HBQS). In this work, modification of the existing procedure resulted in a significant improvement in detection power, thereby enabling ultra-trace determination of beryllium in air filter and surface wipe samples. Such low detection limits may be necessary in view of expected decreases in applicable occupational exposure limits (OELs) for beryllium. Attributes of the modified NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2} extraction/HBQS fluorescence method include method detection limits (MDLs) of <0.8 ng to {approx}2 ng Be per sample (depending on the fluorometer used), quantitative recoveries from beryllium oxide, a dynamic range of several orders of magnitude, and freedom from interferences. Other key advantages of the technique are field portability, relatively low cost, and high sample throughput. The method performance compares favorably with that of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

  3. Thermal Induced Processes in Laminar System of Stainless Steel - Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on investigation of the laminar system 'stainless steel 12Cr18Ni10Ti - Be' at thermal treatment. There have been determined sequences of phase transformations along with relative amount of iron-containing phases in the samples subjected to thermal beryllization. It has been revealed that thermal beryllization of stainless steel thin foils results in γ→α transformation and formation of the beryllides NiBe and FeBe2. It has also been revealed that direct γ→α- and reverse α→γ-transformations are accompanied by, correspondingly, formation and decomposition of the beryllide NiBe. It is shown that distribution of the formed phases within sample bulk is defined by local concentration of beryllium. Based on obtained experimental data there is proposed a physical model of phase transformations in stainless steel at thermal beryllization.

  4. MeCP2-Related Diseases and Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinelo D. Ezeonwuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of epigenetics in human disease has become an area of increased research interest. Collaborative efforts from scientists and clinicians have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Several neurological and non-neurological disorders are associated with mutations in genes that encode for epigenetic factors. One of the most studied proteins that impacts human disease and is associated with deregulation of epigenetic processes is Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2. MeCP2 is an epigenetic regulator that modulates gene expression by translating epigenetic DNA methylation marks into appropriate cellular responses. In order to highlight the importance of epigenetics to development and disease, we will discuss how MeCP2 emerges as a key epigenetic player in human neurodevelopmental, neurological, and non-neurological disorders. We will review our current knowledge on MeCP2-related diseases, including Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Hirschsprung disease, and Cancer. Additionally, we will briefly discuss about the existing MeCP2 animal models that have been generated for a better understanding of how MeCP2 impacts certain human diseases.

  5. Reducing the economic burden of HPV-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Edward John

    2008-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted infection that is often acquired at the onset of sexual activity. Risk factors include younger age at time of sexual debut, sexual behavior, intact foreskin, and immunologic status. Persistent infection with high-risk oncogenic HPV types (especially 16 and 18) is associated with cervical cancer, other anogenital diseases, as well as some head and neck cancers. Infection with low-risk HPV types is associated with genital warts, low-grade dysplasias, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Screening and management of HPV-related diseases incur high healthcare costs. Whereas routine screening of female patients with Papanicolaou tests helps prevent advanced stages of cancer through early detection and treatment, the recently developed HPV L1 capsid protein virus-like particle vaccines offer an option for prevention of HPV-related diseases, including cervical cancer. PMID:18463361

  6. Physical activity in people with asbestos related pleural disease and dust-related interstitial lung disease: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Munoz, Phillip A; Corte, Peter; Bye, Peter T P; Alison, Jennifer A

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the levels of physical activity (PA) in people with dust-related pleural and interstitial lung diseases and to compare these levels of PA to a healthy population. There is limited data on PA in this patient population and no previous studies have compared PA in people with dust-related respiratory diseases to a healthy control group. Participants with a diagnosis of a dust-related respiratory disease including asbestosis and asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD) and a healthy age- and gender-matched population wore the SenseWear(®) Pro3 armband for 9 days. Six-minute walk distance, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were also measured. Fifty participants were recruited and 46 completed the study; 22 with ARPD, 10 with dust-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) and 14 healthy age-matched participants. The mean (standard deviation) steps/day were 6097 (1939) steps/day for dust-related ILD, 9150 (3392) steps/day for ARPD and 10,630 (3465) steps/day for healthy participants. Compared with the healthy participants, dust-related ILD participants were significantly less active as measured by steps/day ((mean difference 4533 steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI): 1888-7178)) and energy expenditure, ((mean difference 512 calories (95% CI: 196-827)) and spent significantly less time engaging in moderate, vigorous or very vigorous activities (i.e. >3 metabolic equivalents; mean difference 1.2 hours/day (95% CI: 0.4-2.0)). There were no differences in levels of PA between healthy participants and those with ARPD. PA was reduced in people with dust-related ILD but not those with ARPD when compared with healthy age and gender-matched individuals.

  7. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products. PMID:26961814

  8. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. PMID:21913285

  9. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  10. Estrogen-related and other disease diagnoses preceding Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne C Latourelle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Jeanne C Latourelle1,2, Merete Dybdahl3, Anita L Destefano1,4, Richard H Myers1, Timothy L Lash2,31Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston MA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston MA, USA; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston MA, USAPurpose: Estrogen exposure has been associated with the occurrence of Parkinson’s disease (PD, as well as many other disorders, and yet the mechanisms underlying these relations are often unknown. While it is likely that estrogen exposure modifies the risk of various diseases through many different mechanisms, some estrogen-related disease processes might work in similar manners and result in association between the diseases. Indeed, the association between diseases need not be due only to estrogen-related factors, but due to similar disease processes from a variety of mechanisms.Patients and methods: All female Parkinson’s disease cases between 1982 and 2007 (n = 12,093 were identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients, along with 10 controls matched by years of birth and enrollment. Conditional logistic regressions (CLR were used to calculate risk of PD after diagnosis of the estrogen-related diseases, endometriosis and osteoporosis, conditioning on years of birth and enrollment. To identify novel associations between PD and any other preceding conditions, CLR was also used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs for risk of PD for 202 different categories of preceding disease diagnoses. Empirical Bayes methods were used to identify the robust associations from the over 200 associations produced by this analysis.Results: We found a positive association between osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures and PD (OR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.08–1.28, while a lack of association was observed

  11. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma complicating cystic fibrosis related liver disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, D H

    2012-02-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of the respiratory and gastrointestinal complications of cystic fibrosis (CF) have led to improved survival with many patients living beyond the fourth decade. Along with this increased life expectancy is the risk of further disease associated with the chronic manifestations of their condition. We report a patient with documented CF related liver disease for which he was under routine surveillance that presented with histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is important that physicians are aware of this association as increased vigilance may lead to earlier diagnosis and perhaps, a better outcome.

  14. Chronic fatigue is associated with increased disease-related worries and concerns in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lars-Petter Jelsness-Jφrgensen; Tomm Bernklev; Magne Henriksen; Roald Torp; Bjφrn Mourn

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of chronic fatigue on disease-related worries in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the potential multicolinearity between subjective questionnaires. METHODS: Patients in remission or with mild-tomoderate disease activity completed the fatigue questionnaire (FQ), the rating form of IBD patient concerns (RFIPC), the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and IBD questionnaire (N-IBDQ). In addition, clinical and epidemiological data were obtained. RESULTS: In total, 140 patients were included; of which 92 were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and 48 with Crohn's disease. the mean age of patients with chronic fatigue was 44.2 years (SD =15.8) and for non-fatigued patients was 44.7 years (SD = 16.0). Chrnnic fatigued patients had clinically significantly increased levels of disease-related worries, as measured by Cohen's d effect size. Worries about having an ostomy bag, loss of bowel control, and energy levels were most prominent in both chronic fatigued and non-chronic fatigued IBD patients. Variance inflation factor (VIF) and tolerance indicated that there were no problematic multicolinearity among the FQ, RFIPC, SF-36 and N-IBDQ responses (VIF 2). CONCLUSION: Chronic fatigue is associated with increased levels of disease-related worries and concerns in IBD. Increased levels of worries were also associated with impaired health-related quality of life.

  15. Geochemistry of water in relation to cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Relations between trace and major element chemistry of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed and documented. Several aspects of the problem, related both to the pathway that drinking water takes to man and to its transit through man, are reviewed. Several steps in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that could be affected by water factors were explored. There is little evidence bearing on the contribution from drinking water to human tissue levels of cadmium, chromium, or zinc. Copper and magnesium levels of tissues may be related to drinking water, but confirmatory evidence is needed. Lead levels in blood and other tissues are most certainly affected by lead levels in drinking water in areas where these levels are unusually elevated. There is little evidence that relatively low levels of lead are toxic to the cardiovascular system, except for the causation of cardiomyopathy. The protective action of selenium and zinc applies mainly to cadmium toxicity. The mode of the protective action of silicon, if any, is unclear at present. Some epidemiological associations between the cadmium level or cadmium:zinc ratio and cardiovascular disease have been reported, but are contradictory. Some epidemiological support exists for a protective effect by selenium; results for zinc are equivocal. Interactions within the human system involving calcium and selected trace elements might be very important for the cardiovascular system. Review of the epidemiological literature indicates that there may be a water factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Its effects, if any, must be very weak in comparison with the effects of known risk factors. The reported inverse relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of local drinking water supplies appears to be considerably less distinctive in small regional studies. (ERB)

  16. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium; Determinazione fluorimetrica del berillio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparacino, N.; Sabbioneda, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-10-01

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure.

  17. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...... a stent dual antiplatelet therapy with a P2Y12 receptor antagonist and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for 12 months, preferable with prasugrel or ticagrelor unless there is an additional indication of warfarin or increased risk of bleeding. In patients with AF, warfarin is recommended...

  18. IgG4-Related Disease in a Urachal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W. Dum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory disorder that has the ability to affect nearly every organ system. It is characterized by tumefactive lesions and fibrosis and closely mimics neoplasms. Only one case of IgG4-related bladder mass has been reported in the literature, but there are no reports of IgG4-related disease in a urachal mass. Herein, we report a 26-year-old male who initially presented with symptoms of recurrent UTI. Work-up revealed a 6 cm urachal tumor, a 1.4 cm pulmonary lesion, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy; all metabolically active on PET scan and suspicious for urachal adenocarcinoma. Lung lesion fine needle aspiration and TURBT pathology revealed inflammation but no evidence of malignancy. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy and umbilectomy with pathology demonstrating dense plasmacytic cells, a high rate of immunohistochemistry staining positive for IgG4 plasma cells, a storiform pattern of fibrosis, and an obliterative phlebitis. Furthermore, the patient had an elevated serum IgG4 level of 227 mg/dL (range 2.4–121 mg/dL. IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory disorder that can mimic neoplastic processes and a high index of suspicion and accurate tissue pathology is necessary for an accurate diagnosis.

  19. IgG4-Related Disease in a Urachal Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, Travis W; Zhang, Da; Lee, Eugene K

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory disorder that has the ability to affect nearly every organ system. It is characterized by tumefactive lesions and fibrosis and closely mimics neoplasms. Only one case of IgG4-related bladder mass has been reported in the literature, but there are no reports of IgG4-related disease in a urachal mass. Herein, we report a 26-year-old male who initially presented with symptoms of recurrent UTI. Work-up revealed a 6 cm urachal tumor, a 1.4 cm pulmonary lesion, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy; all metabolically active on PET scan and suspicious for urachal adenocarcinoma. Lung lesion fine needle aspiration and TURBT pathology revealed inflammation but no evidence of malignancy. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy and umbilectomy with pathology demonstrating dense plasmacytic cells, a high rate of immunohistochemistry staining positive for IgG4 plasma cells, a storiform pattern of fibrosis, and an obliterative phlebitis. Furthermore, the patient had an elevated serum IgG4 level of 227 mg/dL (range 2.4-121 mg/dL). IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory disorder that can mimic neoplastic processes and a high index of suspicion and accurate tissue pathology is necessary for an accurate diagnosis. PMID:25202466

  20. Chromosomal and related Mendelian syndromes associated with Hirschsprung's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S W

    2012-11-01

    Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a fairly frequent cause of intestinal obstruction in children. It is characterized as a sex-linked heterogonous disorder with variable severity and incomplete penetrance giving rise to a variable pattern of inheritance. Although Hirschsprung's disease occurs as an isolated phenotype in at least 70% of cases, it is not infrequently associated with a number of congenital abnormalities and associated syndromes, demonstrating a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Certain of these syndromic phenotypes have been linked to distinct genetic sites, indicating underlying genetic associations of the disease and probable gene-gene interaction, in its pathogenesis. These associations with HSCR include Down's syndrome and other chromosomal anomalies, Waardenburg syndrome and other Dominant sensorineural deafness, the Congenital Central Hypoventilation and Mowat-Wilson and other brain-related syndromes, as well as the MEN2 and other tumour associations. A number of other autosomal recessive syndromes include the Shah-Waardenburg, the Bardet-Biedl and Cartilage-hair hypoplasia, Goldberg-Shprintzen syndromes and other syndromes related to cholesterol and fat metabolism among others. The genetics of Hirschsprung's disease are highly complex with the majority of known genetic sites relating to the main susceptibility pathways (RET an EDNRB). Non-syndromic non-familial, short-segment HSCR appears to represent a non-Mendelian condition with variable expression and sex-dependent penetrance. Syndromic and familial forms, on the other hand, have complex patterns of inheritance and being reported as autosomal dominant, recessive and polygenic patterns of inheritance. The phenotypic variability and incomplete penetrance observed in Hirschsprung's disease could also be explained by the involvement of modifier genes, especially in its syndromic forms. In this review, we look at the chromosomal and Mendelian associations and their underlying signalling pathways

  1. Obesity-Related Diseases Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    The prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically during the past four decades and worldwide more than half a billion adults are now obese. Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, effective ...... for prevention. The main purpose of this PhD was to explore the effect of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota on disease markers in obese individuals....... strategies to reduce obesity-related morbidity and mortality are essential. It has been hypothesized that the microbes in the human gut are involved in the development of obesity-related diseases and that intake of nutrients affecting the gut microbial community in specific ways, can be a new strategy......The prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically during the past four decades and worldwide more than half a billion adults are now obese. Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, effective...

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and mitochondria in relation to lifestyle-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Røst, Therese Halvorsen

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a growing life-style related health problem, and is often accompanied by dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and inflammation. This may in turn lead to hyperinsulinemia, increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Together, these abnormalities have been clustered into the metabolic syndrome. The present thesis focuses on two modified fatty acids, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and tetradecylselenoacetic acid...

  3. Inhibitory effects of beryllium chloride on rat liver microsomal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C F; Yasaka, W J; Silva, L F; Oshiro, T T; Oga, S

    1990-04-30

    A single i.v. dose (0.1 mmol Be2+/kg) of beryllium chloride prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, in rats. The effects are correlated with changes of the pharmacokinetic parameters and with the in vitro inhibition of both aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation of pentobarbital and zoxazolamine. In vitro N-demethylation of meperidine and aminopyrine was partially inhibited while O-demethylation of quinidine was unaffected by liver microsomes of rats pretreated with beryllium salt. The findings give clues that beryllium chloride inhibits some forms of cytochrome P-450, especially those responsible for hydroxylation of substrates, like pentobarbital and zoxazolamine.

  4. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium windows surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined. (orig.)

  5. Development of Beryllium Vacuum Chamber Technology for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R; Dorn, C

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is the material of choice for the beam vacuum chambers around collision points in particle colliders due to a combination of transparency to particles, high specific stiffness and compatibility with ultra-high vacuum. New requirements for these chambers in the LHC experiments have driven the development of new methods for the manufacture of beryllium chambers. This paper reviews the requirements for experimental vacuum chambers. It describes the new beryllium technology adopted for the LHC and experience gained in the manufacture and installation.

  6. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta S Aeby

    Full Text Available In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance, climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI. Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral. All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic. All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and Por

  7. Brain Tocopherols Related to Alzheimer Disease Neuropathology in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Martha Clare; Schneider, Julie A.; LI Hong; Tangney, Christy C; Nag, Sukrit; Bennett, David A.; Honer, William G.; Barnes, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Randomized trials of α-tocopherol supplements on cognitive decline are negative whereas studies of dietary tocopherols show benefit. We investigated these inconsistencies by analyzing the relations of α- and γ-tocopherol brain concentrations to Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology among 115 deceased participants of the prospective Rush Memory and Aging Project. Associations of amyloid load and neurofibrillary tangle severity with brain tocopherol concentrations were examined in separate adju...

  8. Cosmis Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangioni-Flam, E.; Cassé, M.

    Light element nucleosynthesis is an important chapter of nuclear astrophysics. Specifically, the rare and fragile light nuclei Lithium, Beryllium and Boron (LiBeB) are not generated in the normal course of stellar nucleosynthesis (except Lithium-7) and are, in fact, destroyed in stellar interiors. This characteristic is reflected in the low abundance of these simple species. Up to recently, the most plausible interpretation was that galactic cosmic rays (GCR) interact with interstellar CNO to form LiBeB. Other origins have been also identified, primordial and stellar (Lithium-7) and supernova neutrino spallation (Lithium-7 and Boron-11). In contrast, Beryllium-9, Boron-10 and Lithium-6 are pure spallative products. This last isotope presents a special interest since the Lithium-7/Lithium-6 ratio has been measured in a few halo stars offering a new constraint on the early galactic evolution. However, in the nineties, new observations prompted astrophysicists to reassess the question. Optical measurements of the beryllium and boron abundances in halo stars have been achieved by the 10 meters KECK telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. These observations indicate a quasi linear correlation between Be and B vs Fe, at least at low metallicity, unexpected on the basis of GCR scenario, predicting a quadratic relationship. As a consequence, the origin and the evolution of the LiBeB nuclei has been revisited. This linearity implies the acceleration of C and O nuclei freshly synthesized and their fragmentation on the the interstellar Hydrogen and Helium. Wolf-Rayet stars and supernovae via the shock waves induced, are the best candidates to the acceleration of their own material enriched into C and O; so LiBeB is produced independently of the Interstellar Medium chemical composition. Moreover, neutrinos emitted by the newly born neutron stars interacting with the C layer of the supernova could produce specifically Lithium-7 and Boron-11. This process is supported by the

  9. Immunoglobulin G4-related cholangitis: a variant of IgG4-related systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Ivo; Dítě, Petr; Trna, Jan; Lata, Jan; Husová, Libuše; Geryk, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis as part of IgG4 systemic-related diseases is commonly associated with autoimmune pancreatitis. Major clinical manifestations of IgG4-related sclerosing diseases are apparent in the organs in which tissue fibrosis with obstructive phlebitis is pathologically induced. IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis is included within the heterogeneous group of 'sclerosing cholangitis'. Sclerosing cholangitis may be associated with choledocholithiasis, infection or biliary malignancies. Sclerosing cholangitis of unknown etiology is called primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Conservative therapy of PSC is usually unsuccessful, the disease involves extra- and/or intrahepatic biliary tree, and the end point of this disease is liver cirrhosis. Typically, PSC is identified at the age of 30 to 40 years, and the disease is frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. On the other hand, IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis is not associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. In patients with IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis, a first symptom can be obstructive jaundice, whereas obstructive jaundice is rarely present in PSC. Clinically, patients with IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis are older at diagnosis compared to patients with PSC. A typical diagnostic feature of IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis is elevation of serum immunoglobulin G4. In patients with IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis, response to steroid therapy is high; in patients with PSC corticosteroid therapy is unsuccessful. Histochemically abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells is detected in the biliary duct wall. Histologically, we can identify dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the bile duct wall, transmural fibrosis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis in the periportal area of the liver - a typically obliterative phlebitis. The biliary epithelium is usually intact in contrast to PSC, where mucosal erosion is often present. Steroids are the

  10. Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases-related hepatic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Fu-Kui Zhang; Xiao-Ning Wu; Tai-Ling Wang; Ji-Dong Jia; Bao-En Wang

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic injury is rarely associated with undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTD).We report,here,a case of a middle-aged woman with UCTD-related hepatic injury,including its case history,clinical manifestations,laboratory findings,treatment and its short-term effect.The patient was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of fatigue,anorexia,low-grade fever and skin rashes.She had a past history of left knee joint replacement.Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of serum transaminase,IgG and globulin,accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate,eosinophilia and a high titer of antinuclear antibodies (1:320).Imaging studies showed interstitial pneumonitis and hydropericardium.Liver biopsy showed the features which were consistent with those of connective tissue diseases-related polyangitis.After treatment with a low-dose of oral prednisone,both symptoms and laboratory findings were significantly improved.UCTD-related hepatic injury should be considered in the differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases with abnormal liver function tests.Lowdose prednisone may effectively improve both symptoms and laboratory tests.

  11. Drug Related Problems in the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease with Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Winda H. Furqani; Zulfan Zazuli; Nabilah Nadhif; Siti Saidah; Rizky Abdulah; Keri Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Drug related problems were defined as conditions on patient’s therapy management that caused, or potentially caused unsuccessful therapy. This study was conducted at a hospital in Cimahi City in May 2014. In this study, DRPs were identified on a 59 years old woman who was diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease with gangrene on the left hand (the third finger). The patient also had a diabetes mellitus for two until three years ago. Drug related problems (DRPs) were f...

  12. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Part B of EEOICPA? 30.615 Section 30.615 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... certain claimants from receiving benefits under Part B of EEOICPA? (a) A tort suit (other than an... Part B employee's employment-related exposure to beryllium or radiation, filed against a...

  13. Investigation of the ion beryllium surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Birukov, A.Yu.; Gureev, V.M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The self -sputtering yield of the Be was measured. The energy dependence of the Be self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by W. Eckstein et. al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yield is temperature independent; at T{sub irr}.> 870 K it increases sharply. Hot-pressed samples at 370 K were implanted with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary plasma (flux power {approximately} 5 MW/m{sup 2}). The investigation of hydrogen behavior in beryllium shows that at low doses hydrogen is solved, but at doses {ge} 5x10{sup 22} m{sup -2} the bubbles and channels are formed. It results in hydrogen profile shift to the surface and decrease of its concentration. The sputtering results in further concentration decrease at doses > 10{sup 25}m{sup -2}.

  14. Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R

    2014-01-01

    Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

  15. Stepped-anneal helium release in 1-mm beryllium pebbles from COBRA-1A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, B.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Stepped-anneal helium release measurements on two sets of fifteen beryllium pebbles irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-w), are reported. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the helium release characteristics of the beryllium using larger sample sizes and longer anneal times relative to earlier measurements. Sequential helium analyses were conducted over a narrower temperature range from approximately 800 C to 1100 C in 100 C increments, but with longer anneal time periods. To allow for overnight and unattended operation, a temperature controller and associated circuitry were added to the experimental setup. Observed helium release was nonlinear with time at each temperature interval, with each step being generally characterized by an initial release rate followed by a slowing of the rate over time. Sample Be-C03 showed a leveling off in the helium release after approximately 3 hours at a temperature of 890 C. Sample Be-D03, on the other hand, showed a leveling off only after {approximately}12 to 24 hours at a temperature of 1100 C. This trend is consistent with that observed in earlier measurements on single microspheres from the same two beryllium lots. None of the lower temperature steps showed any leveling off of the helium release. Relative to the total helium concentrations measured earlier, the total helium releases observed here represent approximately 80% and 92% of the estimated total helium in the C03 and D03 samples, respectively.

  16. Membranous Nephropathy Associated With Immunological Disorder-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Maxime; Moktefi, Anissa; Rabant, Marion; Vigneau, Cécile; Kofman, Tomek; Burtey, Stephane; Corpechot, Christophe; Stehlé, Thomas; Desvaux, Dominique; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Rouvier, Philippe; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Frouget, Thierry; Daugas, Eric; Jablonski, Mathieu; Dahan, Karine; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Remy, Philippe; Grimbert, Philippe; Lang, Philippe; Chazouilleres, Oliver; Sahali, Dil; Audard, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The association between membranous nephropathy (MN) and immunological disorder-related liver disease has not been extensively investigated, and the specific features of this uncommon association, if any, remain to be determined. We retrospectively identified 10 patients with this association. We aimed to describe the clinical, biological, and pathological characteristics of these patients and their therapeutic management. The possible involvement of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in these apparent secondary forms of MN was assessed by immunohistochemistry with renal and liver biopsy specimens. The mean delay between MN and liver disease diagnoses was 3.9 years and the interval between the diagnosis of the glomerular and liver diseases was PLA2R antibodies were detected in 4 out of 9 patients but the test was performed under specific immunosuppressive treatment in 3 out of 9 patients. Seven of the 9 patients with available renal tissue specimens displayed enhanced expression of PLA2R in glomeruli whereas PLA2R was not expressed in liver parenchyma from these patients or in normal liver tissue. The study of immunoglobulin (Ig) subclasses of deposits in glomeruli revealed that the most frequent pattern was the coexistence of IgG1 and IgG4 immune deposits with IgG4 predominating. Detection of PLA2R antibodies in glomeruli but not in liver parenchyma is a common finding in patients with MN associated with autoimmune liver disease, suggesting that these autoantibodies are not exclusively detected in idiopathic MN. PMID:26222864

  17. Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure Modulates Immune-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joella Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has a widespread exposure to humans. BPA is of concern for developmental exposure resulting in immunomodulation and disease development due to its ability to cross the placental barrier and presence in breast milk. BPA can use various mechanisms to modulate the immune system and affect diseases, including agonistic and antagonistic effects on many receptors (e.g., estrogen receptors, epigenetic modifications, acting on cell signaling pathways and, likely, the gut microbiome. Immune cell populations and function from the innate and adaptive immune system are altered by developmental BPA exposure, including decreased T regulatory (Treg cells and upregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Developmental BPA exposure can also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, allergy, asthma and mammary cancer disease by altering immune function. Multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus may also be exacerbated by BPA, although more research is needed. Additionally, BPA analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS, have been increasing in use, and currently, little is known about their immune effects. Therefore, more studies should be conducted to determine if developmental exposure BPA and its analogs modulate immune responses and lead to immune-related diseases.

  18. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  19. Molecular Biology of Pediatric Hydrocephalus and Hydrocephalus-related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Mami; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2015-01-01

    We are beginning to understand the molecular biology of hydrocephalus and its related diseases. X-linked hydrocephalus (XLH), holoprosencephaly (HPE), Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), and neural tube defect (NTD) can all be discussed with respect to their available molecular genetics knowledge base and its clinical applications. XLH is single gene disorder caused by mutations in the neural cell adhesion molecule-encoding L1CAM (L1) gene. Our knowledge of the molecular basis of XLH is already being applied clinically in disease diagnosis, disease classification, and prenatal diagnosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying XLH-related hydrocephalus still needs to be clarified. Sixteen causative genes for HPE have been identified, of which mutations are most often found in SHH, ZIC2, SIX3, and TGIF. Genetic interactions, gene complexity, and the wide variety of HPE phenotypes and genotypes are topics for future study. For DWM, two important loci, 3q24, which includes the FOXC1 gene, and 6q25.3, which includes the ZIC1 and ZIC4 genes, were recently identified as causative areas. The planar cell polarity (PCP) genes CELSR1, CELSR2, VANGL1, and VANGL2 have been implicated in NTD; these genes have roles in neural tube closure and ependymal ciliary movement. PMID:26227058

  20. Surfactant Proteins in Smoking-Related Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Andriana I; Papiris, Spyridon; Papadaki, Georgia; Manali, Effrosyni D; Roussou, Aneza; Spathis, Aris; Karakitsos, Petros; Kostikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a highly surface-active mixture of proteins and lipids that is synthesized and secreted in the alveoli by type II epithelial cells and is found in the fluid lining the alveolar surface. The protein part of surfactant constitutes two hydrophilic proteins (SP-A and SP-D) that regulate surfactant metabolism and have immunologic functions, and two hydrophobic proteins (SP-B and SP-C), which play a direct role in the organization of the surfactant structure in the interphase and in the stabilization of the lipid layers during the respiratory cycle. Several studies have shown that cigarette smoke seems to affect, in several ways, both surfactant homeostasis and function. The alterations in surfactants' biophysical properties caused by cigarette smoking, contribute to the development of several smoking related lung diseases. In this review we provide information on biochemical and physiological aspects of the pulmonary surfactant and on its possible association with the development of two major chronic diseases of the lung known to be related to smoking, i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Additional information on the possible role of surfactant protein alterations and/or dysfunction in the combination of these two conditions, recently described as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are also provided. PMID:26420367

  1. Rheumatic diseases presenting as sports-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Fabio; Lambert, Elaine; Fredericson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Most individuals seeking consultation at sports medicine clinics are young, healthy athletes with injuries related to a specific activity. However, these athletes may have other systemic pathologies, such as rheumatic diseases, that may initially mimic sports-related injuries. As rheumatic diseases often affect the musculoskeletal system, they may masquerade as traumatic or mechanical conditions. A systematic review of the literature found numerous case reports of athletes who presented with apparent mechanical low back pain, sciatica pain, hip pain, meniscal tear, ankle sprain, rotator cuff syndrome and stress fractures and who, on further investigation, were found to have manifestations of rheumatic diseases. Common systemic, inflammatory causes of these musculoskeletal complaints include ankylosing spondylitis (AS), gout, chondrocalcinosis, psoriatic enthesopathy and early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Low back pain is often mechanical among athletes, but cases have been described where spondyloarthritis, especially AS, has been diagnosed. Neck pain, another common mechanical symptom in athletes, can be an atypical presentation of AS or early RA. Hip or groin pain is frequently related to injuries in the hip joint and its surrounding structures. However, differential diagnosis should be made with AS, RA, gout, psudeogout, and less often with haemochromatosis and synovial chondochromatosis. In athletes presenting with peripheral arthropathy, it is mandatory to investigate autoimmune arthritis (AS, RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus), crystal-induced arthritis, Lyme disease and pigmented villonodular synovitis. Musculoskeletal soft tissue disorders (bursitis, tendinopathies, enthesitis and carpal tunnel syndrome) are a frequent cause of pain and disability in both competitive and recreational athletes, and are related to acute injuries or overuse. However, these disorders may occasionally be a manifestation of RA, spondyloarthritis

  2. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  3. Beryllium nitride thin film grown by reactive laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    G. Soto; Diaz, J.A.; Machorro, R.; Reyes-Serrato, A.; de la Cruz, W.

    2001-01-01

    Beryllium nitride thin films were grown on silicon substrates by laser ablating a beryllium foil in molecular nitrogen ambient. The composition and chemical state were determined with Auger (AES), X-Ray photoelectron (XPS) and energy loss (EELS) spectroscopies. A low absorption coefficient in the visible region, and an optical bandgap of 3.8 eV, determined by reflectance ellipsometry, were obtained for films grown at nitrogen pressures higher than 25 mTorr. The results show that the reaction ...

  4. DIFFERENT MODELS OF HEPATOTOXICITY AND RELATED LIVER DISEASES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Robin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver is among the most complex and important organs in the human body. Its primary function is to control the flow and safety of substances absorbed from the digestive system before distribution of these substances to the systemic circulatory system. Hepatotoxicity implies chemical-driven liver damage. Chemicals that cause liver injury are called hepatotoxins. Hepatic injury leads to disturbances in transport function of hepatocytes resulting in leakage of plasma membrane thereby causing an increased enzyme level in serum. There are many diseases that are related with hepatotoxicity caused by certain chemicals or hepatotoxins. Herbal medicines are great demand in various chemicals and drugs disordered hepatic, the developed world for primary health care because of their efficacy, safety, lesser side effects and narrow therapeutic window. This review focus on liver, its function, liver diseases and different models of hepatotoxicity.

  5. [Disease-related malnutrition and its influence on perioperative outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Irina; Grinţescu, Ioana; Tulbure, D

    2007-01-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is highly prevalent among surgical patients and has important deleterious effects on postoperative outcome: increased complications rate, length of hospital stay, mortality and costs. Malnutrition (equivalent with undernutrition in the surgical patients) can be present already on admission, could rapidly develop or aggravate during hospital stay. The determination of malnutrition in this high-risk group of patients in multifactorial: decreased intake (anorexia, gastrointestinal symptoms, prolonged perioperative fasting) and increased demands (hyper-catabolism due to underlying disease, surgical stress, eventual postoperative complications). The identification of patients at nutritional risk by screening on admission and whenever the patient situation changes throughout hospitalization is the first, mandatory step for developing an accurate nutritional care plan in these patients, in order to positively influence postoperative outcome.

  6. Validation of anti-aging drugs by treating age-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2009-01-01

    Humans die from age-related diseases, which are deadly manifestations of the aging process. In order to extend life span, an anti-aging drug must delay age-related diseases. All together age-related diseases are the best biomarker of aging. Once a drug is used for treatment of any one chronic disease, its effect against other diseases (atherosclerosis, cancer, prostate enlargement, osteoporosis, insulin resistance, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, age-related macular degeneration) may be...

  7. Femoroacetabular impingement related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Femoroacetabular impingement is an undesirable contact between acetabular rim and femoral neck and presents abnormality of proximal femoral part and acetabulum, as well. Two forms may appear: cam impingement and pincer impingement. Femoroacetabular impingement related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease may be caused by various reasons, as the consequence of the disease itself, and as the consequence of its treatment. Coxa magna deformity (large femoral head and neck and coxa brevis deformity (shortened femoral neck may produce cam femoroacetabular impingement during hip flexion. After the disease, the flattened femoral head (coxa plana may persist. Chiari pelvic osteotomy is the only treatment option for such femoral head deformity. Acetabular labrum squeezed continuously between the femoral head and the non-articular part of the cut iliac bone lead to cam femoroacetabular impingement, as well. If Salter or triple pelvic osteotomy is used that may cause a very large iatrogenic acetabular retroversion, we can also refer to radial type pincer femoroacetabular impingement. Treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease should be conducted according to the natural course of the disease and prognosis. Treatment should start on time, well before a crushed femoral head develops, because it is the easiest way to establish hip spherical congruency at the end of treatment. This is the best option to prevent secondary hip arthrosis caused by femoroacetabular impingement or by insufficient head coverage at the end of remodelling. In each case of delayed hip pain, followed by a limited range of movements, femoroacetabular impingement should be taken into consideration, confirmed, and treated by some of the available therapeutic methods.

  8. Determination of beryllium by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawisza, Beata

    2008-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method is subject to certain difficulties and inconveniences for the elements having the atomic number 9 or less. These difficulties become progressively more severe as the atomic number decreases, and are quite serious for beryllium, which is practically indeterminable directly by XRF. Therefore, an indirect determination of beryllium that is based on the evaluation of cobalt in the precipitate is taken into consideration. In the thesis below, there is a description of a new, simple, and precise method by selective precipitation using hexamminecobalt(III) chloride and ammonium carbonate-EDTA solution as a complexing agent for the determining of a trace amount of beryllium using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The optimum conditions for [Co(NH(3))(6)][Be(2)(OH)(3)(CO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)].(3)H(2)O complex formation were studied. The complex was collected on the membrane filter, and the Co Kalpha line was measured by XRF. The method presents the advantages of the sample preparation and the elimination of the matrix effects due to the thin film obtained. The detection limit of the proposed method is 0.2 mg of beryllium. The method was successfully applied to beryllium determination in copper/ beryllium/cobalt alloys.

  9. Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available

  10. Drug Related Problems in the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winda H. Furqani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug related problems were defined as conditions on patient’s therapy management that caused, or potentially caused unsuccessful therapy. This study was conducted at a hospital in Cimahi City in May 2014. In this study, DRPs were identified on a 59 years old woman who was diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease with gangrene on the left hand (the third finger. The patient also had a diabetes mellitus for two until three years ago. Drug related problems (DRPs were found in this patient. Unnecessary drug therapy (administration of calsium polystirene sulfonate, inappropriate choosen antibiotic, inappropriate dosing (administration of amoxicillin and captopril, and risks drug interactions (captopril–furosemide, captopril–isosorbide dinitrate, and captopril–sodium bicarbonate. Patients with chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease received complex drug therapy. These condition lead to higer risk of DRPs. The involvement of clinical pharmacist in interdisciplinary team for management of complex diseases was needed to monitor drug therapy to optimizing the therapy, minimalizing the risk of DRPs, and improving patient’s quality of life.

  11. Altered Mitochondrial DNA Methylation Pattern in Alzheimer Disease-Related Pathology and in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Marta; Mosquera, Jose Luis; Ansoleaga, Belén; Ferrer, Isidre; Barrachina, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked with the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. Mitochondria are intracellular organelles essential for cell viability and are characterized by the presence of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA. DNA methylation is a well-known epigenetic mechanism that regulates nuclear gene transcription. However, mtDNA methylation is not the subject of the same research attention. The present study shows the presence of mitochondrial 5-methylcytosine in CpG and non-CpG sites in the entorhinal cortex and substantia nigra of control human postmortem brains, using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencer. Moreover, increased mitochondrial 5-methylcytosine levels are found in the D-loop region of mtDNA in the entorhinal cortex in brain samples with Alzheimer disease-related pathology (stages I to II and stages III to IV of Braak and Braak; n = 8) with respect to control cases. Interestingly, this region shows a dynamic pattern in the content of mitochondrial 5-methylcytosine in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 mice along with Alzheimer disease pathology progression (3, 6, and 12 months of age). Finally, a loss of mitochondrial 5-methylcytosine levels in the D-loop region is found in the substantia nigra in Parkinson disease (n = 10) with respect to control cases. In summary, the present findings suggest mtDNA epigenetic modulation in human brain is vulnerable to neurodegenerative disease states.

  12. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent

    2004-12-17

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  13. Low cycle thermal fatigue testing of beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Guiniatouline, R.N. [Efremov Institute, (Russia); Kupriynov, I.B. [Russian Institute of Inorganic Materials (Russia)

    1996-02-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium, which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 kW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ``spike`` of 750{degree}C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stresses in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m{sup 2}. Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S- 65H, S-200F, S-200F-H, SR-200, I-400, extruded high purity, HIP`d spherical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe{sub 12}. Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be (SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis.

  14. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent [Central Missouri State Univ., Warrensburg, MO (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  15. Assessment of irradiation effects on beryllium reflector and heavy water tank of JRR-3M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Yoji; Kakehuda, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The JRR-3M, a swimming pool type research reactor with beryllium and heavy water reflectors, has been operated since 1990. Since the beryllium reflectors are close to fuel and receive high fast neutron fluence in a relatively short time, they may be subject to change their dimensions by swelling due mostly to entrapped helium gaseous. This may bend the reflectors to the outside and narrow gaps between the reflectors and the fuel elements. The gaps have been measured with an ultrasonic thickness gage in an annual inspection. The results in 1996 show that the maximum of expansion in the diametral directions was 0.6 mm against 1.6 mm of a managed value for replacement of the reflector. A heavy water tank of the JRR-3M is made of aluminum alloy A5052. Surveillance tests of the alloy have been conducted to evaluate irradiation effects of the heavy water tank. Five sets of specimens of the alloy have been irradiated in the beryllium reflectors where fast neutron flux is higher than that in the heavy water tank. In 1994, one set of specimens had been unloaded and carried out the post-irradiation tests. The results show that the heavy water tank preserved satisfactory mechanical properties. (author)

  16. Disease-related needs of black patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Treadwell

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of cervical cancer amongst South African black women is complicated by late presentation for treatment as well as by misconceptions and ignorance which adversely affect the quality of their lives. The aim of the research was to determine the disease-related needs of patients suffering from cervical cancer which would serve as a basis for planning on providing for these needs. Needs for the following were identified: • Education on early detection in the community. • Education on nutrition and hygiene. • Information on and assistance in obtaining financial relief by means of subsidised transport and disability pensions.

  17. Role of Resistin in Inflammation and Inflammation-Related Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanshan Pang; Yingying Le

    2006-01-01

    Resistin is a newly identified adipocyte secreted hormone belonging to a cysteine-rich protein family. It is expressed in white adipose tissues in rodents and has also been found in several other tissues in human. Insulin, glucose,many cytokines and anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones are regulators of resistin gene expression. Resistin was firstly proposed to be involved in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recently, it was found to be relevant to inflammation and inflammation-related diseases like atherosclerosis and arthritis.

  18. Large vessel involvement by IgG4-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugino, Cory A.; Wallace, Zachary S.; Meyersohn, Nandini; Oliveira, George; Stone, James R.; Stone, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory condition that can affect multiple organs and lead to tumefactive, tissue-destructive lesions. Reports have described inflammatory aortitis and periaortitis, the latter in the setting of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), but have not distinguished adequately between these 2 manifestations. The frequency, radiologic features, and response of vascular complications to B cell depletion remain poorly defined. We describe the clinical features, radiology findings, and treatment response in a cohort of 36 patients with IgG4-RD affecting large blood vessels. Methods: Clinical records of all patients diagnosed with IgG4-RD in our center were reviewed. All radiologic studies were reviewed. We distinguished between primary large blood vessel inflammation and secondary vascular involvement. Primary involvement was defined as inflammation in the blood vessel wall as a principal focus of disease. Secondary vascular involvement was defined as disease caused by the effects of adjacent inflammation on the blood vessel wall. Results: Of the 160 IgG4-RD patients in this cohort, 36 (22.5%) had large-vessel involvement. The mean age at disease onset of the patients with large-vessel IgG4-RD was 54.6 years. Twenty-eight patients (78%) were male and 8 (22%) were female. Thirteen patients (36%) had primary IgG4-related vasculitis and aortitis with aneurysm formation comprised the most common manifestation. This affected 5.6% of the entire IgG4-RD cohort and was observed in the thoracic aorta in 8 patients, the abdominal aorta in 4, and both the thoracic and abdominal aorta in 3. Three of these aneurysms were complicated by aortic dissection or contained perforation. Periaortitis secondary to RPF accounted for 27 of 29 patients (93%) of secondary vascular involvement by IgG4-RD. Only 5 patients demonstrated evidence of both primary and secondary blood vessel involvement. Of those treated with

  19. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  20. Beryllium data base for in-pile mockup test on blanket of fusion reactor, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been used in the fusion blanket designs with ceramic breeder as a neutron multiplier to increase the net tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The properties of beryllium, that is physical properties, chemical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, nuclear properties, radiation effects, etc. are necessary for the fusion blanket design. However, the properties of beryllium have not been arranged for the fusion blanket design. Therefore, it is indispensable to check and examine the material data of beryllium reported previously. This paper is the first one of the series of papers on beryllium data base, which summarizes the reported material data of beryllium. (author)

  1. Nutrition in Relation to Diseases and Heat stress in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Das

    Full Text Available Different diseases conditions and stress factors are responsible for high morbidity and mortality of present day poultry. Nutritional strategy and proper feed formulation with specific dietary regimen can combat this up to a certain extent. The incidence of various infectious diseases, nervous disorders and metabolic disorders can be minimized through proper feed regimen. There is a stiff competition and restrictions in the global market of poultry products which can be addressed with proper management of emerging and important diseases with economic productions and quality poultry products free of elements detrimental to human health. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry and poultry product through dietary manipulations. Heat stress can lead to a reduction in the defense mechanisms of birds or to a relative state of immunosuppression. The health status of the poultry is facing new challenges today which can be suitably addressed by the right scientific and advanced nutritional manoeuvres and make the poultry farming more profitable and presentable in the global market. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 429-432

  2. Calcium and Vitamin D in Obesity and Related Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Poonam K; Calton, Emily K; Soares, Mario J

    2016-01-01

    There is a pandemic of lifestyle-related diseases. In both developed and lesser developed countries of the world, an inadequacy of calcium intake and low vitamin D status is common. In this chapter, we explore a mechanistic framework that links calcium and vitamin D status to chronic conditions including obesity, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also update the available clinical evidence, mainly from randomized controlled trials, to provide a synthesis of evidence in favor or against these hypotheses. There is consistent data to support calcium increasing whole body fat oxidation and increasing fecal fat excretion, while there is good cellular evidence for vitamin D reducing inflammation. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids and some meta-analysis support an increase in insulin sensitivity following vitamin D. However, these mechanistic pathways and intermediate biomarkers of disease do not consistently transcribe into measurable health outcomes. Cementing the benefits of calcium and vitamin D for extraskeletal health needs a reexamination of the target 25(OH)D level to be achieved and the minimum duration of future trials. PMID:26944102

  3. Apolipoprotein E Related Co-Morbidities and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhrao, Sim K; Harding, Alice; Chukkapalli, Sasanka; Olsen, Ingar; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya; Crean, StJohn

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of advancement in clinical services is to provide a health care system that enhances an individual's quality of life. Incidence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and associated dementia coupled with the advancing age of the population, have led to an increase in the worldwide challenge to the healthcare system. In order to overcome these challenges, prior knowledge of common, reliable risk factors and their effectors is essential. Oral health constitutes one such relatively unexplored but indispensable risk factor for aforementioned co-morbidities, in the form of poor oral hygiene and tooth loss during aging. Behavioral traits such as low education, smoking, poor diet, neglect of oral health, lack of exercise, and hypertension are few of the risk factors that are shared commonly among these conditions. In addition, common genetic susceptibility traits such as the apolipoprotein E gene, together with an individual's lifestyle can also influence the development of co-morbidities such as periodontitis, atherosclerosis/stroke, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. This review specifically addresses the susceptibility of apolipoprotein E gene allele 4 as the plausible commonality for the etiology of co-morbidities that eventually result from periodontal diseases and ultimately progress to dementia. PMID:26923007

  4. [Insights into cystic fibrosis-related bone disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, C; Bacchetta, J; Reix, P

    2016-08-01

    With the increasing life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), prevalence of late complications such as CF-related bone disease (CFBD) has increased. It was initially described in 24% of the adult population with CF and has also been reported in the pediatric population. CFBD is multifactorial and progresses in different steps. Both decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption (in different amounts) are observed. CFBD is likely primitive (directly related to the CFTR defect itself), but is also worsened by acquired secondary factors such as lung infections, chronic inflammation, denutrition, vitamin deficiency, and decreased physical activity. CFBD may be clinically apparent (i.e., mainly vertebral and costal fractures), or clinically asymptomatic (therefore corresponding to abnormalities in bone density and architecture). CFBD management mainly aims to prevent the occurrence of fractures. Prevention and regular monitoring of bone disease as early as 8 years of age is of the utmost importance, as is the control of possible secondary deleterious CFBD factors. New radiological tools, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, allow an accurate evaluation of cortical and trabecular bone micro-architecture in addition to compartmental density; as such, they will likely improve the assessment of the bone fracture threat in CF patients in the near future. PMID:27345551

  5. [IgG4-related kidney disease. Diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamada, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Saeki, Takako

    2015-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder that can affect most organs/tissues like sarcoidosis. The kidney is one of the most frequently affected organs. While tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with characteristic imaging findings is the representative lesion of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD), a variety of glomerular lesions, particularly membranous nephropathy, sometimes overlap on TIN. Clinically, either decreased renal function and/or characteristic imaging findings such as multiple low-density lesions on contrast-enhanced computed tomography are typical presenting features. Histologically, plasma cell (PC)-rich TIN accompanied by characteristic fibrosis called storiform fibrosis with dense IgG4-positive PC infiltration is a typical finding. Although a swift response to corticosteroid is a very important feature of IgG4-RKD, in cases with moderately to severely decreased renal function before therapy, only partial recovery of renal function is obtained. This review provides a comprehensive overview of IgG4-RKD from the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and histological aspects and also addresses some of the therapeutic issues concerning it.

  6. Prediction of disease-related mutations affecting protein localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurila Kirsti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells contain numerous compartments, which have different protein constituents. Proteins are typically directed to compartments by short peptide sequences that act as targeting signals. Translocation to the proper compartment allows a protein to form the necessary interactions with its partners and take part in biological networks such as signalling and metabolic pathways. If a protein is not transported to the correct intracellular compartment either the reaction performed or information carried by the protein does not reach the proper site, causing either inactivation of central reactions or misregulation of signalling cascades, or the mislocalized active protein has harmful effects by acting in the wrong place. Results Numerous methods have been developed to predict protein subcellular localization with quite high accuracy. We applied bioinformatics methods to investigate the effects of known disease-related mutations on protein targeting and localization by analyzing over 22,000 missense mutations in more than 1,500 proteins with two complementary prediction approaches. Several hundred putative localization affecting mutations were identified and investigated statistically. Conclusion Although alterations to localization signals are rare, these effects should be taken into account when analyzing the consequences of disease-related mutations.

  7. Disease-Related Variables and Depression Among Iranian Patients with Parkinson Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeri, Jalal; Chaghazardi, Maryam; Abdoli, Nasrin; Arman, Farid; Hoseini, Seyed Davood; Shakeri, Hania

    2015-01-01

    Background: The factors affecting the correlation between Parkinson disease (PD) and depression have remained unclear. Objectives: We assessed the prevalence of depression among patients with PD and the association between PD-related variables and depression severity. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed in Kermanshah Province of Iran. Sampling was based on recruitment of subjects according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients with confirmed Parkinson disea...

  8. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  9. Hypoglycaemia related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douillard Claire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In non-diabetic adult patients, hypoglycaemia may be related to drugs, critical illness, cortisol or glucagon insufficiency, non-islet cell tumour, insulinoma, or it may be surreptitious. Nevertheless, some hypoglycaemic episodes remain unexplained, and inborn errors of metabolism (IEM should be considered, particularly in cases of multisystemic involvement. In children, IEM are considered a differential diagnosis in cases of hypoglycaemia. In adulthood, IEM-related hypoglycaemia can persist in a previously diagnosed childhood disease. Hypoglycaemia may sometimes be a presenting sign of the IEM. Short stature, hepatomegaly, hypogonadism, dysmorphia or muscular symptoms are signs suggestive of IEM-related hypoglycaemia. In both adults and children, hypoglycaemia can be clinically classified according to its timing. Postprandial hypoglycaemia can be an indicator of either endogenous hyperinsulinism linked to non-insulinoma pancreatogenic hypoglycaemia syndrome (NIPHS, unknown incidence in adults or very rarely, inherited fructose intolerance. Glucokinase-activating mutations (one family are the only genetic disorder responsible for NIPH in adults that has been clearly identified so far. Exercise-induced hyperinsulinism is linked to an activating mutation of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (one family. Fasting hypoglycaemia may be caused by IEM that were already diagnosed in childhood and persist into adulthood: glycogen storage disease (GSD type I, III, 0, VI and IX; glucose transporter 2 deficiency; fatty acid oxidation; ketogenesis disorders; and gluconeogenesis disorders. Fasting hypoglycaemia in adulthood can also be a rare presenting sign of an IEM, especially in GSD type III, fatty acid oxidation [medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD, ketogenesis disorders (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, and gluconeogenesis disorders (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase deficiency].

  10. Development of Interatomic Potentials for Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorkas, C.; Juslin, N.; Nordlund, K. [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Erhart, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, AK (United States); Henriksson, K. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: To be able to benefit from fusion as a clean and safe power source, we need a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic region of a fusion reactor. Knowing the interplay between the fuel plasma and the reactor components, such as the first wall and the divertor, one can minimize the resulting degradation. The atom-level mechanisms behind the reactions, (e.g. erosion and redeposition) are, however, not accessible to experiments. Hence, computational methods, including molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, are needed. The interactions in a system of particles are within MD described by an interatomic potential. The study of reactor processes requires models for the mixed interaction between the first wall and divertor materials beryllium, carbon and tungsten, as well as for the interaction of these with hydrogen. The absence of proper models for the Be system motivated us to develop potentials for pure Be, Be-C, Be-W and Be-H. We present a Tersoff-like bond order potential for pure Be and the same formalism applied to Be-C and Be-H. The performance of the potentials is discussed and an outlook for the remaining potential is also given. (authors)

  11. Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N C; Israelian, G; Mayor, M; Rebolo, R; García-Gíl, A; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Randich, S

    2002-01-01

    We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be deple...

  12. Electronic band structure of beryllium oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Sashin, V A; Kheifets, A S; Ford, M J

    2003-01-01

    The energy-momentum resolved valence band structure of beryllium oxide has been measured by electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). Band dispersions, bandwidths and intervalence bandgap, electron momentum density (EMD) and density of occupied states have been extracted from the EMS data. The experimental results are compared with band structure calculations performed within the full potential linear muffin-tin orbital approximation. Our experimental bandwidths of 2.1 +- 0.2 and 4.8 +- 0.3 eV for the oxygen s and p bands, respectively, are in accord with theoretical predictions, as is the s-band EMD after background subtraction. Contrary to the calculations, however, the measured p-band EMD shows large intensity at the GAMMA point. The measured full valence bandwidth of 19.4 +- 0.3 eV is at least 1.4 eV larger than the theory. The experiment also finds a significantly higher value for the p-to-s-band EMD ratio in a broad momentum range compared to the theory.

  13. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Knee Proprioception and Factors Related to Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltz, Giovana Duarte; Torman, Vanessa Bielefeldt Leotti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Changes in proprioception may contribute to postural instability in individuals with neurological disorders. Objectives. Evaluate proprioception in the lower limbs of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and the association between proprioception and cognitive ability, motor symptoms, postural instability, and disease severity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional, controlled study that evaluated proprioception in PD patients and healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. Kinetic postural proprioception of the knee was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex® Multi-Joint System 4 Pro). Participants were evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Hoehn and Yahr rating scale and postural instability (pull test and stabilometric analysis), and motor function (UPDRS-III) tests. Results. A total of 40 individuals were enrolled in the study: 20 PD patients and 20 healthy controls (CG). The PD patients had higher angular errors on the proprioceptive ratings than the CG participants (p = 0.002). Oscillations of the center of pressure (p = 0.002) were higher in individuals with PD than in the controls. Proprioceptive errors in the PD patients were associated with the presence of tremors as the dominant symptom and more impaired motor performance. Conclusion. These findings show that individuals with PD have proprioceptive deficits, which are related to decreased cognitive ability and impaired motor symptoms. PMID:27672650

  15. IgG4-Related Disease: A Multispecialty Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Usêda Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently recognized group of conditions, characterized by tumor-like swelling of involved organs, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, variable degrees of fibrosis, and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. Currently IgG4-RD is recognized as a systemic condition that can affect several organs and tissues. Herein we report the case of a 34-year-old male patient who was admitted to our hospital with diffuse abdominal pain, weight loss, and painful stiffness in his neck. He had a history of tumoral mass of the left maxillary region, right palpebral ptosis with protrusion of the eyeball, and chronic dry cough for about 6 years. Laboratory tests revealed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum IgG4 levels. Immunohistochemical staining of the maxillary biopsy was compatible with IgG4-RD. He had an excellent response to corticosteroid therapy. This case highlights that IgG4-RD should be included in the differential diagnosis with multisystem diseases.

  16. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later stages of lipedema have a classic “column leg” appearance, with masses of nodular fat, easy bruising, and pain. Despite this relatively common disease, there are few physicians who are aware of it. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed with lifestyle-induced obesity, and/or lymphedema, and subjected to unnecessary medical interventions and fat-shaming. Diagnosis is largely clinical and based on criteria initially established in 1951. Treatment of lipedema is effective and includes lymphatic support, such as complete decongestive therapy, and specialized suction lipectomy to spare injury to lymphatic channels and remove the diseased lipedema fat. With an incidence that may affect nearly 1 in 9 adult women, it is important to generate appropriate awareness, conduct additional research, and identify better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lipedema so these women can obtain the care that they need and deserve.

  17. Management of Malassezia-related diseases in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peano, A; Gallo, M G

    2008-06-01

    Most cases of Malassezia dermatitis/otitis in the dog are associated with concurrent dermatoses or systemic diseases and recurrences are not uncommon. Recognition and control of the predisposing factors are therefore key factors for successful therapy and prevention of recurrent infections. Currently, Malassezia dermatitis/otitis is managed by the use of antifungal drugs. Systemic therapy is often necessary, in particular when clinical signs are severe and widespread. Ketoconazole and Itraconazole are the most commonly used drugs. Topical therapy is an alternative in case of localized lesions and external ear localizations. Different commercial formulations, available in clinical practice in form of creams, gels, lotions, sprays and ear drops are often used as adiuvants to systemic therapy. Topicals more frequently used are represented by imidazolic antifungals, chlorhexydine and lime sulphur. The presentation deals with more recent advances about the protocols for treatment of Malassezia-related diseases in the dog. New perspectives, as the use of natural compounds, immunotherapy and inhibitors of yeast adherence factors, are also discussed. PMID:18693565

  18. Molecular basis of ataxia telangiectasia and related diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lindsay G BALL; Wei XIAO

    2005-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare human disease characterized by extreme cellular sensitivity to radiation and a predisposition to cancer, with a hallmark of onset in early childhood. Several human diseases also share similar symptoms with AT albeit with different degrees of severity and different associated disorders. While all AT patients contain mutations in the AT-mutated gene (ATM), most other ATlike disorders are defective in genes encoding an MRN protein complex consisting of Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1. Both ATM and MRN function as cellular sensors to DNA double-strand breaks, which lead to the recruitment and phosphorylation of an array of substrate proteins involved in DNA repair, apoptosis and cell-cycle checkpoints, as well as gene regulation, translation initiation and telomere maintenance. ATM is a member of the family of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinases (PIKK), and the discovery of many ATM substrates provides the underlying mechanisms of heterologous symptoms among AT patients. This review article focuses on recent findings related to the initial recognition of doublestrand breaks by ATM and MRN, as well as a DNA-dependent protein kinase complex consisting of the heterodimer Ku70/Ku80 and its catalytic subunit DNAPKcs, another member of PIKK. This possible interaction suggests that a much greater complex is involved in sensing, transducing and co-ordinating cellular events in response to genome instability.

  19. Salivary changes related to systemic diseases in the edentulous patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoteasa, E; Tâncu, AM; Iosif, L; Melescanu Imre, M; Murariu-Măgureanu, C; Preoteasa, CT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relatively frequent systemic comorbidities of geriatric patients can be linked to salivary changes, which may induce oral alteration and discomfort with the removable prosthesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary parameters in completely edentulous patients treated by removable prosthesis, in relation to their general health status. Material and method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 30 completely edentulous patients, 53% male and 47% female, aged between 53 and 84. The evaluation of the salivary parameters (oral hydration index, pH and salivary flow, viscosity and saliva buffer capacity) was performed with the Saliva Check Buffer kit (GC Corporation). Results: The salivary changes encountered were the following: low hydration level (63%), high saliva viscosity (57%), below-average pH (27%), reduced salivary flow (77%) and low saliva buffer capacity (80%). A reduced salivary flow and saliva buffer capacity was found in women. A lower buffer capacity of the saliva was found in patients with respiratory and gastro-intestinal disease. Conclusions: The alterations of the salivary flow are relatively frequent in geriatric patients, removable denture wearers, with compromised systemic status. These changes may be a risk factor for denture stomatitis and oral candidiasis, with a negative effect on the patient’s comfort and quality of life. PMID:25713626

  20. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in beryllium-induced dendritic cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Huang, Z.; Gillespie, M.; Mroz, P.M.; Maier, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a role in the regulation of immune responses to haptens, which in turn impact DC maturation. Whether beryllium (Be) is able to induce DC maturation and if this occurs via the MAPK pathway is not known. Primary monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) models were generated from Be non-exposed healthy volunteers as a non-sensitized cell model, while PBMCs from BeS (Be sensitized) and CBD (chronic beryllium disease) were used as disease models. The response of these cells to Be was evaluated. The expression of CD40 was increased significantly (pBeS and CBD subjects, SB203580 downregulated Be-stimulated proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased Be-stimulated TNF-α and IFNγ cytokine production. Taken together, this study suggests that Be-induces non-sensitized Glu69+ DCs maturation, and that p38MAPK signaling is important in the Be-stimulated DCs activation as well as subsequent T cell proliferation and cytokine production in BeS and CBD. In total, the MAPK pathway may serve as a potential therapeutic target for human granulomatous lung diseases. PMID:25454621

  1. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H{sub 2} gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m{sup 2}.

  2. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  3. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  4. Identifying Semantic Relations for DiseaseTreatment in Medline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Menaka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Machine Learning (ML is almost used in any domain of research and now it has become a reliable tool in the medical domain.ML is a tool by which medical field is integrated with the computer based systems to provide more efficient medical care. The main objective of this work is to show what Natural Language Processing (NLP and Machine Learning (ML techniques used for representation of information and what classification algorithms are suitable for identifying and classifying relevant medical information in short texts. It acknowledges the fact that tools capable of identifying reliable information in the medical domain stand as building blocks for a healthcare system that is up-to-date with the latest discoveries. In this research, it focuses on diseases and treatment information, and the relation that exists between these two entities.

  5. Inflammation in Aging and Age-related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Ikeno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The San Antonio Nathan Shock Center Conferences have attracted international speakers and participants since 1995. This annual conference, held in Bandera, Texas, USA, addresses a different topic in the biology of aging each year. The venue's intimate setting, relatively remote location, and common areas are ideal for a small conference (80–100 participants, where copious informal intellectual interchange supplements that of the formal sessions. The 2011 meeting, part of an annual series sponsored by the University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, TX, USA, and the Nathan Shock Center of Excellence in the Biology of Aging, addressed the causes of age-associated inflammation and its effect on age-associated diseases.

  6. [Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases by vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M

    1997-04-01

    Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases are surveyed. Patients of poliomyelitis has recently been drastically reduced by world-wide administrating live vaccines. In view of rare incidence of paralysis after giving live vaccine, adoption of inactivated vaccine has recently been reconsidered. A live varicella vaccine was developed and has been world-wide used for normal and high-risk children. Incidence of zoster in vaccinated acute leukemic children is several times higher in those who with rash after vaccination as compared with those without rash, and as no or few rash appears after vaccination of normal children, it is expected that vaccination of normal children would lead to reduction of zoster after their aging. Measles encephalitis has rapidly been reduced by world-wide use of live vaccines. Mouse-brain derived vaccine against Japanese encephalitis(JE) has been used in Asian countries. Development of tissue-culture derived JE vaccine is under way. PMID:9103901

  7. Stem cells: Potential therapy for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    -engineered organs) to restore the functions of damaged or defective tissues and organs and thus to "rejuvenate" the failing aging body. One of the most important sources for cellular medicine is embryonic and adult (somatic) stem cells (SSCs). One example of SCCs with enormous clinical potential is the mesenchymal......Aging is associated with a progressive failing of tissues and organs of the human body leading to a large number of age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is an emerging clinical discipline that aims to employ cellular medicines (normal cells, ex vivo expanded cells, or tissue...... stem cells (MSCs) that are present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial cells, and probably also neuron-like cells. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, MSCs are among the first...

  8. Does a causal relation between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Nielsen, Claus H;

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a central part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and much attention has been paid to the possible association between atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Periodontal disease is a common inflammatory disease affecting up to 50% of the adult...... population, and during the past two decades much research has focused on a possible association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the existing literature on the association between the two diseases....

  9. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  10. A Report on the Validation of Beryllium Strength Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Derek Elswick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This report discusses work on validating beryllium strength models with flyer plate and Taylor rod experimental data. Strength models are calibrated with Hopkinson bar and quasi-static data. The Hopkinson bar data for beryllium provides strain rates up to about 4000 per second. A limitation of the Hopkinson bar data for beryllium is that it only provides information on strain up to about 0.15. The lack of high strain data at high strain rates makes it difficult to distinguish between various strength model settings. The PTW model has been calibrated many different times over the last 12 years. The lack of high strain data for high strain rates has resulted in these calibrated PTW models for beryllium exhibiting significantly different behavior when extrapolated to high strain. For beryllium, the α parameter of PTW has recently been calibrated to high precision shear modulus data. In the past the α value for beryllium was set based on expert judgment. The new α value for beryllium was used in a calibration of the beryllium PTW model by Sky Sjue. The calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Also, the calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the density changes of the beryllium sample during the Hopkinson bar and quasi-static experiments. In this paper, the calibrated PTW model by Sjue is compared against experimental data and other strength models. The other strength models being considered are a PTW model calibrated by Shuh- Rong Chen and a Steinberg-Guinan type model by John Pedicini. The three strength models are used in a comparison against flyer plate and Taylor rod data. The results show that the Chen PTW model provides better agreement to this data. The Chen PTW model settings have been previously adjusted to provide a better fit to flyer plate data, whereas the Sjue PTW model has not been changed based on flyer plate data. However, the Sjue model provides a reasonable fit to

  11. Relation of anthropometric variables to coronary artery disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra C Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and abdominal volume index (AVI. Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16% males and 103 (83.73% females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.

  12. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers

  13. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  14. Investigation of the glide modes of single crystals of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow characteristics of single crystals of beryllium specially oriented for slip along a single plane and a single direction have been thoroughly investigated. The elastic limit and the strain hardening in basal glide have been investigated in the temperature range (-195 deg. C, 400 deg. C) in tension as well as in compression. Observation of the slip lines and of the dislocation configurations have also been made in addition to the mechanical tests. The prismatic slip has been studied in greater detail: tensile tests have been performed on specimens carefully oriented at different temperatures, strain rates and with varying orientations of the basal and of the prism planes. Tests have also been made in the micro-strain range; the slip lines and the dislocation arrangements were observed in detail. The very unusual variation of the elastic limit with temperature is not due to impurities but to a cross slip mechanism. A model of dislocation locking is proposed to account for the experimental results. This mechanism assumes that the a-bar dislocations may also dissociate on the prism planes [101-bar 0]. Various possible dissociations are suggested, the most probable of which corresponds to the phase transformation: Hexagonal close packed to body centered cubic. This proposal can be extended to account for the relative ease of glide on the different systems in the hexagonal close packed metals. (author)

  15. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  16. Periostin in Skin Tissue Skin-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Yamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, periostin—a matricellular protein—has been highlighted for its pivotal functions in the skin. Analysis of periostin null mice has revealed that periostin contributes to collagen fibrillogenesis, collagen cross-linking, and the formation of ECM meshwork via interactions with other ECM components. Periostin expression is enhanced by mechanical stress or skin injury; this is indicative of the physiologically protective functions of periostin, which promotes wound repair by acting on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Along with its physiological functions, periostin plays pathogenic roles in skin fibrosis and chronic allergic inflammation. In systemic sclerosis (SSc patients, periostin levels reflect the severity of skin fibrosis. Periostin null mice have shown reduced skin fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, indicating a key role of periostin in fibrosis. Moreover, in atopic dermatitis (AD, attenuated AD phenotype has been observed in periostin null mice in a house dust mite extract-induced AD mouse model. Th2 cytokine-induced periostin acts on keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines that further enhance the Th2 response, thereby sustaining and amplifying chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, periostin is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of AD and other inflammation-related disorders affecting the skin. Understanding the dynamic actions of periostin would be key to dissecting pathogenesis of skin-related diseases and to developing novel therapeutic strategies.

  17. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  18. IgG4-related disease: A relatively new concept for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasaitis, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized chronic fibrotic inflammation, which can affect almost every organ, and may come to clinical attention first due to visible organ swelling or organ dysfunction, or is identified incidentally by imaging and specific biopsy. The disorder has an allergic background and is immune-mediated. Up-regulated responses of T helper 2 and T regulatory cells and their cytokines play a major role in disease progression. About 30-50% of patients are atopic or have mild eosinophilia. IgG4-RD predominantly affects middle-aged male patients. The cornerstones of diagnosis of the disease are compatible clinical features and typical histopathology. Swelling of salivary and lacrimal glands, lymphadenopathy, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) are the most common manifestations of the disease. However, other tissues and organs, such as retroperitoneum, lung, kidney, aorta, upper airways, thyroid gland, meninges, heart, mesenterium and skin may be involved. Typical histopathology is lymphoplasmacytic infiltration abundant in IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform-type fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Elevated serum IgG4 concentration supports the diagnosis. Characteristic imaging features such as a "capsule-like rim" surrounding the pancreatic lesions is highly specific to type 1 AIP. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography enables mapping the sites of inflammation, permits evaluation of the extent of the disease, helps in guiding biopsy decision, and may be used in monitoring response to treatment. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with B-cell depletion with rituximab induces prompt clinical response to IgG4-RD. This article reviews the current understanding, different clinical manifestations, and approaches to diagnosis and treatment of IgG4-RD. PMID:26481243

  19. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful [Department of Physical Sciences, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) Dhaka (Bangladesh); Halder, Amal [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-05-15

    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.

  20. Measurement of the ultracold neutron loss coefficient in beryllium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultracold neutron (UCN) reflection from beryllium powder at different slab thicknesses and different packing densities is measured. The reduced UCN loss coefficient η=(1.75±0.35)x10-4 for thermally untreated beryllium is extracted from experimental data. The formerly obtained experimental results on UCN reflection from beryllium after high temperature annealing are reconsidered. The loss coefficient η at room temperature in this case is obtained to be (6.4±2.5)x10-5, which is an order of magnitude higher than the theoretical one. The extraction of the loss coefficient from the experimental data is based on the modified diffusion theory where albedo reflection depends on packing density

  1. Field-emission spectroscopy of beryllium atoms adsorbed on tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyzewski, J.J.; Grzesiak, W.; Krajniak, J. (Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland))

    1981-01-01

    Field emission energy distributions (FEED) have been measured for the beryllium-tungsten (023) adsorption system over the 78-450 K temperature range. A temperature dependence of the normalized half-width, ..delta../d, of FEED peaks changed significantly due to beryllium adsorption; and the curve, ..delta../d vs p, for the Be/W adsorption system was identical in character to the calculated curve based on the free electron model in contrast to the curve for the clean tungsten surface. In the last part of this paper Gadzuk's theory of the resonance-tunneling effect is applied to the beryllium atom on tungsten. Experimental and theoretical curves of the enhancement factor as a function of energy have been discussed.

  2. Force-field parameters for beryllium complexes in amorphous layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanova, Svetlana; Chashchikhin, Vladimir; Bagaturyants, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Unknown force-field parameters for metal organic beryllium complexes used in emitting and electron transporting layers of OLED structures are determined. These parameters can be used for the predictive atomistic simulations of the structure and properties of amorphous organic layers containing beryllium complexes. The parameters are found for the AMBER force field using a relaxed scan procedure and quantum-mechanical DFT calculations of potential energy curves for specific internal (angular) coordinates in a series of three Be complexes (Bebq2; Be(4-mpp)2; Bepp2). The obtained parameters are verified in calculations of some molecular and crystal structures available from either quantum-mechanical DFT calculations or experimental data. Graphical Abstract Beryllium complexes in amorphous layersᅟ. PMID:27550375

  3. Cystatin C Is Not Causally Related to Coronary Artery Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Svensson-Färbom

    Full Text Available Strong and independent associations between plasma concentration of cystatin C and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD suggests causal involvement of cystatin C.The aim of our study was to assess whether there is a causal relationship between plasma concentration of cystatin C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD using a Mendelian Randomization approach.We estimated the strength of association of plasma cystatin C on CAD risk and the strength of association of the strongest GWAS derived cystatin C SNP (rs13038305 on plasma cystatin C in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC and thereafter the association between rs13038305 and CAD in the MDC (3200 cases of CAD and 24418 controls and CARDIOGRAM (22233 cases of CAD and 64762 controls.Each standard deviation (SD increment of plasma cystatin C was associated with increased risk of CAD (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34 after full adjustment. Each copy of the major allele of rs13038305 was associated with 0.34 SD higher plasma concentration of cystatin C (P98% to detect a significant relationship between rs13038305 and CAD in MDC and CARDIOGRAM pooled. The odds ratio for CAD (per copy of the major rs13038305 allele was 1.00 (0.94-1.07; P = 0.92 in MDC, 0.99 (0.96-1.03; P = 0.84 in CARDIOGRAM and 1.00 (0.97-1.03; P = 0.83 in MDC and CARDIOGRAM pooled.Genetic elevation of plasma cystatin C is not related to altered risk of CAD, suggesting that there is no causal relationship between plasma cystatin C and CAD. Rather, the association between cystatin C and CAD appears to be due to the association of eGFR and CAD.

  4. BRONCO: Biomedical entity Relation ONcology COrpus for extracting gene-variant-disease-drug relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyubum; Lee, Sunwon; Park, Sungjoon; Kim, Sunkyu; Kim, Suhkyung; Choi, Kwanghun; Tan, Aik Choon; Kang, Jaewoo

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of genomic variants in a biological context is key for precision medicine. As next-generation sequencing technologies improve, the amount of literature containing genomic variant data, such as new functions or related phenotypes, rapidly increases. Because numerous articles are published every day, it is almost impossible to manually curate all the variant information from the literature. Many researchers focus on creating an improved automated biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) method that extracts useful variants and their functional information from the literature. However, there is no gold-standard data set that contains texts annotated with variants and their related functions. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a Biomedical entity Relation ONcology COrpus (BRONCO) that contains more than 400 variants and their relations with genes, diseases, drugs and cell lines in the context of cancer and anti-tumor drug screening research. The variants and their relations were manually extracted from 108 full-text articles. BRONCO can be utilized to evaluate and train new methods used for extracting biomedical entity relations from full-text publications, and thus be a valuable resource to the biomedical text mining research community. Using BRONCO, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the performance of three state-of-the-art BioNLP methods. We also identified their shortcomings, and suggested remedies for each method. We implemented post-processing modules for the three BioNLP methods, which improved their performance.Database URL:http://infos.korea.ac.kr/bronco. PMID:27074804

  5. Neutron irradiation behavior of ITER candidate beryllium grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Melder, R.R.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the main candidate materials both for the neutron multiplier in a solid breeding blanket and for the plasma facing components. That is why its behaviour under the typical for fusion reactor loading, in particular, under the neutron irradiation is of a great importance. This paper presents mechanical properties, swelling and microstructure of six beryllium grades (DshG-200, TR-30, TshG-56, TRR, TE-30, TIP-30) fabricated by VNIINM, Russia and also one - (S-65) fabricated by Brush Wellman, USA. The average grain size of the beryllium grades varied from 8 to 25 {mu}m, beryllium oxide content was 0.8-3.2 wt. %, initial tensile strength was 250-680 MPa. All the samples were irradiated in active zone of SM-3 reactor up to the fast neutron fluence (5.5-6.2) {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (2.7-3.0 dpa, helium content up to 1150 appm), E > 0.1 MeV at two temperature ranges: T{sub 1} = 130-180degC and T{sub 2} = 650-700degC. After irradiation at 130-180degC no changes in samples dimensions were revealed. After irradiation at 650-700degC swelling of the materials was found to be in the range 0.1-2.1 %. Beryllium grades TR-30 and TRR, having the smallest grain size and highest beryllium oxide content, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was no more than 0.1 % at 650-700degC and fluence 5.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Tensile and compression test results and microstructure parameters measured before and after irradiation are also presented. (author)

  6. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Pushpa M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, Ivana [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: PROVIDI study-group

    2015-06-01

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  7. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  8. Sources of resistance to diseases of sugar beet in related Beta germplasm: II. Soil-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterbacher, M.C.; Asher, M.J.C.; Beyer, W.; Mandolino, G.; Scholten, O.E.; Frese, L.; Biancardi, E.; Stevanato, P.; Mechelke, W.; Slyvchenko, O.

    2005-01-01

    Between 580 and 700 accessions of related cultivated and wild species of the genus Beta were assessed for resistance to four soil-borne diseases of sugar beet: two seedling damping-off diseases caused by the fungi Aphanomyces cochlioides and Pythium ultimum and two diseases of more mature plants, Rh

  9. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  10. Parkinson's disease rigidity: relation to brain connectivity and motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin eBaradaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1 To determine the brain connectivity pattern associated with clinical rigidity scores in Parkinson's disease (PD and 2 to determine the relation between clinically-assessed rigidity and quantitative metrics of motor performance.Background: Rigidity, the resistance to passive movement, is exacerbated in PD by asking the subject to move the contralateral limb, implying that rigidity involves a distributed brain network. Rigidity mainly affects subjects when they attempt to move; yet the relation between clinical rigidity scores and quantitative aspects of motor performance are unknown.Methods: Ten clinically diagnosed PD patients (off medication and ten controls were recruited to perform an fMRI squeeze-bulb tracking task that included both visually guided and internally guided features. The direct functional connectivity between anatomically defined regions of interest was assessed with Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs. Tracking performance was assessed by fitting Linear Dynamical System (LDS models to the motor performance, and was compared to the clinical rigidity scores. A cross-validated Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO regression method was used to determine the brain connectivity network that best predicted clinical rigidity scores.Results: The damping ratio of the LDS models significantly correlated with clinical rigidity scores (p < 10-4. An fMRI connectivity network in subcortical and primary and premotor cortical regions accurately predicted clinical rigidity scores (p < 10-5. Conclusions: A widely distributed cortical/subcortical network is associated with rigidity observed in PD patients, which reinforces the importance of altered functional connectivity in the pathophysiology of PD. PD subjects with higher rigidity scores tend to have less overshoot in their tracking performance, and damping ratio may represent a robust, quantitative marker of the motoric effects of increasing rigidity.

  11. Health-related quality of life is related to COPD disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rönmark Eva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between health-related quality of life (HRQL and disease severity using lung function measures. Methods A survey was performed in subjects with COPD in Sweden. 168 subjects (70 women, mean age 64.3 years completed the generic HRQL questionnaire, the Short Form 36 (SF-36, the disease-specific HRQL questionnaire; the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, and the utility measure, the EQ-5D. The subjects were divided into four severity groups according to FEV1 per cent of predicted normal using two clinical guidelines: GOLD and BTS. Age, gender, smoking status and socio-economic group were regarded as confounders. Results The COPD severity grades affected the SGRQ Total scores, varying from 25 to 53 (GOLD p = 0.0005 and from 25 to 45 (BTS p = 0.0023. The scores for SF-36 Physical were significantly associated with COPD severity (GOLD p = 0.0059, BTS p = 0.032. No significant association were noticed for the SF-36, Mental Component Summary scores and COPD severity. Scores for EQ-5D VAS varied from 73 to 37 (GOLD I-IV p = 0.0001 and from 73 to 50 (BTS 0-III p = 0.0007. The SGRQ Total score was significant between age groups (p = 0.0047. No significant differences in HRQL with regard to gender, smoking status or socio-economic group were noticed. Conclusion The results show that HRQL in COPD deteriorates with disease severity and with age. These data show a relationship between HRQL and disease severity obtained by lung function.

  12. Autophagic pathways in Parkinson disease and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xilouri, Maria; Stefanis, Leonidas

    2011-01-01

    Macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) are the two main mammalian lysosomal proteolytic systems. In macroautophagy, double-membrane structures engulf organelles and other intracellular constituents through a highly regulated process that involves the formation of autophagic vacuoles and their fusion with lysosomes. In CMA, selected proteins are targeted through a nonvesicular pathway to a transport complex at the lysosomal membrane, through which they are threaded into the lysosomes and degraded. Autophagy is important in development, differentiation, cellular remodelling and survival during nutrient starvation. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagic dysregulation causes accumulation of abnormal proteins or damaged organelles, which is a characteristic of chronic neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Evidence from post-mortem material, transgenic mice, and animal and cellular models of PD suggests that both major autophagic pathways are malfunctioning. Numerous connections exist between proteins genetically linked to autosomal dominant PD, in particular α-synuclein and LRRK2, and autophagic pathways. However, proteins involved in recessive PD, such as PINK1 and Parkin (PINK2), function in the process of mitophagy, whereby damaged mitochondria are selectively engulfed by macroautophagy. This wealth of new data suggests that both autophagic pathways are potential targets for therapeutic intervention in PD and other related neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:21418705

  13. Toxicological and pharmacological concerns on oxidative stress and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh [Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad@TUMS.Ac.Ir [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical are generated as the natural byproduct of normal oxygen metabolism, they can create oxidative damage via interaction with bio-molecules. The role of oxidative stress as a remarkable upstream part is frequently reported in the signaling cascade of inflammation as well as chemo attractant production. Even though hydrogen peroxide can control cell signaling and stimulate cell proliferation at low levels, in higher concentrations it can initiate apoptosis and in very high levels may create necrosis. So far, the role of ROS in cellular damage and death is well documented with implicating in a broad range of degenerative alterations e.g. carcinogenesis, aging and other oxidative stress related diseases (OSRDs). Reversely, it is cleared that antioxidants are potentially able to suppress (at least in part) the immune system and to enhance the normal cellular protective responses to tissue damage. In this review, we aimed to provide insights on diverse OSRDs, which are correlated with the concept of oxidative stress as well as its cellular effects that can be inhibited by antioxidants. Resveratrol, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statins, nebivolol and carvedilol, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, and plant-derived drugs (alone or combined) are the potential medicines that can be used to control OSRD.

  14. Mouse Models of Diabetes, Obesity and Related Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Chen, Hui; Teh, Rachel; McGrath, Rachel T.; Chen, Jason; Pollock, Carol A.; Wong, Muh Geot; Saad, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple rodent models have been used to study diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The purpose of the present study was to compare models of diabetes and obesity-induced metabolic syndrome and determine differences in renal outcomes. C57BL/6 male mice were fed either normal chow or high fat diet (HFD). At postnatal week 8, chow-fed mice were randomly assigned to low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg/day, five consecutive days) or vehicle control, whereas HFD-fed mice were given either one high-dose of STZ (100 mg/kg) or vehicle control. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests were performed at Week 14, 20 and 30. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and serum creatinine were measured, and renal structure was assessed using Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining at Week 32. Results showed that chow-fed mice exposed to five doses of STZ resembled type 1 diabetes mellitus with a lean phenotype, hyperglycaemia, microalbuminuria and increased serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys demonstrated moderate tubular injury with evidence of tubular dilatation and glycogenated nuclear inclusion bodies. HFD-fed mice resembled metabolic syndrome as they were obese with dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and significantly impaired glucose tolerance. One dose STZ, in addition to HFD, did not worsen metabolic features (including fasting glucose, non esterified fatty acid, and triglyceride levels). There were significant increases in urinary ACR and serum creatinine levels, and renal structural changes were predominantly related to interstitial vacuolation and tubular dilatation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:27579698

  15. Mouse Models of Diabetes, Obesity and Related Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glastras, Sarah J; Chen, Hui; Teh, Rachel; McGrath, Rachel T; Chen, Jason; Pollock, Carol A; Wong, Muh Geot; Saad, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple rodent models have been used to study diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The purpose of the present study was to compare models of diabetes and obesity-induced metabolic syndrome and determine differences in renal outcomes. C57BL/6 male mice were fed either normal chow or high fat diet (HFD). At postnatal week 8, chow-fed mice were randomly assigned to low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg/day, five consecutive days) or vehicle control, whereas HFD-fed mice were given either one high-dose of STZ (100 mg/kg) or vehicle control. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests were performed at Week 14, 20 and 30. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and serum creatinine were measured, and renal structure was assessed using Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining at Week 32. Results showed that chow-fed mice exposed to five doses of STZ resembled type 1 diabetes mellitus with a lean phenotype, hyperglycaemia, microalbuminuria and increased serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys demonstrated moderate tubular injury with evidence of tubular dilatation and glycogenated nuclear inclusion bodies. HFD-fed mice resembled metabolic syndrome as they were obese with dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and significantly impaired glucose tolerance. One dose STZ, in addition to HFD, did not worsen metabolic features (including fasting glucose, non esterified fatty acid, and triglyceride levels). There were significant increases in urinary ACR and serum creatinine levels, and renal structural changes were predominantly related to interstitial vacuolation and tubular dilatation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:27579698

  16. Immunosuppression Related to Collagen-Vascular Disease or Its Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Carol Dukes

    2005-01-01

    Collagen-vascular diseases are associated with immune dysregulation and inflammation, leading to tissue destruction or compromise. Immunosuppression is more commonly associated with the drugs used to treat these disorders than with the diseases themselves. The newest agents being used to treat collagen-vascular diseases are the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved TNF-α inhibitors have differing effects on the immune system, reflecting their pot...

  17. Pregnancy-related hemangioblastoma progression and complications in von Hippel-Lindau disease

    OpenAIRE

    Frantzen, C.; Kruizinga, R. C.; van Asselt, S. J.; Zonnenberg, B A; Lenders, J.W.M.; de Herder, W W; Walenkamp, A M E; Giles, R. H.; Hes, F. J.; Sluiter, W.J.; van Pampus, M G; Links, T. P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We studied the reciprocal effect of pregnancy and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease by analyzing the influence of pregnancy on VHL disease-related lesions and VHL disease on pregnancy outcome. Methods: Medical charts and imaging reports from the VHL disease expertise centers in the Netherlands were used to retrospectively assess lesion progression score before and after pregnancy and to obtain data on pregnancy outcome and VHL disease-related lesions. The Friedman test was used for a...

  18. Compensation for work-related hematologic, liver, and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Won; Kang, Dong-Mug

    2014-06-01

    Occupational diseases may be defined only medically or scientifically, and even then, their definition is not simple. However, compensable occupational diseases involve the additional layer of legal systems and social welfare policies as well. Their multifaceted nature makes determining the work-relatedness of these diseases more complex. Korea has established standards for the recognition of occupational diseases in Schedule 5 of the Enforcement Decree of the Labor Standards Act, and specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases are listed in Schedule 3 of the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. The new list of compensable occupational diseases comprises 13 articles as an open-ended system. The newly added articles pertain to lymphohematopoietic (Article 5) and infectious diseases (Article 9), as well as diseases of other target organs. Furthermore, the article on liver diseases (Article 8) has been partially revised. The new act has been changed to clarify the meaning as it has been presented in recent research. It is necessary to achieve agreement among concerned parties, including experts from the legal, medical, and social domains to resolve the issues of work-relatedness, causation, notion of aggravation, and so on for preparing a list and a process that are more reasonable.

  19. Copper metabolism after living related liver transplantation for Wilson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Hao Wang; Feng Cheng; Feng Zhang; Xiang-Cheng Li; Jian-Ming Qian; Lian-Bao Kong; Hao Zhang; Guo-Qiang Li

    2003-01-01

    AlM: Liver transplantation is indicated for Wilson's disease(WD) patients with the fulminant form and end-stage liverfailure. The aim of this study was to review our experiencewith living-related liver transplantation (LRLT) for WD.METHODS: A retrospective review was made for WDundergoing LRLT at our hospital from January 2001 toFebuary 2003.RESULTS: LRLT was carried out in 15 patients with WD,one of them had fulminant hepatic failure and the others had end-stage hepatic insufficiency. The mean age of the patients was 14.5±2.5 years (range 6 to 20 years). All the recipients had low serum ceruloplasmin levels with a mean value of 126.8±34t.8 mg/L before transplantation. The serum ceruloplasmin levels increased to an average of 238.6±34.4mg/L after LRLT at the latest evaluation, between 2 and 27months after transplantation. A marked reduction in urinary copper excretion was observed in all the recipients after transplantation. Among the eight recipients with preoperative Kayser-Fleischer (K-F) rings, this abnormality resolved completely after LRLT in five patients and partially in three.All the recipients are alive and remain well, and none has developed signs of recurrent WD after a mean follow-up period of 15.4±9.3 months (range 2-27 months) except one who died of severe rejection. The donors were 14t mothers and 1 father. The serum ceruloplasmin levels were within normal limits in all the donors (mean: 220±22.4 mg/L). The mean donor age was 35.0±4.0 years (range, 30 to 45 years).Two donors had biliary leakage and required reoperation.Grafts were harvested as follows: four right lobe grafts without hepatic middle vein and eleven left lobe grafts with hepatic middle vein. The grafts were blood group-compatible in all recibents. Two patients had hepatic artery thrombosis and underwent retransplantation.CONCLUSION: LRLT is a curative procedure in Wilson's disease manifested as fulminant hepatic failure and/or endstage hepatic insufficiency. After liver

  20. Could carnosine or related structures suppress Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2007-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, copper and zinc ions, glycating agents and reactive aldehydes, protein cross-linking and proteolytic dysfunction may all contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally-occurring, pluripotent, homeostatic agent. The olfactory lobe is normally enriched in carnosine and zinc. Loss of olfactory function and oxidative damage to olfactory tissue are early symptoms of AD. Amyloid peptide aggregates in AD brain are enriched in zinc ions. Carnosine can chelate zinc ions. Protein oxidation and glycation are integral components of the AD pathophysiology. Carnosine can suppress amyloid-beta peptide toxicity, inhibit production of oxygen free-radicals, scavenge hydroxyl radicals and reactive aldehydes, and suppresses protein glycation. Glycated protein accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients. Homocarnosine levels in human CSF dramatically decline with age. CSF composition and turnover is controlled by the choroid plexus which possesses a specific transporter for carnosine and homocarnosine. Carnosine reacts with protein carbonyls and suppress the reactivity of glycated proteins. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity is diminished in AD patient brains. Administration of CA activators improves learning in animals. Carnosine is a CA activator. Protein cross-links (gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-amino) are present in neurofibrillary tangles in AD brain. gamma-Glutamyl-carnosine has been isolated from biological tissue. Carnosine stimulates vimentin expression in cultured human fibroblasts. The protease oxidised-protein-hydrolase is co-expressed with vimentin. Carnosine stimulates proteolysis in cultured myocytes and senescent cultured fibroblasts. These observations suggest that carnosine and related structures should be explored for therapeutic potential towards AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:17522447

  1. Some features of beryllium corrosion behavior in Be-liquid Li-V-4Ti-4Cr alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental results on beryllium corrosion behavior in a V-4Ti-4Cr alloy, liquid lithium static system during testing for 200-500 h at temperatures from 600 to 800 deg. C are presented. The influence of test conditions (temperature, duration and lithium purity) and beryllium characteristics (microstructure, grain size and chemical composition) on weight loss of beryllium and penetration of lithium into beryllium are discussed. Results of compressive tests for beryllium specimens before and after corrosion testing are also introduced

  2. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: michael.klimenkov@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  3. Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent

    2005-03-09

    This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

  4. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.

    2014-12-01

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  5. Codeposition of deuterium ions with beryllium oxide at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Markin, A V; Gorodetsky, A E; Negodaev, M A; Rozhanskii, N V; Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H; Wu, C H; Zalavutdinov, R K; Zakharov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-loaded BeO films were produced by sputtering the beryllium target with 10 keV Ne ions in D sub 2 gas at a pressure of approximately 1 Pa. The sputtered beryllium reacts - on the substrate surface - with the residual oxygen, thus forming a beryllium oxide layer. Biasing the substrate negatively with respect to the target provides the simultaneous bombardment of the growing film surface with D ions formed by Ne-D sub 2 collisions. Substrate potential governs the maximum energy of ions striking the growing film surface while its size governs the flux density. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data, the beryllium is deposited in the form of polycrystalline hcp-BeO layers with negligible (about 1 at.%) carbon and neon retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data shows a strong deuterium bonding, with a desorption peak at 950 K, in the films deposited at -50 and -400 V substrate potentia...

  6. Beryllium abundances in stars with planets:Extending the sample

    CERN Document Server

    Gálvez-Ortiz, M C; Hernández, J I González; Israelian, G; Santos, N C; Rebolo, R; Ecuvillon, A

    2011-01-01

    Context: Chemical abundances of light elements as beryllium in planet-host stars allow us to study the planet formation scenarios and/or investigate possible surface pollution processes. Aims: We present here an extension of previous beryllium abundance studies. The complete sample consists of 70 stars hosting planets and 30 stars without known planetary companions. The aim of this paper is to further assess the trends found in previous studies with less number of objects. This will provide more information on the processes of depletion and mixing of light elements in the interior of late type stars, and will provide possible explanations for the abundance differences between stars that host planets and "single" stars. Methods: Using high resolution UVES spectra, we measure beryllium abundances of 26 stars that host planets and 1 "single" star mainly using the \\lambda 3131.065 A Be II line, by fitting synthetic spectra to the observational data. We also compile beryllium abundance measurements of 44 stars hos...

  7. Fluorometric determination of beryllium with 2-(o-hydroxylphenyl)benzoxazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladilovich, D.B.; Stolyarov, K.P.

    1985-09-01

    According to the authors, of great interest for the fluorometric determination of small quantities of beryllium is 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzthiazole (HPBT). In this work, 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzoaxzole (HPBO), which is an analog of HPBT and differs from it in that the sulfur atom in the heterocyclic portion of the molecule is replaced by an oxygen atom, is proposed as a reagent for the fluorometric determination of beryllium. The fluorescent reaction of HPBO with beryllium is studied in this paper, in addition to the selection of the optimum conditions for the determination and the development of a procedure for the analysis of complex objects on this basis. The reaction proceeds in aqueous ethanol medium at pH 7.2-7.5. The limit of detection is 0.6 ng/ml. Methods have been developed for the determination of 10/sup -2/% beryllium in alloys based on copper and 10/sup -3/-10/sup -4/% in standard samples of silicate rocks.

  8. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were...

  9. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001-10 gave the greatest match (45.9% for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991-2000. Years 1971-80 and 1981-90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951-1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential.

  10. Extraction of lead and beryllium from a firing site soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) program is being implemented at LANL to conduct tests for evaluating the stability of the nation's aging nuclear stockpile. In order to reduce impact on the environment, containment of the non-fissile explosives tests is being phased in. The resulting shot debris can contain a mix of depleted uranium, lead, and beryllium. We are developing a treatment scheme to separate the radioactive and RCRA-hazardous components in order to recover the uranium, re-use some materials in future shots, and minimize waste for disposal. Our experience using a proprietary water soluble polymer to extract lead from contaminated soil to below TCLP levels has been extended to a surrogate soil from an open-air firing site that contains both lead and beryllium. Results for lead removal from this soil by dendrimers and molecular chelators will also be shown. Because of the potentially severe inhalation hazard associated with beryllium, the fate of this metal in our treatment scheme has been investigated, as well as extraction of beryllium using a variety of chemical agents

  11. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.; Wiechers, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  12. Pregnancy-related hemangioblastoma progression and complications in von Hippel-Lindau disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzen, Carlijn; Kruizinga, Roeliene C.; van Asselt, Sophie J.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; Giles, Rachel H.; Hes, Frederik J.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van Pampus, Marielle G.; Links, Thera P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We studied the reciprocal effect of pregnancy and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease by analyzing the influence of pregnancy on VHL disease-related lesions and VHL disease on pregnancy outcome. Methods: Medical charts and imaging reports from the VHL disease expertise centers in the Netherla

  13. Pregnancy-related hemangioblastoma progression and complications in von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzen, C.; Kruizinga, R.C.; Asselt, S.J. van; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Herder, W.W. de; Walenkamp, A.M.; Giles, R.H.; Hes, F.J.; Sluiter, W.J.; Pampus, M.G. van; Links, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied the reciprocal effect of pregnancy and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease by analyzing the influence of pregnancy on VHL disease-related lesions and VHL disease on pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Medical charts and imaging reports from the VHL disease expertise centers in the Netherla

  14. Cost-of-illness and disease burden of food-related pathogens in the Netherlands, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, Marie Josée J; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Kortbeek, Laetitia M.; Tariq, Luqman; Wilson, Margaret; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2015-01-01

    To inform risk management decisions on control and prevention of food-related disease, both the disease burden expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) and the cost-of-illness of food-related pathogens are estimated and presented. Disease burden of fourteen pathogens that can be transmitte

  15. Visible Age-Related Signs and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is 1 of the most common age-related diseases, and also 1 of the most common causes of death in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that visible age-related signs associate with risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and de...

  16. Paget's Disease of Bone and Osteoarthritis: Different Yet Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain relief techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture and nutritional supplements. In certain cases, surgery on ... of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIH Office of ...

  17. Appendiceal immunoglobulin G4-related disease mimicking appendiceal tumor or appendicitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Won Kyung; Chung, Dong Jin [Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is an autoimmune disease that forms tumorous lesions. Several cases involving various organs are reported, however, IgG4-related disease involving appendix has not been reported yet. In this report, we presented a case of IgG4-related disease of appendix, which raised a suspicion of appendiceal tumor or usual appendicitis and, therefore, led to unnecessary surgical resection. IgG4-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a mass-like swelling of the appendix, in order to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  18. Mitochondria Are Related to Synaptic Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Baloyannis, Stavros J.

    2011-01-01

    Morphological alterations of mitochondria may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, been associated with oxidative stress and A β -peptide-induced toxicity. We proceeded to estimation of mitochondria on electron micrographs of autopsy specimens of Alzheimer's disease. We found substantial morphological and morphometric changes of the mitochondria in the neurons of the hippocampus, the neocortex, the cerebellar cortex, the thalamus, the globus pallidus, the red nuc...

  19. Vaccines and Photodynamic Therapies for Oral Microbial-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The mouth is a favorable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Microbial composition of dental plaque is the usual cause of various oral diseases in humans, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. In general, oral antibacterial agents such as antibiotics are commonly used to treat oral bacterial infection. Traditional periodontal surgery is painful and time-consuming. In addition, bacterial resistance and toxicity of antibiotics have become a global pandemic and unavoid...

  20. Dietary Approaches that Delay Age-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Arthur V.; Hilmer, Sarah N.; Jennie C. Brand-Miller; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S.; Morris, Brian J.; Le Couteur, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2–15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energ...

  1. Chronic liver disease related mortality pattern in northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the mortality pattern pertaining to chronic liver disease (CLD) in Northern Pakistan. Results: There were a total of 8529 admissions in twelve months period from August 2001 to July 2002. There were 283 (3.31%) total deaths. Out of these, 160 deaths were pertaining to medical causes. Out of these medical cases, 33 (20.6%) patients had died of chronic liver disease. Other major causes of death were cerebro-vascular accident (18.7%), malignancy (18.1%) and acute myocardial infarction (10.6%). Out of 33 patients of CLD, 12 (36%) presented with acute gastrointestinal (Gl) bleeding, 9(27%) presented with Ascites and 6(18%) presented with altered mental status due to hepatic encephalopathy. Rest of them had jaundice and fever as their initial presentation. Out of these 33 patients with CLD, 23 (70%) had hepatitis C virus (HCV) as cause of their liver disease, 4 (12%) had hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, 3(9%) had both hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections and 3 (9%) had no known cause of their chronic liver disease. Conclusion: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of mortality in this part of Pakistan at a tertiary care hospital. HCV infection is the main cause of chronic liver disease followed by either HBV or a combination of these viruses. Major manifestations of CLD have been gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic failure and portal hypertension.(author)

  2. Quality of life related to swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Danielle; das Graças Wanderley de Sales Coriolano, Maria; Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; de Marcos Rabelo, Aneide Rocha; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-10-01

    Swallowing difficulties in Parkinson's disease can result in decreased quality of life. The swallowing quality of life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) is an instrument for specifically assessing quality of life with respect to swallowing, which has been little explored in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life with respect to swallowing in persons with PD compared to controls and at several stages of the disease using the SWAL-QOL. The experimental group was composed of 62 persons with PD at stages 1-4. Forty-one age-matched healthy subjects constituted the control group. The SWAL-QOL scores were significantly lower for the patients with PD than for the controls in all SWAL-QOL domains. Eating duration had the largest difference in score between persons with PD and the controls and the lowest mean score, followed by communication, fatigue, fear, sleep, and food selection. The scores of most domains were lower at later stages of the disease. The scores for eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep were significantly lower at stage 4 than stages 1 and 2. In conclusion, patients with PD have significantly lower scores in all domains of the SWAL-QOL than normal controls. This means swallowing difficulties occurring in patients with PD negatively affect their QOL. Progression of the disease worsens swallowing QOL, more specifically in the domains of eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep. This occurs mostly at later stages of the disease.

  3. Granulomatous disease associated with pulmonary deposition of titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redline, S; Barna, B P; Tomashefski, J F; Abraham, J L

    1986-10-01

    A patient presented with granulomatous lung disease associated with the pulmonary deposition of various metallic particles. To evaluate the relation between the metallic dust and the granulomatous process, lymphocyte transformation tests to aluminium sulphate, titanium chloride, beryllium sulphate, and nickel sulphate were performed. A lymphocyte proliferative response to titanium chloride was observed on two separate occasions; no responses to the other metals were shown. These results are consistent with hypersensitivity to titanium, and suggest, in this individual, a possible aetiological role between the inhalation of titanium and a granulomatous disease process.

  4. 38 CFR 3.307 - Presumptive service connection for chronic, tropical or prisoner-of-war related disease, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... connection for chronic, tropical or prisoner-of-war related disease, or disease associated with exposure to... connection for chronic, tropical or prisoner-of-war related disease, or disease associated with exposure to..., tropical, prisoner of war related disease, or a disease associated with exposure to certain...

  5. Distal arterial occlusive disease in diabetes is related to medial arterial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Lee, K M; Jungblut, R

    1997-01-01

    In diabetes mellitus, peripheral arterial occlusive disease predominantly affects the lower leg (tibial and peroneal vessel disease). Our study suggests that this feature is related to the presence of forefoot medial arterial calcification.

  6. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Infectious Diseases Veterans who were deployed to Southwest Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later ...

  7. A comparison of XEDS and EELS with the use of conventional beryllium window and windowless Si(Li) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for light-element identification is now a well-established technique. Although not a new concept, modified Si(Li) detectors with the conventional beryllium window replaced by a ultra-thin aluminum-coated parylene window (UTW), or with the beryllium completely removed for windowless (WL) operation, have now become routinely available. Since both systems can now be easily interfaced to modern analytical electron microscopes (AEMs) it becomes relevant to determine experimentally the relative merits of the two different techniques for light-element identification and subsequent quantification in both simple systems and complex materials problems, such as precipitate identification in multicomponent alloys. In this preliminary study, the authors have systematically studied the relationship between EELS and XEDS (using a WL detector) for elements ranging from lithium through gallium, with the exception of neon and argon, as well as typical problems in precipitate analysis in thermally aged 316 stainless steel specimens

  8. Cardiovascular disease relates to intestinal uptake of p-cresol in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Poesen, Ruben; Viaene, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Kristin; Augustijns, Patrick; Bammens, Bert; Claes, Kathleen; Kuypers, Dirk; Evenepoel, Pieter; Meijers, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) associates with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. PCS concentrations are determined by intestinal uptake of p-cresol, human metabolism to PCS and renal clearance. Whether intestinal uptake of p-cresol itself is directly associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with renal dysfunction has not been studied to date. Methods We performed a prospective study in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 1 – 5 (NCT004416...

  9. Erdheim-Chester Disease as a Mimic of IgG4-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfreda, Davide; Musetti, Claudio; Nicastro, Maria; Maritati, Federica; Cobelli, Rocco; Corradi, Domenico; Vaglio, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Immunoglobulin-G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4RD) is a fibro-inflammatory disorder characterized by tissue-infiltrating IgG4+ plasma cells, and, often, high serum IgG4. Several autoimmune, infectious, or proliferative conditions mimic IgG4RD. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, characterized by foamy histiocytic infiltration, fibrosis, and chronic inflammation. ECD and IgG4RD manifestations may overlap. A patient presented with huge fibrous retroperitoneal masses causing compression on neighboring structures; the case posed the challenge of the differential diagnosis between IgG4RD and ECD mainly because of a prominent serum and tissue IgG4 response. Retroperitoneal biopsy led to the diagnosis of ECD; the V600E BRAF mutation was found. Treatment with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib was started. Treatment failed to induce mass regression and the patient died after 3 months of therapy. Prompted by this case, we examined serum and tissue IgG4 in a series of 15 ECD patients evaluated at our center, and found that approximately one-fourth of the cases have increased IgG4 in the serum and often in the tissue. The differential diagnosis between IgG4RD and ECD can be challenging, as some ECD patients have prominent IgG4 responses. This suggests the possibility of common pathogenic mechanisms between ECD and IgG4RD. PMID:27227923

  10. What determines age-related disease: do we know all the right questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Juckett, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The average human lifespan has increased throughout the last century due to the mitigation of many infectious diseases. More people now die of age-related diseases than ever before, but these diseases have been resistant to elimination. Progress has been made in treatments and preventative measures to delay the onsets of these diseases, but most cancers and vascular diseases are still with us and they kill about the same fraction of the population year after year. For example, US Caucasian fe...

  11. Effective gene therapy in an authentic model of Tay-Sachs-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Cachón-González, M Begoña; Wang, Susan Z.; Lynch, Andrew; Ziegler, Robin; Cheng, Seng H.; Cox, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is a prototypic neurodegenerative disease. Lysosomal storage of GM2 ganglioside in Tay-Sachs and the related disorder, Sandhoff disease, is caused by deficiency of β-hexosaminidase A, a heterodimeric protein. Tay-Sachs-related diseases (GM2 gangliosidoses) are incurable, but gene therapy has the potential for widespread correction of the underlying lysosomal defect by means of the secretion-recapture cellular pathway for enzymatic complementation. Sandhoff mice, lacking the ...

  12. Quality Control System of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Related Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Chao WU; Zhong-Qin LIANG; Zheng-Hong QIN

    2006-01-01

    The quality control (QC) system of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important monitoring mechanism in the protein maturation process, which ensures export of properly folded proteins from the ER.Incorrectly or incompletely folded proteins are retained in the ER for refolding or degradation by the ER-residing proteasome. The calnexin/calreticulin cycle and ER-associated degradation are the key elements in QC. These two mechanisms work together to allow incorrectly folded proteins have additional opportunities to achieve their native conformations. The QC dysfunction is involved in many diseases caused by mutant proteins, many of which are causes of neurodegenerative disorders. A better understanding of molecular regulation in the QC system will uncover the molecular pathogenic mechanisms of many diseases caused by protein misfolding and help discover novel strategies for preventing or treating these diseases.

  13. Nuclear and related techniques in the control of communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has a programme component entitled ''Nuclear Techniques in Communicable Diseases'', the aims of which are to encourage research in the development of new methods of controlling communicable diseases and to transfer the technology to institutes in endemic regions. Implementation of the programme component includes information exchange through publications, symposiums and seminars. The two most recent seminars were held in Bombay in November 1988 and Belo Horizonte in November 1989, and a selection of the papers presented have been published in this Technical Document. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Disease related tissue damage and subsequent changes in fillet structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fish meat quality is influenced by many biological and physical factors like e.g. rearing, feeding, slaughtering, processing and storage. Observations from practical fish farming indicate that infections in e.g. salmon caused by Moritella viscosus or Pancreas Disease (PD) results in downgrading...... of the fish and subsequent a reduction in price. Despite this, the impact of infectious diseases on the meat quality and the mechanisms behind are poorly investigated. Wound repair is a dynamic, interactive response to tissue injury that involves a complex interaction and cross talk of various cell types...

  15. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces; Untersuchung des ternaeren Systems Beryllium-Kohlenstoff-Wolfram und Betrachtungen von Beryllium auf Kohlenstoffoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-05-25

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be{sub 2}C island formation for T{>=}770 K. At high temperatures (T{>=}1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be{sub 2}W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be{sub 2}W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be{sub 2}C, W{sub 2}C, WC and Be{sub 2}W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be{sub 2}C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures

  16. Plasma YKL-40 in relation to the degree of coronary artery disease in patients with stable ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders B; Harutjunjan, Marina; Jørgensen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    YKL-40 is a glycoprotein secreted by macrophages and neutrophils in tissues with inflammation. Plasma YKL-40 is increased in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Furthermore, plasma YKL-40 seems related to the number of diseased...

  17. [Improving system of prevention and rehabilitation for asbestos-related broncho-pulmonary diseases in workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To improve a system of prevention and rehabilitation for broncho-pulmonary diseases among workers engaged into extraction and utilization of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified major criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to asbestos-containing dust, with definition of risk groups for broncho-pulmonary diseases. The authors formulated main concepts of prevention and rehabilitation for asbestos-related pulmonary diseases in workers engaged into asbestos industry. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed to prevention and liquidation of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:21789804

  18. Sickle Cell Disease Pain: Relation of Coping Strategies to Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Karen M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined pain coping strategies in 79 adult sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Results revealed that coping strategies factors were important predictors of pain and adjustment. Subjects high on Negative Thinking and Passive Adherence had more severe pain, were less active and more distressed, and used more health services. Individuals high on…

  19. Stem cells and neurogenesis in relation to Alzheimer's disease Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Lucassen; E.H. Jacobs; L. Hoeijmakers; S.L. Lesuis; H. Krugers; A. Korosi; H.G. Kuhn; K. Boekhoorn

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder associated with progressive cognitive decline and extensive neuropathology throughout the brain. Its main features include limited cell loss in selected subregions, generalized brain atrophy, and gradual accumulation of β-amyloid p

  20. Are Alzheimer’s disease, hypertension, and cerebrocapillary damage related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, Eszter; Vos, Rob A.I. de; Jansen Steur, Ernst N.H.; Luiten, Paul G.M.

    2000-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients are often subject to vascular dysfunction besides their specific CNS pathology, which warrants further examination of the interaction between vascular factors and the development of dementia. The association of decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) or hypertension wit

  1. Are Alzheimer's disease, hypertension, and cerebrocapillary damage related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, E; De Vos, RAI; Steur, ENHJ; Luiten, PGM

    2000-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are often subject to vascular dysfunction besides their specific CNS pathology, which warrants further examination of the interaction between vascular factors and the development of dementia. The association of decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) or hypertension wit

  2. Lipid-related markers and cardiovascular disease prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Pennells, Lisa;

    2012-01-01

    The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated.......The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated....

  3. Assessment of health-related quality of life and related factors in patients with chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Paula de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing health-related quality of life is an important aspect of clinical practice. Thus, the present study attempts to assess the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 133 chronic liver disease patients, using three instruments: a demographic questionnaire, the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease index. Variables were expressed as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations. The statistical analysis included Pearson's correlation, Student's t-test, and analysis of variance (p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The mean age of included subjects was 50.5 ± 13.3 years. The majority were male (66.2%, Caucasian (70.7%, and had a family income of US$329-US$658.2. Over half of the patients (56.4% were infected by hepatitis C virus and 93.2% had low Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was related to age (r = 0.185;p = 0.033. Higher mean Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores were obtained for emotional function (39.70/SD ± 12.98 and while lower scores were obtained for abdominal symptoms (16.00/SD ± 6.25. Fifty-two patients (39.1% presented overall low (<5 Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores. Furthermore, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire score was related to family income (r = 0.187, p = 0.031. CONCLUSION: Most individuals presented high mean Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores, indicating low health-related quality of life, especially individuals with low family income.

  4. [Various lipoprotein fractions and their relation to ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzuoli, V; Mondillo, S; Kristodhullu, A; De Stefano, R; Amatucci, G

    1983-01-01

    In a study carried out on over 700 patients with three different manifestations of aterosclerosis (cerebrovascular, coronary and peripheral), we could not find any statistically significant difference between the total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in these three groups. Also, there was o difference in cholesterol and triglyceride levels between these three groups and 200 normal subjects. The same held true when we compared a selected group of 76 patients with ischaemic heart disease who had no other risk factor, with a group of 80 control subjects. On the contrary, when we compared several fractions of serum lipoproteins and the ratios of apolipoprotein A to Apolipoprotein B, LDL Cholesterol to HDL Cholesterol, and total Cholesterol to HDL Cholesterol of the two groups, the differences were statistically significant. We conclude that when other risk factors are excluded, the protein component, rather than the lipid component of the plasma lipoproteins correlates the presence of coronary artery disease.

  5. Adiponectin: Genetic determinants and relations with subclinical cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and premature death in Sweden and globally, which besides the substantial individual suffering, puts large restraints on the public health system. Adiponectin is a highly heritable trait, which is strongly associated with metabolic disturbances such as obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies indicate that adiponectin may play a fundamental role in the development of CVD. However, further knowledge about pathways linking circu...

  6. Reversibility of neuropathology in Tay-Sachs-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachón-González, María-Begoña; Wang, Susan Z; Ziegler, Robin; Cheng, Seng H; Cox, Timothy M

    2014-02-01

    The GM2 gangliosidoses are progressive neurodegenerative disorders due to defects in the lysosomal β-N-acetylhexosaminidase system. Accumulation of β-hexosaminidases A and B substrates is presumed to cause this fatal condition. An authentic mouse model of Sandhoff disease (SD) with pathological characteristics resembling those noted in infantile GM2 gangliosidosis has been described. We have shown that expression of β-hexosaminidase by intracranial delivery of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors to young adult SD mice can prevent many features of the disease and extends lifespan. To investigate the nature of the neurological injury in GM2 gangliosidosis and the extent of its reversibility, we have examined the evolution of disease in the SD mouse; we have moreover explored the effects of gene transfer delivered at key times during the course of the illness. Here we report greatly increased survival only when the therapeutic genes are expressed either before the disease is apparent or during its early manifestations. However, irrespective of when treatment was administered, widespread and abundant expression of β-hexosaminidase with consequent clearance of glycoconjugates, α-synuclein and ubiquitinated proteins, and abrogation of inflammatory responses and neuronal loss was observed. We also show that defects in myelination occur in early life and cannot be easily resolved when treatment is given to the adult brain. These results indicate that there is a limited temporal opportunity in which function and survival can be improved-but regardless of resolution of the cardinal pathological features of GM2 gangliosidosis, a point is reached when functional deterioration and death cannot be prevented. PMID:24057669

  7. Cell adhesion molecules during odontogenesis and tooth-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Heymann, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules play essential roles in the development and disease of tooth and oral structures, as well as in the maintenance of adult tissue structure/function. It has been shown that different types of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play an important part in craniofacial development when ectomesenchymal cells migrate from the neural list to the primitive oral cavity, giving rise to the palatal processes and tooth germs. The role of CAMs in craniofacial developmen...

  8. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases. PMID:26883276

  9. Autophagy is an inflammation-related defensive mechanism against disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joven, Jorge; Guirro, Maria; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Menéndez, Javier A

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response is an energy-intensive process. Consequently, metabolism is closely associated with immune function. The autophagy machinery plays a role in metabolism by providing energy but may also be used to attack invading pathogens (xenophagy). The autophagy machinery may function to protect against not only the threats of infection but also the threats of the host's own response acting on the central immunological tolerance and the negative regulation of innate and inflammatory signaling. The balance between too little and too much autophagy is critical for the survival of immune cells because autophagy is linked to type 2-cell death programmed necrosis and apoptosis. Changes in inflammatory cells are driven by extracellular signals; however, the mechanisms by which cytokines mediate autophagy regulation and govern immune cell function remain unknown. Certain cytokines increase autophagy, whereas others inhibit autophagy. The relationship between autophagy and inflammation is also important in the pathogenesis of metabolic, non-communicable diseases. Inflammation per se is not the cause of obesity-associated diseases, but it is secondary to both the positive energy balance and the specific cellular responses. In metabolic tissues, the suppression of autophagy increases inflammation with the overexpression of cytokines, resulting in an activation of autophagy. The physiological role of these apparently contradictory findings remains uncertain but exemplifies future challenges in the therapeutic modulation of autophagy in the management of disease.

  10. Endocrine manifestations related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantyghem Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are recessive, genetically transmitted diseases and are classified into 3 main groups according to their mechanisms: cellular intoxication, energy deficiency, and defects of complex molecules. They can be associated with endocrine manifestations, which may be complications from a previously diagnosed IEM of childhood onset. More rarely, endocrinopathies can signal an IEM in adulthood, which should be suspected when an endocrine disorder is associated with multisystemic involvement (neurological, muscular, hepatic features, etc.. IEM can affect all glands, but diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism are the most frequent disorders. A single IEM can present with multiple endocrine dysfunctions, especially those involving energy deficiency (respiratory chain defects, and metal (hemochromatosis and storage disorders (cystinosis. Non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter and sometimes hypoparathyroidism should steer the diagnosis towards a respiratory chain defect. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is frequent in haemochromatosis (often associated with diabetes, whereas primary hypogonadism is reported in Alström disease and cystinosis (both associated with diabetes, the latter also with thyroid dysfunction and galactosemia. Hypogonadism is also frequent in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (with adrenal failure, congenital disorders of glycosylation, and Fabry and glycogen storage diseases (along with thyroid dysfunction in the first 3 and diabetes in the last. This is a new and growing field and is not yet very well recognized in adulthood despite its consequences on growth, bone metabolism and fertility. For this reason, physicians managing adult patients should be aware of these diagnoses.

  11. Chemistry characterization and samples beryllium process impurity determination; Caracterizacao quimica e determinacao de impurezas de amostras de processo de berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonel Mathry de

    1992-12-01

    Brazil is the greatest world producer of beryl (3 Be O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.6SiO{sub 2}) and has recently begun to produce beryllium compounds by means of a pilot plant constructed at Governador Valadares city (Minas Gerais - Brazil). The aim of this work was the determination of trace level impurities and macro constituents in the tenth % range to support analytical control process of plant production and characterization of beryllium compounds. The impurities separations and purification process was developed by two steps procedure. The first one using EDTA complexation has separated and reduced some impurities to less than 1 {mu}g/ml level. In the second one it was used a chelating resin (Chelex 100) and the separation efficiency was about 75 to 97 % related with the element tested. High pure berylium oxide standard was obtained from purification of Be(OH)2. The R X fluorescence presented only traces of Cu and Si < 1 % Fe and Mn, Zn, Ca, Al, Na and S were completely removed. The beryllium content was determined by direct atomic emission spectroscopy in argon plasma (Dcp) and compared with classic gravimetric method as Be O. The results were in agreement (49,2+/-0,2 % and 48,3+/-0,1 % respectively) between 95 % of confidence. A low temperature gravimetric method for beryllium determination was also studied using Oxine with microwave furnace. A total of 24 elements including macro and trace level were determined by Dcp and/or spectrophotometric methods. The Be/B separation was studied using anionic resin in poly alcohols medium. A more detailed study of equilibrium conditions is necessary. This work was realized at Laboratorio de Analise Mineral (LAM) of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - Rio de Janeiro (CNEN). (author)

  12. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  13. 5. IEA International workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection includes the abstracts of reports presented to the 5-th IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. The themes of reports are as follows: status of beryllium technology for fusion in Russia; manufacturing and testing of Be armoured first wall mock-up for ITER; development of the process of diffusion welding of metals stainless steel-copper-beryllium into a single composite; some features of beryllium-laser beam interaction; the effect of irradiation dose on tritium and helium release from neutron irradiated beryllium; thermal properties of neutron irradiated Be12Ti. The results of investigating the mechanical properties variation and swelling of beryllium under high temperature neutron irradiation are presented

  14. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (1022 atoms/cm2) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project

  15. Proceedings of the 8th specialist meeting on recycling of irradiated Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the documents presented in the 8th Specialist Meeting on Recycling of Irradiated Beryllium, which was held on October 28, 2013, in Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina, hosted by INVAP and CNEA (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica). The objective of the meeting is to exchange the information of current status and future plan for beryllium study in the Research/Testing reactors, and to make a discussion of “How to cooperate”. There were 20 participants from USA, Japan, Korea, Austria and Argentina. In this meeting, information exchange of current status and future plan for beryllium study was carried out for the Research/Testing reactor fields, and evaluation results of beryllium materials were discussed based on new irradiated beryllium data such as swelling, deformation, gas release and so on. The subject of the used beryllium recycling was also discussed for the enforcement of demonstration recycling tests. (author)

  16. Quantum-chemical approach to cohesive properties of metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations based upon the incremental approach, i.e. an expansion of the correlation energy in terms of one-body, two-body, and higher-order contributions from localized orbital groups, have been performed for metallic beryllium. We apply an embedding scheme which has been successfully applied recently to ground-state properties of magnesium and group 12 elements. This scheme forces localization in metallic-like model systems and allows for a gradual delocalization within the incremental approach. Quantum-chemical methods of the coupled-cluster and multi-reference configuration interaction type are used for evaluating individual increments. Results are given for the cohesive energy and lattice constants of beryllium, and it is shown that further development of the approach is needed for this difficult case

  17. Studies on extraction of beryllium from thiocyanate solutions by quaternary ammonium halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yamani, I S; El-Messieh, E N

    A 0.4M tricaprylmethylammonium chloride solution in n-hexane was used for the quantitative extraction of beryllium from hydrochloric acid (pH 3) and 5M potassium thiocyanate. Beryllium was stripped from the organic phase with 1M sodium hydroxide, then determined volumetrically with bismuthyl perchlorate and bromocresol green indicator. Beryllium was extracted in presence of a large number of elements which are usually associated with it in beryl and in fission products of nuclear fuel.

  18. Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results of that study

  19. Low-energy electronic stopping for boron in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range distribution for 50-keV boron bombarding beryllium was measured by an energetic ion-beam backscattering technique using helium ions. This distribution was compared with the range calculated with computer code EDEP1, with the result k 0.101 ± 0.013 for the electronic-stopping k-value. This value is compared with the results of recent interpolations from measurements of other elements. (author)

  20. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  1. Presence of Beryllium (Be) in urban soils: human health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).

  2. Analysis of features of the deformation of auxetic beryllium

    OpenAIRE

    Гунько, Михаил Николаевич; Олейнич-Лысюк, Алла Васильевна; Раранский, Николай Дмитриевич; Тащук, Александр Юрьевич

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the linear elasticity theory using the experimentally obtained elastic stiffness modules, temperature dependences of the elastic compliance modules and tensor components of Poisson's ratios    of beryllium in a wide range of temperatures and directions in the crystal lattice were calculated, and it was shown that with increasing temperature, the value and signs of Poisson's ratios  change differently in various temperature intervals. In the interval 0-300K,  become negativ...

  3. Beryllium, Lithium and Oxygen Abundances in F-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    García-López, R J; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Casares, C; Rasilla, J L; Rebolo, R; Allende-Prieto, C

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium and oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of F-type field stars for which lithium abundances had been measured previously, with the aim of obtaining observational constraints to discriminate between the different mixing mechanisms proposed. Mixing associated with the transport of angular momentum in the stellar interior and internal gravity waves within the framework of rotating evolutionary models, appear to be promising ways to explain the observations.

  4. Adiponectin, a key adipokine in obesity related liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christa Buechler; Josef Wanninger; Markus Neumeier

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprising hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH),and progressive liver fibrosis is considered the most common liver disease in western countries. Fatty liver is more prevalent in overweight than normal-weight people and liver fat positively correlates with hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatic steatosis is regarded as a benign stage of NAFLD but may progress to NASH in a subgroup of patients. Besides liver biopsy no diagnostic tools to identify patients with NASH are available, and no effective treatment has been established. Visceral obesity is a main risk factor for NAFLD and inappropriate storage of triglycerides in adipocytes and higher concentrations of free fatty acids may add to increased hepatic lipid storage, insulin resistance, and progressive liver damage. Most of the adipose tissue-derived proteins are elevated in obesity and may contribute to systemic inflammation and liver damage. Adiponectin is highly abundant in human serum but its levels are reduced in obesity and are even lower in patients with hepatic steatosis or NASH. Adiponectin antagonizes excess lipid storage in the liver and protects from inflammation and fibrosis. This review aims to give a short survey on NAFLD and the hepatoprotective effects of adiponectin.

  5. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Faust, Alejandra H.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Cross, Raymond K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the contributions of coping and social constraint to disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to examine group differences in disease activity and HRQOL between patients with high versus low anxiety or depression symptoms in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis in which disease activity was measured with either the Harvey-Bradshaw Index or the Simple Clinical Colitis Activit...

  6. Impact of pain on health-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anja; Schirbel; Anne; Reichert; Stephanie; Roll; Daniel; C; Baumgart; Carsten; Büning; Bianca; Wittig; Bertram; Wiedenmann; Axel; Dignass; Andreas; Sturm

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate intensity, localization and cofactors of pain in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis patients in connection with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and disease activity. METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed the responses of 334 patients to a specifically designed questionnairebased on the short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (SIBDQ) and the German pain questionnaire. Pain intensity, HRQOL, Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) and colitis activity index (CAI) were correlated a...

  7. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE OF SHATKRIYAKALA IN RELATION TO NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Janmejaya Samal

    2013-01-01

    Kriyakala, also known as Shatkriyakala, is predominantly a concept of Ayurveda which describes different phases of disease formation in its own unique way. This concept can be comparable with natural history of disease in modern medicine. Though many authorities compare it simply with pathogenesis but a meticulous look will reveal its relation with natural history of disease. A good understanding of natural history of disease helps to frame public health intervention strategies, more speciall...

  8. Detail analysis of fusion neutronics benchmark experiment on beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Chikara, E-mail: konno.chikara@jaea.go.j [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke; Ohnishi, Seiki; Kondo, Keitaro [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Wada, Masayuki [Japan Computer System, Mito-shi, Ibaraki-ken 310-0805 (Japan); Sato, Satoshi [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Our previous analysis of the integral experiments (in situ and TOF experiments) on beryllium with DT neutrons at JAEA/FNS pointed out two problems by using MCNP4C and the latest nuclear data libraries; one was a strange larger neutron peak around 12 MeV appearing in the TOF experiment analysis with JEFF-3.1 and the other was an overestimation on law energy neutrons in the in situ experiment analyses with all the nuclear data libraries. We investigated reasons for these problems in detail. It was found out that the official ACE file MCJEFF3.1 of JEFF-3.1 had an inconsistency with the original JEFF-3.1, which caused the strange larger neutron peak around 12 MeV in the TOF experiment analysis. We also found out that the calculated thermal neutron peak was probably too large in the in situ experiment. On trial we examined influence of the thermal neutron scattering law data of beryllium metal in ENDF/B-VI. The result pointed out that the coherent elastic scattering cross-section data in the thermal neutron scattering law data of beryllium metal were probably too large.

  9. Elastic, micro- and macroplastic properties of polycrystalline beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardashev, B. K.; Kupriyanov, I. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Young's modulus and the internal friction of beryllium polycrystals (size grain from 6 to 60 μm) prepared by the powder metallurgy method have been studied as functions of the amplitude and temperature in the range from 100 to 873 K. The measurements have been performed using the composite piezoelectric vibrator method for longitudinal vibrations at frequencies about 100 kHz. Based on the acoustic measurements, the data have been obtained on the elastic and inelastic (microplastic) properties as functions of vibration stress amplitudes within the limits from 0.2 to 30-60 MPa. The microplastic deformation diagram is shown to become nonlinear at the amplitudes higher than 5 MPa. The beryllium mechanical characteristics (the yield strength σ 0.2, the ultimate strength σ u , and the conventional microscopic yield strength σ y ) obtained with various grain sizes are compared. At room temperature, all the parameters satisfactorily obey the Hall-Petch relationship, although there is no complete similarity. The temperature dependences are quite different, namely: σ 0.2( T) and σ u ( T) decrease monotonically during heating from room temperature to higher temperatures; however, σ y ( T) behaves unusually, and it has a minimum near 400 K. The different levels of stresses and the absence of similarity indicate that the scattering of the ultrasound energy and the formation of a level of the macroscopic flow stresses in beryllium occur on dislocation motion obstacles of different origins.

  10. A diethylhydroxylaminate based mixed lithium/beryllium aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Raphael J.F. [Paris-Lodron Universitaet Salzburg (Austria). Fachbereich fuer Materialwissenschaften und Physik; Jana, Surajit [Asansol Girls College, West-Bengal (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Froehlich, Roland [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Organisch-Chemisches Inst.; Mitzel, Norbert W. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Anorganische Chemie und Strukturchemie

    2015-07-01

    A mixed lithium/beryllium diethylhydroxylaminate compound containing {sup n}butyl beryllium units of total molecular composition {sup n}Be(ONEt{sub 2}){sub 2} [(LiONEt{sub 2}){sup 2} {sup n}BuBeONEt{sub 2}]{sub 2} (1) was isolated from a reaction mixture of {sup n}butyl lithium, N,N-diethylhydroxylamine and BeCl{sub 2} in diethylether/thf. The crystal structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The aggregate is composed of two ladder-type subunits connected in a beryllium-centered distorted tetrahedron of four oxygen atoms. Only the lithium atoms are engaged in coordination with the nitrogen donor atoms. The DFT calculations support the positional occupation determined for Li and Be in the crystal structure. The DFT and the solid-state structure are in excellent agreement, indicating only weak intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Structural details of metal atom coordination are discussed.

  11. Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanafee, J.E. (ed.)

    1988-02-19

    Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (DLC)

  12. Problems and future plan on material development of beryllium in materials testing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been utilized as a moderator and/or reflector in a number of material testing reactors. The attractive nuclear properties of beryllium are its low atomic number, low atomic weight, low parasitic capture cross section for thermal neutrons, readiness to part with one of its own neutrons, and good neutron elastic scattering characteristics. However, it is difficult to reprocess irradiated beryllium because of high induced radioactivity. Disposal has also been difficult because of toxicity issues and special nuclear material controls. In this paper, problems and future plans of beryllium technology are introduced for nuclear reactors. (author)

  13. The impact of beryllium chloride and oxide on sexual function and offspring development in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative study of the action of soluble chloride and difficultly soluble beryllium oxide on sexual cycle in female rats and their conception capability, revealing of embryotoxic and teratogenic effect of these compounds and determination of significance of terms of their impact on pregnant female as well as beryllium capability to penetrate through the placenta and accumulate in the offspring organism have been performed. A great potential danger of impact on animal reproductive function of soluble (chloride) beryllium compounds as compared with low soluble ones (oxide). In the genesis of embryotoxic teratonic effect probably along with beryllium impact on progeny through the maternal organism there occurs its direct impact on the offspring

  14. The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, Michael

    2013-06-03

    At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

  15. Vacuum Brazing of Beryllium Copper Components for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyhurst, C.C.; Cunningham, M.A.

    2002-06-04

    A process for vacuum brazing beryllium copper anode assemblies was required for the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell System, or PEPC, a component for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Initial problems with the joint design and wettability of the beryllium copper drove some minor design changes. Brazing was facilitated by plating the joint surface of the beryllium copper rod with silver 0.0006 inch thick. Individual air sampling during processing and swipe tests of the furnace interior after brazing revealed no traceable levels of beryllium.

  16. Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers

  17. Extreme water-related weather events and waterborne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, K F; Thomas, D Rh; Salmon, R L; Wyn-Jones, A P; Kay, D

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme water-related weather events such as excessive precipitation, floods, and drought. We conducted a systematic review to examine waterborne outbreaks following such events and explored their distribution between the different types of extreme water-related weather events. Four medical and meteorological databases (Medline, Embase, GeoRef, PubMed) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED) were searched, from 1910 to 2010. Eighty-seven waterborne outbreaks involving extreme water-related weather events were identified and included, alongside 235 ProMED reports. Heavy rainfall and flooding were the most common events preceding outbreaks associated with extreme weather and were reported in 55·2% and 52·9% of accounts, respectively. The most common pathogens reported in these outbreaks were Vibrio spp. (21·6%) and Leptospira spp. (12·7%). Outbreaks following extreme water-related weather events were often the result of contamination of the drinking-water supply (53·7%). Differences in reporting of outbreaks were seen between the scientific literature and ProMED. Extreme water-related weather events represent a risk to public health in both developed and developing countries, but impact will be disproportionate and likely to compound existing health disparities.

  18. Mapping Collaborative Relations among Canada's Chronic Disease Prevention Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Hanusaik, Nancy; Maximova, Katerina; Paradis, Gilles; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    In the field of chronic disease prevention (CDP), collaborations between organizations provide a vital framework for intersectoral engagement and exchanges of knowledge, expertise and resources. However, little is known about how the structures of preventive health systems actually articulate with CDP capacity and outcomes. Drawing upon data from the Public Health Organizational Capacity Study - a repeat census of all public health organizations in Canada - we used social network analysis to map and examine interorganizational collaborative relationships in the Canadian preventive health system. The network of relationships obtained through our study shows that provincial boundaries remain a major factor influencing collaborative patterns. Not only are collaborations scarce on the interprovincial level but they are also mostly limited to links with federal and multi-provincial organizations. Given this finding, federal or multi-provincial organizations that occupy central bridging positions in the Canadian CDP collaborative structure should serve as key players for shaping CDP practices in the country. PMID:27585030

  19. Mapping Collaborative Relations among Canada's Chronic Disease Prevention Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Hanusaik, Nancy; Maximova, Katerina; Paradis, Gilles; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    In the field of chronic disease prevention (CDP), collaborations between organizations provide a vital framework for intersectoral engagement and exchanges of knowledge, expertise and resources. However, little is known about how the structures of preventive health systems actually articulate with CDP capacity and outcomes. Drawing upon data from the Public Health Organizational Capacity Study - a repeat census of all public health organizations in Canada - we used social network analysis to map and examine interorganizational collaborative relationships in the Canadian preventive health system. The network of relationships obtained through our study shows that provincial boundaries remain a major factor influencing collaborative patterns. Not only are collaborations scarce on the interprovincial level but they are also mostly limited to links with federal and multi-provincial organizations. Given this finding, federal or multi-provincial organizations that occupy central bridging positions in the Canadian CDP collaborative structure should serve as key players for shaping CDP practices in the country.

  20. Clinical experience with pirfenidone in five patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yukiko; Saito, Takefumi; Fujita, Kazutaka; Tsunoda, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Toru; Takoi, Hiroyuki; Yatagai, Yohei; Rin, Shigen; Sekine, Akimasa; Hayashihara, Kenji; Nei, Takahito; Azuma, Arata

    2014-10-20

    Interstitial lung disease is the most common complication and cause of death among patients with scleroderma. Scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease has usually been treated with cyclophosphamide; however, its effect was evaluated to be modest and long-term administration of this drug is associated with adverse effects. Herein, we report our clinical experience of administering pirfenidone, which is an antifibrotic agent, in five patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease. All patients demonstrated an increase in vital capacity.

  1. Homocysteine Levels in Chronic Gastritis and Other Conditions: Relations to Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Redéen, Stefan; Ryberg, Anna; Petersson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Olle; Nägga, Katarina; Borch, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Background Homocysteine levels in circulation are determined by several factors and hyperhomocysteinemia is reportedly associated with cardiovascular diseases and dementia. The aim of this study is to determine the relation of chronic gastritis and other conditions to homocysteine levels and their relation to incident cardiovascular diseases and dementia. Methods An adult population-based cohort (N = 488) was screened for H. pylori infection, gastro-duodenitis (endoscopic biopsies), disease h...

  2. Molecular mechanisms underlying the potential antiobesity-related diseases effect of cocoa polyphenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, F.; Ismail, A.; Kersten, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension) are the most prevailing nutrition-related issues in the world. An emerging feature of obesity is their relationship with chronic inflammation that begins in white adipose tissue and eventually b

  3. Mechanistically linking age-related diseases and dietary carbohydrate via autophagy and the ubiquitin proteolytic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological data indicate that consuming diets that deliver sugar to the blood rapidly (called high glycemic index, GI) is associated with enhanced risk for age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). These debilities...

  4. Lipid-related markers and cardiovascular disease prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. di Angelantonio (Emanuele); P. Gao (Pei); L. Pennells (Lisa); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); M. Caslake (Muriel); A. Thompson (Alexander); A.S. Butterworth (Adam); S. Sarwar (Sheryar); D. Wormser (David); D. Saleheen; C. Ballantyne (Christie); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Sundstrom (Johan); P.M. Ridker (Paul); D. Nagel (Dorothea); R.F. Gillum (Richard); I. Ford (Ian); P. Ducimetiere (Pierre); S. Kiechl (Stefan); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); G. Assmann (Gerd); R.B. D'Agostino (Ralph); G.R. Dagenais (Gilles R); J.A. Cooper (Jackie); D. Kromhout (Daan); A. Onat (Altan); A. Tipping (Alex); A. Gómez-de-la-Cámara (Agustín); A. Rosengren (Annika); S.E. Sutherland (Susan); J. Gallacher (John); F.G.R. Fowkes (F. Gerald R.); E. Casiglia (Edoardo); A. Hofman (Albert); V. Salomaa (Veikko); E. Barrett-Connor (Elizabeth); R. Clarke (Robert); E. Brunner (Eric); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); L.A. Simons (Leon); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); N.J. Wareham (Nick); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); J. Kauhanen (Jussi); J.T. Salonen; W.J. Howard (William); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); A.M. Wood (Angela); S.G. Thompson (Simon); S.M. Boekholdt (Matthijs); N. Sattar (Naveed); C. Packard (Chris); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J. Danesh (John)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated. Objective: To determine whether adding information on apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein(a), or lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 to to

  5. Sleep-related disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crinion, Sophie J

    2014-02-01

    Sleep may have several negative consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sleep is typically fragmented with diminished slow wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, which likely represents an important contributing factor to daytime symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy. Furthermore, normal physiological adaptations during sleep, which result in mild hypoventilation in normal subjects, are more pronounced in COPD, which can result in clinically important nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea and COPD is also common, principally because of the high prevalence of each disorder, and there is little convincing evidence that one disorder predisposes to the other. Nonetheless, this co-existence, termed the overlap syndrome, typically results in more pronounced nocturnal oxygen desaturation and there is a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in such patients. Management of sleep disorders in patients with COPD should address both sleep quality and disordered gas exchange. Non-invasive pressure support is beneficial in selected cases, particularly during acute exacerbations associated with respiratory failure, and is particularly helpful in patients with the overlap syndrome. There is limited evidence of benefit from pressure support in the chronic setting in COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

  6. Endothelin-converting enzymes and related metalloproteases in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Quinto, Javier; Herdt, Aimee; Eckman, Christopher B; Eckman, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    The efficient clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is essential to modulate levels of the peptide in the brain and to prevent it from accumulating in senile plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology.We and others have shown that failure in Aβ catabolism can produce elevations in Aβ concentration similar to those observed in familial forms of AD. Based on the available evidence, it remains plausible that in late-onset AD, disturbances in the activity of Aβ degrading enzymes could induce Aβ accumulation, and that this increase could result in AD pathology. The following review presents a historical perspective of the parallel discovery of three vasopeptidases (neprilysin and endothelin-converting enzymes-1 and -2) as important Aβ degrading enzymes. The recognition of the role of these vasopeptidases in Aβ degradation, beyond bringing to light a possible explanation of how cardiovascular risk factors may influence AD risk, highlights a possible risk of the use of inhibitors of these enzymes for other clinical indications such as hypertension. We will discuss in detail the experiments conducted to assess the impact of vasopeptidase deficiency (through pharmacological inhibition or genetic mutation) on Aβ accumulation, as well as the cooperative effect of multiple Aβ degrading enzymes to regulate the concentration of the peptide at multiple sites, both intracellular and extracellular, throughout the brain.

  7. Endogenous ouabain in renal Na+ handling and related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Manunta, Paolo; Messaggio, Elisabetta; Casamassima, Nunzia; Gatti, Guido; Carpini, Simona Delli; Zagato, Laura; John M Hamlyn

    2010-01-01

    The Na+ pump and its Endogenous modulator Ouabain (EO) can be considered as an ancestral enzymatic system, conserved among species ranging from Drosophila to humans, related to Na handling. In this review, we examine how EO is linked with vascular function in hypertension and if it impacts the pathogenesis of heart and renal failure. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of endogenous ouabain-linked hypertension involves the sodium pump/sodium–calcium exchanger duet. Biosynthesis of EO occurs in ...

  8. Estimation of Heterogeneity in Diagnostic Parameters of Age-related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia

    2014-08-01

    The heterogeneity of parameters is a ubiquitous biological phenomenon, with critical implications for biological systems functioning in normal and diseased states. We developed a method to estimate the level of objects set heterogeneity with reference to particular parameters and applied it to type II diabetes and heart disease, as examples of age-related systemic dysfunctions. The Friedman test was used to establish the existence of heterogeneity. The Newman-Keuls multiple comparison method was used to determine clusters. The normalized Shannon entropy was used to provide the quantitative evaluation of heterogeneity. There was obtained an estimate for the heterogeneity of the diagnostic parameters in healthy subjects, as well as in heart disease and type II diabetes patients, which was strongly related to their age. With aging, as with the diseases, the level of heterogeneity (entropy) was reduced, indicating a formal analogy between these phenomena. The similarity of the patterns in aging and disease suggested a kind of "early aging" of the diseased subjects, or alternatively a "disease-like" aging process, with reference to these particular parameters. The proposed method and its validation on the chronic age-related disease samples may support a way toward a formal mathematical relation between aging and chronic diseases and a formal definition of aging and disease, as determined by particular heterogeneity (entropy) changes. PMID:25110613

  9. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, Lena K; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment.

  10. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  11. IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis: expanding the morphological spectrum of IgG4 related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment.

  12. Interest of active posturography to detect age-related and early Parkinson's disease-related impairments in mediolateral postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc

    2014-11-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease display impairments of postural control most particularly in active, challenging conditions. The objective of the present study was to analyze early signs of disease-related and also age-related impairments in mediolateral body extension and postural control. Fifty-five participants (18 Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition, 18 healthy elderly control subjects, and 19 young adults) were included in the study. The participants performed a quiet stance task and two active tasks that analyzed the performance in mediolateral body motion: a limit of stability and a rhythmic weight shift task. As expected, the patients displayed significantly lower and slower body displacement (head, neck, lower back, center of pressure) than elderly control subjects when performing the two body excursion tasks. However, the behavioral variability in both tasks was similar between the groups. Under these active conditions, the patients showed significantly lower contribution of the hip postural control mechanisms compared with the elderly control subjects. Overall, the patients seemed to lower their performance in order to prevent a mediolateral postural instability. However, these patients, at an early stage of their disease, were not unstable in quiet stance. Complementarily, elderly control subjects displayed slower body performance than young adults, which therefore showed an additional age-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Overall, the study illustrated markers of age-related and Parkinson's disease impairments in mediolateral postural control that may constrain everyday activities in elderly adults and even more in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  13. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    animals (age &GE; 19 mo). Severe periodontal disease (defined by more than 50% bone loss related to one or more teeth) was not detected in mink aged 7 mo, but affected 15.3% of mink aged 19 mo and 39.6% of mink aged 31 mo. The positive relationship between age and periodontal disease was statistically...... in the mink was related to and possibly caused by destructive periodontal disease. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease between the 2 genotypes and age was found to be the only statistical predictor of poor production results (P < 0.01) in blue mink....

  14. Research funding for addressing tobacco related disease: an analysis of UK investment between 2008 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Mary; Bogdanovica, Ilze; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the UK. However research spending on tobacco related disease, and particularly smoking prevention, is thought to be low. We therefore aimed to assess the relation between tobacco-related research investment and disease burden from 2008 to 2012. Methods: We used the Health Research Classification System to classify UK government and charitable research funding by broad health category and then by tobacco prevention ...

  15. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CELIAC-DISEASE AND RELATIVES OF PATIENTS WITH CELIAC-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; MULDER, CJJ; HEYMANS, HSA

    1993-01-01

    The functional integrity of the small bowel is impaired in coeliac disease. Intestinal permeability, as measured by the sugar absorption test probably reflects this phenomenon. In the sugar absorption test a solution of lactulose and mannitol was given to the fasting patient and the lactulose/mannit

  16. Sphingolipids in High Fat Diet and Obesity-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhwa Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient oversupply associated with a high fat diet (HFD significantly alters cellular metabolism, and specifically including sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingolipids are emerging as bioactive lipids that play key roles in regulating functions, in addition to their traditional roles as membrane structure. HFD enhances de novo sphingolipid synthesis and turnover of sphingolipids via the salvage pathway, resulting in the generation of ceramide, and more specifically long chain ceramide species. Additionally, HFD elevates sphingomyelin and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P levels in several tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and cardiovascular tissues. HFD-stimulated sphingolipid generation contributes to systemic insulin resistance, dysregulated lipid accumulation, and cytokine expression and secretion from skeletal muscle and adipose tissues, exacerbating obesity-related conditions. Furthermore, altered sphingolipid levels, particularly ceramide and sphingomyelin, are involved in obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. In this review, HFD-mediated sphingolipid metabolism and its impact on HFD-induced biology and pathobiology will be discussed.

  17. Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms and Airway Disease in Hairdressers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gourgoulianis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to a number of agents in their workplace that result in respiratory symptoms and changes in pulmonary function.Objective: To evaluate associations between occupational exposure and respiratory function and reported symptoms in a group of hairdressers compared to a control group.Methods: A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and workplace characteristics was completed by 94 hairdressers and 39 age- and sex-matched controls. Spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements were also performed.Results: Hairdressers reported more severe dyspnea (p=0.03 and eye (p=0.001 and throat (p=0.007 irritation, compared to the control group, at the workplace; no differences were noted at home. Lower FEV1/FVC (pConclusion: Worsening of symptoms and pulmonary function at workplace, and alleviating the symptoms at home, indicate that they may be related to occupational exposure.

  18. MicroRNAs in multiple myeloma and related bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marco; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non coding RNAs aberrantly expressed in solid and hematopoietic malignancies where they play a pivotal function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Recent reports have unveiled a central role of miRNAs in multiple myeloma onset and progression and preclinical findings are progressively disclosing their potential therapeutic value as drugs or targets. In this review, we provide the basic insights of miRNA biology and function, showing how these molecules are extensively dysregulated in malignant plasma cells (PC) and related microenvironment, thus favoring clone survival and proliferation. We here describe how these critical activities have recently been evaluated to design miRNA-based therapies against multiple myeloma cells and its surrounding microenvironment. PMID:26734644

  19. Costs in Relation to Disability, Disease Activity, and Health-related Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallman, Johan K; Eriksson, Jonas K; Nilsson, Jan-Åke;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare how costs relate to disability, disease activity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-treated patients with RA in southern Sweden (n = 2341) were monitored 2005-2010. Health Assessment...... Questionnaire (HAQ), 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), and EQ-5D scores were linked to register-derived costs of antirheumatic drugs (excluding anti-TNF agents), patient care, and work loss from 30 days before to 30 days after each visit (n = 13,289). Associations of HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D to healthcare...... (patient care and drugs) and work loss costs (patients

  20. LPS-Stimulated Whole Blood Cytokine Production Is Not Related to Disease Behavior in Patients with Quiescent Crohn's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M T J Broekman

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory disease in which cytokines play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of inflammation. Innate cytokine production is genetically determined and varies largely between individuals; this might impact the severity of inflammation. We aimed to assess whether ex-vivo endotoxin-stimulated levels of cytokines could be associated with disease phenotype.Patients with quiescent CD (Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≤ 4 and negative inflammation markers who were not using immunomodulating drugs or biologicals were eligible. Historical disease characteristics (localization, behavior, number of bowel resections, drug history, extra-intestinal symptoms were extracted from medical records. We measured cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants of lipopolysaccharide (LPS -stimulated whole blood cultures and correlated these with disease characteristics and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In addition, we analyzed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene were related to TNF-α levels.We included 75 patients with CD and 24 healthy controls. Six patients were excluded because of increased inflammation markers resulting in a total of 69 patients. The mean age (SD of patients with CD was 51.2 (12.3 years with a mean (SD disease duration of 24.1 (11.5 years. Disease localization, peri-anal involvement and behavior were not related to LPS-stimulated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 or IL-10 levels. In addition, combination of localization with behavior to differentiate mild from severe disease type showed no significant differences. TNF-α levels were higher in patients with CD (428 pg/ml IQR [267-468] compared to healthy controls (459 pg/ml IQR [364-570], p=0.02. We found no associations between SNPs in the promoter region and TNF-α levels.In this study, innate cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 was not

  1. Endogenous ouabain in renal Na(+) handling and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manunta, Paolo; Messaggio, Elisabetta; Casamassima, Nunzia; Gatti, Guido; Carpini, Simona Delli; Zagato, Laura; Hamlyn, John M

    2010-12-01

    The Na(+) pump and its Endogenous modulator Ouabain (EO) can be considered as an ancestral enzymatic system, conserved among species ranging from Drosophila to humans, related to Na handling. In this review, we examine how EO is linked with vascular function in hypertension and if it impacts the pathogenesis of heart and renal failure. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of endogenous ouabain-linked hypertension involves the sodium pump/sodium-calcium exchanger duet. Biosynthesis of EO occurs in adrenal glands and is under the control of angiotensin II, ACTH and epinephrine. Elevated concentrations of EO and in the sub-nanomolar concentration range were found to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of cardiac and smooth muscle cells. They may have a primary role in the development of cardiac dysfunction and failure. Experimental data suggest that the Na/K-ATPase α(2)-catalytic subunit causes EO-induced vasoconstriction. Finally, maneuvers that promote Na depletion, as diuretic therapy or reduced Na intake, raise the EO levels. Taken together, these findings suggest a key role for EO in body Na homeostasis.

  2. The Rationale for Delaying Aging and the Prevention of Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Barzilai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available [Excerpt] We offer a different approach to delaying or preventing age-related diseases. To understand the necessity for a new approach we have plotted the mortality rates in Israelis in relation to specific age groups and diseases. With the common phenomenon of aging of Western populations it is of utmost importance to follow time-dependent and age-dependent mortality patterns to predict future needs of Western health systems. Age-specific, gender-specific, and cause-of-death-specific mortality rates were extracted from the statistical abstract of Israel1 and include data for the period of 1975–2010; these are presented in Figure 1, separately for men (A and women (B. Detailed age-specific causes of death data were available for the year 2009. Data presented were restricted to 5-year age groups starting at age 50, and for cause-specific mortality to the following age groups: 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, 75–84, and 85+. Causes of mortality were separated into malignant diseases, acute myocardial infarction, other ischemic heart diseases, other forms of heart diseases, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, diseases of kidney, infectious diseases, all external causes, signs/symptoms and ill-defined conditions, and all other diseases. Figure 1 is similar to the one posted on the National Institute of Aging website and similar to data across the industrial world. The striking feature of this graph is that aging is a major log scale risk for most diseases, including the major killers: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s. For example, while aging is a 100-fold risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD according to Figure 1, hypercholesterolemia is known to carry only a three-fold risk for CVD. For each of the mentioned diseases, aging is a log risk greater than the most important known risk factor for that disease.

  3. Clinical and imaging diagnosis of IgG4-related disease in the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IgG4-related disease in the head and neck is a newly recognized multi-organ system disease characterized by elevated serum IgG4, infiltration of numerous IgG4-positive plasma cells, tissue fibrosis, and dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment. IgG4-related disease of the head and neck has some relative characteristics on CT and MRI, which can provide valuable information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and are helpful for the clinical treatment, evaluation of therapeutic effects and prediction of prognosis. (authors)

  4. Tumefactive immunoglobulin G4-related disease involving the dura mater: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ji Hoon; Ko, Yong; Paik, Seoung Sam; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a well-known disorder characterized by an inflammatory reaction with an increase in the number of IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with sclerosis. IgG4-related disease often affects the dura mater with a pattern of diffuse thickening when the central nervous system is involved. However, some nodular dural thickening requires discrimination from tumors because of obviously different treatment options. We report of a case of IgG4-related disease with tumefactive dural involvement.

  5. Impact of Endothelial Microparticles on Coagulation, Inflammation, and Angiogenesis in Age-Related Vascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Markiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial microparticles (EMPs are complex vesicular structures that originate from plasma membranes of activated or apoptotic endothelial cells. EMPs play a significant role in vascular function by altering the processes of inflammation, coagulation, and angiogenesis, and they are key players in the pathogenesis of several vascular diseases. Circulating EMPs are increased in many age-related vascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebral ischemia, and congestive heart failure. Their elevation in plasma has been considered as both a biomarker and bioactive effector of vascular damage and a target for vascular diseases. This review focuses on the pleiotropic roles of EMPs and the mechanisms that trigger their formation, particularly the involvement of decreased estrogen levels, thrombin, and PAI-1 as major factors that induce EMPs in age-related vascular diseases.

  6. Analysis of the KANT experiment on beryllium using TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is an important material in fusion technology for multiplying neutrons in blankets. However, beryllium nuclear data are differently presented in modern nuclear data evaluations. Recent investigations with the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo simulation of the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) demonstrated that beryllium reaction data are the main source of the calculation uncertainties between ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1. To clarify the calculation uncertainties from data libraries on beryllium, in this study TRIPOLI-4 calculations of the Karlsruhe Neutron Transmission (KANT) experiment have been performed by using ENDF/B-VII.0 and new JEFF-3.1.1 data libraries. The KANT Experiment on beryllium has been used to validate neutron transport codes and nuclear data libraries. An elaborated KANT experiment benchmark has been compiled and published in the NEA/SINBAD database and it has been used as reference in the present work. The neutron multiplication in bulk beryllium assemblies was considered with a central D-T neutron source. Neutron leakage spectra through the 5, 10, and 17 cm thick spherical beryllium shells were calculated and five-group partial leakage multiplications were reported and discussed. In general, improved C/E ratios on neutron leakage multiplications have been obtained. Both ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1.1 beryllium data libraries of TRIPOLI-4 are acceptable now for fusion neutronics calculations.

  7. Reduction evaporation of BeO to provide a beryllium metal sample for accelerator radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described for preparing beryllium metal samples from beryllium oxide for use in accelerator ion sources. These samples are used to measure minute 10Be/9Be ratios for radiometric dating at the University of Washington tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. (orig.)

  8. Protection of beryllium metal against microbial influenced corrosion using silane self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Deshpande, Alina; Hersman, Larry; Brozik, Susan M.; Butt, Darryl

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of a self-assembled silane monolayer as protection for beryllium against microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was demonstrated. Four-point bend tests on coated and uncoated beryllium samples were conducted after microbiological exposures, and the effectiveness of these coatings as MIC protection was reported through mechanical property evaluations. Application of the silane monolayer to the beryllium surfaces was found to prevent degradation of the failure strength and displacement-to-failure of beryllium in bending. In contrast, the uncoated beryllium samples exhibited a severe reduction in these mechanical properties in the presence of the marine Pseudomonas bacteria. The potentiodynamic measurements showed that both the uncoated and coated samples pitted at the open-circuit potential. However, the size and distribution of the corrosion pits formed on the surface of the beryllium samples were significantly different for the various cases (coated vs uncoated samples exposed to control vs inoculated medium). This study demonstrates the following: (1) the deleterious effects of MIC on the mechanical properties of beryllium and (2) the potential for developing fast, easy, and cost-effective MIC protection for beryllium metal using silane self-assemblies.

  9. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of 49 CFR 173.417(a). (b) The general license applies only to a licensee who has a quality... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material....

  10. Endemic, Notifiable Bioterrorism-Related Diseases, United States, 1992–1999

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Man-Huei; Glynn, M. Kathleen; Groseclose, Samuel L.

    2003-01-01

    Little information is available in the United States regarding the incidence and distribution of diseases caused by critical microbiologic agents with the potential for use in acts of terrorism. We describe disease-specific, demographic, geographic, and seasonal distribution of selected bioterrorism-related conditions (anthrax, botulism, brucellosis, cholera, plague, tularemia, and viral encephalitides) reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 1992–1999. Tularemia a...

  11. Application of high-throughput sequencing in understanding human oral microbiome related with health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiome is one of most diversity habitat in the human body and they are closely related with oral health and disease. As the technique developing, high-throughput sequencing has become a popular approach applied for oral microbial analysis. Oral bacterial profiles have been studied to explore the relationship between microbial diversity and oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease. This review describes the application of high-throughput sequencing for characterization...

  12. Health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease: The impact of surgical therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantin; Umanskiy; Alessandro; Fichera

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, health related quality of life (HRQOL) has developed into a scientific index of subjective health status. Measurement of HRQOL is now clearly a mandatory component in evaluating interventions and management of medical and surgical diseases. In designing comprehensive and meaningful clinical studies particular attention ought to be made of measures of HRQOL. This is clearly very important in inflammatory bowel disease. Both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) have a major...

  13. Severity of chest disease in cystic fibrosis patients in relation to their genotypes.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Jader, L. N.; Meredith, A L; Ryley, H C; Cheadle, J P; Maguire, S.; Owen, G.; Goodchild, M.C.; Harper, P S

    1992-01-01

    A detailed comparison of the severity of chest disease with mutational status was carried out by cross sectional study of 127 cystic fibrosis patients, aged 1 to 31 years, living in Wales. Lung disease was classified according to severity, depending on pulmonary function tests (carried out on 76 patients) and chest radiograph status; information was obtained also on age at diagnosis in relation to severity of chest disease and colonisation with Pseudomonas species. Genotypes were determined b...

  14. Relationship between lower urinary tract abnormalities and disease-related parameters in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldewijn, E L; Hommes, O R; Lemmens, W A; Debruyne, F M; van Kerrebroeck, P E

    1995-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis affects the lower urinary tract in many patients. The relationship between lower urinary tract abnormalities and disease-related parameters of multiple sclerosis is not well described. We screened urologically and neurologically 212 patients according to a standard protocol. Micturition complaints were noted in 52% of the patients and urodynamic abnormalities were found in 64%. A statistical correlation was found between detrusor hyperactivity and detrusor hypoactivity with disease-related parameters, that is disease duration, disability status, myelin basic protein concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid and neurophysiological investigations. No relationship was found between detrusor hypersensibility or detrusor hyposensibility and the aforementioned disease-related parameters. In 1 patient upper urinary tract abnormalities were noted in combination with urodynamic abnormalities. We conclude that lower urinary tract abnormalities can be found in every patient with multiple sclerosis unrelated to the state of the disease. Severe upper urinary tract abnormalities are rare. PMID:7539859

  15. [Application of spatial relative risk estimation in communicable disease risk evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yewu; Guo, Qing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Su, Xuemei; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Chunxi

    2015-05-01

    This paper summaries the application of adaptive kernel density algorithm in the spatial relative risk estimation of communicable diseases by using the reported data of infectious diarrhea (other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid) in Ludian county and surrounding area in Yunnan province in 2013. Statistically significant fluctuations in an estimated risk function were identified through the use of asymptotic tolerance contours, and finally these data were visualized though disease mapping. The results of spatial relative risk estimation and disease mapping showed that high risk areas were in southeastern Shaoyang next to Ludian. Therefore, the spatial relative risk estimation of disease by using adaptive kernel density algorithm and disease mapping technique is a powerful method in identifying high risk population and areas. PMID:26080648

  16. Deformation behaviour of fine grained high purity beryllium - influence of fabrication parameters, temperature and copper additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deformation behaviour of high-purity beryllium was tested on hot isostatically pressed samples of different initial grain size and compared with material manufactured commercially from pure beryllium and with beryllium-copper alloys containing 0.44, 1.1 and 2.1 at.% copper. Initial grain size of these high purity material was 0C. Grain structure of the samples was subsequently analysed by light, rastor and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of copper additions on deformation of high-purity beryllium was analysed. A further aim of this study was to investigate, by suitable methods, the mode of action of relevant impurities and to throw light on their influence on grain formation. This should enable reliable information to be provided for the manufacture of high-purity beryllium which, in turn, will lead to an improvement in ductility. (orig./IHOE)

  17. Preliminary irradiation test for new material selection on lifetime extension of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been utilized as a moderator and/or reflector in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), because of nuclear properties of beryllium, low neutron capture and high neutron scattering cross sections. At present, the amount of irradiated beryllium frames in JMTR is about 2 tons in the JMTR canal. In this study, preliminary irradiation test was performed from 162nd to 165th operation cycles of JMTR as irradiation and PIE technique development for lifetime expansion of beryllium frames. The design study of irradiation capsule, development of dismount device of irradiation capsule and the high accuracy size measurement device were carried out. The PIEs such as tensile tests, metallurgical observation, and size change measurement were also carried out with two kinds of irradiated beryllium metals (S-200F and S-65C). (author)

  18. Evaluation of disease frequency in the first line relatives of patients suffering from schizophrenia related to gender and diagnostic categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejmanpašić-Arslanagić Gorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Schizophrenia represents the most severe mental disorder. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of disease in the first line relatives of patients suffering from schizophrenia related to gender differences and various subtypes. Material and Methods. The study included 453 subjects (121 patients suffering from schizophrenia - 52.1% males and 47.9% females and 332 first line relatives of the patients - 47.2% males and 52.7% females during a five year period, mostly in the region of Sarajevo. Results. According to the analysis of disease frequency related to the kinship, the disease developed more frequently in mothers (8.3% and sisters (7.8% than in fathers (6.9 and brothers (7.1% of the patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. In the group of disorganized schizophrenia, only mothers were found (4.2%, whereas the statistical difference in the group of affected brothers and sisters was significant, the percentage being 9.7% and 15.3%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in gender (p<0.05 between the group of parents and siblings regarding the frequency of schizophrenia. Discussion. The proof of participation of genetic factors in etiology supports the assumption on genetic nature of familial aggregation of schizophrenia. Our results completely match those of studies which analyzed the frequency of disease regarding inheritance (gender distribution and various subtypes. Conclusion. Investigation points to the common epidemiological criteria regarding the frequency of schizophrenic psychosis. Genetic predisposition could be also a demonstrator of the disease course and outcome, which should enable better understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  19. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, P. C.; Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A.; Calligaro, T.

    2010-06-01

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al 2O 3 crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of μg/g of beryllium in Al 2O 3 crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-μm diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ) 12C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt γ-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt γ-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the 27Al(α, pγ) 30Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required μg/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 μC, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 μg/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 μg/g.

  20. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.e [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France C2RMF, CNRS-UMR171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of {mu}g/g of beryllium in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-{mu}m diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction {sup 9}Be({alpha}, n{gamma}){sup 12}C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt {gamma}-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt {gamma}-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the {sup 27}Al({alpha}, p{gamma}){sup 30}Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required {mu}g/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 {mu}C, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 {mu}g/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 {mu}g/g.

  1. Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerning, Halfdan; Mahony, Ruth O; Husby, Steffen;

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease requiring constant management with a gluten-free diet (GFD). Little is known about how CD impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents, and how they feel about and cope with CD and GFD. This qualitative study e...

  2. Cueing training in the home improves gait-related mobility in Parkinson's disease: the RESCUE trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, A.; Kwakkel, G.; Rochester, L.; Jones, D.; Wegen, E. van; Willems, A.M.; Chavret, F.; Hetherington, V.; Baker, K.; Lim, I.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Gait and mobility problems are difficult to treat in people with Parkinson's disease. The Rehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: Strategies for Cueing (RESCUE) trial investigated the effects of a home physiotherapy programme based on rhythmical cueing on gait and gait-related activity. M

  3. Use of notched beams to establish fracture criteria for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fracture of an improved form of pure beryllium was studied under triaxial tensile stresses. This state of stress was produced by testing notched beams, which were thick enough to be in a state of plane strain at the center. A plane strain, elastic-incremental plasticity finite element program was then used to determine the stress and strain distributions at fracture. A four-point bend fixture was used to load the specimens. It was carefully designed and manufactured to eliminate virtually all of the shear stresses at the reduced section of the notched beams. The unixial properties were obtained

  4. Beryllium ignition target design for indirect drive NIF experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Kline, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Clark, D. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Marinak, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Beryllium (Be) ablator offers multiple advantages over carbon based ablators for indirectly driven NIF ICF ignition targets. These are higher mass ablation rate, ablation pressure and ablation velocity, lower capsule albedo, and higher thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. Such advantages can be used to improve the target robustness and performance. While previous NIF Be target designs exist, they were obtained a long time ago and do not incorporate the latest improved physical understanding and models based upon NIF experiments. Herein, we propose a new NIF Be ignition target design at 1.45 MJ, 430 TW that takes all this knowledge into account.

  5. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.)

  6. Technique of beryllium determination using an (α,n) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of detecting small amounts of 9Be using the (α, n) reaction has been investigated. It is shown that at a 210Po α-particle source intensity of 3x108 s-1 for limit of the detectable amount of beryllium is equal to 0.1 μg in the case of recording neutron-gamma (>= 3.6 MeV) coincidences. Other light elements (B, F, Al, Mg, Si etc.) do not produce a noticeable background under such conditions

  7. Double K-shell photoionization of atomic beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, F. L. [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrilen(tilde sign)o de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); McCurdy, C. W. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences, and Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rescigno, T. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences, and Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Double photoionization of the core 1s electrons in atomic beryllium is theoretically studied using a hybrid approach that combines orbital and grid-based representations of the Hamiltonian. The {sup 1} S ground state and {sup 1} P final state contain a double occupancy of the 2s valence shell in all configurations used to represent the correlated wave function. Triply differential cross sections are evaluated, with particular attention focused on a comparison of the effects of scattering the ejected electrons through the spherically symmetric valence shell with similar cross sections for helium, representing a purely two-electron target with an analogous initial-state configuration.

  8. Accumulation of tritium in beryllium material under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the programming code is created on the basis of which the accumulation kinetics of tritium and isotope of He4 in the Be9 sample is analyzed depending on the time. The program is written in C++ programming language and for the calculations Monte Carlo method was applied. This program scoped on the calculation of concentration of helium and tritium in beryllium samples depending on the spectrum of the neutron flux in different experimental reactors such as JMTR, JOYO and IPEN/MB. The processes of accumulation of helium and tritium for each neutron energy spectrum of these reactors were analyzed. (author)

  9. Tritium analyses of COBRA-1A2 beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Selected tritium measurements have been completed for the COBRA-1A2 experiment C03 and D03 beryllium pebbles. The completed results, shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, include the tritium assay results for the 1-mm and 3-mm C03 pebbles, and the 1-mm D03 pebbles, stepped anneal test results for both types of 1-mm pebbles, and the residual analyses for the stepped-anneal specimens. All results have been reported with date-of-count and are not corrected for decay. Stepped-anneal tritium release response is provided in addenda.

  10. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer H.-W.; Phillips D.R.

    2010-01-01

    We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1) strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accurac...

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, E.; Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the neutron irradiated beryllium with total fast neutron fluences of 1.3 - 4.3 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 327 - 616degC were studied. Swelling increased by high irradiation temperature, high fluence, and by the small grain size and high impurity. Obvious decreasing of the fracture stress was observed in the bending test and in small grain specimens which had many helium bubbles on the grain boundary. Decreasing of the fracture stress for small grain specimens was presumably caused by crack propagation on the grain boundaries which weekend by helium bubbles. (author)

  12. [WHO and ILO Program on elimination of asbestos-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F

    2008-01-01

    The article covers analysis of contemporary international documents on asbestosis problem. Suggestions are presented to Russia participation in realization of joint WHO and ILO Program on elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  13. Diabetes, Obesity, and Other Insulin-Related Diseases | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute’s Urologic Oncology Branch seeks partners interested in collaborative research to co-develop small molecule epoxy-guaiane derivative englerin A and related compounds for diseases associated with insulin resistance.

  14. Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance System (eWoRLD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A surveillance system that provides morbidity, mortality, and workplace exposures data on work-related respiratory diseases by geographic region, industry and...

  15. Application of Proteomics to the Study of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Some Related Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueguo Li; Xin Geng; Weiming Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a malignant tumor causing one of the highest death rates in the world. Viral hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis etc. Are some of the most important causes of hepatocellular carcinoma. With the advent of the post-genomic age, studying carcinoma and some related diseases using the developing technology of proteomics has become a major focus of researchers. This article is a review of the application of proteomics to study hepatocellular carcinoma and some related diseases.

  16. Research Highlights from the Purdue-UAB Botanicals Research Center for Age Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Connie M.; Barnes, Stephen; Wyss, J. Michael; Kim, Helen; Morré, Dorothy M.; Morré, D. James; Simon, James E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Janle, Elsa M; Ferruzzi, Mario G.

    2009-01-01

    The Purdue-UAB Botanicals Research Center for Age Related Disease uses multidisciplinary and innovative technologies to investigate the bioavailability of bioactive polyphenolic constituents from botanicals and their relationship to human health. Many age-related diseases are associated with oxidative stress and tissue damage. One of the research goals of the Purdue-UAB Center is to investigate the bioavailability of bioactive natural compounds from a complex botanical mixture to the organ af...

  17. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  18. The emerging role of Notch pathway in ageing: Focus on the related mechanisms in age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Madonna, Rosalinda; Melino, Gerry; Caruso, Calogero

    2016-08-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which is fundamental for the development of all tissues, organs and systems of human body. Recently, a considerable and still growing number of studies have highlighted the contribution of Notch signaling in various pathological processes of the adult life, such as age-related diseases. In particular, the Notch pathway has emerged as major player in the maintenance of tissue specific homeostasis, through the control of proliferation, migration, phenotypes and functions of tissue cells, as well as in the cross-talk between inflammatory cells and the innate immune system, and in onset of inflammatory age-related diseases. However, until now there is a confounding evidence about the related mechanisms. Here, we discuss mechanisms through which Notch signaling acts in a very complex network of pathways, where it seems to have the crucial role of hub. Thus, we stress the possibility to use Notch pathway, the related molecules and pathways constituting this network, both as innovative (predictive, diagnostic and prognostic) biomarkers and targets for personalised treatments for age-related diseases. PMID:27328278

  19. Waterborne disease-related risk perceptions in the Sonora River basin, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morua, Agustin Robles; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Mayer, Alex S

    2011-05-01

    Waterborne disease is estimated to cause about 10% of all diseases worldwide. However, related risk perceptions are not well understood, particularly in the developing world where waterborne disease is an enormous problem. We focus on understanding risk perceptions related to these issues in a region within northern Mexico. Our findings show how waterborne disease problems and solutions are understood in eight small communities along a highly contaminated river system. We found major differences in risk perceptions between health professionals, government officials, and lay citizens. Health professionals believed that a high level of human-waste-related risk existed within the region. Few officials and lay citizens shared this belief. In addition, few officials and lay citizens were aware of poor wastewater-management-related disease outbreaks and water contamination. Finally, aside from health professionals, a few interviewees understood the importance of basic hygiene and water treatment measures that could help to prevent disease. Our results add to the literature on environmentally-related risk perceptions in the developing world. We discuss recommendations for improving future human-wastewater-related risk communication within the region.

  20. C9orf72-related disorders: expanding the clinical and genetic spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Victor Sgobbi de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases represent a heterogeneous group of neurological conditions primarily involving dementia, motor neuron disease and movement disorders. They are mostly related to different pathophysiological processes, notably in family forms in which the clinical and genetic heterogeneity are lush. In the last decade, much knowledge has been acumulated about the genetics of neurodegenerative diseases, making it essential in cases of motor neuron disease and frontotemporal dementia the repeat expansions of C9orf72 gene. This review analyzes the main clinical, radiological and genetic aspects of the phenotypes related to the hexanucleotide repeat expansions (GGGGCC of C9orf72 gene. Future studies will aim to further characterize the neuropsychological, imaging and pathological aspects of the extra-motor features of motor neuron disease, and will help to provide a new classification system that is both clinically and biologically relevant.

  1. Relating diseases by integrating gene associations and information flow through protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaneh, Mehdi Bagheri; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Identifying similar diseases could potentially provide deeper understanding of their underlying causes, and may even hint at possible treatments. For this purpose, it is necessary to have a similarity measure that reflects the underpinning molecular interactions and biological pathways. We have thus devised a network-based measure that can partially fulfill this goal. Our method assigns weights to all proteins (and consequently their encoding genes) by using information flow from a disease to the protein interaction network and back. Similarity between two diseases is then defined as the cosine of the angle between their corresponding weight vectors. The proposed method also provides a way to suggest disease-pathway associations by using the weights assigned to the genes to perform enrichment analysis for each disease. By calculating pairwise similarities between 2534 diseases, we show that our disease similarity measure is strongly correlated with the probability of finding the diseases in the same disease family and, more importantly, sharing biological pathways. We have also compared our results to those of MimMiner, a text-mining method that assigns pairwise similarity scores to diseases. We find the results of the two methods to be complementary. It is also shown that clustering diseases based on their similarities and performing enrichment analysis for the cluster centers significantly increases the term association rate, suggesting that the cluster centers are better representatives for biological pathways than the diseases themselves. This lends support to the view that our similarity measure is a good indicator of relatedness of biological processes involved in causing the diseases. Although not needed for understanding this paper, the raw results are available for download for further study at ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/qmbpmn/DiseaseRelations/.

  2. Statistical Colocalization of Genetic Risk Variants for Related Autoimmune Diseases in the Context of Common Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Mary D.; Guo, Hui; Burren, Oliver; Schofield, Ellen; Walker, Neil M.; Ban, Maria; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Bowes, John; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Ann; Eyre, Steve; Todd, John A.; Wallace, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Identifying whether potential causal variants for related diseases are shared can identify overlapping etiologies of multifactorial disorders. Colocalization methods disentangle shared and distinct causal variants. However, existing approaches require independent datasets. Here we extend two colocalization methods to allow for the shared control design commonly used in comparison of genome-wide association study results across diseases. Our analysis of four autoimmune diseases, type 1 diabetes (T1D), rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease and multiple sclerosis, revealed 90 regions that were associated with at least one disease, 33 (37%) of which with two or more disorders. Nevertheless, for 14 of these 33 shared regions there was evidence that causal variants differed. We identified novel disease associations in 11 regions previously associated with one or more of the other three disorders. Four of eight T1D-specific regions contained known type 2 diabetes candidate genes: COBL, GLIS3, RNLS and BCAR1, suggesting a shared cellular etiology. PMID:26053495

  3. The mechanism for production of beryllium fluoride from the product of ammonium fluoride processing of beryllium- containing raw material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraydenko, R. I.; Dyachenko, A. N.; Malyutin, L. N.; Petlin, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    The technique of fluorite-phenacite-bertrandite ores from Russian Ermakovskoe deposit processing by ammonium bifluoride is described. To determine the temperature mode and the thermal dissociation mechanism of ammonium tetrafluoroberyllate (the product of ammonium-fluoride leaching of the ore) the TG/DTA have been carried out. By IR spectroscopy and XRD the semi-products of ammonium tetrafluoroberyllate thermal dissociation have been identified. The hygroscopic low-temperature beryllium fluoride forms higher than 380°C. The less hydroscopic form of BeF2 have been produced at 600°C.

  4. Symposium on diseases related to ultraviolet radiation: A risk-management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A symposium on diseases related to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), sponsored by the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control was attended by 50 national and international experts in the fields of dermatology, ophthalmology and epidemiology, as well as representatives from various national and provincial public health organizations. The objectives of the symposium were as follows: to review the evidence relating UVR to the incidence of melanoma of the skin and eye, non melanotic cancer of the skin and lip, nonmalignant skin conditions and cataract; to review the effectiveness of primary prevention and early detection of UVR-related diseases; and to recommend strategies for risk management through regulation, public education and screening programs, as well as research priorities. Fourteen experts presented papers on issues related to UVR exposure. After the presentations the participants met in working groups to discuss questions pertaining to the identification, assessment and management of health risks relating to UVR. (author)

  5. Gallium scanning in differentiating malignant from benign asbestos-related pleural disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the utility of 67gallium citrate in delineating malignant pleural mesothelioma from benign asbestos-related pleural disease, 49 patients with malignant mesothelioma and 16 with benign asbestos-related pleural disease were studied. Seven patients with malignant mesothelioma had no history of asbestos exposure, while the remaining 58 patients were exposed. Forty-three of the 49 patients (88%) with malignant mesothelioma had a positive 67gallium scan including 36 of the 42 (86%) patients with asbestos exposure and all 7 patients without a history of asbestos exposure. Three of 16 patients (19%) with benign asbestos-related pleural disease had a positive scan. 67Gallium radionuclide imaging is nonspecific but may be valuable in noninvasive monitoring of asbestos-exposed populations, which have a high risk for the late development of benign and/or malignant pleural disease

  6. Development of a classification scheme for disease-related enzyme information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söhngen Carola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase, http://www.brenda-enzymes.org is a major resource for enzyme related information. First and foremost, it provides data which are manually curated from the primary literature. DRENDA (Disease RElated ENzyme information DAtabase complements BRENDA with a focus on the automatic search and categorization of enzyme and disease related information from title and abstracts of primary publications. In a two-step procedure DRENDA makes use of text mining and machine learning methods. Results Currently enzyme and disease related references are biannually updated as part of the standard BRENDA update. 910,897 relations of EC-numbers and diseases were extracted from titles or abstracts and are included in the second release in 2010. The enzyme and disease entity recognition has been successfully enhanced by a further relation classification via machine learning. The classification step has been evaluated by a 5-fold cross validation and achieves an F1 score between 0.802 ± 0.032 and 0.738 ± 0.033 depending on the categories and pre-processing procedures. In the eventual DRENDA content every category reaches a classification specificity of at least 96.7% and a precision that ranges from 86-98% in the highest confidence level, and 64-83% for the smallest confidence level associated with higher recall. Conclusions The DRENDA processing chain analyses PubMed, locates references with disease-related information on enzymes and categorises their focus according to the categories causal interaction, therapeutic application, diagnostic usage and ongoing research. The categorisation gives an impression on the focus of the located references. Thus, the relation categorisation can facilitate orientation within the rapidly growing number of references with impact on diseases and enzymes. The DRENDA information is available as additional information in BRENDA.

  7. Influence of neutron irradiation on the tritium retention in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolli, R.; Ruebel, S.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wu, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and beryllium are the candidates for protective layers on the components of fusion reactors facing plasma. In contact with D-T plasma, these materials absorb tritium, and it is anticipated that tritium retention increases with the neutron damage due to neutron-induced traps. Because of the poor data base for beryllium, the work was concentrated on it. Tritium was loaded into the samples from stagnant T{sub 2}/H{sub 2} atmosphere, and afterwards, the quantity of the loaded tritium was determined by purged thermal annealing. The specification of the samples is shown. The samples were analyzed by SEM before and after irradiation. The loading and the annealing equipments are contained in two different glove boxes with N{sub 2} inert atmosphere. The methods of loading and annealing are explained. The separation of neutron-produced and loaded tritium and the determination of loaded tritium in irradiated samples are reported. Also the determination of loaded tritium in unirradiated samples is reported. It is evident that irradiated samples contained much more loaded tritium than unirradiated samples. The main results of this investigation are summarized in the table. (K.I.)

  8. Remarkable Hydrogen Storage on Beryllium Oxide Clusters: First Principles Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Since the current transportation sector is the largest consumer of oil, and subsequently responsible for major air pollutants, it is inevitable to use alternative renewable sources of energies for vehicular applications. The hydrogen energy seems to be a promising candidate. To explore the possibility of achieving a solid-state high-capacity storage of hydrogen for onboard applications, we have performed first principles density functional theoretical calculations of hydrogen storage properties of beryllium oxide clusters (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8). We observed that polar BeO bond is responsible for H$_{2}$ adsorption. The problem of cohesion of beryllium atoms does not arise, as they are an integral part of BeO clusters. The (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8) adsorbs 8--12 H$_{2}$ molecules with an adsorption energy in the desirable range of reversible hydrogen storage. The gravimetric density of H$_{2}$ adsorbed on BeO clusters meets the ultimate 7.5 wt% limit, recommended for onboard practical applications. In conclusion,...

  9. Microstructural Characterization of Beryllium Treated Al-Si Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on B356 and B357 alloys using the thermal analysis technique. Metallographic samples prepared from these castings were examined using optical microscopy and FESEM. Results revealed that beryllium causes partial modification of the eutectic Si, similar to that reported for magnesium additions. Addition of 0.8 wt.% Mg reduces the eutectic temperature by ~10°C. During solidification of alloys containing high levels of Fe and Mg, but no Sr, formation of a Be-Fe phase was detected at 611°C, close to that of α-Al. The Be-Fe phase precipitates in script-like form at or close to the β-Al5SiFe platelets. A new reaction, composed of fine particles of Si and π-Fe phase, was observed to occur near the end of solidification in high Mg-, high Fe-, and Be-containing alloys. The amount of this reaction decreased with the addition of Sr. Occasionally, Be-containing phase particles were observed as part of the reaction. Addition of Be has a noticeable effect on decreasing the β-Al5FeSi platelet length; this effect may be enhanced by addition of Sr. Beryllium addition also results in precipitation of the β-Al5FeSi phase in nodular form, which lowers its harmful effects on the alloy mechanical properties.

  10. Calculations for electron-impact excitation and ionization of beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Fursa, Dmitry V; Bray, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix and the convergent close-coupling methods are used to study electron collisions with neutral beryllium over an energy range from threshold to 100 eV. Coupling to the target continuum significantly affects the results for transitions from the ground state, but to a lesser extent the strong transitions between excited states. Cross sections are presented for selected transitions between low-lying physical bound states of beryllium, as well as for elastic scattering, momentum transfer, and ionization. The present cross sections for transitions from the ground state from the two methods are in excellent agreement with each other, and also with other available results based on nonperturbative convergent pseudo-state and time-dependent close-coupling models. The elastic cross section at low energies is dominated by a prominent shape resonance. The ionization from the $(2s2p)^3P$ and $(2s2p)^1P$ states strongly depends on the respective term. The current predictions represent an extensive set o...

  11. Steam chemical reactivity of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Castro, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Plasma-spraying with the potential for in-situ repair makes beryllium a primary candidate for plasma facing and structural components in experimental magnetic fusion machines. Deposits with good thermal conductivity and resistance to thermal cycling have been produced with low pressure plasma-spraying (LPPS). A concern during a potential accident with steam ingress is the amount of hydrogen produced by the reactions of steam with hot components. In this study the authors measure the reaction rates of various deposits produced by LPPS with steam from 350 C to above 1,000 C. They correlate these reaction rates with measurements of density, open porosity and BET surface areas. They find the reactivity to be largely dependent upon effective surface area. Promising results were obtained below 600 C from a 94% theoretical dense (TD) deposit with a BET specific surface area of 0.085 m{sup 2}/g. Although reaction rates were higher than those for dense consolidated beryllium they were substantially lower, i.e., about two orders of magnitude, than those obtained from previously tested lower density plasma-sprayed deposits.

  12. Familial aggregation of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies of Alzheimer's disease were re-analysed to examine the association of Alzheimer's disease with family history in first degree relatives of dementia, Down's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. Overall, the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease for those with at least one

  13. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease depends on disease activity and psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, G; Erhard, D; Petersen, M; Parzer, P; Schlarb, A A; Resch, F; Brunner, R; Hoffmann, G F; Lenhartz, H; Richterich, A

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) show an increased risk for behavioral and emotional dysfunction. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is influenced by medical illnesses, as well as by psychiatric disorders, but for adolescents with IBD, the extent to which HRQoL is influenced by these two factors is unclear. For 47 adolescent IBD patients, we analyzed disease activity, HRQoL and whether or not a psychiatric disorder was present. Disease activity was estimated using pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index and pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index. The IMPACT-III and the EQ-5D were used to measure HRQoL and QoL, respectively. In addition, patient and parent diagnostic interviews were performed. 55.3 % patients fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders. In all patients, psychiatric comorbidity together with disease activity contributed to a reduction in quality of life. Adolescents with IBD are at a high risk for clinically relevant emotional or behavioral problems resulting in significantly lower HRQoL. We conclude that accessible, optimally structured psychotherapeutic and/or psychiatric help is needed in adolescent patients with IBD. PMID:24838299

  14. Examination of Mechanisms Responsible for Organic Dust-related Diseases: Mediator Release induced by Microorgansims. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norn, Svend; Clementsen, Paul; Kristensen, K.S.;

    1994-01-01

    Farmakologi, org. dust-related diseases, bacteria, pathogenic mechanisms, mediator release, entoxins - fungal spores......Farmakologi, org. dust-related diseases, bacteria, pathogenic mechanisms, mediator release, entoxins - fungal spores...

  15. What determines age-related disease: do we know all the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, David A

    2010-06-01

    The average human lifespan has increased throughout the last century due to the mitigation of many infectious diseases. More people now die of age-related diseases than ever before, but these diseases have been resistant to elimination. Progress has been made in treatments and preventative measures to delay the onsets of these diseases, but most cancers and vascular diseases are still with us and they kill about the same fraction of the population year after year. For example, US Caucasian female deaths from breast plus genital cancers have remained a fairly constant approximately 7% of the age-related disease deaths from 1938 to 1998 and have been consistently approximately 2-fold greater than female colon plus rectal cancer deaths over that span. This type of stability pattern pervades the age-related diseases and suggests that intrinsic properties within populations determine these fractions. Recognizing this pattern and deciphering its origin will be necessary for the complete understanding of these major causes of death. It would appear that more than the random processes of aging drive this effect. The question is how to meaningfully approach this problem. This commentary discusses the epidemiological and aging perspectives and their current limitations in providing an explanation. The age of bioinformatics offers hope, but only if creative systems approaches are forthcoming. PMID:19904627

  16. Oral health-related quality of life of children and teens with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza da Matta Felisberto Fernandes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Children with sickle cell disease may have their quality of life affected by oral alterations. However, there is still little data on oral health-related quality of life in these children. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sickle cell disease, socioeconomic characteristics, and oral conditions on oral health-related quality of life of children and teens. METHOD: One hundred and six children and teens with sickle cell disease were compared to a similar sample of 385 healthy peers. Data were collected through oral examinations, interviews to assess quality of life (Child Perceptions Questionnaire for children aged 8-10 and 11-14 and questionnaires containing questions on socioeconomic status. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in the total scores of the Child Perceptions Questionnaires or domain scores comparing sickle cell disease patients to control subjects. When sub-scales were compared, oral symptoms and functional limitations had a greater negative impact on the quality of life of adolescents with sickle cell disease (p-value <0.001 and p-value <0.01, respectively when compared to healthy controls. The only statistically significant determinants of negative impact on oral health-related quality of life in the overall sample was home overcrowding (more than two people/room in the younger children's group, and dental malocclusion among teens. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life between the group with sickle cell disease and the control group. Of the oral alterations, there was a significant difference in the oral health-related quality of life between adolescents with sickle cell disease and controls only in relation to malocclusion. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, only overcrowding was significantly associated with a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life.

  17. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features

  18. Development of radiation resistant grades of beryllium for nuclear and fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    R&D results on beryllium with high radiation resistance obtained recently are described in this report. The data are presented on nine different grades of isotropic beryllium manufactured by VNIINM and distinguished by both initial powder characteristics and properties of billets, made of these powders. The average grain size of the investigated beryllium grades varied from 8 to 26 {mu}m, the content of beryllium oxide was 0.9 - 3.9 wt.%, the dispersity of beryllium oxide - 0.04 - 0.5 {mu}m, tensile strength -- 250 - 650 MPa. All materials were irradiated in SM - 2 reactor over the temperature range 550 - 780{degrees}C. The results of the investigation showed, that HIP beryllium grades are less susceptible to swelling at higher temperatures in comparison with hot pressed and extruded grades. Beryllium samples, having the smallest grain size, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was less than 0.8 % at 750{degrees}C and Fs = 3.7 {center_dot}10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (E>0.1 MeV). The mechanical properties, creep and microstructure parameters, measured before and after irradiation, are presented.

  19. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  20. DNA methylation of Alzheimer disease and tauopathy-related genes in postmortem brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina, Marta; Ferrer, Isidre

    2009-08-01

    DNA methylation occurs predominantly at cytosines that precede guanines in dinucleotide CpG sites; it is one of the most important mechanisms for epigenetic DNA regulation during normal development and for aberrant DNA in cancer. To determine the feasibility of DNA methylation studies in the postmortem human brain, we evaluated brain samples with variable postmortem artificially increased delays up to 48 hours. DNA methylation was analyzed in selected regions of MAPT, APP, and PSEN1 in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of controls (n=26) and those with Alzheimer disease at Stages I to II (n=17); Alzheimer disease at Stages III to IV (n=15); Alzheimer disease at Stages V to VI (n=12); argyrophilic grain disease (n=10); frontotemporal lobar degeneration linked to tau mutations (n=6); frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions (n=4); frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease (n=3); Pick disease (n=3); Parkinson disease (n=8); dementia with Lewy bodies, pure form (n=5); and dementia with Lewy bodies, common form (n=15). UCHL1 (ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1 gene) was analyzed in the frontal cortex of controls and those with Parkinson disease and related synucleinopathies. DNA methylation sites were very reproducible in every case. No differences in the percentage of CpG methylation were found between control and disease samples or among the different pathological entities in any region analyzed. Because small changes in methylation of DNA promoters in vulnerable cells might have not been detected in total homogenates, however, these results should be interpreted with caution, particularly as they relate to chronic degenerative diseases in which small modifications may be sufficient to modulate disease progression.

  1. Transient gender-related effects in Parkinson's disease patients with subthalamic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Romito; F.M. Contarino; A. Albanese

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the gender-related long-term efficacy and safety after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) implant for Parkinson's disease (PD), although some differences could be expected as recently stated in a short-term report. We assessed the possible gender-related diffe

  2. Spectrum of Smoking-related Lung Diseases: Imaging Review and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Rachna; Matalon, Shanna; Vivero, Marina

    2016-03-01

    There is increased awareness of smoking-related lung diseases other than lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Concurrently, there is general acceptance that there is difficulty in establishing a specific diagnosis of smoking-related interstitial lung disease (ILD), as many patients may not undergo biopsy to facilitate a specific histopathologic diagnosis. Cases that do proceed to biopsy may demonstrate multiple abnormalities, and histologic overlap between different disease processes may confound the picture. This review outlines the key aspects of smoking-related lung disease, including entities secondary to smoking-related lung inflammation such as respiratory bronchiolitis-ILD, desquamative idiopathic pneumonia, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, as well as chronic fibrosing lung diseases strongly associated with cigarette smoke including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and rheumatoid arthritis-ILD. The focus will be on incorporation of clinical findings, key pulmonary function testing parameters, high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) findings, and pathologic correlates in refining the differential diagnosis and differentiating between the various entities. PMID:26479130

  3. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE OF SHATKRIYAKALA IN RELATION TO NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmejaya Samal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kriyakala, also known as Shatkriyakala, is predominantly a concept of Ayurveda which describes different phases of disease formation in its own unique way. This concept can be comparable with natural history of disease in modern medicine. Though many authorities compare it simply with pathogenesis but a meticulous look will reveal its relation with natural history of disease. A good understanding of natural history of disease helps to frame public health intervention strategies, more specially the disease prevention stratagem. Similarly a scrupulous insight about Kriyakala will also help us to frame public health intervention strategy. Both modern medicine and public health describes three different types of prevention measures such as primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention which can appropriately be applied to different stages of natural history of disease with their modes of intervention. The same concept can also be applied to Shatkriyakala with appropriate intervention strategies to halt the progression of a disease process. This document tries to understand the concept of Kriyakala in the light of natural history of disease and analyses various intervention strategies which are important from the disease control perspective.

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells: a revolution in therapeutic strategies of age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Huang, Sha; Cheng, Biao; Nie, Xiaohu; Enhe, Jirigala; Feng, Changjiang; Fu, Xiaobing

    2013-01-01

    The great evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky once said: "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution". Aging is a complex biological phenomenon and the factors governing the process of aging and age-related diseases are only beginning to be understood, oxidative stress, telomere shortening in DNA components and genetic changes were shown to be the mainly regulating mechanisms during the recent decades. Although a considerable amount of both animal and clinical data that demonstrate the extensive and safe use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is available, the precise summarization and identification of MSCs in age-related diseases remains a challenge. Along this line, this review discussed several typical age-related diseases for which MSCs have been proved to confer protection and put forward a hypothesis for the association among MSCs and age-related diseases from an evolutionary perspective. Above all, we hope further and more research efforts could be aroused to elucidate the role and mechanisms that MSCs involved in the age-related diseases.

  6. Identifying Liver Cancer and Its Relations with Diseases, Drugs, and Genes: A Literature-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min

    2016-01-01

    In biomedicine, scientific literature is a valuable source for knowledge discovery. Mining knowledge from textual data has become an ever important task as the volume of scientific literature is growing unprecedentedly. In this paper, we propose a framework for examining a certain disease based on existing information provided by scientific literature. Disease-related entities that include diseases, drugs, and genes are systematically extracted and analyzed using a three-level network-based approach. A paper-entity network and an entity co-occurrence network (macro-level) are explored and used to construct six entity specific networks (meso-level). Important diseases, drugs, and genes as well as salient entity relations (micro-level) are identified from these networks. Results obtained from the literature-based literature mining can serve to assist clinical applications. PMID:27195695

  7. Can we prevent obesity-related metabolic diseases by dietary modulation of the gut microbiota?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut...... microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic...... diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity...

  8. Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain Assessment in IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Grados

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin free light chains are produced in excess during normal antibody synthesis. Their evaluation is commonly used in case of a monoclonal gammopathy. In polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia related to the Sjögren syndrome or systemic lupus, erythematosus serum free light chain levels are increased and could correlate with disease activity. We show here that the κ ( and λ ( free light chains and the κ : λ ratio ( are increased in sixteen patients with IgG4-related disease when compared to healthy controls. The increase of κ and λ free light chains probably reflects the marked polyclonal B cell activation of the disease. We could not assess in this small cohort of patients a significative correlation of serum free light chain levels and disease activity or extension.

  9. The structure and the Raman vibrational spectrum of the beryllium aquacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozmanov, Dmitry A; Sizova, Olga V; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu; Burkov, Kim A

    2005-11-01

    The experimental Raman vibrational spectrum of the 5.94 m water solution of the beryllium(II) chloride has been acquired. Theoretical frequencies, infrared and Raman intensities of the vibrational spectrum of the beryllium cation tetrahydrate have been calculated by means of quantum chemical approach. The peaks of the experimental spectrum have been assigned on the basis of the results of the quantum-chemical calculations. It has been shown that the hydrating surrounding of the aquacation increases effectively the frequency of the beryllium-oxygen stretching vibration by 16% in comparison with the free complex.

  10. Conditions for preparation of ultrapure beryllium by electrolytic refining in molten alkali-metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Hagen

    1982-02-01

    Electrolytic refining is regarded as the most suitable process for the production of beryllium with impurity contents below 1 at.-ppM. Several parameters are important for electrolytic refining of beryllium in a BeCl/sub 2/-containing LiCl-KCl melt: current density, BeCl/sub 2/ content, electrolyte temperature, composition of the unpurified beryllium and impurity-ion concentrations in the melt, as well as apparatus characteristics such as rotation speed of the cathode and condition of the crucible material. These factors were studied and optimized such that extensive removal of the maximum number of accompanying and alloying elements was achieved.

  11. Study of beryllium redeposition under bombardment by high intensity -low energy- hydrogen ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureev, V.M.; Guseva, M.I.; Danelyan, L.S. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-01-01

    The results of studying the erosion of beryllium under an effect of intense ion fluxes with the energy of 250 eV, at the fluences {approx}10{sup 2}1 cm{sup -2}, at the MAGRAS-stand are given. The operating conditions under which a practically-complete redeposition of the sputtered beryllium upon the target surface were experimentally-realized. A change in the microstructure of a beryllium target under sputtering and redeposition is analyzed. Some technological applications are considered. (author)

  12. Chronic diseases knowledge and related factors among the elderly in Jinan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapei Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the prevalence of chronic diseases is high among old people and they have poor chronic diseases knowledge. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the awareness rate of chronic diseases knowledge among people aged over 60 years, to explore its related factors and to provide evidence for future health education. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August in 2011. People aged 60 years and above from 3 communities in Jinan were selected by cluster sampling. Nine hundred and twenty five participants were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The awareness rates of chronic diseases knowledge varied from 29.5% to 90.2%. Four healthy lifestyles including quitting smoking and less drinking, keeping broad-minded, maintaining balanced diet and moderate physical activity were best known (from 86.3% to 90.2%. The least known knowledge were 2 complications of hypertension: nephropathy (29.5% and retinopathy (37.2%. Participants with the following characteristics or behaviors were more likely to have higher chronic diseases knowledge: younger age, female, Han Chinese, higher level of education, having health insurance, participating in societies, having family history of chronic diseases, frequently gathering with friends/relatives, usually going to provincial hospitals/hospitals affiliated with medical universities, usually going to municipal hospitals and usually going to community health center/station. CONCLUSIONS: Old people in Jinan had incomplete chronic diseases knowledge and the overall awareness rate was not high. The older people's chronic diseases knowledge should be improved and health education programs should target males, older people with lower educational level, having no health insurance, having no family history of chronic diseases, participating in no societies, and less frequently gathering with friends/relatives. Also, lower level medical

  13. Clinical Factors and Disease Course Related to Diagnostic Delay in Korean Crohn's Disease Patients: Results from the CONNECT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Mo Moon

    Full Text Available Diagnostic delay frequently occurs in Crohn's disease (CD patients because of diagnostic limitations. However, diagnostic delay and its related factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors associated with diagnostic delay and to evaluate the impact of diagnostic delay on clinical course in a Korean CD patient cohort. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of 1,047 CD patients registered in the Crohn's Disease Clinical Network and Cohort study in Korea. The mean interval of diagnostic delay was 16.0 ± 33.1 months. Multivariate analysis showed that older age at diagnosis (≥40 years (p = 0.014, concomitant upper gastrointestinal (UGI disease (p = 0.012 and penetrating disease behavior at diagnosis (p = 0.001 were positively associated with long diagnostic delay (≥18 months. During the longitudinal follow-up, long diagnostic delay was independently predictive of further development of intestinal stenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.93; p = 0.017, internal fistulas (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.12-2.33; p = 0.011, and perianal fistulas (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.80; p = 0.016. However, as for the risk of abscess formation, bowel perforation, and CD-related abdominal surgery, no significant association with diagnostic delay was observed. Older age at diagnosis, UGI involvement, and penetrating behavior are associated with long diagnostic delay in Korean CD patients. Moreover, diagnostic delay is associated with an increased risk of CD-related complications such as intestinal stenosis, internal fistulas, and perianal fistulas.

  14. Contribution of T Cell Subsets to the Pathophysiology of Pneumocystis-Related Immunorestitution Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Samir P Bhagwat; Gigliotti, Francis; Xu, Haodong; Wright, Terry W.

    2006-01-01

    Immune-mediated lung injury is an important component of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP)-related immunorestitution disease (IRD). However, the individual contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to the pathophysiology of IRD remains undetermined. Therefore, IRD was modeled in severe combined immunodeficient mice, and specific T cell depletion was used to determine how T cell subsets interact to affect the nature and severity of disease. CD4+ cells were more abundant than CD8+ cells during the acute...

  15. Household practices related to disease transmission between animals and humans in rural Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Osbjer, Kristina; Boqvist, Sofia; Sokerya, Seng; Kannarath, Chheng; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background Zoonotic diseases are disproportionately affecting poor societies in low-income countries and pose a growing threat to public health and global food security. Rural Cambodian households may face an increased likelihood of exposure to zoonotic diseases as people there live in close association with livestock. The objectives of the study was to identify practices known to influence zoonosis transmission in rural Cambodian households and relate the practices to agro-ecological region,...

  16. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND AGE-RELATED DISEASES: REALITIES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiology is so high that in many countries omega-3 fatty acids are included into the treatment protocols for patients with cardiovascular diseases. This therapeutic class slows down oxidative stress and chronic inflammation processes, thereby providing a significant contribution to the complex treatment of hypertension. Besides, omega-3 fatty acids slow down the aging process and prevent the development of age-related diseases affecting the rate of telomere shortening.

  17. Refined phenotyping identifies links between preeclampsia and related diseases in a Norwegian preeclampsia family cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim; Melton, Philip E.; Tollaksen, Kjersti; Lyslo, Ingvill; Roten, Linda Tømmerdal; Odland, Maria Lisa; Strand, Kristin Melheim; Nygård, Ottar; Sun, Chen; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte; Austgulen, Rigmor; Moses, Eric; Bjørge, Line

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Preeclampsia is a complex genetic disease of pregnancy with a heterogenous presentation, unknown cause and potential severe outcomes for both mother and child. Preeclamptic women have increased risk for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to identify heritabilities and phenotypic correlations of preeclampsia and related conditions in the Norwegian Preeclampsia Family Biobank. Methods: By applying a variance components model, a total of 493 individuals (from 138 fa...

  18. Apathy in Parkinson's disease is related to executive function, gender and age but not to depression

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia eMeyer; Ronan eZimmermann; Ute eGschwandtner; Florian eHatz; Habib eBousleiman; Nadine eSchwarz; Peter eFuhr

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in executive functions occur in up to 93% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Apathy, a reduction of motivation and goal-directed behavior is an important part of the syndrome; affecting both the patients as well as their social environment. Executive functions can be subdivided into three different processes: initiation, shifting and inhibition. We examined the hypotheses, (1) that apathy in patients with Parkinson's disease is only related to initiation and not to shifting a...

  19. Cyclosporine and methotrexate-related pharmacogenomic predictors of acute graft-versus-host disease

    OpenAIRE

    Laverdière, Isabelle; Guillemette, Chantal; Tamouza, Ryad; Loiseau, Pascale; de Latour, Regis Peffault; Robin, Marie; Couture, Félix; Filion, Alain; Lalancette, Marc; Tourancheau, Alan; Charron, Dominique; Socié, Gérard; Lévesque, Éric

    2015-01-01

    Effective immunosuppression is mandatory to prevent graft-versus-host disease and to achieve a successful clinical outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here we tested whether germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in 20 candidate genes related to methotrexate and cyclosporine metabolism and activity influence the incidence of graft-versus-host disease in patients who undergo stem cell transplantation for hematologic disorders. Recipient genetic status of the adenosine triphos...

  20. Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease: a single-center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Catarino Costa; Celeste Canha Barreto; Luisa Pereira; Maria Luisa Lobo; Maria Adília Costa; Ana Isabel Gouveia Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies concerning liver disease in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients are scarce. The present study aimed to describe the prevalence and clinical expression of cystic fibrosis - related liver disease, in a cohort of 62 pediatric patients. Descriptive study, resulting from the prospective evaluation, between 1994 and 2009, of 62 pediatric patients (age <18 years) with cystic fibrosis. The follow-up protocol included a clinical assessment every 2 months, liver function tests eve...