WorldWideScience

Sample records for beryllium bromides

  1. Beryllium 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Roskill report on beryllium gives information on the occurrence and reserves, production technology, geographic distribution, consumption and end-uses, stocks, prices and beryllium and health. There is an appendix on international trade statistics. (author).

  2. Beryllium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  3. Beryllium facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its unique combination of physical, mechanical, thermal and nuclear properties, beryllium is indispensable for many applications in the fields of nuclear and space sciences. Beryllia and copper beryllium alloys have also found extensive applications in the electrical and electronic industries. Beryllium facilities at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) have been set up to meet indigenous requirements for these materials. Besides developing beryllium technology, the project team has also designed and developed a number of special purpose equipment. (Author)

  4. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  5. Beryllium Desorption from Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, V.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Beryllium isotopes have provided a useful tool in the field of geochronology and geomorphology over the last 25 years. The amount of cosmogenic meteoric 10Be and native 9Be absorbed to soils often scales with the residence time and chemical weathering of sediments in a landscape, respectively. Thus, the concentrations in river sediment may be used to quantify the denudation of specific watersheds. When deposited in ocean sediment, these concentrations are thought to record the history of denudation on Earth over the last ~10 Ma. The use of both isotopes often relies on the premise of beryllium retention to sediment surfaces in order to preserve a landscape's erosion and weathering signature. Changes in setting, en route from the soil to fluvial system to the ocean, can cause beryllium desorption and may preclude some applications of the 10Be/9Be system. Four mechanisms were tested to determine the desorption potential of beryllium including a reduction in pH, an increase in ionic strength and complexation with soluble organic and inorganic species. These processes have the potential to mobilize beryllium into solution. For example, by both reducing the pH and increasing the ionic strength, competition for adsorption sites increases, potentially liberating beryllium from the sediment surface. In addition, organic and inorganic ligands can complex beryllium causing it to become mobilized. To determine which of these alterations influence beryllium desorption and to quantify the effect, we prepared separate solutions of beryllium bound to minerals and organic compounds and measured beryllium concentrations in solution before and after adjusting the pH, ionic strength, and changing inorganic and organic ligand concentrations. We conclude from our observations that overall, beryllium sorbed to organic compounds was more resistant to desorption relative to mineral-associated beryllium. Among the methods tested, a reduction in pH resulted in the greatest amount of

  6. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  7. Beryllium development programme in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has fairly large deposits of beryl. The requirement of beryllium and copper-beryllium alloys in space and electronic industries has provided the incentive for the setting up of an indigenous base for the development of beryllium process metallurgy. The paper presents the developmental work carried out, in the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, on the preparation of beryllium metal and its alloys starting from Indian beryl. A laboratory facility incorporating essential precautionary measures has been set up for the safe handling of beryllium and its compounds. Based on the laboratory investigations a flow-sheet suitable to Indian conditions has been developed. The flow-sheet involves preparation of anhydrous beryllium fluoride from beryl through the silico-fluoride route, magnesiothermic reduction of beryllium fluoride for the production of beryllium metal or its master alloy with copper or aluminium, and fabrication of beryllium metal. (author)

  8. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tatenuma, K. [KAKEN Co., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  9. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  10. Beryllium. Its minerals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this work a series of reports begins, under the generic name 'Beryllium', related to several aspects of beryllium technology. The target is to update, with critical sense, current bibliographic material in order to be used in further applications. Some of the most important beryllium ores, the Argentine emplacement of their deposits and world occurrence are described. Argentine and world production, resources and reserves are indicated here as well. (Author)

  11. Joining of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    A handbook dealing with the many aspects of beryllium that would be important for the users of this metal is currently being prepared. With an introduction on the applications, advantages and limitations in the use of this metal the following topics will be discussed in this handbook: physical, thermal, and nuclear properties; extraction from the ores; purification and casting of ingots; production and types of beryllium powders; consolidation methods, grades, and properties; mechanical properties with emphasis on the various factors affecting these properties; forming and mechanical working; welding, brazing, bonding, and fastening; machining; powder deposition; corrosion; health aspects; and examples of production of components. This report consists of ''Section X--Joining'' from the handbook. The prefix X is maintained here for the figures, tables and references. In this section the different methods used for joining beryllium and the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each are presented. The methods discussed are fusion welding, brazing, solid state bonding (diffusion bonding and deformation bonding), soldering, and mechanical fastening. Since beryllium has a high affinity for oxygen and nitrogen with the formation of oxides and nitrides, considerable care must be taken on heating the metal, to protect it from the ambient atmosphere. In addition, mating surfaces must be cleaned and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses as well as locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part is subjected to moisture or to any type of corroding environment. This becomes a problem if the less noble (anodic) metal has a significantly smaller area than the more noble (cathodic) metal since the ions (positive charges) from the anodic (corroding) metal must correspond to the number of electrons (negative charges) involved at the cathode. Beryllium

  12. Beryllium. Beryllium oxide, obtention and properties. Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of the 'Beryllium' series this work reviews several methods of high purity beryllia production. Diverse methods of obtention and purification from different beryllium compounds are described. Some chemical, mechanical and electrical properties related with beryllia obtention methods are summarized. (Author)

  13. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  14. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H. [JET Joint undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m{sup 2} to 5 MW/m{sup 2} and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m{sup 2}. These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures {le} 600{degrees}C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T{sub max} {le} 750{degrees}C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with {Phi} = 25 MW/m{sup 2} and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed.

  15. Beryllium usage in fusion blankets and beryllium data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing numbers of designers are choosing beryllium for fusion reactor blankets because it, among all nonfissile materials, produces the highest number (2.5 neutron in an infinite media) of neutrons per 14-MeV incident neutron. In amounts of about 20 cm of equivalent solid density, it can be used to produce fissile material, to breed all the tritium consumed in ITER from outboard blankets only, and in designs to produce Co-60. The problem is that predictions of neutron multiplication in beryllium are off by some 10 to 20% and appear to be on the high side, which means that better multiplication measurements and numerical methods are needed. The n,2n reactions result in two helium atoms, which cause radiation damage in the form of hardening at low temperatures (300/degree/C). The usual way beryllium parts are made is by hot pressing the powder. A lower cost method is to cold press and then sinter. There is no radiation damage data on this form of beryllium. The issues of corrosion, safety relative to the release of the tritium built-up inside beryllium, and recycle of used beryllium are also discussed. 10 figs

  16. Rapacuronium bromide (Organon Teknika).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, A N

    1999-07-01

    Organon Teknika's rapacuronium bromide (Org-9487), the 16-N-allyl, 17-beta-propionate analog of vecuronium bromide, is in phase III clinical trials in the US and Europe for potential use as an anesthetic. It is a steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug characterized by low potency, rapid rate of block development and short time course of neuromuscular blocking action as compared with other non-depolarizing compounds [170210,221422]. A multicenter, randomized, assessor-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study in patients undergoing tracheal intubation showed that the drug produced a dose dependent neuromuscular block. Doses of 1.5 to 2 mg/kg allowed rapid intubation and short duration of action [273336]. Another study showed that the drug does not cause cardiovascular side-effects [273336]. A meeting was held in Europe on 8 February 1999 to brief company employees on the registration and release of rapacuronium [319211] for which the company anticipates a launch in late 1999 [320706]. Organon estimates that the market value of Org-9487 is between dollar 100 m and dollar 250 m a year, each for Europe and the US [221422].

  17. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET

  18. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  19. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  20. Beryllium Related Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylord, R F

    2008-12-23

    In recent months, LLNL has identified, commenced, and implemented a series of interim controls, compensatory measures, and initiatives to ensure worker safety, and improve safety processes with regards to potential worker exposure to beryllium. Many of these actions have been undertaken in response to the NNSA Independent Review (COR-TS-5/15/2008-8550) received by LLNL in November of 2008. Others are the result of recent discoveries, events or incidents, and lessons learned, or were scheduled corrective actions from earlier commitments. Many of these actions are very recent in nature, or are still in progress, and vary in the formality of implementation. Actions are being reviewed for effectiveness as they progress. The documentation of implementation, and review of effectiveness, when appropriate, of these actions will be addressed as part of the formal Corrective Action Plan addressing the Independent Review. The mitigating actions taken fall into the following categories: (1) Responses to specific events/concerns; (2) Development of interim controls; (3) Review of ongoing activities; and (4) Performance improvement measures.

  1. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  2. Status of beryllium materials for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible use of beryllium as a material for fusion reactors is discussed. Based on the results of recent Russian elaborations, which were not covered previously in the scientific literature, an attempt of complex analysis of the techniques of using beryllium is made. The specific requirements on beryllium as a protective material for first wall and divertor are considered. Also the possibility of creating a fusion grade of beryllium is discussed and an optimum strategy is suggested. (orig.)

  3. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  4. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is

  5. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kato, M. [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Aichi-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700{degrees}C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper).

  6. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  7. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, 'Minnema Report.'

  8. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  9. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a ''window'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in ''windows'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed

  10. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  11. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R

    1987-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of a number of beryllium compounds has been confirmed in experiments on laboratory animals and this metal has to be treated as a possible carcinogenic threat to man. These carcinogenic properties are associated with mutagenic activity as shown by the results of short-term tests performed in vitro with beryllium chloride and beryllium sulfate. These soluble beryllium compounds can produce some infidelity of in vitro synthesis, forward gene mutations in microorganisms and in mammalian cells. They are also able to induce cell transformation. In addition to the positive results obtained in several short-term assays beryllium compounds have been found to bind to nucleoproteins, to inhibit certain enzymes needed for DNA synthesis, to bind nucleic acids to cell membranes and to inhibit microtubule polymerization. The teratogenicity of beryllium salts is relatively unknown and needs additional investigation.

  12. Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

  13. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined form the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing(HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  14. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  15. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  16. Assessment of LANL beryllium waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to determine present status of the preparation and implementation of the various high priority documents required to properly manage the beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory. The documents being assessed are: Waste Acceptance Criteria, Waste Characterization Plan, Waste Certification Plan, Waste Acceptance Procedures, Waste Characterization Procedures, Waste Certification Procedures, Waste Training Procedures and Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Beryllium is regulated (as a dust) under 40 CFR 261.33 as ''Discarded commercial chemical products, off specification species, container residues and spill residues thereof.'' Beryllium is also identified in the 3rd thirds ruling of June 1, 1990 as being restricted from land disposal (as a dust). The beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory is handled separately because beryllium has been identified as a highly toxic carcinogenic material

  17. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  18. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-12-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described.

  19. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  20. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented

  1. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure

  2. Preliminary proposal for a beryllium technology program for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program was designed to provide the answers to the critical issues of beryllium technology needed in fusion blanket designs. The four tasks are as follows: (1) Beryllium property measurements needed for fusion data base. (2) Beryllium stress relaxation and creep measurements for lifetime modelling calculations. (3) Simplified recycle technique development for irradiated beryllium. (4) Beryllium neutron multiplier measurements using manganese bath absolute calibration techniques

  3. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  4. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

  5. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  6. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth; Casse, Michel; Audouze, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to...

  7. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  8. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  9. Conversion of Alcohols to Bromides by Trimethylsilane and lithium Bromide in Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Feng; Zhang Xiao-xia; Zhang Qing; Wang Ji-yu; Chen Dai-mo

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides is one of the most frequently used functional group transformation reactions. Phosphorus tribromide is one of the most popular classical reagents.Triphenylphosphine has been used in combination with bromine,carbon tetrabromide,N-halo imides and other bromide compounds as a mild reagents for the preparation of alkyl bromides.More reacently, halotrimethylsilanes were found to be useful for halogenation of alcohols. George A.Olah successfully converted alcohols to bromides with chlorotrimethylsilane/lithium bromide in acetonitrile. But in our research, we found that we got no bromides but methylation products when we planed to convered our substances to bromides according to Gerge's method. We did some experiments, and we found that when the substituent group in the 2-N was donor group,we got the methylation products,but when it was acceptor group,the bromide could be got.(Scheme 1).Then we did some experiments with several other solvents, we found excitedly that when the solvent was acetone ,the bromides could be got even the substituent group was donor.(Scheme 2).When we changed the substances to normal alcohols ,such as ethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,isopropyl alcohol and 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol,we also got the bromides.In conclusion, we found a simple method to convert alcohols to bromides with trimethylsilane/li thium bromide in acetone,which was better than Geroge's method.

  10. Beryllium. Health hazards and their control. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work (continuation of 'Beryllium' series) health hazards, toxic effects, limits of permissible atmospheric contamination and safe exposure to beryllium are described. Guidelines to the design, control operations and hygienic precautions of the working facilities are given. (Author)

  11. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  12. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F

    1992-05-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls.

  13. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) (63 FR 66940). After considering the comments received, DOE... CFR Part 850 RIN 1992-AA39 Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program AGENCY: Office of Health... beryllium disease prevention program. The Department solicits comment and information on the...

  14. Spectrographic determination of impurities in beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the spectrographic determination of Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, NaNi, Si and Zn in nuclear grade beryllium oxide has been developed. The determination of Co, Al, Na and Zn is besed upon a carrier distillation technique. Better results were obtained with 2% Ga2O3 as carrier in beryllium oxide. For the elements B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mg, Ni and Si the sample is loaded in a Scribner-Mullin shallow cup electrode, covered with graphite powder and excited in DC arc. The relative standard deviation values for different elements are in the range of 10 to 20%. The method fulfills requirements of precision and sensitivity for specification analysis of nuclear grade beryllium oxide.(Author)

  15. [Effects of beryllium chloride on cultured cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T; Sakaguchi, S; Nakamura, I; Kagami, M

    1984-05-01

    The effects of beryllium on cultured cells were investigated. Three cell-lines (HeLa-S3, Vero, HEL-R66) were used in these experiments and they were cultured in Eagle's MEM plus 5 or 10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) containing beryllium in various concentrations. HeLa cells or Vero cells were able to grow in the medium with 10 micrograms Be/ml (1.1 mM). On the other hand, the growth of HEL cells were strongly inhibited, even when cultured in the medium with 1 microgram Be/ml (1.1 X 10(-1) mM) and the number of living cells showed markedly low level as compared to that of the control samples cultured in the medium without beryllium. The cytotoxic effects of beryllium on these cells, which were cultured for three days in the medium with beryllium, were observed. None of cytotoxic effects were found on HeLa cells cultured with 0.5 micrograms/ml (5.5 X 10(-2) mM) and on Vero cells cultured with 0.05 micrograms Be/ml (5.5 X 10(-3) mM), while HEL cells received cytotoxic effects even when cultured in the medium containing 0.05 micrograms Be/ml (5.5 X 10(-3) mM), and these effects on the cells appeared strong when cultured in the medium without FBS. It was revealed from these experiments that HEL cells are very sensitive in terms of toxic effects of beryllium. Therefore, there cells can be used for the toxicological study on low level concentrations of the metal.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2006-01-01

    Beryllium metal is lighter than aluminum and stiffer than steel. These and other properties, including its strength, dimensional stability, thermal properties and reflectivity, make it useful for aerospace and defense applications, such as satellite and space-vehicle structural components. Beryllium’s nuclear properties, combined with its low density, make it useful as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Because it is transparent to most X rays, beryllium is used as X-ray windows in medical, industrial and analytical equipment.

  17. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques.

  18. Investigation of drug interactions with pinaverium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devred, C; Godeau, P; Guerot, C; Librez, P; Mougeot, G; Orsetti, A; Segrestaa, J M

    1986-01-01

    A series of studies was carried out at 6 centres to investigate possible drug interaction between the spasmolytic, pinaverium bromide, and cardiac glycosides, anticoagulants and hypoglycaemic agents given to patients as part of the long-term treatment of their condition. The results of clinical and laboratory investigations did not show any evidence of pinaverium bromide interfering with the action or activity of any of the drugs studied. PMID:3084176

  19. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Donne, M.D. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Neutronphysik and Reaktortechnik; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. [McMaster Univ., Ontario, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1994-05-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma facing component of first wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold isostatic pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.

  20. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

    2002-10-01

    Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern. PMID:12442995

  1. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma-facing component of first-wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold-isostatic-pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well as its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.In this current work, the range of anticipated fusion operating conditions is reviewed. The thermal, mechanical, chemical compatibility, tritium retention/release, and helium retention/swelling databases are then reviewed for fabrication methods and fusion operating conditions of interest. Properties correlations and uncertainty ranges are also discussed. In the case of the more complex phenomena of tritium retention/release and helium-induced swelling, fundamental mechanisms and models are reviewed in more detail. Areas in which additional data are needed are highlighted, along with some trends which suggest ways of optimizing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications. (orig.)

  2. Safety handling of beryllium for fusion technology R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility of beryllium use as a blanket neutron multiplier, first wall and plasma facing material has been studied for the D-T burning experiment reactors such as ITER. Various experimental work of beryllium and its compounds will be performed under the conditions of high temperature and high energy particle exposure simulating fusion reactor conditions. Beryllium is known as a hazardous substance and its handling has been carefully controlled by various health and safe guidances and/or regulations in many countries. Japanese regulations for hazardous substance provide various guidelines on beryllium for the protection of industrial workers and environment. This report was prepared for the safe handling of beryllium in a laboratory scale experiments for fusion technology R and D such as blanket development. Major items in this report are; (1) Brief review of guidances and regulations in USA, UK and Japan. (2) Safe handling and administration manuals at beryllium facilities in INEL, LANL and JET. (3) Conceptual design study of beryllium handling facility for small to mid-scale blanket R and D. (4) Data on beryllium toxicity, example of clinical diagnosis of beryllium disease, and environmental occurence of beryllium. (5) Personnel protection tools of Japanese Industrial Standard for hazardous substance. (author) 61 refs

  3. Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium

  4. Study on neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as neutron multiplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    More than 300 tons beryllium is expected to be used as a neutron multiplier in ITER, and study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) were performed to get the engineering data for fusion blanket design. This study started as the study on the tritium behavior in beryllium neutron reflector in order to make clear the generation mechanism on tritium of JMTR primary coolant since 1985. These experiences were handed over to beryllium studies for fusion study, and overall studies such as production technology of beryllium pebbles, irradiation behavior evaluation and reprocessing technology have been started since 1990. In this presentation, study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with JMTR was reviewed from the point of tritium release, thermal properties, mechanical properties and reprocessing technology. (author)

  5. Status of material development for lifetime expansion of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been used as the reflector element material in the reactor, specifically S-200F structural grade beryllium manufactured by Materion Brush Beryllium and Composites (former, Brush Wellman Inc.). As a part of the reactor upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) also has carried out the cooperation experiments to extend the operating lifetime of the beryllium reflector elements. It will first be necessary to determine which of the material's physical, mechanical and chemical properties will be the most influential on that choice. The irradiation testing plans to evaluate the various beryllium grades are also briefly considered and prepared. In this paper, material selection, irradiation test plan and PEI development for lifetime expansion of beryllium are described for material testing reactors. (author)

  6. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride; Rueckhaltemechanismen fuer Wasserstoff in metallischem Beryllium und Berylliumoxid sowie Eigenschaften von ioneninduziertem Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-09-22

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of plasma sprayed beryllium ITER first wall mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.

    1998-01-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/m{sup 2} without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface. (author)

  8. Plasma cleaning of beryllium coated mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Newman, M.; Widdowson, A.; Ivanova, D.; Likonen, J.; Petersson, P.; Pintsuk, G.; Rubel, M.; Meyer, E.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Cleaning systems of metallic first mirrors are needed in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems from ITER to avoid reflectivity losses. Currently, plasma sputtering is considered as one of the most promising techniques to remove deposits coming from the main wall (mainly beryllium and tungsten). This work presents the results of plasma cleaning of rhodium and molybdenum mirrors exposed in JET-ILW and contaminated with typical tokamak elements (including beryllium and tungsten). Using radio frequency (13.56 MHz) argon or helium plasma, the removal of mixed layers was demonstrated and mirror reflectivity improved towards initial values. The cleaning was evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis.

  9. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Scholz, M.; Igielski, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS (IFJPAN), Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Karpinski, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock - Swierk (Poland)

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  10. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-01

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, α)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting β- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  11. Behavior of beryllium pebbles under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik; Baldwin, D.L.; Gelles, D.S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Kawamura, H.; Oliver, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium pebbles are being considered in fusion reactor blanket designs as neutron multiplier. An example is the European `Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket.` Several forms of beryllium pebbles are commercially available but little is known about these forms in response to fast neutron irradiation. Commercially available beryllium pebbles have been irradiated to approximately 1.3 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 390degC. Pebbles 1-mm in diameter manufactured by Brush Wellman, USA and by Nippon Gaishi Company, Japan, and 3-mm pebbles manufactured by Brush Wellman were included. All were irradiated in the below-core area of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho Falls, USA, in molybdenum alloy capsules containing helium. Post-irradiation results are presented on density change measurements, tritium release by assay, stepped-temperature anneal, and thermal ramp desorption tests, and helium release by assay and stepped-temperature anneal measurements, for Be pebbles from two manufacturing methods, and with two specimen diameters. The experimental results on density change and tritium and helium release are compared with the predictions of the code ANFIBE. (author)

  12. Dynamic behaviour of S200F beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compression tests have been made on a large scale of strain, strain rate (up to 2000 s-1) and temperature (between 20 C and 300 C). From these experiences, we have calculated a constitutive model for beryllium S200F, which can be used by computer codes. Its formulation is not far from Steinberg, Cochran and Guinan's. But in our case, the influences of temperature and strain rate appear clearly within the expression. To validate our equation, we have used it in a computer code. Its extrapolation for higher strain rates is in good agreement with experiments such as Taylor impact tests or plate impact tests (strain rates greater than 104 s-1). With micrography, we could settle a link between the main strain mode within the material, and the variation of one parameter of the model. Beside the constitutive model, we have shown that shock loaded beryllium behaves in two different ways. If the strain rate is lower than 5.106 s-1, then it is proportional to the squared shock pressure. Beyond, it is a linear function of shock pressure to the power of four. By a spall study on beryllium, we have confirmed that it is excessively fragile. Its fracture is sudden, at a strength near 1 GPa. (author)

  13. Interaction of nitrogen ions with beryllium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobes, Katharina [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Association EURATOM ÖAW, Vienna (Austria); Köppen, Martin [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oberkofler, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lungu, Cristian P.; Porosnicu, Corneliu [National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Höschen, Till; Meisl, Gerd [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Linsmeier, Christian [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Aumayr, Friedrich, E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Association EURATOM ÖAW, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of energetic nitrogen projectiles with a beryllium surface is studied using a highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance technique. The overall mass change rate of the beryllium sample under N{sub 2}{sup +} ion impact at an ion energy of 5000 eV (i.e. 2500 eV per N) is investigated in situ and in real-time. A strong dependency of the observed mass change rate on the nitrogen fluence (at constant flux) is found and can be attributed to the formation of a nitrogen-containing mixed material layer within the ion penetration depth. The presented data elucidate the dynamics of the interaction process and the surface saturation with increasing nitrogen fluence in a unique way. Basically, distinct interaction regimes can be discriminated, which can be linked to the evolution of the surface composition upon nitrogen impact. Steady state surface conditions are obtained at a total cumulative nitrogen fluence of ∼80 × 10{sup 16} N atoms per cm{sup 2}. In dynamic equilibrium, the interaction is marked by continuous surface erosion. In this case, the observed total sputtering yield becomes independent from the applied nitrogen fluence and is of the order of 0.4 beryllium atoms per impinging nitrogen atom.

  14. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  15. [The clinical pharmacological profile of pinaverium bromide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guslandi, M

    1994-04-01

    Pinaverium bromide is a locally acting spasmolytic agent of the digestive tract. Its mechanism of action relies upon inhibition of calcium ion entrance into smooth muscle cells (calcium-antagonist effect). In humans pinaverium facilitates gastric emptying and decreases intestinal transit time in patients with constipation. Pinaverium is very effective in improving symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (abdominal pain, gas, diarrhea or constipation). In this respect the drug proved to be significantly superior to placebo, at least as effective as trimebutine and on the whole more active than otilonium and prifinium bromide, being always extremely well tolerated. PMID:8028745

  16. Effects of pinaverium bromide on Oddi's sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSomma, C; Reboa, G; Patrone, M G; Mortola, G P; Sala, G; Ciampini, M

    1986-01-01

    Twelve to 15 days after cholecystectomy, endocholedochal pressure was measured in ten patients before and one hour after oral administration of 15 mg of pinaverium bromide (six patients) or placebo. The mean endocholedochal pressure was 7.1 +/- 0.25 mmHg before and 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmHg after pinaverium (P less than 0.01), and 7.0 +/- 0.2 and 6.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg in the placebo-treated patients. The results suggest that pinaverium bromide has a specific effect on the common bile duct and probably on Oddi's sphincter. PMID:3815457

  17. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, A.; Macke, A.J.H.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure electronic conductivity in lead bromide in equilibrium with lead, since experimental data on the cell −Pb/PbBr2/C+ in the literature are not consistent with existing theories. Combination of our results with published data for bromine-induced hole conduction in lead br

  18. A comparison of the action of otilonium bromide and pinaverium bromide: study conducted under clinical control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrance, P; Casini, A

    1991-11-01

    We studied 40 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) which received in a simple-blind fashion otilonium and pinaverium bromide (15 days each drug). During each 15-day period we evaluated: number of pain episodes, intensity of pain, number of bowel movements, side effects. Otilonium bromide, (OB), compared with pinaverium bromide was able to significantly (p less than 0.05) reduce the number of pain attacks, whereas no significant differences were found between the 2 groups as regards the other parameters. The occurrence of side effects was similar in the two treatment courses. We can conclude that the two types of treatment were similarly useful in IBS, although OB seems more effective than pinaverium bromide. PMID:1756286

  19. Experiments on studying beryllium - steam interaction, determination of oxidated beryllium emissivity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of beryllium emissivity factor measurements within 700-1300 K temperature range. The tests were conducted at Institute of Atomic Energy of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan to receive experimental data for verification of calculation programs describing an accident involving water coolant discharge into ITER reactor vacuum cavity. (author)

  20. Beryllium toxicity testing in the suspension culture of mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössner, P; Bencko, V

    1980-01-01

    Suspension culture of mouse fibroblast cell line L-A 115 was used to test beryllium toxicity in the presence of magnesium ions. Beryllium added to the MEM cultivation medium was bound in a complex with sulphosalicylic acid BeSSA complex, because the use of beryllium chloride turned out to yield ineffective beryllium phosphate that formed macroscopically detectable insoluble opacities. The BeSSA complex was used in the concentration range: 10(-3)--10(-9)M, magnesium was used in 3 concentrations: 10(-1)M, 5 x 10(-2)M and 10(-2)M. Growth curve analysis revealed pronounced beryllium toxicity at the concentration of 10(-3)M, magnesium-produced toxic changes were observed only at the concentration of 10(-1)M. No competition between the beryllium and magnesium ions was recorded. It is assumed that the possible beryllium-magnesium competition was significantly modified by the use of BeSSA complex-bound beryllium.

  1. Ionization energies of beryllium in strong magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANXiao-xu; ZHANGYue-xia

    2004-01-01

    We have develop an effective frozen core approximation to calculate energy levels and ionization enegies of the beryllium atom in magnetic field strengths up to 2.35 × 105T. Systematic improvement over the Hartree-Fock results for the beryllium low-lying states has been accomplished.

  2. Joining of beryllium by braze welding technique: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaim, P.; Abramov, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Zalkind, S.; Eden, S.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of some applications, there is a need to join beryllium parts to each other. Gas Tungsten Arc Braze Welds were made in beryllium using 0.3 mm commercially Aluminum (1100) shim preplaced at the joint. The welds exhibited a tendency to form microcracks in the Fusion Zone and Heat Affected Zone. All the microcracks were backfilled with Aluminum. (author)

  3. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  4. Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 μm hr-1 were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates

  5. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Beryllium by Mean Centering of Ratio Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Samghani, Kobra; Arbab-Zavar, Mohammad Hossein; Heidari, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Trace amounts of beryllium has been determined by spectrofluorimetric method that used morin as fluorimetric reagent. Beryllium gives a highly fluorescent complex with morin. The excitation wavelength of morin and Be-morin complex were 410 and 430. The fluorescence spectra of morin and Be-morin complex were overlaped in excitation wavelength of 430 nm. A method based on mean centering of ratio spectra has been performed to remove the interference caused by morin as it overlaps with the Be-morin spectra. The linear range of beryllium concentration is in 0.2-200 ppb range. The parameters of detection limit and RSD were 0.18 ppb and 4.6 % respectively. This method was used for determination of beryllium in copper-beryllium alloy as a real sample. In determination of Be(II), the interference by Cu(II) was very serious, which was eliminated by adding triethanolamine. PMID:27265354

  6. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C activity in unroasted [14C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH3Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH3Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH3Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  7. [Research advances in methyl bromide in the ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-na; Xie, Wen-xia; Cui, Yu-qian; Chen, Jian-lei; Ye, Si-yuan

    2014-12-01

    Methyl bromide is an important atmospheric trace gas, which plays significant roles in the global warming and atmospheric chemistry. The ocean plays important and complex roles in the global biogeochemical cycles of methyl bromide, not only the source of atmospheric methyl bromide, but also the sink. Therefore, developing the chemical research of the soluble methyl bromide in the ocean, will not only have a certain guiding significance to the atmospheric ozone layer protection, but also provide a theoretical basis for estimating methyl bromide's contribution to the global environmental change on global scale. This paper reviewed the research advances on methyl bromide in the ocean, from the aspects of the biogeochemical cycle of methyl bromide in the ocean, the analysis and determination method, the concentration distribution, the sea-to-air flux and its sources and sinks in the atmosphere. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future studies were prospected. PMID:25876424

  8. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium; Determinazione fluorimetrica del berillio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparacino, N.; Sabbioneda, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-10-01

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure.

  9. Inhibitory effects of beryllium chloride on rat liver microsomal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C F; Yasaka, W J; Silva, L F; Oshiro, T T; Oga, S

    1990-04-30

    A single i.v. dose (0.1 mmol Be2+/kg) of beryllium chloride prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, in rats. The effects are correlated with changes of the pharmacokinetic parameters and with the in vitro inhibition of both aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation of pentobarbital and zoxazolamine. In vitro N-demethylation of meperidine and aminopyrine was partially inhibited while O-demethylation of quinidine was unaffected by liver microsomes of rats pretreated with beryllium salt. The findings give clues that beryllium chloride inhibits some forms of cytochrome P-450, especially those responsible for hydroxylation of substrates, like pentobarbital and zoxazolamine.

  10. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium windows surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined. (orig.)

  11. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  12. Development of Beryllium Vacuum Chamber Technology for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R; Dorn, C

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is the material of choice for the beam vacuum chambers around collision points in particle colliders due to a combination of transparency to particles, high specific stiffness and compatibility with ultra-high vacuum. New requirements for these chambers in the LHC experiments have driven the development of new methods for the manufacture of beryllium chambers. This paper reviews the requirements for experimental vacuum chambers. It describes the new beryllium technology adopted for the LHC and experience gained in the manufacture and installation.

  13. Cosmis Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangioni-Flam, E.; Cassé, M.

    Light element nucleosynthesis is an important chapter of nuclear astrophysics. Specifically, the rare and fragile light nuclei Lithium, Beryllium and Boron (LiBeB) are not generated in the normal course of stellar nucleosynthesis (except Lithium-7) and are, in fact, destroyed in stellar interiors. This characteristic is reflected in the low abundance of these simple species. Up to recently, the most plausible interpretation was that galactic cosmic rays (GCR) interact with interstellar CNO to form LiBeB. Other origins have been also identified, primordial and stellar (Lithium-7) and supernova neutrino spallation (Lithium-7 and Boron-11). In contrast, Beryllium-9, Boron-10 and Lithium-6 are pure spallative products. This last isotope presents a special interest since the Lithium-7/Lithium-6 ratio has been measured in a few halo stars offering a new constraint on the early galactic evolution. However, in the nineties, new observations prompted astrophysicists to reassess the question. Optical measurements of the beryllium and boron abundances in halo stars have been achieved by the 10 meters KECK telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. These observations indicate a quasi linear correlation between Be and B vs Fe, at least at low metallicity, unexpected on the basis of GCR scenario, predicting a quadratic relationship. As a consequence, the origin and the evolution of the LiBeB nuclei has been revisited. This linearity implies the acceleration of C and O nuclei freshly synthesized and their fragmentation on the the interstellar Hydrogen and Helium. Wolf-Rayet stars and supernovae via the shock waves induced, are the best candidates to the acceleration of their own material enriched into C and O; so LiBeB is produced independently of the Interstellar Medium chemical composition. Moreover, neutrinos emitted by the newly born neutron stars interacting with the C layer of the supernova could produce specifically Lithium-7 and Boron-11. This process is supported by the

  14. Extraction of beryllium from refractory beryllium oxide with dilute ammonium bifluoride and determination by fluorescence: a multiparameter performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldcamp, Michael J; Goldcamp, Diane M; Ashley, Kevin; Fernback, Joseph E; Agrawal, Anoop; Millson, Mark; Marlow, David; Harrison, Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    Beryllium exposure can cause a number of deleterious health effects, including beryllium sensitization and the potentially fatal chronic beryllium disease. Efficient methods for monitoring beryllium contamination in workplaces are valuable to help prevent dangerous exposures to this element. In this work, performance data on the extraction of beryllium from various size fractions of high-fired beryllium oxide (BeO) particles (from bifluoride (ABF) solution were obtained under various conditions. Beryllium concentrations were determined by fluorescence using a hydroxybenzoquinoline fluorophore. The effects of ABF concentration and volume, extraction temperature, sample tube types, and presence of filter or wipe media were examined. Three percent ABF extracts beryllium nearly twice as quickly as 1% ABF; extraction solution volume has minimal influence. Elevated temperatures increase the rate of extraction dramatically compared with room temperature extraction. Sample tubes with constricted tips yield poor extraction rates owing to the inability of the extraction medium to access the undissolved particles. The relative rates of extraction of Be from BeO of varying particle sizes were examined. Beryllium from BeO particles in fractions ranging from less than 32 microm up to 212 microm were subjected to various extraction schemes. The smallest BeO particles are extracted more quickly than the largest particles, although at 90 degrees C even the largest BeO particles reach nearly quantitative extraction within 4 hr in 3% ABF. Extraction from mixed cellulosic-ester filters, cellulosic surface-sampling filters, wetted cellulosic dust wipes, and cotton gloves yielded 90% or greater recoveries. Scanning electron microscopy of BeO particles, including partially dissolved particles, shows that dissolution in dilute ABF occurs not just on the exterior surface but also via accessing particles' interiors due to porosity of the BeO material. Comparison of dissolution kinetics data

  15. Investigation of the ion beryllium surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Birukov, A.Yu.; Gureev, V.M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The self -sputtering yield of the Be was measured. The energy dependence of the Be self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by W. Eckstein et. al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yield is temperature independent; at T{sub irr}.> 870 K it increases sharply. Hot-pressed samples at 370 K were implanted with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary plasma (flux power {approximately} 5 MW/m{sup 2}). The investigation of hydrogen behavior in beryllium shows that at low doses hydrogen is solved, but at doses {ge} 5x10{sup 22} m{sup -2} the bubbles and channels are formed. It results in hydrogen profile shift to the surface and decrease of its concentration. The sputtering results in further concentration decrease at doses > 10{sup 25}m{sup -2}.

  16. Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R

    2014-01-01

    Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

  17. Geochemistry of beryllium in Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazy, Greta M. [Geology Department, University of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' , Tzar Osvoboditel 15, Sofia 1504 (Bulgaria)

    2006-04-03

    The beryllium content of about 3000 samples (coal, coaly shales, partings, coal lithotypes, and isolated coalified woods) from 16 Bulgarian coal deposits was determined by atomic emission spectrography. Mean Be concentrations in coal show great variability: from 0.9 to 35 ppm for the deposits studied. There was no clear-cut relationship between Be content and rank. The following mean and confidence interval Be values were measured: lignites, 2.6+/-0.8 ppm; sub-bituminous coals, 8.2+/-3.3 ppm; bituminous coals, 3.0+/-1.2 ppm; and anthracites, 19+/-9.0 ppm. The Be contents in coal and coaly shales for all deposits correlated positively suggesting a common source of the element. Many samples of the coal lithotypes vitrain and xylain proved to be richer in Be than the hosting whole coal samples as compared on ash basis. Up to tenfold increase in Be levels was routinely recorded in fusain. The ash of all isolated coalified woods was found to contain 1.1 to 50 times higher Be content relative to its global median value for coal inclusions. Indirect evidence shows that Be occurs in both organic and inorganic forms. Beryllium is predominantly organically bound in deposits with enhanced Be content, whereas the inorganic form prevails in deposits whose Be concentration approximates Clarke values. The enrichment in Be exceeding the coal Clarke value 2.4 to 14.5 times in some of the Bulgarian deposits is attributed to subsynchronous at the time of coal deposition hydrothermal and volcanic activity. (author)

  18. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  19. Europium-doped barium bromide iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundiah, Gautam; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Hollander, Fredrick J.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2009-10-21

    Single crystals of Ba0.96Eu0.04BrI (barium europium bromide iodide) were grown by the Bridgman technique. The title compound adopts the ordered PbCl2 structure [Braekken (1932). Z. Kristallogr. 83, 222-282]. All atoms occupy the fourfold special positions (4c, site symmetry m) of the space group Pnma with a statistical distribution of Ba and Eu. They lie on the mirror planes, perpendicular to the b axis at y = +-0.25. Each cation is coordinated by nine anions in a tricapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.

  20. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Terry

    2013-01-25

    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify

  1. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  2. Beryllium nitride thin film grown by reactive laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    G. Soto; Diaz, J.A.; Machorro, R.; Reyes-Serrato, A.; de la Cruz, W.

    2001-01-01

    Beryllium nitride thin films were grown on silicon substrates by laser ablating a beryllium foil in molecular nitrogen ambient. The composition and chemical state were determined with Auger (AES), X-Ray photoelectron (XPS) and energy loss (EELS) spectroscopies. A low absorption coefficient in the visible region, and an optical bandgap of 3.8 eV, determined by reflectance ellipsometry, were obtained for films grown at nitrogen pressures higher than 25 mTorr. The results show that the reaction ...

  3. Determination of beryllium by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawisza, Beata

    2008-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method is subject to certain difficulties and inconveniences for the elements having the atomic number 9 or less. These difficulties become progressively more severe as the atomic number decreases, and are quite serious for beryllium, which is practically indeterminable directly by XRF. Therefore, an indirect determination of beryllium that is based on the evaluation of cobalt in the precipitate is taken into consideration. In the thesis below, there is a description of a new, simple, and precise method by selective precipitation using hexamminecobalt(III) chloride and ammonium carbonate-EDTA solution as a complexing agent for the determining of a trace amount of beryllium using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The optimum conditions for [Co(NH(3))(6)][Be(2)(OH)(3)(CO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)].(3)H(2)O complex formation were studied. The complex was collected on the membrane filter, and the Co Kalpha line was measured by XRF. The method presents the advantages of the sample preparation and the elimination of the matrix effects due to the thin film obtained. The detection limit of the proposed method is 0.2 mg of beryllium. The method was successfully applied to beryllium determination in copper/ beryllium/cobalt alloys.

  4. Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available

  5. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found.

  6. Beryllium data base for in-pile mockup test on blanket of fusion reactor, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been used in the fusion blanket designs with ceramic breeder as a neutron multiplier to increase the net tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The properties of beryllium, that is physical properties, chemical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, nuclear properties, radiation effects, etc. are necessary for the fusion blanket design. However, the properties of beryllium have not been arranged for the fusion blanket design. Therefore, it is indispensable to check and examine the material data of beryllium reported previously. This paper is the first one of the series of papers on beryllium data base, which summarizes the reported material data of beryllium. (author)

  7. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  8. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ..., which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of... include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM... methyl bromide. And, although methyl bromide tends to be lipid soluble, the low octanol-water...

  9. Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Strohmaler, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) was anaerobically degraded in saltmarsh sediments after reaction with sulfide. The product of this nucleophilic substitution reaction was methanethiol, which underwent further chemical and bacterial reactions to form dimethyl sulfide. These two gases appeared transiently during sediment incubations because they were metabolized by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A second, less significant reaction of MeBr was the exchange with chloride, forming methyl chloride, which was also susceptible to attack by sulfide. Incubation of 14C-labeled methyl iodide as an analogue of MeBr resulted in the formation of 14CH4 and 14CO2 and also indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as methanogens metabolized the methylated sulfur intermediates. These results suggest that exposed sediments with abundant free sulfide, such as coastal salt-marshes, may constitute a sink for atmospheric MeBr.

  10. Development of Interatomic Potentials for Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorkas, C.; Juslin, N.; Nordlund, K. [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Erhart, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, AK (United States); Henriksson, K. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: To be able to benefit from fusion as a clean and safe power source, we need a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic region of a fusion reactor. Knowing the interplay between the fuel plasma and the reactor components, such as the first wall and the divertor, one can minimize the resulting degradation. The atom-level mechanisms behind the reactions, (e.g. erosion and redeposition) are, however, not accessible to experiments. Hence, computational methods, including molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, are needed. The interactions in a system of particles are within MD described by an interatomic potential. The study of reactor processes requires models for the mixed interaction between the first wall and divertor materials beryllium, carbon and tungsten, as well as for the interaction of these with hydrogen. The absence of proper models for the Be system motivated us to develop potentials for pure Be, Be-C, Be-W and Be-H. We present a Tersoff-like bond order potential for pure Be and the same formalism applied to Be-C and Be-H. The performance of the potentials is discussed and an outlook for the remaining potential is also given. (authors)

  11. Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N C; Israelian, G; Mayor, M; Rebolo, R; García-Gíl, A; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Randich, S

    2002-01-01

    We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be deple...

  12. Electronic band structure of beryllium oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Sashin, V A; Kheifets, A S; Ford, M J

    2003-01-01

    The energy-momentum resolved valence band structure of beryllium oxide has been measured by electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). Band dispersions, bandwidths and intervalence bandgap, electron momentum density (EMD) and density of occupied states have been extracted from the EMS data. The experimental results are compared with band structure calculations performed within the full potential linear muffin-tin orbital approximation. Our experimental bandwidths of 2.1 +- 0.2 and 4.8 +- 0.3 eV for the oxygen s and p bands, respectively, are in accord with theoretical predictions, as is the s-band EMD after background subtraction. Contrary to the calculations, however, the measured p-band EMD shows large intensity at the GAMMA point. The measured full valence bandwidth of 19.4 +- 0.3 eV is at least 1.4 eV larger than the theory. The experiment also finds a significantly higher value for the p-to-s-band EMD ratio in a broad momentum range compared to the theory.

  13. Interaction of beryllium and hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been considered that in the plasma nuclear fusion experimental devices of magnetic field confinement type, in order to reduce the energy loss due to bremsstrahlung, the use of the plasma-facing materials (PFM) of low atomic number like carbon is indispensable at present. Attention is paid to beryllium which is one of the PFMs, and its effectiveness was rocognized by the practical use in JET. When Be is considered as a PFM, it is necessary to accumulate many data on the diffusion, dissolution, permeation and surface recoupling of hydrogen isotopes, which regulate the recycling and inventory of deuterium and tritium fuel, and the relation of these factors with the physical and chemical states of Be. In this research, as the first phase of understanding the characteristics of Be as a PFM, the change of the surface condition by heating Be was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the chemical form of the Be-related substances emitted from the surface by argon or deuterium ion sputtering and their thermal behavior were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The sample, the measurement and the results are reported. The diversified secondary ions of Be, Be cluster, Be oxide, hydroxide, hydride and deuteride were observed by the measurement, and their features are shown. (K.I.)

  14. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  15. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of bromide in clidinium-c drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Sheibani; M. Reza Shishehbore; Zahra Tavakolian Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been described for the determination of the trace amounts of bromide. The method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide ion on the oxidation of methylene blue by bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of methylene blue at 665 nm. Bromide was determined in the range of 0.05-1.90 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.03 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations of five replicate determinations of 0.20 and 10.0 μg/mL of bromide were 2.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering ions and substances was studied. The method is applied to the analysis of bromide in clidinium-c tablet as a real sample.

  16. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H{sub 2} gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m{sup 2}.

  17. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  18. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  19. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  20. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  1. A Report on the Validation of Beryllium Strength Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Derek Elswick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This report discusses work on validating beryllium strength models with flyer plate and Taylor rod experimental data. Strength models are calibrated with Hopkinson bar and quasi-static data. The Hopkinson bar data for beryllium provides strain rates up to about 4000 per second. A limitation of the Hopkinson bar data for beryllium is that it only provides information on strain up to about 0.15. The lack of high strain data at high strain rates makes it difficult to distinguish between various strength model settings. The PTW model has been calibrated many different times over the last 12 years. The lack of high strain data for high strain rates has resulted in these calibrated PTW models for beryllium exhibiting significantly different behavior when extrapolated to high strain. For beryllium, the α parameter of PTW has recently been calibrated to high precision shear modulus data. In the past the α value for beryllium was set based on expert judgment. The new α value for beryllium was used in a calibration of the beryllium PTW model by Sky Sjue. The calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Also, the calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the density changes of the beryllium sample during the Hopkinson bar and quasi-static experiments. In this paper, the calibrated PTW model by Sjue is compared against experimental data and other strength models. The other strength models being considered are a PTW model calibrated by Shuh- Rong Chen and a Steinberg-Guinan type model by John Pedicini. The three strength models are used in a comparison against flyer plate and Taylor rod data. The results show that the Chen PTW model provides better agreement to this data. The Chen PTW model settings have been previously adjusted to provide a better fit to flyer plate data, whereas the Sjue PTW model has not been changed based on flyer plate data. However, the Sjue model provides a reasonable fit to

  2. The results of medical surveillance of beryllium production personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of surveillance of 1836 workers of beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant JSC with the acute and chronic forms of occupation diseases for 52 years of its operation. The dependence of acute and chronic occupation lesions on the protection degree is shown. It has been found out that, the risk of getting an occupation disease increases sharply at the moments of experimental works and at the time of reconstruction and some other extreme conditions in the production, that is supported by fixed lesions of eye mucous coat, skin and lung lesions. In this case, the readiness of people for their work in deleterious conditions and their personal responsibility for following the regulations of safety occupational standards plays a definite role. Therefore, the issues of protection are of paramount importance in prophylaxis both of acute and chronic exposure to beryllium. An influence of duration of service and occupation on chronic beryllium diseases is shown. A parallel between the lung beryllium disease and skin lesions by insoluble beryllium compounds is drawn for the first time. (author)

  3. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers

  4. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  5. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  6. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  7. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful [Department of Physical Sciences, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) Dhaka (Bangladesh); Halder, Amal [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-05-15

    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.

  8. Photochemical Behavior of Beryllium Complexes with Subporphyrazines and Subphthalocyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2016-07-14

    Structures of beryllium subphthalocyanines and beryllium subporphyrazines complexes with different substituents are explored for the first time. Their photochemical properties are studied using time-dependent density functional theory calculations and compared to boron-related compounds for which their photochemical activity is already known. These beryllium compounds were found to be thermodynamically stable in a vacuum and present features similar to those of boron-containing analogues, although the nature of bonding between the cation and the macrocycle presents subtle differences. Most important contributions to the main peak in the Q-band region arise from HOMO to LUMO transitions in the case of subphthalocyanines and alkyl subporphyrazine complexes, whereas a mixture of that contribution and a HOMO-2 to LUMO contribution are present in the case of thioalkyl subporphyrazines. The absorption in the visible region could make these candidates suitable for photochemical devices if combined with appropriate donor groups. PMID:26812068

  9. Measurement of the ultracold neutron loss coefficient in beryllium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultracold neutron (UCN) reflection from beryllium powder at different slab thicknesses and different packing densities is measured. The reduced UCN loss coefficient η=(1.75±0.35)x10-4 for thermally untreated beryllium is extracted from experimental data. The formerly obtained experimental results on UCN reflection from beryllium after high temperature annealing are reconsidered. The loss coefficient η at room temperature in this case is obtained to be (6.4±2.5)x10-5, which is an order of magnitude higher than the theoretical one. The extraction of the loss coefficient from the experimental data is based on the modified diffusion theory where albedo reflection depends on packing density

  10. Field-emission spectroscopy of beryllium atoms adsorbed on tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyzewski, J.J.; Grzesiak, W.; Krajniak, J. (Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland))

    1981-01-01

    Field emission energy distributions (FEED) have been measured for the beryllium-tungsten (023) adsorption system over the 78-450 K temperature range. A temperature dependence of the normalized half-width, ..delta../d, of FEED peaks changed significantly due to beryllium adsorption; and the curve, ..delta../d vs p, for the Be/W adsorption system was identical in character to the calculated curve based on the free electron model in contrast to the curve for the clean tungsten surface. In the last part of this paper Gadzuk's theory of the resonance-tunneling effect is applied to the beryllium atom on tungsten. Experimental and theoretical curves of the enhancement factor as a function of energy have been discussed.

  11. Force-field parameters for beryllium complexes in amorphous layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanova, Svetlana; Chashchikhin, Vladimir; Bagaturyants, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Unknown force-field parameters for metal organic beryllium complexes used in emitting and electron transporting layers of OLED structures are determined. These parameters can be used for the predictive atomistic simulations of the structure and properties of amorphous organic layers containing beryllium complexes. The parameters are found for the AMBER force field using a relaxed scan procedure and quantum-mechanical DFT calculations of potential energy curves for specific internal (angular) coordinates in a series of three Be complexes (Bebq2; Be(4-mpp)2; Bepp2). The obtained parameters are verified in calculations of some molecular and crystal structures available from either quantum-mechanical DFT calculations or experimental data. Graphical Abstract Beryllium complexes in amorphous layersᅟ. PMID:27550375

  12. Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses for integral beryllium experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, U; Tsige-Tamirat, H

    2000-01-01

    The novel Monte Carlo technique for calculating point detector sensitivities has been applied to two representative beryllium transmission experiments with the objective to investigate the sensitivity of important responses such as the neutron multiplication and to assess the related uncertainties due to the underlying cross-section data uncertainties. As an important result, it has been revealed that the neutron multiplication power of beryllium can be predicted with good accuracy using state-of-the-art nuclear data evaluations. Severe discrepancies do exist for the spectral neutron flux distribution that would transmit into significant uncertainties of the calculated neutron spectra and of the nuclear blanket performance in blanket design calculations. With regard to this, it is suggested to re-analyse the secondary energy and angle distribution data of beryllium by means of Monte Carlo based sensitivity and uncertainty calculations. Related code development work is underway.

  13. Neutron irradiation behavior of ITER candidate beryllium grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Melder, R.R.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the main candidate materials both for the neutron multiplier in a solid breeding blanket and for the plasma facing components. That is why its behaviour under the typical for fusion reactor loading, in particular, under the neutron irradiation is of a great importance. This paper presents mechanical properties, swelling and microstructure of six beryllium grades (DshG-200, TR-30, TshG-56, TRR, TE-30, TIP-30) fabricated by VNIINM, Russia and also one - (S-65) fabricated by Brush Wellman, USA. The average grain size of the beryllium grades varied from 8 to 25 {mu}m, beryllium oxide content was 0.8-3.2 wt. %, initial tensile strength was 250-680 MPa. All the samples were irradiated in active zone of SM-3 reactor up to the fast neutron fluence (5.5-6.2) {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (2.7-3.0 dpa, helium content up to 1150 appm), E > 0.1 MeV at two temperature ranges: T{sub 1} = 130-180degC and T{sub 2} = 650-700degC. After irradiation at 130-180degC no changes in samples dimensions were revealed. After irradiation at 650-700degC swelling of the materials was found to be in the range 0.1-2.1 %. Beryllium grades TR-30 and TRR, having the smallest grain size and highest beryllium oxide content, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was no more than 0.1 % at 650-700degC and fluence 5.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Tensile and compression test results and microstructure parameters measured before and after irradiation are also presented. (author)

  14. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  15. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  16. Beryllium solubility in occupational airborne particles: Sequential extraction procedure and workplace application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Davy; Durand, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Modification of an existing sequential extraction procedure for inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and in working areas is described. The speciation protocol was adapted to carry out beryllium extraction in closed-face cassette sampler to take wall deposits into account. This four-step sequential extraction procedure aims to separate beryllium salts, metal, and oxides from airborne particles for individual quantification. Characterization of the beryllium species according to their solubility in air samples may provide information relative to toxicity, which is potentially related to the different beryllium chemical forms. Beryllium salts (BeF(2), BeSO(4)), metallic beryllium (Bemet), and beryllium oxide (BeO) were first individually tested, and then tested in mixtures. Cassettes were spiked with these species and recovery rates were calculated. Quantitative analyses with matched matrix were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method Detection Limits (MDLs) were calculated for the four matrices used in the different extraction steps. In all cases, the MDL was below 4.2 ng/sample. This method is appropriate for assessing occupational exposure to beryllium as the lowest recommended threshold limit values are 0.01 µg.m(-3) in France([) (1) (]) and 0.05 µg.m(-3) in the USA.([ 2 ]) The protocol was then tested on samples from French factories where occupational beryllium exposure was suspected. Beryllium solubility was variable between factories and among the same workplace between different tasks. PMID:26327570

  17. A new convenient access to highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yubo Jiang; Chunxiang Kuang

    2009-11-01

    Highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides were prepared in high yields through a new convenient access by acylation of ()-4-(2-bromovinyl)phenol with fatty and aromatic acids at room temperature using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) and dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP).

  18. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water.

  19. Effects of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol aerosols in pulmonary emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J A; Tobin, M. J.; Bellamy, D; Hutchison, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    In patients with radiological evidence of pulmonary emphysema the bronchodilator drugs fenoterol and ipratropium bromide produced a considerable increase in vital capacity and reduction in residual volume. The response to fenoterol was virtually complete 15 minutes after administration, but after ipratropium bromide vital capacity was still increasing at 60 minutes. The change in vital capacity was slightly greater with a combination of the two drugs than with either used alone. Changes in FE...

  20. Quantum Chemistry Study on Dissociation of Oxalyl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The multi-bond dissociation dynamics of oxalyl bromide ((BrCO)2) has been investigated by DFT and CIS calculations. Upon the results, conclusion could be drawn that dissociation of C-Br bond of oxalyl bromide at the ground state (S0) is of barrierless. After the absorption of a photon, (BrCO)2 is excited to the first excited state and one of its C-Br bonds is broken to yield dissociate.

  1. Some features of beryllium corrosion behavior in Be-liquid Li-V-4Ti-4Cr alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental results on beryllium corrosion behavior in a V-4Ti-4Cr alloy, liquid lithium static system during testing for 200-500 h at temperatures from 600 to 800 deg. C are presented. The influence of test conditions (temperature, duration and lithium purity) and beryllium characteristics (microstructure, grain size and chemical composition) on weight loss of beryllium and penetration of lithium into beryllium are discussed. Results of compressive tests for beryllium specimens before and after corrosion testing are also introduced

  2. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: michael.klimenkov@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  3. Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent

    2005-03-09

    This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

  4. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.

    2014-12-01

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  5. Codeposition of deuterium ions with beryllium oxide at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Markin, A V; Gorodetsky, A E; Negodaev, M A; Rozhanskii, N V; Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H; Wu, C H; Zalavutdinov, R K; Zakharov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-loaded BeO films were produced by sputtering the beryllium target with 10 keV Ne ions in D sub 2 gas at a pressure of approximately 1 Pa. The sputtered beryllium reacts - on the substrate surface - with the residual oxygen, thus forming a beryllium oxide layer. Biasing the substrate negatively with respect to the target provides the simultaneous bombardment of the growing film surface with D ions formed by Ne-D sub 2 collisions. Substrate potential governs the maximum energy of ions striking the growing film surface while its size governs the flux density. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data, the beryllium is deposited in the form of polycrystalline hcp-BeO layers with negligible (about 1 at.%) carbon and neon retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data shows a strong deuterium bonding, with a desorption peak at 950 K, in the films deposited at -50 and -400 V substrate potentia...

  6. Beryllium abundances in stars with planets:Extending the sample

    CERN Document Server

    Gálvez-Ortiz, M C; Hernández, J I González; Israelian, G; Santos, N C; Rebolo, R; Ecuvillon, A

    2011-01-01

    Context: Chemical abundances of light elements as beryllium in planet-host stars allow us to study the planet formation scenarios and/or investigate possible surface pollution processes. Aims: We present here an extension of previous beryllium abundance studies. The complete sample consists of 70 stars hosting planets and 30 stars without known planetary companions. The aim of this paper is to further assess the trends found in previous studies with less number of objects. This will provide more information on the processes of depletion and mixing of light elements in the interior of late type stars, and will provide possible explanations for the abundance differences between stars that host planets and "single" stars. Methods: Using high resolution UVES spectra, we measure beryllium abundances of 26 stars that host planets and 1 "single" star mainly using the \\lambda 3131.065 A Be II line, by fitting synthetic spectra to the observational data. We also compile beryllium abundance measurements of 44 stars hos...

  7. Fluorometric determination of beryllium with 2-(o-hydroxylphenyl)benzoxazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladilovich, D.B.; Stolyarov, K.P.

    1985-09-01

    According to the authors, of great interest for the fluorometric determination of small quantities of beryllium is 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzthiazole (HPBT). In this work, 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzoaxzole (HPBO), which is an analog of HPBT and differs from it in that the sulfur atom in the heterocyclic portion of the molecule is replaced by an oxygen atom, is proposed as a reagent for the fluorometric determination of beryllium. The fluorescent reaction of HPBO with beryllium is studied in this paper, in addition to the selection of the optimum conditions for the determination and the development of a procedure for the analysis of complex objects on this basis. The reaction proceeds in aqueous ethanol medium at pH 7.2-7.5. The limit of detection is 0.6 ng/ml. Methods have been developed for the determination of 10/sup -2/% beryllium in alloys based on copper and 10/sup -3/-10/sup -4/% in standard samples of silicate rocks.

  8. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were...

  9. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001-10 gave the greatest match (45.9% for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991-2000. Years 1971-80 and 1981-90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951-1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential.

  10. Extraction of lead and beryllium from a firing site soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) program is being implemented at LANL to conduct tests for evaluating the stability of the nation's aging nuclear stockpile. In order to reduce impact on the environment, containment of the non-fissile explosives tests is being phased in. The resulting shot debris can contain a mix of depleted uranium, lead, and beryllium. We are developing a treatment scheme to separate the radioactive and RCRA-hazardous components in order to recover the uranium, re-use some materials in future shots, and minimize waste for disposal. Our experience using a proprietary water soluble polymer to extract lead from contaminated soil to below TCLP levels has been extended to a surrogate soil from an open-air firing site that contains both lead and beryllium. Results for lead removal from this soil by dendrimers and molecular chelators will also be shown. Because of the potentially severe inhalation hazard associated with beryllium, the fate of this metal in our treatment scheme has been investigated, as well as extraction of beryllium using a variety of chemical agents

  11. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.; Wiechers, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  12. Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism for

  13. Assessment of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide removal from aqueous matrices by adsorption on cupric oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop an effective adsorbent and to study the adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide from aqueous solution using the CuO nanoparticles. The characteristics of CuO nanoparticles were determined and found to have a surface area 89.59m(2)/g. Operational parameters such as pH, contact time and adsorbent concentration, initial concentration and temperature were also studied. The amount of removal increases with the increase in pH from one to seven and reaches the maximum when the pH is nine. Adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Florry-Huggins models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 0.868 and 0.662mg/g for Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide, respectively. The adsorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, namely ΔG, ΔH and ΔS showed that adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide was spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions. PMID:24630576

  14. Fallout beryllium-7 as a soil and sediment tracer in river basins: current status and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex; Blake, Will H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Mabit, Lionel; Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2013-04-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant natural production and fallout via precipitation coupled with its ability to bind to soil particles have underpinned its application as a sediment tracer. The short half-life of beryllium-7 (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing sediment dynamics over short time periods, thus, enabling assessment of the effect of land use change upon soil redistribution. Although beryllium-7 has been widely applied as a tracer to date, there remain crucial gaps in understanding relating to the assumptions for its use. To further support the application of beryllium-7 as a tracer across a range of environments requires consideration of both the current strengths and shortcomings of the technique to direct research needs. Here we review research surrounding the assumptions underpinning beryllium-7 use as a tracer and identify key knowledge gaps relating to i) the effects of rain shadowing and vegetation interception upon beryllium-7 fallout uniformity at the hillslope-scale; ii) the effect of preferential flow pathways upon beryllium-7 depth distribution in soil and overland flow upon beryllium-7 inventory uniformity and iii) the potential for beryllium-7 desorption in saline and reducing environments. To provide continued support for the use of beryllium-7 as a hillslope and catchment-scale tracer, there is an urgent need to undertake further research to quantify the effect of these factors upon tracer estimates.

  15. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces; Untersuchung des ternaeren Systems Beryllium-Kohlenstoff-Wolfram und Betrachtungen von Beryllium auf Kohlenstoffoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-05-25

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be{sub 2}C island formation for T{>=}770 K. At high temperatures (T{>=}1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be{sub 2}W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be{sub 2}W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be{sub 2}C, W{sub 2}C, WC and Be{sub 2}W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be{sub 2}C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures

  16. Electrophysiological study of intravenous pinaverium bromide in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerot, C; Khemache, A; Sebbah, J; Noel, B

    1988-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide is a musculotropic spasmolytic agent which acts by inhibiting transmembrane calcium movements, an effect similar to that of verapamil. Because of this, an investigation was carried out to see if it had any electrophysiological effects in patients with various cardiac disorders. In an open study, 10 patients received 2 mg pinaverium bromide intravenously. In a double-blind study, 10 patients received 4 mg pinaverium bromide intravenously and 10 patients placebo. Patients included those with either normal or pathological basal conduction, such as bundle-branch block and 1st degree atrioventricular block. Measurements were made of electrophysiological parameters before and 10 minutes after injection. The results showed that neither of the two doses of pinaverium bromide had any effect on atrial excitability, sino-atrial conduction, node and trunk atrioventricular conduction or on intraventricular conduction. No significant difference was seen in comparison with placebo. Pinaverium bromide had no anti-arrhythmic properties in these studies. Local, cardiac and general clinical tolerability was good in all patients. PMID:3219882

  17. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  18. 5. IEA International workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection includes the abstracts of reports presented to the 5-th IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. The themes of reports are as follows: status of beryllium technology for fusion in Russia; manufacturing and testing of Be armoured first wall mock-up for ITER; development of the process of diffusion welding of metals stainless steel-copper-beryllium into a single composite; some features of beryllium-laser beam interaction; the effect of irradiation dose on tritium and helium release from neutron irradiated beryllium; thermal properties of neutron irradiated Be12Ti. The results of investigating the mechanical properties variation and swelling of beryllium under high temperature neutron irradiation are presented

  19. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (1022 atoms/cm2) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project

  20. Proceedings of the 8th specialist meeting on recycling of irradiated Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the documents presented in the 8th Specialist Meeting on Recycling of Irradiated Beryllium, which was held on October 28, 2013, in Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina, hosted by INVAP and CNEA (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica). The objective of the meeting is to exchange the information of current status and future plan for beryllium study in the Research/Testing reactors, and to make a discussion of “How to cooperate”. There were 20 participants from USA, Japan, Korea, Austria and Argentina. In this meeting, information exchange of current status and future plan for beryllium study was carried out for the Research/Testing reactor fields, and evaluation results of beryllium materials were discussed based on new irradiated beryllium data such as swelling, deformation, gas release and so on. The subject of the used beryllium recycling was also discussed for the enforcement of demonstration recycling tests. (author)

  1. Effects of beryllium-compounds on the hen. 2. Comm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After oral application of 7Be2+ this cation is relative slowly absorbed from the intestine. The highest proportion of 7Be appeared in the feces. The absorbed 7Be has been found in the feathers, the bones and in the muscles as well as in the mucosa of the stomach and the intestine. Relative low is the accumulation in the liver and the kidneys as well as in the brain and the spinal cord. After i.v. application a high proportion of 7Be has been observed in the eggs. The rest of the applied radio-beryllium has been accumulated 7Be in the metabolically active tissues is removed very slowly. In contrast to this observation radio-beryllium disappeared relatively rapidly from the blood. (orig.)

  2. Quantum-chemical approach to cohesive properties of metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations based upon the incremental approach, i.e. an expansion of the correlation energy in terms of one-body, two-body, and higher-order contributions from localized orbital groups, have been performed for metallic beryllium. We apply an embedding scheme which has been successfully applied recently to ground-state properties of magnesium and group 12 elements. This scheme forces localization in metallic-like model systems and allows for a gradual delocalization within the incremental approach. Quantum-chemical methods of the coupled-cluster and multi-reference configuration interaction type are used for evaluating individual increments. Results are given for the cohesive energy and lattice constants of beryllium, and it is shown that further development of the approach is needed for this difficult case

  3. IR, Raman and SERS spectra of propantheline bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, C; Freguglia, G; Tinti, A; Sparta, M; Alexandrova, A N; Gamberini, M C

    2013-02-15

    The two known propantheline bromide polymorphs (form I and form II) were studied and characterized by a multianalytical approach. In the present work, the identification of propantheline bromide polymorphic forms through vibrational IR spectroscopies are presented and for the first time Raman microscopy and hot stage Raman microscopy (HSRM) studies are reported. Finally, quantum mechanical calculations were performed. For assisting the assignment of the experimental picks, the two IR spectra of the most and least stable representatives of a set of 56 conformers are calculated and studied. DSC thermograms data, are also reported. The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum was also recorded in a silver colloid; it could be inferred that propantheline bromide is adsorbed on silver colloid through the oxygen atom with the molecular plane perpendicular to the metal surface.

  4. Studies on extraction of beryllium from thiocyanate solutions by quaternary ammonium halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yamani, I S; El-Messieh, E N

    A 0.4M tricaprylmethylammonium chloride solution in n-hexane was used for the quantitative extraction of beryllium from hydrochloric acid (pH 3) and 5M potassium thiocyanate. Beryllium was stripped from the organic phase with 1M sodium hydroxide, then determined volumetrically with bismuthyl perchlorate and bromocresol green indicator. Beryllium was extracted in presence of a large number of elements which are usually associated with it in beryl and in fission products of nuclear fuel.

  5. Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results of that study

  6. Low-energy electronic stopping for boron in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range distribution for 50-keV boron bombarding beryllium was measured by an energetic ion-beam backscattering technique using helium ions. This distribution was compared with the range calculated with computer code EDEP1, with the result k 0.101 ± 0.013 for the electronic-stopping k-value. This value is compared with the results of recent interpolations from measurements of other elements. (author)

  7. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  8. Presence of Beryllium (Be) in urban soils: human health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).

  9. Analysis of features of the deformation of auxetic beryllium

    OpenAIRE

    Гунько, Михаил Николаевич; Олейнич-Лысюк, Алла Васильевна; Раранский, Николай Дмитриевич; Тащук, Александр Юрьевич

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the linear elasticity theory using the experimentally obtained elastic stiffness modules, temperature dependences of the elastic compliance modules and tensor components of Poisson's ratios    of beryllium in a wide range of temperatures and directions in the crystal lattice were calculated, and it was shown that with increasing temperature, the value and signs of Poisson's ratios  change differently in various temperature intervals. In the interval 0-300K,  become negativ...

  10. Beryllium, Lithium and Oxygen Abundances in F-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    García-López, R J; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Casares, C; Rasilla, J L; Rebolo, R; Allende-Prieto, C

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium and oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of F-type field stars for which lithium abundances had been measured previously, with the aim of obtaining observational constraints to discriminate between the different mixing mechanisms proposed. Mixing associated with the transport of angular momentum in the stellar interior and internal gravity waves within the framework of rotating evolutionary models, appear to be promising ways to explain the observations.

  11. Detail analysis of fusion neutronics benchmark experiment on beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Chikara, E-mail: konno.chikara@jaea.go.j [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke; Ohnishi, Seiki; Kondo, Keitaro [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Wada, Masayuki [Japan Computer System, Mito-shi, Ibaraki-ken 310-0805 (Japan); Sato, Satoshi [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Our previous analysis of the integral experiments (in situ and TOF experiments) on beryllium with DT neutrons at JAEA/FNS pointed out two problems by using MCNP4C and the latest nuclear data libraries; one was a strange larger neutron peak around 12 MeV appearing in the TOF experiment analysis with JEFF-3.1 and the other was an overestimation on law energy neutrons in the in situ experiment analyses with all the nuclear data libraries. We investigated reasons for these problems in detail. It was found out that the official ACE file MCJEFF3.1 of JEFF-3.1 had an inconsistency with the original JEFF-3.1, which caused the strange larger neutron peak around 12 MeV in the TOF experiment analysis. We also found out that the calculated thermal neutron peak was probably too large in the in situ experiment. On trial we examined influence of the thermal neutron scattering law data of beryllium metal in ENDF/B-VI. The result pointed out that the coherent elastic scattering cross-section data in the thermal neutron scattering law data of beryllium metal were probably too large.

  12. Electron microscope study of thin beryllium lamellae (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin SR beryllium lamellae are examined by electron microscopy after various treatments, together with other samples made up of Be - Fe at 1 per cent and 0.2 per cent iron. The SR beryllium is examined after annealing at 750 deg C and 900 deg C, strongly cold-worked and quenched at 900 deg C. At 950 deg C the metal is perfectly annealed; at 750 deg C the polygonisation is almost complete, the dislocations are arranged either is dislocation walls in the prismatic planes, or in hexagonal lattices with non-dissociated nodes suggesting a high stacking defect energy. The cold-worked structure has a high dislocation density and already existing crystal walls. In the quenched state, the few dislocations are very straight and are aligned in the crystallographic directions. Iron-precipitation is studied in two alloys during tempering at 660 deg after quenching in salt water. The precipitate appears at the grain boundaries and then spreads through the matrix leaving a depleted zone in the neighbourhood of the joints. These precipitates, in the form of platelets parallel to the base planes of the beryllium lattice have been identified as the inter metallic phase Be11 Fe oriented in relation to the matrix (0 0 0 1)//(0 0 0 1) (1 0 1-bar 0)//(1 1 2-bar 0). (authors)

  13. Elastic, micro- and macroplastic properties of polycrystalline beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardashev, B. K.; Kupriyanov, I. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Young's modulus and the internal friction of beryllium polycrystals (size grain from 6 to 60 μm) prepared by the powder metallurgy method have been studied as functions of the amplitude and temperature in the range from 100 to 873 K. The measurements have been performed using the composite piezoelectric vibrator method for longitudinal vibrations at frequencies about 100 kHz. Based on the acoustic measurements, the data have been obtained on the elastic and inelastic (microplastic) properties as functions of vibration stress amplitudes within the limits from 0.2 to 30-60 MPa. The microplastic deformation diagram is shown to become nonlinear at the amplitudes higher than 5 MPa. The beryllium mechanical characteristics (the yield strength σ 0.2, the ultimate strength σ u , and the conventional microscopic yield strength σ y ) obtained with various grain sizes are compared. At room temperature, all the parameters satisfactorily obey the Hall-Petch relationship, although there is no complete similarity. The temperature dependences are quite different, namely: σ 0.2( T) and σ u ( T) decrease monotonically during heating from room temperature to higher temperatures; however, σ y ( T) behaves unusually, and it has a minimum near 400 K. The different levels of stresses and the absence of similarity indicate that the scattering of the ultrasound energy and the formation of a level of the macroscopic flow stresses in beryllium occur on dislocation motion obstacles of different origins.

  14. A diethylhydroxylaminate based mixed lithium/beryllium aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Raphael J.F. [Paris-Lodron Universitaet Salzburg (Austria). Fachbereich fuer Materialwissenschaften und Physik; Jana, Surajit [Asansol Girls College, West-Bengal (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Froehlich, Roland [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Organisch-Chemisches Inst.; Mitzel, Norbert W. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Anorganische Chemie und Strukturchemie

    2015-07-01

    A mixed lithium/beryllium diethylhydroxylaminate compound containing {sup n}butyl beryllium units of total molecular composition {sup n}Be(ONEt{sub 2}){sub 2} [(LiONEt{sub 2}){sup 2} {sup n}BuBeONEt{sub 2}]{sub 2} (1) was isolated from a reaction mixture of {sup n}butyl lithium, N,N-diethylhydroxylamine and BeCl{sub 2} in diethylether/thf. The crystal structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The aggregate is composed of two ladder-type subunits connected in a beryllium-centered distorted tetrahedron of four oxygen atoms. Only the lithium atoms are engaged in coordination with the nitrogen donor atoms. The DFT calculations support the positional occupation determined for Li and Be in the crystal structure. The DFT and the solid-state structure are in excellent agreement, indicating only weak intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Structural details of metal atom coordination are discussed.

  15. Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanafee, J.E. (ed.)

    1988-02-19

    Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (DLC)

  16. Problems and future plan on material development of beryllium in materials testing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been utilized as a moderator and/or reflector in a number of material testing reactors. The attractive nuclear properties of beryllium are its low atomic number, low atomic weight, low parasitic capture cross section for thermal neutrons, readiness to part with one of its own neutrons, and good neutron elastic scattering characteristics. However, it is difficult to reprocess irradiated beryllium because of high induced radioactivity. Disposal has also been difficult because of toxicity issues and special nuclear material controls. In this paper, problems and future plans of beryllium technology are introduced for nuclear reactors. (author)

  17. The impact of beryllium chloride and oxide on sexual function and offspring development in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative study of the action of soluble chloride and difficultly soluble beryllium oxide on sexual cycle in female rats and their conception capability, revealing of embryotoxic and teratogenic effect of these compounds and determination of significance of terms of their impact on pregnant female as well as beryllium capability to penetrate through the placenta and accumulate in the offspring organism have been performed. A great potential danger of impact on animal reproductive function of soluble (chloride) beryllium compounds as compared with low soluble ones (oxide). In the genesis of embryotoxic teratonic effect probably along with beryllium impact on progeny through the maternal organism there occurs its direct impact on the offspring

  18. The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, Michael

    2013-06-03

    At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

  19. Vacuum Brazing of Beryllium Copper Components for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyhurst, C.C.; Cunningham, M.A.

    2002-06-04

    A process for vacuum brazing beryllium copper anode assemblies was required for the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell System, or PEPC, a component for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Initial problems with the joint design and wettability of the beryllium copper drove some minor design changes. Brazing was facilitated by plating the joint surface of the beryllium copper rod with silver 0.0006 inch thick. Individual air sampling during processing and swipe tests of the furnace interior after brazing revealed no traceable levels of beryllium.

  20. Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers

  1. Glycosylation with Disarmed Glycosyl Bromides Promoted by Iodonium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanz, Gyrithe; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Iodonium ions have been developed for activating glycosyl bromides in the coupling to glycosyl acceptors. The iodonium ions are generated from N-iodosuccinimide and a protic acid such as camphorsulfonic acid or triflic acid, where the latter gives the most reactive promoter system. The couplings...... occur with the release of iodine monobromide, and the best results are obtained with benzoylated glycosyl donors and acceptors. In this way, disarmed glycosyl bromides can serve as glycosyl donors without the use of heavy-metal salts....

  2. Action of pinaverium bromide on calmodulin-regulated functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytack, F; De Schutter, G; Casteels, R

    1985-08-01

    Pinaverium bromide at concentrations below 10(-5) M did not inhibit calmodulin-dependent enzymes such as phosphodiesterase and the Ca transport ATPase of the plasma membrane. At higher concentrations the compound interacted with the stimulation of those enzymes by calmodulin and also inhibited the calmodulin-independent activity. A similar inhibitory action was observed for the NaK ATPase. It is concluded that the inhibitory action of pinaverium bromide on smooth muscle concentration at concentrations below 10(-5) M was due to its interaction with the voltage-dependent Ca channels and not to its interference with the calmodulin-dependent activation of the contractile proteins. PMID:2995077

  3. Investigation of possible interaction between pinaverium bromide and digoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, O; Seidel, G; Engelbert, S; Berksoy, M; Eberhardt, G; Bode, R

    1983-01-01

    A single-blind study was carried out in 25 patients, who were receiving maintenance therapy for congestive heart failure with digoxin, to investigate the effect on steady-state plasma digoxin levels of concomitant administration of the spasmolytic, pinaverium bromide (50 mg 3-times daily). Patients received pinaverium bromide for 12 days followed by placebo for a further 7 days. Assessment of the results in 21 patients showed no evidence of any statistically significant variations in plasma digoxin levels during either treatment period or in the clinical observations which might indicate drug interaction. PMID:6653138

  4. Release of beryllium from mineral ores in artificial lung and skin surface fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duling, Matthew G; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Lawrence, Robert B; Chipera, Steve J; Virji, M Abbas

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to some manufactured beryllium compounds via skin contact or inhalation can cause sensitization. A portion of sensitized persons who inhale beryllium may develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Little is understood about exposures to naturally occurring beryllium minerals. The purpose of this study was to assess the bioaccessibility of beryllium from bertrandite ore. Dissolution of bertrandite from two mine pits (Monitor and Blue Chalk) was evaluated for both the dermal and inhalation exposure pathways by determining bioaccessibility in artificial sweat (pH 5.3 and pH 6.5), airway lining fluid (SUF, pH 7.3), and alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (PSF, pH 4.5). Significantly more beryllium was released from Monitor pit ore than Blue Chalk pit ore in artificial sweat buffered to pH 5.3 (0.88 ± 0.01% vs. 0.36 ± 0.00%) and pH 6.5 (0.09 ± 0.00% vs. 0.03 ± 0.01%). Rates of beryllium released from the ores in artificial sweat were faster than previously measured for manufactured forms of beryllium (e.g., beryllium oxide), known to induce sensitization in mice. In SUF, levels of beryllium were below the analytical limit of detection. In PSF, beryllium dissolution was biphasic (initial rapid diffusion followed by latter slower surface reactions). During the latter phase, dissolution half-times were 1,400 to 2,000 days, and rate constants were ~7 × 10(-10) g/(cm(2)·day), indicating that bertrandite is persistent in the lung. These data indicate that it is prudent to control skin and inhalation exposures to bertrandite dusts. PMID:21866318

  5. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  6. Reactive films for mitigating methyl bromide emissions from fumigated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of methyl bromide (MeBr) from agricultural fumigation can lead to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and so its use is being phased out. However, as MeBr is still widely used under Critical Use Exemptions, strategies are still required to control such emissions. In this work, nove...

  7. Depleting methyl bromide residues in soil by reaction with bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite generally being considered the most effective soil fumigant, methyl bromide (MeBr) use is being phased out because its emissions from soil can lead to stratospheric ozone depletion. However, a large amount is still currently used due to Critical Use Exemptions. As strategies for reducing the...

  8. Preozonation of bromide-bearing source water in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of preozonation was evaluated on treating a bromide-bearing dam source water in south China through batch-scale experiments. Preozonation at ozone doses of 0.5-1.0 mg/L (at ozone consumption base) enhanced total organic carbon(TOC) removal through coagulation, and resulted in an almost linear reduction of ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The removals of TOC (after coagulation) and UV254 at the ozone dose of 1.0 mg/L were 36% and 70%, respectively. Preozonation at an ozone dose between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L resulted in the removal of disinfection byproducts formation potential (DBFP) including trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) for about 50%. The removals of THMFP and HAAFP decreased with the further increase of ozone dose. Ozonation of bromide-bearing water (bromide concentration,34 μg/L) produced a bromate concentration under the detection limit(2 μg/L) at ozone doses < 1.5 mg/L. However, bromate >10 μg/L could be produced when the bromide concentration was increased to 96 μg/L.

  9. 7 CFR 305.6 - Methyl bromide fumigation treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to air temperature within the chamber. Fruit taken from a cooling room may have to be prewarmed... pure, type “Q” (for quarantine use only) methyl bromide per 1,000 cubic feet of chamber space. Dosage.... Water temperature in the volatilizer must never fall below 65.6 °C (150 °F) at any time during...

  10. Residues resulting from fumigation of food commodities with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the nature and significance of residues remaining in methyl bromide-fumigated commodities using radiotracer techniques (14C-methyl bromide). Experiments with corn showed that the germ part of the kernel contained nearly half of the total 14C-residue remaining in the seed. Also preliminary tests with granny smith apples revealed that considerable residue may remain in seeds of treated apples with less in skin and the least in the fleshy pulp. In fumigated corn, fractionation revealed that radioactive residues were distributed throughout albumins, globulins, Zein 1, Zein 2 and glutelin with a large part in the aqueous extract (amino acids). Further investigation emphasized the characterization of volatile substances resulting from alkali treatment. It was found that methyl bromide readily methylated methionine and this constitutes a major site of methylation. A component of the volatile fraction was dimethyl sulfoxide, probably a product of oxidation of dimethyl sulphide. Work is in progress to determine whether methyl bromide will methylate purine and pyrimidine components. (author)

  11. Methyl bromide phase out could affect future reforestation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl bromide has long been an integral component in producing healthy tree seedlings in forest nurseries of California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. The fumigant was supposed to be completely phased out of use in the United States of America by 2005, but many forest nurseries continue to...

  12. Een ionchromatografische methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld WA van den; Cleven RFMJ; LAC

    1996-01-01

    Betreft resultaten van een onderzoek naar het ontwikkelen van een geautomatiseerde ionchromatografische methode voor de bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet. Het onderzoek heeft geresulteerd in een betrouwbare, selectieve en gevoelige methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide e

  13. Analysis of the KANT experiment on beryllium using TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is an important material in fusion technology for multiplying neutrons in blankets. However, beryllium nuclear data are differently presented in modern nuclear data evaluations. Recent investigations with the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo simulation of the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) demonstrated that beryllium reaction data are the main source of the calculation uncertainties between ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1. To clarify the calculation uncertainties from data libraries on beryllium, in this study TRIPOLI-4 calculations of the Karlsruhe Neutron Transmission (KANT) experiment have been performed by using ENDF/B-VII.0 and new JEFF-3.1.1 data libraries. The KANT Experiment on beryllium has been used to validate neutron transport codes and nuclear data libraries. An elaborated KANT experiment benchmark has been compiled and published in the NEA/SINBAD database and it has been used as reference in the present work. The neutron multiplication in bulk beryllium assemblies was considered with a central D-T neutron source. Neutron leakage spectra through the 5, 10, and 17 cm thick spherical beryllium shells were calculated and five-group partial leakage multiplications were reported and discussed. In general, improved C/E ratios on neutron leakage multiplications have been obtained. Both ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1.1 beryllium data libraries of TRIPOLI-4 are acceptable now for fusion neutronics calculations.

  14. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto [eds.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Tritium release from highly neutron irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu; Rolli, R.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • For the irradiated constrained beryllium pebbles, the tritium release occurs easier than for the unconstrained ones. • Tritium retention in the irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. • Formation of sub-grains in the constrained beryllium pebbles facilitate the open porosity network formation. - Abstract: Beryllium is the reference neutron multiplier material in the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket of fusion power plants. Significant tritium inventory accumulated in beryllium as a result of neutron-induced transmutations could become a safety issue for the operation of such blankets as well as for the nuclear waste utilization. To provide a related materials database, a neutron irradiation campaign of beryllium pebbles with diameters of 0.5 and 1 mm at 686–1006 K, the HIDOBE-01 experiment, has been performed in the HFR in Petten, the Netherlands, producing up to 3020 appm helium and 298 appm tritium. Thermal desorption tests of irradiated unconstrained and constrained beryllium pebbles were performed in a purge gas flow using a quadrupole mass-spectrometer (QMS) and an ionization chamber. Compared to unconstrained pebbles, constrained beryllium pebbles have an enhanced tritium release at all temperatures investigated. Small elongated sub-grains formed under irradiation in the constrained pebbles promote formation of numerous channels for facilitated tritium release.

  17. Reduction evaporation of BeO to provide a beryllium metal sample for accelerator radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described for preparing beryllium metal samples from beryllium oxide for use in accelerator ion sources. These samples are used to measure minute 10Be/9Be ratios for radiometric dating at the University of Washington tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. (orig.)

  18. Protection of beryllium metal against microbial influenced corrosion using silane self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Deshpande, Alina; Hersman, Larry; Brozik, Susan M.; Butt, Darryl

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of a self-assembled silane monolayer as protection for beryllium against microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was demonstrated. Four-point bend tests on coated and uncoated beryllium samples were conducted after microbiological exposures, and the effectiveness of these coatings as MIC protection was reported through mechanical property evaluations. Application of the silane monolayer to the beryllium surfaces was found to prevent degradation of the failure strength and displacement-to-failure of beryllium in bending. In contrast, the uncoated beryllium samples exhibited a severe reduction in these mechanical properties in the presence of the marine Pseudomonas bacteria. The potentiodynamic measurements showed that both the uncoated and coated samples pitted at the open-circuit potential. However, the size and distribution of the corrosion pits formed on the surface of the beryllium samples were significantly different for the various cases (coated vs uncoated samples exposed to control vs inoculated medium). This study demonstrates the following: (1) the deleterious effects of MIC on the mechanical properties of beryllium and (2) the potential for developing fast, easy, and cost-effective MIC protection for beryllium metal using silane self-assemblies.

  19. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of 49 CFR 173.417(a). (b) The general license applies only to a licensee who has a quality... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material....

  20. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1972-01-01

    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The asso

  1. Detection of lipopolysaccharides by ethidium bromide staining after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, N; Ohta, M; Kato, N

    1990-01-01

    A rapid and easy method for staining lipopolysaccharides with ethidium bromide is described. Lipopolysaccharides could be visualized by ethidium bromide with almost the same sensitivity as found with the silver-staining method in less than 30 min. The ethidium bromide-staining method was particularly suitable for staining lipopolysaccharides possessing acidic O-specific polysaccharides, which were poorly visualized by silver staining.

  2. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  3. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  4. Deformation behaviour of fine grained high purity beryllium - influence of fabrication parameters, temperature and copper additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deformation behaviour of high-purity beryllium was tested on hot isostatically pressed samples of different initial grain size and compared with material manufactured commercially from pure beryllium and with beryllium-copper alloys containing 0.44, 1.1 and 2.1 at.% copper. Initial grain size of these high purity material was 0C. Grain structure of the samples was subsequently analysed by light, rastor and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of copper additions on deformation of high-purity beryllium was analysed. A further aim of this study was to investigate, by suitable methods, the mode of action of relevant impurities and to throw light on their influence on grain formation. This should enable reliable information to be provided for the manufacture of high-purity beryllium which, in turn, will lead to an improvement in ductility. (orig./IHOE)

  5. Preliminary irradiation test for new material selection on lifetime extension of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been utilized as a moderator and/or reflector in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), because of nuclear properties of beryllium, low neutron capture and high neutron scattering cross sections. At present, the amount of irradiated beryllium frames in JMTR is about 2 tons in the JMTR canal. In this study, preliminary irradiation test was performed from 162nd to 165th operation cycles of JMTR as irradiation and PIE technique development for lifetime expansion of beryllium frames. The design study of irradiation capsule, development of dismount device of irradiation capsule and the high accuracy size measurement device were carried out. The PIEs such as tensile tests, metallurgical observation, and size change measurement were also carried out with two kinds of irradiated beryllium metals (S-200F and S-65C). (author)

  6. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, P. C.; Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A.; Calligaro, T.

    2010-06-01

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al 2O 3 crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of μg/g of beryllium in Al 2O 3 crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-μm diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ) 12C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt γ-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt γ-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the 27Al(α, pγ) 30Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required μg/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 μC, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 μg/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 μg/g.

  7. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.e [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France C2RMF, CNRS-UMR171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of {mu}g/g of beryllium in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-{mu}m diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction {sup 9}Be({alpha}, n{gamma}){sup 12}C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt {gamma}-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt {gamma}-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the {sup 27}Al({alpha}, p{gamma}){sup 30}Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required {mu}g/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 {mu}C, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 {mu}g/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 {mu}g/g.

  8. Model study in chemisorption: atomic hydrogen on beryllium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauschlicher, C.W. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The interaction between atomic hydrogen and the (0001) surface of Be metal has been studied by ab initio electronic structure theory. Self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations have been performed using minimum, optimized minimum, double zeta and mixed basis sets for clusters as large as 22 Be atoms. The binding energy and equilibrium geometry (the distance to the surface) were determined for 4 sites. Both spatially restricted (the wavefunction was constrained to transform as one of the irreducible representations of the molecular point group) and unrestricted SCF calculations were performed. Using only the optimized minimum basis set, clusters containing as many as 22 beryllium atoms have been investigated. From a variety of considerations, this cluster is seen to be nearly converged within the model used, providing the most reliable results for chemisorption. The site dependence of the frequency is shown to be a geometrical effect depending on the number and angle of the bonds. The diffusion of atomic hydrogen through a perfect beryllium crystal is predicted to be energetically unfavorable. The cohesive energy, the ionization energy and the singlet-triplet separation were computed for the clusters without hydrogen. These quantities can be seen as a measure of the total amount of edge effects. The chemisorptive properties are not related to the total amount of edge effects, but rather the edge effects felt by the adsorbate bonding berylliums. This lack of correlation with the total edge effects illustrates the local nature of the bonding, further strengthening the cluster model for chemisorption. A detailed discussion of the bonding and electronic structure is included. The remaining edge effects for the Be/sub 22/ cluster are discussed.

  9. Use of notched beams to establish fracture criteria for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fracture of an improved form of pure beryllium was studied under triaxial tensile stresses. This state of stress was produced by testing notched beams, which were thick enough to be in a state of plane strain at the center. A plane strain, elastic-incremental plasticity finite element program was then used to determine the stress and strain distributions at fracture. A four-point bend fixture was used to load the specimens. It was carefully designed and manufactured to eliminate virtually all of the shear stresses at the reduced section of the notched beams. The unixial properties were obtained

  10. Beryllium ignition target design for indirect drive NIF experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Kline, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Clark, D. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Marinak, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Beryllium (Be) ablator offers multiple advantages over carbon based ablators for indirectly driven NIF ICF ignition targets. These are higher mass ablation rate, ablation pressure and ablation velocity, lower capsule albedo, and higher thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. Such advantages can be used to improve the target robustness and performance. While previous NIF Be target designs exist, they were obtained a long time ago and do not incorporate the latest improved physical understanding and models based upon NIF experiments. Herein, we propose a new NIF Be ignition target design at 1.45 MJ, 430 TW that takes all this knowledge into account.

  11. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.)

  12. Technique of beryllium determination using an (α,n) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of detecting small amounts of 9Be using the (α, n) reaction has been investigated. It is shown that at a 210Po α-particle source intensity of 3x108 s-1 for limit of the detectable amount of beryllium is equal to 0.1 μg in the case of recording neutron-gamma (>= 3.6 MeV) coincidences. Other light elements (B, F, Al, Mg, Si etc.) do not produce a noticeable background under such conditions

  13. Double K-shell photoionization of atomic beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, F. L. [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrilen(tilde sign)o de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); McCurdy, C. W. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences, and Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rescigno, T. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences, and Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Double photoionization of the core 1s electrons in atomic beryllium is theoretically studied using a hybrid approach that combines orbital and grid-based representations of the Hamiltonian. The {sup 1} S ground state and {sup 1} P final state contain a double occupancy of the 2s valence shell in all configurations used to represent the correlated wave function. Triply differential cross sections are evaluated, with particular attention focused on a comparison of the effects of scattering the ejected electrons through the spherically symmetric valence shell with similar cross sections for helium, representing a purely two-electron target with an analogous initial-state configuration.

  14. Accumulation of tritium in beryllium material under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the programming code is created on the basis of which the accumulation kinetics of tritium and isotope of He4 in the Be9 sample is analyzed depending on the time. The program is written in C++ programming language and for the calculations Monte Carlo method was applied. This program scoped on the calculation of concentration of helium and tritium in beryllium samples depending on the spectrum of the neutron flux in different experimental reactors such as JMTR, JOYO and IPEN/MB. The processes of accumulation of helium and tritium for each neutron energy spectrum of these reactors were analyzed. (author)

  15. Tritium analyses of COBRA-1A2 beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Selected tritium measurements have been completed for the COBRA-1A2 experiment C03 and D03 beryllium pebbles. The completed results, shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, include the tritium assay results for the 1-mm and 3-mm C03 pebbles, and the 1-mm D03 pebbles, stepped anneal test results for both types of 1-mm pebbles, and the residual analyses for the stepped-anneal specimens. All results have been reported with date-of-count and are not corrected for decay. Stepped-anneal tritium release response is provided in addenda.

  16. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer H.-W.; Phillips D.R.

    2010-01-01

    We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1) strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accurac...

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, E.; Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the neutron irradiated beryllium with total fast neutron fluences of 1.3 - 4.3 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 327 - 616degC were studied. Swelling increased by high irradiation temperature, high fluence, and by the small grain size and high impurity. Obvious decreasing of the fracture stress was observed in the bending test and in small grain specimens which had many helium bubbles on the grain boundary. Decreasing of the fracture stress for small grain specimens was presumably caused by crack propagation on the grain boundaries which weekend by helium bubbles. (author)

  18. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi; Mohammad Tehrani; Mohammad Bashashati

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B). Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission tim...

  19. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  20. [2,6-Bis(dimethylaminomethylphenyl]selenium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Varga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C12H19N2Se+·Br−·H2O, the two independent bromide anions lie on a twofold rotation axis. Strong intramolecular N→Se interactions [2.185 (3 and 2.181 (3 Å] are established by both N atoms of the organic group in the cation, in trans positions to each other, with an N—Se—N angle of 161.6 (1°, resulting in a T-shaped (C,N,N′Se core. In the crystal, dimeric associations are formed by Br...Se [3.662 (2 Å] and Br...H interactions [2.56 (6 and 2.63 (7 Å] involving two bromide anions, two cations and two water molecules.

  1. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.

  2. The mechanism for production of beryllium fluoride from the product of ammonium fluoride processing of beryllium- containing raw material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraydenko, R. I.; Dyachenko, A. N.; Malyutin, L. N.; Petlin, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    The technique of fluorite-phenacite-bertrandite ores from Russian Ermakovskoe deposit processing by ammonium bifluoride is described. To determine the temperature mode and the thermal dissociation mechanism of ammonium tetrafluoroberyllate (the product of ammonium-fluoride leaching of the ore) the TG/DTA have been carried out. By IR spectroscopy and XRD the semi-products of ammonium tetrafluoroberyllate thermal dissociation have been identified. The hygroscopic low-temperature beryllium fluoride forms higher than 380°C. The less hydroscopic form of BeF2 have been produced at 600°C.

  3. High-speed Laser Micromachining with Copper Bromide Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Balchev, I I; Minkovski, N I; Sabotinov, N V; Balchev, Ivaylo I.; Kostadinov, Ivan K.; Minkovski, Nikolai I.; Sabotinov, Nikola V.

    2006-01-01

    The application of the copper bromide (CuBr) laser as an attractive tool in the micro-machining of different materials has been demonstrated. High-quality drilling by trepanning and precision cutting was established on several materials with a negligible heat-affected zone (HAZ). That good performance was a result of the combination of high power visible radiation, short pulses, and close to the diffraction-limited laser beam quality with high-speed galvo scanner beam steering.

  4. Criticality in aqueous solutions of 3-methylpyridine and sodium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostko, A F; Anisimov, M A; Sengers, J V

    2004-08-01

    We address a controversial issue regarding the nature of critical behavior in ternary electrolyte solutions of water, 3-methylpyridine, and sodium bromide. Earlier light-scattering studies showed an anomalous critical behavior in this system that was attributed to the formation of a microheterogeneous phase associated with ion-molecule clustering [M.A. Anisimov, J. Jacob, A. Kumar, V.A. Agayan, and J. V. Sengers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2336 (2000)

  5. Influence of neutron irradiation on the tritium retention in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolli, R.; Ruebel, S.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wu, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and beryllium are the candidates for protective layers on the components of fusion reactors facing plasma. In contact with D-T plasma, these materials absorb tritium, and it is anticipated that tritium retention increases with the neutron damage due to neutron-induced traps. Because of the poor data base for beryllium, the work was concentrated on it. Tritium was loaded into the samples from stagnant T{sub 2}/H{sub 2} atmosphere, and afterwards, the quantity of the loaded tritium was determined by purged thermal annealing. The specification of the samples is shown. The samples were analyzed by SEM before and after irradiation. The loading and the annealing equipments are contained in two different glove boxes with N{sub 2} inert atmosphere. The methods of loading and annealing are explained. The separation of neutron-produced and loaded tritium and the determination of loaded tritium in irradiated samples are reported. Also the determination of loaded tritium in unirradiated samples is reported. It is evident that irradiated samples contained much more loaded tritium than unirradiated samples. The main results of this investigation are summarized in the table. (K.I.)

  6. Remarkable Hydrogen Storage on Beryllium Oxide Clusters: First Principles Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Since the current transportation sector is the largest consumer of oil, and subsequently responsible for major air pollutants, it is inevitable to use alternative renewable sources of energies for vehicular applications. The hydrogen energy seems to be a promising candidate. To explore the possibility of achieving a solid-state high-capacity storage of hydrogen for onboard applications, we have performed first principles density functional theoretical calculations of hydrogen storage properties of beryllium oxide clusters (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8). We observed that polar BeO bond is responsible for H$_{2}$ adsorption. The problem of cohesion of beryllium atoms does not arise, as they are an integral part of BeO clusters. The (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8) adsorbs 8--12 H$_{2}$ molecules with an adsorption energy in the desirable range of reversible hydrogen storage. The gravimetric density of H$_{2}$ adsorbed on BeO clusters meets the ultimate 7.5 wt% limit, recommended for onboard practical applications. In conclusion,...

  7. Microstructural Characterization of Beryllium Treated Al-Si Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on B356 and B357 alloys using the thermal analysis technique. Metallographic samples prepared from these castings were examined using optical microscopy and FESEM. Results revealed that beryllium causes partial modification of the eutectic Si, similar to that reported for magnesium additions. Addition of 0.8 wt.% Mg reduces the eutectic temperature by ~10°C. During solidification of alloys containing high levels of Fe and Mg, but no Sr, formation of a Be-Fe phase was detected at 611°C, close to that of α-Al. The Be-Fe phase precipitates in script-like form at or close to the β-Al5SiFe platelets. A new reaction, composed of fine particles of Si and π-Fe phase, was observed to occur near the end of solidification in high Mg-, high Fe-, and Be-containing alloys. The amount of this reaction decreased with the addition of Sr. Occasionally, Be-containing phase particles were observed as part of the reaction. Addition of Be has a noticeable effect on decreasing the β-Al5FeSi platelet length; this effect may be enhanced by addition of Sr. Beryllium addition also results in precipitation of the β-Al5FeSi phase in nodular form, which lowers its harmful effects on the alloy mechanical properties.

  8. United Kingdom Beryllium Registry: mortality and autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W J

    1996-01-01

    This report is based on 30 deaths from chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in the United Kingdom with details of 19 autopsies. The majority were fluorescent lamp workers and machinists who died from respiratory failure. There were no cases of lung cancer. The survival times ranged from less than 1 to 29 years and was longest in machinists. All of the workers showed interstitial pulmonary fibrosis with varying degrees of cystic change. The majority showed hyalinized, and a few active sarcoid-type, granulomas. Extrathoracic granulomas, as in a U.K. sarcoid autopsy series, were rare. A notable difference was the absence of myocardial involvement in CBD compared to an incidence of 20% in the sarcoid autopsies. The detection of beryllium in the criteria for diagnosis is emphasized and the cases classified as definite include 12 of 19 positive analysis, 6 of 19, negative or unavailable analysis. The remaining case was classified as dubious because, despite a positive analysis, granulomas were absent. The main differential diagnosis is sarcoidosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8933040

  9. A non-chemical spectroscopic determination of atmospheric beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium in the atmosphere is determined by emission spectroscopy using a non-chemical method of analysis. Long term effects of beryllium poisoning result in respiratory and skin disease, and this is partly reflected by the low threshold limits (0.002 mg/m3). In comparison the threshhold values for lead and cadmium are 0.2 and 0.16 mg/m3 respectively. Air samples are collected at 2 litres/ minute using cellulose filters, and sampling time is dependent on the individual process being monitored, but can be as short as five minutes, eg. dental laboratories. The filters are initially divided in two parts, and one portion is carefully pelletised using a steel press. The pellet is placed in an electrode cup and 'wetted' using isopropanol and ethylene glycol. Wetting is necessary because the pellets tended to explode out of the arcing zone. Calibration graphs were produced using an internal cobalt standard, and the 234.8 nm, 313.0 nm emission lines were used. No spectral and inter-element effects were observed, and the minimum detection limit was one nanogram. Under normal working conditions a 25% precision was obtained. (author)

  10. Calculations for electron-impact excitation and ionization of beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Fursa, Dmitry V; Bray, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix and the convergent close-coupling methods are used to study electron collisions with neutral beryllium over an energy range from threshold to 100 eV. Coupling to the target continuum significantly affects the results for transitions from the ground state, but to a lesser extent the strong transitions between excited states. Cross sections are presented for selected transitions between low-lying physical bound states of beryllium, as well as for elastic scattering, momentum transfer, and ionization. The present cross sections for transitions from the ground state from the two methods are in excellent agreement with each other, and also with other available results based on nonperturbative convergent pseudo-state and time-dependent close-coupling models. The elastic cross section at low energies is dominated by a prominent shape resonance. The ionization from the $(2s2p)^3P$ and $(2s2p)^1P$ states strongly depends on the respective term. The current predictions represent an extensive set o...

  11. Steam chemical reactivity of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Castro, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Plasma-spraying with the potential for in-situ repair makes beryllium a primary candidate for plasma facing and structural components in experimental magnetic fusion machines. Deposits with good thermal conductivity and resistance to thermal cycling have been produced with low pressure plasma-spraying (LPPS). A concern during a potential accident with steam ingress is the amount of hydrogen produced by the reactions of steam with hot components. In this study the authors measure the reaction rates of various deposits produced by LPPS with steam from 350 C to above 1,000 C. They correlate these reaction rates with measurements of density, open porosity and BET surface areas. They find the reactivity to be largely dependent upon effective surface area. Promising results were obtained below 600 C from a 94% theoretical dense (TD) deposit with a BET specific surface area of 0.085 m{sup 2}/g. Although reaction rates were higher than those for dense consolidated beryllium they were substantially lower, i.e., about two orders of magnitude, than those obtained from previously tested lower density plasma-sprayed deposits.

  12. Comparison of Heat and Bromide as Ground Water Tracers Near Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.; Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    Heat and bromide were compared as tracers for examining stream/ground water exchanges along the middle reaches of the Santa Clara River, California, during a 10-hour surface water sodium bromide injection test. Three cross sections that comprise six shallow (sodium bromide injection test. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of bromide concentrations in the sediments yielded a good match to the observed bromide concentrations, without adjustment of any model parameters except solute dispersivities. This indicates that, for the spatial and temporal scales examined on the Santa Clara River, the use of heat and bromide as tracers provide comparable information with respect to apparent hydraulic conductivities and fluxes for sediments near streams. In other settings, caution should be used due to differences in the nature of conservative (bromide) versus nonconservative (heat) tracers, particularly when preferential flowpaths are present.

  13. Use of 82Br and 131I radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interference of excessive bromide intake with iodine metabolism in the rat was studied using 82Br and 131I radionuclides. Mainly lactating rat dams and their pups were used, in addition to adult male rats, in the present studies. Particularly, the influence of high bromide intake in lactating rat dams on the transfer of iodine and bromide to suckling young through breast milk was evaluated. The induction of hypothyroid status in the pups by high bromide intake in the mothers was proved unambiguously. Excessive bromide in lactating rat dams caused a marked decrease in plasma levels of thyroid hormones both, in the mothers and in their sucklings. The effects of an enhanced bromide intake on the thyroid function in relation to iodine status in the animals were also followed. Marked goitrogenic and thyrotoxic effects of excessive bromide in adult rats were significantly enhanced under the conditions of simultaneous iodine deficiency in the experimental animals. (author)

  14. [Manometric effects of pinaverium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, L; Varela, E; Olmos, J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of pinaverium bromide on colonic motility were investigated in a controlled, controlled, cross-over study in 32 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Constipation was clearly predominant in one group of 16 patients, and diarrhea in the other group of 16. Manometric measurements were taken of the colonic motor response generated by distention of a balloon inserted to the rectosigmoid junction. Measurements were taken before and one hour after ingestion of two tablets containing placebo or two tablets each containing 50 mg of pinaverium bromide. Following intake of placebo the motility index increased from the basal value in patients with constipation, and resistance to distention decreased in the diarrhea group. These changes were attributable to repetition of the mechanical stimulus within a relatively brief time lapse, or more probably to the ingestion of liquid which accompanied intake of tablets. Compared with placebo, pinaverium bromide induced inhibition of both effects. From the therapeutic point of view, the decrease in motility index seen in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and constipation is particularly interesting. PMID:1295286

  15. 4-Hydroxy-1,2,6-trimethylpyridinium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seethalakshmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, C8H12NO+·Br−·H2O, is isomorphous with the chloride analogue [Seethalakshmi et al. (2013. Acta Cryst. E69, o835–o836]. In the solid state, the cations, anions and water molecules are interlinked by a network of O—H...O, O—H...Br and C—H...Br interactions. The water molecule makes two O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, generating [010] zigzag chains of alternating water molecules and bromide anions. The cation is involved in two intermolecular C—H...Cl interactions in the chloride salt, whereas three intermolecular C—H...Br interactions are observed in the title bromide salt. This additional intermolecular C—H...Br interaction links the adjacent water and bromide zigzag chains via cationic molecules. In addition, weak π–π stacking interactions are observed between pyridinium rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5664 (13 Å].

  16. Structural, vibrational and theoretical studies of L-histidine bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Ben; Feki, H.; Abid, Y.; Boughzala, H.; Mlayah, A.

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations of the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a non linear optical material, L-histidine bromide. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on the geometric structure available in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystals of L-histidine bromide have been grown by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro symmetric space group P2 12 12 1 of the orthorhombic system. Raman spectra have been recorded in the range [200-3500 cm -1]. All observed vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations and overtones on the basis of our calculations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using HF and DFT (B3LYP and BLYP) show good agreement with the experimental data. Comparison between the measured and the calculated vibrational frequencies indicate that B3LYP is superior to the scaled HF approach for molecular vibrational problems. To investigate microscopic second order non linear optical properties of L-histidine bromide, the electric dipole μ, the polarizability α and the hyperpolarizability β were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. According to our calculations, the title compound exhibits non-zero β value revealing microscopic second order NLO behaviour.

  17. Oral teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, M; Hojo, H; Teramoto, S; Maita, K

    1998-05-01

    Teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, were conducted in rats and rabbits. Methyl bromide was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally to groups of 24 copulated female Crj:CD (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (corn oil), 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day on days 6-15 of gestation and to groups of 18 artificially inseminated female Kbl:JW rabbits at 0, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day on days 6-18 of gestation. Maternal rats and rabbits were euthanized on respective days 20 and 27 of gestation. Foetuses were examined for survival, growth and teratological alterations. Maternal toxicity was evident in the high-dose groups for both species. In these groups, maternal body weight gains and food consumption were significantly decreased during the dosing and post-dosing periods. Necropsy of maternal rats also revealed erosive lesions in the stomach and the surrounding organs. However, no treatment-related adverse effects were found in foetuses of the treated groups for both rat and rabbit studies. These results led to the conclusion that methyl bromide was not foetotoxic or teratogenic to rat and rabbit foetuses up to dose levels of 30 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, at which maternal toxicity was evident for both species.

  18. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features

  19. Development of radiation resistant grades of beryllium for nuclear and fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    R&D results on beryllium with high radiation resistance obtained recently are described in this report. The data are presented on nine different grades of isotropic beryllium manufactured by VNIINM and distinguished by both initial powder characteristics and properties of billets, made of these powders. The average grain size of the investigated beryllium grades varied from 8 to 26 {mu}m, the content of beryllium oxide was 0.9 - 3.9 wt.%, the dispersity of beryllium oxide - 0.04 - 0.5 {mu}m, tensile strength -- 250 - 650 MPa. All materials were irradiated in SM - 2 reactor over the temperature range 550 - 780{degrees}C. The results of the investigation showed, that HIP beryllium grades are less susceptible to swelling at higher temperatures in comparison with hot pressed and extruded grades. Beryllium samples, having the smallest grain size, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was less than 0.8 % at 750{degrees}C and Fs = 3.7 {center_dot}10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (E>0.1 MeV). The mechanical properties, creep and microstructure parameters, measured before and after irradiation, are presented.

  20. The development and advantages of beryllium capsules for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsules with beryllium ablators have long been considered as alternatives to plastic for the National Ignition Facility laser; now the superior performance of beryllium is becoming well substantiated. Beryllium capsules have the advantages of relative insensitivity to instability growth, low opacity, high tensile strength, and high thermal conductivity. 3-D calculation with the HYDRA code NTIS Document No. DE-96004569 (M. M. Marinak et.al. in UCRL-LR-105821-95-3) confirm 2-D LASNEX U. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasmas Phys. Controlled Thermonucl. Fusion, 2, 51(2975) results that particular beryllium capsule designs are several times less sensitive than the CH point design to instability growth from DT ice roughness. These capsule designs contain more ablator mass and leave some beryllium unablated at ignition. By adjusting the level of copper dopant, the unablated mass can increase or decrease, with a corresponding decrease or increase in sensitivity to perturbations. A plastic capsule with the same ablator mass as the beryllium and leaving the same unablated mass also shows this reduced perturbation sensitivity. Beryllium's low opacity permits the creation of 250 eV capsule designs. Its high tensile strength allows it to contain DT fuel at room temperature. Its high thermal conductivity simplifies cryogenic fielding

  1. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  2. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.

    1984-01-01

    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodi

  3. The structure and the Raman vibrational spectrum of the beryllium aquacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozmanov, Dmitry A; Sizova, Olga V; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu; Burkov, Kim A

    2005-11-01

    The experimental Raman vibrational spectrum of the 5.94 m water solution of the beryllium(II) chloride has been acquired. Theoretical frequencies, infrared and Raman intensities of the vibrational spectrum of the beryllium cation tetrahydrate have been calculated by means of quantum chemical approach. The peaks of the experimental spectrum have been assigned on the basis of the results of the quantum-chemical calculations. It has been shown that the hydrating surrounding of the aquacation increases effectively the frequency of the beryllium-oxygen stretching vibration by 16% in comparison with the free complex.

  4. Conditions for preparation of ultrapure beryllium by electrolytic refining in molten alkali-metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Hagen

    1982-02-01

    Electrolytic refining is regarded as the most suitable process for the production of beryllium with impurity contents below 1 at.-ppM. Several parameters are important for electrolytic refining of beryllium in a BeCl/sub 2/-containing LiCl-KCl melt: current density, BeCl/sub 2/ content, electrolyte temperature, composition of the unpurified beryllium and impurity-ion concentrations in the melt, as well as apparatus characteristics such as rotation speed of the cathode and condition of the crucible material. These factors were studied and optimized such that extensive removal of the maximum number of accompanying and alloying elements was achieved.

  5. Study of beryllium redeposition under bombardment by high intensity -low energy- hydrogen ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureev, V.M.; Guseva, M.I.; Danelyan, L.S. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-01-01

    The results of studying the erosion of beryllium under an effect of intense ion fluxes with the energy of 250 eV, at the fluences {approx}10{sup 2}1 cm{sup -2}, at the MAGRAS-stand are given. The operating conditions under which a practically-complete redeposition of the sputtered beryllium upon the target surface were experimentally-realized. A change in the microstructure of a beryllium target under sputtering and redeposition is analyzed. Some technological applications are considered. (author)

  6. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2016-10-01

    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  7. Failure prediction of thin beryllium sheets used in spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschke, Paul N.; Mascorro, Edward; Papados, Photios; Serna, Oscar R.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop a method for prediction of failure of thin beryllium sheets that undergo complex states of stress. Major components of the research include experimental evaluation of strength parameters for cross-rolled beryllium sheet, application of the Tsai-Wu failure criterion to plate bending problems, development of a high order failure criterion, application of the new criterion to a variety of structures, and incorporation of both failure criteria into a finite element code. A Tsai-Wu failure model for SR-200 sheet material is developed from available tensile data, experiments carried out by NASA on two circular plates, and compression and off-axis experiments performed in this study. The failure surface obtained from the resulting criterion forms an ellipsoid. By supplementing experimental data used in the the two-dimensional criterion and modifying previously suggested failure criteria, a multi-dimensional failure surface is proposed for thin beryllium structures. The new criterion for orthotropic material is represented by a failure surface in six-dimensional stress space. In order to determine coefficients of the governing equation, a number of uniaxial, biaxial, and triaxial experiments are required. Details of these experiments and a complementary ultrasonic investigation are described in detail. Finally, validity of the criterion and newly determined mechanical properties is established through experiments on structures composed of SR200 sheet material. These experiments include a plate-plug arrangement under a complex state of stress and a series of plates with an out-of-plane central point load. Both criteria have been incorporated into a general purpose finite element analysis code. Numerical simulation incrementally applied loads to a structural component that is being designed and checks each nodal point in the model for exceedance of a failure criterion. If stresses at all locations do not exceed the failure

  8. Modes of Occurrence and Geological Origin of Beryllium in Coals from the Pu'an Coalfield, Guizhou, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianye

    2007-01-01

    The concentration, modes of occurrence and geological origin of beryllium in five workable coal beds from the Pu'an Coalfield of Guizbou were studied using the inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), floating and sinking experiments (FSE) and sequential chemical extraction procedures (SCEP). The results show that the average concentration of beryllium in coals from the Pu'an Coalfield is 1.54 μg/g, much lower than that in most Chinese and worldwide coals.Beryllium in the Pu'an coals was not significantly enriched. However, it should be noted that the No. 8 coal bed from the study area has a high concentration of beryllium, 6.89 μg/g, three times higher than the background value of beryllium in coal. Beryllium in coal mainly occurs as organic association and has predominantly originated from coal-forming plants when its concentration is relatively low. The concentration of beryllium occurring as organic association is close to that distributed in inorganic matter when beryllium concentration of coal is similar to its background value, and in addition to coal-forming plants, beryllium is mainly derived from detrital materials of terrigenous origin. When beryllium is anomalously enriched in coal, it mainly occurs as organic association and is derived from volcanic tonsteins leached for a long geological time and then adsorbed by organic matter in peat mire.

  9. Thermal desorption analysis of beryllium tile pieces from JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieces of beryllium tile exposed to a D-D plasma in JET have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy. These tiles have a thick layer of redeposited Be-C-O with considerable hydrogen and deuterium present. The samples were heated at a constant rate of 2 C/min. from 100 C to 900 C. Desorption peaks occurred in the range of 140-480 C. There was no significant desorption at temperatures above 600 C. The amount of deuterium detected varied from a low of 8 x 1021/m2 to a high of 2.1 x 1023/m2. In one case, the amount of deuterium in a tile piece was seven times greater than the amount in a neighboring tile piece. Some of the tile pieces in the plasma-exposed region showed surface melting. Despite this, the deuterium yield from one of these pices is >1023/m2. (orig.)

  10. Thermal Induced Processes in Laminar System of Stainless Steel - Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on investigation of the laminar system 'stainless steel 12Cr18Ni10Ti - Be' at thermal treatment. There have been determined sequences of phase transformations along with relative amount of iron-containing phases in the samples subjected to thermal beryllization. It has been revealed that thermal beryllization of stainless steel thin foils results in γ→α transformation and formation of the beryllides NiBe and FeBe2. It has also been revealed that direct γ→α- and reverse α→γ-transformations are accompanied by, correspondingly, formation and decomposition of the beryllide NiBe. It is shown that distribution of the formed phases within sample bulk is defined by local concentration of beryllium. Based on obtained experimental data there is proposed a physical model of phase transformations in stainless steel at thermal beryllization.

  11. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  12. Optical properties and structure of beryllium lead silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, I. S., E-mail: i.s.zhidkov@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002, Russia and Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Str. 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A. [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-21

    Luminescence and optical properties and structural features of (BeO){sub x}(PbO⋅SiO{sub 2}){sub 1−x} glasses (x = 0 ÷ 0.3) are investigated by means of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The regularities of the formation of the optical absorption edge and static disorder are studied. It is shown that the optical absorption and luminescence are determined by transitions between localized states of lead ions. The impact of beryllium oxide on optical and luminescence properties and electronic structure of bands tails is discussed. The presence of two different concentration ranges with various short-range order structure and band tails nature has been established.

  13. Optical properties and structure of beryllium lead silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, I. S.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    Luminescence and optical properties and structural features of (BeO)x(PbOṡSiO2)1-x glasses (x = 0 ÷ 0.3) are investigated by means of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The regularities of the formation of the optical absorption edge and static disorder are studied. It is shown that the optical absorption and luminescence are determined by transitions between localized states of lead ions. The impact of beryllium oxide on optical and luminescence properties and electronic structure of bands tails is discussed. The presence of two different concentration ranges with various short-range order structure and band tails nature has been established.

  14. Specification for nuclear-grade beryllium oxide powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements of nuclear-grade beryllium oxide (BeO) powder to be used in fabricating nuclear components. 1.2 This specification does not include requirements for health and safety. , , It recognizes the material as a Class B poison and suggests that producers and users become thoroughly familiar with and comply to applicable federal, state, and local regulations and handling guidelines. 1.3 Special tests and procedures are given in Annex A1 and Annex A2. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  15. Stress distribution and fracture behavior of beryllium compact tension specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact tension specimens of beryllium (Be) were designed to study fracture behavior and mechanical properties. The local stress distribution near a notch in a compact tension specimen was measured in situ by the combination of an X-ray stress analysis and a custom-designed load device. The fracture morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that the local stresses near the notch tip are much higher than in other areas, and cracking occurs first in that area. The load-crack opening displacement curve of the Be compact tension specimen was obtained, and used to calculate the fracture toughness as 15.7 MPa√m. The compact tension specimen fracture surfaces were mainly characterized by cleavage fracture over three different areas. Cleavage micro-cracks along the basal slip plane were formed at the crack tip, and their growth was controlled by the primary stress after reaching a critical length

  16. Modelling of radiation impact on ITER Beryllium wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ITER H-Mode confinement regime, edge localized instabilities (ELMs) will perturb the discharge. Plasma lost after each ELM moves along magnetic field lines and impacts on divertor armour, causing plasma contamination by back propagating eroded carbon or tungsten. These impurities produce enhanced radiation flux distributed mainly over the beryllium main chamber wall. The simulation of the complicated processes involved are subject of the integrated tokamak code TOKES that is currently under development. This work describes the new TOKES model for radiation transport through confined plasma. Equations for level populations of the multi-fluid plasma species and the propagation of different kinds of radiation (resonance, recombination and bremsstrahlung photons) are implemented. First simulation results without account of resonance lines are presented.

  17. Electron microscope observation of single - crystalline beryllium thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin foils prepared from single crystalline beryllium simples deformed at room temperature, have been observed by transmission electron microscopy. The various deformation modes have been investigated separately, from their early stages and their characteristic dislocation configurations have been observed. Basal slip is characterized at is outset by the presence of numerous dipoles and elongated prismatic loops. More pronounced cold work leads to the formation of dislocation tangles and bundles which eventually give a cellular structure. Prismatic slip begins by the cross-slip of dislocations from the basal plane into the prismatic plane. A cellular structure is equally observed in heavily deformed samples. Sessile dislocations have been observed in twin boundaries; they are produced by reactions between slip dislocations and twin dislocations. Finally, the study of samples quenched from 1100 deg. C and annealed at 200 deg. C has shown that the observed loops lie in prismatic planes and have a Burgers vector b 1/3. (authors)

  18. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer H.-W.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1 strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accuracy of a leading-order computation in this EFT is obtained. We also indicate how higher-order corrections that affect both s-wave and p-wave 10 Be-neutron interactions will affect our results.

  19. Tensile and fracture toughness test results of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R.; Moons, F.; Puzzolante, J.L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1998-01-01

    Tensile and fracture toughness test results of four Beryllium grades are reported here. The flow and fracture properties are investigated by using small size tensile and round compact tension specimens. Irradiation was performed at the BR2 material testing reactor which allows various temperature and irradiation conditions. The fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV) ranges between 0.65 and 2.45 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. In the meantime, un-irradiated specimens were aged at the irradiation temperatures to separate if any the effect of temperature from irradiation damage. Test results are analyzed and discussed, in particular in terms of the effects of material grade, test temperature, thermal ageing and neutron irradiation. (author)

  20. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  1. Cost effective aluminum beryllium mirrors for critical optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Carissa; Duich, Jack; Huskamp, Chris; White, Ray

    2013-09-01

    The unique performance of aluminum-beryllium frequently makes it an ideal material for manufacturing precision optical-grade metal mirrors. Traditional methods of manufacture utilize hot-pressed powder block in billet form which is subsequently machined to final dimensions. Complex component geometries such as lightweighted, non-plano mirrors require extensive tool path programming, fixturing, and CNC machining time and result in a high buy-to-fly ratio (the ratio of the mass of raw material purchased to the mass of the finished part). This increases the cost of the mirror structure as a significant percentage of the procurement cost is consumed in the form of machining, tooling, and scrap material that do not add value to the final part. Inrad Optics, Inc. and IBC Advanced Alloys Corp. undertook a joint study to evaluate the suitability of investment-cast Beralcast® 191 and 363 aluminum-beryllium as a precision mirror substrate material. Net shape investment castings of the desired geometry minimizes machining to just cleanup stock, thereby reducing the recurring procurement cost while still maintaining performance. The thermal stability of two mirrors, (one each of Beralcast® 191 and Beralcast® 363), was characterized from -40°F to +150°F. A representative pocketed mirror was developed, including the creation of a relevant geometry and production of a cast component to validate the approach. Information from the demonstration unit was used as a basis for a comparative cost study of the representative mirror produced in Beralcast® and one machined from a billet of AlBeMet® 162 (AlBeMet® is a registered trademark of Materion Corporation). The technical and financial results of these studies will be discussed in detail.

  2. Assessment of beryllium Faraday screens of the JET ICRF antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JET ICRF antennas, equipped with beryllium (Be) Faraday screens (FS), can be operated in such a way that the RF specific effects on the plasma boundary, by the impurity influx originating at the screens, are reduced to a negligible level. In dipole phasing, k parallel = 7 m-1, the influx is for all purposes negligible. In monopole phasing (kparallel = 0 m-1) the beryllium influx does not exceed ΦFSBe = 1 x 1019 atoms·MW-1·s-1 and the corresponding δZeff/PRF is -1. The observed dependences of ΦFSBe (in monopole phasing) on plasma density, antenna voltage, antenna phasing, and the angle between FS elements and the magnetic field in the boundary, B-vector(a) = B-vectorθ(a) + B-vectorT(a), confirm that the release mechanism is sputtering by ions accelerated in the RF enhanced Bohm-Debye sheaths forming at the front face of the FS. When the angle between FS and B-vector(a) is approx. 22 deg. C, the fraction of the RF power radiated by the antenna, dissipated at the screen, can reach 40%. At high antenna voltage, arcing across the FS can occur. With dipole phasing the heating efficiency is not degraded, even with the large angle, and all the power coupled by the antenna is absorbed at the resonance position near the plasma centre. The open screen design did not introduce any disadvantages. The experience from JET operation at powers of up to 22 MW shows that, if the necessary conditions are met, i.e. if RF rectification is minimized, antennas are phased as dipoles and material with low sputtering coefficients at energies of 0.5-1 keV is used, then the influx from the FS is, for all practical purposes, eliminated. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  3. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  4. Analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium: An overview of detection methods in aerosols and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a survey of commercially available methods for analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium in aerosols and soils to find a reliable, cost-effective, and sufficiently precise method for researchers involved in environmental testing at the Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona. Criteria used for evaluation include cost, method of analysis, specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, applicability, and commercial availability. We found that atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace meets these criteria for testing samples for beryllium. We found that this method can also be used to test samples for depleted uranium. However, atomic absorption with graphite furnace is not as sensitive a measurement method for depleted uranium as it is for beryllium, so we recommend that quality control of depleted uranium analysis be maintained by testing 10 of every 1000 samples by neutron activation analysis. We also evaluated 45 companies and institutions that provide analyses of beryllium and depleted uranium. 5 refs., 1 tab

  5. Analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium: An overview of detection methods in aerosols and soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camins, I.; Shinn, J.H.

    1988-06-01

    We conducted a survey of commercially available methods for analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium in aerosols and soils to find a reliable, cost-effective, and sufficiently precise method for researchers involved in environmental testing at the Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona. Criteria used for evaluation include cost, method of analysis, specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, applicability, and commercial availability. We found that atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace meets these criteria for testing samples for beryllium. We found that this method can also be used to test samples for depleted uranium. However, atomic absorption with graphite furnace is not as sensitive a measurement method for depleted uranium as it is for beryllium, so we recommend that quality control of depleted uranium analysis be maintained by testing 10 of every 1000 samples by neutron activation analysis. We also evaluated 45 companies and institutions that provide analyses of beryllium and depleted uranium. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Estimations of neutron yield from beryllium target irradiated by SPring-8 hard synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gryaznykh, D A; Plokhoi, V V

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of creating a neutron source based on ''SPring-8'' synchrotron radiation interaction with beryllium targets is discussed. The possible neutron yield is estimated to be of order 10 sup 1 sup 2 s sup - sup 1 .

  7. Off the Beaten Track-A Hitchhiker's Guide to Beryllium Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglav, Dominik; Buchner, Magnus R; Bendt, Georg; Kraus, Florian; Schulz, Stephan

    2016-08-26

    This Minireview aims to give an introduction to beryllium chemistry for all less-experienced scientists in this field of research. Up to date information on the toxicity of beryllium and its compounds are reviewed and several basic and necessary guidelines for a safe and proper handling in modern chemical research laboratories are presented. Interesting phenomenological observations are described that are related directly to the uniqueness of this element, which are also put into historical context. Herein we combine the contributions and experiences of many scientist that work passionately in this field. We want to encourage fellow scientists to reconcile the long-standing reservations about beryllium and its compounds and motivate intense research on this spurned element. Who on earth should be able to deal with beryllium and its compounds if not chemists? PMID:27364901

  8. Interaction between gaseous ozone and crystalline potassium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanov, A. V.; Maksimov, I. B.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The formation of nonvolatile products of the oxidation of a bromide ion during the interaction between gaseous ozone and powdered crystalline KBr is studied. It is found that potassium bromate KBrO3 is the main product of the reaction. The influence of major experimental factors (the duration of ozonation, the concentration of ozone, the humidity of the initial gas, and the temperature) on the rate of formation of bromate is studied. The effective constants of the formation of bromate during the interaction between O3 and Br- in a heterogeneous gas-solid body system and in a homogeneous aqueous solution are compared.

  9. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  10. Methyl bromide: Ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Anbar; Yung, Y. L.; Chavez, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH_3Br), the major carrier of O_3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH_3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH_3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmo...

  11. Enzyme activities in agricultural soils fumigated with methyl bromide alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, Susanne; Ajwa, H A

    2004-01-01

    Pre-plant fumigation of agricultural soils with a combination of methyl bromide (MeBr) and chloropicrin (CP) to control nematodes, soil-borne pathogens and weeds has been a common practice in strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duchesne) production since the 1960s. MeBr will be phased out by 2005, but little is known about the impacts of alternative fumigants on soil microbial processes. We investigated the response of microbial biomass and enzyme activities in soils fumigated over two years with...

  12. Automated determination of bromide in waters by ion chromatography with an amperometric detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyen, G.S.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    An automated ion chromatograph, including a program controller, an automatic sampler, an integrator, and an amperometric detector, was used to develop a procedure for the determination of bromide in rain water and many ground waters. Approximately 10 min is required to obtain a chromatogram. The detection limit for bromide is 0.01 mg l-1 and the relative standard deivation is <5% for bromide concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mg l-1. Chloride interferes if the chloride-to-bromide ratio is greater than 1 000:1 for a range of 0.01-0.1 mg l-1 bromide; similarly, chloride interferes in the 0.1-1.0 mg l-1 range if the ratio is greater than 5 000:1. In the latter case, a maximum of 2 000 mg l-1 of chloride can be tolerated. Recoveries of known concentrations of bromide added to several samples, ranged from 97 to 110%. ?? 1983.

  13. Characterization of phagolysosomal simulant fluid for study of beryllium aerosol particle dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, A B; Guilmette, R A; Day, G A; Hoover, M D; Breysse, P N; Scripsick, R C

    2005-02-01

    A simulant of phagolysosomal fluid is needed for beryllium particle dissolution research because intraphagolysosomal dissolution is believed to be a necessary step in the cellular immune response associated with development of chronic beryllium disease. Thus, we refined and characterized a potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) buffered solution with pH 4.55, termed phagolysosomal simulant fluid (PSF), for use in a static dissolution technique. To characterize the simulant, beryllium dissolution in PSF was compared to dissolution in the J774A.1 murine cell line. The effects of ionic composition, buffer strength, and the presence of the antifungal agent alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDC) on beryllium dissolution in PSF were evaluated. Beryllium dissolution in PSF was not different from dissolution in the J774A.1 murine cell line (p = 0.78) or from dissolution in another simulant having the same pH but different ionic composition (p = 0.73). A buffer concentration of 0.01-M KHP did not appear adequate to maintain pH under all conditions. There was no difference between dissolution in PSF with 0.01-M KHP and 0.02-M KHP (p = 0.12). At 0.04-M KHP, beryllium dissolution was increased relative to 0.02-M KHP (p = 0.02). Use of a 0.02-M KHP buffer concentration in the standard formulation for PSF provided stability in pH without alteration of the dissolution rate. The presence of ABDC did not influence beryllium dissolution in PSF (p = 0.35). PSF appears to be a useful and appropriate model of in vitro beryllium dissolution when using a static dissolution technique. In addition, the critical approach used to evaluate and adjust the composition of PSF may serve as a framework for characterizing PSF to study dissolution of other metal and oxide particles.

  14. Impact of beryllium reflector ageing on Safari–1 reactor core parameters / L.E. Moloko

    OpenAIRE

    Moloko, Lesego Ernest

    2011-01-01

    The build–up of 6Li and 3He, that is, the strong thermal neutron absorbers or the so called "neutron poisons", in the beryllium reflector changes the physical characteristics of the reactor, such as reactivity, neutron spectra, neutron flux level, power distribution, etc.; furthermore,gaseous isotopes such as 3H and 4He induce swelling and embrittlement of the reflector. The SAFARI–1 research reactor, operated by Necsa at Pelindaba in South Africa, uses a beryllium reflector on...

  15. Effects of pinaverium bromide and verapamil on the motility of the rat isolated colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, A; Drack, E; Halter, F; Scheurer, U

    1985-09-01

    Pinaverium bromide was 30 times less potent than verapamil in inhibiting intraluminal pressure responses of in vitro rat colonic segments to barium chloride, acetylcholine, FK 33-824 or field stimulation. The inhibitory effects of both verapamil and pinaverium bromide on the pressure responses to field stimulation were antagonized similarly by exogenous calcium administration. These results support the concept that pinaverium bromide acts on calcium channels in the smooth muscle cell membrane. PMID:4052731

  16. Effects of pinaverium bromide and verapamil on the motility of the rat isolated colon.

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, A.; Drack, E.; Halter, F; Scheurer, U.

    1985-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide was 30 times less potent than verapamil in inhibiting intraluminal pressure responses of in vitro rat colonic segments to barium chloride, acetylcholine, FK 33-824 or field stimulation. The inhibitory effects of both verapamil and pinaverium bromide on the pressure responses to field stimulation were antagonized similarly by exogenous calcium administration. These results support the concept that pinaverium bromide acts on calcium channels in the smooth muscle cell membrane.

  17. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-12-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  18. Sensitive detection of beryllium using a fiber optic liquid waveguide cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gang; Wei, Lily; Collins, Greg E

    2003-05-28

    The metallochromic chelating agent, Chromazurol S, has been utilized in conjunction with a fiber optic liquid waveguide capillary cell to enable the sensitive detection of beryllium in solution (30 ng l(-1) detection limit) and following extraction from a contaminated plexiglas surface (0.5 ng cm(-2) detection limit). The addition of a cationic surfactant, cetylpyridinium chloride, to Chromazurol S at pH 10 in Tris-HCl buffer results in the formation of two bathochromic peaks in the visible spectrum following metal chelation by beryllium. The first absorbance band, at 515 nm, is intermediate in nature, permitting maximal sensitivity for low beryllium concentrations, but diminishing in intensity at concentrations above 100 mug l(-1). The second absorbance band, centered at 610 nm, dominates for beryllium concentrations of 100 mug l(-1) and above. Experimental conditions including pH, buffer type, additive surfactants, masking agents, and dye concentration were investigated in order to optimize detection sensitivity and selectivity. A fiber optic spectrometer is used with both a liquid waveguide capillary cell and 1 cm cuvette cell, to give a sensitive and broad dynamic range for beryllium detection that capitalizes on both beryllium metal chelate absorbance bands formed under these conditions.

  19. Preconcentration and separation of ultra-trace beryllium using quinalizarine-modified magnetic microparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtari, Parviz, E-mail: pashtari@aeoi.org.ir [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Biomedical Engineering Center, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); NFCS, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, PO Box 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wang Kemin; Yang Xiaohai [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Biomedical Engineering Center, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ahmadi, Seyed Javad [NFCS, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, PO Box 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-07-30

    Magnetically-assisted chemical separation/preconcentration method for the analysis of beryllium from aqueous solutions was developed. According to this method several extractants were coated on certain magnetic microparticles to assist the extraction of beryllium from the aqueous solutions. The influence of different parameters (type and amount of extractant, pH, equilibrium time and ionic strength) was investigated. Also, the interfering effect of various cationic and anionic species on the percent recovery of beryllium was studied. The applied spectrophotometric method showed good linearity and precision at a given wavelength (605.0 nm). Among the extractants used, quinalizarine resulted in almost a full recovery of beryllium at pH 7.4, which was the optimum extraction pH. The equilibrium time of the extraction was 10.0 min. The quantitative re-extraction was carried out by 0.5 M nitric acid. Also, the stability of the extractant-coated magnetic microparticles was 4 cycles (extraction and re-extraction) and the used magnetic microparticles showed good selectivity for beryllium against other cations and anions. Finally, the developed method was applicable for the preconcentration and separation of beryllium from spring water, tap water and certified reference waters. The obtained detection limit was 30 ng L{sup -1}.

  20. Characterization of beryllium deformation using in-situ x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Eric Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sisneros, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Park, Jun-Sang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Beryllium’s unique mechanical properties are extremely important in a number of high performance applications. Consequently, accurate models for the mechanical behavior of beryllium are required. However, current models are not sufficiently microstructure aware to accurately predict the performance of beryllium under a range of processing and loading conditions. Previous experiments conducted using the SMARTS and HIPPO instruments at the Lujan Center(LANL), have studied the relationship between strain rate and texture development, but due to the limitations of neutron diffraction studies, it was not possible to measure the response of the material in real-time. In-situ diffraction experiments conducted at the Advanced Photon Source have allowed the real time measurement of the mechanical response of compressed beryllium. Samples of pre-strained beryllium were reloaded orthogonal to their original load path to show the reorientation of already twinned grains. Additionally, the in-situ experiments allowed the real time tracking of twin evolution in beryllium strained at high rates. The data gathered during these experiments will be used in the development and validation of a new, microstructure aware model of the constitutive behavior of beryllium.

  1. Extraction and optical fluorescence method for the measurement of trace beryllium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anoop; Cronin, John P; Agrawal, Akshay; Tonazzi, Juan C L; Adams, Lori; Ashley, Kevin; Brisson, Michael J; Duran, Brandy; Whitney, Gary; Burrell, Anthony K; McCleskey, T Mark; Robbins, James; White, Kenneth T

    2008-03-15

    Beryllium metal and beryllium oxide are important industrial materials used in a variety of applications in the electronics, nuclear energy, and aerospace industries. These materials are highly toxic, they must be disposed of with care, and exposed workers need to be protected. Recently, a new analytical method was developed that uses dilute ammonium bifluoride for extraction of beryllium and a high quantum yield optical fluorescence reagent to determine trace amounts of beryllium in airborne and surface samples. The sample preparation and analysis procedure was published by both ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The main advantages of this method are its sensitivity, simplicity, use of lower toxicity materials, and low capital costs. Use of the technique for analyzing soils has been initiated to help meet a need at several of the U.S. Department of Energy legacy sites. So far this work has mainly concentrated on developing a dissolution protocol for effectively extracting beryllium from a variety of soils and sediments so that these can be analyzed by optical fluorescence. Certified reference materials (CRM) of crushed rock and soils were analyzed for beryllium content using fluorescence, and results agree quantitatively with reference values.

  2. Investigation of the mechanism of interaction of Lithium 6 ions on Beryllium 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research on the interaction of Lithium 6 and Beryllium 9 ions is to obtain new indications on the mode of interaction of these heavy ions, and on the configuration of target nuclei and projectile nuclei. In a first part, the author presents and describes the experimental conditions which comprise a Van de Graaff accelerator, a source, a stripper, and a target. He reports the study of α particles emitted by the reaction between the Lithium and Beryllium ions: description of the experimental installation (irradiation chamber and method), presentation and interpretation of experimental results. In the next part, he reports the study of Lithium 7 and Beryllium 10 nuclides emitted by disintegration of Beryllium 11: description of experimental conditions, variations of cross sections, variation of the cross section rate, and interpretation. The author then addresses the study of the intervention of the mode of interaction by 15N compound nucleus in the reactions between lithium and beryllium ions: study of intensities of the different spectrum lines, measurement of the Doppler effect produced of the 479 keV line, interpretation of results. In conclusion, the author analyses the mechanism of interaction between lithium and beryllium ions, and discusses different theories: the Newns and Glendenning theories, and the Leigh theory

  3. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Sonja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report describing electrophysiological and histopathological findings associated with bromide induced lower motor neuron dysfunction in a dog.

  4. The in vitro and in vivo profile of aclidinium bromide in comparison with glycopyrronium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaldà, Amadeu; Ramos, Israel; Carcasona, Carla; Calama, Elena; Otal, Raquel; Montero, José Luis; Sentellas, Sonia; Aparici, Monica; Vilella, Dolors; Alberti, Joan; Beleta, Jorge; Miralpeix, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    This study characterised the in vitro and in vivo profiles of two novel long-acting muscarinic antagonists, aclidinium bromide and glycopyrronium bromide, using tiotropium bromide and ipratropium bromide as comparators. All four antagonists had high affinity for the five muscarinic receptor sub-types (M1-M5); aclidinium had comparable affinity to tiotropium but higher affinity than glycopyrronium and ipratropium for all receptors. Glycopyrronium dissociated faster from recombinant M3 receptors than aclidinium and tiotropium but more slowly than ipratropium; all four compounds dissociated more rapidly from M2 receptors than from M3 receptors. In vitro, aclidinium, glycopyrronium and tiotropium had a long duration of action at native M3 receptors (>8 h versus 42 min for ipratropium). In vivo, all compounds were equi-potent at reversing acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium and ipratropium had a faster onset of bronchodilator action than tiotropium. Aclidinium had a longer duration of action than glycopyronnium (time to 50% recovery of effect [t½ offset] = 29 h and 13 h, respectively); these compare with a t½ offset of 64 h and 8 h for tiotropium and ipratropium, respectively. Aclidinium was less potent than glycopyrronium and tiotropium at inhibiting salivation in conscious rats (dose required to produce half-maximal effect [ED50] = 38, 0.74 and 0.88 μg/kg, respectively) and was more rapidly hydrolysed in rat, guinea pig and human plasma compared with glycopyrronium or tiotropium. These results indicate that while aclidinium and glycopyrronium are both potent antagonists at muscarinic receptors with similar kinetic selectivity for M3 receptors versus M2, aclidinium has a longer dissociation half-life at M3 receptors and a longer duration of bronchodilator action in vivo than glycopyrronium. The rapid plasma hydrolysis of aclidinium, coupled to its kinetic selectivity, may confer a reduced propensity for systemic

  5. Bromoform formation in ozonated groundwater containing bromide and humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.J.; Amy, G.L.; Moore, C.A.; Zika, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of bromide ion, organic carbon concentration (natural aquatic humic substances), pH, and solar irradiation on the formation of bromoform in ozonated groundwater has been studied. The studies were conducted on four unique samples of groundwater taken from different regions of the Biscayne Aquifer in southern Florida. All other conditions being equal, increases in bromide ion concentrations resulted in increases in CHBr/sub 3/ formation. In three of the four samples, CHBr/sub 3/ formation decreased as the pH level increased from 5 to 9. The fourth sample exhibited an opposite trend whereby the CHBr/sub 3/ concentration increased with increasing pH. Bromoform concentration increased with increased O/sub 3/ concentration over an ozone dosage range of 3.4 to 6.7 mg/L. Ozonated samples placed in sunlight immediately after ozone addition showed a decrease in the formation of CHBr/sub 3/ presumably due to the photodecomposition of HOBr/OBr.

  6. Bromoform formation in ozonated groundwater containing bromide and humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copper, W.J. (Florida International Univ., Miami (United States)); Amy, G.L. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)); Moore, C.A.; Zika, R.G. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States))

    The effect of bromide ion, organic carbon concentration (natural aquatic humic substances), pH, and solar irradiation on the formation of bromoform in ozonated groundwater has been studied. The studies were conducted on four unique samples of groundwater taken from different regions of the Biscayne Aquifer in southern Florida. All other conditions being equal, increases in bromide ion concentrations resulted in increases in CHBr{sub 3} formation. In three of the four samples, CHBr{sub 3} formation decreased as the pH level increased from 5 to 9. The fourth sample exhibited an opposite trend whereby the CHBr{sub 3} concentration increased with increasing pH. Bromoform concentration increased with increased O{sub 3} concentration over an ozone dosage range of 3.4 to 6.7 mg/L. Ozonated samples placed in sunlight immediately after ozone addition showed a decrease in the formation of CHBr{sub 3}, presumably due to the photodecomposition of HOBr/OBr.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercuric Bromide-Phenothiazine Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidisha A. Alwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available N-alkylphenothiazines (NAPTZs are biologically active heterocyclic compounds that find extensive applications in the field of medicine. In the pharmaceutical industry, they are used as psychotherapeutic, antiemetic, and antihistaminic drugs. In this study, complexation reactions of mercuric bromide with NAPTZs as principal ligands have been investigated in MeOH medium. Five mercuric bromide complexes of the NAPTZ ligands namely, chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP.HCl, promethazine hydrochloride (PM.HCl, ethopropazine hydrochloride (EP.HCl, trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TF.2HCl and thioridazine hydrochloride (TR.HCl have been synthesized. These complexes were subjected to elemental analysis, solubility, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility, U.V-Vis, I.R, and NMR spectroscopy. The molecular formulations of the complexes have been found to be: [HgBr2(CP2].4H2O; [HgBr2(PM2].2H2O; [HgBr2(EP2]; [HgBr2(TF2].2H2O and [HgBr2(TR2]. Tentative molecular structures have been proposed and presented.

  8. Modeling water/lithium bromide absorption chillers in ASPEN Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Single- and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller designs are numerically modeled using ASPEN. → The modeling procedure is described and the results are compared to published modeling data to access prediction accuracy. → Predictions for the single- and double-effect designs are within 3% and 5%, respectively of published data for all cycle parameters of interest. → The absorption cycle models presented allow investigation of using absorption chillers for waste heat utilization in the oil and gas industry. -- Abstract: Absorption chillers are a viable option for providing waste heat-powered cooling or refrigeration in oil and gas processing plants, thereby improving energy efficiency. In this paper, single- and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller designs are numerically modeled using ASPEN. The modeling procedure is described and the results are compared to published modeling data to access prediction accuracy. Predictions for the single- and double-effect designs are within 3% and 5%, respectively of published data for all cycle parameters of interest. The absorption cycle models presented not only allow investigation into the benefits of using absorption chillers for waste heat utilization in the oil and gas industry, but are also generically applicable to a wide range of other applications.

  9. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power amplifier system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G N Tiwari; R K Mishra; R Khare; S V Nakhe

    2014-02-01

    Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of operating parameters. The electrical input power was varied from 2.6 to 4.3 kW, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 16 to 19 kHz, and the pressure of the buffer gas (neon) was kept fixed at 20 mbar. When the electrical input power was increased to 4.3 kW from 2.6 kW, the tube-wall temperature also increased to 488°C from 426°C but the ratio of the green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 3.73. The ratio of green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 1.63 when the PRF of the laser was increased to 19 kHz from 16 kHz. These observations are explained in terms of electron temperature, energy levels of transitions, and voltage and current waveforms across the laser head.

  10. Tritium release of Li4SiO4, Li2O and beryllium and chemical compatibility of beryllium with Li4SiO4, Li2O and steel (SIBELIUS irradiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the SIBELIUS irradiation, a joint EC-US project performed at CEN Grenoble, was to investigate the oxidation kinetics of beryllium in contact with ceramic and the nature and extent of beryllium in contact with ceramic and the nature and extent of beryllium interaction with (316 L and 1.4914) steel in a neutron environment. In this work post irradiation examinations of SIBELIUS specimens performed at KfK are described. Tritium release of Li4SiO4, Li2O and beryllium was studied by out-of-pile annealing and chemical compatibility of beryllium with Li4SiO4, Li2O and steel by microscopic examinations. Tritium release of the ceramics was found to be consistent with SIBELIUS inpile observations and previous tests. Release of tritium generated in beryllium was found to be very slow, in accordance with previous work. For beryllium which was in contact with ceramic during irradiation, a second type of tritium, caused by injection of 2.7 MeV tritons generated in the ceramic, is observed. Release of injected tritium is faster than that of generated. Evidence for injected tritium in beryllium was also found in the microscopic studies. The observed minor chemical reactions of beryllium with steel and probably also those with breeder materials under neutron irradiation are consistent with the results of laboratory annealing tests. (orig.)

  11. Characteristics of microstructure and tritium release properties of different kinds of beryllium pebbles for application in tritium breeding modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurinskiy, P.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP); Rolli, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Materials Biomechanics (IAM-WBM); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Beryllium pebbles with diameters of 1 mm are considered to be perspective material for the use as neutron multiplier in tritium breeding modules of fusion reactors. Up to now, the main concept of helium-cooled breeding blanket in ITER project foresees the use of 1 mm beryllium pebbles fabricated by company NGK, Japan. It is notable that beryllium pebbles of other types are commercially available at the market. Presented work is dedicated to a study of characteristics of microstructure, packaging density and parameters of tritium release of beryllium pebbles produced by Bochvar Institute, Russian Federation, and Company Materion, USA. (orig.).

  12. Derivation of beryllium guidelines for use in establishing cleanup levels at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guideline levels are derived for beryllium in soil and on indoor surfaces at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites in the state of New York. On the basis of highly conservative assumptions, the soil beryllium concentration that corresponds to a 10-4 carcinogenic risk level is estimated to be 13 mg/kg at both sites. Calculations indicate that the proposed US Department of Energy guideline of 2 μg/ft2 for beryllium in dust on indoor surfaces would be sufficiently protective of human health. For occupational protection of workers during cleanup operations, Office of Safety and Health Administration standards for beryllium are referenced and restated

  13. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Antonio de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Donate, Marina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: juan.rromero@uclm.es

    2006-02-15

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH{sub 3}COOK) or (LiBr + CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H{sub 2}O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

  14. Monitoring beryllium during site cleanup and closure using a real-time analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; French, P.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Beryllium metal has a number of unique properties that have been exploited for use in commercial and government applications. Airborne beryllium particles can represent a significant human health hazard if deposited in the lungs. These particles can cause immunologically-mediated chronic granulomatous lung disease (chronic beryllium disease). Traditional methods of monitoring airborne beryllium involve collecting samples of air within the work area using a filter. The filter then undergoes chemical analysis to determine the amount of beryllium collected during the sampling period. These methods are time-consuming and results are known only after a potential exposure has occurred. The need for monitoring exposures in real time has prompted government and commercial companies to develop instrumentation that will allow for the real time assessment of short-term exposures so that adequate protection for workers in contaminated environments can be provided. Such an analyzer provides a tool that will allow government and commercial sites to be cleaned up in a more safe and effective manner since exposure assessments can be made instantaneously. This paper describes the development and initial testing of an analyzer for monitoring airborne beryllium using a technique known as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Energy from a focused, pulsed laser is used to vaporize a sample and create an intense plasma. The light emitted from the plasma is analyzed to determine the quantity of beryllium in the sampled air. A commercial prototype analyzer has been fabricated and tested in a program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, and ADA Technologies, Inc. Design features of the analyzer and preliminary test results are presented.

  15. In-pile thermocycling testing and post-test analysis of beryllium divertor mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniatulin, R.; Mazul, I. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Melder, R.; Pokrovsky, A.; Sandakov, V.; Shiuchkin, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main damaging factors which impact the ITER divertor components are neutron irradiation, cyclic surface heat loads and hydrogen environment. One of the important questions in divertor mockups development is the reliability of beryllium/copper joints and the beryllium resistance under neutron irradiation and thermal cycling. This work presents the experiment, where neutron irradiation and thermocyclic heat loads were applied simultaneously for two beryllium/copper divertor mockups in a nuclear reactor channel to simulate divertor operational conditions. Two mockups with different beryllium grades were mounted facing each other with the tantalum heater placed between them. This device was installed in the active zone of the nuclear reactor SM-2 (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) and the tantalum block was heated by neutron irradiation up to a high temperature. The main part of the heat flux from the tantalum surface was transported to the beryllium surface through hydrogen, as a result the heat flux loaded two mockups simultaneously. The mockups were cooled by reactor water. The device was lowered to the active zone so as to obtain the heating regime and to provide cooling lifted. This experiment was performed under the following conditions: tantalum heater temperature - 1950degC; hydrogen environment -1000 Pa; surface heat flux density -3.2 MW/m{sup 2}; number of thermal cycles (lowering and lifting) -101; load time in each cycle - 200-5000 s; dwell time (no heat flux, no neutrons) - 300-2000 s; cooling water parameters: v - 1 m/s, Tin - 50degC, Pin - 5 MPa; neutron fluence -2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} ({approx}8 years of ITER divertor operation from the start up). The metallographic analysis was performed after experiment to investigate the beryllium and beryllium/copper joint structures, the results are presented in the paper. (author)

  16. Sub-micro level monitoring of beryllium ions with a novel beryllium sensor based on 2,6-diphenyl-4-benzo-9-crown-3-pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Moghimi, Abolghasem; Faal-Rastegar, Madjid; Borhany, Shahin; Namazian, Mansour

    2004-07-01

    The 2,6-diphenyl-4-benzo-9-crown-3-pyridine (DPCP) was used as an excellent ionophore in construction of a coated graphite poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 30% poly(vinyl chloride), 60% o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE), 5% 2,6-diphenyl-4-benzo-9-crown-3-pyridine and 5% sodium tetraphenyl borate (TBP). This sensor shows very good selectivity and sensitivity towards beryllium ion over a wide variety of cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor revealed a great enhancement in selectivity coefficients and sensitivity for beryllium, in comparison with the previously reported beryllium electrodes. The electrode exhibits a Nernstian behavior (with slope of 29.6mV per decade) over a very wide concentration range (1.0x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-1)) with a detection limit of 4.0x10(-8)M (360pgml(-1)). It shows relatively fast response time, in whole concentration range (beryllium in mineral ore.

  17. 76 FR 7200 - Methyl Bromide; Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Amend Registrations To Terminate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Professional Products to voluntarily amend methyl bromide product registration 8536-12 to terminate or delete... identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an e- mail... Cardinal Professional Products, and Trical, Inc.) to delete certain uses of methyl bromide...

  18. SYNTHESIS AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF HYDROPHOBICALLY MODIFIED POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YANG, YJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1991-01-01

    A series of hydrophobically modified homo- and copolymers of the poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide) type has been prepared by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers in aqueous solution. Depending on the length of the alkyl side chain (varied between

  19. Destruction of methyl bromide sorbed to activated carbon by thiosulfate and electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl bromide is widely used as a fumigant for post-harvest and quarantine uses at port facilities due to the low treatment times required, but it is vented to the atmosphere after its use. Due to the potential contributions of methyl bromide to stratospheric ozone depletion, technologies for the c...

  20. Determination of micro-amount bromide in uranium trioxide by spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of bromide in the production of uranium trioxide is one of the most important control factors, so determining it accurately seems important. When uranium trioxide is dissolved in nitric acid, in the presence of AgNO3 solution, micro-amount bromide can be co- precipitated with AgCl. Bromide can be separated by centrifugation from a large amount of UO22+ and other anions. In the existing of KOH and H2O2, AgCl can be changed into free bromide. By adding ammonium molybdate as catalyst, bromide and excessive KBrO3 can react and produce Br2. In the medium of tert-butanol-ethanol, Br2 can react with basic fuchsine and produce a purple compound which is stable, the bromide content is determined by spectrophotometric method. The results show that it is a highly sensitive method with low detection limit. Its apparent molar absorption coefficient κ' is 1.7 x 104 L/(mol·cm). Its detection limit is 9 μg/L and determination limit is 0.13 mg/L. The linear relationship is in the range of 0.2-1.6 mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The relative standard deviation is less than 10% after it is determed six times at the same time. For bromide content of 4.00 and 8.00 μg, the bromide recovery obtained are between 94% and 103%. (authors)

  1. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba

    2007-11-01

    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and dipolarity/polarizability (*) of the solvent. The LSER derived from the statistical analysis indicates that the transition state is more solvated than the reactants due to hydrogen bond donation and polarizability of the solvent while the reactant is more solvated than the transition state due to electrophilicity of the solvent. Study of the reaction in methanol, dimethyl formamide mixtures suggests that the rate is maximum when dipolar interactions between the two solvents are maximum.

  2. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ) Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun(马礼敦); CHENG,Guang-Hui(程广辉); WU,Hong-Xiang(吴宏翔); LIN,Han-Yi(林涵毅); SHEN,Xiao-Liang(沈孝良); SHI,Guo-Shun(施国顺)

    2002-01-01

    There are two theories, SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide (AAC-B).Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at different reaction time. In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were de-termined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)and the reaction process wes studied by the combination of Xray powder diffraction and EXAFS. It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  3. Design and Fabrication of Externally heated Copper Bromide Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available An externally-heated, longitudinally-discharged, low-repetition-rate copper bromide laser, was designed and fabricated. The green-coloured wavelength at 5106 A from this laser can be used for underwater ranging and detection of submerged objects. Several new changes in the design of discharge tube, heating technique, buffer-gas-flow sub-system and electrical circuit have been conceived and incorporated advantageously in our system. Various parameters, for example, the type of buffer gas and its flow rate, mixture of gases, temperature of the discharge tube, delay between dissociation and excitation pulses, dissociation and excitation energies, and various resonator configurations are being optimised to get the maximum output power/energy from the laser system.

  4. Xanthine Biosensor Based on Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Modified Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); HAN,Xiao-Jun(韩晓军); HUANG,Wei-Min(黄卫民); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    The vesicle of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)which contained tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was mixed with xanthine oxidase, and the mixture was cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The lipid films were used to supply a biological environment resembling biomembrane on the surface of the electrode. TTF was used as a mediator because of its high electron-transfer efficiency. A novel xanthine biosensor based on cast DDAB film was developed. The effects of pH and operating potential were explored for optimum analytical performance by using the amperometric method. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 s. The detection limit of the biosensor was 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L and the liner range was from 4 × 10-7 mol/L to 2.4 × 10-6 mol/L.

  5. Irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide: the Australian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International agreement to phase out the fumigant Methyl bromide (MeBr) will have serious implications for pest and disease control in Australia, particularly grain pest control, quarantine usage on fresh horticultural produce and control of soil pathogens or nematodes. Irradiation is a practical alternative but is not currently approved for use in Australia. Other options are available but none of the viable methods except irradiation have the short application time needed for treatment of grams found to be infested during loading at export. This usage is vital, as Australian grain is exported at very high standards of freedom from insects, assured by Government regulatory requirements. Irradiation is contrasted against other alternatives including heat and cold, especially for fresh horticultural produce. (author)

  6. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ)Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun; CHENG,Guang-Hui; 等

    2002-01-01

    There are two theories,SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide(AAC-B). Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at dififferent reaction time.In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and the reaction process was studied by the combination of X-ray powder diffraction and EXAFS.It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  7. Investigation of the glide modes of single crystals of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow characteristics of single crystals of beryllium specially oriented for slip along a single plane and a single direction have been thoroughly investigated. The elastic limit and the strain hardening in basal glide have been investigated in the temperature range (-195 deg. C, 400 deg. C) in tension as well as in compression. Observation of the slip lines and of the dislocation configurations have also been made in addition to the mechanical tests. The prismatic slip has been studied in greater detail: tensile tests have been performed on specimens carefully oriented at different temperatures, strain rates and with varying orientations of the basal and of the prism planes. Tests have also been made in the micro-strain range; the slip lines and the dislocation arrangements were observed in detail. The very unusual variation of the elastic limit with temperature is not due to impurities but to a cross slip mechanism. A model of dislocation locking is proposed to account for the experimental results. This mechanism assumes that the a-bar dislocations may also dissociate on the prism planes [101-bar 0]. Various possible dissociations are suggested, the most probable of which corresponds to the phase transformation: Hexagonal close packed to body centered cubic. This proposal can be extended to account for the relative ease of glide on the different systems in the hexagonal close packed metals. (author)

  8. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  9. Erosion of beryllium under high-flux plasma impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerner, R.P., E-mail: rdoerner@ucsd.edu [Center for Energy Research, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Björkas, C. [EURATOM-Tekes, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O.B. 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Institute for Energy Research-Plasma Physics, Forchungszentrun Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Nishijima, D. [Center for Energy Research, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Schwarz-Selinger, T. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Be sputtering yields, measured by weight loss, in PISCES-B are a factor of 5–10 less than that predicted by binary collision approximations. Measurements show the BeO surface is removed early in the plasma bombardment. Modeling of molecular ions (D{sub 2}{sup +} and D{sub 3}{sup +}) species and redeposition cannot explain the difference. Surface morphology that evolves during the exposure reduces the sputtering yield by a factor of 2–3. Plasma fuel atoms retained in the surface decrease the sputtering yield compared to calculations of a pure Be surface. These effects may explain the measured erosion rates in the absence of Be impurities within the plasma. By introducing Be impurity ions into the plasma, it is possible to simulate a controllable amount of redeposition. The weight loss from eroding Be targets, with Be seeding, is unchanged until the concentration of Be ions in the plasma greatly exceeds the sputtering yield in the non-beryllium seeded exposure.

  10. Manufacture of sintered bricks of high density from beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium oxide bricks of nuclear purity 100 x 100 x 50 and 100 x 100 x 100 mm of very high density (between 2.85 and 3.00) are manufactured by sintering under pressure in graphite moulds at temperatures between 1,750 and 1,850 deg. C, and under a pressure of 150 kg/cm2. The physico-chemical state of the saw material is of considerable importance with regard to the success of the sintering operation. In addition, a study of the sintering of a BeO mixture with 3 to 5 per cent of boron introduced in the form of boric acid, boron carbide or elementary boron shows that high densities can only be obtained by sintering under pressure. For technical reasons of manufacture, only the mixture based on boron carbide is used. The sintering is carried out in graphite moulds at 1500 deg. C under 150 kg/cm2 pressure, and bricks can be obtained with density between 2,85 and 2,90. Laboratory studies and the industrial manufacture of various sinters are described in detail. (author)

  11. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  12. Beryllium abundance in turn-off stars of NGC 6752

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquini, L; Randich, S; Galli, D; Gratton, R G; Wolff, B; Pasquini, Luca; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Randich, Sofia; Galli, Daniele; Gratton, Raffaele G.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To measure the beryllium abundance in two TO stars of the Globular Cluster NGC 6752, one oxygen rich and sodium poor, the other presumably oxygen poor and sodium rich. Be abundances in these stars are used to put on firmer grounds the hypothesis of Be as cosmochronometer and to investigate the formation of Globular Clusters. Method:We present near UV spectra with resolution R$\\sim 45000$ obtained with the UVES spectrograph on the 8.2m VLT Kueyen telescope, analysed with spectrum synthesis based on plane parallel LTE model atmospheres. Results:Be is detected in the O rich star with log(Be/H)=-12.04 $\\pm$0.15, while Be is not detected in the other star for which we obtain the upper limit log(Be/H)$<$-12.2. A large difference in nitrogen abundance (1.6 dex) is found between the two stars. Conclusions:The Be measurement is compatible with what found in field stars with the same [Fe/H] and [O/H]. The 'Be age' of the cluster is found to be 13.3 Gyrs, in excellent agreement with the results from main sequen...

  13. Project SAPPHIRE uranium-beryllium dose rate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a six-week period in the fall of 1994 a team of 31 US government and Y-12 personnel packaged and removed several thousand kilograms of material containing highly enriched uranium from the (former Soviet Union) Republic of Kazakhstan for interim storage at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This classified mission, known as PROJECT SAPPHIRE, had been initiated at the request of the Kazakhstan government in order to rid itself of possible security problems. Planning for the mission included assurance of the health and safety of the team members, as well as compliance with all local, IAEA, and US government regulations regarding the handling, packaging, transportation, and storage of radioactive and fissile material. The mission classification restrictions were relaxed following the return of the team and material to the United States. The material to be removed, in the form of small billets and rods of uranium metal and uranium-beryllium alloy and oxide powder, was sealed by team members on site into two-liter steel cans. Two or three cans each were loaded into more than 400 IAEA certified fissile material shipping container, and each container was packed into a large steel drum for transport by US Air Force cargo planes to the United States

  14. Waterlike structural and excess entropy anomalies in liquid beryllium fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Manish; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2007-11-22

    The relationship between structural order metrics and the excess entropy is studied using the transferable rigid ion model (TRIM) of beryllium fluoride melt, which is known to display waterlike thermodynamic anomalies. The order map for liquid BeF2, plotted between translational and tetrahedral order metrics, shows a structurally anomalous regime, similar to that seen in water and silica melt, corresponding to a band of state points for which average tetrahedral (q(tet)) and translational (tau) order are strongly correlated. The tetrahedral order parameter distributions further substantiate the analogous structural properties of BeF2, SiO2, and H2O. A region of excess entropy anomaly can be defined within which the pair correlation contribution to the excess entropy (S2) shows an anomalous rise with isothermal compression. Within this region of anomalous entropy behavior, q(tet) and S2 display a strong negative correlation, indicating the connection between the thermodynamic and the structural anomalies. The existence of this region of excess entropy anomaly must play an important role in determining the existence of diffusional and mobility anomalies, given the excess entropy scaling of transport properties observed in many liquids. PMID:17963376

  15. Electric properties of the Beryllium-11 system in Halo EFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute E1 transitions and electric radii in the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the leading-order parameters of the EFT from measured data on the 1/2+ and 1/2- levels in 11Be and the B(E1) strength for the transition between them. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1) strength for Coulomb dissociation of the 11Be nucleus to the continuum. We also compute the charge radii of the 1/2+ and 1/2- states. Agreement with experiment within the expected accuracy of a leading-order computation in this EFT is obtained. We also discuss how next-to-leading-order (NLO) corrections involving both s-wave and p-wave 10Be-neutron interactions affect our results, and display the NLO predictions for quantities which are free of additional short-distance operators at this order. Information on neutron-10Be scattering in the relevant channels is inferred.

  16. Electron microscope observation of single - crystalline beryllium thin foils; Observation de lames minces monocristallines de beryllium en microscopie electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolin, J.; Poirier, J.P.; Dupouy, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Thin foils prepared from single crystalline beryllium simples deformed at room temperature, have been observed by transmission electron microscopy. The various deformation modes have been investigated separately, from their early stages and their characteristic dislocation configurations have been observed. Basal slip is characterized at is outset by the presence of numerous dipoles and elongated prismatic loops. More pronounced cold work leads to the formation of dislocation tangles and bundles which eventually give a cellular structure. Prismatic slip begins by the cross-slip of dislocations from the basal plane into the prismatic plane. A cellular structure is equally observed in heavily deformed samples. Sessile dislocations have been observed in twin boundaries; they are produced by reactions between slip dislocations and twin dislocations. Finally, the study of samples quenched from 1100 deg. C and annealed at 200 deg. C has shown that the observed loops lie in prismatic planes and have a Burgers vector b 1/3<1 1 2-bar 0>. (authors) [French] On a observe en microscopie electronique par transmission des lames minces tirees d'eprouvettes monocristallines de beryllium deformees a l'ambiante. On a etudie separement les differents modes de deformation a partir de leur stade elementaire en observant les configurations de dislocations caracteristiques. Le glissement basal est caracterise a son debut par la presence de nombreux dipoles et de boucles prismatiques allongees. Des ecrouissages plus forts conduisent a la formation d'echeveaux et de gerbes qui finissent par donner une structure cellulaire. Le glissement prismatique debute par le glissement des dislocations hors du plan de base dans les plans prismatiques. On trouve egalement une structure cellulaire pour de forts ecrouissages. Dans les joints de macle, on a observe des dislocations sessiles formees par la reaction entre dislocations de macle et dislocations de glissement. Enfin l

  17. Action of pinaverium bromide, a calcium-antagonist, on gastrointestinal motility disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, M O

    1990-01-01

    1. The evidence reviewed here indicates that pinaverium bromide (Dicetel) relaxes gastrointestinal (GI) structures primarily by inhibiting Ca2+ influx through potential-dependent channels of surface membranes of smooth muscle cells. 2. The in vivo selectivity of pinaverium bromide for the GI tract appears to be due mainly to its pharmacokinetic properties. Because of its low absorption (typical for quaternary ammonium compounds) and marked hepatobiliary excretion, most of the orally-administered dose of pinaverium bromide remains in the GI tract. 3. Orally-administered pinaverium bromide does not elicit adverse cardiovascular side-effects at doses that effectively relieve GI spasm, pain, transit disturbances and other symptoms related to motility disorders. 4. Pinaverium bromide is the only Ca2(+)-antagonist with known therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and certain other functional intestinal disorders. PMID:2177709

  18. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Day, Gregory A; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Stanton, Marcia L; Deubner, David C; Kent, Michael S; Schuler, Christine R; Virji, M Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  19. Inherent structure features of beryllium and their influence on the performance polycrystalline metal under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anisotropy of physical properties of beryllium single crystals resulting from covalent bonds in crystal lattice leads to significant residual thermal microstresses (RTM) in the polycrystalline metal. It is demonstrated experimentally that there is a simple linear dependence between the magnitude of RTM and the ultimate tensile strength. The factors controlling RTM are analysed and in the framework of powder metallurgy process the technological methods of producing beryllium with the needed properties are recommended. Primarily it is necessary to control the quantity and extent of dispersity of intergranular oxide inclusions and mean grain size in combination with the high degree of macro- and microhomogenity of the structure. The requirements to beryllium microstructure for different operating conditions including neutron fluxes and transient temperature fields are formulated. In the framework of the concept under development one can explain formerly not fully understandable effects, which are characteristic of polycrystalline beryllium such as unexpected Petch-Stro curve, the role of twinning etc., and predict new ones. In particular, it can be possible to expect the growth of ductility of high strength beryllium grades as neutron irradiated. (author)

  20. Solid state bonding of beryllium-copper for an ITER first wall application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several different joint assemblies were evaluated in support of a manufacturing technology for diffusion bonding a beryllium armor tile to a copper alloy heat sink for fusion reactor applications. Because beryllium reacts with all but a few elements to form intermetallic compounds, this study considered several different surface treatments as a means of both inhibiting these reactions and promoting a good diffusion bond between the two substrates. All diffusion bonded assemblies used aluminum or an aluminum-beryllium composite (AlBeMet-150) as the interfacial material in contact with beryllium. In most cases, explosive bonding was utilized as a technique for joining the copper alloy heat sink to an aluminum or AlBeMet-150 substrate, which was subsequently diffusion bonded to an aluminum coated beryllium tile. In this approach, a 250 μm thick titanium foil was used as a diffusion barrier between the copper and aluminum to prevent the formation of Cu-Al intermetallic phases. In all cases, a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) furnace was used in conjunction with canned assemblies in order to minimize oxidation and apply sufficient pressure on the assembly for excellent metal-to-metal contact and subsequent bonding. Several different processing schedules were evaluated during the course of this study; bonded assemblies were produced that failed outside the bond area indicating a 100% joint efficiency. (author)

  1. Clinical approach to chronic beryllium disease and other nonpneumoconiotic interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa A

    2002-10-01

    Exposures in the workplace result in a diverse set of diseases ranging from the pneumoconiosis to other interstitial lung diseases to acute lung injury. Physician awareness of the potential disease manifestations associated with specific exposures is important in defining these diseases and in preventing additional disease. Most occupational diseases mimic other forms of lung disease, including pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and bronchiolitis. A "sarcoidosis"-like syndrome, usually limited to the lungs, may result from exposure to bioaerosols and a number of metals. Exposure to beryllium in the workplace produces a granulomatous lung disease clinically indistinguishable from sarcoidosis, chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Beryllium's ability to produce a beryllium-specific immune response is used in the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests to confirm a diagnosis of CBD and exclude sarcoidosis. Exposure to other metals must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis. When an individual presents acutely with ARDS or acute lung injury, an acute inhalational exposure must be considered. Exposure to a number of irritant substances at high levels may cause a "chemical pneumonitis" or acute lung injury, depending on the solubility and physicochemical properties of the substance. Some of the most notable agents include nitrogen and sulfur oxides, phosgene, and smoke breakdown products. Ingestion of paraquat may also result in an ARDS syndrome, with pulmonary fibrosis eventually resulting. Bronchiolitis is a rare manifestation of inhalational exposures but must also be considered in the clinical evaluation of inhalational exposure. PMID:12362066

  2. Inherent structure features of beryllium and their influence on the performance polycrystalline metal under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomutov, A.M.; Mikhailov, V.S.; Pronin, V.N.; Pakhomov, Ya.D. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation `A.A. Bochvar All-Russia Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM)`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The anisotropy of physical properties of beryllium single crystals resulting from covalent bonds in crystal lattice leads to significant residual thermal microstresses (RTM) in the polycrystalline metal. It is demonstrated experimentally that there is a simple linear dependence between the magnitude of RTM and the ultimate tensile strength. The factors controlling RTM are analysed and in the framework of powder metallurgy process the technological methods of producing beryllium with the needed properties are recommended. Primarily it is necessary to control the quantity and extent of dispersity of intergranular oxide inclusions and mean grain size in combination with the high degree of macro- and microhomogenity of the structure. The requirements to beryllium microstructure for different operating conditions including neutron fluxes and transient temperature fields are formulated. In the framework of the concept under development one can explain formerly not fully understandable effects, which are characteristic of polycrystalline beryllium such as unexpected Petch-Stro curve, the role of twinning etc., and predict new ones. In particular, it can be possible to expect the growth of ductility of high strength beryllium grades as neutron irradiated. (author)

  3. Parametric studies of carbon erosion mitigation dynamics in beryllium seeded deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic time of protective beryllium layer formation on a graphite target, τBe/C, has been investigated as a function of surface temperature, Ts, ion energy, Ei, ion flux, Γi, and beryllium ion concentration, cBe, in beryllium seeded deuterium plasma. τBe/C is found to be strongly decreased with increasing Ts in the range of 550-970K. This is thought to be associated with the more efficient formation of beryllium carbide (Be2C). By scanning the parameters, a scaling expression for τBe/C has been derived as τBe/C[s]=1.0x10-7cBe-1.9+/-0.1Ei0.9+/-0.3Γi-0.6+/-0.3exp ((4.8+/-0.5)x103/Ts) where cBe is dimensionless, Ei in eV, Γi in 1022m-2s-1 and Ts in K. Should this scaling extend to an ITER scenario, carbon erosion of the divertor strike point region may be reduced with characteristic time of ∼6ms. This is much shorter than the time between predicted ITER type I ELMs (∼1s), and suggests that protective beryllium layers can be formed in between ELMs, and mitigate carbon erosion.

  4. X-ray drive of beryllium capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Olson, R. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; Celliers, P. M.; Schneider, M. B.; MacPhee, A. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Hinkel, D. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S.

    2016-05-01

    National Ignition Facility experiments with beryllium capsules have followed a path begun with “high-foot” plastic capsule implosions. Three shock timing keyhole targets, one symmetry capsule, a streaked backlit capsule, and a 2D backlit capsule were fielded before the DT layered shot. After backscatter subtraction, laser drive degradation is needed to match observed X-ray drives. VISAR measurements determined drive degradation for the picket, trough, and second pulse. Time dependence of the total Dante flux reflects degradation of the of the third laser pulse. The same drive degradation that matches Dante data for three beryllium shots matches Dante and bangtimes for plastic shots N130501 and N130812. In the picket of both Be and CH hohlraums, calculations over-estimate the x-ray flux > 1.8 keV by ∼100X, while calculating the total flux correctly. In beryllium calculations these X-rays cause an early expansion of the beryllium/fuel interface at ∼3 km/s. VISAR measurements gave only ∼0.3 km/s. The X-ray drive on the Be DT capsule was further degraded by an unplanned decrease of 9% in the total picket flux. This small change caused the fuel adiabat to rise from 1.8 to 2.3. The first NIF beryllium DT implosion achieved 29% of calculated yield, compared to CH capsules with 68% and 21%.

  5. Long-term follow-up of beryllium sensitized workers from a single employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Anne M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 12% of beryllium-exposed American workers would test positive on beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT screening, but the implications of sensitization remain uncertain. Methods Seventy two current and former employees of a beryllium manufacturer, including 22 with pathologic changes of chronic beryllium disease (CBD, and 50 without, with a confirmed positive test were followed-up for 7.4 +/-3.1 years. Results Beyond predicted effects of aging, flow rates and lung volumes changed little from baseline, while DLCO dropped 17.4% of predicted on average. Despite this group decline, only 8 subjects (11.1% demonstrated physiologic or radiologic abnormalities typical of CBD. Other than baseline status, no clinical or laboratory feature distinguished those who clinically manifested CBD at follow-up from those who did not. Conclusions The clinical outlook remains favorable for beryllium-sensitized individuals over the first 5-12 years. However, declines in DLCO may presage further and more serious clinical manifestations in the future. These conclusions are tempered by the possibility of selection bias and other study limitations.

  6. Material selection for extended life of the beryllium reflectors in the JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Materials Test Reactor (JMTR) has been one of the most significant high-energy test reactors in the world since achieving its first criticality in 1968. Beryllium has been used as the reflector element material in the reactor, specifically S-200F structural grade beryllium manufactured by Brush Wellman Inc. The JMTR is currently in the process of being refurbished, and the upgraded reactor will return to service in 2011. As a part of the reactor upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) also has plans to extend the operating lifetime of the beryllium reflector elements. In order to do that, it will first be necessary to determine which of the material's physical and mechanical properties will be the most influential on that choice. Selecting a different grade of beryllium material for the reflector elements to extend operational lifetime under neutron irradiation is discussed in detail. A new plan for irradiation testing to evaluate the various beryllium grades under consideration is also briefly described. (author)

  7. Manufacturing and thermomechanical testing of actively cooled all beryllium high heat flux test pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, N.N.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Shatalov, G.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    One of the problems affiliated to ITER high heat flux elements development is a problem of interface of beryllium protection with heat sink routinely made of copper alloys. To get rid of this problem all beryllium elements could be used as heat receivers in places of enhanced thermal loads. In accordance with this objectives four beryllium test pieces of two types have been manufactured in {open_quotes}Institute of Beryllium{close_quotes} for succeeding thermomechanical testing. Two of them were manufactured in accordance with JET team design; they are round {open_quotes}hypervapotron type{close_quotes} test pieces. Another two ones are rectangular test sections with a twisted tape installed inside of the circular channel. Preliminary stress-strain analysis have been performed for both type of the test pieces. Hypervapotrons have been shipped to JET where they were tested on JET test bed. Thermomechanical testing of pieces of the type of {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} have been performed on Kurchatov Institute test bed. Chosen beryllium grade properties, some details of manufacturing, results of preliminary stress-strain analysis and thermomechanical testing of the test pieces {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} type are given in this report.

  8. Beryllium and lithium resource requirements for solid blanket designs for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithium and beryllium requirements are analyzed for an economy of 106 MW(e) CTR3 capacity using solid blanket fusion reactors. The total lithium inventory in fusion reactors is only approximately 0.2 percent of projected U. S. resources. The lithium inventory in the fusion reactors is almost entirely 6Li, which must be extracted from natural lithium. Approximately 5 percent of natural lithium can be extracted as 6Li. Thus the total feed of natural lithium required is approximately 20 times that actually used in fusion reactors, or approximately 4 percent of U. S. resources. Almost all of this feed is returned to the U. S. resource base after 6Li is extracted, however. The beryllium requirements are on the order of 10 percent of projected U. S. resources. Further, the present cost of lithium and the cost of beryllium extraction could both be increased tenfold with only minor effects on CTR capital cost. Such an increase should substantially multiply the economically recoverable resources of lithium and beryllium. It is concluded that there are no lithium or beryllium resource limitations preventing large-scale implementation of solid blanket fusion reactors. (U.S.)

  9. Solid state bonding of beryllium-copper for an ITER first wall application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, B.C. Jr.; Cadden, C.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Several different joint assemblies were evaluated in support of a manufacturing technology for diffusion bonding a beryllium armor tile to a copper alloy heat sink for fusion reactor applications. Because beryllium reacts with all but a few elements to form intermetallic compounds, this study considered several different surface treatments as a means of both inhibiting these reactions and promoting a good diffusion bond between the two substrates. All diffusion bonded assemblies used aluminum or an aluminum-beryllium composite (AlBeMet-150) as the interfacial material in contact with beryllium. In most cases, explosive bonding was utilized as a technique for joining the copper alloy heat sink to an aluminum or AlBeMet-150 substrate, which was subsequently diffusion bonded to an aluminum coated beryllium tile. In this approach, a 250 {mu}m thick titanium foil was used as a diffusion barrier between the copper and aluminum to prevent the formation of Cu-Al intermetallic phases. In all cases, a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) furnace was used in conjunction with canned assemblies in order to minimize oxidation and apply sufficient pressure on the assembly for excellent metal-to-metal contact and subsequent bonding. Several different processing schedules were evaluated during the course of this study; bonded assemblies were produced that failed outside the bond area indicating a 100% joint efficiency. (author)

  10. Beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage and alteration in the expression patterns of DNA repair-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Sabry M; Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Hassan, Memy H; Bakheet, Saleh A

    2013-09-01

    Beryllium metal has physical properties that make its use essential for very specific applications, such as medical diagnostics, nuclear/fusion reactors and aerospace applications. Because of the widespread human exposure to beryllium metals and the discrepancy of the genotoxic results in the reported literature, detail assessments of the genetic damage of beryllium are warranted. Mice exposed to beryllium chloride at an oral dose of 23mg/kg for seven consecutive days exhibited a significant increase in the level of DNA-strand breaking and micronuclei formation as detected by a bone marrow standard comet assay and micronucleus test. Whereas slight beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage was detected following formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase digestion, digestion with endonuclease III resulted in considerable increases in oxidative DNA damage after the 11.5 and 23mg/kg/day treatment as detected by enzyme-modified comet assays. Increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was also directly correlated with increased bone marrow micronuclei formation and DNA strand breaks, which further confirm the involvement of oxidative stress in the induction of bone marrow genetic damage after exposure to beryllium chloride. Gene expression analysis on the bone marrow cells from beryllium chloride-exposed mice showed significant alterations in genes associated with DNA damage repair. Therefore, beryllium chloride may cause genetic damage to bone marrow cells due to the oxidative stress and the induced unrepaired DNA damage is probably due to the down-regulation in the expression of DNA repair genes, which may lead to genotoxicity and eventually cause carcinogenicity.

  11. Characterization of constrained beryllium pebble beds after neutron irradiation at HFR at high temperatures up to helium production of 3000 appm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Plarz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Plarz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moeslang, A.; Vladimirov, P.; Kurinskiy, P. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Plarz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Til, S. van; Magielsen, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/ Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Defragmentation of beryllium pebbles at irradiation temperatures of 873 and 948 K was detected. • Formation of brittle beryllium oxide layers on neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles was detected. • Strong interaction between beryllium pebbles and platinum foil under neutron irradiation was detected. • Strong interaction between beryllium pebbles and austenitic stainless steel under neutron irradiation was detected. -- Abstract: Small constrained beryllium pebble beds as well as unconstrained beryllium pebbles have been irradiated within HIDOBE-01 experiment at HFR, Petten, the Netherlands. Beryllium pebbles with 1 mm diameter produced by Rotating Electrode Method (REM) were investigated after irradiation at 630, 740, 873, and 948 K up to helium production of 3000 appm. Intensive pore and bubble formation occurs in beryllium after 873 K irradiation. In the contact zones of the pebbles enhanced pore formation takes place. Oxidation of beryllium pebble external surfaces is accompanied by partial destruction of oxide layers owing to their high brittleness. Strong interactions between beryllium pebbles and platinum foil, as well as between beryllium and stainless steel at contact zones occur at 873 and 948 K.

  12. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  13. Time-lapse cinematographic analysis of beryllium--lung fibroblast interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absher, M; Sylwester, D; Hart, B A

    1983-02-01

    The proliferative response to beryllium chloride of cells in a population of human lung fibroblasts was quantitatively assessed using time-lapse cinematography. A dose of 0.02 microgram Be/ml, known to decrease the growth rate of fibroblasts, affects an estimated 75% of the cells in the population, increasing their interdivision time (IDT) by approximately 5 hr. The differences in mean 1n(IDT) between treated and control cells were essentially constant for comparable culture sizes ranging from 25 to 250 cells. There was no correlation between mother and daughter cell IDTs in control or treated culture at any culture size. IDTs of sister pairs were highly correlated in control cultures at selected culture sizes while sister pair IDTs of treated cultures were not. The data suggest that while beryllium alters the IDT of fibroblasts, an effect not related to culture size, any given cell affected by beryllium does not impart effects of the mineral to its progeny.

  14. Tribological behavior of improved chemically vapor-deposited boron on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier chemical vapor deposition (CVD) experiments with diborane as the boron source gave well-bonded boron films up to 10 μm thick on beryllium, with layered intermetallic compounds below a top layer of boron. The films were nonuniform in thickness and cracked badly when given diffusion heat treatments to produce desired intermetallic compounds. By rotating the beryllium samples during the CVD, films of uniform thickness have now been produced. A variety of compounds of beryllium and boron have been produced on the outer surface of the CVD film by varying the concentration of diborane in the CVD gas. Wear and friction tests performed on various CVD surfaces using sapphire and diamond pins showed remarkable differences in that the CVD boron surface appeared to be substantially more compatible with diamond than with sapphire. The results of these tests are discussed. (Auth.)

  15. A comparison between beryllium and graphite as materials for JET limiters and wall surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JET has always been operated with graphite limiters. Carbonisation has been performed from time to time resulting in a temporary reduction of Zeff. However, the latest results at high power (up to 30 MW) indicate that in most cases the impurity content in the plasma is too large to reach near reactor conditions. To reduce the impurity content to a level acceptable in a reactor, it is proposed to use beryllium as a material for the limiters and wall surfaces in JET. This proposal was first made four years ago on the basis of a report comparing the relative merits of beryllium and carbon. This report is now updated in the present paper, which contains three parts, covering the effects of impurities on the plasma performance, the physical and chemical properties of graphite and beryllium and a simple model for the impurity production at the plasma edge. (author)

  16. Measurement of the ultracold-neutron loss coefficient for beryllium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflections of ultracold neutrons (UCN) from beryllium powder have been measured for various layer thickness and various packing densities. On the basis of the experimental data, the reduced UCN loss coefficient for the UCN reflected from the thermally untreated beryllium, η, is found to be η = (1.75 ± 0.35) x 10-4. The previously obtained data on the reflection of UCN from beryllium powder annealed at high temperature are reconsidered. the value obtained for η at room temperature is (6.4 ± 2.5) x 10-5, which exceeds the theoretical value by an order of magnitude. The analysis of the experimental data was carried out by using a modified diffusion theory in which the albedo reflection depends on the packing density

  17. Diamond-turning HP-21 beryllium to achieve an optical surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of diamond turning on beryllium was made in anticipation of obtaining an optical finish. Although results of past experiences were poor, it was decided to continue diamond turning on beryllium beyond initial failures. By changing speed and using coolant, partial success was achieved. Tool wear was the major problem. Tests were made to establish and plot wear as a function of cutting speed and time. Slower speeds did cause lower wear rates, but at no time did wear reach an acceptable level. The machine, tools, and procedure used were chosen based on the results of preliminary attempts and on previous experience. It was unnecessary to use an air-bearing spindle because tool failure governed the best finish that could be expected. All tools of diamond composition, whether single crystal or polycrystalline, wore at unacceptable rates. Based on present technology, it must be concluded that beryllium cannot be feasibly diamond turned to achieve an optical finish. (22 fig.)

  18. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, t; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, P; O'Dell, J; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, v; Butcher, M; Calviani, M; Guinchard, M; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  19. The unique bonding characteristics of beryllium and the Group IIA metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Michael C.; Bondybey, Vladimir E.; Merritt, Jeremy M.; Kaledin, Alexey L.

    2011-04-01

    Having closed valence sub-shells, the alkaline earth atoms participate in covalent bonding via orbital hybridization and exchange interactions, with additional contributions from dispersion interactions. Starting from a closed ns2 configuration imparts different characteristics to the chemistry of this group, as compared to metals that have open-shell atomic ground states. Theoretical studies of the bonding of the Group IIA metals have been pursued for many years, and they are known to be challenging for ab initio electronic structure methods. The bonding motifs have been examined, and the differences between beryllium and the remainder of the group explored. Experimental studies that probe the bonding, particularly for beryllium, have lagged behind the theoretical work. In the present Letter we describe our recent spectroscopic and theoretical investigations of simple beryllium compounds, and discuss these results in terms of their relationship to the properties of the heavier Group IIA elements.

  20. Conditions for obtaining extremely pure beryllium by electrolytic refining in alkali chloride fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrorefining is considered a suitable method for producing beryllium with levels of impurity below 1 At.-ppm. Beryllium was electrorefined in a BeCl2-containing LiCl-KCl melt and the key parameters current density, BeCl2 content, electrolyte temperature, composition of crude beryllium, and foreign ion concentration in the melt, together with adjustment of apparatus settings for rotation speed of the cathode, and constitution of crucible material were studied and optimized to achieve a depletion of as many accompanying and alloyed elements as possible. The trace elements were analysed chiefly by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomisation, and oxygen and nitrogen determined by vacuum melt extraction or the micro-Kjehldahl method. (orig./IHOE)

  1. The use of a beryllium Hopkinson bar to characterize a piezoresistive accelerometer in shock environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Davie, N.T.

    1996-03-01

    The characteristics of a piezoresistive accelerometer in shock environments are being studied at Sandia National Laboratories in the Mechanical Shock Testing Laboratory. A Hopkinson bar capability has been developed to extend our understanding of the piezoresistive accelerometer, in two mechanical configurations, in the high frequency, high shock environments where measurements are being made. In this paper, the beryllium Hopkinson bar configuration with a laser doppler vibrometer as the reference measurement is described. The in-axis performance of the piezoresistive accelerometer for frequencies of dc-50 kHz and shock magnitudes of up to 70,000 g as determined from measurements with a beryllium Hopkinson bar are presented. Preliminary results of characterizations of the accelerometers subjected to cross-axis shocks in a split beryllium Hopkinson bar configuration are presented.

  2. Tritium and helium retention and release from irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Oates, M.A.; Pawelko, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental effort to anneal irradiated beryllium specimens and characterize them for steam-chemical reactivity experiments. Fully-dense, consolidated powder metallurgy Be cylinders, irradiated in the EBR-II to a fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) fluence of {approx}6 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, were annealed at temperatures from 450degC to 1200degC. The releases of tritium and helium were measured during the heat-up phase and during the high-temperature anneals. These experiments revealed that, at 600degC and below, there was insignificant gas release. Tritium release at 700degC exhibited a delayed increase in the release rate, while the specimen was at 700degC. For anneal temperatures of 800degC and higher, tritium and helium release was concurrent and the release behavior was characterized by gas-burst peaks. Essentially all of the tritium and helium was released at temperatures of 1000degC and higher, whereas about 1/10 of the tritium was released during the anneals at 700degC and 800degC. Measurements were made to determine the bulk density, porosity and specific surface area for each specimen before and after annealing. These measurements indicated that annealing caused the irradiated Be to swell, by as much as 14% at 700degC and 56% at 1200degC. Kr gas adsorption measurements for samples annealed at 1000degC and 1200degC determined specific surface areas between 0.04 m{sup 2}/g and 0.1 m{sup 2}/g for these annealed specimens. The tritium and helium gas release measurements and the specific surface area measurements indicated that annealing of irradiated Be caused a porosity network to evolve and become surface-connected to relieve internal gas pressure. (author)

  3. Fundamental hydrogen interactions with beryllium : a magnetic fusion perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Felter, Thomas E.; Whaley, Josh A.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2012-03-01

    Increasingly, basic models such as density functional theory and molecular dynamics are being used to simulate different aspects of hydrogen recycling from plasma facing materials. These models provide valuable insight into hydrogen diffusion, trapping, and recombination from surfaces, but their validation relies on knowledge of the detailed behavior of hydrogen at an atomic scale. Despite being the first wall material for ITER, basic single crystal beryllium surfaces have been studied only sparsely from an experimental standpoint. In prior cases researchers used electron spectroscopy to examine surface reconstruction or adsorption kinetics during exposure to a hydrogen atmosphere. While valuable, these approaches lack the ability to directly detect the positioning of hydrogen on the surface. Ion beam techniques, such as low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), are two of the only experimental approaches capable of providing this information. In this study, we applied both LEIS and DRS to examine how hydrogen binds to the Be(0001) surface. Our measurements were performed using an angle-resolved ion energy spectrometer (ARIES) to probe the surface with low energy ions (500 eV - 3 keV He{sup +} and Ne{sup +}). We were able to obtain a 'scattering maps' of the crystal surface, providing insight on how low energy ions are focused along open surface channels. Once we completed a characterization of the clean surface, we dosed the sample with atomic hydrogen using a heated tungsten capillary. A distinct signal associated with adsorbed hydrogen emerged that was consistent with hydrogen residing between atom rows. To aid in the interpretation of the experimental results, we developed a computational model to simulate ion scattering at grazing incidence. For this purpose, we incorporated a simplified surface model into the Kalypso molecular dynamics code. This approach allowed us to understand how the incident ions interacted with the

  4. Structure of beryllium isotopes in fermionic molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabi, Bahram Ramin

    2009-02-16

    Modern theoretical nuclear physics faces two major challenges. The first is finding a suitable interaction, which describes the forces between nucleons. The second challenge is the solution of the nuclear many-body problem for a given nucleus while applying a realistic potential. The potential used in the framework of this thesis is based on the Argonne AV18 potential. It was transformed by means of the Unitary Correlation Operator Method (UCOM) to optimize convergence. The usual phenomenological corrections were applied to improve the potential for the Hilbert space used in Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD). FMD is an approach to solve the nuclear many-body problem. It uses a single-particle basis which is a superposition of Gaussian distributions in phase-space. The most simple many-body state is the antisymmetric product of the singleparticle states: a Slater determinant, the so called intrinsic state. This intrinsic state is projected on parity, total angular momentum and a center of mass momentum zero. The Hilbert space is spanned by several of these projected states. The states are obtained by minimizing their energy while demanding certain constraints. The expectation values of Slater determinants, parity projected and additionally total angular momentum projected Slater determinants are used. The states that are relevant in the low energy regime are obtained by diagonalization. The lowest moments of the mass-, proton- or neutron-distribution and the excitation in proton- and neutron-shells of a harmonic oscillator are some of the used constraints. The low energy regime of the Beryllium isotopes with masses 7 to 14 is calculated by using these states. Energies, radii, electromagnetic transitions, magnetic moments and point density distributions of the low lying states are calculated and are presented in this thesis. (orig.)

  5. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  6. Structure of beryllium isotopes in fermionic molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern theoretical nuclear physics faces two major challenges. The first is finding a suitable interaction, which describes the forces between nucleons. The second challenge is the solution of the nuclear many-body problem for a given nucleus while applying a realistic potential. The potential used in the framework of this thesis is based on the Argonne AV18 potential. It was transformed by means of the Unitary Correlation Operator Method (UCOM) to optimize convergence. The usual phenomenological corrections were applied to improve the potential for the Hilbert space used in Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD). FMD is an approach to solve the nuclear many-body problem. It uses a single-particle basis which is a superposition of Gaussian distributions in phase-space. The most simple many-body state is the antisymmetric product of the singleparticle states: a Slater determinant, the so called intrinsic state. This intrinsic state is projected on parity, total angular momentum and a center of mass momentum zero. The Hilbert space is spanned by several of these projected states. The states are obtained by minimizing their energy while demanding certain constraints. The expectation values of Slater determinants, parity projected and additionally total angular momentum projected Slater determinants are used. The states that are relevant in the low energy regime are obtained by diagonalization. The lowest moments of the mass-, proton- or neutron-distribution and the excitation in proton- and neutron-shells of a harmonic oscillator are some of the used constraints. The low energy regime of the Beryllium isotopes with masses 7 to 14 is calculated by using these states. Energies, radii, electromagnetic transitions, magnetic moments and point density distributions of the low lying states are calculated and are presented in this thesis. (orig.)

  7. Retention and release mechanisms of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkofler, M.; Reinelt, M.; Linsmeier, Ch.

    2011-06-01

    The fraction of deuterium (D) that is retained upon irradiation of beryllium (Be) as well as the temperatures at which implanted D is released are of importance for the international fusion experiment ITER, where Be will be used as an armor material. The influence of single parameters on retention and release is investigated in laboratory experiments performed under well defined conditions with the aim to identify dominant underlying mechanisms and thus be able to predict the behavior of the Be wall in ITER. Recent progress in the quantification of retained fractions and release temperatures as well as in the understanding of the governing mechanisms is presented. The retained fraction upon implantation of D at 1 keV into Be(1 1 2¯ 0) to fluences far below the saturation threshold of 10 21 m -2 is almost 95%, the remaining 5% being attributed to reflection at the surface. At these low fluences, no dependence of the retained fractions on implantation energy is observed. At fluences of the order of 10 21 m -2 and higher, saturation of the irradiated material affects the retention, leading to lower retained fractions. Furthermore, at these fluences the retained fractions decrease with decreasing implantation energies. Differences in the retained fractions from implanted Be(1 1 2¯ 0) and polycrystalline Be are explained by anisotropic diffusion of interstitials during implantation, leading to an amount of surviving D-trap complexes that depends on surface-orientation. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectra are recorded after implantation of fluences of the order of 10 19 m -2 at various energies and simulated by means of a newly developed code based on coupled reaction-diffusion systems (CRDS). The asymmetric shape of the TPD peaks is reproduced by introducing a local D accumulation process into the model.

  8. Bromine and bromide content in soils: Analytical approach from total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Helena; Queralt, Ignasi; Tapias, Josefina; Candela, Lucila; Margui, Eva

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring total bromine and bromide concentrations in soils is significant in many environmental studies. Thus fast analytical methodologies that entail simple sample preparation and low-cost analyses are desired. In the present work, the possibilities and drawbacks of low-power total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) for the determination of total bromine and bromide contents in soils were evaluated. The direct analysis of a solid suspension using 20 mg of fine ground soil (soils (Br content range in soils = 5-40 mg kg(-1)). Information about bromide determination in soils is also possible by analyzing the Br content in water soil extracts. In this case, the TXRF analysis can be directly performed by depositing 10 μL of the internal standardized soil extract sample on a quartz glass reflector in a measuring time of 1500 s. The bromide limit of detection by this approach was 10 μg L(-1). Good agreement was obtained between the TXRF results for the total bromine and bromide determinations in soils and those obtained by other popular analytical techniques, e.g. energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (total bromine) and ionic chromatography (bromide). As a study case, the TXRF method was applied to study bromine accumulation in two agricultural soils fumigated with a methyl bromide pesticide and irrigated with regenerated waste water. PMID:27179429

  9. Oxide segregation and melting behavior of transient heat load exposed beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, B.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-10-01

    In the experimental fusion reactor ITER, beryllium will be applied as first wall armor material. However, the ITER-like wall project at JET already experienced that the relatively low melting temperature of beryllium can easily be exceeded during plasma operation. Therefore, a detailed study was carried out on S-65 beryllium under various transient, ITER-relevant heat loads that were simulated in the electron beam facility JUDITH 1. Hereby, the absorbed power densities were in the range of 0.15-1.0 GW m-2 in combination with pulse durations of 1-10 ms and pulse numbers of 1-1000. In metallographic cross sections, the emergence of a transition region in a depth of ~70-120 µm was revealed. This transition region was characterized by a strong segregation of oxygen at the grain boundaries, determined with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy element mappings. The oxide segregation strongly depended on the maximum temperature reached at the end of the transient heat pulse in combination with the pulse duration. A threshold for this process was found at 936 °C for a pulse duration of 10 ms. Further transient heat pulses applied to specimens that had already formed this transition region resulted in the overheating and melting of the material. The latter occurred between the surface and the transition region and was associated with a strong decrease of the thermal conductivity due to the weakly bound grains across the transition region. Additionally, the transition region caused a partial separation of the melt layer from the bulk material, which could ultimately result in a full detachment of the solidified beryllium layers from the bulk armor. Furthermore, solidified beryllium filaments evolved in several locations of the loaded area and are related to the thermally induced crack formation. However, these filaments are not expected to account for an increase of the beryllium net erosion.

  10. Chronology of the beryllium replacement shutdown at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the permanent beryllium reflector, several other components were replaced. The outer shroud and lower tracks were replaced. The new control rod access plugs and the upper tracks were installed. Replacement of collimator tubes for HB-1 and -2 are tentatively slated for the next permanent beryllium changeout. Inspection of the reactor vessel, the vessel-to-nozzle welds, core support structure, and vessel internal cladding showed them to be in acceptable condition. The highest, accumulative radiation doses received by Reactor Operations personnel during the shutdown, in mrem, were 665, 606, and 560; the highest for P and E personnel were 520, 505, and 475

  11. Structural Basis of Chronic Beryllium Disease: Linking Allergic Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Gina M.; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Falta, Michael T.; Bowerman, Natalie A.; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Dai, Shaodong; John W Kappler

    2014-01-01

    T cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. We show here that the T cell ligand is created when a Be2+ cation becomes bu...

  12. Efficacy of surface sampling methods for different types of beryllium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A; Mocanu, T; Viau, S; Perrault, G; Dion, C

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the research work was to evaluate the efficiency of three different sampling methods (Ghost Wipe™, micro-vacuum, and ChemTest®) in the recovery of Be dust by assessing: (1) four Be compounds (beryllium acetate, beryllium chloride, beryllium oxide and beryllium aluminium), (2) three different surfaces (polystyrene, glass and aluminium) and (3) inter-operator variation. The three sampling methods were also tested on site in a laboratory of a dental school for validation purposes. The Ghost Wipe™ method showed recovery ranging from 43.3% to 85.8% for all four Be compounds and for all three quantities of Be spiked on Petri dishes, while recovery with the micro-vacuum method ranged from 0.1% to 12.4%. On polystyrene dishes with 0.4 µg Be, the recovery ranged from 48.3% to 81.7%, with an average recovery of 59.4% for Operator 1 and 68.4% for Operator 2. The ChemTest® wipe method with beryllium acetate, beryllium chloride, and AlBeMet® showed analogous results that are in line with the manufacturer's manual, but collection of beryllium oxide was negative. In the dental laboratory, Ghost Wipe™ samplings showed better recovery than the micro-vacuum method. The ratios between the recovered quantities of Be in each location where the Ghost Wipe™ was tested differed substantially, ranging from 1.45 to 64. In the dental laboratory, a faint blue color indicating the presence of Be was observed on the ChemTest® wipes used in two locations out of six. In summary, the Ghost Wipe™ method was more efficient than micro-vacuuming in collecting the Be dust from smooth, non-porous surfaces such as Petri dishes by a factor of approximately 18. The results obtained on site in a dental laboratory also showed better recovery with Ghost Wipes™. However, the ratio of Be recovered by Ghost Wipes™ versus micro-vacuuming was much lower for surfaces where a large amount of dust was present. Wet wiping is preferred over micro-vacuuming for beryllium forms, but

  13. Isothermal compression and phase transition in beryllium to 28.3 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction data for polycrystalline beryllium to 28.3 GPa at ambient temperature show that beryllium is transformed from the HCP phase (I) into a slightly distorted HCP phase (II) at pressures between 8.6 and 14.5 GPa. The volume change for the transition is extremely small (approx. 0.4%); the effect of pressure on the c/a ratio for both the Be(I) and Be(II) phases is also very small. (author)

  14. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick Beryllium target

    CERN Document Server

    Alba, R; Boccaccio, P; Celentano, A; Colonna, N; Cosentino, G; Del Zoppo, A; Di Pietro, A; Esposito, J; Figuera, P; Finocchiaro, P; Kostyukov, A; Maiolino, C; Osipenko, M; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Viberti, C M; Santonocito, D; Schillaci, M

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of research on IVth generation reactors and high intensity neutron sources a low-power prototype neutron amplifier was recently proposed by INFN. It is based on a low-energy, high current proton cyclotron, whose beam, impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, produces a fast neutron spectrum. The world database on the neutron yield from thick Beryllium target in the 70 MeV proton energy domain is rather scarce. The new measurement was performed at LNS, covering a wide angular range from 0 to 150 degrees and an almost complete neutron energy interval. In this contribution the preliminary data are discussed together with the proposed ADS facility.

  15. Micromechanical properties of beryllium and other instrument materials, end-of-year-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the program is to evaluate and understand the micromechanical properties of beryllium and other instrument materials for use in gyroscopes, so that dimensional instability can be improved. Improved dimensional stability is expected to lessen the need to periodically align gyroscopes in service. Drift in alignment has been attributed in part to mass shifts of 0.000001 inches in critical components of gyroscopes. This report consists of two major parts. Part A - Micromechanical properties of instrument grade beryllium. (description of the materials problem, instrumentation to make strain measurements in the range of 10 to the -7 power, and initial results.) Part B - 10 to the -8 power creep measurement system

  16. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Day, Gregory A.; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Stanton, Marcia L.; Deubner, David C.; Kent, Michael S.; Schuler, Christine R.; Virji, M. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  17. Wavefunction and energy of the 1s22sns configuration in a beryllium atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Shi-Zhong; Ma Kun; Yu Jia-Ming; Liu Fen

    2008-01-01

    A new set of trial functions for 1s22sns configurations in a beryllium atom is suggested.A Mathematica program baaed on the variational method is developed to calculate the wavefunctions and energies of 1s22sns (n=3-6)configurations in a beryllium atom.Non-relativistic energy,polarization correction and relativistic correction which include mass correction,one- and two-body Darwin corrections,spin-spin contact interaction and orbit-orbit interaction,are calculated respectively.The results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Absorber performance of a water/lithium-bromide absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guozhen [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China)], E-mail: xieguozhen@bucea.edu.cn; Sheng Guogang [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China); Bansal, Pradeep Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand); Li, Guang [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2008-09-15

    An absorber is one of the most important components of a lithium-bromide absorption chiller (LBAC) as its absorbing characteristics directly influence the performance of the whole chiller. It has been indicated that the absorbing efficiency and cooling capacity could be improved by increasing the solution concentration. In this paper, based on the mechanism of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes, the theoretical models of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes have been established. A series of programs used for computing the theoretical mathematical models, including simulation of LBAC cycle and falling film absorption, have been programmed. The models have been validated reasonably by the experimental data. The results show that the cooling capacity of the LBAC varies in parabola shape of curve with the solution concentration from 52.5% to 58.5%, and that the best coefficient of performance (COP) occurs at concentration of 57%. The investigation proposes the absorbing process of sub-steady thermodynamic equilibrium for the duality solution under increase absorbing pressure.

  19. Absorber performance of a water/lithium-bromide absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Guozhen; Sheng, Guogang; Li, Guang [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China); Bansal, Pradeep Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand)

    2008-09-15

    An absorber is one of the most important components of a lithium-bromide absorption chiller (LBAC) as its absorbing characteristics directly influence the performance of the whole chiller. It has been indicated that the absorbing efficiency and cooling capacity could be improved by increasing the solution concentration. In this paper, based on the mechanism of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes, the theoretical models of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes have been established. A series of programs used for computing the theoretical mathematical models, including simulation of LBAC cycle and falling film absorption, have been programmed. The models have been validated reasonably by the experimental data. The results show that the cooling capacity of the LBAC varies in parabola shape of curve with the solution concentration from 52.5% to 58.5%, and that the best coefficient of performance (COP) occurs at concentration of 57%. The investigation proposes the absorbing process of sub-steady thermodynamic equilibrium for the duality solution under increase absorbing pressure. (author)

  20. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    A numerical model was developed for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very-important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy.

  1. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  2. 4-Bromophenacyl bromide specifically inhibits rhoptry secretion during Toxoplasma invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Sandeep; Lodoen, Melissa B; Verhelst, Steven H L; Bogyo, Matthew; Boothroyd, John C

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa that is able to infect a wide variety of host cells. During its active invasion process it secretes proteins from discrete secretory organelles: the micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules. Although a number of rhoptry proteins have been shown to be involved in important interactions with the host cell, very little is known about the mechanism of secretion of any Toxoplasma protein into the host cell. We used a chemical inhibitor of phospholipase A2s, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (4-BPB), to look at the role of such lipases in the secretion of Toxoplasma proteins. We found that 4-BPB was a potent inhibitor of rhoptry secretion in Toxoplasma invasion. This drug specifically blocked rhoptry secretion but not microneme secretion, thus effectively showing that the two processes can be de-coupled. It affected parasite motility and invasion, but not attachment or egress. Using propargyl- or azido-derivatives of the drug (so-called click chemistry derivatives) and a series of 4-BPB-resistant mutants, we found that the drug has a very large number of target proteins in the parasite that are involved in at least two key steps: invasion and intracellular growth. This potent compound, the modified "click-chemistry" forms of it, and the resistant mutants should serve as useful tools to further study the processes of Toxoplasma early invasion, in general, and rhoptry secretion, in particular. PMID:19956582

  3. Organomontmorillonites Modified with 2-Methacryloyloxy Ethyl Alkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-quan; WU Wen-hui

    2007-01-01

    Organomontmorillonites (organo-MMT) were synthesized by means of montmorillonites (MMT) modified with a series of 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl alkyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (MAAB) having different alkyl chain lengths as cationic surfactants through a cationic exchanging reaction, and were characterized by FTIR, TG, elemental analysis, and XRD. The microenvironment of the organic interlayer such as the orientation and arrangement of the alkyl chains of MAAB, as well as the properties of nanocomposite hydrogels, were also investigated. The amount of organic components absorbed on interlayer and the basal spacing of organo-MMT both increase with the increasing of alkyl length of MAAB. When carbon number of alkyl chain is in the region of 8 to 14, the alkyl chains between layers would adopt a disordered gauche conformation; while the carbon number is 16, an ordered all-trans conformation with a vertical orientation would be found together with the disordered gauche conformation according to the results of XRD and FTIR. Due to the difference of microenvironment of organic interlayer, the Young's moduli of the nanocomposite hydrogels increased as the alkyl chains of MAAB became longer.

  4. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  5. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  6. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht

    2013-10-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  7. A NEAR REAL-TIME BERYLLIUM MONITOR WITH CAM AND WIPE ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.T. Kendrick; Steven Saggese

    2002-12-01

    Science & Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), under contract No. DE-AC26-00NT40768, was tasked by the US Department of Energy--National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop and test a near real-time beryllium monitor for airborne and surface measurements. Recent public awareness of the health risks associated with exposure to beryllium has underscored the need for better, faster beryllium monitoring capabilities within the DOE. A near real-time beryllium monitor will offer significant improvements over the baseline monitoring technology currently in use. Whereas the baseline technology relies upon collecting an air sample on a filter and the subsequent analysis of the filter by an analytical laboratory, this effort developed a monitor that offers near real-time measurement results while work is in progress. Since the baseline typically only offers after-the-fact documentation of exposure levels, the near real-time capability provides a significant increase in worker protection. The beryllium monitor developed utilizes laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, or LIBS as the fundamental measurement technology. LIBS has been used in a variety of laboratory and field based instrumentation to provide real-time, and near-real-time elemental analysis capabilities. LIBS is an analytical technique where a pulsed high energy laser beam is focused to a point on the sample to be interrogated. The high energy density produces a small high temperature plasma plume, sometimes called a spark. The conditions within this plasma plume result in the constituent atoms becoming excited and emitting their characteristic optical emissions. The emission light is collected and routed to an optical spectrometer for quantitative spectral analysis. Each element has optical emissions, or lines, of a specific wavelength that can be used to uniquely identify that element. In this application, the intensity of the beryllium emission is used to provide a quantitative measure of the abundance of the

  8. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  9. Plasmid DNA induces dodecyl triethyl ammonium bromide to aggregate into vesicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Mei Ran; Xia Guo; Jia Tong Ding

    2012-01-01

    Single-chained cationic surfactant dodecyl triethyl ammonium bromide and plasmid DNA together can form vesicles once the concentration of plasmid DNA reaches a critical value (Ccvc).Bigger the size of plasmid DNA,higher the value of Ccvc.

  10. Synthesis of Be–Ti–V ternary beryllium intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan, E-mail: kim.jaehwan@jaea.go.jp; Nakamichi, Masaru

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Preliminary synthesis of ternary Be–Ti–V beryllides was investigated. • An area fraction of Be phase increased with increase of V amount in the beryllide because of increasing melting temperature. • The increase of Be phase fraction resulted in increase of weight gain as well as H{sub 2} generation. • The beryllides with lower V contents indicated to better phase stability at high temperature. - Abstract: Beryllium intermetallic compounds (beryllides) such as Be{sub 12}Ti and Be{sub 12}V are the most promising advanced neutron multipliers in demonstration power reactors. Advanced neutron multipliers are being developed by Japan and the EU as part of their Broader Approach activities. It has been previously shown, however, that beryllides are too brittle to fabricate into pebble- or rod-like shapes using conventional methods such as arc melting and hot isostatic pressing. To overcome this issue, we developed a new combined plasma sintering and rotating electrode method for the fabrication of beryllide rods and pebbles. Previously, we prepared a beryllide pebble with a Be–7.7 at.% Ti composition as the stoichiometric value of the Be{sub 12}Ti phase; however, Be{sub 17}Ti{sub 2} and Be phases were present along with the Be{sub 12}Ti phase that formed as the result of a peritectic reaction due to re-melting during granulation using the rotating electrode method. This Be phase was found to be highly reactive with oxygen and water vapor. Accordingly, to investigate the Be phase reduction and applicability for fabrication of electrodes prior to granulation using the rotating electrode method, Be–Ti–V ternary beryllides were synthesized using the plasma sintering method. Surface observation results indicated that increasing plasma sintering time and V addition led to an increase in the intermetallic compound phases compared with plasma-sintered beryllide with a Be–7.7 at.% Ti composition. Additionally, evaluation of the reactivity of

  11. OCCURRENCE OF ARSENIC, LEAD, THALLIUM AND BERYLLIUM IN GROUNDWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul A.J. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of carcinogenic and heavy metals in groundwater sources in Urban-west region of Zanzibar Island is an issue that is not very well known. This could be also coupled with the absence of drinking water treatment plants. This study for the first time reports on the occurrence and the levels of three carcinogenic metals-Arsenic (As, Beryllium (Be and lead (Pb in thirty groundwater samples collected from Zanzibar’s Urban/West region. The levels of alkalinity, Magnesium (Mg and Thallium (Tl were also determined. The concentrations of As, Be, TI and Pb in the water samples were determined by the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. Palintest photometry procedures were used to determine the levels of total alkalinity and magnesium. Be, As, Tl and Pb were not detected (nd in some water samples. The ranges of concentrations of Be, As, TI and Pb in the samples were; nd to 6100 ng L-1, nd to 6600 ng L-1, nd to 11600 ng L-1 and nd to 31400 ng L-1 respectively. The levels of total alkalinity varied from 38 to 380 (mg L-1 as CaCO3. The proportions of water samples contaminated with Be, Tl, As and Pb were 43.3, 66.7, 70 and 96.7% respectively. About 23% of the water samples had Pb concentrations beyond WHO limits for safe drinking water, while 30 and 56.67% of the samples had Be and Tl concentrations beyond the US EPA’s maximum limits. The concentration of arsenic in each water sample was within WHO limits. The occurrence and the levels of carcinogenic metals in water sources could be a potential cause of cancer cases in Zanzibar. Therefore, prompt action is required to control the levels of these hazardous metals, and other possible contaminants in Zanzibar’s domestic water systems.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels in Lithium Bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI; Alaneme, K.K.; Samson Oluwaseyi BADA

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in various concentrations of lithium, bromide solution was investigated by using the conventional weight loss measurement method. The results obtained show that corrosion of these steels occurred due to the aggressive bromide ion in the medium. Duplex stainless steel shows a greater resistance to corrosion than austenitic stainless steel in the medium. This was attributed to equal volume proportion of ferrite and austenite in th...

  13. A case report of QT prolongation with glycopyrronium bromide in a patient with chronic tamoxifen use

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Michael H.; Al-Majed, Nawaf S.; Stubbins, Ryan; Pollmann, Dylan; Sandhu, Roopinder K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycopyrronium bromide has recently been approved as a once daily maintenance inhalation therapy for moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Efficacy and safety trial data have found rare cases of significant QT prolongation. To our knowledge, we describe the first case report of QT prolongation >600 ms with initiation of glycopyrronium bromide in a real world setting. Case presentation A 78-year-old female with moderate COPD recently started on glycopyrron...

  14. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response ofH. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L.

  15. The effect of pinaverium bromide (LA 1717) on the lower oesophageal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöltje, M; Huchzermeyer, H

    1982-01-01

    An acute, double-blind study was carried out in 8 healthy male volunteers to investigate any effect of a new antispasmodic, pinaverium bromide, compared with placebo on the lower oesophageal sphincter. Manometric measurements showed no significant differences in resting pressures either after placebo or a therapeutic dose (200 mg) of pinaverium bromide, suggesting that the active drug does not cause any impairment of function of the lower oesophageal sphincter. PMID:7128186

  16. Inhibition of methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction by ipratropium bromide and disodium cromoglycate in asthmatic subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, J.; Vincenc, K; Salome, C.

    1985-01-01

    We compared the effects of pretreatment with saline, ipratropium bromide, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine--an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in asthmatic subjects. All 12 patients bronchoconstricted in response to methoxamine after saline. The PD20 (the dose of methoxamine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) ranged from 0.3-18 mumol. Ipratropium bromide (200 micrograms administered by aerosol) significantly inhibited (P les...

  17. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2014-05-15

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  18. Aerosol resuspension from fabric: implications for personal monitoring in the beryllium industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohne, J E; Cohen, B S

    1985-02-01

    The fabric used for work clothing at an industrial site can significantly influence personal monitor (PM) exposure estimates because dust resuspension from clothing can increase the concentration at the sampler inlet. The magnitude of the effect depends on removal forces and on the interaction of the contaminant particles with work garments. Aerosol deposition and resuspension on cotton and Nomex aramid fabrics was evaluated at a beryllium refinery. Electrostatically charged cotton backdrops collected more beryllium than neutral controls, but electronegative Nomex backdrops did not. Moving fabrics collected more beryllium than did stationary controls. When contaminated fabrics were agitated, PMs mounted 2.5 cm in front of the fabric collected more beryllium than monitors above the fabric, positioned to simulate the nose or mouth. The difference between the air concentrations measured by these PMs increased with Be loading and tended to level off for highly contaminated fabric. Cotton resuspended a larger fraction of its contaminant load than Nomex. These results are consistent with current knowledge of the behavior of particles on fabric fibers. Aerosol resuspension from garments is an important consideration in assessing inhalation exposure to toxic dusts. A garment may attract and retain toxic particles. This contamination is then available for later resuspension. PMID:3976498

  19. The relationship between gross and net erosion of beryllium at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerner, R.P., E-mail: rdoerner@ucsd.edu [Center for Energy Research, University of California in San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Jepu, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, NILPRP, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Nishijima, D. [Center for Energy Research, University of California in San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Safi, E.; Bukonte, L.; Lasa, A.; Nordlund, K. [Association EURATOM-Tekes, University of Helsinki, PO Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Schwarz-Selinger, T. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Surface temperature is a critical variable governing plasma–material interactions. PISCES-B injects controllable amounts of Be impurities into the plasma to balance, or exceed, the erosion rate of beryllium from samples in un-seeded plasma exposures. At low temperature, an order of magnitude more beryllium, than the beryllium mass loss measured in un-seeded discharges, needs to be seeded into the plasma to achieve no mass loss from a sample. At elevated temperature, no mass loss is achieved when the beryllium-seeding rate equals the mass loss rate in un-seeded discharges. Molecular dynamics simulations show that below 500 K, Be adatoms have difficulty surmounting the Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier at the edge of a terrace. Above this temperature, an Arrhenius behavior is observed with an activation energy of 0.32 eV. Qualitatively, this indicates that at low surface temperature the deposited atoms may be more easily re-eroded, accounting for the increased seeding needed to balance the erosion.

  20. (n,p) emission channeling measurements on ion-implanted beryllium

    CERN Multimedia

    Jakubek, J; Uher, J

    2007-01-01

    We propose to perform emission-channeling measurements using thermal neutron induced proton emission from ion-implanted $^{7}$Be. The physics questions addressed concern the beryllium doping of III-V and II-VI semiconductors and the host dependence of the electron capture half-life of $^{7}$Be.

  1. Apparatus for fabrication of americium- beryllium neutron sources prevents capsule contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, W. C.; Van Loom, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    Modified gloved enclosure is used to fill a capsule with a mixture of americium and beryllium radioactive powders to seal weld the opening, and to test it for leaks. It contains a horizontal partition, vortex mixer, mounting press, welder, test vessel, and radiation shielding to prevent surface contamination.

  2. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the ''hottest'' (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates for WAXFIX/paraffin do not indicate any immediate problems with the use of WAXFIX for grouting beryllium or other wastes in the SDA

  3. Lifetime Measurements for Electric-Dipole △ n = 0 Transitions in the Beryllium-Like Sulfur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Shu-Bin; YANG Zhi-Hu; CHANG Hong-Wei; SU Hong

    2005-01-01

    @@ We have measured lifetimes of △n = 0 allowed transitions in beryllium-like sulfur using beam foil spectroscopic techniques. The measured values, derived from analysis of arbitrarily normalized decay curves, are presented and compared with theoretical calculations and previous measurements. Accurate probabilities have been determined by the well-known relationship.

  4. Beryllium-steam interaction experiments and self-sustained reaction studies (integral validation testing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the Task Agreement G 81 TT 02 FR, Be-steam interaction experiments were performed in order to obtain experimental data for validation of calculation codes analyzing accident situation involving water coolant ingress into the vacuum chamber of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The report describes the experimental facility, specimens used for oxidized beryllium emissivity factor determination and the ITER first wall mock-up used in the experiments on its interaction with steam. Experimental results on Be-emissivity factor after beryllium oxidation versus temperature are given. Four experimental runs of the ITER first wall mock-up interaction with steam were carried out for initial conditions when internal (beryllium) mock-up layer was heated to temperatures of 680, 880 and 1273 K and steam temperature was of 413-423 K. The plots of temperature evolution for beryllium, bronze and stainless steel layers versus time were obtained. Temperature records with 5 s interval are presented. Hydrogen gain in these four experimental runs was measured. The data may be used for computer code validation. No self-sustained Be-steam chemical reaction at temperatures used in the experiments was observed

  5. The credit analysis of recycling beryllium and uranium in BeO-UO2 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study quantifies the credits of beryllium and uranium which are used as the raw materials for BeO-UO2 nuclear fuel by analyzing the influence of their credits on the nuclear fuel cycle cost was analyzed, where the credit was defined as the value of raw materials recovered from spent fuel and the raw materials that were re-cycled. The credits of beryllium and uranium at 60 MWD/kg burn-up were -0.22 Mills/kWh and -0.14 Mills/kWh, respectively. These findings were based on the assumption that the optimal mixing proportion of beryllium in the BeO-UO2 nuclear fuel is 4.8 wt%. In sum, the present study verified that the credits of beryllium and uranium in relation to BeO-UO2 nuclear fuel are significant cost drivers in the cost of the nuclear fuel cycle and in estimating the nuclear fuel cycle of the reprocessing option for spent nuclear fuels. (author)

  6. Beryllium abundances in parent stars of extrasolar planets 16 Cyg A & B and $\\rho^{1}$ Cnc$^{*}$

    CERN Document Server

    García-López, R J

    1998-01-01

    The Be II 3131 A doublet has been observed in the solar-type stars 16 Cyg A & B and in the late G-type star rho 1 Cnc, to derive their beryllium abundances. 16 Cyg A & B show similar (solar) beryllium abundances while 16 Cyg B, which has been proposed to have a planetary companion of ~2 M_Jup, is known to be depleted in lithium by a factor larger than 6 with respect to 16 Cyg A. Differences in their rotational histories which could induce different rates of internal mixing of material, and the ingestion of a similar planet by 16 Cyg A are discussed as potential explanations. The existence of two other solar-type stars which are candidates to harbour planetary-mass companions and which show lithium and beryllium abundances close to those of 16 Cyg A, requires a more detailed inspection of the peculiarities of the 16 Cyg system. For rho 1 Cnc, which is the coolest known object candidate to harbour a planetary-mass companion (M > 0.85 M_Jup), we establish a precise upper limit for its beryllium abundance...

  7. An investigation of process sensitivity for electron beam evaporation of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the process sensitivity of a beryllium coating process investigated using a statistical design of experiments approach. Process sensitivity is a measure of the variation in a given quality characteristic of the coating as a function of the evaporation process parameters. Manufacturing processes which maximize quality while simultaneously minimizing variability are most desirable. Three evaporation process parameters were included in this study: deposition rate, substrate temperature, and run time. A central composite experimental design employing a total of 18 coating runs was used to produce beryllium coatings on aluminum, silicon, fused silica, and beryllium substrates. The quality of the resulting coatings was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, IR spectrophotometry, stylus profilometry, and weight gain (thickness). Analysis of these results allowed the development of functional relationship between the quality characteristics (thickness, reflectance, etc.) and the evaporation process parameters. Process sensitivity for each response was then determined by calculating the gradient of each quality characteristic with respect to all three process parameters. Three dimensional plots were developed of the quality characteristic and its process sensitivity as a function of process parameters. Both quality characteristic and process sensitivity plots will be presented and discussed. For many of the quality characteristics, temperature during deposition was found to be the most sensitive process parameter for the beryllium c-beam evaporation process

  8. Thermal ramp tritium release in COBRA-1A2 C03 beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Tritium release kinetics, using the method of thermal ramp heating at three linear ramp rates, were measured on the COBRA-1A2 C03 1-mm beryllium pebbles. This report includes a brief discussion of the test, and the test data in graph format.

  9. Preparation, characterization and thermal behaviour study of double selenates of lanthanides, yttrium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) double selenates were studied using common analytical methods, atomic absorption, X-ray diffraction infra-red absorption, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. These compounds were prepared from the mixture of lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) selenates aqueous solution and basic beryllium selenates aqueous solution, obeying equimolar relation (1:1) to the cation

  10. Beryllium assessment and recommendation for application in ITER plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, V.; Tanaka, S.; Matera, R. [ITER Joint Central Team, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    The design status of the ITER Plasma Facing Components (PFC) is presented. The operational conditions of the armour material for the different components are summarized. Beryllium is the reference armour material for the Primary Wall, Baffle and Limiter and the back-up material for the Divertor Dome. The activities on the selection of the Be grades and the joining technologies are reviewed. (author)

  11. Experimental bremsstrahlung yields for MeV proton bombardment of beryllium and carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, David D. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: dcz@ansto.gov.au; Stelcer, Eduard; Siegele, Rainer; Ionescu, Mihail; Prior, Michael [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Experimental bremsstrahlung yields for 2, 3 and 4 MeV protons on thin beryllium and carbon targets have been measured. The yields have been corrected for detector efficiency, self-absorption in the target and fitted to 9th order polynomials over the X-ray energy range 1-10 keV for easy comparison with theoretical calculations.

  12. Electrochemical Recognition of Metalloproteins by Bromide-modified Silver Electrode - A New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rostami

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A bromide–modified silver electrode is reported, in the present study, to catalyzethe redox reactions of metalloproteins. This study describes that the bromide ions showvery good redox behavior with silver electrode. The cathodic and anodic peak potentialswere related to the concentration of bromide ions involved in making bromide-modifiedsilver electrode. The electrode reaction in the bromine solution was a diffusion-controlledprocess. Positive potential shift of the bromide ions was seen when different proteins wereadded to the solution using a silver electrode. New cathodic and anodic peaks wereobserved at different potential ranges for myoglobin, cytochrome c and catalase. A linearlyincreasing cathodic peak current of bromide ions was seen when the concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase was increased in the test solution. However, no change for albuminwas observed when its concentration was increased in the test solution. Present data provesour methodology as an easy-to-use analysis for comparing the redox potentials of differentmetalloproteins and differentiating the metallo- from non-metalloproteins. In this study, weintroduced an interesting method for bio-electrochemical analyses.

  13. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaogang Liu; Zhiliang Zhu; Yanling Qiu; Jianfu Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions,four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species,which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  14. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaogang; Zhu, Zhiliang; Qiu, Yanling; Zhao, Jianfu

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions, four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species, which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  15. Predicting bromide incorporation in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, Abu Jafar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-06-01

    The water in and air above swimming pools often contain high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) due to chemical reactions between chlorine- or bromine-based disinfectants and organic/inorganic matter in the source water and released from swimmers. Exposure to these DBPs, though inevitable, can pose health threats to humans. In this study, DBPs in tap water (S1), and water from a chlorinated indoor swimming pool before (S2) and after swimming (S3) were measured. The brominated species constituted the majority of DBPs formed in S1, S2, and S3. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in S3 was 6.9 (range 2.9-11.1) and 1.4 (range 0.52-2.9) times those in S1 and S2, respectively; and the haloacetic acids (HAAs) in S3 was 4.2 (range 2.5-7.5) and 1.2 (range 0.6-2.6) times those in S1 and S2, respectively. The mean THMs in air above the swimming pool before (S2-A) and after swimming (S3-A) were 72.2 and 93.0 μg/m(3), respectively, and their ranges were 36.3-105.8 and 44.1-133.6 μg/m(3), respectively. The average percentages of bromide incorporation (BI) into THMs in S1, S2, and S3 were 3.0, 9.3, and 10.6 %, respectively; and the BI into HAAs in S1, S2, and S3 were 6.6, 12.0, and 12.2 %, respectively. Several models were trained for predicting the BI into THMs and HAAs. The results indicate that additional information is required to develop predictive models for BI in swimming pools.

  16. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Connell, T.L.; Guidetti, J.R.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of [14C]methyl bromide ([14C]MeBr) to 14CO2 was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCI3NO2). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [14C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to 14CO2 and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  17. The killing of African trypanosomes by ethidium bromide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Roy Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed. In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing.

  18. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 °C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1–4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h

  19. Silica nanoparticles separation from water: aggregation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tourbin, M; Lachaize, S; Guiraud, P

    2013-07-01

    Nanoparticles will inevitably be found in industrial and domestic wastes in the near future and as a consequence soon in water resources. Due to their ultra-small size, nanoparticles may not only have new hazards for environment and human health, but also cause low separation efficiency by classical water treatments processes. Thus, it would be an important challenge to develop a specific treatment with suitable additives for recovery of nanoparticles from waters. For this propose, this paper presents aggregation of silica nanoparticles (Klebosol 30R50 (75nm) and 30R25 (30nm)) by cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Different mechanisms such as charge neutralization, "depletion flocculation" or "volume-restriction", and "hydrophobic effect" between hydrocarbon tails of CTAB have been proposed to explicate aggregation results. One important finding is that for different volume concentrations between 0.05% and 0.51% of 30R50 suspensions, the same critical coagulation concentration was observed at CTAB=0.1mM, suggesting the optimized quantity of CTAB during the separation process for nanoparticles of about 75nm. Furthermore, very small quantities of CTAB (0.01mM) can make 30R25 nanosilica aggregated due to the "hydrophobic effect". It is then possible to minimize the sludge and allow the separation process as "greener" as possible by studying this case. It has also shown that aggregation mechanisms can be different for very small particles so that a special attention has to be paid to the treatment of nanoparticles contained in water and wastewaters.

  20. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects; Proprietes physiques et caracteristiques mecaniques de l'oxyde de beryllium fritte - Effet de l'irradiation et guerison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author)Fren. [French] L'objet de cette etude est la determination de plusieurs proprietes physiques de l'oxyde de beryllium fritte sous charge dans differentes conditions et l'evolution de ces proprietes apres irradiation. Une attention particuliere a ete portee sur la mesure de la conductibilite et de la diffusivite thermiques. Differents montages ont ete realises pour mesurer la conductibilite thermique. Ils permettent la determination entre 50 et 300 deg. C, entre 400 et 800 deg. C; quelques mesures ont ete faites au-dessus de 1000 deg. C. Pour la mesure du coefficient de diffusivite thermique, on realise une attaque thermique, de frequence et d'amplitude reglables d'une face parfaitement plane d'un echantillon d'oxyde de beryllium. Les variations de temperature sont

  1. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium: Kinetics, long-time annealing and effect or crack formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Since beryllium is considered as one of the best neutron multiplier materials in the blanket of the next generation fusion reactors, several studies have been started to evaluate its behaviour under irradiation during both operating and accidental conditions. Based on safety considerations, tritium produced in beryllium during neutron irradiation represents one important issue, therefore it is necessary to investigate tritium transport processes by using a comprehensive mathematical model and comparing its predictions with well characterized experimental tests. Because of the difficulties in extrapolating the short-time tritium release tests to a longer time scale, also long-time annealing experiments with beryllium samples from the SIBELIUS irradiation. have been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Samples were annealed up to 12 months at temperatures up to 650{degrees}C. The inventory after annealing was determined by heating the samples up to 1050{degrees}C with a He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2} purge gas. Furthermore, in order to investigate the likely effects of cracks formation eventually causing a faster tritium release from beryllium, the behaviour of samples irradiated at low temperature (40-50{degrees}C) but up to very high fast neutron fluences (0.8-3.9{center_dot}10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, E{sub n}{ge}1 MeV) in the BR2 reactor has been investigated. Tritium was released by heating the beryllium samples up to 1050{degrees}C and purging them with He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2}. Tritium release from high-irradiated beryllium samples showed a much faster kinetics than from the low-irradiated ones, probably because of crack formation caused by thermal stresses in the brittle material and/or by helium bubbles migration. The obtained experimental data have been compared with predictions of the code ANFIBE with the goal to better understand the physical mechanisms governing tritium behaviour in beryllium and to assess the prediction capabilities of the code.

  2. The analysis of beryllium-copper diffusion joint after HHF test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiniatouline, R.N.; Mazul, I.V. [Efremov Research Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rubkin, S.Y. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The development of beryllium-copper joints which can withstand to relevant ITER divertor conditions is one of the important tasks at present time. One of the main problem for beryllium-copperjoints, is the inter-metallic layers, the strength and life time of joints significantly depends from the width and contents of the intermetallic layers. The objective of this work is to study the diffusion joint of TGP-56 beryllium to OFHC copper after thermal response and thermocyclic tests with beryllium-copper mockup. The BEY test were performed at e-beam facility (EBTS, SNLA). The following methods were used for analyses: the roentgenographic analysis; X-ray spectrum analysis; the fracture graphic analysis. During the investigation the followed studies were done: the analysis of diffusion boundary Be-Cu, which was obtained at the crossection of one of the tiles, the analysis of the debonded surfaces of a few beryllium tiles and corresponding copper parts; the analysis of upper surface of one of the tiles after HHF tests. The results of this work have showed that: the joint roentgenographic and elements analyses indicated the following phases in the diffusion zone: Cu{sub 2}Be ({approximately}170 {mu}m), CuBe ({approximately}30{mu}m), CuBe{sub 2} ({approximately}1 {mu}m) and solid solution of copper in beryllium. The phases Cu{sub 2}Be, CuBe and solid solution of copper in beryllium were indicated using quantitative microanalysis and phases CuBe, CuBe{sub 2}, Cu, Be - by roentgenographic analysis; the source of fracture (initial crack) is located in the central part of the tiles, the crack caused by the influence of residual stresses during cooling of a mock-up after fabrication and developed under the conditions of slow elastic-plastic growing during the process of thermal fatigue testing. The analysis gives the important data about joint`s quality and also may be used for any type of joints and its comparison for ITER applications.

  3. Beryllium-10 in the Taylor Dome ice core: Applications to Antarctic glaciology and paleoclimatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steig, E.J.

    1996-12-31

    An ice core was drilled at Taylor dome, East Antarctica, reaching to bedrock at 554 meters. Oxygen-isotope measurements reveal climatic fluctuations through the last interglacial period. To facilitate comparison of the Taylor Dome paleoclimate record with geologic data and results from other deep ice cores, several glaciological issues need to be addressed. In particular, accumulation data are necessary as input for numerical ice-flow-models, for determining the flux of chemical constituents from measured concentrations, and for calculation of the offset in age between ice and trapped air in the core. The analysis of cosmogenic beryllium-10 provides a geochemical method for constraining the accumulation-rate history at Taylor Dome. High-resolution measurements were made in shallow firn cores and snow pits to determine the relationship among beryllium-10 concentrations, wet and dry deposition mechanisms, and snow-accumulation rates. Comparison between theoretical and measured variations in deposition over the last 75 years constrains the relationship between beryllium-10 deposition and global average production rates. The results indicate that variations in geomagnetically-modulated production-rate do not strongly influence beryllium-10 deposition at Taylor Dome. Although solar modulation of production rate is important for time scales of years to centuries, snow-accumulation rate is the dominant control on ice-core beryllium-10 concentrations for longer periods. Results show that the Taylor Dome core can be used to provide new constraints on regional climate over the last 130,000 years, complementing the terrestrial and marine geological record from the Dry Valley, Transantarctic Mountains and western Ross Sea.

  4. Helium analyses of 1-mm beryllium microspheres from COBRA-1A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, B.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Multiple helium analyses on four beryllium microspheres irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), are reported. The purpose of the analyses was to determine the total helium content of the beryllium, and to determine the helium release characteristics of the beryllium as a function of time and temperature. For the helium release measurements, sequential helium analyses were conducted on two of the samples over a temperature range from 500 C to 1100 C in 100 C increments. Total helium measurements were conducted separately using the normal analysis method of vaporizing the material in a single analysis run. Observed helium release in the two beryllium samples was nonlinear with time at each temperature interval, with each step being characterized by a rather rapid initial release rate, followed by a gradual slowing of the rate over time. Sample Be-C03-1 released virtually all of its helium after approximately 30 minutes at 1000 C, reaching a final value of 2722 appm. Sample Be-D03-1, on the other hand, released only about 62% of its helium after about 1 hour at 1100 c, reaching a final value of 1519 appm. Combining these results with subsequent vaporization runs on the two samples, yielded total helium concentrations of 2724 and 2459 appm. Corresponding helium concentrations measured in the two other C03 and D03 samples, by vaporization alone, were 2941 and 2574 appm. Both sets of concentrations are in reasonable agreement with predicted values of 2723 and 2662 appm. Helium-3 levels measured during the latter two vaporization runs were 2.80 appm for Be-C03-2, and 2.62 appm for Be-D03-2. Calculated {sup 3}He values are slightly lower at 2.55 and 2.50 appm, respectively, suggesting somewhat higher tritium levels in the beryllium than predicted.

  5. Irradiated Beryllium Disposal Workshop, Idaho Falls, ID, May 29-30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, Glen Reed; Anderson, Gail; Mullen, Carlan K; West, William Howard

    2002-07-01

    In 2001, while performing routine radioactive decay heat rate calculations for beryllium reflector blocks for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), it became evident that there may be sufficient concentrations of transuranic isotopes to require classification of this irradiated beryllium as transuranic waste. Measurements on samples from ATR reflector blocks and further calculations confirmed that for reflector blocks and outer shim control cylinders now in the ATR canal, transuranic activities are about five times the threshold for classification. That situation implies that there is no apparent disposal pathway for this material. The problem is not unique to the ATR. The High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Missouri University Research Reactor at Columbia, Missouri and other reactors abroad must also deal with this issue. A workshop was held in Idaho Falls Idaho on May 29-30, 2002 to acquaint stakeholders with these findings and consider a path forward in resolving the issues attendant to disposition of irradiated material. Among the findings from this workshop were (1) there is a real potential for the US to be dependent on foreign sources for metallic beryllium within about a decade; (2) there is a need for a national policy on beryllium utilization and disposition and for a beryllium coordinating committee to be assembled to provide guidance on that policy; (3) it appears it will be difficult to dispose of this material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico due to issues of Defense classification, facility radioactivity inventory limits, and transportation to WIPP; (4) there is a need for a funded DOE program to seek resolution of these issues including research on processing techniques that may make this waste acceptable in an existing disposal pathway or allow for its recycle.

  6. Dissolution of FB-Line Residues Containing Beryllium Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUDISILL, TRACY S.; CROWDER, MARK L.

    2005-09-06

    Scrap materials containing plutonium (Pu) metal were dissolved at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a program to disposition nuclear materials during the deactivation of the FB-Line facility. Some of these items contained both Pu and beryllium (Be) metal as a composite material. The Pu and Be metals were physically separated to minimize the amount of Be associated with the Pu; however, a dissolution flowsheet was required to dissolve small amounts of Be combined with the Pu metal using a dissolving solution containing nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) and potassium fluoride (KF). Since the dissolution of Pu metal in HNO{sub 3}/fluoride (F{sup -}) solutions was well understood, the primary focus of the flowsheet development was the dissolution of Be metal. Initially, small-scale experiments were used to measure the dissolution rate of Be metal foils using conditions effective for the dissolution of Pu metal. The experiments demonstrated that the dissolution rate was nearly independent of the HNO{sub 3} concentration over the limited range of investigation and only a moderate to weak function of the F{sup -} concentration. The effect of temperature was more pronounced, significantly increasing the dissolution rate between 40 and 105 C. The offgas analysis from three Be metal foil dissolutions demonstrated that the production of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was sensitive to the HNO{sub 3} concentration, decreasing by a factor of approximately two when the concentration was increased from 4 to 8 M. In subsequent experiments, complete dissolution of Be samples from a Pu/Be composite material was achieved in a 4 M HNO{sub 3} solution containing 0.1-0.2 M KF. Gas samples collected during each experiment showed that the maximum H{sub 2} generation rate occurred at temperatures below 70-80 C. A Pu metal dissolution experiment was performed using a 4 M HNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KF solution at 80 C to demonstrate flowsheet conditions developed for the dissolution of Be metal. As the reaction

  7. Effect of high temperature corrosion tests in be-liquid Li-V4Ti4Cr alloy system on mechanical properties of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Self-cooled lithium blanket is one of the promising concepts of breeding blanket for future fusion reactor. Beryllium proposed to be used in this design of blanket as a neutron multiplier and moderator for providing the required tritium breeding efficiency. Corrosion behavior of beryllium in liquid Li is important and at the same time not clearly understood aspect of beryllium application in fusion. Recent experimental results on beryllium corrosion behavior of two modem RF beryllium grades (DIP, TE-56) after testing in Be- liquid lithium - V4Ti4Cr alloy static system for 200-500 hours at temperatures from 600 to 800 deg. C are presented. The influences of test conditions (temperature, duration, lithium purity), beryllium characteristics (microstructure, grain size and chemical composition) and penetration of lithium into beryllium on compressive properties of beryllium are discussed. Compressive properties can be considered as an integral characteristic of grain boundaries weakening that is caused by penetration of lithium into beryllium during corrosion tests. The data obtained show that the stability of modem beryllium grades in lithium is much higher than that for the 'old' grades. (authors)

  8. Chlorine-36, bromide, and the origin of spring water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S.N.; Cecil, L.D.; Zreda, M.; Moysey, S.

    2001-01-01

    Natural ratios of chlorine-36 (36Cl) to stable chlorine (i.e., 36Cl/Cl ?? 10-15) vary in shallow groundwater of the United States from about 50 in coastal areas to about 1400 in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ratios lower than these indicate the presence of chloride (Cl-) that has been isolated from the atmosphere for hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer. Higher ratios, which can exceed 5000, usually originate from fallout from testing thermonuclear devices in the western Pacific in the 1950s. Natural mass ratios of chloride to bromide (Cl-/Br-) in precipitation vary in the United States from about 250 in coastal areas to about 50 in the north-central states. Lower ratios may suggest contamination from human sources. Higher ratios, which may exceed 2000, commonly reflect the dissolution of halite. Seawater has a Cl-/Br- ratio of 290. Both 36Cl and Cl-/Br- ratios have been measured in 21 samples of spring water collected from springs in 10 different states. Brackish water from Saratoga Springs area in New York has low values for both 36Cl and Cl-/Br- ratios. This indicates that a large component of the water has a very deep origin. Brackish water from Alexander Springs in Florida has a low 36Cl ratio but a high Cl-/Br- ratio similar to seawater. This suggests the addition of ancient seawater that may be trapped in the aquifer. Big Spring in Iowa discharges water with a very high Cl-/Br- ratio but a moderate 36Cl ratio. The high ratio of Cl-/Br- may be produced by dissolution of road salt or agricultural chemicals. Of the 21 springs sampled, only 10 appeared to have potable water not significantly affected by human activity. Chlorine-36 from testing of nuclear devices is still being flushed out of four of the spring systems that were sampled. Thus, more than 45 years have passed since 36Cl was introduced into the aquifers feeding the springs and the systems, as yet, have not been purged. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Aclidinium bromide combined with formoterol inhibits remodeling parameters in lung epithelial cells through cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, Christopher; Costa, Luigi; Ying, Qi; Zhong, Jun; Lardinois, Didier; Dekan, Gerhard; Schuller, Elisabeth; Roth, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Combined muscarinic receptor antagonists and long acting β2-agonists improve symptom control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly. In clinical studies aclidinium bromide achieved better beneficial effects than other bronchodilators; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. This study assessed the effect of aclidinium bromide combined with formoterol on COPD lung (n=20) and non-COPD lung (n=10) derived epithelial cells stimulated with TGF-β1+carbachol on: (i) the generation of mesenchymal cells in relation to epithelial cells, (II) extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and (iii) the interaction of ECM on the generation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. TGF-β1+carbachol enhanced the generation of mesenchymal cells, which was significantly reduced by aclidinium bromide or formoterol. The effect of combined drugs was additive. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase and Smad by specific inhibitors or aclidinium bromide reduced the generation of mesenchymal cells. In mesenchymal cells, TGF-β1+carbachol induced the deposition of collagen-I and fibronectin which was prevented by both drugs dose-dependently. Formoterol alone reduced collagen-I deposition via cAMP, this however, was overruled by TGF-β1+carbachol and rescued by aclidinium bromide. Inhibition of fibronectin was cAMP independent, but involved p38 MAP kinase and Smad. Seeding epithelial cells on ECM collagen-I and fibronectin induced mesenchymal cell generation, which was reduced by aclidinium bromide and formoterol. Our results suggest that the beneficial effect of aclidinium bromide and formoterol involves cAMP affecting both, the accumulation of mesenchymal cells and ECM remodeling, which may explain the beneficial effect of the drugs on lung function in COPD. PMID:26546746

  10. Diffusion Bonding Beryllium to Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel: Development of Processes and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ryan Matthew

    Only a few materials are suitable to act as armor layers against the thermal and particle loads produced by magnetically confined fusion. These candidates include beryllium, tungsten, and carbon fiber composites. The armor layers must be joined to the plasma facing components with high strength bonds that can withstand the thermal stresses resulting from differential thermal expansion. While specific joints have been developed for use in ITER (an experimental reactor in France), including beryllium to CuCrZr as well as tungsten to stainless steel interfaces, joints specific to commercially relevant fusion reactors are not as well established. Commercial first wall components will likely be constructed front Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel, which will need to be coating with one of the three candidate materials. Of the candidates, beryllium is particularly difficult to bond, because it reacts during bonding with most elements to form brittle intermetallic compounds. This brittleness is unacceptable, as it can lead to interface crack propagation and delamination of the armor layer. I have attempted to overcome the brittle behavior of beryllium bonds by developing a diffusion bonding process of beryllium to RAFM steel that achieves a higher degree of ductility. This process utilized two bonding aids to achieve a robust bond: a. copper interlayer to add ductility to the joint, and a titanium interlayer to prevent beryllium from forming unwanted Be-Cu intermetallics. In addition, I conducted a series of numerical simulations to predict the effect of these bonding aids on the residual stress in the interface. Lastly, I fabricated and characterized beryllium to ferritic steel diffusion bonds using various bonding parameters and bonding aids. Through the above research, I developed a process to diffusion bond beryllium to ferritic steel with a 150 M Pa tensile strength and 168 M Pa shear strength. This strength was achieved using a Hot Isostatic

  11. RF surface resistance of copper-on-beryllium at cryogenic temperatures measured by a 22-GHZ demountable cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianfei; Krawczyk, F. L. (Frank L.); Kurennoy, S. (Sergey); Schrage, D. L. (Dale L.); Shapiro, A. H. (Alan H.); Tajima, T. (Tsuyoshi); Wood R. L. (Richard L.)

    2003-01-01

    A 22-GHz demountable cavity on the cold head of a compact refrigerator system was used to measure the RF performance of several coppt:r-plated Beryllium samples. The cavity inner surfce was treated by chemical polishing and heat treatment., as well as an OFE copper coupon to provide a baseline for comparison. The measured surhce resistance was reasonable and repeatable during either cooling or warming. Materials tested included four grades of Beryllium, OFE copper, alumina-dispersion strengthened copper (Glidcop), and Cu-plated versions of all of the above. Two coupons, Cuplated on Beryllium 0-30 and 1-70, offered comparable surface resistance to pure OFE copper or Cu-plated Glidcop. The RF surface resistance of Cu-on-Beryllium samples at cryogenic temperatures is reported together with that of other reference materials.

  12. Reproducibility and correctness of the procedure of photometric determination of beryllium with 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonova, N.B.; Charykov, A.K.; Gladilovich, D.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper discusses two methods of evaluation of correctness on the example of the fluorometric determination of beryllium by 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole (HPBO), as well as an evaluation of the reproducibility of this procedure for the level of beryllium concentration 10-36 ng/ml. The traditional method of detection and evaluation of systematic errors in chemical analysis is comparison of the average result of repeated analysis of a standard sample with specified content of the component to be determined. The second method discussed is based on an experimental estimation of the constant and proportional components of the systematic error by a combination of the methods of doubling and additives. It is shown that the fluorometric method of determining beryllium with HPBO at an absolute beryllium content of 0.25-1.0 micrograms is satisfactorily reproducible and does not contain systematic errors at the level of significance beta=0.05.

  13. Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method to measure migration of semivolatile compound, vanillin, in ipratropium bromide inhalation solution

    OpenAIRE

    Conkins, Dennis; Economou, Julia E; Boersma, James A; Dedhiya, Mehendra G; Hansen, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Ipratropium bromide, a bronchodilator, is used as an inhalation solution. Commercial ipratropium bromide solution products are packaged in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) vials, through which semivolatile compounds are reported to migrate. In this article, a specific reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay vanillin, a semivolatile compound, in ipratropium bromide solution is described. The method was validated for a concentration range for vanillin from 30 ng/mL...

  14. [Bowel obstruction-induced cholinergic crisis with progressive respiratory failure following distigmine bromide treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old female experienced rapid respiratory failure while being transported in an ambulance to our emergency department for evaluation and management of constipation and abdominal pain. The patient was on treatment with distigmine bromide for postoperative urination disorder and magnesium oxide for constipation. Increased salivary secretions, diminished respiratory excursion, type 2 respiratory failure (PaCO2 : 65 mmHg), low serum cholinesterase, and hypermagnesemia were detected. Imaging studies revealed that the patient had bilateral aspiration pneumonia, fecal impaction in the rectum, and a distended colon causing ileus. The patient was mechanically ventilated and was weaned off the ventilator on day 3. Therapeutic drug monitoring after discharge revealed that the serum level of distigmine bromide on admission was markedly elevated (377.8 ng/mL vs. the normal therapeutic level of 5-10 ng/mL). Distigmine bromide induced a cholinergic crisis with a resultant increase in airway secretions and respiratory failure. In this particular case, orally administered distigmine bromide was excessively absorbed because of prolonged intestinal transit time secondary to fecal impaction and sluggish bowel movement; this caused a cholinergic crisis and hypermagnesemia contributing to respiratory failure. Clinicians should be aware that bowel obstruction in a patient treated with distigmine bromide can increase the risk of a cholinergic crisis. PMID:27255021

  15. Characteristics of microstructure and tritium release properties of different kinds of beryllium pebbles for application in tritium breeding modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurinskiy, P., E-mail: petr.kurinskiy@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Rolli, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics (IAM-WBM), P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Tritium release properties and characteristics of microstructure of beryllium pebbles having different sizes of grains were studied. • Fine-grained beryllium pebbles showed the best ability to release tritium compared to pebbles from another charges. • Be pebbles with the grain sizes exceeding 100 μm contain a great number of small pores and inclusions presumably referring to the history of material fabrication. • The sizes of grains are one of a key characteristic of microstructure which influences the parameters of tritium release. - Abstract: Beryllium pebbles with diameters of 1 mm are considered to be perspective material for the use as neutron multiplier in tritium breeding modules of fusion reactors. Up to now, the design of helium-cooled breeding blanket in ITER project foresees the use of 1 mm beryllium pebbles fabricated by NGK Insulators Ltd., Japan. It is notable that beryllium pebbles from Russian Federation and USA are also available and the possibility of their large-scale fabrication is under study. Presented work is dedicated to a study of characteristics of microstructure and parameters of tritium release of beryllium pebbles produced by Bochvar Institute, Russian Federation, and Materion Corporation, USA.

  16. Vacuum hot-pressed beryllium and TiC dispersion strengthened tungsten alloy developments for ITER and future fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Chen, Jiming; Lian, Youyun; Wu, Jihong; Xu, Zengyu; Zhang, Nianman; Wang, Quanming; Duan, Xuro [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Wang, Zhanhong; Zhong, Jinming [Northwest Rare Metal Material Research Institute, CNMC, Ningxia Orient Group Co. Ltd.,No.119 Yejin Road, Shizuishan City, Ningxia,753000 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Beryllium and tungsten have been selected as the plasma facing materials of the ITER first wall (FW) and divertor chamber, respectively. China, as a participant in ITER, will share the manufacturing tasks of ITER first-wall mockups with the European Union and Russia. Therefore ITER-grade beryllium has been developed in China and a kind of vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) beryllium, CN-G01, was characterized for both physical, and thermo-mechanical properties and high heat flux performance, which indicated an equivalent performance to U.S. grade S-65C beryllium, a reference grade beryllium of ITER. Consequently CN-G01 beryllium has been accepted as the armor material of ITER-FW blankets. In addition, a modification of tungsten by TiC dispersion strengthening was investigated and a W–TiC alloy with TiC content of 0.1 wt.% has been developed. Both surface hardness and recrystallization measurements indicate its re-crystallization temperature approximately at 1773 K. Deuterium retention and thermal desorption behaviors of pure tungsten and the TiC alloy were also measured by deuterium ion irradiation of 1.7 keV energy to the fluence of 0.5–5 × 10{sup 18} D/cm{sup 2}; a main desorption peak at around 573 K was found and no significant difference was observed between pure tungsten and the tungsten alloy. Further characterization of the tungsten alloy is in progress.

  17. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  18. Experimental and numerical investigations of beryllium strength models using the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry de Frahan, M. T. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; Belof, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; Cavallo, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; Raevsky, V. A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, Sarov 607188, Russia; Ignatova, O. N. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, Sarov 607188, Russia; Lebedev, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, Sarov 607188, Russia; Ancheta, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; El-dasher, B. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; Florando, J. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; Gallegos, G. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; Johnsen, E. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; LeBlanc, M. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA

    2015-06-14

    A recent collaboration between LLNL and VNIIEF has produced a set of high explosive driven Rayleigh-Taylor strength data for beryllium. Design simulations using legacy strength models from Steinberg-Lund and Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) suggested an optimal design that would delineate between not just different strength models, but different parameters sets of the PTW model. Application of the models to the post-shot results, however, shows close to classical growth. We characterize the material properties of the beryllium tested in the experiments. We also discuss recent efforts to simulate the data using the legacy strength models as well as the more recent RING relaxation model developed at VNIIEF. Finally, we present shock and ramp-loading recovery experiments conducted as part of the collaboration.

  19. Modeling of systematic retention of beryllium in rats. Extrapolation to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and other animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with other previously published

  20. Proceedings of the sixth IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the Proceedings of the Sixth International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on December 2-5, 2003, at SEAGAIA in Miyazaki City, Japan with 69 participants who attended from Europe, the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into nine sessions; Status of beryllium study, Plasma and tritium interactions, ITER oriented issues, Neutron irradiation effects, Beryllide application, Disposal and recycling, Molten salt, Health and safety issues and Panel discussion. In the Panel discussion, the international collaboration for three topics, i.e., Neutron irradiation effects, Beryllide application, Recycling and Disposal, were discussed, and necessary items for the international collaboration were proposed. The 46 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Measurement of the thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient of a binary bed of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Piazza, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Goraieb, A.; Sordon, G.

    1998-01-01

    The four ITER partners propose to use binary beryllium pebble bed as neutron multiplier. Recently this solution has been adopted for the ITER blanket as well. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket the effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient of the bed have to be known. Therefore at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe heat transfer experiments have been performed with a binary bed of beryllium pebbles and the results have been correlated expressing thermal conductivity and wall heat transfer coefficients as a function of temperature in the bed and of the difference between the thermal expansion of the bed and of that of the confinement walls. The comparison of the obtained correlations with the data available from the literature show a quite good agreement. (author)

  2. Degassing measurement for beryllium exposed to D{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markin, A.V.; Zakharov, A.P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    A possibility of the correct determination of deuterium solubility and diffusivity in Be on the basis of degassing experiments is demonstrated. It has been found that the main fraction (above 90%) of deuterium retained under D{sub 2} exposure is removed under slight electropolishing (descaling of {approx} 2-5 {mu}m) of the samples before TDS measurement. This deuterium seems to be located in the near surface oxide layers formed during the exposure as a result of interaction of beryllium with oxygen containing molecules of residual gas. In all degassing runs the diffusion of deuterium in the bulk of beryllium samples was not a limited-stage of gas release. (author)

  3. Current and Potential Future Bromide Loads from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Allegheny River Basin and Their Effects on Downstream Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    The presence of bromide in rivers does not affect ecosystems or present a human health risk; however, elevated concentrations of bromide in drinking water sources can lead to difficulty meeting drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations. Recent attention has focused on oil and gas wastewater and coal-fired power plant wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater bromide discharges. Bromide can be added to coal to enhance mercury removal, and increased use of bromide at some power plants is expected. Evaluation of potential increases in bromide concentrations from bromide addition for mercury control is lacking. The present work utilizes bromide monitoring data in the Allegheny River and a mass-balance approach to elucidate bromide contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources under current and future scenarios. For the Allegheny River, the current bromide is associated approximately 49% with oil- and gas-produced water discharges and 33% with coal-fired power plants operating wet FGD, with 18% derived from natural sources during mean flow conditions in August. Median wet FGD bromide loads could increase 3-fold from 610 to 1900 kg/day if all plants implement bromide addition for mercury control. Median bromide concentrations in the lower Allegheny River in August would rise to 410, 200, and 180 μg/L under low-, mean-, and high-flow conditions, respectively, for the bromide-addition scenario. PMID:27538590

  4. Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels in Lithium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in various concentrations of lithium, bromide solution was investigated by using the conventional weight loss measurement method. The results obtained show that corrosion of these steels occurred due to the aggressive bromide ion in the medium. Duplex stainless steel shows a greater resistance to corrosion than austenitic stainless steel in the medium. This was attributed to equal volume proportion of ferrite and austenite in the structure of duplex stainless steel coupled with higher content of chromium in its composition. Both steels produced electrochemical noise at increased concentrations of lithium bromide due to continuous film breakdown and repair caused by reduction in medium concentration by the alkaline corrosion product while surface passivity observed in duplex stainless steel is attributed to film stability on this steel.

  5. Chloride/bromide ratios in leachate derived from farm-animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results have important implications for identifying animal sources of contaminated groundwater. - Ratios of conservative chemicals have been used to identify sources of groundwater contamination. While chloride/bromide ratios have been reported for several common sources of groundwater contamination, little work has been done on leachate derived from farm-animal waste. In this study, chloride/bromide ratios were measured in leachate derived from longhorn-cattle, quarter-horse, and pygme-goat waste at a farm in Abilene, Texas, USA. (Minimum, median, and maximum) chloride/bromide ratios of (66.5, 85.6, and 167), (119, 146, and 156), and (35.4, 57.8, and 165) were observed for cattle, horses, and goats, respectively. These ratios are below typical values for domestic wastewater and within the range commonly observed for oilfield brine. Results of this study have important implications for identifying sources of contaminated groundwater in settings with significant livestock and/or oil production

  6. Inhibitory effect of pinaverium bromide on gastrointestinal contractile activity in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Z; Takahashi, I

    1981-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of 4-(6-bromoveratryl)-4-(2-[2-(6,6-dimethyl-2-norpinyl)-ethoxy]-ethyl)-morpholinium hydroxide (pinaverium bromide), a quaternary ammonium derivative, on the contractile activity of the gastrointestinal tract from the stomach to the colon was investigated in six conscious dogs. Gastrointestinal motor activity was monitored by means of chronically implanted force transducers. Pinaverium bromide was continuously administered i.v. for 30 min in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/h during both the digestive and interdigestive states. It was found that pinaverium bromide strongly inhibited gastrointestinal contractile activity during both the digestive and interdigestive states; contractions in the stomach were most strongly inhibited; however, those in the small and large bowels were also significantly inhibited. No significant side effects in the circulatory and respiratory systems and the gastrointestinal tract such as nausea, vomiting or diarrhea were observed during and after the infusion of this agent. PMID:7197953

  7. Glass-Coated Beryllium Mirrors for the LHCb RICH1 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, G J; Cameron, W; D'Ambrosio, C; Frei, C; Harnew, N; Head, R; Khimitch, Y P; Khmelnikov, V A; Loveridge, P W; Metlica, F; Obraztsov, V F; Piedigrossi, D; Sizenev, V; Kompozit Joint Stock Company, Moscow, Russia; Szczypka, P M; Ullaland, O; Vygosky, E; Websdale, D M

    2007-01-01

    The design, manufacture and testing of lightweight glass-coated beryllium spherical converging mirrors for the RICH1 detector of LHCb are described. The mirrors need to be lightweight to minimize the material budget and fluorocarbon-compatible to avoid degradation in the RICH1 C4F10 gas radiator. Results of the optical measurements for the small-sized prototypes and for the first full-sized prototype mirror are reported.

  8. Beryllium10: a free and simple tool for creating and managing group safety data sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Kochmann, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Background Countless chemicals and mixtures are used in laboratories today, which all possess their own properties and dangers. Therefore, it is important to brief oneself about possible risks and hazards before doing any experiments. However, this task is laborious and time consuming. Summary Beryllium10 is a program, which supports users by carrying out a large part of the work such as collecting/importing data sets from different providers and compiling most of the information in...

  9. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent

    2004-12-17

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  10. Beryllium Concentrations at European Workplaces: Comparison of ‘Total’ and Inhalable Particulate Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kock, Heiko; Civic, Terence; Koch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out in order to derive a factor for the conversion of historic worker exposure data on airborne beryllium (Be) obtained by sampling according to the 37-mm closed faced filter cassette (CFC) ‘total’ particulate method into exposure concentration values to be expected when sampling using the ‘Gesamtstaubprobenahmesystem’ (GSP) inhalable sampling convention. Workplaces selected to represent the different copper Be work processing operations that typically occur in Germa...

  11. Ion-plasma deposition of aluminium and beryllium coatings on inner surfaces of hollow cylindrical cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of metal coatings to inner surfaces of hollow cylindrical products of small diameter is simulated and practically realized by ion-plasma deposition method. In the modes proposed and with the cylinder diameter being 10-20 mm, a uniform coating of aluminium and beryllium is provided for at the length equal to (3-4) d, which has not been possible to be realized previously. 11 refs.; 2 tabs

  12. Low cycle thermal fatigue testing of beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Guiniatouline, R.N. [Efremov Institute, (Russia); Kupriynov, I.B. [Russian Institute of Inorganic Materials (Russia)

    1996-02-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium, which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 kW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ``spike`` of 750{degree}C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stresses in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m{sup 2}. Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S- 65H, S-200F, S-200F-H, SR-200, I-400, extruded high purity, HIP`d spherical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe{sub 12}. Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be (SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis.

  13. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent [Central Missouri State Univ., Warrensburg, MO (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  14. Relativistic configuration-interaction calculation of $K\\alpha$ transition energies in beryllium-like argon

    CERN Document Server

    Yerokhin, V A; Fritzsche, S

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic configuration-interaction calculations have been performed for the energy levels of the low-lying and core-excited states of beryllium-like argon, Ar$^{14+}$. These calculations include the one-loop QED effects as obtained by two different methods, the screening-potential approach as well as the model QED operator approach. The calculations are supplemented by a systematic estimation of uncertainties of theoretical predictions.

  15. Irradiation as a disinfestation method - update on methyl bromide phase out, regulatory action and emerging opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl bromide (MeBr), is the most widely used agricultural fumigant in the world for the control of pests and plant diseases. It is used to control pests and diseases in food, agricultural and forestry commodities after harvest, before or during storage or transportation and/or at time of import to control quarantine or storage pests. Knowing MeBr will be phased out has spurred a search for alternative treatments and products, and has placed pressure on regulatory authorities to approve alternatives. Some of methyl bromide use could be replaced with irradiation. Methyl bromide is also used for soil and structural fumigation, and although there is some use of irradiation for packaged soil or greenhouse products, in general, these uses can not be replaced by irradiation. Some radiation processing facilities have either seen increased business to disinfest commodities, or have experienced more inquiries for service. There are many other processes and products competing for this market and irradiation will not win its share of the business without an improved regulatory picture, improved marketing to methyl bromide users and improved information to answer questions from commodity sectors. The United Nations Environment Program - Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee (MBTOC) provides a venue for the publication or information about the use and availability of irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide. It provides the technical base to the Montreal Protocol contributing to the setting of phase out dates; this committee is actively researching and assessing all alternatives and needs information about irradiation. The author is a member of the MBTOC committee

  16. Trace determination of sulfur and beryllium by activation in an oxygen-18 ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedli, C.; Rousseau, M.; Diaco, T.; Lerch, P. (Institut d' Electrochimie et de Radiochimie, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1985-04-01

    A novel method for determining traces of sulfur and beryllium is described. The reaction /sup 32/S(/sup 18/O,t)/sup 47/V is selective if using a 39 MeV /sup 18/O/sup 6 +/ beam. The detection limit is 3 ppm in an iron matrix and a precision of +-15% has been achieved for samples with 15 to 20 ppm sulfur. In the case of beryllium determination, two reactions were studied, namely /sup 9/Be(/sup 18/O,2..cap alpha..)/sup 19/O and /sup 9/Be(/sup 18/O,d)/sup 25/Na. At 25 MeV /sup 18/O/sup 5 +/, the first reaction is completely selective and yields a 5 ng detection limit for a 5 minutes irradiation. Boron is a nuclear interference when using the second reaction which yields a 110 ng detection limit in the same conditions. An irradiation chamber has been constructed that allows to decrease these limits. The technique was tested by analyzing two standard materials (NBS-SRM 394 and IRSID 508-1) whose sulfur content is certified. The results obtained by analyzing a biological sample (NBS-SRM 1571) for sulfur and a metallic sample Cu-Be for beryllium, are discussed.

  17. Effect of deposited tungsten on deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharapov, V.M.; Gavrilov, L.E. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    Usually ion or plasma beam is used for the experiment with beryllium which simulates the interaction of plasma with first wall in fusion devices. However, the use of thermal or subthermal atoms of hydrogen isotopes seems to be useful for that purpose. Recently, the authors have studied the deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium. The experimental setup is shown, and is explained. By means of elastic recoil detection (ERD) technique, it was shown that in the exposure to D atoms at 740 K, deuterium is distributed deeply into the bulk, and is accumulated up to higher concentration than the case of the exposure to molecular deuterium. The depth and concentration of deuterium distribution depend on the exposure time, and those data are shown. During the exposure to atomic deuterium, oxide film grew on the side of a sample facing plasma. In order to understand the mechanism of deuterium trapping, the experiment was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and residual gas analysis (RGA). The influence that the tungsten deposit from the heated cathode exerted to the deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium was investigated. These results are reported. (K.I.)

  18. An occurrence model for the national assessment of volcanogenic beryllium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Hetland, Brianna

    2010-01-01

    The general occurrence model summarized here is intended to provide a descriptive basis for the identification and assessment of undiscovered beryllium deposits of a type and style similar to those found at Spor Mountain, Juab County, Utah. The assessment model is restricted in its application in order to provide a coherent basis for assessing the probability of the occurrence of similar economic deposits using the current U.S. Geological Survey methodology. The model is intended to be used to identify tracts of land where volcanogenic epithermal replacement-type beryllium deposits hosted by metaluminous to peraluminous rhyolite are most likely to occur. Only a limited number of deposits or districts of this type are known, and only the ores of the Spor Mountain district have been studied in detail. The model highlights those distinctive aspects and features of volcanogenic epithermal beryllium deposits that pertain to the development of assessment criteria and puts forward a baseline analysis of the geoenvironmental consequences of mining deposits of this type.

  19. Assessment of irradiation effects on beryllium reflector and heavy water tank of JRR-3M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Yoji; Kakehuda, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The JRR-3M, a swimming pool type research reactor with beryllium and heavy water reflectors, has been operated since 1990. Since the beryllium reflectors are close to fuel and receive high fast neutron fluence in a relatively short time, they may be subject to change their dimensions by swelling due mostly to entrapped helium gaseous. This may bend the reflectors to the outside and narrow gaps between the reflectors and the fuel elements. The gaps have been measured with an ultrasonic thickness gage in an annual inspection. The results in 1996 show that the maximum of expansion in the diametral directions was 0.6 mm against 1.6 mm of a managed value for replacement of the reflector. A heavy water tank of the JRR-3M is made of aluminum alloy A5052. Surveillance tests of the alloy have been conducted to evaluate irradiation effects of the heavy water tank. Five sets of specimens of the alloy have been irradiated in the beryllium reflectors where fast neutron flux is higher than that in the heavy water tank. In 1994, one set of specimens had been unloaded and carried out the post-irradiation tests. The results show that the heavy water tank preserved satisfactory mechanical properties. (author)

  20. Fractal study of Ni-Cr-Mo alloy for dental applications: effect of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different Ni-based alloys with various compositions were prepared by varying the amounts of beryllium. Effect of the amount of beryllium added to the alloy on its corrosion in an electrolyte solution of artificial saliva was investigated. Fractal dimension was used as a quantitative factor for surface analysis of the alloys before and after storage in the artificial salvia. The fractal dimensions of the electrode surfaces were determined by means of the most reliable method in this context viz. time dependency of the diffusion-limited current for a system involving 'diffusion towards electrode surface'. The results showed that increase of the beryllium amount in the alloy composition significantly increases the alloy corrosion. It is accompanied by increase of the fractal dimension and roughness of the electrode surface, whereas a smooth and shiny surface is required for dentures. From the methodology point of view, the approach utilized for fractal analysis of the alloy surfaces (Au-masking of metallic surfaces) is a novel and efficient method for study of denture surfaces. Generally, this approach is of interest for corrosion studies of different metals and alloys, particularly where changes in surface structure have a significant importance

  1. Fractal study of Ni-Cr-Mo alloy for dental applications: effect of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eftekhari, Ali

    2003-12-30

    Different Ni-based alloys with various compositions were prepared by varying the amounts of beryllium. Effect of the amount of beryllium added to the alloy on its corrosion in an electrolyte solution of artificial saliva was investigated. Fractal dimension was used as a quantitative factor for surface analysis of the alloys before and after storage in the artificial salvia. The fractal dimensions of the electrode surfaces were determined by means of the most reliable method in this context viz. time dependency of the diffusion-limited current for a system involving 'diffusion towards electrode surface'. The results showed that increase of the beryllium amount in the alloy composition significantly increases the alloy corrosion. It is accompanied by increase of the fractal dimension and roughness of the electrode surface, whereas a smooth and shiny surface is required for dentures. From the methodology point of view, the approach utilized for fractal analysis of the alloy surfaces (Au-masking of metallic surfaces) is a novel and efficient method for study of denture surfaces. Generally, this approach is of interest for corrosion studies of different metals and alloys, particularly where changes in surface structure have a significant importance.

  2. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson

    2005-12-01

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the "hottest" (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates

  3. Designing a Beryllium-Free Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Material without a Structural Instability Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sangen; Kang, Lei; Shen, Yaoguo; Wang, Xiaodong; Asghar, Muhammad Adnan; Lin, Zheshuai; Xu, Yingying; Zeng, Siyuan; Hong, Maochun; Luo, Junhua

    2016-03-01

    A beryllium-free deep-ultraviolet (deep-UV) nonlinear optical (NLO) material K3Ba3Li2Al4B6O20F is developed mainly by the element substitution of Be for Al and Li from Sr2Be2B2O7 that was considered as one of the most promising deep-UV NLO materials. K3Ba3Li2Al4B6O20F preserves the structural merits of Sr2Be2B2O7 and thus exhibits no layering growth tendency and possesses the optical properties required for deep-UV NLO applications, including deep-UV transparency, phase-matchability, and sufficiently large second-harmonic generation (1.5 × KH2PO4). Furthermore, it overcomes the structural instability problem of Sr2Be2B2O7, which is confirmed by the obtainment of large single crystals and phonon dispersion calculations. These attributes make it very attractive for next-generation deep-UV NLO materials. The substitution of Be for Al and Li in beryllium borates provides a new opportunity to design beryllium-free deep-UV NLO materials with good performance. PMID:26889570

  4. Experimental investigation of the energy and temperature dependence of beryllium self sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, S.N.; Guseva, M.I.; Stolijarova, V.G. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    The low-Z metal beryllium is considered as plasma facing material (PFM) for the ITER. It is expected that operation temperature range of beryllium PFM will be (670 - 1070) K. While experimental Be-sputtering data bases exist for H{sup +}, D{sup +} and He{sup +}-ions, the self-sputtering yields of Be have only been estimated by computer simulation. In this paper we report the experimental results on the energy and temperature dependence of the beryllium self-sputtering yield (S). The energy dependence of S{sup s} in the energy range (0.5 - 10.0) keV was measured at 670 K. The self-sputtering yield of Be attains its maximal value at the ion energy of 1.5 keV, being equal to 0.32 {+-} at./ion. Comparison of the experimental results and theoretical prediction shows a good agreement for energy dependence of S{sup s}. The temperature dependence of S{sup s} in the temperature range (370-1070)K was obtained for 0.9keV Be{sup +}-ions. The value of S{sup s} is not changed up to 870 K. It sharply increases at the temperatures above 870 attaining the value of 0.75 at./ion at 1070 K.

  5. Comprehensive Measurement of Neutron Yield Produced by 62 MeV Protons on Beryllium Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-power prototype of neutron amplifier, based on a 70 MeV, high current proton cyclotron being installed at LNL for the SPES RIB facility, was recently proposed within INFN-E project. This prototype uses a thick Beryllium converter to produce a fast neutron spectrum feeding a sub-critical reactor core. To complete the design of such facility the new measurement of neutron yield from a thick Beryllium target was performed at LNS. This measurement used liquid scintillator detectors to identify produced neutrons by Pulse Shape Discrimination and Time of Flight technique to measure neutron energy in the range 0.5-62 MeV. To extend the covered neutron energy range 3He detector was used to measure neutrons below 0.5 MeV. The obtained yields were normalized to the charge deposited by the proton beam on the metallic Beryllium target. These techniques allowed to achieve a wide angular coverage from 0 to 150 degrees and to explore almost complete neutron energy interval. (authors)

  6. Di-4-octylphenylphosphoric acid as extractant : extraction of vanadium (IV) and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of vanadium and beryllium has been studied using di-4-octylphenyl phosphoric acid (DOPPA) as metal extractant. The factors which affect the extraction have been studied in detail. An attempt has been made to clarify the mechanism of extraction and compare the results with those reported for di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA). In the case of vanadium it was found that vanadium (IV) is more suitable for extraction. Synergistic extractionwas observed in the presence of neutral organophosphorous compounds like tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), dibutyl butyl phosphate (DBBP) and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO). The possibility of separating vanadium and uranium when they are present together in leach solutions has also been studied. The extraction of beryllium was found to be a slow process. The factors controlling the rate as well as the extent of extraction have been investigated. However, the results showed that in both respects DOPPA is better than DEHPA which was earlier studied by other authors. The separation of aluminium from beryllium has also been studied. (author)

  7. Stepped-anneal helium release in 1-mm beryllium pebbles from COBRA-1A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, B.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Stepped-anneal helium release measurements on two sets of fifteen beryllium pebbles irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-w), are reported. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the helium release characteristics of the beryllium using larger sample sizes and longer anneal times relative to earlier measurements. Sequential helium analyses were conducted over a narrower temperature range from approximately 800 C to 1100 C in 100 C increments, but with longer anneal time periods. To allow for overnight and unattended operation, a temperature controller and associated circuitry were added to the experimental setup. Observed helium release was nonlinear with time at each temperature interval, with each step being generally characterized by an initial release rate followed by a slowing of the rate over time. Sample Be-C03 showed a leveling off in the helium release after approximately 3 hours at a temperature of 890 C. Sample Be-D03, on the other hand, showed a leveling off only after {approximately}12 to 24 hours at a temperature of 1100 C. This trend is consistent with that observed in earlier measurements on single microspheres from the same two beryllium lots. None of the lower temperature steps showed any leveling off of the helium release. Relative to the total helium concentrations measured earlier, the total helium releases observed here represent approximately 80% and 92% of the estimated total helium in the C03 and D03 samples, respectively.

  8. Diffusion bonding beryllium to Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic steel: Development of processes and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.M., E-mail: hunt52@llnl.gov [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, UCLA, 44-128 Engineering IV, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1597 (United States); Goods, S.H., E-mail: shgoods@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Ying, A., E-mail: ying@fusion.ucla.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, UCLA, 44-128 Engineering IV, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1597 (United States); Dorn, C.K., E-mail: christopher.dorn@materion.com [Materion Brush Beryllium and Composites (United States); Abdou, M., E-mail: abdou@fusion.ucla.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, UCLA, 44-128 Engineering IV, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1597 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We diffusion bonded Be to Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin copper and titanium interlayers improved the bond's shear strength to 168 MPa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A slow cooling scheme and intermediate hold step greatly increased bond strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Failure occurred in Be-Ti and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds. - Abstract: Beryllium was successfully bonded to a Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel with a maximum strength of 150 MPa in tension and 168 MPa in shear. These strengths were achieved using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), at temperatures between 700 Degree-Sign C and 750 Degree-Sign C for 2 h and under a pressure of 103 MPa. To obtain these strengths, 10 {mu}m of titanium and 20 {mu}m of copper were deposited on the beryllium substrate prior to HIP bonding. The copper film acted a bonding aid to the RAFM steel, while the titanium acted as a diffusion barrier between the copper and the beryllium, suppressing the formation of brittle intermetallics that are known to compromise mechanical performance. Slow cooling from the peak HIP temperature along with an imposed hold time at 450 Degree-Sign C further enhanced the final mechanical strength of the bond.

  9. Shockless compression and release behavior of beryllium to 110 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetohydrodynamic loading technique was used to shocklessly compress beryllium to peak longitudinal stresses of 19–110 GPa and, subsequently, unload in order to determine both the compressive response and also the shear stress supported upon release. Loading strain rates were on the order of 106 s−1, while the unloading rates were nearly constant at 3 × 105 s−1. Velocimetry was used to monitor the ramp and release behavior of a beryllium/lithium fluoride window interface. After applying window corrections to infer in situ beryllium velocities, a Lagrangian analysis was employed to determine the material response. The Lagrangian wavespeed-particle velocity response is integrated to generate the stress-strain path, average change in shear stress over the elastic unloading, and estimates of the shear modulus at peak compression. These data are used to infer the pressure dependence of the flow strength at the unloading rate. Comparisons to several strength models reveal good agreement to 45 GPa, but the data indicate 20%–30% higher strength near 100 GPa.

  10. ICRF heating/plasma edge interaction in JET with beryllium gettering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) heating in JET (Joint European Torus) with beryllium gettered walls and RF antenna screens both the global and local impurity influxes are significantly reduced as compared to the previous operation. In particular oxygen is reduced by an order of magnitude and the deuterium is efficiently pumped. The deuterium recycling RD D eff = 2 at PRF = 10 MW is routinely achieved. At comparable densities, PRAD/PTOT is 30-50% lower. If we assume that the long term evolution of the beryllium signal at the antenna screen is due to erosion, rather than coverage by carbon, we estimate the corresponding influx in monopole configuration (kII=0 m-1) to be ΦBeSCREEN = 1.16 x 1019 atoms MW-1 s-1 from an effective area AEFF = 0.5 m2. At the same coupling resistance the beryllium influx scales with the RF power of the antenna and with the plasma density. With dipoles (k11=7 m-1), the influx is reduced by more than a factor 3. The contribution of antenna influxes to Zeff is small, ΔZeffBe = 0.08 and ΔZeffNi = 0.05 at PRF = 5 MW. (orig.)

  11. Thermodynamic evaluation of new absorbent mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts for absorption refrigeration machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Luis; Lucas, Antonio De; Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    Mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts of sodium and potassium (formate, acetate and lactate) have been evaluated as alternative absorbents for absorption refrigeration machines. The main objective is to overpass the limitations of lithium bromide and improve the characteristics and the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. In order to select the mixture that presents better properties for its employment in absorption refrigeration cycles, a thermodynamic analysis have been done. Density, viscosity, enthalpies of dilution, solubility and vapour pressure data of the proposed mixtures have been measured. A simulation program has been developed to evaluate temperatures, heats exchanged in the different sections and the efficiency of the cycle. (author)

  12. COMPARISON OF ROCURONIUM BROMIDE AND SUCCINYLCHOLINE CHLORIDE FOR USE DURING RAPID SEQUENCE INTUBATION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Penchalaiah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : The goal of rapid sequence intubation is to secure the patients airway smoothly and quickly, minimizing the chances of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. Traditionally succinylcholine chloride has been the neuromuscular blocking drug of choi ce for use in rapid sequence intubation because of its rapid onset of action and profound relaxation. Succinylcholine chloride remains unsurpassed in providing ideal intubating conditions. However the use of succinylcholine chloride is associated with many side effects like muscle pain, bradycardia, hyperkalaemia and rise in intragastric and intraocular pressure. Rocuronium bromide is the only drug currently available which has the rapidity of onset of action like succinylcholine chloride. Hence the present study was undertaken to compare rocuronium bromide with succinylcholine chloride for use during rapid sequence intubation in adult patients. METHODOLOGY : The study population consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 - 60 years posted for various elective su rgeries requiring general anaesthesia . S tudy population was randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 patients in each sub group. 1. Group I : Intubated with 1 mg kg - 1 of succinylcholine chloride (n=30 . 2. Grou p II : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . 3. Group III : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . Intubating conditions were assessed at 60 seconds based on the scale adopted by Toni Magorian et al. 1993. The haemodynamic para meters in the present study were compared using p - value obtained from student t - test . RESULTS : It was noted that succinylcholine chloride 1 mg kg - 1 body weight produced excellent intubating conditions in all patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 body we ight produced excellent intubating conditions in 53.33% of patients but produced good to excellent intubating conditions in 96.67% of patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1

  13. Cesium Enhances Long-Term Stability of Lead Bromide Perovskite-Based Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kulbak, Michael; Gupta, Satyajit; Kedem, Nir; Levine, Igal; Bendikov, Tatyana; Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David

    2015-01-01

    Direct comparison between perovskite-structured hybrid organic-inorganic - methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) and all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3), allows identifying possible fundamental differences in their structural, thermal and electronic characteristics. Both materials possess a similar direct optical band-gap, but CsPbBr3 demonstrates a higher thermal stability than MAPbBr3. In order to compare device properties we fabricated solar cells, with similarly synthesized MAPbB...

  14. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  15. Late-time radiography of beryllium ignition-target ablators in long-pulse gas-filled hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiple-laboratory campaign is underway to qualify beryllium as a fusion capsule ablator for the National Ignition Facility [Moses and Wuest, Fusion Sci. Technol. 43, 420 (2003)]. Although beryllium has many advantages over other ablator materials, individual crystals of beryllium have anisotropic properties, e.g., sound speed, elastic constants, and thermal expansion coefficients, which may seed hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion phase of ignition experiments. Experiments based on modeling have begun at the OMEGA laser [Boehly, McCrory, Verdon et al., Fusion Eng. Design 44, 35 (1999)] to create a test bed for measuring instability growth rates with face-on radiography of perturbed beryllium samples with the goal of establishing a specification for microstructure in beryllium used as an ablator. The specification would include the size and distribution of sizes of grains and voids and the impurity content. The experimental platform is a 4 kJ laser-heated (for ∼6 ns) hohlraum that is well modeled for radiation temperature and for shock pressure and breakout timing through the driven beryllium sample. A 1 atm methane gas fill has been used to maintain a clear line of sight through the hohlraum for radiography with acceptable plasma backscatter losses. The peak radiation temperature is 145 eV; the pressure early in the laser pulse is 1 Mbar for over 1 ns. Radiographs of sinusoidally perturbed copper-doped (0.9% by atom) beryllium samples have been obtained more than 10 ns after drive initiation. With the current laser drive, a growth factor approaching ten has been measured for initial 2.5 μm perturbations with on-axis radiography

  16. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (Seebri Breezhaler(®)) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    also on health status. Furthermore, glycopyrronium bromide also has beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation and, probably by that, exercise tolerance. Glycopyrronium bromide has been shown to reduce the rate of exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD, although as a secondary outcome...

  17. Analysis of HLA-DP association with beryllium disease susceptibility in pooled exposed populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesare Saltini, Massimo Amicosante

    2009-12-19

    Berylliosis or Chronic Beryllium Disease is a chronic granulomatous disorder primarily involving the lung associated with the exposition to low doses of Beryllium (Be) in the workplace. Berylliosis risk has been associated with the presence of a glutamate at position 69 of the HLA-DP beta chain (HLA-DPbetaGlu69) that is expressed in about 97% of disease cases and in 27% of the unaffected Be-exposed controls (p<0.0001) (Richeldi et al. Science 1993; 262: 242-244.12). Since this first observation of an immunogenetic association between berylliosis and HLA-DPbetaGlu69 a number of studies have confirmed the role of this marker as the primary gene of susceptibility of berylliosis (Richeldi et al Am J Ind Med. 1997; 32:337-40; Wang et al J. Immunol. 1999; 163: 1647-53; Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94). Moreover, a structure/function interaction between HLA-DP molecules carrying Glu69 and beryllium in driving and developing the immune response against beryllium itself has been observed as: (1) Be-specific T-cells clones obtained from berylliosis patients recognize beryllium as antigen only when presented in the context of the HLA-DP{beta}Glu69 molecules but not in the context of HLA-DP allelic variants carrying Lys69 (Lombardi G et al. J Immunol 2001; 166: 3549-3555), and (2) beryllium presents an affinity for the HLA-DP2, carrying the berylliosis marker of susceptibility HLA-DPGlu69, from 40 to 100 times higher that the HLA-DP molecule carrying Lys69 (Amicosante M. et al Hum. Immunol. 2001; 62: 686-93). However, although the immunogenetic studies performed have been addressed a number of different questions about the genetic association between berylliosis and/or beryllium sensitization, exposure levels to beryllium and HLA markers, a number of questions are still open in the field mainly due to the limitation imposed by the low number of subjects carrying berylliosis or beryllium sensitization enrolled

  18. Reduced rates and alternatives to methyl bromide for snapdragon production in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate soil solarization, Midas™ (iodomethane:chloropicrin 50:50, Arysta LifeScience Corp., Cary, NC) and different rates and formulations of methyl bromide under standard and metalized films for the production of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) in Martin County, Flor...

  19. Iodine catalyzed and tertiary butyl ammonium bromide promoted p reparation of b enzoxazaphosphininyl phenylboronates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Kishore K. Reddy,

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzoxazaphosphininyl Phenylboronates were prepared by O-Phosphorylation of potassium salt ofphenylboronic acid with cyclic phosphoromonochloridates in the presence of stoichiometric amount of Iodineand catalytic amount of tertiary butyl ammonium bromide at 50-60 °C in dry toluene.

  20. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health. PMID:27105403

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Aryl Bromides with N-Substituted Cyanamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lian, Zhong; Friis, Stig D.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    The palladium(0)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction of aryl bromides, carbon monoxide, and N-alkyl cyan­amides has been developed employing a two-chamber system with ex situ generation of carbon monoxide from a silacarboxylic acid. The reactions proceeded well and were complete with a...

  2. Mild Pd-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of (hetero)aryl bromides with a palladacycle precatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Stig D; Skrydstrup, Troels; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2014-08-15

    A palladacyclic precatalyst is employed to cleanly generate a highly active XantPhos-ligated Pd-catalyst. Its use in low temperature aminocarbonylations of (hetero)aryl bromides provides access to a range of challenging products in good to excellent yields with low catalyst loading and only a slight excess of CO. Some products are unattainable by traditional carbonylative coupling.

  3. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform for...

  4. Measurement and Computation of Movement of Bromide Ions and Carbofuran in Ridged HUmic-Sandy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. R

  5. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Area-Wide Pest Management Project - South Atlantic Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols and Standard Operational Procedures (SOPs) were developed for collecting environmental and soil edaphic information during and after application of methyl bromide alternatives. Parameters measured included soil moisture, soil bulk density, percent moisture at field capacity (-0.3 bars wat...

  6. Bromate formation from bromide oxidation by the UV/persulfate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing-Yun; Shang, Chii

    2012-08-21

    Bromate formation from bromide oxidation by the UV/persulfate process was investigated, along with changes in pH, persulfate dosages, and bromide concentrations in ultrapure water and in bromide-spiked real water. In general, the bromate formation increased with increasing persulfate dosage and bromide concentration. The bromate formation was initiated and primarily driven by sulfate radicals (SO(4)(•-)) and involved the formation of hypobromous acid/hypobromite (HOBr/OBr(-)) as an intermediate and bromate as the final product. Under the test conditions, the rate of the first step driven by SO(4)(•-) is slower than that of the second step. Direct UV photolysis of HOBr/OBr(-) to form bromate and the photolysis of bromate are insignificant. The bromate formation was similar for pH 4-7 but decreased over 90% with increasing pH from 7 to above 9. Less bromate was formed in the real water sample than in ultrapure water, which was primarily attributable to the presence of natural organic matter that reacts with bromine atoms, HOBr/OBr(-) and SO(4)(•-). The extent of bromate formation and degradation of micropollutants are nevertheless coupled processes unless intermediate bromine species are consumed by NOM in real water. PMID:22831804

  7. Strontium and bromide as tracers in X-ray microanalysis of biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wroblewski, J.; Sagstroem, S.M.; Mulders, H.; Roomans, G.M. (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1989-09-01

    Since energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis cannot distinguish between isotopes of the same element, alternative methods have to be used to get information similar to that obtained in experiments with radioactive tracers. In the present study, strontium was used as a tracer for calcium, and bromide as a tracer for chloride. Rats were injected with strontium chloride in vivo, and the uptake of strontium in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland was studied. Eventually a Sr/Ca ratio of 0.3 was reached. In some animals, secretion of mucus had been elicited by stimulation with isoproterenol 4 h prior to injection of strontium chloride. Exchange of calcium for strontium was enhanced by prior injection with isoproterenol. In a second experiment, rats were injected with sodium bromide, and the uptake of bromide by the submandibular acinar cells was followed in time, both in pilocarpine-stimulated and unstimulated glands. Under the experimental conditions, bromide was rapidly taken up by the cells, and the cellular Br/Cl ratio was close to that found in serum. Submandibular glands take up Br somewhat faster than other tissues (liver, heart muscle, skeletal muscle). The uptake of Br in pancreatic acinar cells was studied in vitro. These experiments showed a 1:1 ratio (molar) exchange of Cl for Br.

  8. Effects of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging on the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium bromide in neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMR) imaging on the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium bromide were investigated in neurosurgery. Fifty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I-II scheduled for craniotomy operation were divided into two groups (n=25 each) with no difference in demographic data: the iMR imaging group and control group. Train-of-four (TOF) stimulation through an accelerometer was used to monitor onset, maintenance, and recovery of muscle relaxation caused by vecuronium. Vecuronium bromide was intravenously injected after anesthesia induction. The dosage of vecuronium bromide in the iMR imaging group was larger than in the control group, but not significantly. Duration of vecuronium bromide administration and operation time were significantly longer in the iMR imaging group than in the control group. Time from drug discontinuation to operation termination, and to return to neurosurgery intensive care unit were not different. Time taken by first twitch (T1) in response to TOF stimulation to recover by 25%, and muscle relaxant recovery index were significantly greater in the control group than in the iMR imaging group. The body temperature of the patients increased gradually in the iMR imaging group but decreased in the control group. iMR imaging can prolong the operation time, increase the body temperature of the patient, and remarkably shorten the clinical action time and muscle relaxation recovery index of vecuronium. (author)

  9. Facile Syntheses of N-Substituted Imidazoles and Benzotriazoles from Baylis-Hillman Bromides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Dongyan; LI Jian; LI Chunju; JIA Xueshun

    2009-01-01

    A facile synthesis of N-substituted imidazole and benzotriazole derivatives from Baylis-Hiilman bromides with imidazole and benzotriazole at room temperature was reported. In view of the simple operation, mild reaction con-ditions, good to excellent yields, good regio- and stereoselectivity, the present method exhibited its superiority.

  10. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold;

    2008-01-01

    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...

  11. Methyl bromide release from activated carbon and the soil/water/carbon interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is a major source of stratospheric bromine radical, a known depletor of ozone. The use of ozone-depleting chemicals, including MB, is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. Critical uses of MB are permitted, such as when postharvest fumigation is mandated by an importing country. Fo...

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF CROSS-LINKED HYDROPHOBICALLY ASSOCIATING POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, GJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked h

  13. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health.

  14. 76 FR 29238 - Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... provided, EPA received no comments in response to the February 9, 2011, Federal Register notice (76 FR 7200... AGENCY Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses... for the amendments to terminate soil uses, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted...

  15. Ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm in the presence of methyl bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the mechanism and kinetic of ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm UV-light were studied.The quantum yield of the ozone depletion in the presence of methyl bromide is further determined and a reaction model is provided to explain the experimental fact.

  16. COMPARISON OF ONSET TIME, DURATION OF ACTION AND INTUBATING CONDITION SACHIEVED WITH SUXAMETHONIUM AND ROCURONIUM BROMIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit P; Alok P; Devendra Singh

    2013-01-01

    Adverse event profile ofSuxamethonium which is still the relaxant of choice to facilitate tracheal intubation inspired us to conduct a study in which we compared Onset time, Duration of Action and Intubating Conditions Achieved with Suxametho nium and Rocuronium Bromide with the Help of TOF Guard. AIMS : W e compared the onset of relaxation time, intubating condition, and duration of action, the ...

  17. Effect of pinaverium bromide on stress-induced colonic smooth muscle contractility disorder in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Yun; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Li, Jun-Xia; Xu, Yun-Feng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pinaverium bromide, a L-type calcium channel blocker with selectivity for the gastrointestinal tract on contractile activity of colonic circular smooth muscle in normal or cold-restraint stressed rats and its possible mechanism.

  18. Quantitative gas chromatographic mass spectrometric determination of pinaverium-bromide in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerdt, G A; Beke, R P; Verdievel, H G; Barbier, F; Jonckheere, J A; de Leenheer, A P

    1983-03-01

    A method has been developed for quantitative determination of pinaverium-bromide, a quaternary ammonium derivative with papaverine-like activity, in human serum. The method involves a chloroform extraction of serum spiked with N-(6,6-dimethyl bicyclo[3.1.1]2-heptenyl-ethoxyethyl) perhydro-1,4-oxazine as internal standard. After evaporation of the solvent, and reduction of the residue with Raney-Nickel, the internal standard and the reduced pinaverium-bromide are re-extracted from the reaction mixture with toluene and analysed isothermally on a fused silica column coated with OV-101. Although chemical ionization with methane revealed intense protonated molecular ions for both pinaverium-bromide and the internal standard, selectivity and sensitivity were significantly lower in comparison with electron impact ionization at 70 e V. Therefore, quantification was performed in the electron impact mode by single ion monitoring of the common fragment ion at m/z 100.2. A linear detector response was observed up to 160 ng ml-1. A within-run assay precision better than 2% CV (n = 5) was found, and a detection limit of 1 ng pinaverium-bromide ml-1 of serum was attained. PMID:6850068

  19. TRIBROMOPYRROLE, BROMINATED ACIDS, AND OTHER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS PRODUCED BY DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER RICH IN BROMIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comp...

  20. Ultra-trace determination of beryllium in occupational hygiene samples by ammonium bifluoride extraction and fluorescence detection using hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Kevin; Agrawal, Anoop; Cronin, John; Tonazzi, Juan; McCleskey, T Mark; Burrell, Anthony K; Ehler, Deborah S

    2007-02-19

    A highly sensitive molecular fluorescence method for measuring ultra-trace levels of beryllium has been previously described. The method entails extraction of beryllium workplace samples by 1% ammonium bifluoride (NH(4)HF(2), aqueous), followed by fluorescence detection using hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate (HBQS). In this work, modification of the existing procedure resulted in a significant improvement in detection power, thereby enabling ultra-trace determination of beryllium in air filter and surface wipe samples. Such low detection limits may be necessary in view of expected decreases in applicable occupational exposure limits (OELs) for beryllium. Attributes of the modified NH(4)HF(2) extraction/HBQS fluorescence method include method detection limits (MDLs) of <0.8 ng to approximately 2 ng Be per sample (depending on the fluorometer used), quantitative recoveries from beryllium oxide, a dynamic range of several orders of magnitude, and freedom from interferences. Other key advantages of the technique are field portability, relatively low cost, and high sample throughput. The method performance compares favorably with that of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  1. Ultra-trace determination of beryllium in occupational hygiene samples by ammonium bifluoride extraction and fluorescence detection using hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Kevin [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, M.S. R-7, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998 (United States)]. E-mail: kashley@cdc.gov; Agrawal, Anoop [Berylliant, Inc., 4541 E. Fort Lowell Road, Tucson, AZ 85712 (United States); Cronin, John [Berylliant, Inc., 4541 E. Fort Lowell Road, Tucson, AZ 85712 (United States); Tonazzi, Juan [Berylliant, Inc., 4541 E. Fort Lowell Road, Tucson, AZ 85712 (United States); McCleskey, T. Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Burrell, Anthony K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ehler, Deborah S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-02-19

    A highly sensitive molecular fluorescence method for measuring ultra-trace levels of beryllium has been previously described. The method entails extraction of beryllium workplace samples by 1% ammonium bifluoride (NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2}, aqueous), followed by fluorescence detection using hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate (HBQS). In this work, modification of the existing procedure resulted in a significant improvement in detection power, thereby enabling ultra-trace determination of beryllium in air filter and surface wipe samples. Such low detection limits may be necessary in view of expected decreases in applicable occupational exposure limits (OELs) for beryllium. Attributes of the modified NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2} extraction/HBQS fluorescence method include method detection limits (MDLs) of <0.8 ng to {approx}2 ng Be per sample (depending on the fluorometer used), quantitative recoveries from beryllium oxide, a dynamic range of several orders of magnitude, and freedom from interferences. Other key advantages of the technique are field portability, relatively low cost, and high sample throughput. The method performance compares favorably with that of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

  2. Reaction of Polymer-supported Selenovinyl Bromide with Grignard Reagents: A Facile Route to the Synthesis of(E)-1, 2-Disubstituted Olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E TANG; Xiang Jin LIN; Lu Ling WU

    2005-01-01

    Polymer-supported selenovinyl bromide, easily prepared from polymer-supported selenenyl bromide with acetylene, reacts with different Grignard reagents using a step-by-step strategy to obtain (E)-1, 2-disubstituted ethenes in good yields.

  3. Kinetics of Chlorination of Benzophenone-3 in the Presence of Bromide and Ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Pamela; Deborde, Marie; Dossier Berne, Florence; Karpel Vel Leitner, Nathalie

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chlorination on the degradation of one of the most commonly used UV filters (benzophenone-3 (BP-3)) and the effects of bromide and ammonia on the kinetics of BP-3 elimination. Bromide and ammonia are rapidly converted to bromine and chloramines during chlorination. At first, the rate constants of chlorine, bromine and monochloramine with BP-3 were determined at various pH levels. BP-3 was found to react rapidly with chlorine and bromine, with values of apparent second order rate constants equal to 1.25(±0.14) × 10(3) M(-1)·s(-1) and 4.04(±0.54) × 10(6) M(-1)·s(-1) at pH 8.5 for kChlorine/BP-3 and kBromine/BP-3, respectively, whereas low monochloramine reactivity was observed (kNH2Cl/BP-3 = 0.112 M(-1)·s(-1)). To assess the impact of the inorganic content of water on BP-3 degradation, chlorination experiments with different added concentrations of bromide and/or ammonia were conducted. Under these conditions, BP-3 degradation was found to be enhanced in the presence of bromide due to the formation of bromine, whereas it was inhibited in the presence of ammonia. However, the results obtained were pH dependent. Finally, a kinetic model considering 18 reactions was developed using Copasi to estimate BP-3 degradation during chlorination in the presence of bromide and ammonia.

  4. [Effectiveness of pinaverium bromide therapy on colonic motility disorders in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, T; Fehér, A; Rosztóczy, A; Jánosi, J

    1999-02-28

    The special patterns of the slow wave activity in irrittable bowel syndrome by means of surface electromyography were examined and the effect of pinaverium bromide on the symptoms and on the colonic motility in this disease was estimated. Twenty two patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 7 healthy controls were selected to the study. The clinical symptoms were abdominal pain and bloating in all patients, constipation in 9, and diarrhoea in 6 cases. Surface electromyography was carried out before and on the 14th day of the treatment with pinaverium bromide (50 mg t. i. d). The colonic motility was analysed in a 2 hour fasting and a 2 hour postprandial period following a standard (800 kCal) meal. The slow wave frequency of 0.01-0.04 Hz were selected and analysed. The mean frequency of activity peaks (n/10 min) and power-index (area under curve, microV 10 min) were measured. For statistical analysis Student's t-test was applied. Electromyogram of patients with irritable bowel syndrome showed a significant increase of the measured colonic motility parameters both in fasting and postprandial states. Fourteen days of pinaverium bromide treatment was able to significantly reduce the intensity of the colonic motor activity. Administration of pinaverium bromide completely released in 6 and significantly improved the abdominal pain in other 12 patients, while the bloating disappeared in 12 and was significantly improved in 5 from 22 patients. Pinaverium bromide was able to normalise the stool frequency: the weekly number of stools was decreased from 16 to 7 in the patients complaining diarrhoea ant it was increased from 2 to 6 in the patients with constipation. PMID:10204402

  5. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force White Paper #2 -- Uses of Uncensored Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-10-10

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: (1) reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors; (2) minimize the levels of, and potential for, exposure to beryllium; and (3) establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease. On January 4, 2001, DOE issued DOE G 440.1-7A, Implementation Guide for use with 10 CFR 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program, to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing the CBDPP. That guide describes methods and techniques that DOE considers acceptable in complying with the Rule. In 2005 a draft DOE Technical Standard ''Management of Items and Areas Containing Low Levels of Beryllium'' (SAFT 0103; hereafter referred to as the ''TS'') was circulated for comment (http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/techstds/tsdrafts/saft-0103.pdf). DOE technical standards are voluntary consensus standards developed when industry standards do not exist (see http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/techstds/index.html for more information). DOE does not require its field elements to implement DOE technical standards, but field elements may choose to adopt these standards to meet specific needs. This beryllium TS is intended to provide best practices and lessons learned for manageing items and areas that contain low levels of beryllium, which has been a costly and technically challenging component of CBDPPs. The TS is also intended to provide guidance for determining if the Rule's housekeeping and release criteria are met. On challenge the TS addressed was the statistical interpretation of data sets with non-detected results, a topic for which no strong consensus exists. Among the many comments on the draft

  6. Target particle and heat loads in low-triangularity L-mode plasmas in JET with carbon and beryllium/tungsten walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groth, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Belo, P.; Corrigan, G.; Harting, D.; Wiesen, S.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Brix, M.; Clever, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Eich, T.; Flanagan, J.; Giroud, C.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M.; Lowry, C.; Maggi, C. F.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A. G.; Sergienko, G.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Sirinelli, A.; Stamp, M. F.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Divertor radiation profiles, and power and particle fluxes to the target have been measured in attached \\{JET\\} L-mode plasmas with carbon and beryllium/tungsten wall materials. In the beryllium/tungsten configuration, factors of 2–3 higher power loads and peak temperatures at the low field side tar

  7. Beryllium abundances along the evolutionary sequence of the open cluster IC 4651 - New test for hydrodynamical stellar models

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, Rodolfo; Charbonnel, Corinne; Lagarde, Nadege

    2009-01-01

    [abridged] Previous analyses of lithium abundances in main sequence and red giant stars have revealed the action of mixing mechanisms other than convection in stellar interiors. Beryllium abundances in stars with lithium abundance determinations can offer valuable complementary information on the nature of these mechanisms. Our aim is to derive beryllium abundances along the whole evolutionary sequence of an open cluster, IC 4651. These Be abundances are used together with previously determined Li abundances, in the same sample stars, to investigate the mixing mechanisms in a range of stellar masses and evolutionary stages. New beryllium abundances are determined from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise UVES spectra using spectrum synthesis and model atmospheres. The careful synthetic modelling of the Be lines region is used to calculate reliable abundances in rapidly rotating stars. The observed behavior of Be and Li is compared to theoretical predictions from stellar models including rotation-induced mixi...

  8. Synthesis and Optical Characterization of Mixed Ligands Beryllium Complexes for Display Device Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Nishal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and photoluminescent behaviour of mixed ligand based beryllium complexes with 2-(2-hydroxyphenylbenzoxazole (HPB and 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (Clq or 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (Cl2q or 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (Meq or 8-hydroxyquinoline (q are reported in this work. These complexes, that is, [BeHPB(Clq], [BeHPB(Cl2q], [BeHPB(Meq], and [BeHPB(q], were prepared and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The beryllium complexes exhibited good thermal stability up to ~300°C temperature. The photophysical properties of beryllium complexes were studied using ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy. The complexes showed absorption peaks due to π-π∗ and n-π∗ electronic transitions. The complexes emitted greenish blue light with peak wavelength at 496 nm, 510 nm, 490 nm, and 505 nm, respectively, consisting of high intensity. Color tuning was observed with changing the substituents in quinoline ring ligand in metal complexes. The emitted light had Commission Internationale d’Eclairage color coordinates values at x=0.15 and y=0.43 for [BeHPB(Clq], x=0.21 and y=0.56 for [BeHPB(Cl2q], x=0.14 and y=0.38 for [BeHPB(Meq], x=0.17 and y=0.41 for [BeHPB(q]. Theoretical calculations using DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p method were performed to reveal the three-dimensional geometries and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of these synthesized metal complexes.

  9. Determination of bromine contents in blood and hair of workers exposed to methyl by radioactivation analysis method bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bromine contained in blood and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide was analyzed by nondestructive activation analysis. The samples were irradiated for 1 min in pneumatic irradiation facility of Kyoto University research reactor with an estimated thermal neutron flux density at 2 x 1013 n.cm-2.sec-1. The irradiation was counted with Ge(Li) detector. The duration of measurement of radionuclide bromine in blood and hair was 200 sec within 2 - 10 min after irradiation. The bromine content of serum sample obtained from a worker suspected of methyl bromide poisoning was found to be 412 μg/g on 13 days apart from exposure to methyl bromide. The biological half-life of bromine in this case was found to be about 16 days. Then bromine contents in serum and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide were found to be 1.7 and 2.6 times higher respectively than those of nonexposed workers. Any correlations of bromine contents were not observed between serum and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide, nor between bromine amount in the serum of workers exposed to methyl bromide and the terms exposed to it, but statistically significant positive correlation was observed between bromine amount in the hair of workers exposed to methyl bromide and the terms exposed to it. (author)

  10. Trace-level beryllium analysis in the laboratory and in the field: State of the art, challenges, and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRISSON, MICHAEL

    2006-03-30

    Control of workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing issue in the United States and other nations. As the health risks associated with low-level exposure to beryllium are better understood, the need increases for improved analytical techniques both in the laboratory and in the field. These techniques also require a greater degree of standardization to permit reliable comparison of data obtained from different locations and at different times. Analysis of low-level beryllium samples, in the form of air filters or surface wipes, is frequently required for workplace monitoring or to provide data to support decision-making on implementation of exposure controls. In the United States and the United Kingdom, the current permissible exposure level is 2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air), and the United States Department of Energy has implemented an action level of 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air) and 0.2 {micro}g/100 cm{sup 2} (surface). These low-level samples present a number of analytical challenges, including (1) a lack of suitable standard reference materials, (2) unknown robustness of sample preparation techniques, (3) interferences during analysis, (4) sensitivity (sufficiently low detection limits), (5) specificity (beryllium speciation), and (6) data comparability among laboratories. Additionally, there is a need for portable, real-time (or near real-time) equipment for beryllium air monitoring and surface wipe analysis that is both laboratory-validated and field-validated in a manner that would be accepted by national and/or international standards organizations. This paper provides a review of the current analytical requirements for trace-level beryllium analysis for worker protection, and also addresses issues that may change those requirements. The current analytical state of the art and relevant challenges facing the analytical community will be presented, followed by suggested criteria for real-time monitoring equipment. Recognizing and addressing these challenges will

  11. Pion yield from 450 GeV/c protons on beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosini, G; Bernier, K; Biino, C; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Borer, K; Brooijmans, G; Catanesi, M G; Collazuol, G; Daniels, D C; Dittus, F B; Elsener, K; Godley, A; Grant, A; Grégoire, G; Guglielmi, A M; Kabana, S; Klingenberg, R; Lehmann, G; Lindén, T; Linssen, Lucie; Marchionni, A; Mishra, S R; Moffitt, L; Moser, U; Palladino, Vittorio; Pietropaolo, F; Pretzl, Klaus P; Pullia, Antonio; Radicioni, E; Ragazzi, S; Schacher, J; Sergiampietri, F; Soler, F J P; Stoffel, F; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Terranova, F; Tovey, Stuart N; Tsesmelis, E; Weber, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the charged pion production yields measured by the SPY/NA56 experiment for 450 GeV/c proton interactions on beryllium targets. The present data cover a secondary momentum range from 7 GeV/c to 135 GeV/c in the forward direction. An experimental accuracy ranging from 5 to 10\\%, depending on the beam momentum, has been achieved, limited mainly by the knowledge of the beam acceptance. These results will be relevant in the calculation of neutrino fluxes in present and future neutrino beams.

  12. K/π production ratios from 450 GeV/c protons on beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spy Collaboration; Ambrosini, G.; Arsenescu, R.; Bernier, K.; Biino, C.; Bonesini, M.; Bonivento, W.; Borer, K.; Brooijmans, G.; Catanesi, M. G.; Collazuol, G.; Daniels, D.; Dittus, F.; Elsener, K.; Godley, A.; Grant, A.; Gregoire, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Kabana, S.; Klingenberg, R.; Lehmann, G.; Lindén, T.; Linssen, L.; Marchionni, A.; Mishra, S. R.; Moffitt, L.; Moser, U.; Palladino, V.; Pietropaolo, F.; Pretzl, K.; Pullia, A.; Radicioni, E.; Ragazzi, S.; Schacher, J.; Sergiampietri, F.; Soler, F. J. P.; Stoffel, F.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Terranova, F.; Tovey, S. N.; Tsesmelis, E.; Weber, M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports on the charged K/π production ratios and on the shape of the pT distributions of π fluxes measured by the SPY/NA56 experiment for 450 GeV/c proton interactions on beryllium targets. The present data cover a secondary momentum range from 7 GeV/c to 135 GeV/c in the forward direction and with pT values up to 600 MeV/c. An experimental accuracy of about 3% has been achieved. These results will reduce the uncertainty on the estimation of the νe component of neutrino beams.

  13. Pion yield from 450 GeV/c protons on beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spy Collaboration; Ambrosini, G.; Arsenescu, R.; Bernier, K.; Biino, C.; Bonesini, M.; Bonivento, W.; Borer, K.; Brooijmans, G.; Catanesi, M. G.; Collazuol, G.; Daniels, D.; Dittus, F.; Elsener, K.; Godley, A.; Grant, A.; Gregoire, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Kabana, S.; Klingenberg, R.; Lehmann, G.; Lindén, T.; Linssen, L.; Marchionni, A.; Mishra, S. R.; Moffitt, L.; Moser, U.; Palladino, V.; Pietropaolo, F.; Pretzl, K.; Pullia, A.; Radicioni, E.; Ragazzi, S.; Schacher, J.; Sergiampietri, F.; Soler, F. J. P.; Stoffel, F.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Terranova, F.; Tovey, S. N.; Tsesmelis, E.; Weber, M.

    1998-04-01

    This paper reports on the charged pion production yields measured by the SPY/NA56 experiment for 450 GeV/c proton interactions on beryllium targets. The present data cover a secondary momentum range from 7 GeV/c to 135 GeV/c in the forward direction. An experimental accuracy ranging from 5 to 10%, depending on the beam momentum, has been achieved, limited mainly by the knowledge of the beam acceptance. These results will be relevant in the calculation of neutrino fluxes in present and future neutrino beams.

  14. Electronic and optical properties of beryllium sulfide monolayer: Under stress and strain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Jaafar; Safari, Mandana

    2016-10-01

    Electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional graphene-like structure of beryllium sulfide (BeS) have been studied in the framework of the density functional theory. Different values of stress and strain are exerted for tuning electronic and optical parameters. The electronic results show that both biaxial stress and strain effects cause band gap reduction with different rates. Also, we have red and blue shifts in the optical absorption spectrum peaks by applying strain and stress, respectively. Our results express that BeS monolayer can be the promising candidate for the future nano-devices.

  15. X-ray Thomson scattering measurements of density and temperature in shock-compressed beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H J; Neumayer, P; Castor, J; Doppner, T; Falcone, R W; Fortmann, C; Hammel, B A; Kritcher, A L; Landen, O L; Lee, R W; Meyerhofer, D D; Munro, D H; Redmer, R; Regan, S P; Weber, S; Glenzer, S H

    2008-08-05

    We present the first x-ray scattering measurements of the state of compression and heating in laser irradiated solid beryllium. The scattered spectra at two different angles show Compton and plasmon features indicating a dense Fermi-degenerate plasma state with a Fermi energy above 30 eV and with temperatures in the range of 10 eV to 15 eV. These measurements indicate compression by a factor of three in agreement with Hugoniot data and detailed radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

  16. Post irradiation examination and evaluation of properties of beryllium assemblies in HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The post irradiation examination of the beryllium assemblies and irradiated surveillance Be specimens in HFETR are described. The nondestructive test of nine Be assemblies are carried out underwater in the storage pool of HFETR. Dimension and density of the irradiated surveillance specimens are also measured in semi-hot cells. The evaluation on irradiation behavior of Be based on the results from the tests indicates that the home made Be has good performances against irradiation and corrosion, the design of HFETR Be assemblies are reasonable and the management of the core Be assemblies is scientific. Some suggestions for measures on Be irradiation surveillance have been proposed. (authors)

  17. Thermal shock tests with beryllium coupons in the electron beam facility JUDITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Schuster, J.L.A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Several grades of American and Russian beryllium have been tested in high heat flux tests by means of an electron beam facility. For safety reasons, major modifications of the facility had to be fulfilled in advance to the tests. The influence of energy densities has been investigated in the range between 1 and 7 MJ/m{sup 2}. In addition the influence of an increasing number of shots at constant energy density has been studied. For all samples, surface profiles have been measured before and after the experiments. Additional information has been gained from scanning electron microscopy, and from metallography.

  18. Isotope shifts in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazé, C.; Verdebout, S. [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, CP160/09, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rynkun, P.; Gaigalas, G. [Vilnius University, Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Godefroid, M., E-mail: mrgodef@ulb.ac.be [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, CP160/09, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Jönsson, P. [Group for Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Malmö University, 205-06 Malmö (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Energy levels, normal and specific mass shift parameters as well as electronic densities at the nucleus are reported for numerous states along the beryllium, boron, carbon, and nitrogen isoelectronic sequences. Combined with nuclear data, these electronic parameters can be used to determine values of level and transition isotope shifts. The calculation of the electronic parameters is done using first-order perturbation theory with relativistic configuration interaction wavefunctions that account for valence, core–valence, and core–core correlation effects as zero-order functions. Results are compared with experimental and other theoretical values, when available.

  19. 法国JMLAB(劲浪)新款旗舰音箱 BERYLLIUM UTOPIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彦武

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1995年Focal-Jmlab公司推出Grande Utopia,为音箱定下了一个新的标准;这之后7年间,Focal-Jmlab公司的研究人员不断发掘新技术新材料,于2002年推出更上一层楼的Beryllium Utopia.此音箱集扬声器技术之大乘,堪称杰作,本文仅就技术方面剖析这对音箱.

  20. Ab initio study of beryllium-decorated fullerenes for hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hoonkyung; Huang, Bing; Duan, Wenhui; Ihm, Jisoon

    2010-01-01

    We have found that a beryllium (Be) atom on nanostructured materials with H2 molecules generates a Kubas-like dihydrogen complex [H. Lee et al. arXiv:1002.2247v1 (2010)]. Here, we investigate the feasibility of Be-decorated fullerenes for hydrogen storage using ab initio calculations. We find that the aggregation of Be atoms on pristine fullerenes is energetically preferred, resulting in the dissociation of the dihydrogen. In contrast, for boron (B)-doped fullerenes, Be atoms prefer to be ind...