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Sample records for beryllium 9 target

  1. Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, S. A., E-mail: austinyi@lanl.gov; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

  2. Investigation of the mechanism of interaction of Lithium 6 ions on Beryllium 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, Mireille

    1962-01-01

    The objective of this research on the interaction of Lithium 6 and Beryllium 9 ions is to obtain new indications on the mode of interaction of these heavy ions, and on the configuration of target nuclei and projectile nuclei. In a first part, the author presents and describes the experimental conditions which comprise a Van de Graaff accelerator, a source, a stripper, and a target. He reports the study of α particles emitted by the reaction between the Lithium and Beryllium ions: description of the experimental installation (irradiation chamber and method), presentation and interpretation of experimental results. In the next part, he reports the study of Lithium 7 and Beryllium 10 nuclides emitted by disintegration of Beryllium 11: description of experimental conditions, variations of cross sections, variation of the cross section rate, and interpretation. The author then addresses the study of the intervention of the mode of interaction by 15 N compound nucleus in the reactions between lithium and beryllium ions: study of intensities of the different spectrum lines, measurement of the Doppler effect produced of the 479 keV line, interpretation of results. In conclusion, the author analyses the mechanism of interaction between lithium and beryllium ions, and discusses different theories: the Newns and Glendenning theories, and the Leigh theory

  3. Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Beryllium is a mineral commodity that is used in a variety of industries to make products that are essential for the smooth functioning of a modern society. Two minerals, bertrandite (which is supplied domestically) and beryl (which is currently supplied solely by imports), are necessary to ensure a stable supply of high-purity beryllium metal, alloys, and metal-matrix composites and beryllium oxide ceramics. Although bertrandite is the source mineral for more than 90 percent of the beryllium produced globally, industrial beryl is critical for the production of the very high purity beryllium metal needed for some strategic applications. The current sole domestic source of beryllium is bertrandite ore from the Spor Mountain deposit in Utah; beryl is imported mainly from Brazil, China, Madagascar, Mozambique, and Portugal. High-purity beryllium metal is classified as a strategic and critical material by the Strategic Materials Protection Board of the U.S. Department of Defense because it is used in products that are vital to national security. Beryllium is maintained in the U.S. stockpile of strategic materials in the form of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder.Because of its unique chemical properties, beryllium is indispensable for many important industrial products used in the aerospace, computer, defense, medical, nuclear, and telecommunications industries. For example, high-performance alloys of beryllium are used in many specialized, high-technology electronics applications, as they are energy efficient and can be used to fabricate miniaturized components. Beryllium-copper alloys are used as contacts and connectors, switches, relays, and shielding for everything from cell phones to thermostats, and beryllium-nickel alloys excel in producing wear-resistant and shape-retaining high-temperature springs. Beryllium metal composites, which combine the fabrication ability of aluminum with the thermal conductivity and highly elastic modulus of beryllium, are ideal for

  4. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In this data sheet the occurrence, ore processing, chemical and physical properties and the uses of beryllium and its alloys is presented. The hazards involved in the use of beryllium and its compounds in the laboratory are discussed with particular reference to its toxicity, carcinogenicity, handling, storage, disposal, fire prevention and the principal health hazards. Further reading is suggested. (UK)

  5. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.B.

    1980-01-01

    A method for determination of beryllium in minerals and rocks is described. The method comprises microanalysis and trace analysis. Because of the toxidity of beryllium the method is designed for determination of a hitherto unknown small amount, 1-10 nanogram Be. With the optimal amount for determination, 3 ng Be, the relative error of the method is 10%. The description includes an inventory of chemicals and apparatus, also an example of application of the method on the mineral epididymite. In brief, the sample is melted with sodium carbonate and sodium tetra borate; when required the sample in advance is fumed with hydrogen fluoride and sulphuric acid to evaporate silica. The residuum is dissolved in water and hydrogen chloride, upon which the solution is made to volume. In the Ring oven interfering compounds are masked with EDTA. Beryllium is settled with chrome azurol and ammonia. Beryllium is identified and evaluated in comparison with previously produced standards. (author)

  6. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    A method for determination of beryllium in minerals and rocks is described. The method comprises microanalysis and trace analysis. Because of the toxidity of beryllium the method is designed for determination of a hitherto unknown small amount, 1-10 nanogram Be. With the optimal amount for determination, 3 ng Be, the relative error of the method is 10%. The description includes an inventory of chemicals and apparatus, also an example of application of the method on the mineral epididymite. In brief, the sample is melted with sodium carbonate and sodium tetra borate; when required the sample in advance is fumed with hydrogen fluoride and sulphuric acid to evaporate silica. The residuum is dissolved in water and hydrogen chloride, upon which the solution is made to volume. In the Ring oven interfering compounds are masked with EDTA. Beryllium is settled with chrome azurol and ammonia. Beryllium is identified and evaluated in comparison with previously produced standards. (author)

  7. Quantifying design trade-offs of beryllium targets on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Kline, J. L.; Loomis, E. N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Shah, R. C.; Perry, T. S.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.; MacLaren, S. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Masse, L. P.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tipton, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    An important determinant of target performance is implosion kinetic energy, which scales with the capsule size. The maximum achievable performance for a given laser is thus related to the largest capsule that can be imploded symmetrically, constrained by drive uniformity. A limiting factor for symmetric radiation drive is the ratio of hohlraum to capsule radii, or case-to-capsule ratio (CCR). For a fixed laser energy, a larger hohlraum allows for driving bigger capsules symmetrically at the cost of reduced peak radiation temperature (Tr). Beryllium ablators may thus allow for unique target design trade-offs due to their higher ablation efficiency at lower Tr. By utilizing larger hohlraum sizes than most modern NIF designs, beryllium capsules thus have the potential to operate in unique regions of the target design parameter space. We present design simulations of beryllium targets with a large CCR = 4.3 3.7 . These are scaled surrogates of large hohlraum low Tr beryllium targets, with the goal of quantifying symmetry tunability as a function of CCR. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52- 06NA25396, and by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Metallic beryllium-7 target of small diameter

    CERN Document Server

    Zyuzin, A Yu; Vincent, J S; Buckley, K R; Bateman, N P; Snover, K A; Csandjan, J M; Steiger, T D; Adelberger, E G; Swanson, H E

    1999-01-01

    The stellar sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction rate has the largest uncertainty among all nuclear reaction rates in the standard solar model. However, the solar neutrino flux predicted for the majority of proposed and existing solar neutrino detectors is directly dependent on the rate of sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction. The existing solar neutrino detectors measure rate of sup 8 B decay neutrinos that is too low. This constitutes largely the solar neutrino problem. Existing measurements of the sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction rate disagree with one another, indicating the need for more precise experiments. To provide the required targets a new procedure for sup 7 Be production, separation and target manufacturing has been developed. First, a lithium target has been designed for sup 7 Be production at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron. The lithium target has been extensively tested at 50 mu A proton beam current yielding 8.1 MBq/mu A h of sup 7 Be. An adsorption filtration technique has been developed for sup ...

  9. Beryllium armoured target for extreme heat and neutron loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazul, I.; Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Beryllium is a primary candidate as a target material for high-energy protons conversion into neutrons used for different applications. In order to get higher neutron flux the conversion area has to be minimized - in our case the target is limited by 1-2 liter volume. This target generates about 5·10 13 fast neutrons per second and removes of 150 kW thermal power deposited by proton beam (30 mA, 5 MeV), coming from linac. The operational condition of the converter is close to the condition of Be-armored components in fusion reactors: high thermal and neutron fluxes and active cooling. Therefore achievements in development of water-cooled high heat flux components for fusion application can be used for design of Be converter and vice versa. However for medical application the using of high-activated heat sink materials such as Cu and SS is strongly limited. So, new materials (Be, Al, Zr) and new joining technologies in comparison with the achievements in fusion area have to be used for construction of such Be converter. In order to reduce amount of heat sink materials in the target saddle-block geometry for Be armor is suggested and developed. Results of R and D works on the development of water cooled Be target for converter are presented, including data on selected materials, technological trials and mockups high heat flux testing. Preliminary design of Be neutron converter for medical applications based on R and D results is presented. (author)

  10. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick Beryllium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, R; Cosentino, G; Zoppo, A Del; Pietro, A Di; Figuera, P; Finocchiaro, P; Maiolino, C; Santonocito, D; Schillaci, M; Barbagallo, M; Colonna, N; Boccaccio, P; Esposito, J; Celentano, A; Osipenko, M; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Viberti, C M; Kostyukov, A

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of research on IVth generation reactors and high intensity neutron sources a low-power prototype neutron amplifier was recently proposed by INFN. It is based on a low-energy, high current proton cyclotron, whose beam, impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, produces a fast neutron spectrum. The world database on the neutron yield from thick Beryllium target in the 70 MeV proton energy domain is rather scarce. The new measurement was performed at LNS, covering a wide angular range from 0 to 150 degrees and an almost complete neutron energy interval. In this contribution the preliminary data are discussed together with the proposed ADS facility.

  11. Beryllium allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenherr, S.; Pevny, I.

    1989-12-01

    Beryllium is not only a high potent allergen, but also a fotoallergen and can provoke contact allergic reactions, fotoallergic reactions, granulomatous skin reactions, pulmonary granulomatous diseases and sometimes even systemic diseases. The authors present 9 own cases of a patch test positive beryllium allergy, 7 patients with relevant allergy and 5 patients with an allergic contact stomatitis. (author)

  12. 2-D simulation of hohlraum targets for HIDIF: gold vs. beryllium converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honrubia, J.J.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two cylindrical hohlraum targets for heavy-ion-fusion are compared from the point of view of total ion-energy required to ignite a specified capsule. Target a, a simple bare gold cylindrical cavity behaves much more efficiently than Target b, the former one internally cladded with solid beryllium where convenient, to ensure ion energy conversion to X-rays mainly in this cladding. A discussion of the problem is provided. (authors)

  13. Method for welding beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  14. Method for welding beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O'Leary, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs

  15. Comprehensive Measurement of Neutron Yield Produced by 62 MeV Protons on Beryllium Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, M.; Ripani, M.; Ricco, G.; Alba, R.; Schillaci, M.; Cosentino, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V.; Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Boccaccio, P.; Esposito, J.; Celentano, A.; Viberti, C.M.; Kostyukov, A.

    2013-06-01

    A low-power prototype of neutron amplifier, based on a 70 MeV, high current proton cyclotron being installed at LNL for the SPES RIB facility, was recently proposed within INFN-E project. This prototype uses a thick Beryllium converter to produce a fast neutron spectrum feeding a sub-critical reactor core. To complete the design of such facility the new measurement of neutron yield from a thick Beryllium target was performed at LNS. This measurement used liquid scintillator detectors to identify produced neutrons by Pulse Shape Discrimination and Time of Flight technique to measure neutron energy in the range 0.5-62 MeV. To extend the covered neutron energy range 3 He detector was used to measure neutrons below 0.5 MeV. The obtained yields were normalized to the charge deposited by the proton beam on the metallic Beryllium target. These techniques allowed to achieve a wide angular coverage from 0 to 150 degrees and to explore almost complete neutron energy interval. (authors)

  16. Rapid communication: Production from beryllium target using 120 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Singh

    published online 30 November 2017. Abstract. We have ... (BC) located upstream of the interaction point. The tra- ... on upstream face of the target had to be consistent .... vs. pπ. − invariant mass distributions before and after cos(θ) track selec-.

  17. Eta Production at High Transverse Momentum by Negative 520 GeV/c Pions Incident on Beryllium and Copper Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, Robert Martin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the production of high transverse momentum 17 mesons by a 520 GeV /c $\\sqrt{s}$ = 31.2) $\\pi^-$ beam using data collected during the 1990 fixed target run of Fermilab experiment E706. E706 is a second generation fixed target experiment designed to measure direct-photon production in hadron-nucleus collisions. These data provide a clean test of perturbative QCD and serve as a valuable tool for probing hadronic structure. The $\\gamma\\gamma$ decay mode of the $\\eta$ meson was studied using data from a highly segmented electromagnetic lead liquid argon sampling calorimeter. Results are presented for inclusive $\\eta$ production by $\\pi^-$ beams on both beryllium and copper targets. The $\\eta$ to $\\pi^0$ production ratio and the nuclear dependence of the $\\eta$ production cross section are also reported. These results are for $\\eta$'s in the transverse momentum range 3.5 to 9 Ge V / c and the center of mass rapidity range -0.75 to 0.75, and are the highest energy results ever obtained for inclusive $\\eta$ production using a $\\pi^-$ beam.

  18. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Andrei N., E-mail: simakov@lanl.gov; Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  19. Simulation study of neutron production in thick beryllium targets by 35 MeV and 50.5 MeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun

    2017-09-01

    A data-driven nuclear model dedicated to an accurate description of neutron productions in beryllium targets bombarded by proton beams is developed as a custom development that can be used as an add-on to GEANT4 code. The developed model, G4Data(Endf7.1), takes as inputs the total and differential cross section data of ENDF/B-VII.1 for not only the charge-exchange 9Be(p,n)9B reaction which produces discrete neutrons but also the nuclear reactions relevant for the production of continuum neutrons such as 9Be(p,pn)8Be and 9Be(p,n α) 5Li . In our benchmarking simulations for two experiments with 35 MeV and 50.5 MeV proton beams impinged on 1.16 and 1.05 cm thick beryllium targets, respectively, we find that the G4Data(Endf7.1) model can reproduce both the total amounts and the spectral shapes of the measured neutron yield data in a satisfactory manner, while all the considered hadronic models of GEANT4 cannot.

  20. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick beryllium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipenko, M., E-mail: osipenko@ge.infn.it [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Ripani, M. [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Alba, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Ricco, G. [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Schillaci, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Barbagallo, M. [INFN, sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Boccaccio, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Celentano, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Colonna, N. [INFN, sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Esposito, J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Kostyukov, A. [Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Viberti, C.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-09-21

    The design of a low-power prototype of neutron amplifier recently proposed within the INFN-E project indicated the need for more accurate data on the neutron yield produced by a proton beam with energy of about 70 MeV impinging on a thick beryllium target. Such measurement was performed at the LNS superconducting cyclotron, covering a wide angular range from 0° to 150° and a complete neutron energy interval from thermal to beam energy. Neutrons with energy above 0.5 MeV were measured by liquid scintillators exploiting their time of flight to determine the kinetic energy. For lower energy neutrons, down to thermal energy, a {sup 3}He detector was used. The obtained data are in good agreement with previous measurements at 0° using 66 MeV proton beam, covering neutron energies >10MeV, as well as with measurements at few selected angles using protons of 46, 55 and 113 MeV energy. The present results extend the neutron yield data in the 60–70 MeV beam energy range. A comparison of measured yields to MCNP, FLUKA and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations was performed.

  1. Heavy water jet target and a beryllium target for production of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, C.M.; Anderson, J.D.; Barschall, H.H.; Davis, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A limitation on the neutron flux obtainable from proton or deuteron induced reactions is the heating of the target by the accelerated charged particles. The heat can be removed more easily if the target moves. The possibility of using a rotating Be target and a heavy water jet as a target for bombardment by 35-MeV deuterons was studied. In a thick Be metal target moving at 10 m/sec through such a beam of 1 cm diameter a temperature pulse of about 300 0 C will be produced by the 0.3 MW beam. The Be target should be able to withstand such a temperature pulse. A Be target suitable for 3 MW of power in a 1 cm diameter beam would require internal cooling and a higher velocity. A free jet of heavy water is also a possible target. Laser photographs of water jets in vacuum show small angles of divergence. The effect of heating by a 0.3 MW beam is probably not important because the temperature rise produced by the beam is small compared to the absolute temperature of the unheated jet. (auth)

  2. Beryllium production using beryllium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, Carlos Henrique

    1993-01-01

    This work presents the beryllium production by thermal decomposition of the ammonium beryllium fluoride, followed by magnesium reduction, obtained in the small pilot plant of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - Nuclear Engineering Institute

  3. Beryllium. Its minerals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1990-01-01

    With this work a series of reports begins, under the generic name 'Beryllium', related to several aspects of beryllium technology. The target is to update, with critical sense, current bibliographic material in order to be used in further applications. Some of the most important beryllium ores, the Argentine emplacement of their deposits and world occurrence are described. Argentine and world production, resources and reserves are indicated here as well. (Author) [es

  4. Development of beryllium-based neutron target system with three-layer structure for accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugano, Tomei; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The iBNCT project team with University of Tsukuba is developing an accelerator-based neutron source. Regarding neutron target material, our project has applied beryllium. To deal with large heat load and blistering of the target system, we developed a three-layer structure for the target system that includes a blistering mitigation material between the beryllium used as the neutron generator and the copper heat sink. The three materials were bonded through diffusion bonding using a hot isostatic pressing method. Based on several verifications, our project chose palladium as the intermediate layer. A prototype of the neutron target system was produced. We will verify that sufficient neutrons for BNCT treatment are generated by the device in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  6. Deuteron stripping on beryllium target in the 100-2300 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecolley, J.F.; Varignon, C.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Thun, J.; Borne, F.; Martinez, E.; Menard, S.; Pras, P.; Boudard, A.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, J.M.; Frehaut, J.; Hanappe, F.; Ledoux, X.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Milleret, G.; Patin, Y.; Stuttge, L.; Terrien, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Cross sections for stripping and dissociation of deuterons interacting with Be targets in the 100-2300 MeV energy range have been measured. Comparisons with model calculations suggest a dominant contribution of the stripping process. It is also shown that the deuteron break-up cross section exhibits the same energy dependence as the nucleon-nucleon cross section. (orig.)

  7. First shock tuning and backscatter measurements for large case-to-capsule ratio beryllium targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Eric; Yi, Austin; Kline, John; Kyrala, George; Simakov, Andrei; Wilson, Doug; Ralph, Joe; Dewald, Eduard; Strozzi, David; Celliers, Peter; Millot, Marius; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    The current under performance of target implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has necessitated scaling back from high convergence ratio to access regimes of reduced physics uncertainties. These regimes, we expect, are more predictable by existing radiation hydrodynamics codes giving us a better starting point for isolating key physics questions. One key question is the lack of predictable in-flight and hot spot shape due to a complex hohlraum radiation environment. To achieve more predictable, shape tunable implosions we have designed and fielded a large 4.2 case-to-capsule ratio (CCR) target at the NIF using 6.72 mm diameter Au hohlraums and 1.6 mm diameter Cu-doped Be capsules. Simulations show that at these dimensions during a 10 ns 3-shock laser pulse reaching 270 eV hohlraum temperatures, the interaction between hohlraum and capsule plasma, which at lower CCR lead to beam propagation impedance by artificial plasma stagnation, are reduced. In this talk we will present measurements of early time drive symmetry using two-axis line-imaging velocimetry (VISAR) and streaked radiography measuring velocity of the imploding shell and their comparisons to post-shot calculations using the code HYDRA (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory).

  8. The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of 56 Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo 4 . The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a 56 Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO 4 solution, and produce a 56 Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a 56 Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs

  9. Double-differential beryllium neutron cross sections at incident neutron energies of 5. 9, 10. 1, and 14. 2 MeV. [5. 9 to 14. 2 MeV, differential cross sections, ENDF/B-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, D.M.; Auchampaugh, G.F.; Arthur, E.D.; Ragan, C.E.; Young, P.G.

    1976-08-01

    Beryllium neutron-production cross sections were measured using the time-of-flight technique at incident neutron energies of 5.9, 10.1, and 14.2 MeV, and at laboratory angles of 25, 27.5, 30, 35, 45, 60, 80, 100, 110, 125, and 145/sup 0/. The differential elastic and inelastic cross sections are presented. Inelastic is defined here as those reactions that proceed through the states at 1.69-, 2.43-, 2.8-, and 3.06-MeV excitation energy in /sup 9/Be. Comparison of emission energy spectra with calculations using the ENDF/B-IV beryllium cross sections shows that the ENDF/B cross sections strongly overemphasize the low lying states in /sup 9/Be.

  10. Beryllium dust generation resulting from plasma bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.; Mays, C.

    1997-01-01

    The beryllium dust resulting from erosion of beryllium samples subjected to plasma bombardment has been measured in PISCES-B. Loose surface dust was found to be uniformly distributed throughout the device and accounts for 3% of the eroded material. A size distribution measurement of the loose surface dust shows an increasing number of particles with decreasing diameter. Beryllium coatings on surfaces with a line of sight view of the target interaction region account for an additional 33% of the eroded beryllium material. Flaking of these surface layers is observed and is thought to play a significant role in dust generation inside the vacuum vessel. (orig.)

  11. Research of beryllium safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Dolan, T.J.; Hankins, M.R.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Beryllium has been identified as a leading contender for the plasma-facing material in ITER. Its use has some obvious advantages, but there are also a number of safety concerns associated with it. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has undertaken a number of studies to help resolve some of these issues. One issue is the response of beryllium to neutron irradiation. We have tested samples irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and are currently preparing to make measurements of the change in mechanical properties of beryllium samples irradiated at elevated temperatures in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at the INEL. Mechanical tests will be conducted at the irradiation temperatures of 375-550 C. Other experiments address permeation and retention of implanted tritium in plasma-sprayed beryllium. In one test the porosity of the material allowed 0.12% of implanted ions and 0.17% of atoms from background gas pressure to pass through the foil with essentially no delay. For comparison, similar tests on fully dense hot-rolled, vacuum melted or sintered powder foils of high purity beryllium showed only 0.001% of implanting ions to pass through the foil, and then only after a delay of several hours. None of the molecular gas appeared to permeate these latter targets. An implication is that plasma-sprayed beryllium may substantially enhance recycling of tritium to the plasma provided it is affixed to a relatively impermeable substrate. (orig.)

  12. Carbon and tungsten effect on characteristics of sputtered and re-deposited beryllium target layers under deuteron bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danelyan, L.S.; Gureev, V.M.; Elistratov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of the plasma facing Be-elements in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER will be affected by the re-deposition of other eroded plasma facing materials. The effect of carbon- and tungsten-additions on the microstructure, chemical composition and hydrogen isotope accumulation in the sputtered and re-deposited layers of beryllium TGP-56 at its interaction with 200 - 300 eV hydrogen isotope ions was studied in the MAGRAS facility equipped with a magnetron sputtering system. (author)

  13. Determination of the Grueneisen γ for beryllium at 1.2 to 1.9 times standard density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, T.

    1977-01-01

    In shock-wave work, a simple approximation that works well for metals assumes that the ratio of the Grueneisen parameter to the specific volume remains constant during compression. The results of the various experiments on beryllium are displayed in terms of that ratio. The experiments that involved a high-impedance reflector were not as precise as the others. The weighted average value of γ/V is indicated as a dashed line. For all of the higher compression experiments, the determination of γ involved a comparison of an experimentally achieved state with one of the same compression on the principal Hugoniot. Experimental data for the principal Hugoniot, however, are not available for volumes less than 0.35 m 3 /Mg. Thus, the four highest compression results are really determined from a comparison with the extrapolation of the experimental principal Hugoniot

  14. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are exposed to beryllium will not experience health effects. Studies have shown that on average, 1 – 6 percent of exposed workers develop beryllium sensitization, although the rates can be ...

  15. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described

  16. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-12-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described.

  17. Beryllium health effects in the era of the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, L A

    2001-05-01

    The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) has revolutionized our approach to the diagnosis, screening, and surveillance of beryllium health effects. Based on the development of a beryllium-specific cell-mediated immune response, the BeLPT has allowed us to define early health effects of beryllium, including beryllium sensitization (BeS), and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at a subclinical stage. The use of this test as a screening tool has improved our understanding of these health effects. From a number of studies it is apparent that BeS precedes CBD and develops after as little as 9 weeks of beryllium exposure. CBD occurs within 3 months and up to 30 years after initial beryllium exposure. Exposure-response variables have been associated with BeS/CBD, including work as a machinist, chemical or metallurgical operator, laboratory technician, work in ceramics or beryllium metal production, and years of beryllium exposure. Recent studies have found BeS and CBD in workplaces in which the majority of exposures were below the 2 microg/m3 OSHA time-weighted average (TWA). Ideally, the BeLPT would be used in surveillance aimed at defining other risk-related processes, determining exposure variables which predict BeS and CBD, and defining the exposure level below which beryllium health effects do not occur. Unfortunately, the BeLPT can result in false negative tests and still requires an invasive procedure, a bronchoscopy, for the definitive diagnosis of CBD. Thus, research is needed to establish new tests to be used alone or in conjunction with the BeLPT to improve our ability to detect early beryllium health effects.

  18. Laser fabrication of beryllium components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.; Ramos, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Working with the beryllium industry on commercial applications and using prototype parts, the authors have found that the use of lasers provides a high-speed, low-cost method of cutting beryllium metal, beryllium alloys, and beryllium-beryllium oxide composites. In addition, they have developed laser welding processes for commercial structural grades of beryllium that do not need a filler metal; i.e., autogenous welds were made in commercial structural grades of beryllium by using lasers

  19. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  20. Beryllium. Evaluation of beryllium hydroxide industrial processes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    This work continues the 'Beryllium' series. It is a historical review of different industrial processes of beryllium hydroxide obtention from beryllium ores. Flowsheats and operative parameters of five plants are provided. These plants (Degussa, Brush Beryllium Co., Beryllium Corp., Murex Ltd., SAPPI) were selected as representative samples of diverse commercial processes in different countries. (Author) [es

  1. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958; Le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, P; Rigaud, A

    1959-07-01

    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Extractive metallurgy of the beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Neusa; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    1995-01-01

    A bibliographic review is performed on the beryllium extractive metallurgy. The work describes the main type of ores and processes applied to the metallic beryllium production, beryllium oxide production using fluoride, sulfide and direct chlorination. The thermodynamic consideration are made on beryllium reduction processes, discussing the viability of the beryllium oxide and hallide reduction processes. Under the technological viewpoint, the Cu-Be alloys main production processes are discussed, and the main toxicity problems related with beryllium are mentioned

  3. Characterization of the energy distribution of neutrons generated by 5 MeV protons on a thick beryllium target at different emission angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P., E-mail: paolo.colautti@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@tin.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Fazzi, A.; Introini, M.V.; Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Neutron energy spectra at different emission angles, between 0 Degree-Sign and 120 Degree-Sign from the Be(p,xn) reaction generated by a beryllium thick-target bombarded with 5 MeV protons, have been measured at the Legnaro Laboratories (LNL) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics research (INFN). A new and quite compact recoil-proton spectrometer, based on a monolithic silicon telescope, coupled to a polyethylene converter, was efficiently used with respect to the traditional Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique. The measured distributions of recoil-protons were processed through an iterative unfolding algorithm in order to determine the neutron energy spectra at all the angles accounted for. The neutron energy spectrum measured at 0 Degree-Sign resulted to be in good agreement with the only one so far available at the requested energy and measured years ago with TOF technique. Moreover, the results obtained at different emission angles resulted to be consistent with detailed past measurements performed at 4 MeV protons at the same angles by TOF techniques.

  4. Experiments on tritium behavior in beryllium, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Nakata, Hirokatsu; Sugai, Hiroyuki; Tanase, Masakazu.

    1990-02-01

    Beryllium has been used as the neutron reflector of material testing reactor and as the neutron multiplier for the fusion reactor lately. To study the tritium behavior in beryllium, we conducted the experiments, i.e., tritium release by recoil or diffusion by using the hot-pressed beryllium which had been produced both tritium and helium by neutron irradiation. From our experiments, we found that (1) amount of tritium production per one cycle irradiation (lasting 22 days) of JMTR is 10 mCi/g, (2) amount of tritium per surface area of hot-pressed beryllium released by recoil is 4 μCi/cm 2 , (3) diffusion coefficient of tritium in a temperature range of 800 ∼1180degC can be expressed with the following equation; D = 8.7 x 10 4 exp(-2.9x10 5 /R/T) cm 2 /s. (author)

  5. METHOD OF BRAZING BERYLLIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G.S.; Keil, R.W.

    1963-05-21

    A process is described for brazing beryllium metal parts by coating the beryllium with silver (65- 75 wt%)-aluminum alloy using a lithium fluoride (50 wt%)-lithium chloride flux, and heating the coated joint to a temperature of about 700 un. Concent 85% C for about 10 minutes. (AEC)

  6. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing beryllium hydride by the direct reaction of beryllium borohydride and aluminum hydride trimethylamine adduct. Volatile by-products and unreacted reactants are readily removed from the product mass by sublimation and/or evaporation. (U.S.)

  7. X-ray drive of beryllium capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D C; Yi, S A; Simakov, A N; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Olson, R E; Zylstra, A B; Dewald, E L; Tommasini, R; Ralph, J E; Strozzi, D J; Celliers, P M; Schneider, M B; MacPhee, A G; Callahan, D A; Hurricane, O A; Milovich, J L; Hinkel, D E; Rygg, J R; Rinderknecht, H G

    2016-01-01

    National Ignition Facility experiments with beryllium capsules have followed a path begun with “high-foot” plastic capsule implosions. Three shock timing keyhole targets, one symmetry capsule, a streaked backlit capsule, and a 2D backlit capsule were fielded before the DT layered shot. After backscatter subtraction, laser drive degradation is needed to match observed X-ray drives. VISAR measurements determined drive degradation for the picket, trough, and second pulse. Time dependence of the total Dante flux reflects degradation of the of the third laser pulse. The same drive degradation that matches Dante data for three beryllium shots matches Dante and bangtimes for plastic shots N130501 and N130812. In the picket of both Be and CH hohlraums, calculations over-estimate the x-ray flux > 1.8 keV by ∼100X, while calculating the total flux correctly. In beryllium calculations these X-rays cause an early expansion of the beryllium/fuel interface at ∼3 km/s. VISAR measurements gave only ∼0.3 km/s. The X-ray drive on the Be DT capsule was further degraded by an unplanned decrease of 9% in the total picket flux. This small change caused the fuel adiabat to rise from 1.8 to 2.3. The first NIF beryllium DT implosion achieved 29% of calculated yield, compared to CH capsules with 68% and 21%. (paper)

  8. Effect of transient heating loads on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, Igor B.; Porezanov, Nicolay P.; Nikolaev, Georgyi N.; Kurbatova, Liudmila A.; Podkovyrov, Vyacheslav L.; Muzichenko, Anatoliy D.; Zhitlukhin, Anatoliy M.; Khimchenko, Leonid N.; Gervash, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the effect of transient plasma loads on beryllium erosion and surface microstructure. • Beryllium targets were irradiated by plasma streams with energy of 0.5–1 MJ/m 2 at ∼250 °C. • Under plasma loads 0.5–1 MJ/m 2 cracking of beryllium surface is rather slight. • Under 0.5 MJ/m 2 the mass loss of Be is no more than 0.2 g/m 2 shot and decreasing with shots number. • Under 1 MJ/m 2 maximum mass loss of beryllium was 3.7 g/m 2 shot and decreasing with shots number. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a plasma facing material for ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of ITER first wall. The results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are presented. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to upto 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams with pulse duration of 0.5 ms at ∼250 °C and average heat loads of 0.5 and 1 MJ/m 2 . Experiments were performed at 250 °C. The evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology as well as beryllium mass loss are investigated under erosion process

  9. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children’s pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2–17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02–0.04 µg/g.

  10. Corrosion of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.; Adolphson, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of beryllium in aqueous and elevated-temperature oxidizing environments has been extensively studied for early-intended use of beryllium in nuclear reactors and in jet and rocket propulsion systems. Since that time, beryllium has been used as a structural material in les corrosive environments. Its primary applications include gyro systems, mirror and reentry vehicle structures, and aircraft brakes. Only a small amount of information has been published that is directly related to the evaluation of beryllium for service in the less severe or normal atmospheric environments associated with these applications. Despite the lack of published data on the corrosion of beryllium in atmospheric environments, much can be deduced about its corrosion behavior from studies of aqueous corrosion and the experiences of fabricators and users in applying, handling, processing, storing, and shipping beryllium components. The methods of corrosion protection implemented to resist water and high-temperature gaseous environments provide useful information on methods that can be applied to protect beryllium for service in future long-term structural applications

  11. Beryllium poisonings; Les intoxications par le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-15

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis.

  12. Study beryllium microplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Ivantsov, V.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Tuzov, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic flow characteristics systematically studied for different varieties beryllium. In isostatically pressed beryllium it decreased with increasing particle size of the powder, increasing temperature and increasing the pressing metal purity. High initial values of the limit microelasticity and microflow in some cases are due a high level of internal stresses of thermal origin and over time it can relax slowly. During long-term storage of beryllium materials with high initial resistance values microplastic deformation microflow limit and microflow stress markedly reduced, due mainly to the relaxation of thermal microstrain

  13. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrance, B.R.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the preparation of beryllium hydride which comprises pyrolyzing, while in solution in a solvent inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products and at a temperature in the range of about 100 0 to about 200 0 C, sufficient to result in the formation of beryllium hydride, a di-t-alkyl beryllium etherate wherein each tertiary alkyl radical contains from 4 to 20 carbon atoms. The pyrolysis is carried out under an atmosphere inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products. (U.S.)

  14. Update of neutron dose yields as a function of energy for protons and deuterons incident on beryllium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Haken, R.K.; Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron absorbed dose yields (absorbed dose rates per unit incident current on targets at a given SAD or SSD) increase with incident charged particle energy for both protons and deuterons. Analyses of neutron dose yield versus incident particle energy have been performed for both deuterons and protons. It is the purpose of this report to update those analyses by pooling all of the more recent published results and to reanalyze the trend of yield, Y, versus incident energy, E, which in the past has been described by an expression of the form Y = aE/sup b/, where a and b are empirical constants. From the reanalyzed trend it is concluded that for a given size cyclotron (E/sub p/ = 2E/sub d/), the dose yields using protons are higher than those using deuterons up to a proton energy E/sub p/ of 64 MeV

  15. Beryllium and copper-beryllium alloys; Beryllium und Kupfer-Beryllium-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Nikolaus [Materion Brush GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Operation and Quality/EH and S

    2017-02-15

    The light metal beryllium is a comparatively rare element, which today is primarily derived from bertrandite. It is mainly used as pure metal or in the form of copper-beryllium alloys, e.g., in automotive industry, aerospace, and electrical components. The wide range of applications is mainly attributed to the extremely high rigidity/density ratio. An overview of the history of the metal, its production, and recycling as well as the properties of CuBe alloys are given.

  16. The immunotoxicity of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    In the disease berylliosis, granulomatous hypersensitivity is the specific immune response to tissue contact with a poorly soluble particle of beryllium compound, mediated through the accumulation and proliferation of reticuloendothelial cells. A review is given of the work accomplished since the 1950's and particularly since the 1970's to elucidate the nature and consequences of this response to beryllium and its compounds. (U.K.)

  17. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.R.; Baker, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Beryllium hydride of high bulk density, suitable for use as a component of high-energy fuels, is prepared by the pyrolysis, in solution in an inert solvent, of a ditertiary-alkyl beryllium. An agitator introduces mechanical energy into the reaction system, during the pyrolysis, at the rate of 0.002 to 0.30 horsepower per gallon of reaction mixture. (U.S.)

  18. Sintering of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Pointud, R.

    1955-01-01

    This study had for origin to find a process permitting to manufacture bricks of beryllium oxide of pure nuclear grade, with a density as elevated as possible and with standardized shape. The sintering under load was the technique kept for the manufacture of the bricks. Because of the important toxicity of the beryllium oxide, the general features for the preliminary study of the sintering, have been determined while using alumina. The obtained results will be able to act as general indication for ulterior studies with sintering under load. (M.B.) [fr

  19. Overview of CDK9 as a target in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Fatima; Giordano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    CDK9 is a protein in constant development in cancer therapy. Herein we present an overview of the enzyme as a target for cancer therapy. We provide data on its characteristics and mechanism of action. In recent years, CDK9 inhibitors that have been designed with molecular modeling have demonstrated good antitumoral activity in vitro. Clinical studies of the drugs flavopiridol, dinaciclib, seliciclib, SNS-032 and RGB-286638 used as CDK9 inhibitors are also reviewed, with their additional targets and their relative IC50 values. Unfortunately, treatment with these drugs remains unsuccessful and involves many adverse effects. We could conclude that there are many small molecules that bind to CDK9, but their lack of selectivity against other CDKs do not allow them to get to the clinical use. However, drug designers currently have the tools needed to improve the selectivity of CDK9 inhibitors and to make successful treatment available to patients.

  20. PCSK9: Regulation and Target for Drug Development for Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Amy C; Dron, Jacqueline S; Hegele, Robert A; Huff, Murray W

    2017-01-06

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) is a secreted zymogen expressed primarily in the liver. PCSK9 circulates in plasma, binds to cell surface low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, is internalized, and then targets the receptors to lysosomal degradation. Studies of naturally occurring PCSK9 gene variants that caused extreme plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) deviations and altered atherosclerosis risk unleashed a torrent of biological and pharmacological research. Rapid progress in understanding the physiological regulation of PCSK9 was soon translated into commercially available biological inhibitors of PCSK9 that reduced LDL-C levels and likely also cardiovascular outcomes. Here we review the swift evolution of PCSK9 from novel gene to drug target, to animal and human testing, and finally to outcome trials and clinical applications. In addition, we explore how the genetics-guided path to PCSK9 inhibitor development exemplifies a new paradigm in pharmacology. Finally, we consider some potential challenges as PCSK9 inhibition becomes established in the clinic.

  1. Ion beam assisted deposition of metal-coatings on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashlykov, I.S.; Tul'ev, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films were applied on beryllium substrates on the basis of metals (Cr, Ti, Cu and W) with method of the ion-assisted deposition in vacuum. Me/Be structures were prepared using 20 kV ions irradiation during deposition on beryllium neutral fraction generated from vacuum arc plasma. Rutherford back scattering and computer simulation RUMP code were applied to investigate the composition of the modified beryllium surface. Researches showed that the superficial structure is formed on beryllium by thickness ~ 50-60 nm. The covering composition includes atoms of the deposited metal (0.5-3.3 at. %), atoms of technological impurity carbon (0.8-1.8 at. %) and oxygen (6.3-9.9 at. %), atoms of beryllium from the substrate. Ion assisted deposition of metals on beryllium substrate is accompanied by radiation enhanced diffusion of metals, oxygen atoms in the substrate, out diffusion of beryllium, carbon atoms in the deposited coating and sputtering film-forming ions assists. (authors)

  2. Neutron energy spectra from the thick target 9Be(d,n)10B reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.

    1976-12-01

    The energy spectrum of neutrons emitted when deuterons impinge on a thick beryllium target has been measured using an NE213 scintillation detector and the time-of-flight technique. Spectra were measured at angles of 0, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 150 0 for deuteron energies of 1.4, 1.8, 2.3 and 2.8 MeV. Tables are presented of these angle-dependent energy spectra, the angle-integrated energy dependent yeidls, and the total neutron yield as a function of deuteron energy. (author)

  3. Combined aging of beryllium bronze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraev, P.P.; Kaplun, Yu.A.; Pastukhova, Zh.P.; Rakhshtadt, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This article evaluates the possibility of increasing the resistance of beryllium bronze to small plastic deformations as a result of the application of stepped aging under stress. Low-temperature aging under conditions of bending under a stress of about 100 MPa was applied to alloy BrBNT1, 9Mg at 150, 180, and 210 0 C, high-temperature aging at 300 and 340 0 C under stress and without stress. As a result of applying stepped aging under stress, the elastic limit of the alloy BrBNT1, 9Mg was raised to 900 MPa. Stepped aging under stress has a substantial effect on the relaxation stability of the alloy. The procedure suggested in the article for aging may be used efficiently for treating elastic elements made of other brands of bronze as well

  4. Assessment of the feasibility and advantages of beryllium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Braet, J.; Ooms, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a generic route for the recycling of beryllium from fusion reactors, based on critical issues associated with beryllium pebbles after their service life in the HCPB breeding blanket. These critical issues are the high tritium inventory, the presence of long-lived radionuclides (among which transuranics due to traces of uranium in the base metal), and the chemical toxicity of beryllium. On the basis of the chemical and radiochemical characteristics of the neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles, we describe a possible recycling route. The first step is the detritiation of the material. This can be achieved by heating the pebbles to 800 o C under an argon flow. The argon gas avoids oxidation of the beryllium, and at the proposed temperature the tritium inventory is readily released from the pebbles. In a second step, the released tritium can be oxidised on a copper oxide bed to produce tritiated water, which is consistent with the current international strategy to convert all kinds of tritiated waste into tritiated water, which can subsequently be treated in a water detritiation plant. Removal of radionuclides from the beryllium pebbles may be achieved by several types of chloride processes. The first step is to pass chlorine gas (in an argon flow) over the pebbles, thus yielding volatile BeCl 2 . This beryllium chloride can then be purified by fractional distillation. As a small fraction of the beryllium chloride contains the long-lived 10 Be isotope, 10BeCl 2 has to be separated from 9BeCl 2 , which could be achieved by centrifugal techniques. The product can then be reduced to obtain high-purity metallic beryllium. Two candidate reduction methods were identified: fused salt electrolysis and thermal decomposition. Both these methods require laboratory parametric studies to maximise the yield and achieve a high purity metal, before either process can be upgraded to a larger scale. The eventual product of the chloride reduction process must be a high

  5. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high-purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.; Riehm, M.P.; Thompson, D.A.; Smeltzer, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. Using multilayer permeation theory the effects of surface oxide were eliminated and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 =6.7x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =28.4 kJ/mol. For the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 =8.0x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =35.1 kJ/mol. (orig.)

  6. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.

    1990-05-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. A multilayer permeation theory was used in order to eliminate the surface oxide effects and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium were determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 = 6.7 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 28.4 [KJ/mol]; and for the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 = 8.0 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 35.1 [KJ/mol

  7. Thermal effects on beryllium mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinswig, S.

    1989-01-01

    Beryllium is probably the most frequently used material for spaceborne system scan mirrors. Beryllium's properties include lightweightedness, high Young's modulus, high stiffness value, high resonance value. As an optical surface, beryllium is usually nickel plated in order to produce a higher quality surface. This process leads to the beryllium mirror acting like a bimetallic device. The mirror's deformation due to the bimetallic property can possibly degrade the performance of the associated optical system. As large space borne systems are designed and as temperature considerations become more crucial in the instruments, the concern about temporal deformation of the scan mirrors becomes a prime consideration. Therefore, two sets of tests have been conducted in order to ascertain the thermal effects on nickel plated beryllium mirrors. These tests are categorized. The purpose of this paper is to present the values of the bimetallic effect on typical nickel plated beryllium mirrors

  8. Pharmacological targeting of CDK9 in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystof, Vladimír; Chamrád, Ivo; Jorda, Radek; Kohoutek, Jirí

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy allows the heart to adapt to workload, but persistent or unphysiological stimulus can result in pump failure. Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by an increase in the size of differentiated cardiac myocytes. At the molecular level, growth of cells is linked to intensive transcription and translation. Several cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been identified as principal regulators of transcription, and among these CDK9 is directly associated with cardiac hypertrophy. CDK9 phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and thus stimulates the elongation phase of transcription. Chronic activation of CDK9 causes not only cardiac myocyte enlargement but also confers predisposition to heart failure. Due to the long interest of molecular oncologists and medicinal chemists in CDKs as potential targets of anticancer drugs, a portfolio of small-molecule inhibitors of CDK9 is available. Recent determination of CDK9's crystal structure now allows the development of selective inhibitors and their further optimization in terms of biochemical potency and selectivity. CDK9 may therefore constitute a novel target for drugs against cardiac hypertrophy.

  9. Beryllium Metal Supply Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Carcinogen Assessment Group (U.S. Environmental Protec- tion Agency, 1987). The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health is currently examining...Epidemiology of beryllium intox- ication. Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup . Med. 4:123-151. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 1987. Health Assessment Document...1957 to 1961. He rejoined the Bureau of Mines in 1961 as the aluminum and bauxite commcdity specialist. In 1973 he became chief of the Division of

  10. Beryllium and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesse, Marc

    1959-01-01

    Pure beryllium and zirconium, both isolated at about the same date but more than a century ago remained practically unused for eighty years. Fifteen years ago they were released from this state of inactivity by atomic energy, which made them into current metal a with an annual production which runs into tens of tons for the one and thousands for the other. The reasons for this promotion promise well for the future of the two metals, which moreover will probably find additional uses in other branches of industry. The attraction of beryllium and zirconium for atomic energy is easily explained. The curve of figure 1 gives the price per gram of uranium-235 as a function of enrichment: this price increases by about a factor of 3 on passing from natural uranium (0, 7 percent 235 U) to almost pure uranium-235. Because of their tow capture cross-section beryllium and zirconium make it possible, or at least easier, to use natural uranium and they thus enjoy an advantage the extent of which must be calculated for each reactor or fuel element project, but which is generally considerable. It will be seen later that this advantage should be based on figures which are even more favourable that would appear from the simple ratio 3 of the price of pure uranium- 235 contained in natural uranium. Reprint of a paper published in 'Industries Atomiques' - n. 1-2, 1959

  11. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  12. Beryllium armour produced by evaporation-condensation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, A.; Frolov, V.; Moszherin, S.; Pepekin, G.; Pirogov, A.; Komarov, V.; Mazul, I.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium, as armour material for ITER plasma facing components, has a limited erosion lifetime. In order to repair the surface of eroded tiles in-situ, Be-deposition technologies are under consideration. One of them uses the physical vapour deposition of beryllium on copper or beryllium substrate produced by a hot Be-target placed in the vicinity of this substrate. Three different options for using this technology for ITER Be-armour application are considered. The first option is the repair in-situ of eroded Be-tiles. The second option suggests the use of this technology to provide the joining of Be to Cu-substrate. The third option assumes the use of evaporated-condensed beryllium as a bulk tile material bonded to copper substrate by conventional joining (Brazing et al.) techniques. The first results and prospects of these approaches are presented below. (orig.)

  13. Thermogravimetric analysis of the beryllium/steam reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druyts, Frank E-mail: fdruyts@sckcen.be; Iseghem, Pierre van

    2000-11-01

    In view of the safety assessment of new fusion reactor designs, kinetic data are needed on the beryllium/steam reaction. Therefore, thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the reactivity of beryllium in steam as a function of temperature, irradiation history and porosity of the samples. To this purpose, reference unirradiated S-200 VHP beryllium samples were compared with specimens irradiated in the BR2 reactor up to fast neutron fluences (E>1 MeV) of respectively 1.6x10{sup 21} n cm{sup -2} (resulting in a helium content of 300 appm He and a theoretical density of 99.9%) and 4x10{sup 22} n cm{sup -2} (21000 appm He, 97.2% theoretical density). Kinetics were parabolic for all tested beryllium types at 600 deg. C. At 700 deg. C, kinetics were parabolic for the unirradiated and irradiated 99.9% dense beryllium, and accelerating/linear for the irradiated 97.2% material. At 800 deg. C, all samples showed accelerating/linear behaviour. There was no influence of porosity on the reaction rate of beryllium in steam within the limited investigated density range, except at 700 deg. C, where the measured reaction rate for the irradiated 97.2% dense samples is an order of magnitude higher than for the irradiated 99.9% dense specimens.

  14. Beryllium. Beryllium oxide, obtention and properties. Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    As a continuation of the 'Beryllium' series this work reviews several methods of high purity beryllia production. Diverse methods of obtention and purification from different beryllium compounds are described. Some chemical, mechanical and electrical properties related with beryllia obtention methods are summarized. (Author) [es

  15. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum-4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  16. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  17. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  18. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  19. Annexin A9 (ANXA9) biomarker and therapeutic target in epithelial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi [El Cerrito, CA; Kuo, Wen-Lin [San Ramon, CA; Neve, Richard M [San Mateo, CA; Gray, Joe W [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-12

    Amplification of the ANXA9 gene in human chromosomal region 1q21 in epithelial cancers indicates a likelihood of both in vivo drug resistance and metastasis, and serves as a biomarker indicating these aspects of the disease. ANXA9 can also serve as a therapeutic target. Interfering RNAs (iRNAs) (such as siRNA and miRNA) and shRNA adapted to inhibit ANXA9 expression, when formulated in a therapeutic composition, and delivered to cells of the tumor, function to treat the epithelial cancer.

  20. Method for fabricating beryllium structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Northcutt, Jr., Walter G.

    1977-01-01

    Thin-walled beryllium structures are prepared by plasma spraying a mixture of beryllium powder and about 2500 to 4000 ppm silicon powder onto a suitable substrate, removing the plasma-sprayed body from the substrate and placing it in a sizing die having a coefficient of thermal expansion similar to that of the beryllium, exposing the plasma-sprayed body to a moist atmosphere, outgassing the plasma-sprayed body, and then sintering the plasma-sprayed body in an inert atmosphere to form a dense, low-porosity beryllium structure of the desired thin-wall configuration. The addition of the silicon and the exposure of the plasma-sprayed body to the moist atmosphere greatly facilitate the preparation of the beryllium structure while minimizing the heretofore deleterious problems due to grain growth and grain orientation.

  1. Doped beryllium lanthanate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Monocrystals of doped beryllium lanthanate, Be 2 Lasub(2-2x)Zsub(2x)O 5 --where Z may be any rare earth, but preferably neodymium, and x may have values between 0.001 and 0.2, but preferably between 0.007 and 0.015-- are recommended as laser hosts. They are softer and may be grown at a lower temperature than Y 3 A1 5 O 12 :Nd (YAG:Nd). Their chemical composition and preparation are described. An example of an optically pumped laser apparatus with this type of monocrystal as laser host is presented

  2. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  3. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m 2 to 5 MW/m 2 and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m 2 ) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m 2 . These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures ≤ 600 degrees C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T max ≤ 750 degrees C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with Φ = 25 MW/m 2 and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed

  4. Corrosion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R.

    1958-01-01

    Data are reported on the volatilization rate of beryllium oxide in moist air depending on temperature and water vapour concentration. They are concerned with powder samples or sintered shapes of various densities. For sintered samples, the volatilization rate is very low under the following conditions: - temperature: 1300 deg. C, - water vapour concentration in moist air: 25 g/m 3 , - flow rate: 12 I/hour corresponding to a speed of 40 m/hour on the surface of the sample. For calcinated powders (1300 deg. C), grain growth has been observed under a stream of moist air at 1100 deg. C. For instance, grain size changes from 0,5 to at least 2 microns after 500 hours of exposure at this temperature. Furthermore, results data are reported on corrosion of sintered beryllium oxide in pressurized water. At 250 deg. C, under a pressure of 40 kg/cm 2 water is very slightly corrosive; however, internal strains are revealed. Finally, some features on the corrosion in liquid sodium are exposed. (author) [fr

  5. Measurement of the Nuclear Dependence of Direct Photon and Neutral Meson Production at High Transverse Momentum by Negative 515-GeV/c Pions Incident on Beryllium and Copper Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, Lee Ronald [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear dependence of inclusive direct photon production and inclusive neutral meson production by a 515 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam has been measured using data collected by the E706 experiment during the 19.90 fixed, target run at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment utilized a finely segmented liquid argon calorimeter and a high precision charged particle spectrometer to make precision measurements of inclusive direct photon, neutral pion, and $\\eta$ production in the rapidity interval from -0.75 < $y$ < 0.75. The $\\pi^0$ data is reported for the $P_T$ range from 0.6 GeV /c to 12 GeV /c, while the $\\eta$ data is reported for the range from 3.5 GeV /c to 7.0 GeV /c. The direct photon nuclear dependence results are reported for the range from approxlmately 4.0 GeV/c to 8.5 GeV/c. The data from the beryllium and copper targets have been fit using the parameterization $\\sigma_A$ = $\\sigma_0$ x $A^{\\alpha}$. The neutral meson results are in good agreement with previous charged meson results. The direct photon results are consistent with no anomalous enhancement.

  6. Offshoots from beryllium development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.P.; Sinha, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper briefly presents extraction and processing of beryllium metal as practiced in the beryllium facilities at Turbhe, New Bombay. These facilities have been set up to meet the indigenous requirements of the metal in space and nuclear science programmes. As offshoot of this beryllium development programme has been the development of a number of pyro and powder metallurgical equipment. Indigenous development of these pieces of equipment has been a professionally rewarding experience. Efforts are now on to promote these equipment for industrial use. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Targets for Shock Propagation and Radiation Burnthrough Measurements on Be-0.9 AT. % Cu Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Dropinski, S.C.; Edwards, J.M.; Rivera, G.; Margevicius, R.W.; Sebring, R.J.; Olson, R. E.; Tanner, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Beryllium-copper alloy (Be0.9%Cu) ICF capsules are being developed for the pursuit of thermonuclear ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Success of this capsule material requires that its shock propagation and radiation burnthrough characteristics be accurately understood. To this end, experiments are being conducted to measure the shock propagation and radiation burnthrough properties of Be0.9%Cu alloy. These experiments involve measurements on small Be0.9%Cu wedge, step and flat samples. Samples are mounted on 1.6-mm-diameter x 1.2-mm-length hohlraums that are illuminated by the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester. X-rays produced by the hohlraum drive the sample. A streaked optical pyrometer detects breakout of the shock produced by the X-ray pulse. In this paper we describe synthesis of the alloy material, fabrication and characterization of samples, and assembly of the targets. Samples were produced from Be0.9%Cu alloy that was synthesized by hot isostatic pressing of Be powder and copper flake. Samples were 850 μm diameter disks with varying thickness in the case of wedge and step samples, and uniform thickness in the case of flat samples. Sample thickness varied in the range 10-90 μm. Samples were prepared by precision lathe machining and electric discharge machining. The samples were characterized by a Veeco white light interferometer and an optical thickness measurement device that simultaneously measured the upper and lower surface contours of samples using two confocal laser probes. Several campaigns with these samples have been conducted over the past two years

  8. ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??????, ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ?9 ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????

    OpenAIRE

    ????????, ?????; ?????????, ?????

    2011-01-01

    ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??????, ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ?9 ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????. ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????: ?????????,????????????,?????????-???????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???????????-????????????. ????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????,????????? ??????? ????????. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????.

  9. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium – A macroscopic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, Nikolaos, E-mail: simos@bnl.gov [Nuclear Sciences & Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Elbakhshwan, Mohamed [Nuclear Sciences & Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Zhong, Zhong [Photon Sciences, NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Camino, Fernando [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  10. Fracture toughness of irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The fracture toughness of nuclear grade hot-pressed beryllium upon irradiation to fluences of 3.5 to 5.0 x 10 21 n/cm 2 , E greater than 1 MeV, was determined. Procedures and data relating to a round-robin test contributing to a standard ASTM method for unirradiated beryllium are discussed in connection with the testing of irradiated specimens. A porous grade of beryllium was also irradiated and tested, thereby enabling some discrimination between the models for describing the fracture toughness behavior of porous beryllium. The fracture toughness of unirradiated 2 percent BeO nuclear grade beryllium was 12.0 MPa m/sup 1 / 2 /, which was reduced 60 percent upon irradiation at 339 K and testing at 295 K. The fracture toughness of a porous grade of beryllium was 13.1 MPa m/sup 1 / 2 /, which was reduced 68 percent upon irradiation and testing at the same conditions. Reasons for the reduction in fracture toughness upon irradiation are discussed

  11. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET

  12. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

  13. Beryllium R and D for blanket application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Longhurst, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (United States); Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R and D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point. (orig.) 29 refs.

  14. Beryllium R and D for blanket application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R and D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point. (orig.)

  15. Beryllium R&D for blanket application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donne, M. Dalle; Longhurst, G. R.; Kawamura, H.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R&D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point.

  16. Ab Initio Simulation Beryllium in Solid Molecular Hydrogen: Elastic Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlo L.; Perlado, Jose M.

    2016-03-01

    In systems of inertial confinement fusion targets Deuterium-Tritium are manufactured with a solid layer, it must have specific properties to increase the efficiency of ignition. Currently there have been some proposals to model the phases of hydrogen isotopes and hence their high pressure, but these works do not allow explaining some of the structures present at the solid phase change effect of increased pressure. By means of simulation with first principles methods and Quantum Molecular Dynamics, we compare the structural difference of solid molecular hydrogen pure and solid molecular hydrogen with beryllium, watching beryllium inclusion in solid hydrogen matrix, we obtain several differences in mechanical properties, in particular elastic constants. For C11 the difference between hydrogen and hydrogen with beryllium is 37.56%. This may produce a non-uniform initial compression and decreased efficiency of ignition.

  17. Report on antimony-beryllium neutron sources examined after 7.45 effective full power years in the Dodewaard BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engen, W.R. van; Ainsworth, A.

    1984-01-01

    A source of neutrons is required to check instrumentation in the Dodewaard BWR after each shut-down. The longest shut-down is the annual refuelling shut-down when the reactor is routinely out for several weeks. Thus the isotopic neutron source needs to have a radioactive half-life which is sufficiently longer than several weeks. An appropriate source is antimony-124/ beryllium which has a half-life of 60.9 days. In this source 1.7 MeV gamma rays emitted by antimony-124 bombard the beryllium target material and produce neutrons. A report on the sources falls under the headings: design considerations (active insert; encapsulation (general considerations; chemical considerations; single or double encapsulation; radium-226 emanating source)); source production; post irradiation examination results (visual examination; eddy current tests); conclusions. (U.K.)

  18. Study of beryllium redeposition under bombardment by high intensity -low energy- hydrogen ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureev, V.M.; Guseva, M.I.; Danelyan, L.S. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-01-01

    The results of studying the erosion of beryllium under an effect of intense ion fluxes with the energy of 250 eV, at the fluences {approx}10{sup 2}1 cm{sup -2}, at the MAGRAS-stand are given. The operating conditions under which a practically-complete redeposition of the sputtered beryllium upon the target surface were experimentally-realized. A change in the microstructure of a beryllium target under sputtering and redeposition is analyzed. Some technological applications are considered. (author)

  19. Safe waste management practices in beryllium facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.N.; Soundararajan, S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium, an element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, has very high stiffness to weight ratio and low density. It has good electrical conductive properties with low coefficient of thermal expansion. These properties make the metal beryllium very useful in varied technological endeavours, However, beryllium is recognised as one of the most toxic metals. Revelation of toxic effects of beryllium resulted in institution of stringent health and safety practices in beryllium handling facilities. The waste generated in such facilities may contain traces of beryllium. Any such waste should be treated as toxic waste and suitable safe waste management practices should be adopted. By instituting appropriate waste management practice and through a meticulously incorporated safety measures and continuous surveillance exercised in such facilities, total safety can be ensured. This paper broadly discusses health hazards posed by beryllium and safe methods of management of beryllium bearing wastes. (author)

  20. Measurement of Pion and Kaon Fluxes Below 60 GeV/c Produced by 450~GeV/c Protons on a Beryllium Target The SPY Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % NA56 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to perform a measurement of the production rates of $\\pi$'s and K's and their ratio below 60~GeV/c from 450~GeV/c protons hitting a Be target. These data are of great importance for the correct evaluation of the neutrino flux at the present and future SPS neutrino experiments. The apparatus of the NA52 experiment has the capability of performing the measurement, using about two weeks of proton beam time and a target closely resembling the one used in the current SPS neutrino beam line.

  1. The nature of beryllium disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The increasing use of beryllium in modern industry poses a continuing health hazard with a real risk of producing incapacitating disease and even death. Beryllium and its salts are very toxic, even in small doses and may produce lesions in any organ. The majority of cases follow inhalation and may cause either acute or chronic lung disease. Acute pulmonary disease is a form of chemical pneumonitis while the chronic disease is characterised by the production of granulomas and fibrosis. The skin may be affected with the finding of dermatitis, acute or chronic ulceration. Other organs commonly involved include the liver and kidneys. The pathology of beryllium disease is not specific and diagnosis depends on satisfying the following criteria - history of exposure, consistent clinical, radiographic and pathological finding, presence of beryllium in tissue/fluid and evidence of hypersensitivity. Recent development of 'in vitro' tests of hypersensitivity may prove of value in both diagnosis and prevention of disease. Beryllium disease responds to steroid therapy but the only sure treatment is avoidance of exposure. (author)

  2. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its......Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used...... tabulated. Years 2001-10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991-2000. Years 1971-80 and 1981-90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951-1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were...

  3. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  4. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Hydrogen transport behavior of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Hankins, M.R.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. (Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Beryllium is being evaluated for use as a plasma-facing material in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). One concern in the evaluation is the retention and permeation of tritium implanted into the plasma-facing surface. We performed laboratory-scale studies to investigate mechanisms that influence hydrogen transport and retention in beryllium foil specimens of rolled powder metallurgy product and rolled ingot cast beryllium. Specimen characterization was accomplished using scanning electron microscopy. Auger electron spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) techniques. Hydrogen transport was investigated using ion-beam permeation experiments and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Results indicate that trapping plays a significant role in permeation, re-emission, and retention, and that surface processes at both upstream and downstream surfaces are also important. (orig.).

  6. High-strength beryllium block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, N.P.; Keith, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium billets hot isopressed using fine powder of high purity have exceptionally attractive properties; average tensile ultimate, 0.2% offset yield strength and elongation are 590 MPa, 430 MPa and 4.0% respectively. Properties are attributed to the fine grain size (about 4.0 μm average diameter) and the relatively low levels of BeO present as fine, well-dispersed particles. Dynamic properties, e.g., fracture toughness, are similar to those of standard grade, high-purity beryllium. The modulus of beryllium is retained to very high stress levels, and the microyield stress or precision elastic limit is higher than for other grades, including instrument grades. Limited data for billets made from normal-purity fine powders show similar room temperature properties. (author)

  7. Cause of pitting in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem

  8. Bioenvironmental Engineering Guide to Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-26

    Dermal contact with beryllium can result in dermatitis resembling first- or second-degree burns and skin granulomas [7]. Beryllium dust, fume...minute short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 2.0 µg/m3 [§1910.1024(c)(2) & §1926.1124(c)(2)], and added provisions to prevent skin contact [§1910.1024(b...document you want more information, contact the Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) Service Center at DSN 798-3764, 1-888-232-ESOH (3764

  9. Chronological study of beryllium plasma produced by a laser beam; Etude chronologique du plasma de beryllium cree par le faisceau d'un laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Ph; Tonon, G; Durand, Y; Buges, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    We have carried out several investigations (ultrafast cinematography, visible and ultra-violet spectroscopy, interferometry, charged particle detection) on beryllium plasma produced by a ruby laser having a maximum power of 9 x 10{sup 10} watt/cm{sup 2} at the focal point of an objective with a 6,7 cm focal length. The common characteristic of all these investigations is a time resolution which is sufficient to follow changes in the plasma during the entire duration of the laser pulse. The plasma visible from - 60 ns (time zero corresponds to the top of the laser pulse) undergoes an uniform acceleration from - 30 to + 5 nanoseconds; at this moment its velocity reaches a value of 10{sup 7} cm/sec. Be{sup +}, Be{sup 2+} and Be{sup 3+} ions (corresponding to an ionisation potential of 153 eV) are emitted by the plasma as soon as it is formed and have a maximum kinetic energy of 1500 eV. The spectroscopic study of the plasma has shown the appearance of recombination lines of ionized beryllium and of lines of excited beryllium at + 70 nanoseconds and + 120 nanoseconds respectively. These lines are still visible after + 470 and + 720 nanoseconds. Interferometric measurements carried out on this plasma have shown that its electronic density is not uniform and decreases rapidly at increasing distance from the target. For example at 0.3 mm from the surface of the target the density becomes equal to 2.3 x 10{sup 18} e/cm{sup 3} and 5.5 x 10{sup 17} e/cm{sup 3} at + 20 and + 40 nanoseconds respectively. (authors) [French] Nous avons effectue plusieurs diagnostics (cinematographie ultra-rapide, spectroscopie dans le visible et dans l'ultraviolet, interferometrie, detection de particules chargees) sur le plasma de beryllium engendre par un laser a rubis delivrent au foyer d'un objectif de distance focale 6,7 cm un eclairement maximum de 9. 10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}. La caracteristique commune a tous ces diagnostics est une resolution temporelle suffisante qui nous permet de suivre

  10. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is

  11. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  12. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  13. Novel plasma source for safe beryllium spectral line studies in the presence of beryllium dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, B. D.; Vinić, M.; Gavrilović Božović, M. R.; Ivković, M.

    2018-05-01

    Plasma source for beryllium spectral line studies in the presence of beryllium dust particles was realised. The guideline during construction was to prevent exposure to formed dust, considering the toxicity of beryllium. Plasma source characterization through determination of optimal working conditions is described. The necessary conditions for Be spectral line appearance and optimal conditions for line shape measurements are found. It is proven experimentally that under these conditions dust appears coincidently with the second current maximum. The electron density measured after discharge current maximum is determined from the peak separation of the hydrogen Balmer beta spectral line, and the electron temperature is determined from the ratios of the relative intensities of Be spectral lines emitted from successive ionized stages of atoms. Maximum values of electron density and temperature are measured to be 9.3 × 1022 m-3 and 16 800 K, respectively. Construction details and testing of the BeO discharge tube in comparison with SiO2 and Al2O3 discharge tubes are also presented in this paper.

  14. Inhalation hazards from machining beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Beryllium metal has special nuclear and structural properties that make it useful for applications in fission and fusion reactor designs. Unfortunately, concerns for its toxicity have made designers wary of using beryllium metal. The work being reported here was undertaken to characterize the aerosols produced by two very common operations performed during preparation or modification of components for use in reactor systems: sawing and milling of beryllium metal. The study also covered beryllium metal alloys to allow comparison. Information from this study is to enable better assessments of the risk of using beryllium metal in reactor designs

  15. Codeposition of deuterium ions with beryllium oxide at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Markin, A V; Gorodetsky, A E; Negodaev, M A; Rozhanskii, N V; Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H; Wu, C H; Zalavutdinov, R K; Zakharov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-loaded BeO films were produced by sputtering the beryllium target with 10 keV Ne ions in D sub 2 gas at a pressure of approximately 1 Pa. The sputtered beryllium reacts - on the substrate surface - with the residual oxygen, thus forming a beryllium oxide layer. Biasing the substrate negatively with respect to the target provides the simultaneous bombardment of the growing film surface with D ions formed by Ne-D sub 2 collisions. Substrate potential governs the maximum energy of ions striking the growing film surface while its size governs the flux density. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data, the beryllium is deposited in the form of polycrystalline hcp-BeO layers with negligible (about 1 at.%) carbon and neon retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data shows a strong deuterium bonding, with a desorption peak at 950 K, in the films deposited at -50 and -400 V substrate potentia...

  16. Optimization of beryllium for fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The primary function of beryllium in a fusion reactor blanket is neutron multiplication to enhance tritium breeding. However, because heat, tritium and helium will be generated in and/or transported through beryllium and because the beryllium is in contact with other blanket materials, the thermal, mechanical, tritium/helium and compatibility properties of beryllium are important in blanket design. In particular, tritium retention during normal operation and release during overheating events are safety concerns. Accommodating beryllium thermal expansion and helium-induced swelling are important issues in ensuring adequate lifetime of the structural components adjacent to the beryllium. Likewise, chemical/metallurgical interactions between beryllium and structural components need to be considered in lifetime analysis. Under accident conditions the chemical interaction between beryllium and coolant and breeding materials may also become important. The performance of beryllium in fusion blanket applications depends on fabrication variables and operational parameters. First the properties database is reviewed to determine the state of knowledge of beryllium performance as a function of these variables. Several design calculations are then performed to indicate ranges of fabrication and operation variables that lead to optimum beryllium performance. Finally, areas for database expansion and improvement are highlighted based on the properties survey and the design sensitivity studies

  17. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Kato, M.

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 degrees C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper)

  18. Galvanic corrosion of beryllium welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium is difficult to weld because it is highly susceptible to cracking. The most commonly used filler metal in beryllium welds is Al-12 wt.% Si. Beryllium has been successfully welded using Al-Si filler metal with more than 30 wt.% Al. This filler creates an aluminum-rich fusion zone with a low melting point that tends to backfill cracks. Drawbacks to adding a filler metal include a reduction in service temperature, a lowering of the tensile strength of the weld, and the possibility for galvanic corrosion to occur at the weld. To evaluate the degree of interaction between Be and Al-Si in an actual weld, sections from a mock beryllium weldment were exposed to 0.1 M Cl - solution. Results indicate that the galvanic couple between Be and the Al-Si weld material results in the cathodic protection of the weld and of the anodic dissolution of the bulk Be material. While the cathodic protection of Al is generally inefficient, the high anodic dissolution rate of the bulk Be during pitting corrosion combined with the insulating properties of the Be oxide afford some protection of the Al-Si weld material. Although dissolution of the Be precipitate in the weld material does occur, no corrosion of the Al-Si matrix was observed

  19. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, 'Minnema Report.'

  20. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  1. Omega Meson Production at High Transverse momentum by negative 515-GeV/c pions incident on beryllium and copper targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Barbaro, Lucyna [Rochester U.

    1995-01-01

    The inclusive cross section for !(783) meson production by 515 GeV/c $\\pi^{-}$ beam incident on Be and Cu targets has been measured as a function of transverse momentum (pT ). The data were collected during the 1990 run of experiment E706 at Fermilab. The E706 trigger selected events containing high pT electromagnetic showers detected in a nely segmented lead liquid argon calorimeter. The ! mesons were reconstructed in the neutral decay mode $\\omega \\to \\pi^{0}\\gamma$. Results are reported averaged over the center of mass rapidity interval -0.5 < y < 0.75, and in the transverse momentum range from 3.5 to 8 GeV/c. The $\\gamma$ to $\\pi^0$ production ratio was measured and used to obtain the ratio of vector to pseudoscalar mesons directly produced in the fragmentation process. Measurements are compared with HERWIG 5.7 Monte Carlo results, and with data from other experiments. The nuclear dependence of ! meson production is also discussed

  2. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  3. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  4. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  5. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  6. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated target validation of the Splicing Inhibitor Pladienolide B

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha; Eid, Ayman; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system confers molecular immunity in archeal and bacterial species against invading foreign nucleic acids. CRISPR/Cas9 system is used for genome engineering applications across diverse eukaryotic species. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system for drug target validation in human cells. Pladienolide B is a natural macrolide with antitumor activities mediated through the inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing. To validate the spliceosomal target of Pladienolide B, we employed the CRSIPR/Cas9 system to introduce targeted mutations in the subunits of the SF3B complex in the HEK293T cells. Our data reveal that targeted mutagenesis of the SF3b1 subunit exhibited higher levels of resistance to Pladienolide B. Therefore, our data validate the spliceosomal target of Pladienolide B and provide a proof of concept on using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for drug target identification and validation.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated target validation of the Splicing Inhibitor Pladienolide B

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2016-02-24

    CRISPR/Cas9 system confers molecular immunity in archeal and bacterial species against invading foreign nucleic acids. CRISPR/Cas9 system is used for genome engineering applications across diverse eukaryotic species. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system for drug target validation in human cells. Pladienolide B is a natural macrolide with antitumor activities mediated through the inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing. To validate the spliceosomal target of Pladienolide B, we employed the CRSIPR/Cas9 system to introduce targeted mutations in the subunits of the SF3B complex in the HEK293T cells. Our data reveal that targeted mutagenesis of the SF3b1 subunit exhibited higher levels of resistance to Pladienolide B. Therefore, our data validate the spliceosomal target of Pladienolide B and provide a proof of concept on using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for drug target identification and validation.

  8. Belgian research on fusion beryllium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Mallants, D.; Sillen, X.; Iseghem, P. Van

    2004-01-01

    Future fusion power plants will generate important quantities of neutron irradiated beryllium. Although recycling is the preferred management option for this waste, this may not be technically feasible for all of the beryllium, because of its radiological characteristics. Therefore, at SCK·CEN, we initiated a research programme aimed at studying aspects of the disposal of fusion beryllium, including waste characterisation, waste acceptance criteria, conditioning methods, and performance assessment. One of the main issues to be resolved is the development of fusion-specific waste acceptance criteria for surface or deep geological disposal, in particular with regard to the tritium content. In case disposal is the only solution, critical nuclides can be immobilised by conditioning the waste. As a first approach to immobilising beryllium waste, we investigated the vitrification of beryllium. Corrosion tests were performed on both metallic and vitrified beryllium to provide source data for performance assessment. Finally, a first step in performance assessment was undertaken. (author)

  9. Beryllium minerals - demand strong for miniaturisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an essential constituent of over 40 minerals of which two are exploited commercially. Beryl is largely produced in the USSR and China and bertrandite in the U.S.A. Phenacite, from Canada, is also under investigation. The largest extraction plant for the recovery of beryllium in the western world is in Utah, U.S.A. and the company also produces beryllium oxide used in the manufacture of ceramics widely used in the electronics industry and for refractory articles. Beryllium-copper alloys in strip, rod and tube form are produced in the U.S.A., Germany and the U.K. Beryllium ceramics are important because of their high thermal conductivity, electrical insulation, strength and rigidity. The alloys, used as electric connectors, microswitch contacts are important for their high suitability for miniaturisation. The future growth potential for the beryllium industry is in the automotive industries in Europe and Japan. (U.K.)

  10. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ambrose H.; Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G.; Mowery, Erb H.

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  11. Examination of CRISPR/Cas9 design tools and the effect of target site accessibility on Cas9 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ciaran M; Davis, Timothy H; Bao, Gang

    2018-04-01

    What is the topic of this review? In this review, we analyse the performance of recently described tools for CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNA design, in particular, design tools that predict CRISPR/Cas9 activity. What advances does it highlight? Recently, many tools designed to predict CRISPR/Cas9 activity have been reported. However, the majority of these tools lack experimental validation. Our analyses indicate that these tools have poor predictive power. Our preliminary results suggest that target site accessibility should be considered in order to develop better guide RNA design tools with improved predictive power. The recent adaptation of the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system for targeted genome engineering has led to its widespread application in many fields worldwide. In order to gain a better understanding of the design rules of CRISPR/Cas9 systems, several groups have carried out large library-based screens leading to some insight into sequence preferences among highly active target sites. To facilitate CRISPR/Cas9 design, these studies have spawned a plethora of guide RNA (gRNA) design tools with algorithms based solely on direct or indirect sequence features. Here, we demonstrate that the predictive power of these tools is poor, suggesting that sequence features alone cannot accurately inform the cutting efficiency of a particular CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA design. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DNA target site accessibility influences the activity of CRISPR/Cas9. With further optimization, we hypothesize that it will be possible to increase the predictive power of gRNA design tools by including both sequence and target site accessibility metrics. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  12. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.; Longhurst, G.R.; Wallace, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 x 10 25 n/m 2 (E > MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75deg C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium. (orig.)

  13. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeston, J. M.; Longhurst, G. R.; Wallace, R. S.; Abeln, S. P.

    1992-10-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 × 10 25 n/m 2 ( E > 1 MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75°C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium.

  14. MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHAO, Y.; WANG, H.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature

  15. New audio applications of beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1977-01-01

    The major applications of beryllium metal in the field of audio appliances are for the vibrating cones for the two types of speakers 'TWITTER' for high range sound and 'SQUAWKER' for mid range sound, and also for beryllium cantilever tube assembled in stereo cartridge. These new applications are based on the characteristic property of beryllium having high ratio of modulus of elasticity to specific gravity. The production of these audio parts is described, and the audio response is shown. (author)

  16. Thermal expansion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.; Mazurenko, V.G.; Maslov, V.A.; Medvedev, V.A.; Polupanova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Precise measurements of temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear expansion in the 22-320 K temperature range on beryllium oxide monocrystals are conducted. A model of thermal expansion is suggested; the range of temperature dependence minimum of the coefficient of thermal expansion is well described within the frames of this model. The results of the experiment may be used for investigation of thermal stresses in crystals

  17. Tritium behavior in ITER beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1990-10-01

    The beryllium neutron multiplier in the ITER breeding blanket will generate tritium through transmutations. That tritium constitutes a safety hazard. Experiments evaluating tritium storage and release mechanisms have shown that most of the tritium comes out in a burst during thermal ramping. A small fraction of retained tritium is released by thermally activated processes. Analysis of recent experimental data shows that most of the tritium resides in helium bubbles. That tritium is released when the bubbles undergo swelling sufficient to develop porosity that connects with the surface. That appears to occur when swelling reaches about 10--15%. Other tritium appears to be stored chemically at oxide inclusions, probably as Be(OT) 2 . That component is released by thermal activation. There is considerable variation in published values for tritium diffusion through the beryllium and solubility in it. Data from experiments using highly irradiated beryllium from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory showed diffusivity generally in line with the most commonly accepted values for fully dense material. Lower density material, planned for use in the ITER blanket may have very short diffusion times because of the open structure. The beryllium multiplier of the ITER breeding blanket was analyzed for tritium release characteristics using temperature and helium production figures at the midplane generated in support of the ITER Summer Workshop, 1990 in Garching. Ordinary operation, either in Physics or Technology phases, should not result in the release of tritium trapped in the helium bubbles. Temperature excursions above 600 degree C result in large-scale release of that tritium. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, I.; Stan, T.

    1990-01-01

    The changes in the particular number of animals in two groups of 40 rats each subjected to intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate was investigated. The two investigations had very different characteristics. In the case of chronic intoxication there was a marked lethality over given time intervals. In the case of subacute intoxication the number of animals decreased with time. It was found empirically that this change can be described by an exponential relationship which lends itself to statistical interpretation. (author)

  19. Thermodynamic properties of beryllium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Lecocq, A.

    1964-01-01

    The study of the hydro-thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide has made it possible to determine the free energy of formation and the entropy. The results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from the solubility product of this substance. They give furthermore the possibility of acquiring a better understanding of the BeO-H 2 O-Be (OH) 2 system between 20 and 1500 C. (authors) [fr

  20. Development of the NBS beryllium isotopic standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W; Fassett, J.D.; Coursey, B.M.; Walker, R.L.; Raman, S.

    1987-01-01

    The National Bureau of Standards, in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry community, is in the process of developing a beryllium isotopic solution Standard Reference Material. The master 10 Be/ 9 Be solution was characterized isotopically by resonance-ionization and secondary-ion mass-spectrometric-based techniques, and radioactivity measurements were by liquid scintillation counting. The master solution was gravimetrically diluted with 9 Be to a final 10 Be/ 9 Be atomic ratio of 3 x 10 -11 . The preliminary data indicate a half life for 10 Be of 1.3 million years, and AMS measurements are within 10% of the known beryllium isotopic ratio

  1. European Fusion Programme. ITER task T23: Beryllium characterisation. Progress report. Tensile tests on neutron irradiated and reference beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.

    1996-02-01

    As part of the European Technology Fusion Programme, the irradiation embrittlement characteristics of the more ductile and isotopic grades of beryllium manufactured by Brush Wellman has been investigated using modern powder production and consolidation techniques . This study was initiated in support of the development and evaluation of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for the solid breeder blanket design concepts proposed for a DEMO fusion power reactor. Four different species of beryllium: S-200 F (vacuum hot pressed, 1.2 wt% BeO), S-200FH (hot isostatic pressed, 0.9 wt% BeO), S-65 (vacuum hot pressed, 0.6 wt% BeO), S-65H (hot isostatic pressed, 0.5 wt% BeO) have been compared. Three batches of the beryllium have been investigated, a neutron batch, a thermal control batch and a reference batch. Neutron irradiation has been performed at temperatures between 175 and 605 degrees Celsius up to a neutron fluence of 2.1 10 25 n.m -2 (E> 1 MeV) or 750 appm He. The results of the tensile tests are summarized

  2. Thermal Properties of Beryllium Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Tae Won; Baek, Je Kyun; Jeong, Gwan Yoon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Sohn, Dong Seong

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the presence of as-fabricated porosity largely affect thermal conductivity of beryllium. Therefore, in this paper we will suggest a new thermal conductivity equation which consider volume fraction and discuss how this can be applied to irradiation induced degradation of thermal conductivity later. This study was performed to develop a new correlation of thermal conductivity of Beryllium. Although there are many factors like BeO contents, impurity level, grain size, and porosity, we assumed porosity will be the dominant factor for thermal conductivity. Therefore, a new correlation which consider volume fraction by applying Maxwell-Eucken equation is developed and this is consistent to some degrees. However, increasing impurity level and decreasing grain size will decrease thermal conductivity. Therefore, we need to consider their effects although we assume BeO contents, impurity, and grain size do not make noticeable effects in the future. Furthermore, thermal conductivity degradation by neutron irradiation should be considered afterward. There are two main factors for the thermal conductivity degradation: the one is defects formed by neutron collisions and the other is helium generated by transmutation of Be. It is known that they make a considerable degradation of conductivity. Beryllium is known there are considerable volume increases by helium accumulation. Therefore, we anticipate our suggested model can be applicable if it has been developed furthermore considering irradiation induced swelling

  3. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouret, P.; Rigaud, A.

    1959-01-01

    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Microplasticity in hot-pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plane, D.C.; Bonfield, W.

    1977-01-01

    Closed hysteresis loops measured in the microstrain region of hot pressed, commercially pure, polycrystalline beryllium are correlated with a dislocation - impurity atom, energy dissipating mechanism. (author)

  5. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  6. Feasibility demonstration of consolidating porous beryllium/carbon structures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, M.J.; Hoover, G.E.; Mueller, J.J.; Hanes, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study was initiated to determine if porous beryllium structures could be fabricated by consolidating beryllium-coated microballoons into a rigid structure. The target specifications were to coat nominally 1-mm diameter microspheres with 0.5-mil beryllium coatings and then bond into a structure. Because of the very short time period, it was agreeable to use existing or quickly-available materials. The general approach was to apply coatings to carbon or quartz microspheres. Physical vapor deposition and ''snow-balling'' of fine beryllium powder were the two methods investigated. Once the particles were coated, HIP (pressure bonding) and pressureless sintering were to be investigated as methods for consolidating the microballoons. A low level of effort was to be spent to look at means of fabricating an all-carbon structure

  7. Preparation of selenium coatings onto beryllium foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films onto 50.8 microns thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicate deposit thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 microns. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable thin film controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV. 15 references, 3 figures

  8. Post irradiation characterization of beryllium and beryllides after high temperature irradiation up to 3000 appm helium production in HIDOBE-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, A.V., E-mail: fedorov@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, Petten, 1755 ZG (Netherlands); Til, S. van; Stijkel, M.P. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, Petten, 1755 ZG (Netherlands); Nakamichi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho (Japan); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/ Josep Pla, n° 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Titanium beryllides are considered as advanced candidate material for neutron multiplier for the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) and/or the water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) breeder blankets. In the HIDOBE-01 (HIgh DOse irradiation of BEryllium) experiment, beryllium and beryllide pellets with 5 at% and 7 at% Ti are irradiated at four different target temperatures (T{sub irr}): 425 °C, 525 °C, 650 °C and 750 °C up to the dose corresponding to 3000 appm He production in beryllium. The pellets were supplied by JAEA. During post irradiation examinations the critical properties of volumetric swelling and tritium retention were studied. Both titanium beryllide grades show significantly less swelling than the beryllium grade, with the difference increasing with the irradiation temperature. The irradiation induced swelling was studied by using direct dimensions. Both beryllide grades showed much less swelling as compare to the reference beryllium grade. Densities of the grades were studied by Archimedean immersion and by He-pycnometry, giving indications of porosity formation. While both beryllide grades show no significant reduction in density at all irradiation temperatures, the beryllium density falls steeply at higher T{sub irr}. Finally, the tritium release and retention were studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Beryllium shows the same strong tritium retention as earlier observed in studies on beryllium pebbles, while the tritium inventory of the beryllides is significantly less, already at the lowest T{sub irr} of 425 °C.

  9. AAV9-mediated central nervous system–targeted gene delivery via cisterna magna route in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lukashchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current barriers to the use of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9 in clinical trials for treating neurological disorders are its high expression in many off-target tissues such as liver and heart, and lack of cell specificity within the central nervous system (CNS when using ubiquitous promoters such as human cytomegalovirus (CMV or chicken-β-actin hybrid (CAG. To enhance targeting the transgene expression in CNS cells, self-complementary (sc AAV9 vectors, scAAV9-GFP vectors carrying neuronal Hb9 and synapsin 1, and nonspecific CMV and CAG promoters were constructed. We demonstrate that synapsin 1 and Hb9 promoters exclusively targeted neurons in vitro, although their strengths were up to 10-fold lower than that of CMV. In vivo analyses of mouse tissue after scAAV9-GFP vector delivery via the cisterna magna revealed a significant advantage of synapsin 1 promoter over both Hb9 variants in targeting neurons throughout the brain, since Hb9 promoters were driving gene expression mainly within the motor-related areas of the brain stem. In summary, this study demonstrates that cisterna magna administration is a safe alternative to intracranial or intracerebroventricular vector delivery route using scAAV9, and introduces a novel utility of the Hb9 promoter for the targeted gene expression for both in vivo and in vitro applications.

  10. Beryllium and growth. II. The effect of beryllium on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, M B

    1952-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine whether beryllium could replace magnesium in a growing organism. This was stimulated by the several known growth effects of beryllium in animals and by the fact that beryllium apparently competes with magnesium for animal alkaline phosphatases. The following findings are noted: (1) beryllium can reduce the magnesium requirement of plants by some 60% within a certain range of magnesium deficiency. (2) The residual obligatory magnesium requirements is probably accounted for by chlorophyll since beryllium appears to have no primary effect on chlorophyll or chlorophyll production. (3) The pH of the nutrient solution is critical: at acid pH's, beryllium is highly toxic, and growth increase due to beryllium only appears at initial pH's above 11.2, although this initial pH rapidly falls to neutrality during the experimental period. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  11. Off-target Effects in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Genome Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 is a versatile genome-editing technology that is widely used for studying the functionality of genetic elements, creating genetically modified organisms as well as preclinical research of genetic disorders. However, the high frequency of off-target activity (≥50%—RGEN (RNA-guided endonuclease-induced mutations at sites other than the intended on-target site—is one major concern, especially for therapeutic and clinical applications. Here, we review the basic mechanisms underlying off-target cutting in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, methods for detecting off-target mutations, and strategies for minimizing off-target cleavage. The improvement off-target specificity in the CRISPR/Cas9 system will provide solid genotype–phenotype correlations, and thus enable faithful interpretation of genome-editing data, which will certainly facilitate the basic and clinical application of this technology.

  12. Broadening the targeting range of Staphylococcus aureus CRISPR-Cas9 by modifying PAM recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Nguyen, Nhu T; Topkar, Ved V; Zheng, Zongli; Joung, J Keith

    2015-12-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases target specific DNA sequences using a guide RNA but also require recognition of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) by the Cas9 protein. Although longer PAMs can potentially improve the specificity of genome editing, they limit the range of sequences that Cas9 orthologs can target. One potential strategy to relieve this restriction is to relax the PAM recognition specificity of Cas9. Here we used molecular evolution to modify the NNGRRT PAM of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9). One variant we identified, referred to as KKH SaCas9, showed robust genome editing activities at endogenous human target sites with NNNRRT PAMs, thereby increasing SaCas9 targeting range by two- to fourfold. Using GUIDE-seq, we show that wild-type and KKH SaCas9 induce comparable numbers of off-target effects in human cells. Our strategy for evolving PAM specificity does not require structural information and therefore should be applicable to a wide range of Cas9 orthologs.

  13. Beryllium in aircraft brakes - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczak, S.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium has been in use in aircraft brakes for ten years. During the original design phases of the several aircraft programs using beryllium a number of problems requiring solution confronted the designers. In actual service the solution to these problems performed much better than had been anticipated. A summary is presented. (author)

  14. ICT diagnostic method of beryllium welding quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingxia; Wei Kentang; Ye Yunchang

    2002-01-01

    To avoid the interference of high density material for the quality assay of beryllium welding line, a slice by slice scanning method was proposed based upon the research results of the Industrial Computerized Tomography (ICT) diagnostics for weld penetration, weld width, off-centered deviation and weld defects of beryllium-ring welding seam with high density material inside

  15. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  16. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  17. Managing health effects of beryllium exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Beryllium Alloy Exposures; Committee on Toxicology; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2008-01-01

    ... to its occurrence in exposed people. Despite reduced workplace exposure, chronic beryllium disease continues to occur. In addition, beryllium has been classified as a likely human carcinogen by several agencies, such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the National Toxicology Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thos...

  18. Structure investigations of some beryllium materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeldt, I; Lagerberg, G

    1960-05-15

    Metallographic structure, microhardness and texture have been studied on various types of beryllium metal including hot pressed powder, a rolled strip and an extruded tube It was found that beryllium exhibits its highest hardness in directions perpendicular to the basal plane. Good ideas of the prevailing textures were obtained with an ordinary X-ray diffractometer.

  19. Some aspects of beryllium disposal in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Shakhvorostov, Yr.

    2004-01-01

    Historically in Kazakhstan all disposals of used beryllium and beryllium wasted materials were stored and recycled at JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant''. Since Ulba Metallurgical Plant (beside beryllium and tantalum production) is one of the world largest complex producers of fuel for nuclear power plants as well it has possibilities, technologies and experience in processing toxic and radioactive wastes related with those productions. At present time only one operating Kazakhstan research reactors (EWG1M in Kurchatov) contains beryllium made core. The results of current examination of that core allow using it without replacement long time yet (at least for next five-ten years). Nevertheless the problem how to utilize such irradiated beryllium becomes actual issue for Kazakhstan even today. Since Kazakhstan is the member of ITER/DEMO Reactors Projects and is permanently considered as possible provider of huge amount of beryllium for those reactors so that is the reason for starting studies of possibilities of large scale processing/recycling of such disposed irradiated beryllium. It is clear that the Ulba Metallurgical Plant is considered as the best site for it in Kazakhstan. The draft plan how to organize experimental studies of irradiated beryllium disposals in Kazakhstan involving National Nuclear Center, National University (Almaty), JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant'' (Ust-Kamenogorsk) would be presented in this paper as well as proposals to arrange international collaboration in that field through ISTC (International Science Technology Center, Moscow). (author)

  20. Structure investigations of some beryllium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeldt, I.; Lagerberg, G.

    1960-05-01

    Metallographic structure, microhardness and texture have been studied on various types of beryllium metal including hot pressed powder, a rolled strip and an extruded tube It was found that beryllium exhibits its highest hardness in directions perpendicular to the basal plane. Good ideas of the prevailing textures were obtained with an ordinary X-ray diffractometer

  1. The status of beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R. E-mail: gx1@inel.gov; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H

    2000-12-01

    Beryllium was used for a number of years in the Joint European Torus (JET), and it is planned to be used extensively on the lower heat-flux surfaces of the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It has been included in various forms in a number of tritium breeding blanket designs. There are technical advantages but also a number of safety issues associated with the use of beryllium. Research in a variety of technical areas in recent years has revealed interesting issues concerning the use of beryllium in fusion. Progress in this research has been presented at a series of International Workshops on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The most recent workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 15-17 September 1999. In this paper, a summary of findings presented there and their implications for the use of beryllium in the development of fusion reactors are presented.

  2. The status of beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Beryllium was used for a number of years in the Joint European Torus (JET), and it is planned to be used extensively on the lower heat-flux surfaces of the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It has been included in various forms in a number of tritium breeding blanket designs. There are technical advantages but also a number of safety issues associated with the use of beryllium. Research in a variety of technical areas in recent years has revealed interesting issues concerning the use of beryllium in fusion. Progress in this research has been presented at a series of International Workshops on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The most recent workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 15-17 September 1999. In this paper, a summary of findings presented there and their implications for the use of beryllium in the development of fusion reactors are presented

  3. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  4. Beryllium Measurement In Commercially Available Wet Wipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant(trademark) Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  5. Assessment of LANL beryllium waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danna, J.G.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to determine present status of the preparation and implementation of the various high priority documents required to properly manage the beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory. The documents being assessed are: Waste Acceptance Criteria, Waste Characterization Plan, Waste Certification Plan, Waste Acceptance Procedures, Waste Characterization Procedures, Waste Certification Procedures, Waste Training Procedures and Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Beryllium is regulated (as a dust) under 40 CFR 261.33 as ''Discarded commercial chemical products, off specification species, container residues and spill residues thereof.'' Beryllium is also identified in the 3rd thirds ruling of June 1, 1990 as being restricted from land disposal (as a dust). The beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory is handled separately because beryllium has been identified as a highly toxic carcinogenic material

  6. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 μm of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  7. Electron microscope study of irradiated beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisson, A.A.

    1965-06-01

    The beryllium oxide is studied first by fractography, before and after irradiation, using sintered samples. The fractures are examined under different aspects. The higher density sintered samples, with transgranular fractures are the most interesting for a microscopic study. It is possible to mark the difference between the 'pores' left by the sintering process and the 'bubbles' of gases that can be produced by former thermal treatments. After irradiation, the grain boundaries are very much weakened. By annealing, it is possible to observe the evolution of the gases produced by the reaction (n, 2n) and (n. α) and gathered on the grain boundaries. The irradiated beryllium oxide is afterwards studied by transmission. For that, a simple method has been used: little chips of the crushed material are examined. Clusters of point defects produced by neutrons are thus detected in crystals irradiated at the three following doses: 6 x 10 19 , 9 x 10 19 and 2 x 10 20 n f cm -2 at a temperature below 100 deg. C. For the irradiation at 6 x 10 19 n f cm -2 , the defects are merely visible, but at 2 x l0 20 n f cm -2 the crystals an crowded with clusters and the Kikuchi lines have disappeared from the micro-diffraction diagrams. The evolution of the clusters into dislocation loops is studied by a series of annealings. The activation energy (0,37 eV) calculated from the annealing curves suggests that it must be interstitials that condense into dislocation loops. Samples irradiated at high temperatures (650, 900 and 1100 deg. C) are also studied. In those specimens the size of the loops is not the same as the equilibrium size obtained after out of pile annealing at the same temperature. Those former loops are more specifically studied and their Burgers vector is determined by micro-diffraction. (author) [fr

  8. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements

  9. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented

  10. Production of beryllium oxide of nuclear purity from beryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copat, A; Sood, S P

    1984-01-01

    Production of beryllium oxide from beryl by the fluoride process was optimized in this study. Optimum results were obtained using a mixture of sodium hexafluorsilicate and sodium hexafluorferrate as flux and calcinating at 740/sup 0/C for 2 hours. The beryllium concentrate produced was further purified by crystallization as beryllium sulfate to obtain nuclear grade beryllium oxide

  11. Production of beryllium oxide of nuclear purity from beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copat, A.; Sood, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Production of beryllium oxide from beryl by the fluoride process was optimized in this study. Optimum results were obtained using a mixture of sodium hexafluorsilicate and sodium hexafluorferrate as flux and calcinating at 740 0 C for 2 hours. The beryllium concentrate produced was further purified by crystallization as beryllium sulfate to obtain nuclear grade beryllium oxide (Author) [pt

  12. Comparison of CRISPR/Cas9 expression constructs for efficient targeted mutagenesis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi; Endo, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient tool used for genome editing in a variety of organisms. Despite several recent reports of successful targeted mutagenesis using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in plants, in each case the target gene of interest, the Cas9 expression system and guide-RNA (gRNA) used, and the tissues used for transformation and subsequent mutagenesis differed, hence the reported frequencies of targeted mutagenesis cannot be compared directly. Here, we evaluated mutation frequency in rice using different Cas9 and/or gRNA expression cassettes under standardized experimental conditions. We introduced Cas9 and gRNA expression cassettes separately or sequentially into rice calli, and assessed the frequency of mutagenesis at the same endogenous targeted sequences. Mutation frequencies differed significantly depending on the Cas9 expression cassette used. In addition, a gRNA driven by the OsU6 promoter was superior to one driven by the OsU3 promoter. Using an all-in-one expression vector harboring the best combined Cas9/gRNA expression cassette resulted in a much improved frequency of targeted mutagenesis in rice calli, and bi-allelic mutant plants were produced in the T0 generation. The approach presented here could be adapted to optimize the construction of Cas9/gRNA cassettes for genome editing in a variety of plants.

  13. Abbreviated machining schedule for fabricating beryllium parts free of surface damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Capes, J.F.; Leslie, W.W.; Luckow, J.R.; Riegel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This study was performed to develop a more economical method of machining damage-free beryllium components at Rocky Flats. The present method involves a 9-pass schedule of lathe turning followed by a chemical etch. Prototype beryllium hemispherical shell parts and cylindrical tensile specimens machined to simulate the parts were utilized in this study. The main investigative methods used to evaluate the amount of machining damage were metallography and tensile tests. It was found that damage-free parts could be produced by carefully controlled machining if the number of machining passes was reduced to 4 or even 3, if followed by the standard etching treatment. These findings were made on Select S-65 grade beryllium, and probably apply to other common grades of powder source beryllium but not necessarily to ingot-source beryllium. It is recommended that the 4-pass schedule becomes the standard method to produce damage-free beryllium derived from powder. Significant savings in time, labor, and equipment can be realized by this change in method without decreasing the quality of the product

  14. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeston, J.M.; Longhurst, G.R.; Wallace, R.S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.); Abeln, S.P. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 x 10[sup 25] n/m[sup 2] (E > MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75deg C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium. (orig.).

  15. Biallelic targeting of expressed genes in mouse embryonic stem cells using the Cas9 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yu; Vanoli, Fabio; LaRocque, Jeannine R.; Krawczyk, Przemek M.; Jasin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Gene targeting - homologous recombination between transfected DNA and a chromosomal locus - is greatly stimulated by a DNA break in the target locus. Recently, the RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease, involved in bacterial adaptive immunity, has been modified to function in mammalian cells. Unlike other

  16. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparacino, N.; Sabbioneda, S.

    1996-10-01

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure

  17. Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Akira; Ito, Masayasu; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Tanimoto, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)

  18. Preliminary proposal for a beryllium technology program for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The program was designed to provide the answers to the critical issues of beryllium technology needed in fusion blanket designs. The four tasks are as follows: (1) Beryllium property measurements needed for fusion data base. (2) Beryllium stress relaxation and creep measurements for lifetime modelling calculations. (3) Simplified recycle technique development for irradiated beryllium. (4) Beryllium neutron multiplier measurements using manganese bath absolute calibration techniques

  19. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  20. Beryllium and growth. III. The effect of beryllium on plant phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, M B

    1952-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations was to correlate the apparent ability of beryllium to substitute for magnesium in plant growth with a specific biochemical effect of the metal. Through association with earlier work on beryllium inhibition of animal alkaline phosphatase, a study was made of the effect of beryllium and other metals upon the activity of a phosphatase derived from tomato leaves. Although only indirect evidence is available that this enzyme system was magnesium-activated, beryllium was found to inhibit reversibly the splitting of GP and ATP. Other metals were also found to be inhibitory but the ATP-ase inhibition - and especially the ratio of P split from GP to P split from ATP - was higher for beryllium than for any other metal studied. The significance of this finding in relation to energy metabolism, growth, and beryllium toxicity is discussed. 12 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Spectrographic measurement of beryllium in the atmosphere; Dosage spectrographique du beryllium dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Cittanova, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service d' Analyses et Recherches Chimiques Appliquees, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Crehange, G; Frequelin, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Applications Militaires, Service Chimie, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Baudin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We describe here a method for the spectrographic determination of beryllium on filters which is valid for amounts varying between 0,01 and 30 {mu}g of beryllium and which is independent of the nature of the beryllium compound involved. This is a flux method (graphite-lithium carbonate mixture), the excitation being by a direct current arc. (author) [French] Nous decrivons ici, une methode de dosage spectrographique de beryllium sur filtre, valable pour des teneurs comprises entre 0,01 et 30 {mu}g de beryllium et independante de la nature du compose de beryllium a doser. C'est une methode de 'flux' (melange graphite-carbonate de lithium) l'excitation etant un arc a courant continu. (auteur)

  2. In vivo genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 mediated homology-independent targeted integration

    KAUST Repository

    Suzuki, Keiichiro; Tsunekawa, Yuji; Herná ndez-Bení tez, Reyna; Wu, Jun; Zhu, Jie; Kim, Euiseok J.; Hatanaka, Fumiyuki; Yamamoto, Mako; Araoka, Toshikazu; Li, Zhe; Kurita, Masakazu; Hishida, Tomoaki; Li, Mo; Aizawa, Emi; Guo, Shicheng; Chen, Song; Goebl, April; Soligalla, Rupa Devi; Qu, Jing; Jiang, Tingshuai; Fu, Xin; Jafari, Maryam; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Berggren, W. Travis; Lajara, Jeronimo; Nuñ ez-Delicado, Estrella; Guillen, Pedro; Campistol, Josep M.; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Liu, Guang-Hui; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Zhang, Kun; Callaway, Edward M.; Zhang, Kang; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua

    2016-01-01

    regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9)3, 4 technology, here we devise a homology-independent targeted integration (HITI) strategy, which allows for robust DNA knock-in in both dividing and non-dividing cells in vitro and, more

  3. Increased efficiency of targeted mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas9 in plants using heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Chantal; Zhang, Fei; Mendez, Josefina; Lozano, Yamile; Chatpar, Krishna; Irish, Vivian F; Jacob, Yannick

    2018-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has greatly improved our ability to engineer targeted mutations in eukaryotic genomes. While CRISPR/Cas9 appears to work universally, the efficiency of targeted mutagenesis and the adverse generation of off-target mutations vary greatly between different organisms. In this study, we report that Arabidopsis plants subjected to heat stress at 37°C show much higher frequencies of CRISPR-induced mutations compared to plants grown continuously at the standard temperature (22°C). Using quantitative assays relying on green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes, we found that targeted mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas9 in Arabidopsis is increased by approximately 5-fold in somatic tissues and up to 100-fold in the germline upon heat treatment. This effect of temperature on the mutation rate is not limited to Arabidopsis, as we observed a similar increase in targeted mutations by CRISPR/Cas9 in Citrus plants exposed to heat stress at 37°C. In vitro assays demonstrate that Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) is more active in creating double-stranded DNA breaks at 37°C than at 22°C, thus indicating a potential contributing mechanism for the in vivo effect of temperature on CRISPR/Cas9. This study reveals the importance of temperature in modulating SpCas9 activity in eukaryotes, and provides a simple method to increase on-target mutagenesis in plants using CRISPR/Cas9. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerberg, G

    1960-02-15

    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed.

  5. THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BERYLLIUM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-01-01

    A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

  6. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerberg, G.

    1960-02-01

    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed

  7. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Butcher, M; Guinchard, M; Calviani, M; Losito, R; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, V; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, J; O'Dell, J

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and co...

  8. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Zwaska, R.; Atherton, A.; Caretta, O.; Davenne,T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Loveridge, P.; O'Dell, J.; Roberts, S.; Kuksenko, V.; Butcher, M.; Calviani, M.; Guinchard, M.; Losito, R.

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  9. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, t; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, P; O'Dell, J; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, v; Butcher, M; Calviani, M; Guinchard, M; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  10. Zone-refining of beryllium(II) acetylacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Keihei

    1975-01-01

    Zone melting was applied to bis (acetylacetonato) beryllium(II), Be(AA) 2 , to remove trace metal constiutents. The effective distribution coefficient, k, of a minor component measured in a binary mixture with the majority of Be(AA) 2 , fell in the range of 0.4 to 0.8, while the value obtained in a multiple component mixture fell in the range of 0.8 to 0.9 except Zn(II)- and Ni(II) chelates. Cr(AA) 3 was concentrated upward in the direction of the zone travelling, and similar results were obtained with Cu(II)-, Co(III)- Fe(III)- and Al(III) acetylacetonates, while Zn(II)-, Ni(II)- and Mn(III) chelates were fractionated in the both ends of the column. On the other hand, when the zone was moved downward, the minor components were concentrated in the lower end of a column. Efficiency in zone refining was compared to each other between the upward- and downward zone travelling modes on the crude beryllium acetylacetonates obtained from a commercial reagent of beryllium nitrate, and the latter mode was found more effective in the concentration of trace components. Discussion was given on possible mechanisms resulting in the difference in the refining efficiency. (author)

  11. Targeting pro-protein convertase subtilisin kexin-9 as a novel therapy of hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwiputra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol level is an established primary and secondary prevention strategy for coronary heart disease. However, not all patients are able to achieve their LDL targets as recommended by the guidelines. Over the last 10 years, high plasma LDL level is known to be associated with a higher level of pro-protein convertase subtilisin kexin-9 (PCSK-9. Loss-of-function mutations in the PCSK-9 gene is associated with lower plasma LDL level and cardiovascular risk. Since its discovery in 2003, PCSK-9 has triggered many researchers to design a PCSK-9 inhibitor to reduce LDL cholesterol through competitive inhibition of this molecule. Some phase III clinical trials have showed promising results of PCSK-9 inhibitor efficacy in lowering LDL level and improving clinical outcome. This article aims to discuss the role of PCSK-9 in LDL metabolism and the efficacy of PCSK-9 inhibitor in reducing plasma LDL level.

  12. CCTop: An Intuitive, Flexible and Reliable CRISPR/Cas9 Target Prediction Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Stemmer

    Full Text Available Engineering of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has opened a plethora of new opportunities for site-directed mutagenesis and targeted genome modification. Fundamental to this is a stretch of twenty nucleotides at the 5' end of a guide RNA that provides specificity to the bound Cas9 endonuclease. Since a sequence of twenty nucleotides can occur multiple times in a given genome and some mismatches seem to be accepted by the CRISPR/Cas9 complex, an efficient and reliable in silico selection and evaluation of the targeting site is key prerequisite for the experimental success. Here we present the CRISPR/Cas9 target online predictor (CCTop, http://crispr.cos.uni-heidelberg.de to overcome limitations of already available tools. CCTop provides an intuitive user interface with reasonable default parameters that can easily be tuned by the user. From a given query sequence, CCTop identifies and ranks all candidate sgRNA target sites according to their off-target quality and displays full documentation. CCTop was experimentally validated for gene inactivation, non-homologous end-joining as well as homology directed repair. Thus, CCTop provides the bench biologist with a tool for the rapid and efficient identification of high quality target sites.

  13. Targeted mutagenesis in tetraploid switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Merrick, Paul; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Ji, Chonghui; Yang, Bing; Fei, Shui-Zhang

    2018-02-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a powerful tool for targeted mutagenesis. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a high yielding perennial grass species that has been designated as a model biomass crop by the U.S. Department of Energy. The self-infertility and high ploidy level make it difficult to study gene function or improve germplasm. To overcome these constraints, we explored the feasibility of using CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted mutagenesis in a tetraploid cultivar 'Alamo' switchgrass. We first developed a transient assay by which a non-functional green-fluorescent protein gene containing a 1-bp frameshift insertion in its 5' coding region was successfully mutated by a Cas9/sgRNA complex resulting in its restored function. Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of embryogenic calli derived from mature caryopses averaged a 3.0% transformation efficiency targeting the genes of teosinte branched 1(tb1)a and b and phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM). With a single construct containing two sgRNAs targeting different regions of tb1a and tb1b genes, primary transformants (T0) containing CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations were obtained at frequencies of 95.5% (tb1a) and 11% (tb1b), respectively, with T0 mutants exhibiting increased tiller production. Meanwhile, a mutation frequency of 13.7% was obtained for the PGM gene with a CRISPR/Cas9 construct containing a single sgRNA. Among the PGM T0 mutants, six are heterozygous and one is homozygous for a 1-bp deletion in the target region with no apparent phenotypical alterations. We show that CRISPR/Cas9 system can generate targeted mutagenesis effectively and obtain targeted homozygous mutants in T0 generation in switchgrass, circumventing the need of inbreeding. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Enhancing Targeted Genomic DNA Editing in Chicken Cells Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Yang, Likai; Guo, Yijie; Du, Weili; Yin, Yajun; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Hongzhao

    2017-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has enabled highly efficient genome targeted editing for various organisms. However, few studies have focused on CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated chicken genome editing compared with mammalian genomes. The current study combined CRISPR with yeast Rad52 (yRad52) to enhance targeted genomic DNA editing in chicken DF-1 cells. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-induced targeted mutations in the chicken genome was increased to 41.9% via the enrichment of the dual-reporter surrogate system. In addition, the combined effect of CRISPR nuclease and yRad52 dramatically increased the efficiency of the targeted substitution in the myostatin gene using 50-mer oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODN) as the donor DNA, resulting in a 36.7% editing efficiency after puromycin selection. Furthermore, based on the effect of yRad52, the frequency of exogenous gene integration in the chicken genome was more than 3-fold higher than that without yRad52. Collectively, these results suggest that ssODN is an ideal donor DNA for targeted substitution and that CRISPR/Cas9 combined with yRad52 significantly enhances chicken genome editing. These findings could be extensively applied in other organisms. PMID:28068387

  15. A Convenient Cas9-based Conditional Knockout Strategy for Simultaneously Targeting Multiple Genes in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Du, Yinan; He, Xueyan; Huang, Xingxu; Shi, Yun S

    2017-03-31

    The most powerful way to probe protein function is to characterize the consequence of its deletion. Compared to conventional gene knockout (KO), conditional knockout (cKO) provides an advanced gene targeting strategy with which gene deletion can be performed in a spatially and temporally restricted manner. However, for most species that are amphiploid, the widely used Cre-flox conditional KO (cKO) system would need targeting loci in both alleles to be loxP flanked, which in practice, requires time and labor consuming breeding. This is considerably significant when one is dealing with multiple genes. CRISPR/Cas9 genome modulation system is advantaged in its capability in targeting multiple sites simultaneously. Here we propose a strategy that could achieve conditional KO of multiple genes in mouse with Cre recombinase dependent Cas9 expression. By transgenic construction of loxP-stop-loxP (LSL) controlled Cas9 (LSL-Cas9) together with sgRNAs targeting EGFP, we showed that the fluorescence molecule could be eliminated in a Cre-dependent manner. We further verified the efficacy of this novel strategy to target multiple sites by deleting c-Maf and MafB simultaneously in macrophages specifically. Compared to the traditional Cre-flox cKO strategy, this sgRNAs-LSL-Cas9 cKO system is simpler and faster, and would make conditional manipulation of multiple genes feasible.

  16. The adhesive bonding of beryllium structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton-Batten, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Where service conditions permit, adhesive bonding is a highly recommendable, reliable means of joining beryllium structural parts. Several important programs have successfully used adhesive bonding for joining structural and non-structural beryllium components. Adhesive bonding minimizes stress concentrations associated with other joining techniques and considerably improves fatigue resistance. In addition, no degradation of base metal properties occur. In many instances, structural joints can be fabricated more cheaply by adhesive bonding or in combination with adhesive bonding than by any other method used alone. An evaluation program on structural adhesive bonding of beryllium sheet components is described. A suitable surface pretreatment for beryllium adherends prior to bonding is given. Tensile shear strength and fatigue properties of FM 1000 and FM 123-5 adhesive bonded joints are reviewed and compared with data obtained from riveted joints of similar geometry. (author)

  17. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  18. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength

  19. Mechanism of duplex DNA destabilization by RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease during target interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekler, Vladimir; Minakhin, Leonid; Severinov, Konstantin

    2017-05-23

    The prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated 9 (Cas9) endonuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA sequences specified by guide RNA molecules and flanked by a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and is widely used for genome editing in various organisms. The RNA-programmed Cas9 locates the target site by scanning genomic DNA. We sought to elucidate the mechanism of initial DNA interrogation steps that precede the pairing of target DNA with guide RNA. Using fluorometric and biochemical assays, we studied Cas9/guide RNA complexes with model DNA substrates that mimicked early intermediates on the pathway to the final Cas9/guide RNA-DNA complex. The results show that Cas9/guide RNA binding to PAM favors separation of a few PAM-proximal protospacer base pairs allowing initial target interrogation by guide RNA. The duplex destabilization is mediated, in part, by Cas9/guide RNA affinity for unpaired segments of nontarget strand DNA close to PAM. Furthermore, our data indicate that the entry of double-stranded DNA beyond a short threshold distance from PAM into the Cas9/single-guide RNA (sgRNA) interior is hindered. We suggest that the interactions unfavorable for duplex DNA binding promote DNA bending in the PAM-proximal region during early steps of Cas9/guide RNA-DNA complex formation, thus additionally destabilizing the protospacer duplex. The mechanism that emerges from our analysis explains how the Cas9/sgRNA complex is able to locate the correct target sequence efficiently while interrogating numerous nontarget sequences associated with correct PAMs.

  20. Experimental Simulation of Beryllium Armour Damage Under ITER-like Intense Transient Plasma Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.; Basaleev, E.; Nikolaev, G.; Kurbatova, L., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Material, Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.; Zhitlukhin, A. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Khimchenko, L. L. [Project Centre of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Beryllium will be used as a plasma facing material in the next generation of tokamaks such as ITER. During plasma operation in ITER, the plasma facing materials and components will be suffered by different kinds of loading which may affect their surface or their joint to the heat sink. In addition to quasi-stationary loadings which are caused by the normal cycling operation, the plasma facing components and materials may also be exposed to the intense short transient loads like disruptions, ELMs. All these events may lead to beryllium surface melting, cracking, evaporation and erosion. It is expected that the erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as ELMs and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of ITER first wall. To obtain the experimental data for the evaluation of the beryllium armor lifetime and dust production under ITER-relevant transient loads, the advanced plasma gun QSPA-Be facility has been constructed in Bochvar Institute. This paper presents recent results of the experiments with Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade. The mock-ups of a special design armored with two beryllium targets (80 x 80 x 10 mm{sup 3}) were tested by hydrogen plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat load of 0.5 and 1.0 MJ/m{sup 2}. Experiments were performed at RT temperature. The evolution of surface microstructure and profile, cracks morphology and mass loss/gain under erosion process on the beryllium surface exposed to up to 250 shots will be presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Beryllium R and D for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the primary candidates as both plasma-facing material (PFM) and neutron multiplier in the next-step fusion reactors. Both sintered-product blocks and pebbles are considered in fusion reactor designs. Beryllium evaporated on carbon tiles has also been used in Joint European Torus (JET) and may be considered for other designs. Future efforts are directed toward the pebble form of beryllium. Research and evaluations of data are underway to determine the most attractive material processing approaches in terms of fabrication cost and quality; technical issues associated with heat transfer; thermal, mechanical and irradiation stability; safety and tritium release. Beryllium plasma-facing components will require periodic repair or replacement, therefore disposal or recycling of activated and tritiated beryllium will also be a concern. Beryllium as a component of the molten salt, Flibe is also being considered in novel approaches to the plasma-structure interface. This paper deals with the main issues related to the use of Be in a fusion reactor as both neutron multiplier and first wall material. These issues include potential reactions with steam during accidents and the health and environmental aspects of its use, reprocessing and reuse, or disposal

  2. Beryllium R and D for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F. E-mail: francesco.scaffidi@iket.fzk.de; Longhurst, G.R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H

    2000-11-01

    Beryllium is one of the primary candidates as both plasma-facing material (PFM) and neutron multiplier in the next-step fusion reactors. Both sintered-product blocks and pebbles are considered in fusion reactor designs. Beryllium evaporated on carbon tiles has also been used in Joint European Torus (JET) and may be considered for other designs. Future efforts are directed toward the pebble form of beryllium. Research and evaluations of data are underway to determine the most attractive material processing approaches in terms of fabrication cost and quality; technical issues associated with heat transfer; thermal, mechanical and irradiation stability; safety and tritium release. Beryllium plasma-facing components will require periodic repair or replacement, therefore disposal or recycling of activated and tritiated beryllium will also be a concern. Beryllium as a component of the molten salt, Flibe is also being considered in novel approaches to the plasma-structure interface. This paper deals with the main issues related to the use of Be in a fusion reactor as both neutron multiplier and first wall material. These issues include potential reactions with steam during accidents and the health and environmental aspects of its use, reprocessing and reuse, or disposal.

  3. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  4. CRISPRscan: designing highly efficient sgRNAs for CRISPR/Cas9 targeting in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Mateos, Miguel A.; Vejnar, Charles E.; Beaudoin, Jean-Denis; Fernandez, Juan P.; Mis, Emily K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Giraldez, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 technology provides a powerful system for genome engineering. However, variable activity across different single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) remains a significant limitation. We have analyzed the molecular features that influence sgRNA stability, activity and loading into Cas9 in vivo. We observe that guanine enrichment and adenine depletion increase sgRNA stability and activity, while loading, nucleosome positioning and Cas9 off-target binding are not major determinants. We additionally identified truncated and 5′ mismatch-containing sgRNAs as efficient alternatives to canonical sgRNAs. Based on these results, we created a predictive sgRNA-scoring algorithm (CRISPRscan.org) that effectively captures the sequence features affecting Cas9/sgRNA activity in vivo. Finally, we show that targeting Cas9 to the germ line using a Cas9-nanos-3′-UTR fusion can generate maternal-zygotic mutants, increase viability and reduce somatic mutations. Together, these results provide novel insights into the determinants that influence Cas9 activity and a framework to identify highly efficient sgRNAs for genome targeting in vivo. PMID:26322839

  5. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in Arabidopsis using sequential transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Daisuke; Zhang, Wenxin; Zeng, Wenjie; Feng, Zhengyan; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2018-05-17

    Homologous recombination-based gene targeting is a powerful tool for precise genome modification and has been widely used in organisms ranging from yeast to higher organisms such as Drosophila and mouse. However, gene targeting in higher plants, including the most widely used model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, remains challenging. Here we report a sequential transformation method for gene targeting in Arabidopsis. We find that parental lines expressing the bacterial endonuclease Cas9 from the egg cell- and early embryo-specific DD45 gene promoter can improve the frequency of single-guide RNA-targeted gene knock-ins and sequence replacements via homologous recombination at several endogenous sites in the Arabidopsis genome. These heritable gene targeting can be identified by regular PCR. Our approach enables routine and fine manipulation of the Arabidopsis genome.

  6. The MSX1 homeoprotein recruits G9a methyltransferase to repressed target genes in myoblast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiang Wang

    Full Text Available Although the significance of lysine modifications of core histones for regulating gene expression is widely appreciated, the mechanisms by which these modifications are incorporated at specific regulatory elements during cellular differentiation remains largely unknown. In our previous studies, we have shown that in developing myoblasts the Msx1 homeoprotein represses gene expression by influencing the modification status of chromatin at its target genes. We now show that genomic binding by Msx1 promotes enrichment of the H3K9me2 mark on repressed target genes via recruitment of G9a histone methyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing this histone mark. Interaction of Msx1 with G9a is mediated via the homeodomain and is required for transcriptional repression and regulation of cellular differentiation, as well as enrichment of the H3K9me2 mark in proximity to Msx1 binding sites on repressed target genes in myoblast cells as well as the developing limb. We propose that regulation of chromatin status by Msx1 recruitment of G9a and other histone modifying enzymes to regulatory regions of target genes represents an important means of regulating the gene expression during development.

  7. Structural basis of PAM-dependent target DNA recognition by the Cas9 endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Carolin; Niewoehner, Ole; Duerst, Alessia; Jinek, Martin

    2014-09-25

    The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA bearing sequences complementary to a 20-nucleotide segment in the guide RNA. Cas9 has emerged as a versatile molecular tool for genome editing and gene expression control. RNA-guided DNA recognition and cleavage strictly require the presence of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA. Here we report a crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 in complex with a single-molecule guide RNA and a target DNA containing a canonical 5'-NGG-3' PAM. The structure reveals that the PAM motif resides in a base-paired DNA duplex. The non-complementary strand GG dinucleotide is read out via major-groove interactions with conserved arginine residues from the carboxy-terminal domain of Cas9. Interactions with the minor groove of the PAM duplex and the phosphodiester group at the +1 position in the target DNA strand contribute to local strand separation immediately upstream of the PAM. These observations suggest a mechanism for PAM-dependent target DNA melting and RNA-DNA hybrid formation. Furthermore, this study establishes a framework for the rational engineering of Cas9 enzymes with novel PAM specificities.

  8. Beryllium electrodeposition on aluminium cathode from chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichkov, I.F.; Novikov, E.A.; Serebryakov, G.A.; Kanashin, Yu.P.; Sardyko, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    Cathodic processes during beryllium deposition on liquid and solid aluminium cathodes are investigated. Mixture of sodium, potassium and beryllium chloride melts served as an lectrolyte. Beryllium ion discharge at the expense of alloy formation takes place at more positive potentials than on an indifferent cathode at low current densities ( in the case of liquid aluminium cathode). Metallographic analysis and measurements of microhardness have shown, that the cathodic product includes two phases: beryllium solid solution in aluminium and metallic beryllium. It is concluded, that aluminium-beryllium alloys with high cathodic yield by current can be obtained by the electrolytic method

  9. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  10. Beryllium satellite thrust cone design, manufacture and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiter, H.; Chandler, D.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-formed beryllium sheet material has been used in the design, manufacturing and test of a satellite thrust cone structure. Adhesive bonding was used for attachment of aluminium flanges and conical segment lap strips. Difficulties in beryllium structure design such as incompatibilities with aluminium and handling problems are discussed. Testing to optimize beryllium-beryllium and beryllium-aluminium adhesive bonds is described. The completed thrust cone assembly has been subjected to static load testing and the results are presented. A summary of the relative merits of the use of beryllium in satellite structures is given with recommendations for future users. (author)

  11. Beryllium-rich intermediate phases in beryllium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a survey of the factors affecting the formation of phases of stoichiometry MBe 5 , M 2 Be 17 , MBe 12 and MBe 13 are presented. Using published information it is shown that the structures adopted at the higher Be:M ratios involve different characteristics from those adopted at lower Be:M ratios. In the ThMn 12 and NaZn 13 structures adopted in the former case dsub(M-Be) > (rsub(M) + rsub(Be)), (where the atomic radii refer to coordination number 12) and the dsub(Be-Be) distances are contracted. In the CaCu 5 structure adopted at composition MBe 5 , dsub(M-Be) < (rsub(M) + rsub(Be)) and interactions between unlike atoms are significant. The structural characteristics, occurrence, and the stabilities of these phases, and of the others mentioned above, are discussed in terms of atomic radius ratios, the position of the M component in the periodic table, and the value of the univalent ionic radius of the M component, taken as a measure of the extension in space of the hard incompressible ionic core. Though the compound-forming characteristics of beryllium are largely dictated by its small atomic diameter, other factors such as the nature of the bonding which can be exerted by the partner atoms are also significant. In particular, the proportions of the volumes of the atoms which are occupied by the hard incompressible ionic cores assume importance. (author)

  12. Thermomechanical testing of beryllium for the JET/ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Smith, M.F.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Materials testing of S-65-B beryllium has been conducted in support of the beryllium limiter experiment on the ISX-B tokamak. The S-65-B grade of hot-pressed beryllium was chosen over S-200-E because of its superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures. The testing has included measurement of tensile and yield strength, ductility, Young's Modulus, thermal conductivity, and specific heat from 50 0 C to 700 0 C. Thermal fatigue testing of a 2.5 cm beryllium cube was conducted using an electron beam to apply a heat flux of 2.5 kw/cm 2 for 0.3 second pulses for 1500 cycles. Results from the tests are compared to elastic-plastic finite element stress calculations. The testing indicates that the ISX-B beryllium limiter should survive the tokamak environment without serious structural failure, although some surface cracking is expected to occur. (author)

  13. Targeted Mutagenesis in Rice Using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masaki; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Toki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs), such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system, are powerful tools for understanding gene function and for developing novel traits in plants. In plant species for which transformation and regeneration systems using protoplasts are not yet established, direct delivery to nuclei of SSNs either in the form of RNA or protein is difficult. Thus, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of SSN expression constructs in cultured cells is a practical means of delivering targeted mutagenesis in some plant species including rice. Because targeted mutagenesis occurs stochastically in transgenic cells and SSN-mediated targeted mutagenesis often leads to no selectable phenotype, identification of highly mutated cell lines is a critical step in obtaining regenerated plants with desired mutations.

  14. The thick-target 9Be(d,n) neutron spectra for deuteron energies between 2.6 and 7.0-MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.

    1991-11-01

    The measurement of the zero deg. neutron spectra and yields from deuterons incident on thick beryllium metal targets is described. 235 U and 238 U fission ion chambers were used as neutron detectors to span the neutron energy range above 0.05-MeV with a time resolution of ≤ 3 nanosec. Measurements were made for incident deuteron energies from 2.6 to 7.0-MeV, at 0.4-MeV intervals, using time-of-flight techniques with flight paths of 2.7 and 6.8 meters. The results are presented in graphical form and in tables

  15. Systematic Kinase Inhibitor Profiling Identifies CDK9 as a Synthetic Lethal Target in NUT Midline Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Brägelmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinase inhibitors represent the backbone of targeted cancer therapy, yet only a limited number of oncogenic drivers are directly druggable. By interrogating the activity of 1,505 kinase inhibitors, we found that BRD4-NUT-rearranged NUT midline carcinoma (NMC cells are specifically killed by CDK9 inhibition (CDK9i and depend on CDK9 and Cyclin-T1 expression. We show that CDK9i leads to robust induction of apoptosis and of markers of DNA damage response in NMC cells. While both CDK9i and bromodomain inhibition over time result in reduced Myc protein expression, only bromodomain inhibition induces cell differentiation and a p21-induced cell-cycle arrest in these cells. Finally, RNA-seq and ChIP-based analyses reveal a BRD4-NUT-specific CDK9i-induced perturbation of transcriptional elongation. Thus, our data provide a mechanistic basis for the genotype-dependent vulnerability of NMC cells to CDK9i that may be of relevance for the development of targeted therapies for NMC patients.

  16. Beryllium. Health hazards and their control. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this work (continuation of 'Beryllium' series) health hazards, toxic effects, limits of permissible atmospheric contamination and safe exposure to beryllium are described. Guidelines to the design, control operations and hygienic precautions of the working facilities are given. (Author) [es

  17. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... are used in nuclear weapons as nuclear reactor moderators or reflectors and as nuclear reactor fuel...), grinding, and machine tooling of parts. Inhalation of beryllium particles may cause chronic beryllium...

  18. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  19. Experiments on tritium behavior in beryllium, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Etsuo; Matsumoto, Mikio; Inada, Seiji; Sezaki, Katsuji; Saito, Minoru; Kato, Mineo.

    1989-06-01

    In JMTR, it was observed that the tritium concentration of the primary coolant increases with the reactor operation at 50 MW. As one of the tritium generation sources, we paid attention to a neutron reflector made of beryllium because the tritium generation rate in the beryllium is bigger than other components in the reactor core. On the other hand, the irradiation test of blanket materials (i.e. tritium breeding materials and neutron multipling materials) are planned for development of the fusion reactor in JMTR and the beryllium will be also irradiated as a neutron multiplier with tritium breeding materials. Therefore, as the irradiated specimens, we used a hot-pressed beryllium disk fabricated by the same method as the neutron reflector or the neutron multiplier and conducted the irradiation tests in JMTR. The purpose of these tests are to clarify the tritium behavior in the hot-pressed beryllium. In this paper, from a viewpoint of the fabrication of capsules for neutron irradiation, the specifications of the irradiated specimens and capsules are summarized. Additionally, the results on the puncture test of the container of the irradiation specimens are described. (author)

  20. Targeted HIV-1 Latency Reversal Using CRISPR/Cas9-Derived Transcriptional Activator Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K Bialek

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 technology is currently considered the most advanced tool for targeted genome engineering. Its sequence-dependent specificity has been explored for locus-directed transcriptional modulation. Such modulation, in particular transcriptional activation, has been proposed as key approach to overcome silencing of dormant HIV provirus in latently infected cellular reservoirs. Currently available agents for provirus activation, so-called latency reversing agents (LRAs, act indirectly through cellular pathways to induce viral transcription. However, their clinical performance remains suboptimal, possibly because reservoirs have diverse cellular identities and/or proviral DNA is intractable to the induced pathways. We have explored two CRISPR/Cas9-derived activator systems as targeted approaches to induce dormant HIV-1 proviral DNA. These systems recruit multiple transcriptional activation domains to the HIV 5' long terminal repeat (LTR, for which we have identified an optimal target region within the LTR U3 sequence. Using this target region, we demonstrate transcriptional activation of proviral genomes via the synergistic activation mediator complex in various in culture model systems for HIV latency. Observed levels of induction are comparable or indeed higher than treatment with established LRAs. Importantly, activation is complete, leading to production of infective viral particles. Our data demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-derived technologies can be applied to counteract HIV latency and may therefore represent promising novel approaches in the quest for HIV elimination.

  1. Cas9 specifies functional viral targets during CRISPR-Cas adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heler, Robert; Samai, Poulami; Modell, Joshua W; Weiner, Catherine; Goldberg, Gregory W; Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2015-03-12

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci and their associated (Cas) proteins provide adaptive immunity against viral infection in prokaryotes. Upon infection, short phage sequences known as spacers integrate between CRISPR repeats and are transcribed into small RNA molecules that guide the Cas9 nuclease to the viral targets (protospacers). Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 cleavage of the viral genome requires the presence of a 5'-NGG-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence immediately downstream of the viral target. It is not known whether and how viral sequences flanked by the correct PAM are chosen as new spacers. Here we show that Cas9 selects functional spacers by recognizing their PAM during spacer acquisition. The replacement of cas9 with alleles that lack the PAM recognition motif or recognize an NGGNG PAM eliminated or changed PAM specificity during spacer acquisition, respectively. Cas9 associates with other proteins of the acquisition machinery (Cas1, Cas2 and Csn2), presumably to provide PAM-specificity to this process. These results establish a new function for Cas9 in the genesis of prokaryotic immunological memory.

  2. Effect of machining damage on tensile properties of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    It is well established that damage introduced at the surface of beryllium during machining operations can lower its mechanical properties. Tensile tests were conducted to illustrate this on beryllium presently being used for parts in the W79 program and similar to the new powder-processed beryllium specified for production (tentative specification MEL 76-001319). The objective of this study is to quantitatively illuminate the importance of controlling machining damage in this particular grade of powder-processed beryllium

  3. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janga, Madhusudhana R; Campbell, LeAnne M; Rathore, Keerti S

    2017-07-01

    The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas)9 protein system has emerged as a simple and efficient tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to be functional in several crop species, yet there are no reports on the application of this or any other genome editing technologies in the cotton plant. Cotton is an important crop that is grown mainly for its fiber, but its seed also serves as a useful source of edible oil and feed protein. Most of the commercially-grown cotton is tetraploid, thus making it much more difficult to target both sets of homeologous alleles. Therefore, in order to understand the efficacy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target a gene within the genome of cotton, we made use of a transgenic cotton line previously generated in our laboratory that had a single copy of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene integrated into its genome. We demonstrate, for the first time, the use of this powerful new tool in targeted knockout of a gene residing in the cotton genome. By following the loss of GFP fluorescence, we were able to observe the cells that had undergone targeted mutations as a result of CRISPR/Cas9 activity. In addition, we provide examples of the different types of indels obtained by Cas9-mediated cleavage of the GFP gene, guided by three independent sgRNAs. The results provide useful information that will help us target important native genes in the cotton plant in future.

  4. Exploiting the CRISPR/Cas9 System for Targeted Genome Mutagenesis in Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Xia; Yang, Chunping; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Yulong

    2016-02-03

    Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has emerged as a powerful approach for targeted genome modification in eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human cell lines. Its successful application in several plant species promises enormous potential for basic and applied plant research. However, extensive studies are still needed to assess this system in other important plant species, to broaden its fields of application and to improve methods. Here we showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is efficient in petunia (Petunia hybrid), an important ornamental plant and a model for comparative research. When PDS was used as target gene, transgenic shoot lines with albino phenotype accounted for 55.6%-87.5% of the total regenerated T0 Basta-resistant lines. A homozygous deletion close to 1 kb in length can be readily generated and identified in the first generation. A sequential transformation strategy--introducing Cas9 and sgRNA expression cassettes sequentially into petunia--can be used to make targeted mutations with short indels or chromosomal fragment deletions. Our results present a new plant species amenable to CRIPR/Cas9 technology and provide an alternative procedure for its exploitation.

  5. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F [Allergy Department, Dermatological Service Hospital Clinico, Barcelona (Spain)

    1992-01-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls. (au).

  6. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaplana, J.; Romaguera, C.; Grimalt, F.

    1992-01-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls. (au)

  7. Beryllium phonon spectrum from cold neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The inelastic coherent scattering of neutrons with the initial energy E 0 =4.65 MeV on the spectrometer according to the time of flight is studied in polycrystalline beryllium. The measurements are made for the scattering angles THETA=15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 deg at 293 K. The phonon spectrum of beryllium, i-e. g(w) is reestablished from the experimental data. The data obtained are compared with the data of model calculations. It is pointed out that the phonon spectrum of beryllium has a bit excessive state density in the energy range from 10 to 30 MeV. It is caused by the insufficient statistical accuracy of the experiment at low energy transfer

  8. Spectrographic determination of impurities in beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Reino, L.C. de; Lordello, A.R.; Pereira, A.S.A.

    1986-03-01

    A method for the spectrographic determination of Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, NaNi, Si and Zn in nuclear grade beryllium oxide has been developed. The determination of Co, Al, Na and Zn is besed upon a carrier distillation technique. Better results were obtained with 2% Ga 2 O 3 as carrier in beryllium oxide. For the elements B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mg, Ni and Si the sample is loaded in a Scribner-Mullin shallow cup electrode, covered with graphite powder and excited in DC arc. The relative standard deviation values for different elements are in the range of 10 to 20%. The method fulfills requirements of precision and sensitivity for specification analysis of nuclear grade beryllium oxide.(Author) [pt

  9. Parameters affecting frequency of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated targeted mutagenesis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi; Endo, Masaki

    2015-10-01

    Frequency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis varies depending on Cas9 expression level and culture period of rice callus. Recent reports have demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can function as a sequence-specific nuclease in various plant species. Induction of mutation in proliferating tissue during embryogenesis or in germline cells is a practical means of generating heritable mutations. In the case of plant species in which cultured cells are used for transformation, non-chimeric plants can be obtained when regeneration occurs from mutated cells. Since plantlets are regenerated from both mutated and non-mutated cells in a random manner, any increment in the proportion of mutated cells in Cas9- and guide RNA (gRNA)-expressing cells will help increase the number of plants containing heritable mutations. In this study, we examined factors affecting mutation frequency in rice calli. Following sequential transformation of rice calli with Cas9- and gRNA- expression constructs, the mutation frequency in independent Cas9 transgenic lines was analyzed. A positive correlation between Cas9 expression level and mutation frequency was found. This positive relationship was observed regardless of whether the transgene or an endogenous gene was used as the target for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis. Furthermore, we found that extending the culture period increased the proportion of mutated cells as well as the variety of mutations obtained. Because mutated and non-mutated cells might proliferate equally, these results suggest that a prolonged tissue culture period increases the chance of inducing de novo mutations in non-mutated cells. This fundamental knowledge will help improve systems for obtaining non-chimeric regenerated plants in many plant species.

  10. Brazing process for beryllium pieces at a temperature lower than 800 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerutti, R.; Flegeau, G.; Haas, C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a brazing process of a beryllium plate with monel rod at a temperature lower than 1073 K under high vacuum. The brazing alloy is composed (% in weight) of silver (58 to 65%), copper (26 to 29%), indium (9 to 13%) and titanium (0 to 2%). (A.B.). 4 refs., 1 fig

  11. In vivo genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 mediated homology-independent targeted integration

    KAUST Repository

    Suzuki, Keiichiro

    2016-11-15

    Targeted genome editing via engineered nucleases is an exciting area of biomedical research and holds potential for clinical applications. Despite rapid advances in the field, in vivo targeted transgene integration is still infeasible because current tools are inefficient1, especially for non-dividing cells, which compose most adult tissues. This poses a barrier for uncovering fundamental biological principles and developing treatments for a broad range of genetic disorders2. Based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9)3, 4 technology, here we devise a homology-independent targeted integration (HITI) strategy, which allows for robust DNA knock-in in both dividing and non-dividing cells in vitro and, more importantly, in vivo (for example, in neurons of postnatal mammals). As a proof of concept of its therapeutic potential, we demonstrate the efficacy of HITI in improving visual function using a rat model of the retinal degeneration condition retinitis pigmentosa. The HITI method presented here establishes new avenues for basic research and targeted gene therapies.

  12. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated targeted mutagenesis of the fast growing cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kristen E; Ungerer, Justin; Cobb, Ryan E; Zhao, Huimin; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2016-06-23

    As autotrophic prokaryotes, cyanobacteria are ideal chassis organisms for sustainable production of various useful compounds. The newly characterized cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 is a promising candidate for serving as a microbial cell factory because of its unusually rapid growth rate. Here, we seek to develop a genetic toolkit that enables extensive genomic engineering of Synechococcus 2973 by implementing a CRISPR/Cas9 editing system. We targeted the nblA gene because of its important role in biological response to nitrogen deprivation conditions. First, we determined that the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 enzyme is toxic in cyanobacteria, and conjugational transfer of stable, replicating constructs containing the cas9 gene resulted in lethality. However, after switching to a vector that permitted transient expression of the cas9 gene, we achieved markerless editing in 100 % of cyanobacterial exconjugants after the first patch. Moreover, we could readily cure the organisms of antibiotic resistance, resulting in a markerless deletion strain. High expression levels of the Cas9 protein in Synechococcus 2973 appear to be toxic and result in cell death. However, introduction of a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system on a plasmid backbone that leads to transient cas9 expression allowed for efficient markerless genome editing in a wild type genetic background.

  13. Andrographolide Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis of Chondrosarcoma by Targeting TCF-1/SOX9 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan-Tian; Yang, Jie; Liang, Gui-Hong; Gao, Xue-Juan; Sang, Yuan; Gui, Tao; Liang, Zu-Jian; Tam, Man-Seng; Zha, Zhen-Gang

    2017-12-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most malignant bone tumor with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Thus, development of more effective treatments has become urgent. Recently, natural compounds derived from medicinal plants have emerged as promising therapeutic options via targeting multiple key cellular molecules. Andrographolide (Andro) is such a compound, which has previously been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in several human cancers. However, the molecular mechanism through which Andro exerts its anti-cancer effect on chondrosarcoma remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we showed that Andro-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest of chondrosarcoma by fine-tuning the expressions of several cell cycle regulators such as p21, p27, and Cyclins, and that prolonged treatment of cells with Andro caused pronounced cell apoptosis. Remarkably, we found that SOX9 was highly expressed in poor-differentiated chondrosarcoma, and that knockdown of SOX9 suppressed chondrosarcoma cell growth. Further, our results showed that Andro dose-dependently down-regulated SOX9 expression in chondrosarcoma cells. Concomitantly, an inhibition of T cell factor 1 (TCF-1) mRNA expression and an enhancement of TCF-1 protein degradation by Andro were observed. In contrast, the expression and subcellular localization of β-catenin were not altered upon the treatment of Andro, suggesting that β-catenin might not function as the primary target of Andro. Additionally, we provided evidence that there was a mutual regulation between TCF-1 and SOX9 in chondrosarcoma cells. In conclusion, these results highlight the potential therapeutic effects of Andro in treatment of chondrosarcoma via targeting the TCF-1/SOX9 axis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4575-4586, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, D.J.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques

  15. Novel molecular imaging ligands targeting matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 for imaging of unstable atherosclerotic plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hakimzadeh

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs may allow detection of atherosclerotic lesions vulnerable to rupture. In this study, we develop a novel radiolabelled compound that can target gelatinase MMP subtypes (MMP2/9 with high selectivity and inhibitory potency. Inhibitory potencies of several halogenated analogues of MMP subtype-selective inhibitors (N-benzenesulfonyliminodiacetyl monohydroxamates and N-halophenoxy-benzenesulfonyl iminodiacetyl monohydroxamates were in the nanomolar range for MMP2/9. The analogue with highest inhibitory potency and selectivity was radiolabelled with [123I], resulting in moderate radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies in mice, revealed stabilization in blood 1 hour after intravenous bolus injection. Intravenous infusion of the radioligand and subsequent autoradiography of excised aortas showed tracer uptake in atheroprone mice. Distribution of the radioligand showed co-localization with MMP2/9 immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, we have developed a novel selective radiolabeled MMP2/9 inhibitor, suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging that effectively targets atherosclerotic lesions in mice.

  16. Novel molecular imaging ligands targeting matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 for imaging of unstable atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Ger; de Waard, Vivian; Lutgens, Esther; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; de Bruin, Kora; Piek, Jan J.; Eersels, Jos L. H.; Booij, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Windhorst, Albert D.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may allow detection of atherosclerotic lesions vulnerable to rupture. In this study, we develop a novel radiolabelled compound that can target gelatinase MMP subtypes (MMP2/9) with high selectivity and inhibitory potency. Inhibitory potencies of several halogenated analogues of MMP subtype-selective inhibitors (N-benzenesulfonyliminodiacetyl monohydroxamates and N-halophenoxy-benzenesulfonyl iminodiacetyl monohydroxamates) were in the nanomolar range for MMP2/9. The analogue with highest inhibitory potency and selectivity was radiolabelled with [123I], resulting in moderate radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies in mice, revealed stabilization in blood 1 hour after intravenous bolus injection. Intravenous infusion of the radioligand and subsequent autoradiography of excised aortas showed tracer uptake in atheroprone mice. Distribution of the radioligand showed co-localization with MMP2/9 immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, we have developed a novel selective radiolabeled MMP2/9 inhibitor, suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that effectively targets atherosclerotic lesions in mice. PMID:29190653

  17. Simple and Efficient Targeting of Multiple Genes Through CRISPR-Cas9 in Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Lopez-Obando

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Powerful genome editing technologies are needed for efficient gene function analysis. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been adapted as an efficient gene-knock-out technology in a variety of species. However, in a number of situations, knocking out or modifying a single gene is not sufficient; this is particularly true for genes belonging to a common family, or for genes showing redundant functions. Like many plants, the model organism Physcomitrella patens has experienced multiple events of polyploidization during evolution that has resulted in a number of families of duplicated genes. Here, we report a robust CRISPR-Cas9 system, based on the codelivery of a CAS9 expressing cassette, multiple sgRNA vectors, and a cassette for transient transformation selection, for gene knock-out in multiple gene families. We demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas9-mediated targeting of five different genes allows the selection of a quintuple mutant, and all possible subcombinations of mutants, in one experiment, with no mutations detected in potential off-target sequences. Furthermore, we confirmed the observation that the presence of repeats in the vicinity of the cutting region favors deletion due to the alternative end joining pathway, for which induced frameshift mutations can be potentially predicted. Because the number of multiple gene families in Physcomitrella is substantial, this tool opens new perspectives to study the role of expanded gene families in the colonization of land by plants.

  18. Efficient and Heritable Gene Targeting in Tilapia by CRISPR/Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Yang, Huihui; Zhao, Jiue; Fang, Lingling; Shi, Hongjuan; Li, Mengru; Sun, Yunlv; Zhang, Xianbo; Jiang, Dongneng; Zhou, Linyan; Wang, Deshou

    2014-01-01

    Studies of gene function in non-model animals have been limited by the approaches available for eliminating gene function. The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated) system has recently become a powerful tool for targeted genome editing. Here, we report the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to disrupt selected genes, including nanos2, nanos3, dmrt1, and foxl2, with efficiencies as high as 95%. In addition, mutations in dmrt1 and foxl2 induced by CRISPR/Cas9 were efficiently transmitted through the germline to F1. Obvious phenotypes were observed in the G0 generation after mutation of germ cell or somatic cell-specific genes. For example, loss of Nanos2 and Nanos3 in XY and XX fish resulted in germ cell-deficient gonads as demonstrated by GFP labeling and Vasa staining, respectively, while masculinization of somatic cells in both XY and XX gonads was demonstrated by Dmrt1 and Cyp11b2 immunohistochemistry and by up-regulation of serum androgen levels. Our data demonstrate that targeted, heritable gene editing can be achieved in tilapia, providing a convenient and effective approach for generating loss-of-function mutants. Furthermore, our study shows the utility of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for genetic engineering in non-model species like tilapia and potentially in many other teleost species. PMID:24709635

  19. Potential role of lycopene in targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 to combat hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan Alvi, Sahir; Ansari, Irfan A; Khan, Imran; Iqbal, Johar; Khan, M Salman

    2017-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK-9) is a serine protease of the proprotien convertase (PC) family that has profound effects on plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, the major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), through its ability to mediate LDL receptor (LDL-R) protein degradation and reduced recycling to the surface of hepatocytes. Thus, the current study was premeditated not only to evaluate the role of lycopene in targeting the inhibition of PCSK-9 via modulation of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in HFD rats but also to examine a correlation between HFD induced inflammatory cascades and subsequent regulation of PCSK-9 expression. Besides the effect of lycopene on hepatic PCSK-9 gene expression, PPI studies for PCSK-9-Lycopene complex and EGF-A of LDL-R were also performed via molecular informatics approach to assess the dual mode of action of lycopene in LDL-R recycling and increased removal of circulatory LDL-C. We for the first time deciphered that lycopene treatment significantly down-regulates the expression of hepatic PCSK-9 and HMGR, whereas, hepatic LDL-R expression was significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, lycopene ameliorated inflammation stimulated expression of PCSK-9 via suppressing the expression of inflammatory markers. The results from our molecular informatics studies confirmed that lycopene, while occupying the active site of PCSK-9 crystal structure, reduces the affinity of PCSK-9 to complex with EGF-A of LDL-R, whereas, atorvastatin makes PCSK-9-EGF-A complex formation more feasible than both of PCSK-9-EGF-A alone and Lycopene-PCSK-9-EGF-A complex. Based on above results, it can be concluded that lycopene exhibits potent hypolipidemic activities via molecular mechanisms that are either identical (HMGR inhibition) or distinct from that of statins (down-regulation of PCSK-9 mRNA synthesis). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that lycopene has this specific

  20. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.e [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France C2RMF, CNRS-UMR171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of {mu}g/g of beryllium in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-{mu}m diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction {sup 9}Be({alpha}, n{gamma}){sup 12}C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt {gamma}-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt {gamma}-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the {sup 27}Al({alpha}, p{gamma}){sup 30}Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required {mu}g/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 {mu}C, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 {mu}g/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 {mu}g/g.

  1. A lentivirus-free inducible CRISPR-Cas9 system for efficient targeting of human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Kamlesh; Grill, Sherilyn; Graniel, Jacqueline; Nandakumar, Jayakrishnan

    2017-08-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 is a cutting-edge tool for modifying genomes. The efficacy with which Cas9 recognizes its target has revolutionized the engineering of knockouts. However this efficacy complicates the knocking out of important genes in cultured cells. Unedited cells holding a survival advantage within an edited population can confound the knockout phenotype. Here we develop a HeLa-based system that overcomes this limitation, incorporating several attractive features. First, we use Flp-recombinase to generate clones stably integrated for Cas9 and guide RNAs, eliminating the possibility of unedited cells. Second, Cas9 can be induced uniformly in the clonal cultures using doxycycline to measure the knockout phenotype. Third, two genes can be simultaneously knocked out using this approach. Finally, by not involving lentiviruses, our method is appealing to a broad research audience. Using this methodology we generated an inducible AGO2-knockout cell line showing normal RNA interference in the absence of doxycycline. Upon induction of Cas9, the AGO2 locus was cleaved, the AGO2 protein was depleted, and RNA interference was compromised. In addition to generating inducible knockouts, our technology can be adapted to improve other applications of Cas9, including transcriptional/epigenetic modulation and visualization of cellular DNA loci. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Donne, M.D.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma facing component of first wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold isostatic pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation

  3. Method of beryllium implantation in germanium substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, S.; Baba, Y.; Kaneda, T.; Shirai, T.

    1983-01-01

    A semiconductor device is disclosed, as well as a method for manufacturing it in which ions of beryllium are implanted into a germanium substrate to form a layer containing p-type impurity material. There after the substrate is heated at a temperature in the range of 400 0 C. to 700 0 C. to diffuse the beryllium ions into the substrate so that the concentration of beryllium at the surface of the impurity layer is in the order of 10 17 cm- 3 or more. In one embodiment, a p-type channel stopper is formed locally in a p-type germanium substrate and an n-type active layer is formed in a region surrounded by, and isolated from, the channel stopper region. In another embodiment, a relatively shallow p-type active layer is formed at one part of an n-type germanium substrate and p-type guard ring regions are formed surrounding, and partly overlapping said p-type active layer. In a further embodiment, a p-type island region is formed at one part of an n-type germanium substrate, and an n-type region is formed within said p-type region. In these embodiments, the p-type channel stopper region, p-type guard ring regions and the p-type island region are all formed by implanting ions of beryllium into the germanium substrate

  4. ESR investigations of gamma irradiated beryllium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Polyakov, A.I.; Petukhov, Yu.V.; Bitenbaev, M.I.; Zashkvara, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    In this report the result of ESR- investigation of kinetics of radiation paramagnetic defects accumulated in beryllium ceramics under gamma irradiation are presented. The data on quantum yield and destruction rate constants of these defects under ionizing irradiation are obtained. (orig.)

  5. ESR investigations of gamma irradiated beryllium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabikin, Yu A; Polyakov, A I; Petukhov, Yu V; Bitenbaev, M I; Zashkvara, O V [Physical-Technical Inst., Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2000-04-01

    In this report the result of ESR- investigation of kinetics of radiation paramagnetic defects accumulated in beryllium ceramics under gamma irradiation are presented. The data on quantum yield and destruction rate constants of these defects under ionizing irradiation are obtained. (orig.)

  6. Beryllium, a material of great promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fauconnier, J.P.; Nomine, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the lightest metals. It also owns an outstanding combination of physical, mechanical and nuclear properties which gives it a favorable position, compared to more usual materials, in various fields of applications. Constant technological advancements in the elaboration and working up have induced a significant improvement of its ductility and a reduction of the production costs. (Author). 12 refs., 7 figs

  7. Thermophysical properties of solid and liquid beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivineau, M.; Arles, L.; Vermeulen, J.M.; Thevenin, Th.

    1993-01-01

    A submillisecond resistive heating technique under high pressure (0.12 GPa) has been used to measure selected thermophysical properties of both solid and liquid beryllium. Data have been obtained between room temperature and 2900 K. Results on enthalpy, volume expansion, electrical resistivity, and sound velocity measurements are presented

  8. Critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation effects in beryllium can hardly be explained within a framework of the conventional theory based on the bias concept due to elastic interaction difference (EID) between vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) since beryllium belongs to hexagonal close-packed metals where diffusion has been shown to be anisotropic. Diffusional anisotropy difference (DAD) between point defects changes the cavity bias for their absorption and leads to dependence of the dislocation bias on the distribution of dislocations over crystallographic directions. On the other hand, the elastic interaction between point defects and cavities gives rise to the size and gas pressure dependencies of the cavity bias, resulting in new critical quantities for bubble-void transition effects at low temperature irradiation. In the present paper, we develop the concept of the critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling with account of both DAD and EID, and take care of thermal effects as well since they are of major importance for beryllium which has an anomalously low self-diffusion activation energy. Experimental data on beryllium swelling are analyzed on the basis of the present theory. (orig.)

  9. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

    2002-10-01

    Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern.

  10. K-shell photodetachment of the negative ion of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, N M; Ramsbottom, C A; Bell, K L; Hibbert, A

    2003-01-01

    The partial and total cross sections for photodetachment of the metastable 1s 2 2s2p 2 4 P e bound state of the negative ion of beryllium are presented for a range of initial photon energies across and beyond the 1s detachment threshold. The cross sections are computed using a multichannel close-coupling R-matrix approximation, where sophisticated configuration-interaction wavefunctions are used to represent the initial and final states. Twelve target eigenstates with configurations 1s 2 2s2p, 1s 2 2p 2 , 1s2s 2 2p, 1s2s2p 2 and 1s2p 3 are included in the expansion of the total wavefunction describing the neutral Be atom. A number of prominent resonance structures have been identified in the partial cross sections for the three total system symmetry transitions of interest: 4 P e - 4 S o , 4 P o and 4 D o . No comparison can be made at this stage with other theoretical or experimental measurements due to a lack of data describing the inner shell photodetachment of the negative ion of beryllium

  11. Dual CRISPR-Cas9 Cleavage Mediated Gene Excision and Targeted Integration in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Difeng; Smith, Spencer; Spagnuolo, Michael; Rodriguez, Gabriel; Blenner, Mark

    2018-05-29

    CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been successfully applied in Yarrowia lipolytica for targeted genomic editing including gene disruption and integration; however, disruptions by existing methods typically result from small frameshift mutations caused by indels within the coding region, which usually resulted in unnatural protein. In this study, a dual cleavage strategy directed by paired sgRNAs is developed for gene knockout. This method allows fast and robust gene excision, demonstrated on six genes of interest. The targeted regions for excision vary in length from 0.3 kb up to 3.5 kb and contain both non-coding and coding regions. The majority of the gene excisions are repaired by perfect nonhomologous end-joining without indel. Based on this dual cleavage system, two targeted markerless integration methods are developed by providing repair templates. While both strategies are effective, homology mediated end joining (HMEJ) based method are twice as efficient as homology recombination (HR) based method. In both cases, dual cleavage leads to similar or improved gene integration efficiencies compared to gene excision without integration. This dual cleavage strategy will be useful for not only generating more predictable and robust gene knockout, but also for efficient targeted markerless integration, and simultaneous knockout and integration in Y. lipolytica. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Analysis of mice with targeted deletion of AQP9 gene provides conclusive evidence for expression of AQP9 in neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylonakou, Maria N; Petersen, Petur H; Rinvik, Eric

    2009-01-01

    and in situ hybridization analyses with AQP9 knockout controls show that subpopulations of nigral neurons express AQP9 both at the mRNA and at the protein levels and that populations of cortical cells (including hilar neurons in the hippocampus) contain AQP9 mRNA but no detectable AQP9 immunosignal...

  13. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma-facing component of first-wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold-isostatic-pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well as its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.In this current work, the range of anticipated fusion operating conditions is reviewed. The thermal, mechanical, chemical compatibility, tritium retention/release, and helium retention/swelling databases are then reviewed for fabrication methods and fusion operating conditions of interest. Properties correlations and uncertainty ranges are also discussed. In the case of the more complex phenomena of tritium retention/release and helium-induced swelling, fundamental mechanisms and models are reviewed in more detail. Areas in which additional data are needed are highlighted, along with some trends which suggest ways of optimizing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications. (orig.)

  14. sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I targets for studies of nuclear waste transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Ingelbrecht, C; Raptis, K; Altzitzoglou, T; Noguere, G

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear incineration of long-lived fission products and minor actinides is being investigated as an alternative means of reactor waste disposal. sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I is of particular interest because of its long half-life and high mobility in the environment. Lead iodide targets of sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I for neutron capture cross-section measurements were prepared from 210 l fuel reprocessing waste solution containing 1.3 g l sup - sup 1 iodine and other fission products. The iodine was separated by oxidation to I sub 2 and extraction into chloroform, reduction to iodide by sodium sulphite and re-extraction into an aqueous phase. Iodide was precipitated using lead nitrate and dried. The chemistry was carried out batch-wise using 400 ml starting solution each time and recycling the chloroform. An extraction efficiency of about 90%, determined by gamma-ray spectrometry, was achieved.

  15. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report 10/1/98 through 9/30/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Jane

    1999-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) has served as the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy since December 30, 1990. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999. During this period, GA and our partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). We fabricated and delivered over 1790 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNL. We produced more than 1380 glass and plastic target capsules over a wide range of sizes and designs (plus over 300 near target-quality capsules) for LLNL, LANL, SNL, and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetic (UR/LLE). We also delivered various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UWLLE in FY99. We fabricated a device to polish NIF-sized beryllium shells and prepared a laboratory for the safe operation of beryllium polishing activities. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY99, the GA/Schafer portion of the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team effort for design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA was completed. All components of the OCTS were procured, fabricated, assembled, tested, and shipped to UR/LLE. Only minor documentation tasks remain to be done in FY00. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D2 or deuterium

  16. Safety handling of beryllium for fusion technology R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto; Terai, Takayuki; Odawara, Osamu; Ashibe, Kusuo; Ohara, Atsushi.

    1992-07-01

    Feasibility of beryllium use as a blanket neutron multiplier, first wall and plasma facing material has been studied for the D-T burning experiment reactors such as ITER. Various experimental work of beryllium and its compounds will be performed under the conditions of high temperature and high energy particle exposure simulating fusion reactor conditions. Beryllium is known as a hazardous substance and its handling has been carefully controlled by various health and safe guidances and/or regulations in many countries. Japanese regulations for hazardous substance provide various guidelines on beryllium for the protection of industrial workers and environment. This report was prepared for the safe handling of beryllium in a laboratory scale experiments for fusion technology R and D such as blanket development. Major items in this report are; (1) Brief review of guidances and regulations in USA, UK and Japan. (2) Safe handling and administration manuals at beryllium facilities in INEL, LANL and JET. (3) Conceptual design study of beryllium handling facility for small to mid-scale blanket R and D. (4) Data on beryllium toxicity, example of clinical diagnosis of beryllium disease, and environmental occurence of beryllium. (5) Personnel protection tools of Japanese Industrial Standard for hazardous substance. (author) 61 refs

  17. Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.C.; Creek, K.L.; Castro, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium

  18. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  19. Investigation of thick-target neutron emission from Be-9(d,n)B-10 at E/sub d/ = 7 MeV for angles other than zero degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.; Guenther, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    Double-differential measurements of neutron emission from a thick beryllium target bombarded with 7-MeV deuterons are made for neutrons above 800 keV, over the angular range of 0 to 155 0 . The angular dependence of the neutron yield is found to be quite anisotropic. The importance of this anisotropy in integral neutron-induced reaction cross-section investigations is illustrated. 7 refs.,

  20. The CRISPR-Cas9 technology: Closer to the ultimate toolkit for targeted genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétier, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The first period of plant genome editing was based on Agrobacterium; chemical mutagenesis by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) and ionizing radiations; each of these technologies led to randomly distributed genome modifications. The second period is associated with the discoveries of homing and meganuclease enzymes during the 80s and 90s, which were then engineered to provide efficient tools for targeted editing. From 2006 to 2012, a few crop plants were successfully and precisely modified using zinc-finger nucleases. A third wave of improvement in genome editing, which led to a dramatic decrease in off-target events, was achieved in 2009-2011 with the TALEN technology. The latest revolution surfaced in 2013 with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, whose high efficiency and technical ease of use is really impressive; scientists can use in-house kits or commercially available kits; the only two requirements are to carefully choose the location of the DNA double strand breaks to be induced and then to order an oligonucleotide. While this close-to- ultimate toolkit for targeted editing of genomes represents dramatic scientific progress which allows the development of more complex useful agronomic traits through synthetic biology, the social acceptance of genome editing remains regularly questioned by anti-GMO citizens and organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of influence of fast neutron fluence irradiated to Beryllium element of The RSG-GAS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of influence fast neutron fluence irradiated to the RSG-GAS beryllium reflector have been done. Methods of analysis was carried out by measuring fluxes neutron in beryllium element and block position that function as reflector.The calculation done for determination it is there any influence of neutron as long as beryllium in the core. Besides that, visualization done to make sure it there is any deformation at beryllium as effect of irradiation. Fluxes and fluences of beryllium element measurement result in 200 kW reactor power are 2.30E+07 n/cm 2 .sec and 4.19E+17 n/cm 2 in position E-2, 3.70E+07 n/cm 2 s and 6.74E+17 n/cm 2 in position J-8, 2.19E+12 n/cm 2 s and 3.99E+22 n/cm 2 in position. Measurement results in the position B-3 are 2.12E+12 n/cm 2 s and 3.86E+22 n/cm 2 in position G-10 respectively. Other result are fluxes and fluence in beryllium block, those are 5,02E+07 n/cm 2 s and 9,15E+17 n/cm 2 in position (5-6), and 2,32E+07 n/cm 2 s and 4,23E+17 n/cm 2 in position (C-D). Deformation (L/L) results for beryllium element are 1,12E-08 in position E-2, 1,84E-08 in position J-8, 1,60E-03 in position B-3, and 1,55E-03 in position G-10. In beryllium block deformation results are 2,52E-08 in position (5-6) and 1,13E-08 in position (C-D). Those results are shown unseen deformation in beryllium element and beryllium block and demonstrably by visual observation in reactor hot cell. (author)

  2. Toxicokinetics of beryllium following inhalation of beryllium oxide by Beagle dogs. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Haley, P.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Bice, D.E.; Eidson, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Young adult Beagle dogs inhaled radiolabeled beryllium oxide aerosols ( 7 BeO) prepared at either 500 deg. or 1000 deg. C to achieve one of two initial lung burdens (ILBs) of BeO. After exposure, animals were monitored by whole body counting for 7 Be, and excreta, clinical, and radiographic data were collected. One group of dogs was assigned for serial sacrifice for quantitation of beryllium clearance from lung, translocation to other organs, and histopathologic analysis of lung and lymph nodes. A second group of dogs was subjected to periodic bronchopulmonary lavage for analysis of lymphocyte responsiveness to beryllium. These latter dogs were subsequently re-exposed to the high ILB level of BeO prepared t 500 deg. C. ILBs following the second exposure were higher than that after the first exposure (74 vs. 42 μg BeO/kg, respectively). Except for one dog that exhibited enhanced beryllium retention after the second exposure, patterns of whole body clearance were similar to those observed after the initial exposures to the 500 deg. C-BeO. Analysis of lymphocyte responsiveness to beryllium in the second group of dogs is continuing. (author)

  3. Toxicokinetics of beryllium following inhalation of beryllium oxide by Beagle dogs. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G L; Haley, P J; Hoover, M D; Mewhinney, J A; Bice, D E; Eidson, A F

    1988-12-01

    Young adult Beagle dogs inhaled radiolabeled beryllium oxide aerosols ({sup 7}BeO) prepared at either 500 deg. or 1000 deg. C to achieve one of two initial lung burdens (ILBs) of BeO. After exposure, animals were monitored by whole body counting for {sup 7}Be, and excreta, clinical, and radiographic data were collected. One group of dogs was assigned for serial sacrifice for quantitation of beryllium clearance from lung, translocation to other organs, and histopathologic analysis of lung and lymph nodes. A second group of dogs was subjected to periodic bronchopulmonary lavage for analysis of lymphocyte responsiveness to beryllium. These latter dogs were subsequently re-exposed to the high ILB level of BeO prepared t 500 deg. C. ILBs following the second exposure were higher than that after the first exposure (74 vs. 42 {mu}g BeO/kg, respectively). Except for one dog that exhibited enhanced beryllium retention after the second exposure, patterns of whole body clearance were similar to those observed after the initial exposures to the 500 deg. C-BeO. Analysis of lymphocyte responsiveness to beryllium in the second group of dogs is continuing. (author)

  4. Application of powder metallurgy beryllium in Beijing spectrometer III beam pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lifang; Li Xunfeng; Wang Li; Ji Quan; Liu Jianping

    2008-01-01

    According to the requirements of Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) beam pipe, the physical properties of several materials were compared and powder metallurgy beryllium was chosen as the material for the central pipe of the BES III beam pipe. Weight-loss method was used to study the corrosion of powder metallurgy beryllium in No. 1 oil for electron discharge machining (EDM-1). The result shows that the anticorrosive property of powder metallurgy beryllium in EDM-1 is high. The corrosion rate, 4.18 x 10 -7 kg· m -2 ·h -1 in initial stage, becomes small with the lapse of the time and stabilizes at 1.54 x 10 -7 kg·m -2 ·h -1 at last. It can be estimated that the powder metallurgy beryllium will be corroded 19.9 μm in the depth in 10 years and it accounts for 3.32% of the smallest thickness of the central pipe, which satisfies the requirements of the BESIII. (authors)

  5. microRNA-9 targets the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 for degradation in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, Eleonora; Patella, Francesca; Waage, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    -coding RNAs. Here we report that microRNA-9 (miR-9) regulates the expression of the Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 (MALAT-1), one of the most abundant and conserved long non-coding RNAs. Intriguingly, we find that miR-9 targets AGO2-mediated regulation of MALAT1 in the nucleus. Our...

  6. Status of material development for lifetime expansion of beryllium reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, C [Materion Brush Beryllium and Composites, California (United States); Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Hatano, Y [Univ. of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Chakrov, P [INP-KNNC, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kodama, M [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Beryllium has been used as the reflector element material in the reactor, specifically S-200F structural grade beryllium manufactured by Materion Brush Beryllium and Composites (former, Brush Wellman Inc.). As a part of the reactor upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) also has carried out the cooperation experiments to extend the operating lifetime of the beryllium reflector elements. It will first be necessary to determine which of the material's physical, mechanical and chemical properties will be the most influential on that choice. The irradiation testing plans to evaluate the various beryllium grades are also briefly considered and prepared. In this paper, material selection, irradiation test plan and PEI development for lifetime expansion of beryllium are described for material testing reactors. (author)

  7. Characterization of plasma sprayed beryllium ITER first wall mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.

    1998-01-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/m{sup 2} without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface. (author)

  8. Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Beryllium ITER First Wall Mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Richard G.; Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Hollis, Kendall J.

    1997-10-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/sq m without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface

  9. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride; Rueckhaltemechanismen fuer Wasserstoff in metallischem Beryllium und Berylliumoxid sowie Eigenschaften von ioneninduziertem Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-09-22

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  10. Study on neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as neutron multiplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    More than 300 tons beryllium is expected to be used as a neutron multiplier in ITER, and study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) were performed to get the engineering data for fusion blanket design. This study started as the study on the tritium behavior in beryllium neutron reflector in order to make clear the generation mechanism on tritium of JMTR primary coolant since 1985. These experiences were handed over to beryllium studies for fusion study, and overall studies such as production technology of beryllium pebbles, irradiation behavior evaluation and reprocessing technology have been started since 1990. In this presentation, study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with JMTR was reviewed from the point of tritium release, thermal properties, mechanical properties and reprocessing technology. (author)

  11. Fluid simulation of beryllium transport in the ITER gaseous divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.; Campbell, R.B.; McHugh, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    The transport of either intrinsic or injected impurities will play a crucial role in the energy loss mechanisms in the ITER gaseous/cold plasma target divertor. Both 1-D and 2-D multi-charge state fluid codes are used to model the transport of beryllium in the ITER SOL. Our major conclusion is that in order to model the containment of impurities, the background flow field must be known in detail. Comparing 1-D and 2-D solutions, hydrogen flow reversal plays an important role in the entrainment process. Further, the flow of particles from the core plasma also has a strong impact on the resultant entrainment of the impurities in both 1-D and 2-D. It is imperative that those components of poloidal velocity due to E x B and diamagnetic drifts be included in the models. (orig.)

  12. Measuring device for bending of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Seiri; Sakamoto, Naoki.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can measure bending of a beryllium reflector formed in a reactor core of a nuclear reactor by a relatively easy operation. Namely, a sensor portion comprises a long-support that can be inserted to a fuel element-insertion hole disposed in the reactor and a plurality of distance sensors disposed in a longitudinal direction of the support. A supersonic wave sensor which is advantageous in the heat resistance, the size and the accuracy and can conduct measurement in water relatively easily is used as the distance sensors. However, other sensors, instead of the sensor described above, may also be used. The plurality of distance sensors detect the bending amount of the beryllium reflector in the longitudinal direction by such an easy operation of inserting such a sensor portion to the fuel element-insertion hole upon exchange of fuel elements. (I.S.)

  13. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs

  14. Modeling of systematic retention of beryllium in rats. Extrapolation to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and other animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with other previously published

  15. Interaction of hydrogen and its isotopes with irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Shestakov, V.P.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Pomanenko, O.G.; Chikhraj, E.V.; Kenzhin, E.A.; Zverev, V.V.; Kolbanenkov, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the article the results of experiments on hydrogen and its isotopes accumulation and gas-release from irradiated beryllium are presented. The irradiation was conducted at different media and temperatures in the RA and IVG.1M reactors. The measurements were carried out by thermal desorption method. Hydrogen release from beryllium samples saturated at different conditions were calculated. Dependence of hydrogen confinement character in beryllium from grain orientation in the sample, temperature and irradiation rate was revealed

  16. Premelting hcp to bcc Transition in Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Sun, T.; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, P.; Zhang, D.-B.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2017-04-01

    Beryllium (Be) is an important material with wide applications ranging from aerospace components to x-ray equipment. Yet a precise understanding of its phase diagram remains elusive. We have investigated the phase stability of Be using a recently developed hybrid free energy computation method that accounts for anharmonic effects by invoking phonon quasiparticles. We find that the hcp → bcc transition occurs near the melting curve at 0 materials.

  17. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  18. Preparation and properties of beryllium diphosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, J.F.; Gerardin, R.; Zanne, M.; Gleitzer, C.; Aubry, J.

    1975-01-01

    The compound BeP 2 can be obtained by direct action of phosphor on beryllium metal at 800-1000 0 C, and by removal of arsenic with phosphor in the diarsenide BeAs 2 . BeP 2 is a non hygroscopic brown-red powder. The X rays diffraction provide evidence for a quadratic cell with a = 7.08 A and c = 15.06 A. The atomic stacking is diamond type

  19. Permeation behavior of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; O' hira, Shigeru; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    Study on Implantation Driven Permeation (IDP) behavior of deuterium through pure beryllium was investigated as a part of the research to predict the tritium permeation through the first wall components ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The permeation experiments were carried out with two beryllium specimens, one was an unannealed specimen and the other was that annealed at 1173 K. The permeation flux was measured as a function of specimen temperature and incident ion flux. Surface analysis of specimen was also carried out after the permeation experiment. Permeation was observed only with the annealed specimen and no significant permeation was observed with unannealed specimen under the present experimental condition (maximum temperature: 685 K, detection limit: 1x10{sup 13} D atoms/m{sup 2}s). It could be attributed that the intrinsic lattice defects, which act as diffusion preventing site, decreased with the specimen annealing. Based on the result of steady and transient permeation behavior and surface analysis, it was estimated that the deuterium permeation implanted into annealed beryllium was controlled by surface recombination due to the oxide layer on the surface of the permeated side. (author)

  20. Behavior of beryllium pebbles under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik; Baldwin, D.L.; Gelles, D.S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Kawamura, H.; Oliver, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium pebbles are being considered in fusion reactor blanket designs as neutron multiplier. An example is the European `Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket.` Several forms of beryllium pebbles are commercially available but little is known about these forms in response to fast neutron irradiation. Commercially available beryllium pebbles have been irradiated to approximately 1.3 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 390degC. Pebbles 1-mm in diameter manufactured by Brush Wellman, USA and by Nippon Gaishi Company, Japan, and 3-mm pebbles manufactured by Brush Wellman were included. All were irradiated in the below-core area of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho Falls, USA, in molybdenum alloy capsules containing helium. Post-irradiation results are presented on density change measurements, tritium release by assay, stepped-temperature anneal, and thermal ramp desorption tests, and helium release by assay and stepped-temperature anneal measurements, for Be pebbles from two manufacturing methods, and with two specimen diameters. The experimental results on density change and tritium and helium release are compared with the predictions of the code ANFIBE. (author)

  1. Dynamic behaviour of S200F beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Dominique

    1991-01-01

    Compression tests have been made on a large scale of strain, strain rate (up to 2000 s -1 ) and temperature (between 20 C and 300 C). From these experiences, we have calculated a constitutive model for beryllium S200F, which can be used by computer codes. Its formulation is not far from Steinberg, Cochran and Guinan's. But in our case, the influences of temperature and strain rate appear clearly within the expression. To validate our equation, we have used it in a computer code. Its extrapolation for higher strain rates is in good agreement with experiments such as Taylor impact tests or plate impact tests (strain rates greater than 10 4 s -1 ). With micrography, we could settle a link between the main strain mode within the material, and the variation of one parameter of the model. Beside the constitutive model, we have shown that shock loaded beryllium behaves in two different ways. If the strain rate is lower than 5.10 6 s -1 , then it is proportional to the squared shock pressure. Beyond, it is a linear function of shock pressure to the power of four. By a spall study on beryllium, we have confirmed that it is excessively fragile. Its fracture is sudden, at a strength near 1 GPa. (author) [fr

  2. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  3. The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

  4. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found

  5. Formation of cellular structure in beryllium at plastic working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Pikalov, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of cellular structure formation are investigated at various kinds of deformation and heat treatment of beryllium ingots. It is shown that the cellular structure plays the important role in formation of complex of physical mechanical properties of beryllium. Influence of impurity, various conditions of deformation (temperature, squeezing degree) and heat treatments on substructure, texture and mechanical properties of metal is investigated. Optimum conditions of rolling and heat treatments of beryllium are defined. The way of sign-variable cyclic deformation of beryllium ingots is offered for reception quasi-isotropic fine-grained metal. Physical-mechanical properties of ultra fine-grained metal are studied

  6. Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis in axolotl using Cas9 RNA-guided nuclease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, G. Parker; Timberlake, Andrew T.; Mclean, Kaitlin C.; Monaghan, James R.; Crews, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    Among tetrapods, only urodele salamanders, such as the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum, can completely regenerate limbs as adults. The mystery of why salamanders, but not other animals, possess this ability has for generations captivated scientists seeking to induce this phenomenon in other vertebrates. Although many recent advances in molecular biology have allowed limb regeneration and tissue repair in the axolotl to be investigated in increasing detail, the molecular toolkit for the study of this process has been limited. Here, we report that the CRISPR-Cas9 RNA-guided nuclease system can efficiently create mutations at targeted sites within the axolotl genome. We identify individual animals treated with RNA-guided nucleases that have mutation frequencies close to 100% at targeted sites. We employ this technique to completely functionally ablate EGFP expression in transgenic animals and recapitulate developmental phenotypes produced by loss of the conserved gene brachyury. Thus, this advance allows a reverse genetic approach in the axolotl and will undoubtedly provide invaluable insight into the mechanisms of salamanders' unique regenerative ability. PMID:24764077

  7. Corrosion of beryllium oxide; Corrosion de l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, J; Caillat, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Data are reported on the volatilization rate of beryllium oxide in moist air depending on temperature and water vapour concentration. They are concerned with powder samples or sintered shapes of various densities. For sintered samples, the volatilization rate is very low under the following conditions: - temperature: 1300 deg. C, - water vapour concentration in moist air: 25 g/m{sup 3}, - flow rate: 12 I/hour corresponding to a speed of 40 m/hour on the surface of the sample. For calcinated powders (1300 deg. C), grain growth has been observed under a stream of moist air at 1100 deg. C. For instance, grain size changes from 0,5 to at least 2 microns after 500 hours of exposure at this temperature. Furthermore, results data are reported on corrosion of sintered beryllium oxide in pressurized water. At 250 deg. C, under a pressure of 40 kg/cm{sup 2} water is very slightly corrosive; however, internal strains are revealed. Finally, some features on the corrosion in liquid sodium are exposed. (author)Fren. [French] La volatilisation de l'oxyde de beryllium dans l'air humide est etudiee en fonction de la temperature pour differentes teneurs de vapeur d'eau. Les essais decrits portent sur de l'oxyde de beryllium en poudre ou sur des echantillons d'oxyde de beryllium fritte de differentes densites. Avec un debit d'air de 12 I/h contenant 25 g de vapeur par m{sup 3} correspondant a une vitesse de 40 m/h sur la surface de l'echantillon, la volatilisation des frittes a 1300 deg. C reste tres faible. Sur de la poudre d'oxyde de beryllium calcinee initialement a 1300 deg. C, on observe un grossissement de la taille des grains sous l'influence de l'air humide a 1100 deg. C. Par exemple, elle passe de 0,5 a au moins 2 microns apres 500 heures d'exposition a cette temperature. On donne d'autre part les resultats d'une etude de la corrosion de frittes d'oxyde de beryllium par l'eau, en autoclave. A 250 deg. C, sous une pression de 40 kg/cm{sup 2}, l'action de l'eau reste tres

  8. Single-step generation of rabbits carrying a targeted allele of the tyrosinase gene using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Arata; Hirose, Michiko; Sankai, Tadashi; Yasmin, Lubna; Yuzawa, Kazuaki; Honsho, Kimiko; Izu, Haruna; Iguchi, Atsushi; Ikawa, Masahito; Ogura, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Targeted genome editing of nonrodent mammalian species has provided the potential for highly accurate interventions into gene function in humans and the generation of useful animal models of human diseases. Here we show successful clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas)-mediated gene targeting via circular plasmid injection in rabbits. The rabbit tyrosinase gene (TYR) was effectively disrupted, and we confirmed germline transmission by pronuclear injection of a circular plasmid expressing humanized Cas9 (hCas9) and single-guide RNA. Direct injection into pronuclear stage zygotes was possible following an in vitro validation assay. Neither off-target mutagenesis nor hCas9 transgenesis was detected in any of the genetically targeted pups and embryos examined. Gene targeting with this rapid and simplified strategy will help accelerate the development of translational research using other nonrodent mammalian species.

  9. Deposition of selenium coatings on beryllium foils. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films on 50.8 micrometers thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. A water-cooled enclosure was used to minimize contamination of the vacuum system and to reduce the exposure of personnel to toxic and obnoxious materials. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicated selenium thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 micrometers. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable deposition controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV

  10. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  11. Whole genome analysis of CRISPR Cas9 sgRNA off-target homologies via an efficient computational algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Michael; Li, Daisy; Manthey, Joseph; Lioutikova, Ekaterina; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Xiao

    2017-11-17

    The beauty and power of the genome editing mechanism, CRISPR Cas9 endonuclease system, lies in the fact that it is RNA-programmable such that Cas9 can be guided to any genomic loci complementary to a 20-nt RNA, single guide RNA (sgRNA), to cleave double stranded DNA, allowing the introduction of wanted mutations. Unfortunately, it has been reported repeatedly that the sgRNA can also guide Cas9 to off-target sites where the DNA sequence is homologous to sgRNA. Using human genome and Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) as an example, this article mathematically analyzed the probabilities of off-target homologies of sgRNAs and discovered that for large genome size such as human genome, potential off-target homologies are inevitable for sgRNA selection. A highly efficient computationl algorithm was developed for whole genome sgRNA design and off-target homology searches. By means of a dynamically constructed sequence-indexed database and a simplified sequence alignment method, this algorithm achieves very high efficiency while guaranteeing the identification of all existing potential off-target homologies. Via this algorithm, 1,876,775 sgRNAs were designed for the 19,153 human mRNA genes and only two sgRNAs were found to be free of off-target homology. By means of the novel and efficient sgRNA homology search algorithm introduced in this article, genome wide sgRNA design and off-target analysis were conducted and the results confirmed the mathematical analysis that for a sgRNA sequence, it is almost impossible to escape potential off-target homologies. Future innovations on the CRISPR Cas9 gene editing technology need to focus on how to eliminate the Cas9 off-target activity.

  12. Thermal fatigue testing of a diffusion-bonded beryllium divertor mock-up under ITER relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youchison, D.L.; Guiniiatouline, R.; Watson, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal response and thermal fatigue tests of four 5 mm thick beryllium tiles on a Russian divertor mock-up were completed on the Electron Beam Test System at Sandia National Laboratories. The beryllium tiles were diffusion bonded onto an OFHC copper saddleblock and a DSCu (MAGT) tube containing a porous coating. Thermal response tests were performed on the tiles to an absorbed heat flux of 5 MW/m 2 and surface temperatures near 300 degrees C using 1.4 MPa water at 5.0 m/s flow velocity and an inlet temperature of 8-15 degrees C. One tile was exposed to incrementally increasing heat fluxes up to 9.5 MW/m 2 and surface temperatures up to 690 degrees C before debonding at 10 MW/m 2 . A third tile debonded after 9200 thermal fatigue cycles at 5 MW/m 2 , while another debonded after 6800 cycles. In all cases, fatigue failure occurred in the intermetallic layers between the beryllium and copper. No fatigue cracking of the bulk beryllium was observed. During thermal cycling, a gradual loss of porous coating produced increasing sample temperatures. These experiments indicate that diffusion-bonded beryllium tiles can survive several thousand thermal cycles under ITER relevant conditions without failure. However, the reliability of the diffusion bonded Joint remains a serious issue

  13. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of microamounts of beryllium in aluminum and copper using solvent extraction with acetylacetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusaki, Koji

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive method for the determination of microamounts of beryllium in aluminum and copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the methylisobutylketone (MIBK) extraction with acetylacetone (AA) was investigated. An aqueous sample solution containing (0.5--5)μg of beryllium and less than 100 mg of aluminum or less than 500 mg of copper was taken into a 100-ml separation funnel, and 2 ml of 5% AA, 20 mg of EDTA for 1 mg of aluminum or 8.8 mg of EDTA for 1 mg of copper, and 10 ml of saturated NaCl solution were added. The pH was adjusted to 5--7 with 10 ml of 2 M NaCH 3 COO-CH 3 COOH buffer, and the solution was diluted to 50 ml. After 10 minutes, the solution was shaken for 2 minutes with 10 ml of MIBK. The organic phase was introduced into a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame and the absorption measured at 234.9 nm against a reagent blank. None of metal elements interfered with the determination of beryllium, and beryllium above 0.001% in aluminum, and above 0.0002% in copper was determined. This method was successfully applied to the determination of beryllium in aluminum and copper alloys. (auth.)

  14. An analysis of possible off target effects following CAS9/CRISPR targeted deletions of neuropeptide gene enhancers from the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Elizabeth Anne; Khalaf, Abdulla Razak; Marini, Pietro; Brown, Andrew; Heath, Karyn; Sheppard, Darrin; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2017-08-01

    We have successfully used comparative genomics to identify putative regulatory elements within the human genome that contribute to the tissue specific expression of neuropeptides such as galanin and receptors such as CB1. However, a previous inability to rapidly delete these elements from the mouse genome has prevented optimal assessment of their function in-vivo. This has been solved using CAS9/CRISPR genome editing technology which uses a bacterial endonuclease called CAS9 that, in combination with specifically designed guide RNA (gRNA) molecules, cuts specific regions of the mouse genome. However, reports of "off target" effects, whereby the CAS9 endonuclease is able to cut sites other than those targeted, limits the appeal of this technology. We used cytoplasmic microinjection of gRNA and CAS9 mRNA into 1-cell mouse embryos to rapidly generate enhancer knockout mouse lines. The current study describes our analysis of the genomes of these enhancer knockout lines to detect possible off-target effects. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the most likely putative off-target sites and to design PCR primers that would amplify these sequences from genomic DNA of founder enhancer deletion mouse lines. Amplified DNA was then sequenced and blasted against the mouse genome sequence to detect off-target effects. Using this approach we were unable to detect any evidence of off-target effects in the genomes of three founder lines using any of the four gRNAs used in the analysis. This study suggests that the problem of off-target effects in transgenic mice have been exaggerated and that CAS9/CRISPR represents a highly effective and accurate method of deleting putative neuropeptide gene enhancer sequences from the mouse genome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Deuterium/hydrogen isotope exchange on beryllium and beryllium nitride; Deuterium/Wasserstoff-Isotopenaustausch an Beryllium und Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollase, Petra; Eichler, Michael; Koeppen, Martin; Dittmar, Timo; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the fusion experiments JET and ITER, the first wall is made up of beryllium. The use of nitrogen is discussed for radiative cooling in the divertor. This can react with the surface of the first wall to form beryllium nitride (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}). The hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, which react in the fusion reaction to helium and a neutron, are used as fuel. Since the magnetic confinement of the plasma is not perfect, deuterium and tritium ions are also found on the beryllium wall and can accumulate there. This should be avoided due to the radioactivity of tritium. Therefore the isotope exchange with deuterium is investigated to regenerate the first wall. We investigate the isotopic exchange of deuterium and protium in order to have not to work with radioactive tritium. The ion bombardment is simulated with an ion source. With voltages up to a maximum of 5 kV, deuterium and protic hydrogen ions are implanted in polycrystalline Be and Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}. The samples are then analyzed in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Subsequently, samples prepared under the same conditions are characterized ex-situ by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). [German] In den Fusionsexperimenten JET und ITER besteht die erste Wand im Hauptraum aus Beryllium (Be). Zur Strahlungskuehlung im Divertor wird der Einsatz von Stickstoff diskutiert. Dieser kann mit der Oberflaeche der ersten Wand zu Berylliumnitrid (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}) reagieren. Als Brennstoff werden die Wasserstoffisotope Deuterium und Tritium eingesetzt, die in der Fusionsreaktion zu Helium und einem Neutron reagieren. Da der magnetische Einschluss des Plasmas nicht perfekt ist, treffen auch Deuterium- und Tritiumionen auf die Berylliumwand auf und koennen sich dort anreichern. Das soll aufgrund der Radioaktivitaet von Tritium unbedingt vermieden werden. Daher wird zur Regenerierung der ersten Wand der Isotopenaustausch mit Deuterium untersucht. Wir

  16. Sintering of beryllium oxide; Frittage de l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R; Pointud, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This study had for origin to find a process permitting to manufacture bricks of beryllium oxide of pure nuclear grade, with a density as elevated as possible and with standardized shape. The sintering under load was the technique kept for the manufacture of the bricks. Because of the important toxicity of the beryllium oxide, the general features for the preliminary study of the sintering, have been determined while using alumina. The obtained results will be able to act as general indication for ulterior studies with sintering under load. (M.B.) [French] Cette etude a eu pour origine la recherche d'un procede permettant de fabriquer industriellement des briques d'oxyde de beryllium nucleaireraent pures, de densite aussi elevee que possible et de forme standardisee. Le frittage sous charge fut la technique retenue pour la fabrication des briques. En raison de la grande toxicite de l'oxyde de beryllium, les caracteristiques generales du frittage, pour l'etude preliminaire, ont ete determine en utilisant de l'alumine. Les resultats obtenus pourront servir d'indication generale pour des etudes ulterieurs avec frittage sous charge. (M.B.)

  17. Beryllium-stimulated neopterin as a diagnostic adjunct in chronic beryllium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa A; Kittle, Lori A; Mroz, Margaret M; Newman, Lee S

    2003-06-01

    The diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) relies on the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) to demonstrate a Be specific immune response. This test has improved early diagnosis, but cannot discriminate beryllium sensitization (BeS) from CBD. We previously found high neopterin levels in CBD patients' serum and questioned whether Be-stimulated neopterin production by peripheral blood cells in vitro might be useful in the diagnosis of CBD. CBD, BeS, Be exposed workers without disease (Be-exp) normal controls and sarcoidosis subjects were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN) were cultured in the presence and absence of beryllium sulfate. Neopterin levels were determined from cell supernatants by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical evaluation of CBD subjects included chest radiography, pulmonary function testing, exercise testing, and the BeLPT. CBD patients produced higher levels of neopterin in both unstimulated and Be-stimulated conditions compared to all other subjects (P workplace screening. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Implanted deuterium retention and release in carbon-coated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Oates, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium implantation experiments have been conducted on samples of clean and carbon-coated beryllium. These studies entailed preparation and characterization of beryllium samples coated with carbon thicknesses of 100, 500, and 1000 angstrom. Heat treatment of a beryllium sample coated with carbon to a thickness of approximately 100 angstrom revealed that exposure to a temperature of 400 degrees C under high vacuum conditions was sufficient to cause substantial diffusion of beryllium through the carbon layer, resulting in more beryllium than carbon at the surface. Comparable concentrations of carbon and beryllium were observed in the bulk of the coating layer. Higher than expected oxygen levels were observed throughout the coating layer as well. Samples were exposed to deuterium implantation followed by thermal desorption without exposure to air. Differences were observed in deuterium retention and postimplantation release behavior in the carbon-coated samples as compared with bare samples. For comparable implantation conditions (sample temperature of 400 degrees C and an incident deuterium flux of approximately 6 X 10 19 D/m 2 sec), the quantity of deuterium retained in the bare sample was less than that retained in the carbon-coated samples. Further, the release of the deuterium took place at lower temperatures for the bare beryllium surfaces than for carbon-coated beryllium samples. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  19. Implanted Deuterium Retention and Release in Carbon-Coated Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Longhurst, G. R.; Pawelko, R. J.; Oates, M. A.

    1997-06-01

    Deuterium implantation experiments have been conducted on samples of clean and carbon-coated beryllium. These studies entailed preparation and characterization of beryllium samples coated with carbon thicknesses of 100, 500, and 1000 Å. Heat treatment of a beryllium sample coated with carbon to a thickness of approximately 100 Å revealed that exposure to a temperature of 400°C under high vacuum conditions was sufficient to cause substantial diffusion of beryllium through the carbon layer, resulting in more beryllium than carbon at the surface. Comparable concentrations of carbon and beryllium were observed in the bulk of the coating layer. Higher than expected oxygen levels were observed throughout the coating layer as well. Samples were exposed to deuterium implantation followed by thermal desorption without exposure to air. Differences were observed in deuterium retention and postimplantation release behavior in the carbon-coated samples as compared with bare samples. For comparable implantation conditions (sample temperature of 400°C and an incident deuterium flux of approximately 6 × 1019 D/m2-s), the quantity of deuterium retained in the bare sample was less than that retained in the carbon-coated samples. Further, the release of the deuterium took place at lower temperatures for the bare beryllium surfaces than for carbon-coated beryllium samples.

  20. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview workers...

  1. Atlas of hot isostatic beryllium powder pressing diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, P.I.; Papirov, I.I.; Tikhinskij, G.F.; Vasil'ev, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Diagrams of hot isotopic pressing (HIP) of beryllium powder with different grain size in a wide range of pressing parameters are built by mathematical modeling methods. The HIP diagrams presented are divided into 3 groups: parametric dependencies D=f(P,T); technological HIP diagrams; compacting mechanisms. The created data bank permits to optimise beryllium powder HIP with changing parameters. 4 refs., 23 figs

  2. Reactivity effects due to beryllium poisoning of BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalcheva, S.; Ponsard, B.; Koonen, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates the impact of the poisoning of the beryllium reflector on reactivity variations of the Belgian MTR BR2 in SCK.CEN. Detailed calculations by MCNP-4C of reactivity effects caused by strong neutron absorbers 3 He and 6 Li during reactor operation history are presented. The importance of beryllium poisoning for the accuracy of reactivity predictions is discussed. (authors)

  3. Progress report of preliminary studies of beryllium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, H.C.

    1947-09-01

    This document was prepared in connection with a symposium of beryllium poisoning held at the Saranac Laboratories and describes progress made and a research program aimed at characterizing the toxicity of beryllium. Seven individual papers in this document are separately indexed and cataloged for the database.

  4. Joining of beryllium by braze welding technique: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaim, P.; Abramov, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Zalkind, S.; Eden, S.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of some applications, there is a need to join beryllium parts to each other. Gas Tungsten Arc Braze Welds were made in beryllium using 0.3 mm commercially Aluminum (1100) shim preplaced at the joint. The welds exhibited a tendency to form microcracks in the Fusion Zone and Heat Affected Zone. All the microcracks were backfilled with Aluminum. (author)

  5. Laser welding of a beryllium/tantalum collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, A.C.; Anglin, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the methods utilized in the fabrication of a collimator from 0.001 inch thick beryllium and tantalum foil. The laser welding process proved to be an acceptable method for joining the beryllium in a standing edge joint configuration

  6. Synergistic effect of SRY and its direct target, WDR5, on Sox9 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xu

    Full Text Available SRY is a sex-determining gene that encodes a transcription factor, which triggers male development in most mammals. The molecular mechanism of SRY action in testis determination is, however, poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that WDR5, which encodes a WD-40 repeat protein, is a direct target of SRY. EMSA experiments and ChIP assays showed that SRY could bind to the WDR5 gene promoter directly. Overexpression of SRY in LNCaP cells significantly increased WDR5 expression concurrent with histone H3K4 methylation on the WDR5 promoter. To specifically address whether SRY contributes to WDR5 regulation, we introduced a 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen-inducible SRY allele into LNCaP cells. Conditional SRY expression triggered enrichment of SRY on the WDR5 promoter resulting in induction of WDR5 transcription. We found that WDR5 was self regulating through a positive feedback loop. WDR5 and SRY interacted and were colocalized in cells. In addition, the interaction of WDR5 with SRY resulted in activation of Sox9 while repressing the expression of β-catenin. These results suggest that, in conjunction with SRY, WDR5 plays an important role in sex determination.

  7. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab; Butcher, M. [CERN; Guinchard, M. [CERN; Calviani, M. [CERN; Losito, R. [CERN; Roberts, S. [Culham Lab; Kuksenko, V. [Oxford U.; Atherton, A. [Rutherford; Caretta, O. [Rutherford; Davenne, T. [Rutherford; Densham, C. [Rutherford; Fitton, M. [Rutherford; Loveridge, J. [Rutherford; O' Dell, J. [Rutherford

    2017-02-10

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and compare surface evolution and microstructural response of the test matrix specimens.

  8. Potential high-frequency off-target mutagenesis induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in Arabidopsis and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xing, Hui-Li; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xue-Chen; Chen, Qi-Jun

    2018-03-01

    We present novel observations of high-specificity SpCas9 variants, sgRNA expression strategies based on mutant sgRNA scaffold and tRNA processing system, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated T-DNA integrations. Specificity of CRISPR/Cas9 tools has been a major concern along with the reports of their successful applications. We report unexpected observations of high frequency off-target mutagenesis induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in T1 Arabidopsis mutants although the sgRNA was predicted to have a high specificity score. We also present evidence that the off-target effects were further exacerbated in the T2 progeny. To prevent the off-target effects, we tested and optimized two strategies in Arabidopsis, including introduction of a mCherry cassette for a simple and reliable isolation of Cas9-free mutants and the use of highly specific mutant SpCas9 variants. Optimization of the mCherry vectors and subsequent validation found that fusion of tRNA with the mutant rather than the original sgRNA scaffold significantly improves editing efficiency. We then examined the editing efficiency of eight high-specificity SpCas9 variants in combination with the improved tRNA-sgRNA fusion strategy. Our results suggest that highly specific SpCas9 variants require a higher level of expression than their wild-type counterpart to maintain high editing efficiency. Additionally, we demonstrate that T-DNA can be inserted into the cleavage sites of CRISPR/Cas9 targets with high frequency. Altogether, our results suggest that in plants, continuous attention should be paid to off-target effects induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in current and subsequent generations, and that the tools optimized in this report will be useful in improving genome editing efficiency and specificity in plants and other organisms.

  9. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  10. Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.; Letts, S.; Miller, P.; Saculla, M.; Cook, R.

    1995-01-01

    We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 μm hr -1 were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates

  11. Reaction-diffusion modeling of hydrogen in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensing, Mirko; Matveev, Dmitry; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Beryllium will be used as first-wall material for the future fusion reactor ITER as well as in the breeding blanket of DEMO. In both cases it is important to understand the mechanisms of hydrogen retention in beryllium. In earlier experiments with beryllium low-energy binding states of hydrogen were observed by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) which are not yet well understood. Two candidates for these states are considered: beryllium-hydride phases within the bulk and surface effects. The retention of deuterium in beryllium is studied by a reaction rate approach using a coupled reaction diffusion system (CRDS)-model relying on ab initio data from density functional theory calculations (DFT). In this contribution we try to assess the influence of surface recombination.

  12. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  13. Moessbauer study of iron diffusion in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepiol, B.; Ruebenbauer, K.; Miczko, B.; Birchall, T.

    1991-01-01

    The broadening of the 14.41 keV Moessbauer line of 57 Fe dure to diffusion of iron atoms in polycrystalline beryllium has been investigated in the temperature range 1123 to 1423 K. The observed broadenings obey the Arrhenius law with activation energy 1.66(10) eV, i.e., lower than that obtained from the corresponding polycrystalline tracer data. The variations of the resonant fraction, second order Doppler shift and quadrupole splitting versus temperature are reported. An average diffusion coefficient has been calculated from the obtained broadenings and compared with the tracer results. (orig.)

  14. Highly specific targeted mutagenesis in plants using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Hidetaka Kaya; Masafumi Mikami; Akira Endo; Masaki Endo; Seiichi Toki

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient and convenient tool for genome editing in plants. Cas9 nuclease derived from Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) is commonly used in this system. Recently, Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9)-mediated genome editing was reported in human cells and Arabidopsis. Because SaCas9 (1053 a.a.) is smaller than SpCas9 (1368 a.a.), SaCas9 could have substantial advantages for delivering and expressing Cas9 protein, especially using virus vectors. Since the protospacer adj...

  15. Integrative Analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 Target Sites in the Human HBB Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR system has emerged as a powerful customizable artificial nuclease to facilitate precise genetic correction for tissue regeneration and isogenic disease modeling. However, previous studies reported substantial off-target activities of CRISPR system in human cells, and the enormous putative off-target sites are labor-intensive to be validated experimentally, thus motivating bioinformatics methods for rational design of CRISPR system and prediction of its potential off-target effects. Here, we describe an integrative analytical process to identify specific CRISPR target sites in the human β-globin gene (HBB and predict their off-target effects. Our method includes off-target analysis in both coding and noncoding regions, which was neglected by previous studies. It was found that the CRISPR target sites in the introns have fewer off-target sites in the coding regions than those in the exons. Remarkably, target sites containing certain transcriptional factor motif have enriched binding sites of relevant transcriptional factor in their off-target sets. We also found that the intron sites have fewer SNPs, which leads to less variation of CRISPR efficiency in different individuals during clinical applications. Our studies provide a standard analytical procedure to select specific CRISPR targets for genetic correction.

  16. Efficient CRISPR-Cas9-mediated generation of knockin human pluripotent stem cells lacking undesired mutations at the targeted locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Florian T; Neuhausser, Werner M; Santos, David; Valen, Eivind; Gagnon, James A; Maas, Kristi; Sandoe, Jackson; Schier, Alexander F; Eggan, Kevin

    2015-05-12

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system has the potential to revolutionize genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), but its advantages and pitfalls are still poorly understood. We systematically tested the ability of CRISPR-Cas9 to mediate reporter gene knockin at 16 distinct genomic sites in hPSCs. We observed efficient gene targeting but found that targeted clones carried an unexpectedly high frequency of insertion and deletion (indel) mutations at both alleles of the targeted gene. These indels were induced by Cas9 nuclease, as well as Cas9-D10A single or dual nickases, and often disrupted gene function. To overcome this problem, we designed strategies to physically destroy or separate CRISPR target sites at the targeted allele and developed a bioinformatic pipeline to identify and eliminate clones harboring deleterious indels at the other allele. This two-pronged approach enables the reliable generation of knockin hPSC reporter cell lines free of unwanted mutations at the targeted locus. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be 2 C island formation for T≥770 K. At high temperatures (T≥1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be 2 W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be 2 W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be 2 C, W 2 C, WC and Be 2 W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be 2 C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures. Depending on the layer

  18. Microstructure Analysis on Beryllium Reflector Blocks of Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Jang, Jin Sung; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Han, Chang Hee; Jung, Yang Il; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Seok; Oh, Kyu Hwan [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A pure beryllium has a very low mass absorption coefficient: it has been used as the reflector element material in research reactors. The lifetime of beryllium reflector elements usually determined by the swelling: the swelling leads to dimensional change in the reflector frame, which results in bending or cracking of the parts. The mechanical interference in between parts should be avoided; the anisotropy of beryllium also needs to be considered. A beryllium has hexagonal close-pack (HCP) crystal structure, which is inherently anisotropic. It has virtually no ductility in one direction. There are two main aspects in the manufacturing of beryllium which will affect its isotropy, and those are the powder morphology and the consolidation process. Powder metallurgy permits the material to be produced in isotropic and fine-grained form, which overcomes the crystal structure problem by distributing loads in low ductility oriented grains to high ductility oriented grains. There are three representative consolidating methods to make beryllium reflector blocks. Traditionally, most powder-derived grades of beryllium have been consolidated by vacuum hot-pressing (VHP). A column of loose beryllium powder is compacted under vacuum by the pressure of the opposed upper and lower punches, bringing the billet to final density. The VHP process is directional in nature: it contributes to the anisotropy of the material properties. Another consolidating method for beryllium powder is hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), which will enhance its isotropy. During HIPing, The argon gas exerts pressure uniformly in all directions on the can containing the beryllium powder. The HIP process is effective to improve the isotropy of the resulting material as well as refinement of grain sizes. The last consolidating method is hot extrusion (HE). A roughly close packed beryllium is subjected to severe plastic defomation, the grains are refined and the tensile strength is enhanced. Since the material

  19. Status of beryllium study for fusion in RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutov, A.M.; Kupriyanov, I.B.; Markushkin, Yu.E.; Gervash, A.; Kolbasov, B.N.

    2004-01-01

    The main directions of research activities in the field of beryllium application science and technology carried out in Russia during 2001-2003 have been reviewed. The main results of these investigations have been highlighted. First wall and port-limier. The investigation on the actively cooled components with beryllium cladding is under progress objecting on the clarification of their ultimate thermo cycling capabilities. The study of behavior of bulk beryllium and the boundary region of the contact with the cooling structure under the intensive thermo cycling loading and neutron irradiation have been the object of consideration in particular. The works on the optimization and modification of industrial fabrication processes for commercial scaled production of beryllium tile were also under way. The influence of neutron irradiation. The new experimental data on the nuclear properties of several Russian beryllium grades has been obtained. The samples have been subjected to the high neutron dozes. The influence of low temperature (70-200degree C) neutron irradiation on the thermal conductivity has been examined in particular. The interrelations of the helium inventory and temperature of neutron irradiation with tritium release out of irradiated beryllium samples have been analyzed. The beryllium associated safety questions. The experiments on the modeling of normal working conditions and conditions imitating the plasma disruption events in ITER performance scenario have been continued. The new experimental information on the coefficient of pulverization of beryllium and the accumulation of deuterium in beryllium under the action of proton beam has been collected. The dependence of the reaction rate constant for the beryllium oxidation by the water vapor for different conditions has been analyzed. The compact, porous and powder beryllium samples have been tested at the wide range of temperature, pressure and duration of reaction with water vapor. The calculating

  20. Copper-beryllium alloys for technical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    1976-01-01

    Data of physical properties are compiled for the most commonly used copper-beryllium alloys (CuBe 2, CuBe 1.7, CuCoBe, and CuCoAgBe), with emphasis on their temperature dependence and their variation with particular annealing and hardening treatments. The purpose is to provide a reference source and to indicate the versatility of these materials with respect to other copper alloys and to pure copper. The special features of CuBe alloys include high mechanical strength with reasonably high electrical conductivity, as well as good wear and corrosion resistance. For example, CuBe 2 has a yield strength of up to 1200 N/mm 2 , about three times that of pure copper, whilst the electrical conductivity of CuCoBe can be as high as 28 MS/m, nearly half that of pure copper. Typical applications are springs and electrical contacts. The importance of a proper heat treatment is discussed in some detail, notably the metallurgy and effects of low-temperature annealing (precipitation-hardening). A chapter on manufacturing processes covers machining, brazing, welding, and cleaning. This is followed by some remarks on safety precautions against beryllium poisoning. CuBe alloys are commercially available in the form of wires, strips, rods, and bars. Typical dimensions, specifications, a brief cost estimate, and addresses of suppliers are listed. (Author)

  1. Development of all-beryllium riveted structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, D.R.; Leslie, W.W.; Miley, D.V.; Nokes, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a development program aimed at making a full-scale, all-beryllium frustrum by riveted assembly methods. Included are descriptions of the sheet-metal fabrication practices and assembly plans. Results of extensive mechanical testing of both ingot- and powder-source beryllium products that are presented include tensile, notch-tensile, bearing, and shear tests. Although the full-size structure has not been built, examples are given of several conical and cylindrical structures that were made. The largest of these is a 20-in. diameter, 15-in. long cylinder that was roll-formed from one 0.050-in. thick ingot sheet and assembled with 60 countersunk rivets. Tensile testing of riveted flat coupons is also reported as is bulge testing of riveted cylindrical shells. A cost comparison of riveted deep-drawn and powder-source cylinders is made. Results show that when strength and dimensional tolerance requirements are not severe, a riveted assembly approach is warranted. 33 figures, 8 tables

  2. Charge-density study of crystalline beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R F [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray structure factors for crystalline beryllium measured by Brown (Phil. Mag. (1972), 26, 1377) have been analyzed with multipole deformation functions for charge-density information. Single exponential radial functions were used for the valence charge density. A valence monopole plus the three harmonics, P/sup 3//sub 5/(cos theta) sin 3phi, P/sub 6/(cos theta) and P/sup 3//sub 7/(cos theta) sin 3phi, provide a least-squares fit to the data with Rsub(w)=0.0081. The superposition of these density functions describes a bonding charge density between Be atoms along the c axis through the tetrahedral vacancy. The results reported here are in qualitative agreement with a recent pseudo-potential calculation of metallic beryllium. The final residuals in the analysis are largest at high sin theta/lambda values. This suggests that core charge deformation is present and/or anharmonic motion of the nuclei is appreciable.

  3. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R.

    1958-01-01

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author) [fr

  4. Targeting Nursing Homes Under the Quality Improvement Organization Program’s 9th Statement of Work

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, David G.; Mor, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In the Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) program’s latest Statement of Work, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is targeting its nursing home activities toward facilities that perform poorly on two quality measures—pressure ulcers and restraint use. The designation of target facilities is a shift in strategy for CMS and a direct response to criticism that QIO program resources were not being targeted effectively to facilities or clinical areas that most needed improveme...

  5. Isotopic distributions of the sup 1 sup 8 N fragmentation products in coincidence with neutrons on targets sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au and sup 9 Be

    CERN Document Server

    Li Xiang Qing; Ye Yan Lin; Hua Hui; Chen Tao; Li Zhi Huan; Ge Yuch Eng; Wang Quan Jin; Wu He Yu; Jin Ge; Duan Li Min; Xiao Zhi Gang; Wang Hong Wei; Li Zhu Yu; Wang Su Fang

    2002-01-01

    The authors present the experimental isotopic distributions of the sup 1 sup 8 N projectile fragmentation products Li, Be, B and C in coincidence with neutrons, as well as the inclusive ones on sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au and sup 9 Be targets. In the framework of the abrasion-ablation model, these distributions are calculated for various nucleon density distributions of the projectile. The comparison with experimental isotopic distributions of the projectile-like fragments in coincidence with neutrons shows that the information on the nucleon density distribution of the sup 1 sup 8 N projectile can be extracted

  6. Liposomal Tumor Targeting in Drug Delivery Utilizing MMP-2- and MMP-9-Binding Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oula Penate Medina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers an alternative to conventional treatment options by enabling different drug delivery and controlled-release delivery strategies. Liposomes being especially biodegradable and in most cases essentially nontoxic offer a versatile platform for several different delivery approaches that can potentially enhance the delivery and targeting of therapies to tumors. Liposomes penetrate tumors spontaneously as a result of fenestrated blood vessels within tumors, leading to known enhanced permeability and subsequent drug retention effects. In addition, liposomes can be used to carry radioactive moieties, such as radiotracers, which can be bound at multiple locations within liposomes, making them attractive carriers for molecular imaging applications. Phage display is a technique that can deliver various high-affinity and selectivity peptides to different targets. In this study, gelatinase-binding peptides, found by phage display, were attached to liposomes by covalent peptide-PEG-PE anchor creating a targeted drug delivery vehicle. Gelatinases as extracellular targets for tumor targeting offer a viable alternative for tumor targeting. Our findings show that targeted drug delivery is more efficient than non-targeted drug delivery.

  7. The impact of transient thermal loads on beryllium as plasma facing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, Benjamin Christof

    2017-01-24

    microstructural integrity in the transition region involves the risk of a macroscopic delamination of armour material, which reduces the lifetime of afflicted first wall panels. Overall, it was found that the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of beryllium represent two key parameters that strongly influence its performance under transient thermal loading. Both quantities decrease as a function of the base temperature. Therefore, a lower base temperature (tested down to room temperature) is favourable for the performance of the beryllium armour tiles in ITER. The generated results indicate that the plastic deformation and the cracking of beryllium do not pose a threat to the operation of ITER, if the heat flux factors of the transient thermal pulses remain at 9 MW m{sup -2} s{sup 0.5} or below. This conclusion was drawn from the fact that the thermally induced damage saturated after 10{sup 5} pulses and did not significantly change for up to 10{sup 7} pulses. However, the performed experiments did not include the effects of plasma exposure and neutron irradiation of beryllium, though these loading conditions will be present in ITER in addition to the evaluated transient thermal loads. Further experiments with sequential and simultaneous plasma/thermal/neutron loading are proposed to investigate the synergistic effects of the different loading types and to evaluate possible shifts of the threshold values that were determined within this work.

  8. The impact of transient thermal loads on beryllium as plasma facing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilker, Benjamin Christof

    2017-01-01

    microstructural integrity in the transition region involves the risk of a macroscopic delamination of armour material, which reduces the lifetime of afflicted first wall panels. Overall, it was found that the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of beryllium represent two key parameters that strongly influence its performance under transient thermal loading. Both quantities decrease as a function of the base temperature. Therefore, a lower base temperature (tested down to room temperature) is favourable for the performance of the beryllium armour tiles in ITER. The generated results indicate that the plastic deformation and the cracking of beryllium do not pose a threat to the operation of ITER, if the heat flux factors of the transient thermal pulses remain at 9 MW m"-"2 s"0"."5 or below. This conclusion was drawn from the fact that the thermally induced damage saturated after 10"5 pulses and did not significantly change for up to 10"7 pulses. However, the performed experiments did not include the effects of plasma exposure and neutron irradiation of beryllium, though these loading conditions will be present in ITER in addition to the evaluated transient thermal loads. Further experiments with sequential and simultaneous plasma/thermal/neutron loading are proposed to investigate the synergistic effects of the different loading types and to evaluate possible shifts of the threshold values that were determined within this work.

  9. Targeted Genome Editing Using DNA-Free RNA-Guided Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein for CHO Cell Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongoh; Lee, Namil; Cho, Suhyung; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in the CRISPR/Cas9 system have dramatically facilitated genome engineering in various cell systems. Among the protocols, the direct delivery of the Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex into cells is an efficient approach to increase genome editing efficiency. This method uses purified Cas9 protein and in vitro transcribed sgRNA to edit the target gene without vector DNA. We have applied the RNP complex to CHO cell engineering to obtain desirable phenotypes and to reduce unintended insertional mutagenesis and off-target effects. Here, we describe our routine methods for RNP complex-mediated gene deletion including the protocols to prepare the purified Cas9 protein and the in vitro transcribed sgRNA. Subsequently, we also describe a protocol to confirm the edited genomic positions using the T7E1 enzymatic assay and next-generation sequencing.

  10. Neutron induced displacement damage in beryllium in the blanket of a (d,t)-fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanutz, D.

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is a favoured candidate for a neutron multiplier in solid breeder blankets of fusion reactors. This is mainly due to its low (n, 2n)-reaction threshold and because of its good thermal and mechanical properties. Its behaviour under intense neutron irradiation, however, is a crucial issue for its use in future fusion reactors. Displacement damage in beryllium so far has been calculated both with data related and methodological deficiencies. First of all, there is a need to have accurate cross-section data in order to obtain reliable spectra of primary knock-on atoms (PKA's). Furthermore, there are principal restrictions of the NRT-model in general used to calculate secondary displacements initiated by PKA's. The underlying theory of damage-energy (part of kinetic energy of PKA transferred elastically to matrix atoms) according to Lindhard is strictly valid only for medium and heavy mass ions with moderate energies in targets of the same element. In this work improved damage cross-sections and displacement rates (dpa/s) in beryllium have been calculated based on cross-section data from ENDF/B-VI (with a significantly improved (n, 2n)-evaluation) and on an appropriate treatment of damage-energy that is suitable for fusion relevant damage of light mass materials. ''This work has been performed in the framework of the Nuclear Fusion Project of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and is supported by the European Communities within the European Fusion Technology Program''. (orig.)

  11. Beryllium-copper reactivity in an ITER joining environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odegard, B.C.; Cadden, C.H.; Yang, N.Y.C.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium-copper reactivity was studied using test parameters being considered for use in the ITER reactor. In this application, beryllium-copper tiles are produced using a low-temperature copper-copper diffusion bonding technique. Beryllium is joined to copper by first plating the beryllium with copper followed by diffusion bonding the electrodeposited (ED) copper to a wrought copper alloy (CuNiBe) at 450 C, 1-3 h using a hot isostatic press (HIP). In this bonded assembly, beryllium is the armor material and the CuNiBe alloy is the heat sink material. Interface temperatures in service are not expected to exceed 350 C. For this study, an ED copper-beryllium interface was subjected to diffusion bonding temperatures and times to study the reaction products. Beryllium-copper assemblies were subjected to 350, 450 and 550 C for times up to 200 h. Both BeCu and Be 2 Cu intermetallic phases were detected using scanning electron microscopy and quantitative microprobe analysis. Growth rates were determined experimentally for each phase and activation energies for formation were calculated. The activation energies were 66 mol and 62 kJ mol -1 for the BeCu and Be 2 Cu, respectively. Tensile bars were produced from assemblies consisting of coated beryllium (both sides) sandwiched between two blocks of Hycon-3. Tensile tests were conducted to evaluate the influence of these intermetallics on the bond strength. Failure occurred at the beryllium-copper interface at fracture strengths greater than 300 MPa for the room-temperature tests. (orig.)

  12. Historical perspectives on the uses and health risks of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, O.P.

    1985-01-01

    Unawareness of the health risks of beryllium resulted in a decade of unmitigated exposure of several thousand workers and numerous cases of beryllium disease in employees and nearby residents. Subsequent adoption of exposure limits and their implementation with effective technical controls reduced the occurrence of new cases, which were mainly due to accidental exposures, to a minimum. The fact that continuously growing production and consumption did not alter this trend demonstrates the effectiveness of the present threshold limit value. It shows that the potential health hazard can be well contained and that beryllium can be produced and fabricated without undue risk to employees or the general public

  13. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1987-06-01

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined

  14. About kinetics of paramagnetic radiation malformations in beryllium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabinkin, Yu.A.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Bitenbaev, M.I.; Petukhov, Yu.V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper [1] specifies that γ-radiation of the beryllium-oxide-based ceramics results in development of paramagnetic radiation malformations emerging the ESR spectrum in form of doublet with the splitting rate of oestrasid Δ∼1.6 and g-factor of 2.008. This report presents evaluation outcomes of dependence of paramagnetic radiation malformations concentration in beryllium ceramics on gamma-radiation dose ( 60 Co) within the range of 0-100 Mrad. Total paramagnetic parameters of beryllium ceramics in the range 0-100 Mrad of gamma-radiation dose varied slightly, and were specified by the first type of paramagnetic radiation malformations

  15. Evaluation of the hazard associated with fabricating beryllium copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium-copper alloys should be considered toxic materials and proper controls must be used when they are machined, heated, or otherwise fabricated. Air samples should be taken for each type of fabrication to determine the worker's exposure and the effectiveness of the controls in use. It has been shown that aerosols containing beryllium are generated during the four methods of fabrication tested, and that these aerosols can be reduced through local exhaust to undetectable levels. Considering the acute, chronic and possibly carcinogenic effects of exposure to beryllium, effective controls should be required because they are feasible both technologically and economically. The health hazards and control measures are reviewed

  16. Induced mutation and epigenetics modification in plants for crop improvement by targeting CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Hafeez Ullah; Khan, Shahid U; Muhammad, Ali; Hu, Limin; Yang, Yang; Fan, Chuchuan

    2018-06-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats associated protein Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9), originally an adaptive immunity system of prokaryotes, is revolutionizing genome editing technologies with minimal off-targets in the present era. The CRISPR/Cas9 is now highly emergent, advanced, and highly specific tool for genome engineering. The technology is widely used to animal and plant genomes to achieve desirable results. The present review will encompass how CRISPR-Cas9 is revealing its beneficial role in characterizing plant genetic functions, genomic rearrangement, how it advances the site-specific mutagenesis, and epigenetics modification in plants to improve the yield of field crops with minimal side-effects. The possible pitfalls of using and designing CRISPR-Cas9 for plant genome editing are also discussed for its more appropriate applications in plant biology. Therefore, CRISPR/Cas9 system has multiple benefits that mostly scientists select for genome editing in several biological systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Preparation of a sinterable beryllium oxide through decomposition of beryllium hydroxide (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, M.

    1963-01-01

    In the course of the present study, we have attempted to precise the factors which among the ones effective in the course of the preparation of the beryllium hydroxide and oxide and during the sintering have an influence on the final result: the density and homogeneity of the sintered body. Of the several varieties of hydroxides precipitated from a sulfate solution the β-hydroxide only is always contaminated with beryllium sulfate and cannot be purified even by thorough washing. We noticed that those varieties of the hydroxide (gel, α, β) have different decomposition rates; this behaviour is used to identify and even to dose the different species in (α, β) mixtures. The various hydroxides transmit to the resulting oxides the shape they had when precipitated. Accordingly the history of the oxide is revealed by its behaviour during its fabrication and sintering. By comparing the results of the sintering operation with the various measurements performed on the oxide powders we are led to the conclusion that an oxide obtained from beryllium hydroxide is sinterable under vacuum if the following conditions are fulfilled: the particle size must lie between 0.1 and 0.2 μ and the BeSO 4 content of the powder must be less than 0.25 per cent wt (expressed as SO 3 /BeO). The best fitting is obtained with the oxide issued from an α-hydroxide precipitated as very small aggregates and with a low sulfur-content. We have observed that this is also the case for the oxide obtained by direct calcination of beryllium sulfate. (author) [fr

  18. MicroRNA-9 suppresses the growth, migration, and invasion of malignant melanoma cells via targeting NRP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dan Xu,1 Xiaofeng Chen,2 Quanyong He,1 Chengqun Luo1 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate the gene expression by directly binding to the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNA, thus resulting in mRNA degradation or translational repression. miR-9 has recently been demonstrated to play a role in the development and progression of malignant melanoma (MM, but the regulatory mechanism of miR-9 in the malignant phenotypes of MM still remains largely unknown. In this study, a total of 73 pairs of MM tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of miR-9. MTT assay, wound healing assay, and transwell assay were conducted to determine the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the targeting relationship between miR-9 and NRP1. Our data demonstrated that miR-9 expression was significantly downregulated in MM tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. The decreased miR-9 level was significantly associated with the tumor stage and metastasis of MM. We also found that the expression level of miR-9 was decreased in MM cell lines (G361, B16, A375, and HME1 compared with normal skin HACAT cells. Ectopic expression of miR-9 led to a significant decrease in the ability of proliferation, migration, and invasion in A375 cells. NRP1 was further identified as a direct target gene of miR-9, and the protein expression of NRP1 was negatively regulated by miR-9 in A375 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NRP1 reversed the suppressive effects of miR-9 on the malignant phenotypes of A375 cells. In vivo study revealed that miR-9

  19. Real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium, at OSHA limit levels, by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, L.J.; Loree, T.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Real-time detection of beryllium particulate is being investigated by the new technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. For beryllium detection we monitor the 313.1-nm feature of once ionized beryllium (Be II). Numerous publications describe the technique, our beryllium results, and other applications. Here we summarize the important points and describe our experiments with beryllium

  20. Experimental investigation of the energy and temperature dependence of beryllium self sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, S.N.; Guseva, M.I.; Stolijarova, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The low-Z metal beryllium is considered as plasma facing material (PFM) for the ITER. It is expected that operation temperature range of beryllium PFM will be (670 - 1070) K. While experimental Be-sputtering data bases exist for H + , D + and He + -ions, the self-sputtering yields of Be have only been estimated by computer simulation. In this paper we report the experimental results on the energy and temperature dependence of the beryllium self-sputtering yield (S). The energy dependence of S s in the energy range (0.5 - 10.0) keV was measured at 670 K. The self-sputtering yield of Be attains its maximal value at the ion energy of 1.5 keV, being equal to 0.32 ± at./ion. Comparison of the experimental results and theoretical prediction shows a good agreement for energy dependence of S s . The temperature dependence of S s in the temperature range (370-1070)K was obtained for 0.9keV Be + -ions. The value of S s is not changed up to 870 K. It sharply increases at the temperatures above 870 attaining the value of 0.75 at./ion at 1070 K

  1. Development of spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in beryl minerals using chrome Azurol S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham K. Fouad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A developed, direct, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in beryl minerals with Chrome Azurol S (CAS as a chromogenic reagent was developed in the present article. The determination was performed without either solvent extraction or ion exchange separation of beryllium from its matrix. The stable 1:1 Be-CAS complex was formed instantly with duration time of at least 24 h with constant absorbance. Different parameters such as wavelengths, pH, EDTA concentration and dye concentration were studied for the optimum determination of beryllium. Interference due to presence of high aluminum concentrations was overcome by adding 5% EDTA disodium salt solution. Maximum absorbance for Be-CAS complex was performed at λmax 568 NM using acetate buffer at pH 4.6. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range from 0.02 to 9 ppm with molar absorptivity ε = 0.22 × 104 mol−1 cm−1 and an average standard deviation of 0.7. The R.S.D for 10 replicate measurements of 1 ppm Be was 1.2%.

  2. Control of molten salt corrosion of fusion structural materials by metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, P.; Nishimura, H.; Terai, T.

    2009-01-01

    A series of tests have been performed between 2001 and 2006 at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research facility of the Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate chemical compatibility between the molten salt flibe (2LiF + BeF 2 in moles) and fusion structural materials once suitable fluoride potential control methods are established. The tests adopted metallic beryllium contact as main fluoride potential control, and the results have been published in recent years. A further step was to expose two specimens of low activation ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr-2W to static corrosion tests that include an active corrosion agent (hydrofluoric gas) in controlled conditions at 530 deg. C, and the results of the tests are presented in this paper. The results confirmed the expected correlation of the HF recovery with the concentration of metallic impurities dissolved in the salt because of specimen corrosion. The metals concentration dropped to levels close to the detectable limit when the beryllium rod was inserted and increased once the content of excess beryllium in the system had been consumed by HF reduction and specimen corrosion progressed. Metallographic analysis of the samples after 500 h exposure in reactive conditions showed evidence of the formation of unstable chromium oxide layers on the specimen's surface.

  3. Investigation of the ion beryllium surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Birukov, A.Yu.; Gureev, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The self -sputtering yield of the Be was measured. The energy dependence of the Be self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by W. Eckstein et. al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yield is temperature independent; at T irr .> 870 K it increases sharply. Hot-pressed samples at 370 K were implanted with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary plasma (flux power ∼ 5 MW/m 2 ). The investigation of hydrogen behavior in beryllium shows that at low doses hydrogen is solved, but at doses ≥ 5x10 22 m -2 the bubbles and channels are formed. It results in hydrogen profile shift to the surface and decrease of its concentration. The sputtering results in further concentration decrease at doses > 10 25 m -2

  4. Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.

    2010-01-01

    The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s 2 1 S e ground state (37.73a 0 3 ) and the 2s2p 3 P 0 o metastable state (39.04a 0 3 ) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s 2 1 S e -2s2p 3 P 0 o clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

  5. Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2011-03-25

    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ⁹Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy(h)→T, ³He→⁶He, ⁶Li→⁹Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ⁹Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the ⁹Be/H abundance down to a O(10⁻¹⁴) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

  6. Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter

  7. Electron-beam fusion welding of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.P.; Dixon, R.D.; Liby, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Ingot-sheet beryllium (Be) having three different chemistries and three different thicknesses was fusion-welded by the electron-beam process. Several different preheats were used to obtain 100% penetration and crack-free welds. Cracking susceptability was found to be related to aluminum (Al) content; the higher Al-content material was most susceptable. However, adequate preheat allowed full penetration and crack-free welds to be made in all materials tested. The effect of a post-weld heat treatment on the mechanical properties of these compositions was also determined. The heat treatment produced no significant effect on the ultimate tensile strength. However, the yield strength was decreased and the ductility was increased. These changes are attributed to the formation of AlFeBe 4 and FeBe 11

  8. Targeted Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Cancer Gene Therapy via Liposome-Templated Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeming; Liu, Fuyao; Chen, Yanke; Liu, Jun; Wang, Xiaoying; Chen, Ann T; Deng, Gang; Zhang, Hongyi; Liu, Jie; Hong, Zhangyong; Zhou, Jiangbing

    2017-12-08

    Due to its simplicity, versatility, and high efficiency, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology has emerged as one of the most promising approaches for treatment of a variety of genetic diseases, including human cancers. However, further translation of CRISPR/Cas9 for cancer gene therapy requires development of safe approaches for efficient, highly specific delivery of both Cas9 and single guide RNA to tumors. Here, novel core-shell nanostructure, liposome-templated hydrogel nanoparticles (LHNPs) that are optimized for efficient codelivery of Cas9 protein and nucleic acids is reported. It is demonstrated that, when coupled with the minicircle DNA technology, LHNPs deliver CRISPR/Cas9 with efficiency greater than commercial agent Lipofectamine 2000 in cell culture and can be engineered for targeted inhibition of genes in tumors, including tumors the brain. When CRISPR/Cas9 targeting a model therapeutic gene, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), is delivered, LHNPs effectively inhibit tumor growth and improve tumor-bearing mouse survival. The results suggest LHNPs as versatile CRISPR/Cas9-delivery tool that can be adapted for experimentally studying the biology of cancer as well as for clinically translating cancer gene therapy.

  9. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800 degrees C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and 60 Co;7.4 MBq/day

  10. Spectrochemical determination of beryllium and lithium in stream sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallimore, D.L.; Hues, A.D.; Palmer, B.A.; Cox, L.E.; Simi, O.R.; Bieniewski, T.M.; Steinhaus, D.W.

    1979-11-01

    A spectrochemical method was developed to analyze 200 or more samples of stream sediments per day for beryllium and lithium. One part of ground stream sediment is mixed with two parts graphite-SiO 2 buffer, packed into a graphite electrode, and excited in a direct-current arc. The resulting emission goes to a 3.4-m, direct-reading, Ebert spectrograph. A desk-top computer system is used to record and process the signals, and to report the beryllium and lithium concentrations. The limits of detection are 0.2 μg/g for beryllium and 0.5 μg/g for lithium. For analyses of prepared reference materials, the relative standard deviations were 16% for determining 0.2 to 100 μg/g of beryllium and 15% for determining 0.5 to 500 μg/g of lithium. A correction is made for vanadium interference

  11. Electropolishing or chemical milling of beryllium to remove machining defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helms, J.R.

    1975-12-01

    The techniques of electropolishing and chemical milling to remove machine damage from beryllium are compared. Both techniques are found to be effective; chemical milling is recommended because it is easier to use and control

  12. Beryllium brazing considerations in CANDU fuel bundle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, J.; Pant, A.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Appendages of CANDU fuel bundle elements are currently joined to zircaloy sheaths by vacuum beryllium brazing. Ongoing environmental and workplace concerns about beryllium combined with the continuous efforts by Cameco Fuel Manufacturing in its improvement process, initiated this study to find a substitute for pure beryllium. The presentation will review the necessary functionality of brazing alloy components and short list a series of alloys with the potential to duplicate the performance of pure beryllium. Modifications to current manufacturing processes based on in-plant testing will be discussed in relation to the use of these alloys. The presentation will conclude with a summary of the progress to date and further testing expected to be necessary.

  13. Health effects of beryllium exposure: a literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Beryllium Alloy Exposures, Committee on Toxicology, National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium is an important metal that is used in a number of industries-including the defense, aerospace, automotive, medical, and electronics industries-because of its exceptional strength, stability...

  14. Phosphorus-containing azo compounds as analytical reagents for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisenko, N.F.; Dolzhnikova, E.N.; Petrova, G.S.; Tsvetkov, E.N.; Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel'skij Inst. Khimicheskikh Reaktivov i Osobo Chistykh Veshchestv, Moscow; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehlementoorganicheskikh Soedinenij)

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of beryllium with six new azocompounds based on chromotropic or R-acids and o-aminophenyl-phenylphosphonic acids is studied. A sharp difference in the detection limit for beryllium by the two groups of compounds is found. Azoderivatives based on chromotropic acid are promising agent for beryllium due to sufficiently high selectivity. The introduction of the methyl-group into the o-position of the phosphorus-containing group improves the analytical properties of agents. Techniques are developed for the determination of beryllium in bronze, sewage water and in an artificial mixture using a sodium salt of 1.8-dioxi-2 [2' - (oxi- (o-methylphenyl)-phosphenyl)-phenilazo]-naphtalene-3.6-disulfoacid

  15. Data Needs for Erosion and Tritium Retention in Beryllium Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2011-07-01

    A Consultants' Meeting was held at IAEA Headquarters 30-31 May 2011 with the aim to provide advice about the scope and aims of a planned IAEA coordinated research project on erosion and tritium retention in beryllium plasma-facing materials and about other activities of the A+M Data Unit in the area of plasma interaction with beryllium surfaces. The present report contains the proceedings, recommendations and conclusions of that Consultants' Meeting. (author)

  16. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  17. CRISPRseek: a bioconductor package to identify target-specific guide RNAs for CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua J Zhu

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems are a diverse family of RNA-protein complexes in bacteria that target foreign DNA sequences for cleavage. Derivatives of these complexes have been engineered to cleave specific target sequences depending on the sequence of a CRISPR-derived guide RNA (gRNA and the source of the Cas9 protein. Important considerations for the design of gRNAs are to maximize aimed activity at the desired target site while minimizing off-target cleavage. Because of the rapid advances in the understanding of existing CRISPR-Cas9-derived RNA-guided nucleases and the development of novel RNA-guided nuclease systems, it is critical to have computational tools that can accommodate a wide range of different parameters for the design of target-specific RNA-guided nuclease systems. We have developed CRISPRseek, a highly flexible, open source software package to identify gRNAs that target a given input sequence while minimizing off-target cleavage at other sites within any selected genome. CRISPRseek will identify potential gRNAs that target a sequence of interest for CRISPR-Cas9 systems from different bacterial species and generate a cleavage score for potential off-target sequences utilizing published or user-supplied weight matrices with position-specific mismatch penalty scores. Identified gRNAs may be further filtered to only include those that occur in paired orientations for increased specificity and/or those that overlap restriction enzyme sites. For applications where gRNAs are desired to discriminate between two related sequences, CRISPRseek can rank gRNAs based on the difference between predicted cleavage scores in each input sequence. CRISPRseek is implemented as a Bioconductor package within the R statistical programming environment, allowing it to be incorporated into computational pipelines to automate the design of gRNAs for target sequences identified in a wide variety of genome-wide analyses. CRISPRseek is available under the GNU General

  18. High efficiency of targeted mutagenesis in arabidopsis via meiotic promoter-driven expression of Cas9 endonuclease

    KAUST Repository

    Eid, Ayman

    2016-05-28

    Key message: The use of a meiosis I-specific promoter increased the efficiency of targeted mutagenesis and will facilitate the manipulation of homologous recombination. Abstract: The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been harnessed for targeted engineering of eukaryotic genomes, including plants; however, CRISPR/Cas9 efficiency varies considerably in different plant tissues and species. In Arabidopsis, the generation of homozygous or bi-allelic mutants in the first (T1) generation is inefficient. Here, we used specific promoters to drive the expression of Cas9 during meiosis to maximize the efficiency of recovering heritable mutants in T1 plants. Our data reveal that the use of a promoter active in meiosis I resulted in high-efficiency (28 %) recovery of targeted mutants in the T1 generation. Moreover, this method enabled efficient simultaneous targeting of three genes for mutagenesis. Taken together, our results show that the use of meiosis-specific promoters will improve methods for functional genomic analysis and studying the molecular underpinnings of homologous recombination. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Generation of gene-modified goats targeting MSTN and FGF5 via zygote injection of CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Yu, Honghao; Lei, Anmin; Zhou, Jiankui; Zeng, Wenxian; Zhu, Haijing; Dong, Zhiming; Niu, Yiyuan; Shi, Bingbo; Cai, Bei; Liu, Jinwang; Huang, Shuai; Yan, Hailong; Zhao, Xiaoe; Zhou, Guangxian; He, Xiaoling; Chen, Xiaoxu; Yang, Yuxin; Jiang, Yu; Shi, Lei; Tian, Xiue; Wang, Yongjun; Ma, Baohua; Huang, Xingxu; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of the CRISPR/Cas9 system have provided a precise and versatile approach for genome editing in various species. However, the applicability and efficiency of this method in large animal models, such as the goat, have not been extensively studied. Here, by co-injection of one-cell stage embryos with Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs targeting two functional genes (MSTN and FGF5), we successfully produced gene-modified goats with either one or both genes disrupted. The targeting efficiency of MSTN and FGF5 in cultured primary fibroblasts was as high as 60%, while the efficiency of disrupting MSTN and FGF5 in 98 tested animals was 15% and 21% respectively, and 10% for double gene modifications. The on- and off-target mutations of the target genes in fibroblasts, as well as in somatic tissues and testis of founder and dead animals, were carefully analyzed. The results showed that simultaneous editing of several sites was achieved in large animals, demonstrating that the CRISPR/Cas9 system has the potential to become a robust and efficient gene engineering tool in farm animals, and therefore will be critically important and applicable for breeding. PMID:26354037

  20. The calreticulin (CALR) exon 9 mutations are promising targets for cancer immune therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmström, M O; Martinenaite, E; Ahmad, S M

    2017-01-01

    The calreticulin (CALR) exon 9 mutations are found in ∼30% of patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. Recently, we reported spontaneous immune responses against the CALR mutations. Here, we describe that CALR-mutant (CALRmut)-specific T cells are able to specifically re...... CALR exon 9 mutations.Leukemia advance online publication, 15 August 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.214....

  1. CRISPR/Cas9 Technology as an Emerging Tool for Targeting Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruminis-Kaszkiel, Ewa; Juranek, Judyta; Maksymowicz, Wojciech; Wojtkiewicz, Joanna

    2018-03-19

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) is a genome editing tool that has recently caught enormous attention due to its novelty, feasibility, and affordability. This system naturally functions as a defense mechanism in bacteria and has been repurposed as an RNA-guided DNA editing tool. Unlike zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas9 takes advantage of an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease enzyme, Cas9, which is able to generate double-strand breaks (DSBs) at specific genomic locations. It triggers cellular endogenous DNA repair pathways, contributing to the generation of desired modifications in the genome. The ability of the system to precisely disrupt DNA sequences has opened up new avenues in our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis and the development of new therapeutic approaches. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the principles and limitations of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, as well as strategies to improve these limitations. Furthermore, we summarize novel approaches of engaging the CRISPR/Cas9 system in establishing an adequate model of neurodegenerative disease and in the treatment of SOD1-linked forms of ALS. We also highlight possible applications of this system in the therapy of ALS, both the inherited type as well as ALS of sporadic origin.

  2. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1995-01-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found

  3. Status of beryllium R and D in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Ishida, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, several R and D program of beryllium for fusion are being promoted in Japan and community of beryllium study is growing up. In the R and D area of beryllium for solid breeding blanket, major subjects are beryllide application for prototype reactor, lifetime evaluation of neutron multiplier, impurity effect of beryllium and recycling of irradiated beryllium. Especially, the study of beryllide application has significant progress in these two years. The basic properties such as tritium inventory, oxidation behavior, steam interaction for stoichiometric Be 12 Ti fabricated by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) have been studied and some advantages against beryllium were made clear. For manufacturing technology development, phase diagram and ductility improvement have been studied. And, Be 12 Ti pebbles with the improved microstructure were successfully fabricated by Rotating Electrode Process. In order to enhance the R and D activities, the R and D network consisted of industries, universities and laboratories in all Japan have been organized. Many collaboration and information exchange strongly promotes the R and D and some projects for commercial application have been launched form these activities. Also international collaborative project such as IEA and ISTC have been launched or planned. Recent result of R and D in Japan is described on this paper. (author)

  4. An Agrobacterium-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system for high-frequency targeted mutagenesis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Si Nian; Neelakandan, Anjanasree K; Nahampun, Hartinio; Frame, Bronwyn; Main, Marcy; Spalding, Martin H; Becraft, Philip W; Meyers, Blake C; Walbot, Virginia; Wang, Kan; Yang, Bing

    2017-02-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful genome editing tool in many organisms, including a number of monocots and dicots. Although the design and application of CRISPR/Cas9 is simpler compared to other nuclease-based genome editing tools, optimization requires the consideration of the DNA delivery and tissue regeneration methods for a particular species to achieve accuracy and efficiency. Here, we describe a public sector system, ISU Maize CRISPR, utilizing Agrobacterium-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 for high-frequency targeted mutagenesis in maize. This system consists of an Escherichia coli cloning vector and an Agrobacterium binary vector. It can be used to clone up to four guide RNAs for single or multiplex gene targeting. We evaluated this system for its mutagenesis frequency and heritability using four maize genes in two duplicated pairs: Argonaute 18 (ZmAgo18a and ZmAgo18b) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase or anthocyaninless genes (a1 and a4). T 0 transgenic events carrying mono- or diallelic mutations of one locus and various combinations of allelic mutations of two loci occurred at rates over 70% mutants per transgenic events in both Hi-II and B104 genotypes. Through genetic segregation, null segregants carrying only the desired mutant alleles without the CRISPR transgene could be generated in T 1 progeny. Inheritance of an active CRISPR/Cas9 transgene leads to additional target-specific mutations in subsequent generations. Duplex infection of immature embryos by mixing two individual Agrobacterium strains harbouring different Cas9/gRNA modules can be performed for improved cost efficiency. Together, the findings demonstrate that the ISU Maize CRISPR platform is an effective and robust tool to targeted mutagenesis in maize. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cas9/sgRNA selective targeting of the P23H Rhodopsin mutant allele for treating retinitis pigmentosa by intravitreal AAV9.PHP.B-based delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Serena G; Luoni, Mirko; Castoldi, Valerio; Massimino, Luca; Cabassi, Tommaso; Angeloni, Debora; Demontis, Gian Carlo; Leocani, Letizia; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Broccoli, Vania

    2018-03-01

    P23H is the most common mutation in the RHODOPSIN (RHO) gene leading to a dominant form of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a rod photoreceptor degeneration that invariably causes vision loss. Specific disruption of the disease P23H RHO mutant while preserving the wild-type (WT) functional allele would be an invaluable therapy for this disease. However, various technologies tested in the past failed to achieve effective changes and consequently therapeutic benefits. We validated a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to specifically inactivate the P23H RHO mutant, while preserving the WT allele in vitro. We, then, translated this approach in vivo by delivering the CRISPR/Cas9 components in murine Rho+/P23H mutant retinae. Targeted retinae presented a high rate of cleavage in the P23H but not WT Rho allele. This gene manipulation was sufficient to slow photoreceptor degeneration and improve retinal functions. To improve the translational potential of our approach, we tested intravitreal delivery of this system by means of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs). To this purpose, the employment of the AAV9-PHP.B resulted the most effective in disrupting the P23H Rho mutant. Finally, this approach was translated successfully in human cells engineered with the homozygous P23H RHO gene mutation. Overall, this is a significant proof-of-concept that gene allele specific targeting by CRISPR/Cas9 technology is specific and efficient and represents an unprecedented tool for treating RP and more broadly dominant genetic human disorders affecting the eye, as well as other tissues.

  6. Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Mroz, Margaret M; Silveira, Lori J; Strand, Matt; Cragle, Donna L; Tankersley, William G; Wells, Susan M; Newman, Lee S; Maier, Lisa A

    2011-11-01

    Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPβ chain (DPβE69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DPβE69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DPβE69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case-control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DPβE69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1 μg/m(3). Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). DPβE69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DPβE69 alone appears to be similar.

  7. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hart

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  8. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter J; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Siggins, Matthew K; Bobat, Saeeda; Kingsley, Robert A; Goulding, David A; Crump, John A; Reyburn, Hugh; Micoli, Francesca; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  9. Beryllium data base for in-pile mockup test on blanket of fusion reactor, (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment); Sakamoto, Naoki; Kato, Masakazu; Takatsu, Hideyuki.

    1992-11-01

    Beryllium has been used in the fusion blanket designs with ceramic breeder as a neutron multiplier to increase the net tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The properties of beryllium, that is physical properties, chemical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, nuclear properties, radiation effects, etc. are necessary for the fusion blanket design. However, the properties of beryllium have not been arranged for the fusion blanket design. Therefore, it is indispensable to check and examine the material data of beryllium reported previously. This paper is the first one of the series of papers on beryllium data base, which summarizes the reported material data of beryllium. (author).

  10. Genomic Copy Number Dictates a Gene-Independent Cell Response to CRISPR/Cas9 Targeting | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system enables genome editing and somatic cell genetic screens in mammalian cells. We performed genome-scale loss-of-function screens in 33 cancer cell lines to identify genes essential for proliferation/survival and found a strong correlation between increased gene copy number and decreased cell viability after genome editing. Within regions of copy-number gain, CRISPR/Cas9 targeting of both expressed and unexpressed genes, as well as intergenic loci, led to significantly decreased cell proliferation through induction of a G2 cell-cycle arrest.

  11. Design and Validation of CRISPR/Cas9 Systems for Targeted Gene Modification in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ciaran M; Zhu, Haibao; Davis, Timothy H; Deshmukh, Harshahardhan; Bao, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for precision genome editing. The ability to accurately modify genomic DNA in situ with single nucleotide precision opens up new possibilities for not only basic research but also biotechnology applications and clinical translation. In this chapter, we outline the procedures for design, screening, and validation of CRISPR/Cas9 systems for targeted modification of coding sequences in the human genome and how to perform genome editing in induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency and specificity.

  12. Gastric hyperplasia in mice with targeted disruption of the carbonic anhydrase gene Car9

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortova-Gut, M.; Parkkila, S.; Vernerová, Z.; Rohde, E.; Závada, Jan; Hocker, M.; Pastorek, J.; Karttunen, T.; Gibadulinová, A.; Závadová, Zuzana; Knobeloch, K.-P.; Wiedernmann, B.; Svoboda, Jan; Horak, I.; Pastoreková, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 6 (2002), s. 1889-1903 ISSN 0016-5085 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/96/K205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse carbonic anhydrase Car9 * gastric hyperplasia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.440, year: 2002

  13. Accelerating Genome Editing in CHO Cells Using CRISPR Cas9 and CRISPy, a Web-Based Target Finding Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronda, Carlotta; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Hansen, Henning Gram

    2014-01-01

    of the CRISPR Cas9 technology in CHO cells by generating site-specific gene disruptions in COSMC and FUT8, both of which encode proteins involved in glycosylation. The tested single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) created an indel frequency up to 47.3% in COSMC, while an indel frequency up to 99.7% in FUT8 was achieved...... mutations at the target sites, with a strong preference for single base indels. Finally, we have developed a user-friendly bioinformatics tool, named “CRISPy” for rapid identification of sgRNA target sequences in the CHO-K1 genome. The CRISPy tool identified 1,970,449 CRISPR targets divided into 27...

  14. Measurement of neutron spectra generated from bombardment of 4 to 24 MeV protons on a thick 9Be target and estimation of neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sabyasachi; Sahoo, G. S.; Tripathy, S. P.; Sunil, C.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Sharma, S. C.; Ramjilal,; Ninawe, N. G.; Gupta, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the measurement of neutron spectra emitted from the interaction of protons of various energies with a thick beryllium target has been carried out. The measurements were carried out in the forward direction (at 0° with respect to the direction of protons) using CR-39 detectors. The doses were estimated using the in-house image analyzing program autoTRAK-n, which works on the principle of luminosity variation in and around the track boundaries. A total of six different proton energies starting from 4 MeV to 24 MeV with an energy gap of 4 MeV were chosen for the study of the neutron yields and the estimation of doses. Nearly, 92% of the recoil tracks developed after chemical etching were circular in nature, but the size distributions of the recoil tracks were not found to be linearly dependent on the projectile energy. The neutron yield and dose values were found to be increasing linearly with increasing projectile energies. The response of CR-39 detector was also investigated at different beam currents at two different proton energies. A linear increase of neutron yield with beam current was observed

  15. Beryllium neutron activation detector for pulsed DD fusion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebitaher, A.; Springham, S.V.; Rawat, R.S.; Lee, P.

    2011-01-01

    A compact fast neutron detector based on beryllium activation has been developed to perform accurate neutron fluence measurements on pulsed DD fusion sources. It is especially well suited to moderate repetition-rate ( 9 Be(n,α) 6 He cross-section, energy calibration of the proportional counters, and numerical simulations of neutron interactions and beta-particle paths using MCNP5. The response function R(E n ) is determined over the neutron energy range 2-4 MeV. The count rate capability of the detector has been studied and the corrections required for high neutron fluence measurements are discussed. For pulsed DD neutron fluencies >3×10 4 cm -2 , the statistical uncertainty in the fluence measurement is better than 1%. A small plasma focus device has been employed as a pulsed neutron source to test two of these new detectors, and their responses are found to be practically identical. Also the level of interfering activation is found to be sufficiently low as to be negligible.

  16. [sgRNA design for the CRISPR/Cas9 system and evaluation of its off-target effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng-song; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Li-sheng; Li, Guang-lei; Zhao, Chang-zhi; Ni, Pan; Zhao, Shu-hong

    2015-11-01

    The third generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology has been successfully applied to genome modification of various species including animals, plants and microorganisms. How to improve the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and reduce its off-target effects has been extensively explored in this field. Using sgRNA (Small guide RNA) with high efficiency and specificity is one of the critical factors for successful genome editing. Several software have been developed for sgRNA design and/or off-target evaluation, which have advantages and disadvantages respectively. In this review, we summarize characters of 16 kinds online and standalone software for sgRNA design and/or off-target evaluation and conduct a comparative analysis of these different kinds of software through developing 38 evaluation indexes. We also summarize 11 experimental approaches for testing genome editing efficiency and off-target effects as well as how to screen highly efficient and specific sgRNA.

  17. Mechanism of Genome Interrogation: How CRISPR RNA-Guided Cas9 Proteins Locate Specific Targets on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Alexey A; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2017-10-03

    The ability to precisely edit and modify a genome opens endless opportunities to investigate fundamental properties of living systems as well as to advance various medical techniques and bioengineering applications. This possibility is now close to reality due to a recent discovery of the adaptive bacterial immune system, which is based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated proteins (Cas) that utilize RNA to find and cut the double-stranded DNA molecules at specific locations. Here we develop a quantitative theoretical approach to analyze the mechanism of target search on DNA by CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 proteins, which is followed by a selective cleavage of nucleic acids. It is based on a discrete-state stochastic model that takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes in the system. Using a method of first-passage processes, a full dynamic description of the target search is presented. It is found that the location of specific sites on DNA by CRISPR Cas9 proteins is governed by binding first to protospacer adjacent motif sequences on DNA, which is followed by reversible transitions into DNA interrogation states. In addition, the search dynamics is strongly influenced by the off-target cutting. Our theoretical calculations allow us to explain the experimental observations and to give experimentally testable predictions. Thus, the presented theoretical model clarifies some molecular aspects of the genome interrogation by CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 proteins. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gas bubble network formation in irradiated beryllium pebbles monitored by X-Ray micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolier, E; Ferrero, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Zimer 203, Gebaeude 451, Abteilung HVT-TL (Germany); Moslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pieritz, R.A. [CNRS, Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The efficient and safe operation of helium cooled ceramic breeder blankets requires among others an efficient tritium release during operation at blanket relevant temperatures. In the past out-of-pile thermal desorption studies on low temperature neutron irradiated beryllium have shown that tritium and helium release peaks occur together. This phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of growth and coalescence of helium bubbles and tritium that either is trapped inside the helium bubbles in form of T{sub 2} molecules or in their strain field. With increasing temperature the bubble density and size at grain interfaces increase together with the probability of interconnected porosities and channel formation to the outer surface, leading to simultaneous helium and tritium release peaks in TDS. For a reliable prediction of gas release up to end-of-life conditions at blanket relevant temperatures, knowledge of the dynamics of bubble growth and coalescence as well as the 3D distribution of bubble network formation is indispensable. Such data could also be used to experimentally validate any future model predictions of tritium and helium release rates. A high resolution computer aided micro-tomography (CMT) setup has been developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility which allowed reconstructing 3-D images of beryllium pebbles without damaging them. By postprocessing the data a 3D rendering of inner surfaces and of interconnected channel networks can be obtained, thus allowing the identification of open porosities in neutron irradiated and tempered beryllium pebbles. In our case Beryllium pebbles of 2 mm diameter had been neutron irradiated in the 'Beryllium' experiment at 770 K with 1.24 x 10{sup 25} nxm{sup -2} resulting in 480 appm He and 12 appm Tritium. After annealing at 1500 K CMT was performed on the pebbles with 4.9 and 1.4 {mu}m voxel resolution, respectively, followed by morphological and topological post

  19. Control of molten salt corrosion of reduced activation steel for fusion applications by metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, P.; Nishimura, H.; Terai, T.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2001 the INL started a research program as a part of the 2. Japan/US Program on Irradiation Tests for Fusion Energy Research (JUPITER-II collaboration) aimed at the characterization of the 2LiF-BeF2 (Flibe) molten salt as a breeder and coolant material for fusion applications. A key objective of the work was to demonstrate chemical compatibility between Flibe and potential fusion structural materials once suitable fluoride potential control methods are established. A series of tests performed at INL demonstrated that this can be achieved by contacting the salt with metallic beryllium, and the results have been published in recent years. A further step was to expose two specimens of low activation ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr-2W JLF-1 to static corrosion tests that include an active corrosion agent (hydrofluoric gas) and fluoride potential control (metallic Be) at 530 C, and the results of the tests are presented in this paper. The specimen and a beryllium rod were simultaneously immersed in the molten salt through gas tight fittings mounted on risers extending from the top lid of the test vessel; the beryllium rod was extracted after 5 hours, while the sample was left in the salt for 250 hours during which salt samples were withdrawn from the melt at fixed intervals. A diagnostic system based on the measurement of reacting HF through on-line titration was coupled with the analysis of metallic components in the salt samples that were dissolved and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Impurity levels of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon were determined from pieces of the solidified melt using Leco analytical systems. The results confirmed the expected correlation of the HF recovery with the concentration of metallic elements dissolved in the salt because of specimen corrosion. The metals concentration falls below the detectable limit when the beryllium rod is inserted and increases when the

  20. The histone methyltransferase G9a as a therapeutic target to override gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mei-Ren; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Luo, Chi-Wen; Chen, Li-Tzong; Shan, Yan-Shen; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM) resistance is a critical issue for pancreatic cancer treatment. The involvement of epigenetic modification in GEM resistance is still unclear. We established a GEM-resistant subline PANC-1-R from the parental PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells and found the elevation of various chromatin-modifying enzymes including G9a in GEM-resistant cells. Ectopic expression of G9a in PANC-1 cells increased GEM resistance while inactivation of G9a in PANC-1-R cells reduced it. Challenge of PANC-1 cells with GEM increased the expression of stemness markers including CD133, nestin and Lgr5 and promoted sphere forming activity suggesting chemotherapy enriched cancer cells with stem-like properties. Inhibition of G9a in PANC-1-R cells reduced stemness and invasiveness and sensitized the cells to GEM. We revealed interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a downstream effector of G9a to increase GEM resistance. G9a-overexpressing PANC-1-R cells exhibited autocrine IL-8/CXCR1/2 stimulation to increase GEM resistance which could be decreased by anti-IL-8 antibody and G9a inhibitor. IL-8 released by cancer cells also activated pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) to increase GEM resistance. In orthotopic animal model, GEM could not suppress tumor growth of PANC-1-R cells and eventually promoted tumor metastasis. Combination with G9a inhibitor and GEM reduced tumor growth, metastasis, IL-8 expression and PSC activation in animals. Finally, we showed that overexpression of G9a correlated with poor survival and early recurrence in pancreatic cancer patients. Collectively, our results suggest G9a is a therapeutic target to override GEM resistance in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27531902

  1. Vapor pressure and thermodynamics of beryllium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, G.H.; Behrens, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The vapor pressure of beryllium carbide has been measured over the temperature range 1388 to 1763 K using Knudsen-effusion mass spectrometry. Vaporization occurs incongruently according to the reaction Be 2 C(s) = 2Be(g) + C(s). The equilibrium vapor pressure above the mixture of Be 2 C and C over the experimental temperature range is (R/J K -1 mol -1 )ln(p/Pa) = -(3.610 +- 0.009) x 10 5 (K/T) + (221.43 +- 1.06). The third-law enthalpy change for the above reaction obtained from the present vapor pressures is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (740.5 +- 0.1) kJ mol -1 . The corresponding second-law result is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (732.0 +- 1.8) kJ mol -1 . The enthalpy of formation for Be 2 C(s) calculated from the present third-law vaporization enthalpy and the enthalpy of formation of Be(g) is ΔH 0 sub(f)(298.15 K) = -(92.5 +- 15.7) kJ mol -1 . (author)

  2. Microstructural study of hydrogen-implanted beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, S.P.; Chakrov, P.V.; Utkelbayev, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Hot pressed beryllium (TGP-56) was implanted by 650 keV H + ions to a dose of 6.7 x 10 16 cm -2 at a temperature below 50 C. TEM examinations were performed both at as-irradiated specimens and after post-irradiation annealings at 400-600 C for 15 min. After irradiation, a high density of ''black dot'' defects with a size of about 5 nm is observed in the straggling zone, some of which are resolved as small dislocation loops. During post-irradiation annealing, growth of dislocation loops and oriented gas-filled bubbles are observed in the damaged zone. The bubbles are strongly elongated along the left angle 0001 right angle direction, and their sidelong facts lie along {1-100} planes. These facets have a regular ''toothed'' surface with ''tooth'' facets on {1-100} planes. The size of the ''teeth'' increases with annealing temperature, as well as the total volume of bubbles, with their length growing faster than their width. (orig.)

  3. Beryllium application in ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Jakeman, R.; Ioki, K.; Janeschitz, G.; Parker, R.; Tivey, R.; Pacher, H.D.; Wu, C.H.; Bartels, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium is a candidate armour material for the in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), namely the primary first wall, the limiter, the baffle and the divertor. However, a number of issues arising from the performance requirements of the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) must be addressed to better assess the attractiveness of Be as armour for these different components. These issues include heat loading limits arising from temperature and stress constraints under steady state conditions, armour lifetime including the effects of sputtering erosion as well as vaporisation and loss of melt during disruption events, tritium retention and permeation, and chemical hazards, in particular with respect to potential Be/steam reaction. Other issues such as fabrication and the possibility of in-situ repair are not performance-dependent but have an important impact on the overall assessment of Be as PFC armour. This paper describes the present view on Be application for ITER PFCs. The key issues are discussed including an assessment of the current level of understanding based on analysis and experimental data; and on-going activities as part of the ITER EDA R and D program are highlighted. (orig.)

  4. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  5. The unusual properties of beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, R.; Hannon, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Be is a ''marginal metal.'' The stable phase, hcp-Be, has a low Fermi-level density of states and very anisotropic structural and elastic properties, similar to a semiconductor's. At the Be(0001) surface, surface states drastically increase the Fermi-level density of states. The different nature of bonding in bulk-Be and at the Be(0001) surface explains the large outward relaxation. The presence of surface states causes large surface core-level shifts by inducing a higher electrostatic potential in the surface layers and by improving the screening at the surface. The authors experimental and theoretical investigations of atomic vibrations at the Be(0001) surface demonstrate clearly that Be screening of atomic motion by the surface states makes the surface phonon dispersion fundamentally different from that of the bulk. Properties of Be(0001) are so different from those of the bulk that the surface can be considered a new ''phase'' of beryllium with unique electronic and structural characteristics. For comparison they also study Be(11 bar 20), a very open surface without important surface states. Be(11 bar 20) is the only clean s-p metal surface known to reconstruct (1 x 3 missing row reconstruction)

  6. Beryllium parabolic refractive x-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, B.; Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Benner, B.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Somogyi, A.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses are novel optical components for the hard x-ray range from about 5 keV to about 120 keV. They focus in both directions. They are compact, robust, and easy to align and to operate. They can be used like glass lenses are used for visible light, the main difference being that the numerical aperture N.A. is much smaller than 1 (of order 10-4 to 10-3). Their main applications are in micro- and nanofocusing, in imaging by absorption and phase contrast and in fluorescence mode. In combination with tomography they allow for 3-dimensional imaging of opaque media with submicrometer resolution. Finally, they can be used in speckle spectroscopy by means of coherent x-ray scattering. Beryllium as lens material strongly enhances the transmission and the field of view as compared to aluminium. With increased N.A. the lateral resolution is also considerably improved with Be lenses. References to a number of applications are given

  7. MicroRNA-145 Aggravates Hypoxia-Induced Injury by Targeting Rac1 in H9c2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximing; Zhang, Yanxia; Wang, Hongshan; Zhao, Genshang; Fa, Xianen

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Here, we sought to explore the potential role and underlying mechanism of miR-145 in MI. H9c2 cells were cultured under persistent hypoxia to simulate MI. The hypoxia-induced injury was assessed on the basis of cell viability, migration, invasion and apoptosis. The expression of miR-145 was evaluated by qRT-PCR and the influence of aberrantly expressed miR-145 on H9c2 cells under hypoxia was also estimated. Utilizing bioinformatics methods, the target genes of miR-145 were verified by luciferase reporter assay. Then, effects of abnormally expressed target gene on miR-145 silenced H9c2 cells were assessed. Finally, the phosphorylation levels of key kinases in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways were detected by Western blot analysis. Hypoxia remarkably lowered viability, migration and invasion but promoted cell apoptosis. Meantime, the miR-145 level was up-regulated in H9c2 cells under hypoxia. Following experiments suggested that hypoxia-induced injury was exacerbated by miR-145 overexpression while was alleviated by miR-145 silence. Rac1 was predicted and further validated to be a target gene of miR-145. The influence of miR-145 silencing on H9c2 cells under hypoxia could be reversed by down-regulation of Rac1. Additionally, the phosphorylation levels of PI3K, AKT, MAPK and ERK were all elevated in miR-145 silenced cells and these alterations were reversed by down-regulation of Rac1. miR-145 silencing could protect H9c2 cells against hypoxia-induced injury by targeting Rac1, in which PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways might be involved. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Striking Plasticity of CRISPR-Cas9 and Key Role of Non-target DNA, as Revealed by Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Giulia; Miao, Yinglong; Walker, Ross C; Jinek, Martin; McCammon, J Andrew

    2016-10-26

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 system recently emerged as a transformative genome-editing technology that is innovating basic bioscience and applied medicine and biotechnology. The endonuclease Cas9 associates with a guide RNA to match and cleave complementary sequences in double stranded DNA, forming an RNA:DNA hybrid and a displaced non-target DNA strand. Although extensive structural studies are ongoing, the conformational dynamics of Cas9 and its interplay with the nucleic acids during association and DNA cleavage are largely unclear. Here, by employing multi-microsecond time scale molecular dynamics, we reveal the conformational plasticity of Cas9 and identify key determinants that allow its large-scale conformational changes during nucleic acid binding and processing. We show how the "closure" of the protein, which accompanies nucleic acid binding, fundamentally relies on highly coupled and specific motions of the protein domains, collectively initiating the prominent conformational changes needed for nucleic acid association. We further reveal a key role of the non-target DNA during the process of activation of the nuclease HNH domain, showing how the nontarget DNA positioning triggers local conformational changes that favor the formation of a catalytically competent Cas9. Finally, a remarkable conformational plasticity is identified as an intrinsic property of the HNH domain, constituting a necessary element that allows for the HNH repositioning. These novel findings constitute a reference for future experimental studies aimed at a full characterization of the dynamic features of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, and-more importantly-call for novel structure engineering efforts that are of fundamental importance for the rational design of new genome-engineering applications.

  9. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  10. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Easterling, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  11. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included

  12. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  13. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H 2 gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m 2

  14. High heat flux tests on beryllium and beryllium-copper joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.

    1997-01-01

    A large test program has been set up to evaluate the performance of beryllium as a plasma facing material for the divertor in thermonuclear fusion devices. Simulation of steady state heat loads of 5 MWm -2 and above on actively cooled divertor modules, and off-normal plasma conditions with energy densities in the range 1-7 MJm -2 , have been investigated. Thermal shock tests were carried out with the ITER reference grade S65-C and several Russian grades of beryllium. At incident energies up to 7 MJm -2 the best erosion behaviour is observed for S65-C and for TGP-56. Steady state heating tests with actively cooled Be/Cu mock-ups were performed at incident powers of up to 5.8 MWm -2 . All samples investigated in these tests did not show any indications of failure. A Be/Cu mock-ups with Incusil braze was loaded in thermal fatigue up to 500 cycles at an incident power of 4.8 MWm -2 . Up to the end of the experiment no temperature increase of the surface and no indication of failure was observed. (orig.)

  15. Spectrographic determination of beryllium in the atmosphere; Dosage spectrographique du beryllium dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G; Morawek, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Since the apparatus for continuous determination of beryllium is not yet perfect, a discontinuous method has been developed. The air to be analysed is filtered, and the dust laden filter is dissolved in a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acid. The pH and the conductivity of the solution obtained were adjusted to standard values, and it was then analysed spectro-graphically by the rotating sector method. Up to 0.01 x 10{sup 6} of Be per cm{sup 3} of solution can be detected. The precision is of the order of 10 per cent. (author) [French] Les appareils de dosage du beryllium en continu n'etant pas encore suffisamment au point, on a elabore une methode discontinue. L'air a analyser est filtre et le filtre charge de poussieres est mis en solution par une attaque sulfo-nitrique. La solution obtenue est normalisee par ajustage de son PH et de sa conductivite puis analysee spectrographiquement par la methode du disque tournant. On peut detecter jusqu'a 0,01.10{sup 6} de Be par cm{sup 3} de solution. La precision est de l'ordre de 10 pour cent. (auteur)

  16. Resveratrol Targeting of Carcinogen-Induced Brain Endothelial Cell Inflammation Biomarkers MMP-9 and COX-2 is Sirt1-Independent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhane Annabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a functional relationship between the release of metalloproteinases (MMPs and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2, two inducible pro-inflammatory biomarkers with important pro-angiogenic effects, has recently been inferred. While brain endothelial cells play an essential role as structural and functional components of the blood-brain barrier (BBB, increased BBB breakdown is thought to be linked to neuroinflammation. Chemopreventive mechanisms targeting both MMPs and COX-2 however remain poorly investigated. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacological targeting of Sirt1 by the diet-derived and antiinflammatory polyphenol resveratrol. Total RNA, cell lysates, and conditioned culture media from human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC were analyzed using qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, and zymography respectively. Tissue scan microarray analysis of grade I–IV brain tumours cDNA revealed increased gene expression of Sirt-1 from grade I–III but surprisingly not in grade IV brain tumours. HBMEC were treated with a combination of resveratrol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a carcinogen known to increase MMP-9 and COX-2 through NF-κB. We found that resveratrol efficiently reversed the PMA-induced MMP-9 secretion and COX-2 expression. Gene silencing of Sirt1, a critical modulator of angiogenesis and putative target of resveratrol, did not lead to significant reversal of MMP-9 and COX-2 inhibition. Decreased resveratrol inhibitory potential of carcinogen-induced IκB phosphorylation in siSirt1-transfected HBMEC was however observed. Our results suggest that resveratrol may prevent BBB disruption during neuroinflammation by inhibiting MMP-9 and COX-2 and act as a pharmacological NF-κB signal transduction inhibitor independent of Sirt1.

  17. Beryllium isotopes in primary cosmic radiation and light nuclei fragmentation observed in plastic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Katsura.

    1975-01-01

    Plastic sheets consisting of 50 layers of Daicel and Kodak cellulose nitrate were flown from Fort Churchill, Canada in 1971 for the study of isotopic components of light nuclei, especially beryllium, in primary cosmic rays. In this plastic stack, 59 Be normals and 24 Be albedos as well as 109 Li normals and 53 Li albedos were identified. The center of mass and the standard deviation for Be 7 and Be 9+10 may be derived from the mass spectrum. (orig./WL) [de

  18. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P.; Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.; Gervash, A.A.; Safronov, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m 2 at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m 2 shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m 2 shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m 2 pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m 2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology

  19. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  20. The SPS Target Station for CHORUS and NOMAD Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Péraire, S; Zazula, J M

    1996-01-01

    A new SPS target station, T9, has been constructed for the CHORUS and NOMAD neutrino experiments at CERN. The heart of the station is the target box : 11 beryllium rods are aligned in a cast aluminium box ; they are cooled by a closed circuit helium gas with adjusted flow to each rod. The box is motorised horizontally and vertically at both ends, to remotely optimise the secondary particle production by aligning the target with the incident proton beam. Radiation protection around the station is guaranteed by more than 100 tons of shielding material (iron, copper, marble). This presentation describes briefly the various components of the target station ; it emphasises particularly the thermal and mechanical calculations which define a safe maximum beam intensity on the beryllium rods. Over the first two years of successful operation, the station has received more than 2€1019 protons at 450 GeV/c, with intensity peaks of 2.8€1013 protons per machine cycle.

  1. Targeting TRIM5α in HIV Cure Strategies for the CRISPR-Cas9 Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Anne Victoria Weatherley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, studies of innate immune activity against HIV-1 and other retroviruses have revealed a powerful array of host factors that can attack the virus at various stages of its life cycle in human and primate cells, raising the prospect that these antiviral factors could be manipulated in immunotherapeutic strategies for HIV infection. This has not proved straightforward: while HIV accessory genes encode proteins that subvert or destroy many of these restriction factors, others, such as human TRIM5α show limited potency against HIV-1. However, HIV-1 is much more susceptible to simian versions of TRIM5α: could this information be translated into the development of an effective gene therapy for HIV infection? Reigniting research into the restriction factor TRIM5α in the era of superior gene editing technology such as CRISPR-Cas9 presents an exciting opportunity to revisit this prospect.

  2. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted gene correction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient iPSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Yi, Fei; Fu, Lina; Yang, Jiping; Wang, Si; Wang, Zhaoxia; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Sun, Liang; Xu, Xiuling; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Yang, Ze; Yuan, Yun; Qu, Jing; Liu, Guang-Hui

    2017-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disease with cellular and molecular mechanisms yet to be fully described. Mutations in a number of genes including SOD1 and FUS are associated with familial ALS. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of familial ALS patients bearing SOD1 +/A272C and FUS +/G1566A mutations, respectively. We further generated gene corrected ALS iPSCs using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Genome-wide RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of motor neurons derived from SOD1 +/A272C and corrected iPSCs revealed 899 aberrant transcripts. Our work may shed light on discovery of early biomarkers and pathways dysregulated in ALS, as well as provide a basis for novel therapeutic strategies to treat ALS.

  3. Targeted viral-mediated plant genome editing using crispr/cas9

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2015-12-17

    The present disclosure provides a viral-mediated genome-editing platform that facilitates multiplexing, obviates stable transformation, and is applicable across plant species. The RNA2 genome of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) was engineered to carry and systemically deliver a guide RNA molecules into plants overexpressing Cas9 endonuclease. High genomic modification frequencies were observed in inoculated as well as systemic leaves including the plant growing points. This system facilitates multiplexing and can lead to germinal transmission of the genomic modifications in the progeny, thereby obviating the requirements of repeated transformations and tissue culture. The editing platform of the disclosure is useful in plant genome engineering and applicable across plant species amenable to viral infections for agricultural biotechnology applications.

  4. Targeted viral-mediated plant genome editing using crispr/cas9

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.; Ali, Zahir

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure provides a viral-mediated genome-editing platform that facilitates multiplexing, obviates stable transformation, and is applicable across plant species. The RNA2 genome of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) was engineered to carry and systemically deliver a guide RNA molecules into plants overexpressing Cas9 endonuclease. High genomic modification frequencies were observed in inoculated as well as systemic leaves including the plant growing points. This system facilitates multiplexing and can lead to germinal transmission of the genomic modifications in the progeny, thereby obviating the requirements of repeated transformations and tissue culture. The editing platform of the disclosure is useful in plant genome engineering and applicable across plant species amenable to viral infections for agricultural biotechnology applications.

  5. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted gene correction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient iPSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a complex neurodegenerative disease with cellular and molecular mechanisms yet to be fully described. Mutations in a number of genes including SOD1 and FUS are associated with familial ALS. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from fibroblasts of familial ALS patients bearing SOD1 +/A272C and FUS +/G1566A mutations, respectively. We further generated gene corrected ALS iPSCs using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Genome-wide RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis of motor neurons derived from SOD1 +/A272C and corrected iPSCs revealed 899 aberrant transcripts. Our work may shed light on discovery of early biomarkers and pathways dysregulated in ALS, as well as provide a basis for novel therapeutic strategies to treat ALS.

  6. Preparation of copper-beryllium alloys from Indian beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, C.M.; Sharma, B.P.; Subba Rao, K.S.; Rajadhyaksha, M.G.; Sundaram, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    The report presents the results of laboratory scale investigations on the preparation of copper-beryllium and aluminium-beryllium master alloys starting from Indian beryl and adopting the fluoride process. The flow-sheet involves : (1) conversion of the Be-values in beryl into water soluble sodium beryllium fluoride (2) preparation of beryllium hydroxide by alkali treatment of aqueous Na 2 BeF 4 (3) conversion of Be(OH) 2 to (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 by treatment with NH 4 HF 2 (4) thermal decomposition of (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 to BeF 2 and (5) magnesium reduction of BeF 2 (with the addition of copper/aluminium) to obtain beryllium alloys. The method has been successfully employed for the preparation of Cu-Be master alloys containing about 8% Be and free of Mg on a 200 gm scale. An overall Be-recovery of about 80% has been achieved. Al-8% Be master alloys have also been prepared by this method. Toxicity and health hazards associated with Be are discussed and the steps taken to ensure safe handling of Be are described. (author)

  7. Compatibility of stainless steels and lithiated ceramics with beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, T.; Fauvet, P.; Sannier, J.

    1988-07-01

    The introduction of beryllium as a neutron multiplier in ceramic blankets of thermonuclear fusion reactors may give rise to the following compatibility problems: (i) oxidation of Be by ceramics (lithium aluminate and silicates) or by water vapour; (ii) interaction between beryllium and austenitic and martensitic steels. The studies were done in contact tests under vacuum and in tests under wet sweeping helium. The contact tests under vacuum have revealed that the interaction of beryllium with ceramics seems to be low up to 700°C, the interaction of beryllium with steels is significant and is characterized by the formation of a diffusion layer and of a brittle Be-Fe-Ni compound. With type 316 L austenitic steel, this interaction appears quite large at 600°C whereas it is noticeable only at 700°C with martensitic steels. The experiments carried out with sweeping wet helium at 600°C have evidenced a slight oxidation of beryllium due to water vapour which can be enhanced in the front of uncompletely dehydrated ceramics.

  8. Preparation of copper-beryllium alloys from Indian beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, C.M.; Sharma, B.P.; Subba Rao, K.S.; Rajadhyaksha, M.G.; Sundaram, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory-scale investigations on the preparation of copper-beryllium and aluminium beryllium master alloys starting from Indian beryl and adopting the fluoride process. The flowsheet involves: (1) conversion of the Be-values in beryl into water soluble sodium beryllium fluoride, (2) preparation of beryllium hydroxide by alkali treatment of aqueous Na 2 BeF 4 (3) conversion of Be(OH) 2 to (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 by treatment with NH 4 HF 2 (4) thermal decomposition of (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 to BeF 2 and (5) magnesium reduction of BeF 2 (without/with) the addition of copper/aluminium to obtain beryllium metal/alloys. The method has been successfully employed for the preparation of Cu-Be master alloys containing about 8% Be and free of Mg on a 200 gm scale. A1-80% Be master alloys have also been prepared by this method. Toxicity and health hazards associated with Be are discussed and the steps taken to ensure safe handling of Be are described. (author)

  9. Erosion of beryllium under ITER - Relevant transient plasma loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Porezanov, N. P.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Gervash, A. A.; Safronov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2-0.5 MJ/m2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  10. Structure/property relationships in multipass GMA welding of beryllium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochanadel, P. W. (Patrick W.); Hults, W. L. (William L.); Thoma, D. J. (Dan J.); Dave, V. R. (Vivek R.); Kelly, A. M. (Anna Marie); Pappin, P. A. (Pallas A.); Cola, M. J. (Mark J.); Burgardt, P. (Paul)

    2001-01-01

    Beryllium is an interesting metal that has a strength to weight ratio six times that of steel. Because of its unique mechanical properties, beryllium is used in aerospace applications such as satellites. In addition, beryllium is also used in x-ray windows because it is nearly transparent to x-rays. Joining of beryllium has been studied for decades (Ref.l). Typically joining processes include braze-welding (either with gas tungsten arc or gas metal arc), soldering, brazing, and electron beam welding. Cracking which resulted from electron beam welding was recently studied to provide structure/property relationships in autogenous welds (Ref. 2). Braze-welding utilizes a welding arc to melt filler, and only a small amount of base metal is melted and incorporated into the weld pool. Very little has been done to characterize the braze-weld in terms of the structure/property relationships, especially with reference to multipass welding. Thus, this investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of multiple passes on microstructure, weld metal composition, and resulting material properties for beryllium welded with aluminum-silicon filler metal.

  11. The results of medical surveillance of beryllium production personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koviazin, A.; Urikh, A.; Kovianzina, L.

    2004-01-01

    The report presents results of surveillance of 1836 workers of beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant JSC with the acute and chronic forms of occupation diseases for 52 years of its operation. The dependence of acute and chronic occupation lesions on the protection degree is shown. It has been found out that, the risk of getting an occupation disease increases sharply at the moments of experimental works and at the time of reconstruction and some other extreme conditions in the production, that is supported by fixed lesions of eye mucous coat, skin and lung lesions. In this case, the readiness of people for their work in deleterious conditions and their personal responsibility for following the regulations of safety occupational standards plays a definite role. Therefore, the issues of protection are of paramount importance in prophylaxis both of acute and chronic exposure to beryllium. An influence of duration of service and occupation on chronic beryllium diseases is shown. A parallel between the lung beryllium disease and skin lesions by insoluble beryllium compounds is drawn for the first time. (author)

  12. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  13. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Manly, W.D.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers

  14. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  15. The Karlsruhe Neutron Transmission Experiment (KANT): Spherical shell transmission measurements with 14 MeV neutrons on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellendorff, U. von; Fischer, U.; Giese, H.; Kappler, F.; Tayama, R.; Wiegner, E.; Klein, H.; Alevra, A.

    1996-01-01

    This is a set of viewgraphs (no additional text) of a presentation on spherical shell transmission measurements with 14 MeV neutrons on beryllium; the cross for 9 Be(n,2n)2α for the energy range between threshold (1.85 MeV) and 20 MeV neutron energy is measured and the measurement is compared with the literature. Also, neutron leakage multiplication in spherical Be shells with various thicknesses are presented. Figs, tabs

  16. Behaviour of Molten Beryllium with ITER Reference CFC NB31 (SNECMA) Under Moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipa, M.; Martin, G.; Linke, J.

    2006-01-01

    A dramatic exothermic reaction with aluminium, a carbide forming metal, has been observed in Tore Supra. A small rod of 30 mm 3 , acting as a temperature proof, was enclosed in a blind hole of a thermally loaded low density PAN fiber CFC 1001Z block (SGL), which reached a temperature of about 1300 o C during plasma operation. The molten aluminium had penetrated the carbon matrix through to the block's front surface. After component removal and roughly 2 months of exposure to air in the laboratory, the CFC in front of the blind hole was found to have been locally destroyed over a crater-shaped structure of 2 cm diameter. This was due to an enhanced decomposition of aluminium carbide to aluminium hydroxide. Beryllium (Be), also a carbide forming metal, is used on the ITER first wall. Carbon reinforced carbon (CFC) of type NB31 (Snecma) covers the vertical divertor targets. It is expected that beryllium material will be transported during normal and/or off normal plasma operation to the carbon based divertor targets to form beryllium carbide. During air venting or a supposed accidental in-vessel water leak event, it will react exothermically under moisture to beryllium oxide. In order to investigate to which extent the CFC structure could be modified or eventually destroyed, this reaction process has been simulated with a CFC block NB31 of size 16 x 32 x 20 mm 3 , where about 40 mm 3 of Be S65 C (Brush Wellmann) has been placed in a previously drilled blind hole of 4 mm diameter oriented parallel to the high conductivity pitch fibers. When melted, by heating the CFC block, the Be penetrated in the carbon matrix through to the block's front surface. The front surface of the CFC was then exposed to humidity (tap water) for about 2 weeks and then stored for a further 2 months in a closed vinyl bag under atmospheric pressure after which the sample was analysed. After the exposure of the CFC to humidity, reaction products have been detected at the surface of the carbon

  17. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This detailed report on Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is funcioning effectively

  18. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  19. The Effect Of Beryllium Interaction With Fast Neutrons On the Reactivity Of ETRR-2 Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; El Messiry, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of beryllium interactions with fast neutrons is studied for Etrr 2 research reactors. Isotope build up inside beryllium blocks is calculated under different irradiation times. a new model for the Etrr 2 research reactor is designed using MCNP code to calculate the reactivity and flux change of the reactor due to beryllium poison

  20. Electron microscope study of irradiated beryllium oxide; Etude au microscope electronique de l'oxyde de beryllium irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisson, A A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    The beryllium oxide is studied first by fractography, before and after irradiation, using sintered samples. The fractures are examined under different aspects. The higher density sintered samples, with transgranular fractures are the most interesting for a microscopic study. It is possible to mark the difference between the 'pores' left by the sintering process and the 'bubbles' of gases that can be produced by former thermal treatments. After irradiation, the grain boundaries are very much weakened. By annealing, it is possible to observe the evolution of the gases produced by the reaction (n, 2n) and (n. {alpha}) and gathered on the grain boundaries. The irradiated beryllium oxide is afterwards studied by transmission. For that, a simple method has been used: little chips of the crushed material are examined. Clusters of point defects produced by neutrons are thus detected in crystals irradiated at the three following doses: 6 x 10{sup 19}, 9 x 10{sup 19} and 2 x 10{sup 20} n{sub f} cm{sup -2} at a temperature below 100 deg. C. For the irradiation at 6 x 10{sup 19} n{sub f} cm{sup -2}, the defects are merely visible, but at 2 x l0{sup 20} n{sub f} cm{sup -2} the crystals an crowded with clusters and the Kikuchi lines have disappeared from the micro-diffraction diagrams. The evolution of the clusters into dislocation loops is studied by a series of annealings. The activation energy (0,37 eV) calculated from the annealing curves suggests that it must be interstitials that condense into dislocation loops. Samples irradiated at high temperatures (650, 900 and 1100 deg. C) are also studied. In those specimens the size of the loops is not the same as the equilibrium size obtained after out of pile annealing at the same temperature. Those former loops are more specifically studied and their Burgers vector is determined by micro-diffraction. (author) [French] L'oxyde de beryllium est d'abord etudie, par une methode fractographique, avant et apres irradiation, en

  1. Targeted deletion of the 9p21 noncoding coronary artery disease risk interval in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Zhu, Yiwen; May, Dalit; Afzal, Veena; Gong, Elaine; Attanasio, Catia; Blow, Matthew J.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2010-01-01

    Sequence polymorphisms in a 58kb interval on chromosome 9p21 confer a markedly increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death worldwide 1,2. The variants have a substantial impact on the epidemiology of CAD and other life?threatening vascular conditions since nearly a quarter of Caucasians are homozygous for risk alleles. However, the risk interval is devoid of protein?coding genes and the mechanism linking the region to CAD risk has remained enigmatic. Here we show that deletion of the orthologous 70kb noncoding interval on mouse chromosome 4 affects cardiac expression of neighboring genes, as well as proliferation properties of vascular cells. Chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice are viable, but show increased mortality both during development and as adults. Cardiac expression of two genes near the noncoding interval, Cdkn2a and Cdkn2b, is severely reduced in chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice, indicating that distant-acting gene regulatory functions are located in the noncoding CAD risk interval. Allelespecific expression of Cdkn2b transcripts in heterozygous mice revealed that the deletion affects expression through a cis-acting mechanism. Primary cultures of chr4delta70kb/delta70kb aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited excessive proliferation and diminished senescence, a cellular phenotype consistent with accelerated CAD pathogenesis. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence that the CAD risk interval plays a pivotal role in regulation of cardiac Cdkn2a/b expression and suggest that this region affects CAD progression by altering the dynamics of vascular cell proliferation.

  2. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a delays flowering time in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yupeng; Chen, Li; Liu, Xiujie; Guo, Chen; Sun, Shi; Wu, Cunxiang; Jiang, Bingjun; Han, Tianfu; Hou, Wensheng

    2018-01-01

    Flowering is an indication of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth and has considerable effects on the life cycle of soya bean (Glycine max). In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to specifically induce targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a, an integrator in the photoperiod flowering pathway in soya bean. The soya bean cultivar Jack was transformed with three sgRNA/Cas9 vectors targeting different sites of endogenous GmFT2a via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Site-directed mutations were observed at all targeted sites by DNA sequencing analysis. T1-generation soya bean plants homozygous for null alleles of GmFT2a frameshift mutated by a 1-bp insertion or short deletion exhibited late flowering under natural conditions (summer) in Beijing, China (N39°58', E116°20'). We also found that the targeted mutagenesis was stably heritable in the following T2 generation, and the homozygous GmFT2a mutants exhibited late flowering under both long-day and short-day conditions. We identified some 'transgene-clean' soya bean plants that were homozygous for null alleles of endogenous GmFT2a and without any transgenic element from the T1 and T2 generations. These 'transgene-clean' mutants of GmFT2a may provide materials for more in-depth research of GmFT2a functions and the molecular mechanism of photoperiod responses in soya bean. They will also contribute to soya bean breeding and regional introduction. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Estrogen induced metastatic modulators MMP-2 and MMP-9 are targets of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Rajoria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine related cancer with increasing incidences during the past five years. Current treatments for thyroid cancer, such as surgery or radioactive iodine therapy, often require patients to be on lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy and given the significant recurrence rates of thyroid cancer, new preventive modalities are needed. The present study investigates the property of a natural dietary compound found in cruciferous vegetables, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM, to target the metastatic phenotype of thyroid cancer cells through a functional estrogen receptor.Thyroid cancer cell lines were treated with estrogen and/or DIM and subjected to in vitro adhesion, migration and invasion assays to investigate the anti-metastatic and anti-estrogenic effects of DIM. We observed that DIM inhibits estrogen mediated increase in thyroid cell migration, adhesion and invasion, which is also supported by ER-α downregulation (siRNA studies. Western blot and zymography analyses provided direct evidence for this DIM mediated inhibition of E(2 enhanced metastasis associated events by virtue of targeting essential proteolytic enzymes, namely MMP-2 and MMP-9.Our data reports for the first time that DIM displays anti-estrogenic like activity by inhibiting estradiol enhanced thyroid cancer cell proliferation and in vitro metastasis associated events, namely adhesion, migration and invasion. Most significantly, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are known to promote and enhance metastasis, were determined to be targets of DIM. This anti-estrogen like property of DIM may lead to the development of a novel preventive and/or therapeutic dietary supplement for thyroid cancer patients by targeting progression of the disease.

  4. The design, fabrication, and testing of beryllium capsules for resonant ultrasound experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.; Salzer, L.; Day, R.

    1999-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition targets require smooth and well-characterized deuterium/tritium (DT) ice layers. Los Alamos is developing Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) to measure the internal pressure in the targets at room temperature after filling with DT. RUS techniques also can detect and measure the amplitudes of low modal surface roughness perturbations of the target shell interior. The experiments required beryllium capsules with a nominal inside radius of 1 mm and a spherical outside radius of 3 mm. The capsules have various spherical harmonic contours up to mode 12 machined into their interior surfaces. The capsules are constructed from hemispheres using an epoxy adhesive and then filled to ∼270 atm with helium or deuterium gas. This paper describes the adhesive joint design, machining techniques, and interior geometry inspection techniques. It also describes the fixtures needed to assemble, fill, and pressure test the capsules

  5. Transient Expression of CRISPR/Cas9 Machinery Targeting TcNPR3 Enhances Defense Response in Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Andrew S; Landherr, Lena; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2018-01-01

    Theobroma cacao , the source of cocoa, suffers significant losses to a variety of pathogens resulting in reduced incomes for millions of farmers in developing countries. Development of disease resistant cacao varieties is an essential strategy to combat this threat, but is limited by sources of genetic resistance and the slow generation time of this tropical tree crop. In this study, we present the first application of genome editing technology in cacao, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into cacao leaves and cotyledon cells. As a first proof of concept, we targeted the cacao Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis-Related 3 (TcNPR3) gene, a suppressor of the defense response. After demonstrating activity of designed single-guide RNAs (sgRNA) in vitro , we used Agrobacterium to introduce a CRISPR/Cas9 system into leaf tissue, and identified the presence of deletions in 27% of TcNPR3 copies in the treated tissues. The edited tissue exhibited an increased resistance to infection with the cacao pathogen Phytophthora tropicalis and elevated expression of downstream defense genes. Analysis of off-target mutagenesis in sequences similar to sgRNA target sites using high-throughput sequencing did not reveal mutations above background sequencing error rates. These results confirm the function of NPR3 as a repressor of the cacao immune system and demonstrate the application of CRISPR/Cas9 as a powerful functional genomics tool for cacao. Several stably transformed and genome edited somatic embryos were obtained via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation, and ongoing work will test the effectiveness of this approach at a whole plant level.

  6. Increasing on-target cleavage efficiency for CRISPR/Cas9-induced large fragment deletion in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Jie; Wang, Ye; Li, Zhi-Feng; Gong, Ya; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wen-Chao; Sheng, Duo-Hong; Li, Yue-Zhong

    2017-08-16

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome editing, in which the sgRNA binds and guides the Cas9 protein for the sequence-specific cleavage. The protocol is employable in different organisms, but is often limited by cell damage due to the endonuclease activity of the introduced Cas9 and the potential off-target DNA cleavage from incorrect guide by the 20 nt spacer. In this study, after resolving some critical limits, we have established an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 system for the deletion of large genome fragments related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Myxococcus xanthus cells. We revealed that the high expression of a codon-optimized cas9 gene in M. xanthus was cytotoxic, and developed a temporally high expression strategy to reduce the cell damage from high expressions of Cas9. We optimized the deletion protocol by using the tRNA-sgRNA-tRNA chimeric structure to ensure correct sgRNA sequence. We found that, in addition to the position-dependent nucleotide preference, the free energy of a 20 nt spacer was a key factor for the deletion efficiency. By using the developed protocol, we achieved the CRISPR/Cas9-induced deletion of large biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites in M. xanthus DK1622 and its epothilone-producing mutant. The findings and the proposals described in this paper were suggested to be workable in other organisms, for example, other Gram negative bacteria with high GC content.

  7. On modeling of beryllium molten depths in simulated plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsotridis, G.; Rother, H.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma-facing components in tokamak-type fusion reactors are subjected to intense heat loads during plasma disruptions. The influence of high heat fluxes on the depth of heat-affected zones of pure beryllium metal and beryllium containing very low levels of surface active impurities is studied by using a two-dimensional transient computer model that solves the equations of motion and energy. Results are presented for a range of energy densities and disruption times. Under certain conditions, impurities, through their effect on surface tension, create convective flows and hence influence the flow intensities and the resulting depths of the beryllium molten layers during plasma disruptions. The calculated depths of the molten layers are also compared with other mathematical models that are based on the assumption that heat is transported through the material by conduction only. 32 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. On kinetics of paramagnetic radiation defects accumulation in beryllium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Bitenbaev, M.I.; Petykhov, Yu.V.

    1999-01-01

    Results of paramagnetic radiation defects concentration dependence study in beryllium ceramics from gamma-irradiation dose ( 60 Co) within interval 0-100 Mrem are cited. Obtained dose dependence has form of accumulation curve with saturation typical of for majority of solids (crystals, different polymers, organic substances and others) , in which under irradiation occur not only formation of paramagnetic radiation defects, but its destruction due to recombination and interaction with radiation fields. Analysis of accumulation curve by the method of distant asymptotics allows to determine that observed in gamma-irradiated beryllium ceramics double line of electron spin resonance is forming of two types of paramagnetic radiation defects. It was defined, that sum paramagnetic characteristics of beryllium ceramics within 1-100 Mrad gamma- irradiation dose field change insignificantly and define from first type of paramagnetic radiation defects

  9. Corrosion of beryllium exposed to celotex and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Celotex is a commercial rigid cellulose fiberboard product primarily used in the building construction industry. Currently celotex is being used as a packing material in AL-R8 containers. Ion chromatography of celotex packing material at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has indicated that this material contains aggressive anions, including chloride, which may accelerate corrosion. It is well known that beryllium is susceptible to pitting corrosion when exposed to chloride containing environments. Levy noted pitting in beryllium at the open circuit potential when exposed to 0.1 M NaCl solution. This investigation attempts to evaluate the potential risk of accelerated beryllium corrosion from celotex and water which may occur naturally when celotex dust comes into contact with moisture from the atmosphere

  10. Neutron irradiation behavior of ITER candidate beryllium grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Melder, R.R.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the main candidate materials both for the neutron multiplier in a solid breeding blanket and for the plasma facing components. That is why its behaviour under the typical for fusion reactor loading, in particular, under the neutron irradiation is of a great importance. This paper presents mechanical properties, swelling and microstructure of six beryllium grades (DshG-200, TR-30, TshG-56, TRR, TE-30, TIP-30) fabricated by VNIINM, Russia and also one - (S-65) fabricated by Brush Wellman, USA. The average grain size of the beryllium grades varied from 8 to 25 {mu}m, beryllium oxide content was 0.8-3.2 wt. %, initial tensile strength was 250-680 MPa. All the samples were irradiated in active zone of SM-3 reactor up to the fast neutron fluence (5.5-6.2) {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (2.7-3.0 dpa, helium content up to 1150 appm), E > 0.1 MeV at two temperature ranges: T{sub 1} = 130-180degC and T{sub 2} = 650-700degC. After irradiation at 130-180degC no changes in samples dimensions were revealed. After irradiation at 650-700degC swelling of the materials was found to be in the range 0.1-2.1 %. Beryllium grades TR-30 and TRR, having the smallest grain size and highest beryllium oxide content, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was no more than 0.1 % at 650-700degC and fluence 5.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Tensile and compression test results and microstructure parameters measured before and after irradiation are also presented. (author)

  11. Preparation of a sinterable beryllium oxide through decomposition of beryllium hydroxide (1963); Preparation d'un oxyde de beryllium frittable par decomposition de l'hydiloxyde (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    In the course of the present study, we have attempted to precise the factors which among the ones effective in the course of the preparation of the beryllium hydroxide and oxide and during the sintering have an influence on the final result: the density and homogeneity of the sintered body. Of the several varieties of hydroxides precipitated from a sulfate solution the {beta}-hydroxide only is always contaminated with beryllium sulfate and cannot be purified even by thorough washing. We noticed that those varieties of the hydroxide (gel, {alpha}, {beta}) have different decomposition rates; this behaviour is used to identify and even to dose the different species in ({alpha}, {beta}) mixtures. The various hydroxides transmit to the resulting oxides the shape they had when precipitated. Accordingly the history of the oxide is revealed by its behaviour during its fabrication and sintering. By comparing the results of the sintering operation with the various measurements performed on the oxide powders we are led to the conclusion that an oxide obtained from beryllium hydroxide is sinterable under vacuum if the following conditions are fulfilled: the particle size must lie between 0.1 and 0.2 {mu} and the BeSO{sub 4} content of the powder must be less than 0.25 per cent wt (expressed as SO{sub 3}/BeO). The best fitting is obtained with the oxide issued from an {alpha}-hydroxide precipitated as very small aggregates and with a low sulfur-content. We have observed that this is also the case for the oxide obtained by direct calcination of beryllium sulfate. (author) [French] Au cours de cette etude, nous avons cherche a preciser les facteurs qui, intervenant tout au long de la preparation de l'hydroxyde, puis de l'oxyde de beryllium et enfin du frittage, peuvent avoir une influence sur le resultat final: la densite et l'homogeneite du fritte. Parmi tous les hydroxydes precipites d'une solution de sulfate, seul l'hydroxyde {beta} est toujours fortement pollue par le sulfate

  12. Modeling tritium processes in plasma-facing beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Dolan, T.J.; Mulock, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present techniques and recommended parameters for modeling tritium implantation, trapping and release, and permeation, in beryllium-clad structures adjacent to the plasma. Among the features that should be considered are the effects of surface films, the mobility of beryllium through those films, damage caused by ion implantation, especially in regions where pitting may be expected, and bubble formation. Tritium transport parameters recommended are based on fits with experimental data and available theory. Estimates of inventories in ITER using these parameters are also given. 31 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Characterization of beryllium foil produced by hot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenauer, J.; Nieh, T.G.; Waychunas, G.

    1992-01-01

    Beryllium foil is important for a number of aerospace applications including honeycomb structures and metal-matrix composites. In this study, a method of producing beryllium foil directly from powder or flake is demonstrated. A variety of foils were produced in the thickness range 90-300 μm, free from defects such as pinholes and excessive surface roughness, and exhibiting sufficient formability for honeycomb manufacture. Foil produced directly from powder or flake exhibits crystallographic texture, microstructure, and formability equivalent to foil produced from more massive precursors. (Author)

  14. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  15. Factors influencing the creep strength of hot pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, D.; Crooks, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    The parameters controlling the creep strength of hot pressed beryllium block have been determined. Creep strength was improved by a high initial dislocation density, a coarse grain size, and a low impurity content. The impurities most detrimental to creep strength were found to be aluminum, magnesium, and silicon. A uniform distribution of BeO was found to give creep strength which was inferior to a grain boundary distribution. The creep strength of very high purity, hot isostatically pressed beryllium was found to compare favorably with that of other more commonly used high temperature metals

  16. Beryllium for first wall, limiter and divertor - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, A.; Smid, I.; Kny, E.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of the topical literature on beryllium as material for plasma interactive components in future fusion devices is given. The radiation damage which can be expected as a result of the neutron irradiation from ignited tokamak plasma is discussed. The response to high heat fluxes and simulation experiments in different test facilities are referred. Another focus will be on the material properties literature data, on joining techniques and on compatibility with other materials. The performance of a beryllium coated first wall at JET is reported. Some relevant literature on other candidate materials for plasma interactive components shall be considered

  17. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  18. Characterization of Beryllium Windows for Coherent X-ray Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shunji; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium foils fabricated by several processes were characterized using spatially coherent x rays at 1-km beamline of SPring-8. By thickness dependence of bright x-ray spot density due to Fresnel diffraction from several-micron deficiencies, we found that speckles (bright x-ray spots) were due to voids with densities 103-104 mm-3 in powder foils and ingot foils. Compared with powder and ingot foils, a polished physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) beryllium foil gave highly uniform beams with no speckles. The PVD process eliminates the internal voids in principle and the PVD foil is the best for coherent x-ray applications

  19. Measurements of fusion neutron multiplication in spherical beryllium shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, H.; Kappler, F.; Tayama, R.; Moellendorff, U. von; Alevra, A.; Klein, H.

    1996-01-01

    New results of spherical-shell transmission measurements with 14-MeV neutrons on pure beryllium shells up to 17 cm thick are reported. The spectral flux above 3 MeV was measured using a liquid scintillation detector. At 17 cm thickness, also the total neutron multiplication was measured using a Bonner sphere system. The results agree well with calculations using beryllium nuclear data from the EFF-1 or the ENDF/B-Vi library. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  20. Radiative electron capture for F8+ and F9+ ions in collisions with a He gas target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawatsura, K.; Richard, P.; Tawara, H.

    1981-01-01

    The x rays from the radiative electron capture (REC) to the projectile K-shell were investigated for F 8+ and F 9+ ions incident on the He target atoms in the projectile energy range from 15 to 40 MeV. The peak energies of the K-REC x-ray spectra were found to decrease linearly with a decrease of the projectile energies as expected and extrapolated to the correct ls binding energies at zero velocity. According to theory the distribution width of the REC energies should be independent of the binding energy of electrons in the projectile ions. However, it is found that this width for F 8+ ions is systematically smaller by 20% than that for F 9+ ions. The measured REC cross sections for F 9+ ions are slightly larger than twice those for F 8+ ions and the total REC cross sections for F 8+ and F 9+ ions were found to be more than three orders of magnitude smaller than the total electron capture cross sections and the capture cross sections into excited states

  1. Beryllium-7 deposition to terrestrial vegetation in Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.

    1984-04-01

    Measurements of natural beryllium-7 ( 7 Be) were made in field vegetation and rainwater at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation throughout the months of July 1982 to June 1983. Laboratory experiments were also conducted on the adsorption and desorption of 7 Be, cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), lead-210 ( 210 Pb), and iodine-131 ( 131 I) to the foliage of fescue, 3 varieties of beans, and loblolly pine. The field loss of artificially applied 7 Be to field fescue was also measured. The weathering half-life (T/sub W/) was found to be 36.5 days during November-January 1982-1983; no difference was found in the loss of 7 Be during the months March-May 1983, T/sub W/ = 38.5 days. The loss of sulfur-35 ( 35 S) was studied concurrently with the spring loss of 7 Be; the T/sub W/ for 35 S was much smaller, equal to 18.4 days. The interception fraction, r, was determined experimentally in the field using the flux of 7 Be in rainwater incident upon clover; the mean value was 0.172. Total deposition velocities were estimated using monthly 7 Be rainwater concentrations and quarterly air concentrations; the yearly average was 1.66 cm/sec. An equation for predicting vegetation concentrations was derived for 7 Be from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Guide 1.109. Generic and site-specific values for deposition rate, interception fraction, effective half-life, exposure time, and biomass density were summarized separately and the derived equation was employed to make predictions of monthly 7 Be vegetation concentrations. These predictions were compared to actual field observations. With the exception of the month of May, both generic and site-specific predictions were found to underestimate the actual 7 Be vegetation concentrations. 44 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  2. Adaptation prevents the extinction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under toxic beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Baselga-Cervera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current biodiversity crisis represents a historic challenge for natural communities: the environmental rate of change exceeds the population’s adaptation capability. Integrating both ecological and evolutionary responses is necessary to make reliable predictions regarding the loss of biodiversity. The race against extinction from an eco-evolutionary perspective is gaining importance in ecological risk assessment. Here, we performed a classical study of population dynamics—a fluctuation analysis—and evaluated the results from an adaption perspective. Fluctuation analysis, widely used with microorganisms, is an effective empirical procedure to study adaptation under strong selective pressure because it incorporates the factors that influence demographic, genetic and environmental changes. The adaptation of phytoplankton to beryllium (Be is of interest because human activities are increasing the concentration of Be in freshwater reserves; therefore, predicting the effects of human-induced pollutants is necessary for proper risk assessment. The fluctuation analysis was performed with phytoplankton, specifically, the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, under acute Be exposure. High doses of Be led to massive microalgae death; however, by conducting a fluctuation analysis experiment, we found that C. reinhardtii was able to adapt to 33 mg/l of Be due to pre-existing genetic variability. The rescuing adapting genotype presented a mutation rate of 9.61 × 10−6 and a frequency of 10.42 resistant cells per million wild-type cells. The genetic adaptation pathway that was experimentally obtained agreed with the theoretical models of evolutionary rescue (ER. Furthermore, the rescuing genotype presented phenotypic and physiologic differences from the wild-type genotype, was 25% smaller than the Be-resistant genotype and presented a lower fitness and quantum yield performance. The abrupt distinctions between the wild-type and the Be

  3. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.A.; Cowgill, D.F.; Snead, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1--5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits

  4. The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.; Watson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented

  5. Reducing the cost of S-65C grade beryllium for ITER first wall applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczynski, D.; Sato, K.; Savchuk, V.V.; Shestakov, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Beryllium is the current material of choice for plasma-facing components in ITER. The present design is for 10 mm thick beryllium tiles bonded to an actively cooled copper substrate. Brush Wellman grade S65C beryllium is preferred grade off beryllium for these tiles. S65C has the best resistance to low-cycle thermal fatigue than any other beryllium grad in the world. S65C grade beryllium has been successfully deployed in fusion reactors for more than two decades, most recently in the JET reactor. This paper will detail a supply chain to produce the most cost-effective S65C plasma facing components for ITER. This paper will also propose some future work too demonstrate the best technology for bonding beryllium to copper. (author)

  6. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.W.; Cowgill, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1-5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits. (orig.)

  7. Movement of liquid beryllium during melt events in JET with ITER-like wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergienko, G; Huber, A; Brezinsek, S; Coenen, J W; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V; Samm, U; Arnoux, G; Matthews, G F; Nunes, I; Riccardo, V; Sirinelli, A; Devaux, S

    2014-01-01

    The ITER-like wall recently installed in JET comprises solid beryllium limiters and a combination of bulk tungsten and tungsten-coated carbon fibre composite divertor tiles without active cooling. During a beryllium power handling qualification experiment performed in limiter configuration with 5 MW neutral beam injection input power, accidental beryllium melt events, melt layer motion and splashing were observed locally on a few beryllium limiters in the plasma contact areas. The Lorentz force is responsible for the observed melt layer movement. To move liquid beryllium against the gravity force, the current flowing from the plasma perpendicularly to the limiter surface must be higher than 6 kA m −2 . The thermo-emission current at the melting point of beryllium is much lower. The upward motion of the liquid beryllium against gravity can be due to a combination of the Lorentz force from the secondary electron emission and plasma pressure force. (paper)

  8. Status of the beryllium replacement project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimayuga, I. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Corcoran, E. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Daniels, T. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Harmsen, J. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing Inc., Port Hope, Ontario (Canada); Lu, E. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada); Onderwater, T.; Palleck, S. [General Electric- Hitachi, Wilmington, North Carolina (United States); Pant, A. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing Inc., Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, beryllium (Be) is used as the filler metal for brazing appendages on the sheaths of CANDU® fuel elements. Because of its toxicity, occupational exposure limits for Be are being reduced to very low levels, resulting in significant challenges to CANDU® fuel fabricators. The CANDU® Owners Group (COG) initiated a test program to identify a filler material to replace Be and confirm that the brazed joints meet the established technical requirements for CANDU® fuel. Together with eliminating health risks associated with the use of Be, the industry needs to be assured that continuation of fuel supply remains unaffected and that fuel fabrication processes continue to comply with health and safety standards. A literature survey of studies on brazing and joining of Zircaloy identified potential filler materials that can meet or exceed existing design requirements of the brazed joint, including the required mechanical, microstructural, corrosion resistance, and irradiation properties equivalent to those obtained with Be as braze material. Candidate materials were evaluated against several criteria, including manufacturability, melting point, wettability, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, effect on neutron economy, potential activation products, and interaction with fuel channels and other related disciplines. This exercise resulted in a list of promising candidate materials that were recommended for the first phase of testing. These materials include stainless steel (304 or 316), Al-Si, Ni-P, and Zr-Mn alloys. To allow a CANDU® utility have sufficient confidence in considering implementation of a different braze filler material, a Be Replacement Test Program, involving out-reactor and in-reactor tests, is being undertaken as a collaborative endeavour by the Canadian nuclear industry. The out-reactor tests consist of: a constructability assessment to determine the material’s suitability with current fuel manufacturing methods; evaluation of

  9. Irradiation effects on aluminium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, M.

    1992-01-01

    ductility of 1.6%. Besides, due to the effects of embrittlement and swelling induced by irradiation, the HFR beryllium reflector elements had to be replaced after more than 25 years of operation. Operational and practical experiences with these reflector elements are commented, as well as main engineering features of the new reflector elements: upper-end fittings of both filler element and insert in stainless steel, no radially drilled holes and no roll pins

  10. Beryllium research on FFHR molten salt blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.; Sze, D.-K.

    2000-01-01

    Force-free helical reactor, FFHR, is a demo-relevant heliotron-type D-T fusion reactor based on the great amount of R and D results obtained in the LHD project. Since 1993, collaboration works have made great progress in design studies of FFHR with standing on the major advantage of current-less steady operation with no dangerous plasma disruptions. There are two types of reference designs, FFHR-1 and FFHR-2, where molten Flibe (LiF-BeF2) is utilized as tritium breeder and coolant. In this paper, we present the outline of FFHR blanket design and some related R and D topics focusing on Be utilization. Beryllium is used as a neutron multiplier in the design and Be pebbles are placed in the front part of the tritium breeding zone. In a Flibe blanket, HF (TF) generated due to nuclear transmutation will be a problem because of its corrosive property. Though nickel-based alloys are thought to be intact in such a corrosive environment, FFHR blanket design does not adopt the alloys because of their induced radioactivity. The present candidate materials for the structure are low-activated ferritic steel (JLF-1), V-4Cr-4Ti, etc. They are capable to be corroded by HF in the operation condition, and Be is expected to work as a reducing agent in the system as well. Whether Be pebbles placed in a Flibe flow can work well or not is a very important matter. From this point, Be solubility in Flibe, reaction rate of the Redox reaction with TF in the liquid and on the surface of Be pebbles under irradiation, flowing behavior of Flibe through a Be pebble bed, etc. should be investigated. In 1997, in order to establish more practical and new data bases for advanced design works, we started a collaboration work of R and D on blanket engineering, where the Be research above mentioned is included. Preliminary dipping-test of Be sheets and in-situ tritium release experiment from Flibe with Be sheets have got started. (orig.)

  11. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.; Wiechers, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  12. Investigation of fracture in pressurized gas metal arc welded beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiple, C.R.; Merlini, R.J.; Adams, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    Premature failures during proof testing of pressurized-gas-metal-arc (PGMA) welded beryllium assemblies were investigated. The failures were almost entirely within the beryllium (a forming grade, similar to HP-10 or S-240), close to and parallel to the weld interface. The aluminum-silicon weld filler metal deposit was not centered in the weld groove in the failed assemblies, and failure occurred on the side of the weld opposite the bias in the weld deposit. Tensile tests of welded samples demonstrated that the failures were unrelated to residual machining damage from cutting the weld groove, and indicated small lack-of-fusion areas near the weld start to be the most likely origin of the failures. Acoustic emission was monitored during tensile tests of the welds. The majority of acoustic emission was probably from crack propagation through the weld filler metal. Tensile bars cut from the region of the weld start behaved differently; they failed at lower loads and exhibited an acoustic emission behavior believed to be from cracking in the weld metal-beryllium interface. Improvement in the quality of these and similar beryllium welds can therefore most likely be made by centering the weld deposit and reducing the size of the weld start defect. 21 fig

  13. Influence of impurities in Beryllium on tritium breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Ochiai, K.; Verzilov, Y.; Ito, M.; Wada, M.; Nishitani, T.

    2004-01-01

    Several neutronics experiments simulating fusion blankets have been conducted with 14 MeV neutron source to assess the reliability of nuclear analysis codes. However, the analyses have not always presented good agreements so far between calculated and measured tritium production rates. One of the reasons was considered as impurities in beryllium which has negligibly small neutron absorption cross section in low energy range. Chemical compositions of beryllium were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method, and a pulsed neutron decay experiment discovered that the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section for beryllium medium may be about 30% larger than the value calculated by the data specified by manufacturing company. The influence of the impurities on the calculations was studied on the basis of the fusion DEMO-reactor blanket design. As a result of the study, it was made clear that the impurities affect the local tritium production rates when the size of beryllium medium is more than 20-30 mean free paths (30-40 cm) in thickness. In case of some blanket designs that meet the above condition, the effect on tritium breeding ratio may become as large as about 4%. (author)

  14. Influence of impurities in Beryllium on tritium breeding ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, M; Ochiai, K; Verzilov, Y; Ito, M; Wada, M; Nishitani, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2004-03-01

    Several neutronics experiments simulating fusion blankets have been conducted with 14 MeV neutron source to assess the reliability of nuclear analysis codes. However, the analyses have not always presented good agreements so far between calculated and measured tritium production rates. One of the reasons was considered as impurities in beryllium which has negligibly small neutron absorption cross section in low energy range. Chemical compositions of beryllium were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method, and a pulsed neutron decay experiment discovered that the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section for beryllium medium may be about 30% larger than the value calculated by the data specified by manufacturing company. The influence of the impurities on the calculations was studied on the basis of the fusion DEMO-reactor blanket design. As a result of the study, it was made clear that the impurities affect the local tritium production rates when the size of beryllium medium is more than 20-30 mean free paths (30-40 cm) in thickness. In case of some blanket designs that meet the above condition, the effect on tritium breeding ratio may become as large as about 4%. (author)

  15. The experience in production of composite refraction lenses from beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, A. A.; Zabrodin, A. V.; Gorlevskiy, V. V.; Sheverdyaev, M. S.; Lizunov, A. V.; Brylev, D. A.; Anikin, A. S.; Klykov, S. S.; Kozlova, E. V.; Lesina, I. G.; Nebera, A. L.; Morozov, I. A.; Demin, A. V. [Bochvar High-Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (Russian Federation); Buzmakov, A. V.; Dymshicz, Yu. M.; Volkov, V. V.; Zhigalina, O. M.; Konarev, P. V.; Khmelenin, D. N.; Seregin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation); and others

    2017-01-15

    The choice of beryllium-based material for the use in X-ray optics has been substantiated based on electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction data. The first results of applying refraction lenses made of this material are reported.

  16. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: michael.klimenkov@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  17. Morphing ab initio potential energy curve of beryllium monohydride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špirko, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 330, Dec (2016), s. 89-95 ISSN 0022-2852 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : beryllium monohydride * potential energy function * reduced potential * homotopic morphing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.618, year: 2016

  18. High dose neutron irradiation damage in beryllium as blanket material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V.P. E-mail: fae@niiar.ru; Kazakov, V.A.; Teykovtsev, A.A.; Pimenov, V.V.; Shimansky, G.A.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.; Suslov, D.N.; Latypov, R.N.; Belozerov, S.V.; Kupriyanov, I.B. E-mail: vniinm.400@g23.relkom.ru

    2001-11-01

    The paper presents the investigation results of beryllium products that operated in the SM and BOR-60 reactors up to neutron doses of 2.8x10{sup 22} and 8.0x10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (E>1 MeV), respectively. The calculated and experimental data are given on helium and tritium accumulation, swelling, micro-hardness and thermal conductivity. The microstructural investigation results of irradiated beryllium are also presented. It is shown that the rate of helium and tritium accumulation in beryllium in the SM and BOR-60 reactors is high enough, which is of interest from the viewpoint of modeling the working conditions of the DEMO fusion reactor. Swelling of beryllium at irradiation temperature of 70-150 deg. C and neutron fluence of 2.8x10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (E>1 MeV) makes up 0.8-1.5%, at 400 deg. C and fluence of 8x10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (E>1 MeV)-3.2-5.0%. Irradiation hardening and decrease of thermal conductivity strongly depend on the irradiation temperature and are more significant at reduced temperatures. All results presented in the paper were analyzed with due account of the supposed working parameters of the DEMO fusion reactor blanket.

  19. High dose neutron irradiation damage in beryllium as blanket material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakin, V.P.; Kazakov, V.A.; Teykovtsev, A.A.; Pimenov, V.V.; Shimansky, G.A.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.; Suslov, D.N.; Latypov, R.N.; Belozerov, S.V.; Kupriyanov, I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the investigation results of beryllium products that operated in the SM and BOR-60 reactors up to neutron doses of 2.8x10 22 and 8.0x10 22 cm -2 (E>1 MeV), respectively. The calculated and experimental data are given on helium and tritium accumulation, swelling, micro-hardness and thermal conductivity. The microstructural investigation results of irradiated beryllium are also presented. It is shown that the rate of helium and tritium accumulation in beryllium in the SM and BOR-60 reactors is high enough, which is of interest from the viewpoint of modeling the working conditions of the DEMO fusion reactor. Swelling of beryllium at irradiation temperature of 70-150 deg. C and neutron fluence of 2.8x10 22 cm -2 (E>1 MeV) makes up 0.8-1.5%, at 400 deg. C and fluence of 8x10 22 cm -2 (E>1 MeV)-3.2-5.0%. Irradiation hardening and decrease of thermal conductivity strongly depend on the irradiation temperature and are more significant at reduced temperatures. All results presented in the paper were analyzed with due account of the supposed working parameters of the DEMO fusion reactor blanket

  20. Identification of an abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, Edward L.; Newman, Lee S.; Cragle, Donna L.; Colyer, Shirley P.; Wambach, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    The potential hazards from exposure to beryllium or beryllium compounds in the workplace were first reported in the 1930s. The tritiated thymidine beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro blood test that is widely used to screen beryllium exposed workers in the nuclear industry for sensitivity to beryllium. The clinical significance of the BeLPT was described and a standard protocol was developed in the late 1980s. Cell proliferation is measured by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into dividing cells on two culture dates and using three concentrations of beryllium sulfate. Results are expressed as a 'stimulation index' (SI) which is the ratio of the amount of tritiated thymidine (measured by beta counts) in the simulated cells divided by the counts for the unstimulated cells on the same culture day. Several statistical methods for use in the routine analysis of the BeLPT were proposed in the early 1990s. The least absolute values (LAV) method was recommended for routine analysis of the BeLPT. This report further evaluates the LAV method using new data, and proposes a new method for identification of an abnormal or borderline test. This new statistical-biological positive (SBP) method reflects the clinical judgment that: (i) at least two SIs show a 'positive' response to beryllium; and (ii) that the maximum of the six SIs must exceed a cut-point that is determined from a reference data set of normal individuals whose blood has been tested by the same method in the same serum. The new data is from the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge (Y-12) and consists of 1080 workers and 33 non-exposed control BeLPTs (all tested in the same serum). Graphical results are presented to explain the statistical method, and the new SBP method is applied to the Y-12 group. The true positive rate and specificity of the new method were estimated to be 86% and 97%, respectively. An electronic notebook that is accessible via the Internet was used in

  1. Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Mark [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Garcia, Pete [U.S. Department of Energy - Richland Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Goeckner, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy - HQ, EMCBC, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 (United States); Millikin, Emily [Washington Closure Hanford, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Stoner, Mike [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism

  2. Down-Regulation of Neuropathy Target Esterase in Preeclampsia Placenta Inhibits Human Trophoblast Cell Invasion via Modulating MMP-9 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neuropathy target esterase (NTE, also known as neurotoxic esterase is proven to deacylate phosphatidylcholine (PC to glycerophosphocholine as a phospholipase B. Recently; studies showed that artificial phosphatidylserine/PC microvesicles can induce preeclampsia (PE-like changes in pregnant mice. However, it is unclear whether NTE plays a key role in the pathology of PE, a pregnancy-related disease, which was characterized by deficient trophoblast invasion and reduced trophoblast-mediated remodeling of spiral arteries. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of NTE in the placenta from women with PE and normal pregnancy, and the molecular mechanism of NTE involved in the development of PE. Methods: NTE expression levels in placentas from 20 pregnant women with PE and 20 healthy pregnant women were detected using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry staining. The effect of NTE on trophoblast migration and invasion and the underlying mechanisms were examined in HTR-8/SVneo cell lines by transfection method. Results: NTE mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic placentas than normal control. Over-expression of NTE in HTR-8/SVneo cells significantly promoted trophoblast cells migration and invasion and was associated with increased MMP-9 levels. Conversely, shRNA-mediated down-regulation of NTE markedly inhibited the cell migration and invasion. In addition, silencing NTE reduced the MMP-9 activity and phosphorylated Erk1/2 and AKT levels. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the decreased NTE may contribute to the development of PE through impairing trophoblast invasion by down-regulating MMP-9 via the Erk1/2 and AKT signaling pathway.

  3. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces; Untersuchung des ternaeren Systems Beryllium-Kohlenstoff-Wolfram und Betrachtungen von Beryllium auf Kohlenstoffoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-05-25

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be{sub 2}C island formation for T{>=}770 K. At high temperatures (T{>=}1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be{sub 2}W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be{sub 2}W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be{sub 2}C, W{sub 2}C, WC and Be{sub 2}W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be{sub 2}C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures

  4. Accelerated Homology-Directed Targeted Integration of Transgenes in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Via CRISPR/Cas9 and Fluorescent Enrichment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Grav, Lise Marie; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup

    2016-01-01

    Targeted gene integration into site-specific loci can be achieved in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells via CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology and the homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway. The low efficiency of HDR often requires antibiotic selection, which limits targeted integration...

  5. Generation of Two Noradrenergic-Specific Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase-FLPo Knock-In Mice Using CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Targeting in Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny J Sun

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 mediated DNA double strand cutting is emerging as a powerful approach to increase rates of homologous recombination of large targeting vectors, but the optimization of parameters, equipment and expertise required remain barriers to successful mouse generation by single-step zygote injection. Here, we sought to apply CRISPR/Cas9 methods to traditional embryonic stem (ES cell targeting followed by blastocyst injection to overcome the common issues of difficult vector construction and low targeting efficiency. To facilitate the study of noradrenergic function, which is implicated in myriad behavioral and physiological processes, we generated two different mouse lines that express FLPo recombinase under control of the noradrenergic-specific Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH gene. We found that by co-electroporating a circular vector expressing Cas9 and a locus-specific sgRNA, we could target FLPo to the DBH locus in ES cells with shortened 1 kb homology arms. Two different sites in the DBH gene were targeted; the translational start codon with 6-8% targeting efficiency, and the translational stop codon with 75% targeting efficiency. Using this approach, we established two mouse lines with DBH-specific expression of FLPo in brainstem catecholaminergic populations that are publically available on MMRRC (MMRRC_041575-UCD and MMRRC_041577-UCD. Altogether, this study supports simplified, high-efficiency Cas9/CRISPR-mediated targeting in embryonic stem cells for production of knock-in mouse lines in a wider variety of contexts than zygote injection alone.

  6. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout is insensitive to target copy number but is dependent on guide RNA potency and Cas9/sgRNA threshold expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Garmen; Khan, Fehad J; Gao, Shaojian; Stommel, Jayne M; Batchelor, Eric; Wu, Xiaolin; Luo, Ji

    2017-11-16

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful gene editing tool for gene knockout studies and functional genomic screens. Successful implementation of CRISPR often requires Cas9 to elicit efficient target knockout in a population of cells. In this study, we investigated the role of several key factors, including variation in target copy number, inherent potency of sgRNA guides, and expression level of Cas9 and sgRNA, in determining CRISPR knockout efficiency. Using isogenic, clonal cell lines with variable copy numbers of an EGFP transgene, we discovered that CRISPR knockout is relatively insensitive to target copy number, but is highly dependent on the potency of the sgRNA guide sequence. Kinetic analysis revealed that most target mutation occurs between 5 and 10 days following Cas9/sgRNA transduction, while sgRNAs with different potencies differ by their knockout time course and by their terminal-phase knockout efficiency. We showed that prolonged, low level expression of Cas9 and sgRNA often fails to elicit target mutation, particularly if the potency of the sgRNA is also low. Our findings provide new insights into the behavior of CRISPR/Cas9 in mammalian cells that could be used for future improvement of this platform. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  7. Rac1/β-Catenin Signalling Pathway Contributes to Trophoblast Cell Invasion by Targeting Snail and MMP9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Fan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Preeclampsia is an idiopathic and serious complication during gestation in which placental trophoblast cells differentiate into several functional subtypes, including highly invasive extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs. Although the cause and pathogenesis of preeclampsia have remained unclear, numerous studies have suggested that the inadequacy of EVT invasion leads to imperfect uterine spiral artery remodelling, which plays a crucial role in the development of preeclampsia. Rac1, or Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, was found to be a key regulator of the migration, invasion uand apoptosis of various tumour cells. Because EVTs share similar invasive and migratory biological behaviours with malignant cells, this study aimed to determine whether the Rac1 signalling pathway affects trophoblast invasion and is thus involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Methods: We measured the activity of Rac1 and its downstream targets, β-catenin, Snail and MMP9 in placental tissues from patients experiencing a normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. Furthermore, we treated HTR-8/SVneo cells with a shRNA Rac1 vector and the β-catenin inhibitor IWP-2 and explored Rac1 signalling pathway activation as well as the effects of Snail and β-catenin on trophoblast invasion. Results: In placental samples from patients experiencing a normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia, active Rac1 levels and MMP9 protein and mRNA levels were significantly decreased in term pregnancy samples compared to early pregnancy samples. Lower levels were found in preeclampsia samples than in normal term pregnancy samples, and these levels significantly declined in severe preeclampsia samples compared with mild preeclampsia samples. Further analyses demonstrated that both Rac1 shRNA and the β-catenin inhibitor significantly suppressed MMP9 and Snail activation in trophoblasts, thus impairing trophoblast invasion. Notably, silencing Rac1 down

  8. Interaction Research on the Antiviral Molecule Dufulin Targeting on Southern Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus P9-1 Nonstructural Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV causes severe harm to rice production. Unfortunately, studies on effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV and interaction mechanism of antiviral molecule targeting on SRBSDV have not been reported. This study found dufulin (DFL, an ideal anti-SRBSDV molecule, and investigated the interactions of DFL targeting on the nonstructural protein P9-1. The biological sequence information and bonding characterization of DFL to four kinds of P9-1 protein were described with fluorescence titration (FT and microscale thermophoresis (MST assays. The sequence analysis indicated that P9-1 had highly-conserved C- and N-terminal amino acid residues and a hypervariable region that differed from 131 aa to 160 aa. Consequently, wild-type (WT-His-P9-1, 23 C-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔC23-His-P9-1, 6 N-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔN6-His-P9-1, and Ser138 site-directed (MU-138-His-P9-1 mutant proteins were expressed. The FT and MST assay results indicated that DFL bounded to WT-His-P9-1 with micromole affinity and the 23 C-terminal amino acids were the potential targeting site. This system, which combines a complete sequence analysis, mutant protein expression, and binding action evaluating system, could further advance the understanding of the interaction abilities between antiviral drugs and their targets.

  9. Experience of beryllium blocks operation in the SM and MIR nuclear reactors useful for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakin, V.P.; Melder, R.R.; Belozerov, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    The results are presented concerning the examinations of state of beryllium blocks after the completion of their operation in the SM and MIR reactors. Both cracks and more significant mechanical damages are revealed in the irradiated beryllium blocks. Under neutron irradiation of beryllium radiation degradation of its physical and mechanical properties occurs. It shows itself in embrittlement, decrease of brittle strength level as well in worsening of thermal conductivity that leads to increase of thermal stresses into beryllium block. Under irradiation it takes place damage of beryllium microstructure, in particular, formation of radiation defects occurs in the form of dislocation loops and great amount of helium atoms. Optimization of beryllium radioactive waste storage is related to their preliminary surface and volumetric decontamination. (author)

  10. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (10 22 atoms/cm 2 ) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project

  11. 5. IEA International workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The collection includes the abstracts of reports presented to the 5-th IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. The themes of reports are as follows: status of beryllium technology for fusion in Russia; manufacturing and testing of Be armoured first wall mock-up for ITER; development of the process of diffusion welding of metals stainless steel-copper-beryllium into a single composite; some features of beryllium-laser beam interaction; the effect of irradiation dose on tritium and helium release from neutron irradiated beryllium; thermal properties of neutron irradiated Be{sub 12}Ti. The results of investigating the mechanical properties variation and swelling of beryllium under high temperature neutron irradiation are presented.

  12. 5. IEA International workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The collection includes the abstracts of reports presented to the 5-th IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. The themes of reports are as follows: status of beryllium technology for fusion in Russia; manufacturing and testing of Be armoured first wall mock-up for ITER; development of the process of diffusion welding of metals stainless steel-copper-beryllium into a single composite; some features of beryllium-laser beam interaction; the effect of irradiation dose on tritium and helium release from neutron irradiated beryllium; thermal properties of neutron irradiated Be 12 Ti. The results of investigating the mechanical properties variation and swelling of beryllium under high temperature neutron irradiation are presented [ru

  13. ERO modeling of beryllium erosion by helium plasma in experiments at PISCES-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Borodin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The beryllium erosion by helium plasma irradiation is studied at the PISCES-B linear plasma device and interpreted using the accompanying simulations by the ERO code. The influence of plasma conditions and varying negative biasing of the Be plasma target on BeI and BeII absolute line intensities are reproduced in detail by the simulations. The synthetic axial line intensity shapes and line ratios match with experiment. This indicates that atomic data are quite accurate. The initial population state of quasi-metastable 3P level in BeI is found to be MS:GS= 0.33:1 for all conditions. The yields determined by the modeling interpretation are compared to the SDTrimSP code simulations in the binary collision approximation.

  14. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour under ITER transient heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylev, B.; Janeschitz, G.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.

    2009-04-01

    The beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall in the ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of the plasma facing components. Melting thresholds and melt layer depth of the Be armour under transient loads are estimated for different temperatures of the bulk Be and different shapes of transient loads. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the Lorentz force are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of FW under radiative loads arising during mitigated disruptions is numerically simulated.

  15. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour under ITER transient heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylev, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: bazylev@ihm.fzk.de; Janeschitz, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Fusion, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loarte, A. [ITER Organisation, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-04-30

    The beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall in the ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of the plasma facing components. Melting thresholds and melt layer depth of the Be armour under transient loads are estimated for different temperatures of the bulk Be and different shapes of transient loads. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the Lorentz force are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of FW under radiative loads arising during mitigated disruptions is numerically simulated.

  16. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour after ITER transient heat loads and runaway electrons action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylev, B., E-mail: boris.bazylev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Igitkhanov, Yu.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loarte, A. [ITER Organisation, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-01

    Beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall (FW) in ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) and runaway electrons impact are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting, evaporation, and melt motion, which determine the life-time of the plasma facing components. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the J x B forces are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of the FW due to heat loads caused by runaway electrons is numerically simulated.

  17. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour after ITER transient heat loads and runaway electrons action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B.; Igitkhanov, Yu.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall (FW) in ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) and runaway electrons impact are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting, evaporation, and melt motion, which determine the life-time of the plasma facing components. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the J x B forces are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of the FW due to heat loads caused by runaway electrons is numerically simulated.

  18. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour under ITER transient heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B.; Janeschitz, G.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.

    2009-01-01

    The beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall in the ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of the plasma facing components. Melting thresholds and melt layer depth of the Be armour under transient loads are estimated for different temperatures of the bulk Be and different shapes of transient loads. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the Lorentz force are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of FW under radiative loads arising during mitigated disruptions is numerically simulated.

  19. Multiscale modelling of hydrogen behaviour on beryllium (0001 surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Stihl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beryllium is proposed to be a neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in future fusion devices. Therefore, it is crucial to acquire an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms of tritium accumulation and release as a result of transmutation processes that Be undergoes under neutron irradiation. A multiscale simulation of ad- and desorption of hydrogen isotopes on the beryllium (0001 surface is developed. It consists of ab initio calculations of certain H adsorption configurations, a suitable cluster expansion approximating the energies of arbitrary configurations, and a kinetic Monte Carlo method for dynamic simulations of adsorption and desorption. The processes implemented in the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation are deduced from further ab initio calculations comprising both, static relaxation as well as molecular dynamics runs. The simulation is used to reproduce experimental data and the results are compared and discussed. Based on the observed results, proposals for a refined model are made.

  20. Response of porous beryllium to static and dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isbell, W.M.; Walton, O.R.; Ree, F.H.

    1977-07-01

    Previous investigstions of the mechanical response of porous materials to dynamic loading have been extended to include the shock wave response of a brittle metal. The complex response of berylliums of 85 to 90 percent porosity in two initial conditions has been examined in a theoretical and experimental program to be described. The study has resulted in the development of constitutive relations placed in hydrocodes which are capable of accurately predicting wave propagation in the berylliums. A comprehensive set of static (0 to 4 Gpa) and dynamic (0 to 35 Gpa) experiments was performed to measure the behavior of these brittle, porous materials to imposed loads. The results of the experiments guided a modeling effort which added several new features to previous models, including deviatoric stresses, porosity-dependent relaxation time of pore closure, elastic-plastic reopening of pores, and improved compaction functions.

  1. Status of RF beryllium characterization for ITER Fist Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Roedig, M.; Gervash, A. А.; Linke, I. J.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Perevalov, S. I.; Giniyatulin, R. N.

    2011-10-01

    The status of RF R&D activities in production and characterization of TGP-56FW beryllium grade is presented. The results of metallographic studies of microstructure and cracks morphology are reported for full-scale Be tiles (56 × 56 × 10 mm) subjected to VDE simulation tests in TSEFEY-M testing facility (VDE-10 MJ/m 2 during 0.1 s, 1 shot ) and following low cycle thermal fatigue tests (500 thermal cycles at 1.5 MW/m 2). First results of plasma disruption tests ( E = 1.2-5 MJ/m 2, 5 ms), which were obtained during the realization of Thermal Shock/VDE Qualification program of RF beryllium in JUDITH-1 facility, are also discussed.

  2. Status of RF beryllium characterization for ITER Fist Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Nikolaev, G.N.; Roedig, M.; Gervash, A.A.; Linke, I.J.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Perevalov, S.I.; Giniyatulin, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    The status of RF R and D activities in production and characterization of TGP-56FW beryllium grade is presented. The results of metallographic studies of microstructure and cracks morphology are reported for full-scale Be tiles (56 x 56 x 10 mm) subjected to VDE simulation tests in TSEFEY-M testing facility (VDE-10 MJ/m 2 during 0.1 s, 1 shot) and following low cycle thermal fatigue tests (500 thermal cycles at 1.5 MW/m 2 ). First results of plasma disruption tests (E = 1.2-5 MJ/m 2 , 5 ms), which were obtained during the realization of Thermal Shock/VDE Qualification program of RF beryllium in JUDITH-1 facility, are also discussed.

  3. Gravimetric determination of beryllium in the presence of transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, S.S.; Nikitina, L.V.; Dyatlova, N.M.; Serebryakova, G.V.; Vol'nyagina, A.N.

    1976-01-01

    A new organic reagent, nitrolotrimethylphosphonic acid (H 6 L), is proposed for gravimetric determination of beryllium. This complexone forms with Be hardly soluble complexes in a wide pH range. The separated complex has a composition Be 5 (HL) 2 x10H 2 O. To elucidate the possibility of determining Be in the presence of transition metals, often accompanying beryllium in alloys, interaction of cations of these metals with H 6 L at different pH has been studied potentiometrically. It has been established that at pH=1.1 in the presence of masking reagent (diethylentriaminopentacetic acid) Be can be determined when zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, manganese and cadmium are present. Gravimetric method of determining Be with the help of H 6 L has been developed. The weight form is obtained by drying the precipitate which reduces considerably the time of analysis and the error of determination

  4. Response of porous beryllium to static and dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbell, W.M.; Walton, O.R.; Ree, F.H.

    1977-07-01

    Previous investigstions of the mechanical response of porous materials to dynamic loading have been extended to include the shock wave response of a brittle metal. The complex response of berylliums of 85 to 90 percent porosity in two initial conditions has been examined in a theoretical and experimental program to be described. The study has resulted in the development of constitutive relations placed in hydrocodes which are capable of accurately predicting wave propagation in the berylliums. A comprehensive set of static (0 to 4 Gpa) and dynamic (0 to 35 Gpa) experiments was performed to measure the behavior of these brittle, porous materials to imposed loads. The results of the experiments guided a modeling effort which added several new features to previous models, including deviatoric stresses, porosity-dependent relaxation time of pore closure, elastic-plastic reopening of pores, and improved compaction functions

  5. Beryllium-7 deposition to terrestrial vegetation in Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, L.A.

    1984-04-01

    Measurements of natural beryllium-7 (/sup 7/Be) were made in field vegetation and rainwater at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation throughout the months of July 1982 to June 1983. Laboratory experiments were also conducted on the adsorption and desorption of /sup 7/Be, cesium-137 (/sup 137/Cs), lead-210 (/sup 210/Pb), and iodine-131 (/sup 131/I) to the foliage of fescue, 3 varieties of beans, and loblolly pine. The field loss of artificially applied /sup 7/Be to field fescue was also measured. The weathering half-life (T/sub W/) was found to be 36.5 days during November-January 1982-1983; no difference was found in the loss of /sup 7/Be during the months March-May 1983, T/sub W/ = 38.5 days. The loss of sulfur-35 (/sup 35/S) was studied concurrently with the spring loss of /sup 7/Be; the T/sub W/ for /sup 35/S was much smaller, equal to 18.4 days. The interception fraction, r, was determined experimentally in the field using the flux of /sup 7/Be in rainwater incident upon clover; the mean value was 0.172. Total deposition velocities were estimated using monthly /sup 7/Be rainwater concentrations and quarterly air concentrations; the yearly average was 1.66 cm/sec. An equation for predicting vegetation concentrations was derived for /sup 7/Be from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Guide 1.109. Generic and site-specific values for deposition rate, interception fraction, effective half-life, exposure time, and biomass density were summarized separately and the derived equation was employed to make predictions of monthly /sup 7/Be vegetation concentrations. These predictions were compared to actual field observations. With the exception of the month of May, both generic and site-specific predictions were found to underestimate the actual /sup 7/Be vegetation concentrations. 44 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Targeted knock-in of CreER T2 in zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Hammer, Juliane; Hans, Stefan; Brand, Michael

    2018-04-01

    New genome-editing approaches, such as the CRISPR/Cas system, have opened up great opportunities to insert or delete genes at targeted loci and have revolutionized genetics in model organisms like the zebrafish. The Cre-loxp recombination system is widely used to activate or inactivate genes with high spatial and temporal specificity. Using a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in strategy, we inserted a zebrafish codon-optimized CreER T2 transgene at the otx2 gene locus to generate a conditional Cre-driver line. We chose otx2 as it is a patterning gene of the anterior neural plate that is expressed during early development. By knocking in CreER T2 upstream of the endogenous ATG of otx2, we utilized this gene's native promoter and enhancer elements to perfectly match CreER T2 and endogenous otx2 expression patterns. Next, by combining this novel driver line with a Cre-dependent reporter line, we show that only in the presence of tamoxifen can efficient Cre-loxp-mediated recombination be achieved in the anterior neural plate-derived tissues like the telencephalon, the eye and the optic tectum. Our results imply that the otx2:CreER T2 transgenic fish will be a valuable tool for lineage tracing and conditional mutant studies in larval and adult zebrafish.

  7. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human; Modelizacion de la retencion sistemica del berilio en la rata. Extrapolacion al Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Prieto, M; Vidania Munoz, R de

    1994-07-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs.

  8. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human; Modelizacion de la retencion sistemica del berilio en la rata. Extrapolacion al Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de

    1994-07-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs.

  9. Targeted deletion of C1q/TNF-related protein 9 increases food intake, decreases insulin sensitivity, and promotes hepatic steatosis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Zhikui; Lei, Xia; Petersen, Pia S.; Aja, Susan; Wong, G. William

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic overexpression of CTRP9, a secreted hormone downregulated in obesity, confers striking protection against diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the physiological relevance of this adiponectin-related plasma protein remains undefined. Here, we used gene targeting to establish the metabolic function of CTRP9 in a physiological context. Mice lacking CTRP9 were obese and gained significantly more body weight when fed standard laboratory chow. Increased food intake, due in ...

  10. Examination of respiratory tract in workers occupationally exposed to beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciara, M.; Swiatkowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a group (30) occupationally exposed to beryllium below the Maximum Allowed Concentration, deviations from the norm were found in 13% of chest x rays and impairments of lung ventilatory reserves in 46%. The low intensity and non-specific character of the changes did not allow confirmation of connection with occupational exposure. Radiological examination of the lungs, expanded functional testing of the respiratory system and measurements of blood gases are recommended to identify workers with respiratory changes at an early stage. (UK)

  11. Solid state bonding of beryllium to copper and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, D.R.; Liby, A.L.; Weaver, W.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this effort was to demonstrate that ingot metallurgy (IM) beryllium (Be) can be bonded to dissimilar metals such as copper (Cu) or vanadium (V) at low temperatures by using silver (Ag) as a bonding aid. It is hoped that success at the coupon stage will stimulate more extensive studies of the mechanical and thermal integrity of such joints, leading ultimately to use of this technology to fabricate first wall structures for ITER. (orig.)

  12. Beryllium isotopes in cosmic radiation measured with plastic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Enge, W.; Beaujean, R.

    1976-01-01

    Plastic stacks consisting of Daicel cellulose nitrate and Kodak cellulose nitrate were flown from Fort Churchill, Canada in 1971 for the study of isotopic components of light nuclei, especially beryllium, in primary cosmic rays. Tracks found in these detectors were analysed for charge and mass identification; the ratio between Be 7 and total Be is obtained as 0.64 +- 0.25 at detector level. (orig.) [de

  13. Pre-melting hcp to bcc Transition in Beryllium

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Y.; Sun, T.; Zhang, Ping.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, D. -B.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium (Be) is an important material with wide applications ranging from aerospace components to X-ray equipments. Yet a precise understanding of its phase diagram remains elusive. We have investigated the phase stability of Be using a recently developed hybrid free energy computation method that accounts for anharmonic effects by invoking phonon quasiparticles. We find that the hcp to bcc transition occurs near the melting curve at 0

  14. Standard specification for nuclear-grade beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements of nuclear-grade beryllium oxide (BeO) powder to be used in fabricating nuclear components. This specification does not include requirements for health and safety. It recognizes the material as a Class B poison and suggests that producers and users become thoroughly familiar with and comply to applicable federal, state and local regulations and handling guidelines. Special tests and procedures are given

  15. Photoneutron cross sections for D2O and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, H.F.; Woods, F.J.; Baumann, N.P.

    1975-01-01

    The photodissociation cross section by 24 Na gamma rays was measured for deuterium in order to resolve a discrepancy between earlier measurements (1.43 to 1.59 millibarns) and a more recently reported one (1.34 mb). The measurement of the beryllium (γ,n) cross section for 24 Na gamma rays was also included as a check. Results for deuterium (1.54 mb) are in agreement with the earlier values

  16. Thermal fatigue behavior of US and Russian grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L.; Dombrowski, D.E.; Guiniatouline, R.N.; Kupriynov, I.B.

    1996-01-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 KW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ''spike'' of 750 degrees C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stress in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m 2 . Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S-300F-H, Sr-200, I-400, extruded high purity. HIP'd sperical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe 12 . Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be(SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis

  17. Some implications of accurate thermal parameters for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, D.M.; Whitehurst, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Authoritative values for the parameters of harmonic thermal motion have been used as criteria for various least-squares refinements of the structure model for beryllium metal. A change in the absolute scale of Brown [Philos. Mag. (1972), 26, 1377-1394] improves the correspondence of the associated data with the true thermal parameters. Contraction of the core-electron distribution upon bonding is a possible implication of the rescaled data. (Auth.)

  18. Presence of Beryllium (Be) in urban soils: human health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).

  19. Detail analysis of fusion neutronics benchmark experiment on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke; Ohnishi, Seiki; Kondo, Keitaro; Wada, Masayuki; Sato, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Our previous analysis of the integral experiments (in situ and TOF experiments) on beryllium with DT neutrons at JAEA/FNS pointed out two problems by using MCNP4C and the latest nuclear data libraries; one was a strange larger neutron peak around 12 MeV appearing in the TOF experiment analysis with JEFF-3.1 and the other was an overestimation on law energy neutrons in the in situ experiment analyses with all the nuclear data libraries. We investigated reasons for these problems in detail. It was found out that the official ACE file MCJEFF3.1 of JEFF-3.1 had an inconsistency with the original JEFF-3.1, which caused the strange larger neutron peak around 12 MeV in the TOF experiment analysis. We also found out that the calculated thermal neutron peak was probably too large in the in situ experiment. On trial we examined influence of the thermal neutron scattering law data of beryllium metal in ENDF/B-VI. The result pointed out that the coherent elastic scattering cross-section data in the thermal neutron scattering law data of beryllium metal were probably too large.

  20. Investigation of the beryllium ion-surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Birukov, A.Yu. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Gureev, V.M. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Daneljan, L.S. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Korshunov, S.N. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Martynenko, Yu.V. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Moskovkin, P.S. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Sokolov, Yu.A. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Stoljarova, V.G. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, V.S. [M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zatekin, V.V. [M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    The energy and temperature dependence of self-sputtering yields of beryllium were measured. The energy dependence of the beryllium self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by Eckstein et al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yields are temperature independent; at T{sub irr.}>870 K the yield increases steeply. Beryllium samples were implanted at 370 K with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary hydrogen plasma power flux of about 5 MW/m{sup 2}. In the fluence range of 5 x 10{sup 22}-1.5 x 10{sup 25} m{sup -2} the depth profile is shifted towards the surface with increasing fluence and the concentration of trapped hydrogen atoms is reduced from 3.3 x 10{sup 21} to 7.4 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -2}. About 95% of the trapped hydrogen is located within bubbles and only {proportional_to}5% is trapped as atoms. With increasing implantation fluence the bubbles coalesce, producing channels through which hydrogen escapes. (orig.).