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Sample records for berylliosis

  1. A case of chronic berylliosis using aspiration liver biopsy as a diagnostic aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic berylliosis may occur in subjects who regularly handle or have handled the metal beryllium (workers in light bulb factories). Clinical symptoms (fatigue, loss of weight, coughing, increasing breathlessness upon exertion, pyrexia, cyanosis, clubbed fingers and certain radiological abnormalities) are non-specific. Pathological-anatomical examination reveals granulomatosis of the organs. A description is given of a case in which the diagnosis was made on the basis of the history, chest X-rays and liver biopsy findings. (author)

  2. Immunogenetic basis of environmental lung disease: Lessons from the berylliosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltini, C.; Richeldi, L. [Univ. di Modena, Dept. di Scienze Mediche, Modena (Italy); Amicosante, M. [Univ. di Roma `Tor Vergata`, Dept. di Biologia, Roma (Italy); Franchi, A. [Univ. de Modena, Dept. Medicina Interna, Modena (Italy); Lombardi, G. [Hammersmith Hospital, Dept. of Immunology, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    The role of genetic factors has been hypothesized in the pathogenesis of a number of chronic inflammatory lung diseases. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus on human chromosome 6 have been identified as important determinants in diseases caused both by inorganic and organic compounds such as beryllium, gold, acid anhydrides, isocyanates and grass pollens. Since many environmental factors are the determinants of the immunopathogenesis of asthma, pulmonary granulomatous disorders, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and fibrotic lung disorders, an understanding of the interaction between environmental factors is crucial to epidemiology, prevention and treatment of these disorders. Berylliosis is an environmental chronic inflammatory disorder of the lung caused by inhalation of beryllium dusts. A human leukocyte antigen class II marker (HLA-DP Glu69) has been found to be strongly associated with the disease. In in vitro studies, the gene has been shown to play a direct role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. In human studies, the gene has been shown to confer increased susceptibility to beryllium in exposed workers, thus suggesting that HLA gene markers may be used as epidemiological probes to identify population groups at higher risk of environmental lung diseases, to identify environmental levels of lung immunotoxicants that would be safe for the entire population and the prevent disease risk associated with occupation, manufactured products and the environment. Studies on the associations between human leukocyte antigens and chronic inflammatory lung disorders are reviewed in the context of the berylliosis model. (au) 123 refs.

  3. Some results of medical researches at Ulba Metallurgical Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemieva, G.I.; Novikov, V.G.; Savchuk, V.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The results of 45-years medical researches at beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant are summarized in this report. Statistic data on different kinds of occupational diseases, related to beryllium production and the dynamics of changing occupational diseases with the development of beryllium production, are given there. Data on average duration of life of occupational disease patients are presented in the report. It includes the description of problems, related to berylliosis diagnosis. Issues, connected to beryllium production effect on health of man, located nearby beryllium production are also discussed there as well. (author)

  4. High-resolution CT in the evaluation of occupational and environmental disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akira, M. [National Kinki Central Hospital for Chest Diseases, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-01-01

    CT has an increasing role in the radiologic evaluation of occupational/environmental lung disease. The high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of silicosis, mixed dust pneumoconiosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, graphite pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, talcosis, welder's lung, berylliosis, aluminum lung, and hard metal pneumoconiosis are described. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and lung damage caused by exposure to toxic fumes also are described. HRCT pathologic correlation with each type of pneumoconiosis is focused on. HRCT is useful in achieving an accurate categorization of the parenchymal changes in each type of pneumoconiosis.

  5. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

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    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  6. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

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    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  7. Analysis of HLA-DP association with beryllium disease susceptibility in pooled exposed populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesare Saltini, Massimo Amicosante

    2009-12-19

    Berylliosis or Chronic Beryllium Disease is a chronic granulomatous disorder primarily involving the lung associated with the exposition to low doses of Beryllium (Be) in the workplace. Berylliosis risk has been associated with the presence of a glutamate at position 69 of the HLA-DP beta chain (HLA-DPbetaGlu69) that is expressed in about 97% of disease cases and in 27% of the unaffected Be-exposed controls (p<0.0001) (Richeldi et al. Science 1993; 262: 242-244.12). Since this first observation of an immunogenetic association between berylliosis and HLA-DPbetaGlu69 a number of studies have confirmed the role of this marker as the primary gene of susceptibility of berylliosis (Richeldi et al Am J Ind Med. 1997; 32:337-40; Wang et al J. Immunol. 1999; 163: 1647-53; Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94). Moreover, a structure/function interaction between HLA-DP molecules carrying Glu69 and beryllium in driving and developing the immune response against beryllium itself has been observed as: (1) Be-specific T-cells clones obtained from berylliosis patients recognize beryllium as antigen only when presented in the context of the HLA-DP{beta}Glu69 molecules but not in the context of HLA-DP allelic variants carrying Lys69 (Lombardi G et al. J Immunol 2001; 166: 3549-3555), and (2) beryllium presents an affinity for the HLA-DP2, carrying the berylliosis marker of susceptibility HLA-DPGlu69, from 40 to 100 times higher that the HLA-DP molecule carrying Lys69 (Amicosante M. et al Hum. Immunol. 2001; 62: 686-93). However, although the immunogenetic studies performed have been addressed a number of different questions about the genetic association between berylliosis and/or beryllium sensitization, exposure levels to beryllium and HLA markers, a number of questions are still open in the field mainly due to the limitation imposed by the low number of subjects carrying berylliosis or beryllium sensitization enrolled

  8. Sudden unexpected death due to severe pulmonary and cardiac sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginelliová, Alžbeta; Farkaš, Daniel; Farkašová Iannaccone, Silvia; Vyhnálková, Vlasta

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we report the autopsy findings of a 57 year old woman who died unexpectedly at home. She had been complaining of shortness of breath, episodes of dry coughing, and nausea. Her past medical and social history was unremarkable. She had no previous history of any viral or bacterial disease and no history of oncological disorders. Autopsy revealed multiple grayish-white nodular lesions in the pleura and epicardial fat and areas resembling fibrosis on the cut surface of the anterior and posterior wall of the left ventricle and interventricular septum. Histological examination of the lungs and heart revealed multiple well-formed noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas with multinucleated giant cells. Death was attributed to myocardial ischemia due to vasculitis of intramural coronary artery branches associated with sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by the formation of noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas in the affected organs and tissues. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis in this case was established when other causes of granulomatous disease such as tuberculosis, berylliosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and giant cell myocarditis had been reasonably excluded. PMID:27379608

  9. Interstitial granulomatous pulmonary diseases: a diagnostic approach for the general pathologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Aloísio S. Felipe da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some kinds of interstitial pneumonia present a histopathological pattern dominated by sarcoid - necrotizing or non-necrotizing - granulomas, which can be divided into two main groups: infectious and non-infectious. The infectious causes include tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, fungi in general, paracoccidioidomycosis, ascaridiasis, echinococcosis and dirophilariosis. The non-infectious causes include histiocytosis-X, hipersensitivity pneumonia, vasculitis, lymphomas, sarcoidosis, and pneumoconioses such as silicosis and berylliosis. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical guideline to enable general pathologists to make the differential diagnosis of granulomatous pulmonary diseases. For this purpose, anatomical-clinical-radiological correlations will be presented and targeted to each diagnosis discussed. Whenever a granulomatous inflammatory process is in progress, the search for infective agents by direct observation, by culture, and by histochemical methods should be mandatory. The histological aspects of infectious granulomas to be analyzed should include their random histo-anatomical location, the type of inflammatory reaction, and necrosis. A panel of complementary reactions (immunohistochemistry and PCR should identify the infectious agent and, whenever their results and the culture are negative, the possibility of non-infectious granulomatous diseases has to be evaluated. In such cases, the histo-anatomical distribution (bronchocentric, lymphangitic, angiocentric, random, the qualitative characteristics of the lesions (type of necrosis and inflammatory reaction, and the correlation with the X-ray findings will help the diagnosis.

  10. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion polymorphism is not associated with an increased risk of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baier R John

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACE gene contains a polymorphism consisting of either the presence (insertion, I or absence (deletion, D of a 287 bp alu repeat in intron 16. The D allele is associated with increased ACE activity in both tissue and plasma. The DD genotype is associated with risk of developing ARDS and mortality. The frequency of the D allele is higher in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis and berylliosis. The role of this polymorphism has not been studied in the development of BPD in the premature newborn. Methods ACE I/D genotype was determined in 245 (194 African-American, 47 Caucasian and 4 Hispanic mechanically ventilated infants weighing less than 1250 grams at birth and compared to outcome (death and/or development of BPD. Results The incidence of the D allele in the study population was 0.58. Eighty-eight (35.9% infants were homozygous DD, 107 (43.7% were heterozygous ID and 50 (20.4% were homozygous II. There were no significant differences between genotype groups with respect to ethnic origin, birth weight, gestation, or gender. There was no effect of the ACE I/D polymorphism on mortality or development of BPD (O2 on 28 days or 36 weeks PCA. Secondary outcomes (intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia similarly were not influenced by the ACE ID polymorphism. Conclusions The ACE I/D polymorphism does not significantly influence the development of BPD in ventilated infants less than 1250 grams.

  11. Investigation on the pulmonary effects of intermetallic beryllium compounds. Final report, January 1, 1976-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmer, K. L.

    1978-12-01

    The pulmonary response to the exposure to tantalum and niobium beryllide, and a copper beryllium alloy was investigated. The findings were compared to beryllium metal as positive control. 2.5 or 0.5 mg as beryllium were given to rats by intratracheal intubation. At 30, 60, and 90 days after exposure the response was similar with each material. There was inflammatory infiltrate by lymphocytes, macrophage accumulation, and beginning fibrosis of the terminal bronchioles. Epithelial hyperplasia occurred at, or after, 90 days. Niobium beryllide had a unique granulomatous lesion which was similar to human berylliosis. After 15 months, 8 squamous cell carcinomas and 1 adenocarcinoma were found in rats exposed to beryllium metal. No neoplasms were seen with the other materials. Solubility studies in saline and serum were conducted with the same materials. Niobium beryllide had a significantly lower solubility, namely, 0.04 in saline and 0.06 micrograms per milliliter in serum. The copper alloy was even lower at 0.02 in saline and 0.01 micrograms per milliliter in serum.

  12. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  13. Outras pneumoconioses Other pneumoconioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mello de Capitani

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available As pneumoconioses mais prevalentes são a silicose, a asbestose e a pneumoconiose do trabalhador do carvão. Outras pneumoconioses com repercussões clínicas, funcionais e estruturais distintas são causadas pela inalação de poeiras metálicas a partir de fumos metálicos e sais orgânicos. A distinção quanto à forma química do composto inalado tem relação com a reação tecidual e o prognóstico. São apresentadas de forma sucinta a pneumoconiose simples, a siderose, a pneumoconiose por rocha fosfática, e a doença pulmonar crônica pelo berílio e por exposição a metais duros. Uma anamnese ocupacional como instrumento de busca etiológica dessas pneumoconioses é essencial.The most prevalent pneumoconioses are silicosis, asbestosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis. Other pneumoconioses that have distinct clinical, functional and structural repercussions are caused by inhalation of metal powder in fumes from metals or organic salts. The distinction in terms of the chemical form of the inhaled compound is related to the tissue reaction and to the prognosis. Simple pneumoconiosis, siderosis, berylliosis and phosphate rock-related pneumoconiosis, as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by exposure to heavy metals, are succinctly discussed. As an instrument of etiologic investigation of these pneumoconioses, the taking of occupational histories is essential.

  14. Point of view concerning new trends in the assessment and management of risks. Point de vue sur les nouvelles tendances en matiere d'evaluation et de gestion des risques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Direction des Sciences du Vivant)

    Because they result in the most severe constraints for exposure limitation, carcinogenicity mutagenicity and toxicity for human reproduction (CMT) make up the greatest concern for toxicants in general and this remains true for heavy metals. New guidelines have recently been proposed by EEC for including compounds in CMT categories. Categorization of substances toxic to reproduction has been the most widely reassessed including all the aspects from troubles of the libido to neonatal behaviour. Although epidemiology allows to evidence some carcinogenic potency of combined exposure to different metals, lifestyle confounding factors are multiple and do not permit in general to derive risk coefficient for exposure limitation. Thus the role of animal experiments remains crucial for that purpose. Identifying a carcinogenic hazard in animals is usually easy, however risk evaluation and extrapolation of risk coefficients to man is highly debatable owing to different toxicokinetics, to the use of non relevant ways or to the use of near MTD concentrations. This is especially true when lung carcinogens have to be dealt with. Overloading the lung can result from very little amount deposited in the exchange airways resulting in irritation which may turn to cell proliferation and tumor. Cadmium and beryllium are extremely potent carcinogens after low doses deposited in the airways of the rat. There is no evidence that this phenomenon relate to human situation since most occupationally exposed workers did not develop significant excess of tumors although they developed berylliosis and kidney disease. It is therefore suggested that the limitation system be based on specific human pathology and not on carcinogenic risks since elements cannot be banned from the environment. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Targeting of macrophages for the scintigraphic evaluation of inflammatory lesions in a model of radio-induced inflammation in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffschir, D.; Daburon, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection Sanitaire; Pittet, J.C. [Tours Univ., 37 (France); Normier, G.; Binz, H.; Le Pape, A. [Centre d`Immunologie et de Biotechnologie Fabre, 74 - Saint-Julien-en-Genevois (FR)

    1991-12-31

    For a new scintigraphic strategy based on the targeting of macrophages recruited by inflammatory lesions, a specific ligand able to interact with these cells both in vitro and in vivo has been developed. J001 is a 34 KDa acylated peptidopoly 1-3 galactoside isolated from proteoglycans of a nonpathogenic strain of klebsiella. When labelled with 99mTc then administrated by aerosol, this agent has been demonstrated to be a potent tool for the scintigraphic imaging of inflammatory lymph nodes in experimental berylliosis and in patients with sarcoidosis, lung tumors and ganglionic metastases. An experimental model was developed in pigs using an acute and localized muscular gamma irradiation in the limb with skin resection to prevent ulceration. Dynamic imaging was performed during two hours after intraveinous injection of 1 mg J001 labelled with 370 MBq 99mTc. The perfusion of the lesions was evaluated with scintigraphic data obtained both 15 min after IV injection of J001 or 99mTc 04-. The intensity of the fixation of J001 was quantified 2 hours after injection and expressed as a scintigraphic ratio: R2h = cpm in lesion/cpm in a healthy area in the same limb. After induction of irradiation, scintigraphic ratios exhibited a progressive increase to reach a maximum (R2h = 3.6) after 3 months. At six months, histological controls and clinical observations exhibited a significant decrease in inflammatory reaction, macrophages recruitment and fibrosis. J001 fixation was very sensitive to corticosteroids resulting in complete clearing of the scintigraphic images 12 to 24 hours after treatment. Two weeks were then required for a complete recovery of the inflammatory reaction and J001 fixation. So, targeting of macrophages with J001 should offer a sensitive and specific tool for the scintigraphic assessment of inflammation and possibly for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  16. Intellectual Freedom and the National Laboratories : 2000 Sigma Xi Forum New Ethical Challenges in Science and Technology, November 9-10, 2000, Albuquerque, New Mexico"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, John C.

    2001-01-01

    scientific realm. It really does not permit them the freedom to roam at will outside of their areas of technical expertise into the realm of policy without clearly stating that their remarks are those of a private citizen and must be handled, therefore, outside of the laboratory business. This is a major issue within our laboratories, and I think one that we try to nurture very carefully, because without it, we think that there would be a closing up of laboratories because of the type of classified work that we do. The issues that I hope we might explore in this session include, (1) how do you give technical advice to a policymaker? Where do you draw the line with respect to your judgment, your advice versus your opinion, which can change how government attacks very significant societal problems: (2) The issue of security and classification. How does that affect the intellectual freedom of our staff? (3) Dealing with the public on matters of risk. I am going to add to that, also, dealing with our employees on matters of risk, because one of the things that we're finding as we get better with our detection technology and our screening technologies, we now find out about how employees might be susceptible to illnesses, such as berylliosis, problems with beryllium sensitivity. What ethical issues arise when you now have the ability to learn more about impacts on, not only the public, but your employees as well? We share similar types of problems that Bob Dynes mentioned: conflict of interest, intellectual property questions. And we also have the conflict of interest as an institution. And I'll just mention one--perhaps it could come up in the discussion-is in the past year we had an issue with respect to how the Congress and the Administration handled the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. What kind of eihical issues arise in testing on our technical judgment regarding the CTBT versus institutional conflict of interest? Questions were raised. Were the laboratory directors