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Sample records for beryl

  1. Dipole defects in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, B A; Cordeiro, R C; Blak, A R

    2010-01-01

    Dipole defects in gamma irradiated and thermally treated beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ) samples have been studied using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) technique. TSDC experiments were performed in pink (morganite), green (emerald), blue (aquamarine) and colourless (goshenite) natural beryl. TSDC spectra present dipole peaks at 190K, 220K, 280K and 310K that change after gamma irradiation and thermal treatments. In morganite samples, for thermal treatments between 700K and 1100K, the 280K peak increase in intensity and the band at 220K disappears. An increase of the 280K peak and a decrease of the 190K peak were observed in the TSDC spectra of morganite after a gamma irradiation of 25kGy performed after the thermal treatments. In the case of emerald samples, thermal treatments enhanced the 280K peak and gamma irradiation partially destroyed this band. The goshenite TSDC spectra present only one band at 280K that is not affected either by thermal treatments or by gamma irradiation. All the observed peaks are of dipolar origin because the intensity of the bands is linearly dependent on the polarization field, behaviour of dipole defects. The systematic study, by means of TSDC measurements, of ionizing irradiation effects and thermal treatments in these crystals makes possible a better understanding of the role played by the impurities in beryl crystals.

  2. Glucinium dosimetry in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, M.

    1949-05-01

    The application of the method developed by Kolthoff and Sandell (1928) for the dosimetry of glucinium (beryllium) in beryl gives non-reproducible results with up to 20% discrepancies. This method recommends to separate beryllium and aluminium using 8 hydroxyquinoline and then to directly precipitate glucinium in the filtrate using ammonia. One possible reason of the problems generated by this method should be the formation of a volatile complex between beryllium and the oxine. This work shows that when the oxine is eliminated before the precipitation with ammonia the dosimetry of beryllium becomes accurate. The destruction of the oxine requires the dry evaporation of the filtrate, which is a long process. Thus the search for a reagent allowing the quantitative precipitation of beryllium in its solutions and in presence of oxine has been made. It has been verified also that the quantitative precipitation of the double beryllium and ammonium phosphate is not disturbed by the oxine in acetic buffer. This method, which gives good results, has also the advantage to separate beryllium from the alkaline-earth compounds still present in the filtrate. The report details the operation mode of the method: beryllium dosimetry using ammonium phosphate, aluminium-beryllium separation, application to beryl dosimetry (ore processing, insolubilization of silica, precipitation with ammonia, precipitation with oxine, precipitation of PO 4 NH 4 Gl, preciseness). (J.S.)

  3. Rare Earth Elements Distribution in Beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gawish, H.K.; Nada, N.; Ghaly, W.A.; Helal, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Laser ablation method is applied to a double focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to determine the rare earth element distribution in some selected beryl samples. White, green and blue beryl samples are selected from the Egyptian eastern desert. Distributions of chondrite- normalized plot for the rare earth element in the selected beryl samples are investigated

  4. Irradiated victims of Beryl; Les irradies de Beryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulidon, L.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this testimony book is to shade light on the Beryl nuclear test accident which was carried out in the Hoggar desert (Algeria) on May 1, 1962. The underground explosion took place despite some bad weather conditions. The unpredictable collapse of the mountain led to the release of a radioactive cloud and to the contamination of the audience, and in particular of two ministers invited at the honor tribune. The minimization of the impact of this nuclear accident by the French government and army is denounced in this book

  5. Glucinium dosimetry in beryl; Dosage du glucinium dans le beryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, M

    1949-05-01

    The application of the method developed by Kolthoff and Sandell (1928) for the dosimetry of glucinium (beryllium) in beryl gives non-reproducible results with up to 20% discrepancies. This method recommends to separate beryllium and aluminium using 8 hydroxyquinoline and then to directly precipitate glucinium in the filtrate using ammonia. One possible reason of the problems generated by this method should be the formation of a volatile complex between beryllium and the oxine. This work shows that when the oxine is eliminated before the precipitation with ammonia the dosimetry of beryllium becomes accurate. The destruction of the oxine requires the dry evaporation of the filtrate, which is a long process. Thus the search for a reagent allowing the quantitative precipitation of beryllium in its solutions and in presence of oxine has been made. It has been verified also that the quantitative precipitation of the double beryllium and ammonium phosphate is not disturbed by the oxine in acetic buffer. This method, which gives good results, has also the advantage to separate beryllium from the alkaline-earth compounds still present in the filtrate. The report details the operation mode of the method: beryllium dosimetry using ammonium phosphate, aluminium-beryllium separation, application to beryl dosimetry (ore processing, insolubilization of silica, precipitation with ammonia, precipitation with oxine, precipitation of PO{sub 4}NH{sub 4}Gl, preciseness). (J.S.)

  6. Determination of helium in beryl minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Barcellos, E. de.

    1985-08-01

    In order to obtain the diffusion coefficients of helium in beryl and phenacite samples at various temperatures, helium leak rates were measured in these minerals at these temperatures. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to obtain helium leak rates and the gas flow was plotted against time. The gas quantity determined by MS was first obtained at various temperatures until no helium leak rate was detected. After that, these samples were irradiated with fast neutrons to produce helium which was measured again. This procedure was used to estimate the experimental error. The quantity of helium produced by interaction of gamma radiation with beryl minerals was theoretically calculated from the amount of thorium-232 at the neighbourhood of the samples. The quantity of helium produced in the minerals due to uranium and thorium decay was calculated using the amount of these heavy elements, and the results were compared with the amounts determined by MS. The amount of potassium-40 was determined in order to derive the quantity of argonium-40, since some workers found argonium in excess in these minerals. The quantity of helium in the beryl samples (s) was determined in the center and in the surface of the samples in order to obtain informations about the effectiveness of the Be(α, η) He reaction. Beryl and phenacite minerals were choosen in this research since they are opposite each other with respect to the helium contents. Both have beryllium in their compositon but beryl hold a large amount of helium while phenacite, in spite of having about three times more beryllium than beryl, do not hold the gas. (author) [pt

  7. Mechanisms of beryl flotation: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torem, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper shows a review about the investigations that have been done on the mechanisms of flotation of beryl and its dependence in relation to the presence of fluoride species. It is also analised the anionic flotation of the mineral and the effect of cations in the pulp of flotation. (author) [pt

  8. A NEW INVESTIGATION OF VIETNAM’S BERYL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Binh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents briefly new investigation of Vietnam beryl group, especially some characteristics of regional geology of Song Chay granite massif and new find of big crystals of beryl in them. The green beryl is found in quartz - mica - tourmaline, mica - feldspar – quartz pegmatite bodies in the south part of Song Chay granite - gneiss massif near Na Chi and Tan Nam villages, Quang Binh district, Ha Giang province.

  9. Concentration of beryl by flotation: review of art state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torem, M.L.; Peres, A.E.C.; Adamian, R.

    1988-01-01

    The concentration of beryl has been mainly investigated to develop a product as good as the ''hand-cobbed'' mineral used in the extrative metallurgy of beryllium. The purpose of this paper is to show a review of the concentration of beryl by cationic and anionic flotation depicting their principal aspects. (author) [pt

  10. Luminescence behaviour of beryl (aquamarine variety) from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katı, M.I.; Türemis, M.; Keskin, I.C.; Tastekin, B.; Kibar, R.; Çetin, A.; Can, N.

    2012-01-01

    Natural blue-green beryl from Turkey has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Cathodoluminescence (CL). Beryl has the chemical formula Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 and is hexagonal with space group P6/mcc. Chemical analyses of the beryl sample utilised inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for major oxides and trace elements. It shows that the beryl sample is rich in Cs (531 ppm) and contains low concentrations of transition-metal ions, in total 2.29 wt.% Fe, 269 ppm Mn, V<5 ppm and Cr 20 ppm. Ideas on the origin of the green colour of this mineral are presented. The CL spectrum of the bulk sample display intense broad band emission from ∼360 to ∼800 nm. - Highlights: ► Natural blue-green beryl from Turkey were investigated by SEM-EDS, XRD, CL. ► Luminescence behaviour of Natural blue-green beryl. ► The samples exhibit an intense broad band emission from ∼360 to ∼800 nm.

  11. Luminescence behaviour of beryl (aquamarine variety) from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kat Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , M.I.; Tueremis, M.; Keskin, I.C.; Tastekin, B.; Kibar, R.; Cetin, A. [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Can, N., E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, 45140 Manisa (Turkey)

    2012-10-15

    Natural blue-green beryl from Turkey has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Cathodoluminescence (CL). Beryl has the chemical formula Be{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 18} and is hexagonal with space group P6/mcc. Chemical analyses of the beryl sample utilised inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for major oxides and trace elements. It shows that the beryl sample is rich in Cs (531 ppm) and contains low concentrations of transition-metal ions, in total 2.29 wt.% Fe, 269 ppm Mn, V<5 ppm and Cr 20 ppm. Ideas on the origin of the green colour of this mineral are presented. The CL spectrum of the bulk sample display intense broad band emission from {approx}360 to {approx}800 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural blue-green beryl from Turkey were investigated by SEM-EDS, XRD, CL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence behaviour of Natural blue-green beryl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples exhibit an intense broad band emission from {approx}360 to {approx}800 nm.

  12. A geo-economical study of beryl, specially the bery from the northeast (of Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentiere, R.

    1977-01-01

    The crystalline structure of beryl and the BeO proportion in minerals are presented. The geoeconomics areas are studied and tables of the Brazilian beryl productions and its relative position in the world-wide production are presented [pt

  13. The Unusual Moessbauer Spectrum of Beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, R. R.; Costa, G. M. da; Grave, E. de; Evangelista, H. J.; Stern, W. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectra of several aquamarine samples have been obtained in the temperature range of 4.2-500 K. A common feature observed in all room-temperature spectra is the presence of an asymmetric Fe 2+ doublet (ΔE Q ∼2.7 mm/s, δ∼1.1 mm/s), with a very broad low-velocity peak. This asymmetry is not caused by preferred orientation since the spectrum collected under the magic angle did not show any difference in the line intensities, nor is it caused by the superposition of a Fe 3+ doublet. At 4.2 K the spectrum of a deep-blue beryl could be well fitted with three symmetrical doublets, with the major Fe 2+ doublet accounting for 87% of the total spectral area. At 14 K the symmetry remains, but at 30 K the low-velocity peak is again broad. Surprisingly, the spectrum at 500 K also shows a broad, but symmetrical doublet, with a clear splitting of the lines indicating the presence of at least two Fe 2+ components. The room-temperature spectrum obtained after the 500 K run shows the same features as before the heating. A meaningful fit for the room-temperature spectrum, as well as an explanation for the temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectra, are discussed

  14. Effects of metallic cations in the beryl flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Leonel, C.M. de; Peres, A.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The beryl zeta potential in microelectrophoretic cell is studied in the presence of neutral electrolyte, cations of calcium, magnesium and iron. The petroleum sulfonate is used how collector in Hallimond tube. Hydroxy complex of metallic cations seems activate the ore and precipitates of colloidal metallic hidroxies seems lower him when added to the mixture. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Determination of impurities in beryl by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Ajith, Nicy

    2015-01-01

    Beryl is a chemically complex and highly compositionally variable gem-forming mineral found in a variety of locations worldwide. Pure beryl is colorless, but the presence of impurities imparts colors such as green, blue, yellow, red, and white. It is one of the most important gem minerals and the gems are named by their color. The impurities in beryl can be determined using various analytical techniques. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a sensitive technique for multielement analysis of geological samples. Four beryl samples, collected from Nayakund Mehandi Block, Parseoni, Maharashtra, were received from Geological Survey of India (GSI), Pune. Powdered samples (50-100 mg) along with comparators (IAEA Soil-7) were packed in aluminum foils, sealed in an aluminum container and irradiated for 7 days in tray rod facility of Dhruva reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After irradiation, samples were brought to laboratory. Samples were opened, transferred into polyethylene packets and weighed. Gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. For the determination of manganese, which produces relatively shorter lived activation product ( 56 Mn: T 1/2 = 2.56 h), samples were sealed in polyethylene pouches and irradiated in graphite reflector position of Critical facility reactor, BARC, Mumbai. Relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. IAEA reference material (RM), SL -1 (lake sediment) was analyzed for quality control. Percentage errors on the measured concentrations of the elements are within ± 8% with respect to the recommended/information values

  16. Production of beryllium oxide of nuclear purity from beryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copat, A; Sood, S P

    1984-01-01

    Production of beryllium oxide from beryl by the fluoride process was optimized in this study. Optimum results were obtained using a mixture of sodium hexafluorsilicate and sodium hexafluorferrate as flux and calcinating at 740/sup 0/C for 2 hours. The beryllium concentrate produced was further purified by crystallization as beryllium sulfate to obtain nuclear grade beryllium oxide

  17. Production of beryllium oxide of nuclear purity from beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copat, A.; Sood, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Production of beryllium oxide from beryl by the fluoride process was optimized in this study. Optimum results were obtained using a mixture of sodium hexafluorsilicate and sodium hexafluorferrate as flux and calcinating at 740 0 C for 2 hours. The beryllium concentrate produced was further purified by crystallization as beryllium sulfate to obtain nuclear grade beryllium oxide (Author) [pt

  18. Use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the determination of gem provenance: beryls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, Catherine E.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Harmon, Russell S.; Whitmore, Robert C.; De Lucia, Frank C. Jr.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2008-01-01

    The provenance of gem stones has been of interest to geologists, gemologists, archeologists, and historians for centuries. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a minimally destructive tool for recording the rich chemical signatures of gem beryls (aquamarine, goshenite, heliodor, and morganite). Broadband LIBS spectra of 39 beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) specimens from 11 pegmatite mines in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Maine (USA) are used to assess the potential of using principal component analysis of LIBS spectra to determine specimen provenance. Using this technique, beryls from the three beryl-bearing zones in the Palermo no. 1 pegmatite (New Hampshire) can be recognized. However, the compositional variation within this single mine is comparable to that in beryls from all three states. Thus, a very large database with detailed location metadata will be required to routinely determine gem beryl provenance

  19. Spectroscopic study of synthetic hydrothermal Fe3+-bearing beryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Khomenko, Vladimir M.

    2018-05-01

    A synthetic hydrothermal beryl Fe-4-51, investigated previously by Taran and Rossman (Am Miner 86:973-980, 2001), was additionally studied by microprobe, Mössbauer, optical absorption, Raman and IR spectroscopy. For comparison, polarized spectra of natural blue aquamarine and Cr3+, Fe3+-bearing alexandrite, both from Brazil, are also presented. Fe-4-51 is a nearly pure Fe3+-bearing beryl, with a homogeneous composition as shown by electron microprobe. Averaging over 22 points gives a formula of Be3.07(Al1.94,{Fe}_{{{0.07}}}^{{{3}+}})Σ=2.01Si5.95O18, with Fe3+ replacing Al3+ in the octahedral site of the structure. The Mössbauer spectrum is dominated by a broad disordered pattern with beryl-suitable parameters; for Fe2+, IS = 1.21 mm/s, QS = 2.71 mm/s, area ≈ 5% and for Fe3+, IS = 0.34 mm/s, QS = 0.71 mm/s, and area ≈ 67%—are distinguished overlying a broad disordered continuum. The optical absorption spectrum is typical of octahedral Fe3+. From it, the crystal field strength Dq is derived as 1520 cm-1 and the values of Racah parameters of interelectronic repulsion B and C are found to be 665 and 3415 cm-1, respectively. This rather low B value, compared with that of a free Fe3+ ion, 814 cm-1, suggests a comparatively high degree of covalency in the octahedral Fe3+-O bond. Infrared spectra show the presence of channel H2O of both I and II structural type in comparable quantities, about 0.5 and 1 mass%, respectively. Raman data show the expected five bands in the energy range from 300 to 1200 cm-1.

  20. Cerium-activated lanthanum beryllate as a gamma detector material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, J.B.; Berrondo, M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have tested a single crystal of Ce-activated lanthanum beryllate BEL(Ce) as a potential gamma detector material. The density (6.1 g.cm -3 ) and decay time (50 ns) are competitive with other recently developed materials. The scintillation efficiency is 57 to 95% that of BGO. For an excitation wavelength of 340 nm, the emission spectra is a broad peak centered at 450 mn. The H 2 annealed sample is transparent for wavelengths greater than 400 mn. They are continuing a program to improve the scintillation efficiency by varying the crystal growth conditions

  1. Preparation of copper-beryllium alloys from Indian beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, C.M.; Sharma, B.P.; Subba Rao, K.S.; Rajadhyaksha, M.G.; Sundaram, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    The report presents the results of laboratory scale investigations on the preparation of copper-beryllium and aluminium-beryllium master alloys starting from Indian beryl and adopting the fluoride process. The flow-sheet involves : (1) conversion of the Be-values in beryl into water soluble sodium beryllium fluoride (2) preparation of beryllium hydroxide by alkali treatment of aqueous Na 2 BeF 4 (3) conversion of Be(OH) 2 to (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 by treatment with NH 4 HF 2 (4) thermal decomposition of (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 to BeF 2 and (5) magnesium reduction of BeF 2 (with the addition of copper/aluminium) to obtain beryllium alloys. The method has been successfully employed for the preparation of Cu-Be master alloys containing about 8% Be and free of Mg on a 200 gm scale. An overall Be-recovery of about 80% has been achieved. Al-8% Be master alloys have also been prepared by this method. Toxicity and health hazards associated with Be are discussed and the steps taken to ensure safe handling of Be are described. (author)

  2. Preparation of copper-beryllium alloys from Indian beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, C.M.; Sharma, B.P.; Subba Rao, K.S.; Rajadhyaksha, M.G.; Sundaram, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory-scale investigations on the preparation of copper-beryllium and aluminium beryllium master alloys starting from Indian beryl and adopting the fluoride process. The flowsheet involves: (1) conversion of the Be-values in beryl into water soluble sodium beryllium fluoride, (2) preparation of beryllium hydroxide by alkali treatment of aqueous Na 2 BeF 4 (3) conversion of Be(OH) 2 to (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 by treatment with NH 4 HF 2 (4) thermal decomposition of (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 to BeF 2 and (5) magnesium reduction of BeF 2 (without/with) the addition of copper/aluminium to obtain beryllium metal/alloys. The method has been successfully employed for the preparation of Cu-Be master alloys containing about 8% Be and free of Mg on a 200 gm scale. A1-80% Be master alloys have also been prepared by this method. Toxicity and health hazards associated with Be are discussed and the steps taken to ensure safe handling of Be are described. (author)

  3. Ion channeling in natural and synthetic beryl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, C.R.; Diehl, R.; Goetzberger, A.

    1980-01-01

    The transmission of ions by channeling through natural beryl and synthetic emerald has been studied extensively. The transmission ratios depend upon the angle of incidence with a full half width of less than 0.32 0 . While the maximum ratio obtained up to now is only 4 x 10 -4 for 350 keV protons through a crystal of 21 μm thickness, the energy of the transmitted ions is high, the loss being in the order of a few keV/μm. About 60-80% of the particles emerging from the rear surface are ionized. By varying the ion species transmission could be observed up to atomic number 9. It is assumed that the transmission is facilitated by the existence of an electron free channel core. Higher transmission ratios can be expected for sufficiently perfect crystals. (orig.) 891 CDS/orig. 892 MB

  4. Flotation of beryl from milky white quartz veins of Igla area, eastern desert of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Monem, H.M.; Aly, M.M.; Abdel Aty, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Several milky white quartz veins and lenses occur at the Igla area of the central eastern desert. These veins are beryl-bearing and are introduced into breociated rhyolite and porphyritic dolerites as country rock. An effort has been made to up-grade such a low-grade ore material and therefore a head sample assaying about o.28% Be O was prepared. Flotation technique using sodium alkyl-aryl sulfonate as a collector has proven most satisfactory for separating beryl grains at ph value less than 3.5. indeed, a best recovery exceeding 90% Be O could be obtained by adding an activator of some metal chlorides; viz Fe Cl 3 , and Pb Cl 2 and Ca Cl 2 at various PH value. The study has made possible the elaboration of a proposed flow sheet whereby a beryl concentrate assaying 9.35% Be o was obtained with an overall recovery of about 93%

  5. Incipient ferroelectricity of water molecules confined to nano-channels of beryl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorshunov, B. P.; Torgashev, V. I.; Zhukova, E.S.; Thomas, V.G.; Belyanchikov, M. A.; Kadlec, Christelle; Kadlec, Filip; Savinov, Maxim; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Petzelt, Jan; Prokleška, J.; Tomas, P. V.; Pestrjakov, E.V.; Fursenko, D.A.; Shakurov, G.S.; Prokhorov, A. S.; Gorelik, V. S.; Kadyrov, L.S.; Uskov, V.V.; Kremer, R. K.; Dressel, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, Sep (2016), 1-10, č. článku 12842. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25639S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : water * beryl * ferroelectricity * quantum fluctuations * Curie–Weiss behaviour Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  6. Occurrence of Cr-bearing beryl in stream sediment from Eskişehir, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Erkoyun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Beryl crystals are found within stream sediments transecting schists in the northeast of Eskişehir, western Anatolia. This paper studied the Eskişehir beryl crystals with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX, infrared spectroscopy (IR and geochemical analyses. Beryl is accompanied by garnet, glaucophane, quartz, epidote, muscovite and chlorite in the stream sediments. The crystals are euhedral emerald (green gem beryl and light bluishgreen aquamarine, with ideal sharp IR bands. Wet chemical analysis of Eskişehir beryl yielded 61.28% SiO2, 15.13% Al2O3, 12.34% BeO, 0.18% Cr2O3, 1.49% MgO, 1.69% Na2O, 0.98% Fe2O3, and 0.008% V2O3, resulting in the formula (Al1.75Cr0.01Mg0.22Fe0.08(Be2.90Si6.00(Na0.32O18. Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE (barium, strontium, some transition metals (cobalt, except nickel and High Field Strength Elements (HFSE (niobium, zirconium, and yttrium in stream sediments that are associated with beryl exhibited low content about metamorphic rocks. Beryl formation appears to be controlled by upthrust faults and fractures that juxtaposed them with Cr-bearing ophiolitic units and a regime of metasomatic reactions. Such beryl crystals have also been found in detrital sediments that are derived from the schists.   Presencia de berilios relacionados con Cromo en corrientes sedimentarias de Eskisehir, noroeste de Turquía   Resumen Cristales de berilo fueron encontrados en sedimentos de corrientes que atraviesan en esquistos en el noreste de Eskisehir, al oeste de Anatolia. En este artículo se presentan resultados sobre el estudio de los cristales de berilio de Eskisehir con microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM-EDX, del inglés Scanning Electron Microscopy, espectroscopia infrarroja y análisis geoquímicos. El berilio estaba acompañado de granate, glaucofana, cuarzo, epidota, moscovita, y clorito en las corrientes sedmientarias. Los cristales son esmeraldas de formas definidas (gema verde de

  7. Hydrothermal growth of beryl single crystals and morphology of their singular faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dem'yanets, L.N.; Ivanov-Shits, A.K.; Gajnutdinov, R.V.

    2006-01-01

    The surface morphology of the best developed faces of emerald and red beryl monocrystals grown from high-temperature hydrothermal solutions has been studied by atomic force microscopy. The results attest to dislocation-mediated layer-by-layer growth of the faces. Using experimentally determined growth front profiles, the fractal dimensions D Fp and D Fa of the faces are evaluated to be 1.1-1.4. These values indicate that the surfaces studied have a fractal character and can be investigated using elements of fractal theory [ru

  8. A new approach for the beryl mineral decomposition: elemental characterisation using ICP-AES and FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, Usha; Premadas, A.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for the beryl mineral sample decomposition and solution preparation method suitable for the elemental analysis using ICP-AES and FAAS is described. For the complete sample decomposition four different decomposition procedures are employed such as with (i) ammonium bi-fluoride alone (ii) a mixture of ammonium bi-fluoride and ammonium sulphate (iii) powdered mixture of NaF and KHF 2 in 1: 3 ratio, and (iv) acid digestion treatment using hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid mixture, and the residue fused with a powdered mixture NaF and KHF 2 . Elements like Be, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Cr, Ca, Mg, and Nb are determined by ICP-AES and Na, K, Rb and Cs are determined by FAAS method. Fusion with 2g ammonium bifluoride flux alone is sufficient for the complete decomposition of 0.400 gram sample. The values obtained by this decomposition procedure are agreed well with the reported method. Accuracy of the proposed method was checked by analyzing synthetic samples prepared in the laboratory by mixing high purity oxides having a chemical composition similar to natural beryl mineral. It indicates that the accuracy of the method is very good, and the reproducibility is characterized by the RSD 1 to 4% for the elements studied. (author)

  9. Fluid inclusions and stable isotope study of quartz-tourmaline with associated with beryl and emerald mineralization, Kafubu area, Zambia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zachariáš, J.; Pudilová, M.; Žáček, V.; Machovič, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 223, - (2005), s. 136-152 ISSN 0009-2541 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/00/D039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : quartz * tourmaline * beryl Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.940, year: 2005

  10. Mineralogical and Fluid Inclusions Evidence For The Genesis of Umm Addebaa-Umm Kabu Beryl Belt, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, S.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beryl mineralization in quartz veins and pegmatites, are common deposits of tectonic-hydrothermal and/or igneous origin. The beryl-specialized granites association at Umm Addebaa-Umm Kabu belt is manifested in the field by the development of a system of beryl-bearing pegmatitic pods and quartz veins. The emplacement of these syn-tectonic pegmatitic leucogranites from which K- and Be-rich fluid phases were derived, are confined to the shear zones, as well as a broad zone of alkali metasomatism. Microthermometic studies of primary fluid inclusions within beryl growth zones are consistent with beryl precipitation from H 2 O-CO 2 ± CH 4 bearing saline brines. The estimated fluid composition is approximately 0.88 mol% H 2 O, 0.017 mol% CO 2 ± 0.001 mol% CH 4 and 0.10 mol% NaCl (2- 11 wt.% NaCl eq.). Fluid inclusion results are consistent with that mineralization in pegmatites and quartz veins that are formed by two genetic stages. The first stage is characterized by temperature of formation in the range of 216.4 - 378.3 °C, with corresponding pressures along fluid inclusion isochore paths ranging from 1.04 to 2.25 bar. The second stage is of aqueous fluid represented with low temperature (177-255°C) and pressure ≤ 1 bar, but high saline (16-22 wt.% NaCl eq.) which might explain mixing of the early carbonaceous fluid with late meteoric water accompanied with pressure release. Thus, it can be inferred that the Be-bearing solutions were moderately saline, but CO 2 (and possible CH 4 )-rich fluid implies that Be was most probably complexed by carbonate ( + CH 4 ) - chloride base. The different paragenetic types of emerald and beryl associated with granitoid rocks indicates that the chemistry of the Be-bearing fluids (rather than that of the bulk rock), and syn-tectonic intrusions of leucogranites and pegmatites (Be deriving sources) along major ductile shear zones are the important factors controlling the crystallization of beryl.

  11. Scrape-off layer based modelling of the density limit in beryllated JET limiter discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Campbell, D.J.; Clement, S.; Vlases, G.C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives a scrape-off layer based interpretation of the density limit in beryllated JET limiter discharges. In these discharges, JET edge parameters show a complicated time evolution as the density limit is approached and the limit is manifested as a non-disruptive density maximum which cannot be exceeded by enhanced gas puffing. The occurrence of Marfes, the manner of density control and details of recycling are essential elements of the interpretation. Scalings for the maximum density are given and compared with JET data. The relation to disruptive density limits, previously observed in JET carbon limiter discharges, and to density limits in divertor discharges is discussed. (author). 18 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  12. Quantum Electric Dipole Lattice - Water Molecules Confined to Nanocavities in Beryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Martin; Zhukova, Elena S.; Thomas, Victor G.; Gorshunov, Boris P.

    2018-02-01

    Water is subject to intense investigations due to its importance in biological matter but keeps many of its secrets. Here, we unveil an even other aspect by confining H2O molecules to nanosize cages. Our THz and infrared spectra of water in the gemstone beryl evidence quantum tunneling of H2O molecules in the crystal lattice. The water molecules are spread out when confined in a nanocage. In combination with low-frequency dielectric measurements, we were also able to show that dipolar coupling among the H2O molecules leads towards a ferroelectric state at low temperatures. Upon cooling, a ferroelectric soft mode shifts through the THz range. Only quantum fluctuations prevent perfect macroscopic order to be fully achieved. Beside the significance to life science and possible application, nanoconfined water may become the prime example of a quantum electric dipolar lattice.

  13. Evaluation of thermal properties of sintered beryllium oxide produced from Indian beryl ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Sathi R.; Ghanwat, S.J.; Patro, P.K.; Syambabu, M.; Mawal, N.E.; Mahata, T.; Sinha, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Beryllium oxide (BeO) ceramics possess many interesting properties such as good thermal conductivity, high electrical resistivity, high chemical and thermal stability, low dielectric constant, low dielectric loss and low neutron absorption coefficient. These properties lead to its wide use in vacuum electronics technology, nuclear technology, microelectronics and photoelectron technology. The above properties depend on the purity of the material as well as density and microstructure of the sintered body. For high temperature application thermal conductivity and thermal expansion are two important parameters. In the present study, high purity fine BeO powder has been prepared by beryllate route starting with crude beryllium hydroxide. The powder has been sintered at 1550℃ and sintered samples have been evaluated for its thermal properties

  14. Development of spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in beryl minerals using chrome Azurol S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham K. Fouad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A developed, direct, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in beryl minerals with Chrome Azurol S (CAS as a chromogenic reagent was developed in the present article. The determination was performed without either solvent extraction or ion exchange separation of beryllium from its matrix. The stable 1:1 Be-CAS complex was formed instantly with duration time of at least 24 h with constant absorbance. Different parameters such as wavelengths, pH, EDTA concentration and dye concentration were studied for the optimum determination of beryllium. Interference due to presence of high aluminum concentrations was overcome by adding 5% EDTA disodium salt solution. Maximum absorbance for Be-CAS complex was performed at λmax 568 NM using acetate buffer at pH 4.6. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range from 0.02 to 9 ppm with molar absorptivity ε = 0.22 × 104 mol−1 cm−1 and an average standard deviation of 0.7. The R.S.D for 10 replicate measurements of 1 ppm Be was 1.2%.

  15. Study of the ionoluminescence behavior of the gemstones: Beryl (aquamarine variety), opal, and topaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikbakht, T., E-mail: tnikbakht@aeoi.org.ir; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2016-03-15

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) is introduced as a powerful luminescence technique for analyzing the gemstones. Although IBIL is basically comparable to cathodoluminescence (CL), as a well-known luminescence method for studying the gemstones, its high energy density, superior flexibility in depth resolving and fast ionization rate, qualify it for studying weakly luminescent, multi-layer, and precious samples. In order to examine the potential of IBIL in analyzing the gemstones, three samples of beryl (aquamarine variety), opal, and topaz, with different luminosities, were studied through simulations and experiments. The results of the Monte Carlo simulations of the proton beam in interaction with the mentioned gemstones, displayed the capabilities of IBIL, especially in comparison to the well-known technique of CL. The in-air ion beam induced luminescence experiments of the natural samples were performed at room temperature. Also, the complementary technique of microPIXE was applied for elemental analyses of the samples. The promising results of the IBIL experiments exhibit the ability of the technique for analyzing weakly luminescent gemstones, such as aquamarine. The IBIL spectra also exhibit some unknown luminescence bands, which are mostly located in the UV part of the spectra. These new bands disclose the existence of the unknown luminescence activators in the samples. Possible ideas on the origins of these new bands are proposed.

  16. FTIR-spectroscopic measurements of beryls of various sources and the geological mineralogical and gemmological characterization of diamonds of the Espinhago-range (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banko, A. G.

    1997-09-01

    In this work international material of beryl was analyzed by FTIR-spectroscopy, electron microprobe, analytical scanning microscopy, moisture evolution analyzer and fluorine sensitive electrode. The FTIR-spectroscopic measurements and the determination of analytical water content reveal a logarithmic correlation between the beryl water content and the intensity of the H 2 O-combination band at 5275 cm -1 , using unpolarized IR-light. In addition, the intensities of the 3990 - 3970 cm -1 ,-, 3234 cm -1 and 3345 cm -1 -bands, measured with polarized IR-light parallel to the c-axis, are linearly correlated to the content of the alkali metals. Probably these bands correspond to fundamental (1st overtone of H 2 O-II/3234 cm -1 - and 3345 cm -1 ) and combination (alkaliO-H...OH 2 -II/ 3990 - 3970 cm -1 ) modes of bending vibrations. Beryl was deuterated at various temperature. No absorption were detected in the region at around 2390 cm -1 , 2470 cm -1 and 2940 cm -1 , which would prove an assignment related to the present of hydrogen. If alkali-hydroxide grouping in beryl-channel-positions is indeuterable, the model of fundamental and combination modes seems to be valid. The band at 3990 - 3970 cm -1 can also be assigned to the combination mode of alkali-oxygen (alkali (6),(12) -O-bonds) vibrations and the normal modes of the H 2 O- II -molecule. The three integral absorption coefficients - α 5267 (H 2 O-II)t α 5275 (H 2 O-I) and α 2358 (CO 2 ) - were used to subdivide the beryls into groups. The Espinhago-Diamond-Province reflects an interesting geologic history from Precambrian placer- to recent alluvial deposits. Mineralogical and gemmological features, in combination with geological aspects reflect the many reworking processes which affected Espinhago diamonds in time and space: the characteristics of diamond populations in their specific geologic environment represent the natural selection, which eliminated stones of low quality during geologic history. (author)

  17. FTIR imaging in diffusion studies: CO2 and H2O in a synthetic sector-zoned beryl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo eDella Ventura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of CO2 and H2O in a synthetic beryl having a peculiar hourglass zoning of Cr due to the crystal growth. The sample was treated at 800°C, 500 MPa, in a CO2-rich atmosphere. High-resolution FESEM images revealed that the hourglass boundary is not correlated to physical discontinuities, at least at the scale of tens of nanometers. Polarized FPA-FTIR imaging, on the other side, revealed that the chemical zoning acts as a fast pathway for carbon dioxide diffusion, a feature never observed so far in minerals. The hourglass zone boundary may be thus considered as a structural defect possibly due to the mismatch induced by the different growth rates of each sector. High-resolution synchrotron-light FTIR imaging, in addition, also allows enhancement of CO2 diffusion along the hourglass boundary to be distinguished from diffusion along fractures in the grain. Therefore, FTIR imaging provides evidence that different diffusion mechanisms may locally combine, suggesting that the distribution of the target molecules needs to be be carefully characterized in experimental studies. This piece of information is mandatory when the study is aimed at extracting diffusion coefficients from analytical profiles. Combination of TOF-SIMS and FPA data shows a significant depletion of type II H2O along the hourglass boundary, indicating that water diffusion could be controlled by the distribution of alkali cations within channels, coupled to a plug effect of CO2.

  18. Hydrology of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah, with emphasis on ground water; With a section on surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Reed W.; Sandberg, George Woodard

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah (pl. 1), was made during 1976-78 as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights. Wells were the most important source of water for all purposes in the Beryl-Enterprise area during 1978, but it has not always been so. For nearly a century after the first settlers arrived in about 1860, streams supplied most of the irrigation water and springs supplied much of the water for domestic and stock use. A few shallow wells were dug by the early settlers for domestic and stock water, but the widespread use of ground water did not start until the 1920's when shallow wells were first dug to supply irrigation water. Ground-water withdrawals from wells, principally for irrigation, have increased nearly every year since the 1920's. The quantity withdrawn from wells surpassed that diverted from surface sources during the mid-1940's and was about eight times that amount during the 1970's. As a result, water levels have declined measurably throughout the area resulting in administrative water-rights problems.The primary purpose of this report is to describe the water resources with emphasis on ground water. The surface-water resources are evaluated only as they pertain to the understanding of the ground-water resources. A secondary purpose is to discuss the extent and effects of the development of ground water in order to provide the hydrologic information needed for the orderly and optimum development of the resource and for the effective administration and adjudication of water rights in the area. The hydrologic data on which this report is based are given in a companion report by Mower (1981).

  19. Ab initio investigation of isomerism, structure and stability of dimer molecules of Beryllate salts (LiBeH3)2, (LiBeF3)2 and their fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkin, O.P.; Klimenko, N.M.; MakKi, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of correlated approximation method QCI-SD(T)/6-31(+)G** + ZPE(MP2/6-31G*) and MP2/6-31(+)G* + ZPE(HF/6-31G*) ab initio calculations of surfaces and potential energy in the surroundings of key structures of not rigid dimer molecules of beryllate and fluoroberyllate complex salts (LiBeX 3 ) 2 , binuclear anions Be 2 X 5 - , dianions Be 2 X 6 2- and molecules Be 2 X 4 (X=H, F) are done. Equilibrium geometrical parameters of isomers, frequencies and relative IR intensities of normal vibrations, their relative energies and decomposition energies are determined. Similarity and differences of hydrides and fluorides, deformation and polarization of anions under cation effect in the case of their different mutual orientation are analyzed [ru

  20. Line shape and thermal Kinetics analysis of the Fe2+ -band in Brazilian Green beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotani, S.; Furtado, W.; Antonini, R.; Dias, O.L.

    1988-03-01

    The optical absorption spectra study through isothermal treatments of the σ- and Π-polarized bands of Fe 2+ -band is reported. It was shown a linear correlation between these bands through thermal treatments. Irradiation with γ-rays from 60 Co, showed the decrease of this band. The line shape analysis and the discussions lend us to assign the Π- and σ-polarized bands to Fe 2+ ions in the structural channels with and without neighbour water molecules, respectively. The kinetics analysis through a ''bimolecular-like'' model gives untrapping parameter with Arrhenius behavior. The retrapping and recombination parameters showed a behavior proportional to T 1/2 - T 1/2 o which were explained from free electron distribution of velocities and minimum untrapped electron energy due to a potential barrier of the trap. The kinetics cut-off temperature, T 0 , agrees with the previous experimental observation. (author) [pt

  1. THz–IR spectroscopy of single H.sub.2./sub.O molecules confined in nanocage of beryl crystal lattice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorshunov, B. P.; Zhukova, E.S.; Torgashev, V. I.; Motovilova, E.A.; Lebedev, V.V.; Prokhorov, A. S.; Shakurov, G.S.; Kremer, R. K.; Uskov, V.V.; Pestrjakov, E.V.; Thomas, V.G.; Fursenko, D.A.; Kadlec, Christelle; Kadlec, Filip; Dressel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, 10-11 (2014), s. 966-972 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25639S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * nano-confined water molecule Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014

  2. MX Siting Investigation. Preliminary Biological and Cultural Resources Inventory and Environmental Evaluation of the Proposed Operational Base Sites in Coyote Spring Valley and the Milford-Beryl Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-20

    Stanleya pinriata (desert prince- plume) Stanleya sp. X CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii (Engel- X X X X X X mann echinocereus) Ferocactus acanthodes...TABLE 3-3 (Cont.) Site Number Species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CACTACEAE (Cont.) Ferocactus sp X X X X *Neolloydia sp. X *-Opuntia basilaris (beavertail X X

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Fe, Mn, Cr and V in natural silicate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, O.L.; Albuquerque, A.R.P.L.; Isotani, S.

    1983-04-01

    Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr and V were determined in samples of beryl, topaz, tourmaline and spodumene by measuring the first order K sub(α) fluorescence lines. The intensity of these lines were calibrated by using beryl as the standard matrix. The matrices were prepared in the form of pressed pellets with 4:1 mixture of beryl and boric acid, where transition metal oxides were added. (Author) [pt

  4. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Fe, Mn, Cr and V in natural silicate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, O.L.; Albuquerque, A.R.P.L.; Isotani, S.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr and V were determined in samples of beryl, topaze, tourmaline and spodumene by measuring the first order Kα fluorescence lines. The intensity of these lines were calibrated by using beryl as the standard matrix. The matrices were prepared in the form of pressed pellets with 4:1 mixture of beryl and boric acid, where transition metal oxides were added. (Author) [pt

  5. Characterization of emerald from Gujar Kili, Swat, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.A.; Akram, M.; Khattak, N.U.; Khan, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    The green gem variety of beryl family having Cr as colouring agent is known as emerald. Thirteen emerald occurrences are known from northern Pakistan. These occurrences are in Mohamand Agency, Bajuar Agency, Swat District, Indus Kohistan and Gilgit which are located exclusively in the metamorphosed ophiolitic melange of the Indus Suture Zone. The ophiolitic rocks of this suture are the source of Cr which colours the beryl to make it emerald. Studies have been carried out for the characterisation of emerald from one locality, Gujar Kili in Swat district, using petrographic, XRD, XRF and fission track techniques. The Gujar Kili emerald is of green to deep green colour good quality gemstone and contains inclusions in some cases. In general, the Gujar Kili emerald has high Mg, Fe, Cr, V and Al values as compared to average composition of natural emeralds of Swat District. Two mineralogical phases, namely beryl and chrysoberyl have been identified in the four Gujar Kili samples analysed by us. The XRD data for the beryl and chrysoberyl is also presented. The Cr which colours the beryl to make it emerald, does not substitute any element in the beryl structure, rather it is present as an impurity in the crystal matrix. A new etchant to reveal fission tracks in a very short time is also being reported in this paper. (author)

  6. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to CBD. In comparison to high-CBD risk exposures where the chemical nature of aerosol

  7. FTIR study of aquamarines after gamma irradiation, heat treatment and electrodiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkmim, Danielle Gomides; Almeida, Frederico Ozanan Tomaz de; Lameiras, Fernando Soares, E-mail: alkmia@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fredufmg@gmail.com, E-mail: fsl@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    Beryl, Be{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3}){sub 6}, is a natural gemstone with many colors. Some of these colors can be induced or modified by exposure to ionizing radiation, by heating, and maybe by electrodiffusion. Small contents of chromophore chemical elements are related to the colors of beryl, like iron, chromium, vanadium, manganese, and others. There is great interest in relation to methods of improving or inducing colors in beryl. There is evidence that infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to foresee beryl behavior submitted to procedures for color change. It was observed that electrodiffusion with or without contaminant ions did not alter the FTIR spectrum of aquamarines, unlike heat treatment. Green samples have a higher content of type I water molecules, whereas blue samples have a higher content of type II water molecules. Significant changes in FTIR spectra of aquamarines were observed only in green samples after exposure to gamma rays or to heat. The vanishing of the band at 3633 cm{sup -1} may be related to the position of Na{sup +} ion in the crystal lattice of beryl. (author)

  8. FTIR study of aquamarines after gamma irradiation, heat treatment and electrodiffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkmim, Danielle Gomides; Almeida, Frederico Ozanan Tomaz de; Lameiras, Fernando Soares

    2017-01-01

    Beryl, Be_3Al_2(SiO_3)_6, is a natural gemstone with many colors. Some of these colors can be induced or modified by exposure to ionizing radiation, by heating, and maybe by electrodiffusion. Small contents of chromophore chemical elements are related to the colors of beryl, like iron, chromium, vanadium, manganese, and others. There is great interest in relation to methods of improving or inducing colors in beryl. There is evidence that infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to foresee beryl behavior submitted to procedures for color change. It was observed that electrodiffusion with or without contaminant ions did not alter the FTIR spectrum of aquamarines, unlike heat treatment. Green samples have a higher content of type I water molecules, whereas blue samples have a higher content of type II water molecules. Significant changes in FTIR spectra of aquamarines were observed only in green samples after exposure to gamma rays or to heat. The vanishing of the band at 3633 cm"-"1 may be related to the position of Na"+ ion in the crystal lattice of beryl. (author)

  9. FTIR study of aquamarines after gamma irradiation, heat treatment and electrodiffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Gomides Alkmim

    Full Text Available Abstract Beryl, Be3Al2(SiO36, is a natural gemstone with many colors. Some of these colors can be induced or modified by exposure to ionizing radiation, by heating, and maybe by electrodiffusion. Small contents of chromophore chemical elements are related to the colors of beryl, like iron, chromium, vanadium, manganese, and others. There is great interest in relation to methods of improving or inducing colors in beryl. There is evidence that infrared spectroscopy (FTIR can contribute to foresee beryl behavior submitted to procedures for color change. It was observed that electrodiffusion with or without contaminant ions did not alter the FTIR spectrum of aquamarines, unlike heat treatment. Green samples have a higher content of type I water molecules, whereas blue samples have a higher content of type II water molecules. Significant changes in FTIR spectra of aquamarines were observed only in green samples after exposure to gamma rays or to heat. The vanishing of the band at 3633 cm-1 may be related to the position of Na+ ion in the crystal lattice of beryl.

  10. Growth of emerald single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukin, G.V.; Godovikov, A.A.; Klyakin, V.A.; Sobolev, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to its use for jewelry, emerald can also be used in low-noise microwave amplifiers. The authors discuss flux crystallization of emerald and note that when emerald is grown by this method, it is desirable to use solvents which dissolve emerald with minimum deviations from congruence but at the same time with sufficient high efficiency. Emerald synthesis and crystal growth from slowly cooled solutions is discussed as another possibility. The techniques are examined. Vapor synthesis and growht of beryl crystals re reviewed and the authors experimentally study the seeded CVD crystallization of beryl from BeO, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 oxides, by using complex compounds as carrier agents. The color of crystals of emerald and other varieties of beryl is detemined by slelective light absorption in teh visible part of the spectrum and depends on the density and structural positions of chromphore ions: chromium, iron, vanadium, nickel, manganese and cobalt

  11. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k{sub 0} neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, R.N.; Mondal, R.K.; Burte, P.P.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, N.B.Y.; Reddy, L.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B

    2000-12-15

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k{sub 0} method (k{sub 0} INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method.

  12. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k0 neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.N.; Mondal, R.K.; Burte, P.P.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, N.B.Y.; Reddy, L.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k 0 method (k 0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method

  13. Trace element fingerprinting of emeralds by PIXE/PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei; MacArthur, J.D.; Roeder, P.L.; Mariano, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Gemologists consider the mineral beryl, beryllium aluminium silicate, to be the gem, emerald, when it contains sufficient chromium, >0.1%, to colour it a strong green. Emeralds usually contain other trace elements. To investigate the feasibility of distinguishing an emerald's country of origin through its trace content, the trace elements in emeralds and a few beryls from sixteen locations have been determined with a single nondestructive measurement using PIXE and PIGE. From the database established with this limited number of samples, distinguishing trace element patterns were found. (orig.)

  14. Anatomy Journal of Africa - Vol 4, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variant Anatomy of Intracranial Part of Middle Meningeal Artery in a Kenyan Population · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Julius Ogeng'o, Beda Olabu, Mary I. Otiti, Beryl S. Ominde, Larry Mburu, Hemed Elbusaidy, 571-577 ...

  15. Gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    The estimated value of natural gemstones produced from U.S. deposits during 2012 was $11.1 million, a slight increase from 2011. U.S. gemstone production included agate, amber, beryl, coral, garnet, jade, jasper, opal, pearl, quartz, sapphire, shell, topaz, tourmaline, turquoise and many other gem materials.

  16. Single Crystals Grown Under Unconstrained Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Ichiro

    Based on detailed investigations on morphology (evolution and variation in external forms), surface microtopography of crystal faces (spirals and etch figures), internal morphology (growth sectors, growth banding and associated impurity partitioning) and perfection (dislocations and other lattice defects) in single crystals, we can deduce how and by what mechanism the crystal grew and experienced fluctuation in growth parameters through its growth and post-growth history under unconstrained condition. The information is useful not only in finding appropriate way to growing highly perfect and homogeneous single crystals, but also in deciphering letters sent from the depth of the Earth and the Space. It is also useful in discriminating synthetic from natural gemstones. In this chapter, available methods to obtain molecular information are briefly summarized, and actual examples to demonstrate the importance of this type of investigations are selected from both natural minerals (diamond, quartz, hematite, corundum, beryl, phlogopite) and synthetic crystals (SiC, diamond, corundum, beryl).

  17. Doppler Radar and Lightning Network Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Goodman, Steven J.; Cammarata, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Data from a single Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak, including three tornadoes that reached F3 intensity, within Tropical Storm Beryl s remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 13 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 h. spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 h. Several other tornadic cells also exhibited great longevity, with cell lifetimes longer than ever previously documented in a landfalling tropical cyclone (TC) tornado event. This event is easily the most intense TC tornado outbreak yet documented with WSR-88Ds. Time-height analyses of the three strongest tornadic supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and to show how these storms appear at different ranges from a WSR-88D. In addition, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data are examined in Beryl s remnants. Although the tornadic cells were responsible for most of Beryl's CG lightning, their flash rates were only weak to moderate, and in all the tornadic storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. A few of the single-tornado storms produced no detectable CG lightning at all. There is evidence that CG lightning rates decreased during the tornadoes, compared to 30-min periods before the tornadoes. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final CG lightning flashes. Contrary to the findings for flash rates, both peak currents and positive flash percentages were larger in Beryl's nontornadic storms than in the tornadic ones.

  18. Pressure-temperature-fluid constraints for the Emmaville-Torrington emerald deposit, New South Wales, Australia: Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughrey, Lara; Marshall, Dan; Jones, Peter; Millsteed, Paul; Main, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The Emmaville-Torrington emeralds were first discovered in 1890 in quartz veins hosted within a Permian metasedimentary sequence, consisting of meta-siltstones, slates and quartzites intruded by pegmatite and aplite veins from the Moule Granite. The emerald deposit genesis is consistent with a typical granite-related emerald vein system. Emeralds from these veins display colour zonation alternating between emerald and clear beryl. Two fluid inclusion types are identified: three-phase (brine+vapour+halite) and two-phase (vapour+liquid) fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion studies indicate the emeralds were precipitated from saline fluids ranging from approximately 33 mass percent NaCl equivalent. Formational pressures and temperatures of 350 to 400 °C and approximately 150 to 250 bars were derived from fluid inclusion and petrographic studies that also indicate emerald and beryl precipitation respectively from the liquid and vapour portions of a two-phase (boiling) system. The distinct colour zonations observed in the emerald from these deposits is the first recorded emerald locality which shows evidence of colour variation as a function of boiling. The primary three-phase and primary two-phase FITs are consistent with alternating chromium-rich `striped' colour banding. Alternating emerald zones with colourless beryl are due to chromium and vanadium partitioning in the liquid portion of the boiling system. The chemical variations observed at Emmaville-Torrington are similar to other colour zoned emeralds from other localities worldwide likely precipitated from a boiling system as well.

  19. TEN RILLINGTON PLACE AND THE CHANGING POLITICS OF ABORTION IN MODERN BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emma L; Pemberton, Neil

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses the social, cultural, and political history of backstreet abortion in post-war Britain, focusing on the murders of Beryl Evans and her daughter Geraldine, at Ten Rillington Place in 1949. It shows how the commonplace connection of John Christie to abortion and Beryl Evan's death was not a given in the wider public, legal, political, and forensic imagination of the time, reflecting the multi-layered and shifting meanings of abortion from the date of the original trials in the late 1940s and 1950s, through the subsequent judicial and literary reinvestigations of the case in the 1960s, to its cinematic interpretation in the 1970s. Exploring the language of abortion used in these different contexts, the article reveals changes in the gendering of abortionists, the increasing power and presence of abortion activists and other social reformers, the changing representation of working-class women and men, and the increasing critique of the practice of backstreet abortion. The case is also made for a kind of societal blind spot on abortion at the time of both the Evans and Christie trials; in particular, a reluctance to come to terms with the concept of the male abortionist, which distorted the criminal investigations and the trials themselves. Only when public acceptance for legalizing abortion grew in the more liberal climate of the 1960s and beyond did a revisionist understanding of the murder of Beryl Evans, in which abortion came to be positioned as a central element, gain a sustained hearing.

  20. en (Be_3Al_2Si_6O_1_8) by using a diamond anvil cell and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Dawei; Xu, Jingui; Kuang, Yunqian; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Yanchun; Xie, Hongsen

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction was carried out on a single crystal of natural beryl compressed in a diamond anvil cell. The pressure-volume (P-V) data from room pressure to 9.51 GPa were fitted by a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (BM-EoS) and resulted in unit-cell volume V_0 = 675.5 ± 0.1 Aa"3, isothermal bulk modulus K_0 = 180 ± 2 GPa, and its pressure derivative K_0"' = 4.2 ± 0.5. We also calculated V_0 = 675.5 ± 0.1 Aa"3 and K_0 = 181 ± 1GPa with fixed K_0"' at 4.0 and then obtained the axial moduli for a (K_a_0)-axis and c (K_c_0)-axis of 209 ± 1 and 141 ± 2 GPa by ''linearized'' BM-EoS approach. The axial compressibilities of a-axis and c-axis are β_a = 1.59 x 10"-"3 GPa"-"1 and β_c = 2.36 x 10"-"3 GPa"-"1 with an anisotropic ratio of β_a:β_c = 0.67:1.00. On the other hand, the pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) EoS of the natural beryl has also been measured at temperatures up to 750 K and at pressures up to 16.81 GPa, using diamond anvil cell in conjunction with in situ synchrotron angle-dispersive powder X-ray diffraction. The P-V data at room temperature and at a pressure range of 0.0001-15.84 GPa were then analyzed by third-order BM-EoS and yielded V_0 = 675.3 ± 0.1 Aa"3, K_0 = 180 ± 2 GPa, K_0"' = 4.2 ± 0.3. With K_0"' fixed to 4.0, we also obtained V_0 = 675.2 ± 0.1 Aa"3 and K_0 = 182 ± 1 GPa. Consequently, we fitted the P-V-T data with high-temperature BM-EoS approach using the resultant K_0"' (4.2) from room-temperature BM-EoS and then obtained the thermoelastic parameters of V_0 = 675.3 ± 0.2 Aa"3, K_0 = 180 ± 1 GPa, temperature derivative of the bulk modulus (∂K/∂T)_P = -0.017 ± 0.004 GPa K"-"1, and thermal expansion coefficient at ambient conditions α_0 = (2.82 ± 0.74) x 10"-"6 K"-"1. Present results were also compared with previous studies for beryl. From the comparison of these fittings, we propose to constrain K_0 = 180 GPa and K_0"' = 4.2 for beryl. And we also observed that

  1. Organization of the Topical Meeting on Tunable Solid State Lasers Held in North Falmouth, Massachusetts on 1-3 May 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-30

    p. 163) under 647 and 780-nm pumping. (p. 183) WB6 Growth and Characterization of Nd Doped Alumi- 2:15 PM nates and Gallates with the Melilite...Various phosphate glasses 14.5-15.1 Lithium- lanthanum phosphate glass 15.45 Lithium aluminium borate glass 16.4 118 TuB6-2 Alexandrite AI2.-. Cr.BeO...Salisbury SA 5108, Australia Summary The fluorescence spectrum of neodymium in BeL ( lanthanum beryllate) shows ?L reasonably strong line in the R-X

  2. Method for dissolving ceramic beryllia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, A.E.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for dissolving a nuclear fuel composition consisting of a sintered mass containing beryllia, a nuclear fuel selected from uranium and plutonium and a stabilizing agent, sintered at a temperature of at least 1500 0 C to a density of about 2.7 gs/cc. The process comprises contacting said sintered mass with a stoichiometric excess of lithium oxide dissolved or dispersed in a carrier selected from lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate at a temperature in the range 750--850 0 C to convert the beryllia to lithium beryllate and thereafter recovering the nuclear fuel content of said mass. (U.S.)

  3. P-T path fluid evolution in the Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Frindt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock (GSS is a zoned 30 km^2 epizonal intrusion that consists of three main granites: 1 medium-grained biotite granite (marginal, 2 a coarse-grained biotite granite, and 3 a central, porphyritic granite. The stock contains pegmatites as banded marginal stockscheiders and isolated pockets composed of large alkali feldspar and quartz, dark mica, interstitial fluorite, and euhedral topaz and beryl crystals. In the porphyritic granite there are local wolframite-bearing greisens and hydrothermal fluorite and topaz-rich veins.Fluid inclusion studies were conducted on: 1 topaz and quartz crystals from the marginal stockscheider; 2 quartz, topaz, fluorite and beryl crystals from isolated pegmatites; 3 topaz from a miarolitic pegmatite; 4 beryl and quartz veins from greisenized porphyritic granite; and 5 fluorite from a late fluorite vein inthe coarse-grained biotite granite. Preliminary data indicate the presence of three compositionally distinct primary and pseudosecondary inclusion types that are of late magmatic-hydrothermal origin.Type 1. Low salinity (0–10 eq. wt% NaCl H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz, topaz and beryl. Inclusions in fluorite from the fluorite vein homogenize at ~170˚C and have a salinity of ca. 1–2 eq. wt% NaCl.Type 2. Saline (25–30 eq. wt% NaCl halite-bearing H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 400˚C. These inclusions are from quartz.Type 3. Low salinity (0–3 eq. wt% NaCl H2O-CO2 inclusions that homogenize to vapor phase in the temperature range of 330 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz and topaz.Hydrothermal fluids from greisen minerals are represented by type 1 and type 2 H2O inclusions. They are predominantly of low salinity (~8 eq. wt% NaCl and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 500

  4. Croquet club

    CERN Multimedia

    Croquet club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Croquet season started Saturday 7 May with the annual opening tournament. A total of 14 very happy players in the spring sunshine. It was a  lovely day in all senses - friendly competition, a lot of laughter and catching up with one another. Players are divided into PROs (low-handicap) and AMs (high-handicap), all matches are played as doubles. The pairings are changed during the day and the individual points go towards determining the winner. Congratulations to Ian Sexton for winning the Pros and Beryl Allardyce who won the Ams. Many of the games were very close and Ian seemed to have some good challenges in his block! Overall results: Pros: 1st - Ian 2nd - Brian 3rd - Angelina 4th - Jean Ams: 1st - Beryl 2nd - Frank 3rd - Peter (+Margaret) 4th - Roberta (+Jenny) Special thanks to the manager Danny Davids for making this tournament such a smooth and well run affair. CERN croquet club holds...

  5. Croquet club

    CERN Multimedia

    Croquet club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Croquet season started Saturday 7 May with the annual opening tournament. A total of 14 very happy players in the spring sunshine. It was a  lovely day in all senses - friendly competition, a lot of laughter and catching up with one another. Players are divided into PROs (low-handicap) and AMs (high-handicap), all matches are played as doubles. The pairings are changed during the day and the individual points go towards determining the winner. Congratulations to Ian Sexton for winning the Pros and Beryl Allardyce who won the Ams. Many of the games were very close and Ian seemed to have some good challenges in his block! Overall results: Pros: 1st - Ian 2nd - Brian 3rd - Angelina 4th - Jean Ams: 1st - Beryl 2nd - Frank 3rd - Peter (+Margaret) 4th - Roberta (+Jenny) Special thanks to the manager Danny Davids for making this tournament such a smooth and well run affair. CERN croquet club hold...

  6. preparation of beryllia n concentrate from beryllium minerals by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukry, M.M.; Atrees, M. Sh.; Hashem, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the preparation of pure Beryllia concentrate from Zabara beryl mineralization in the mica schist of Wadi El Gemal area in the eastern desert. This has been possible through application of ion exchange techniques to selectively concentrate. This method is based on the fact that the beryllium complex of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) at a ph of about 3.5, is much weaker than the corresponding complexes of iron and aluminum. It was, therefore, possible to effect a complete separation of beryllium from the latter on a cation exchange resin, the studied optimum conditions of separation include a contact time of 3 minute and ph of 3.5 for the selective separation of beryllium from its EDTA solution after a prior separation of alum

  7. A Personal Reflection on the History of Radiation Oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Florence C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a historical and personal narrative of the development of radiation oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), from its founding more than 100 years ago to the present day. Methods and Materials: Historical sources include the Archives of MSKCC, publications by members of MSKCC, the author's personal records and recollections, and her communications with former colleagues, particularly Dr. Basil Hilaris, Dr. Zvi Fuks, and Dr. Beryl McCormick. Conclusions: The author, who spent 38 years at MSKCC, presents the challenges and triumphs of MSKCC's Radiation Oncology Department and details MSKCC's breakthroughs in radiation oncology. She also describes MSKCC's involvement in the founding of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology.

  8. Geologic and radiometric prospect of the mine ''El Muerto'' Oaxaca, Mex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjarrez C, E.

    1981-01-01

    The studies realized in the mine demonstrated that the uranium mineral inclosure obtained in the pegmatites exists in very little concentrations and does not constitute useful deposits. Therefore, there are found rare earths minerals like monazite and euxenite so the mine may be proficient in the extraction of other type of minerals like spodumene, beryl, etc. Because of the scarce knowledges that we have about the pegmatites referring to the radiactive minerals study, it is stated the necessity of making programs perfectly coordinated and projected in the application of the metallurgic investigation that permits the increase in results of useful value, without to lose sight that the principal objective is to have a real economic, industrial and scientific view of the radiactive minerals localized in the pegmatites, considering the refractory character of the same, and the mineral little volume that in general they contain. (author)

  9. A compact low cost “master–slave” double crystal monochromator for x-ray cameras calibration of the Laser MégaJoule Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, S., E-mail: sebastien.hubert@cea.fr; Prévot, V.

    2014-12-21

    The Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA-CESTA, France) built a specific double crystal monochromator (DCM) to perform calibration of x-ray cameras (CCD, streak and gated cameras) by means of a multiple anode diode type x-ray source for the MégaJoule Laser Facility. This DCM, based on pantograph geometry, was specifically modeled to respond to relevant engineering constraints and requirements. The major benefits are mechanical drive of the second crystal on the first one, through a single drive motor, as well as compactness of the entire device. Designed for flat beryl or Ge crystals, this DCM covers the 0.9–10 keV range of our High Energy X-ray Source. In this paper we present the mechanical design of the DCM, its features quantitatively measured and its calibration to finally provide monochromatized spectra displaying spectral purities better than 98%.

  10. Beryllium minerals - demand strong for miniaturisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an essential constituent of over 40 minerals of which two are exploited commercially. Beryl is largely produced in the USSR and China and bertrandite in the U.S.A. Phenacite, from Canada, is also under investigation. The largest extraction plant for the recovery of beryllium in the western world is in Utah, U.S.A. and the company also produces beryllium oxide used in the manufacture of ceramics widely used in the electronics industry and for refractory articles. Beryllium-copper alloys in strip, rod and tube form are produced in the U.S.A., Germany and the U.K. Beryllium ceramics are important because of their high thermal conductivity, electrical insulation, strength and rigidity. The alloys, used as electric connectors, microswitch contacts are important for their high suitability for miniaturisation. The future growth potential for the beryllium industry is in the automotive industries in Europe and Japan. (U.K.)

  11. The Ring Monstrance from the Loreto treasury in Prague: handheld Raman spectrometer for identification of gemstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlička, Jan; Culka, Adam; Baštová, Markéta; Bašta, Petr; Kuntoš, Jaroslav

    2016-12-13

    A miniature lightweight portable Raman spectrometer and a palm-sized device allow for fast and unambiguous detection of common gemstones mounted in complex jewels. Here, complex religious artefacts and the Ring Monstrance from the Loreto treasury (Prague, Czech Republic; eighteenth century) were investigated. These discriminations are based on the very good correspondence of the wavenumbers of the strongest Raman bands of the minerals. Very short laser illumination times and efficient collection of scattered light were sufficient to obtain strong diagnostic Raman signals. The following minerals were documented: quartz and its varieties, beryl varieties (emerald), corundum varieties (sapphire), garnets (almandine, grossular), diamond as well as aragonite in pearls. Miniature Raman spectrometers can be recommended for common gemmological work as well as for mineralogical investigations of jewels and cultural heritage objects whenever the antiquities cannot be transported to a laboratory.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Quantum Behavior of Water Molecules Confined to Nanocavities in Gemstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshunov, Boris P; Zhukova, Elena S; Torgashev, Victor I; Lebedev, Vladimir V; Shakurov, Gil'man S; Kremer, Reinhard K; Pestrjakov, Efim V; Thomas, Victor G; Fursenko, Dimitry A; Dressel, Martin

    2013-06-20

    When water is confined to nanocavities, its quantum mechanical behavior can be revealed by terahertz spectroscopy. We place H2O molecules in the nanopores of a beryl crystal lattice and observe a rich and highly anisotropic set of absorption lines in the terahertz spectral range. Two bands can be identified, which originate from translational and librational motions of the water molecule isolated within the cage; they correspond to the analogous broad bands in liquid water and ice. In the present case of well-defined and highly symmetric nanocavities, the observed fine structure can be explained by macroscopic tunneling of the H2O molecules within a six-fold potential caused by the interaction of the molecule with the cavity walls.

  13. Electron excitations in BeAl2O4, Be2SiO4 and Be3Al2Si6O18 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.Yu.; Pustovarov, V.A.; Shlygin, E.S.; Korotaev, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Low-temperature (T = 7 K) time-resolved selectively photoexcited luminescence spectra (2-6 eV) and luminescence excitation spectra (8-35 eV) of wide-bandgap chrysoberyl BeAl 2 O 4 , phenacite Be 2 SiO 4 , and beryl Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 crystals have been studied using time-resolved VUV spectroscopy. Both the intrinsic luminescence of the crystals and the luminescence associated with structural defects were assigned. Energy transfer to impurity luminescence centers in alexandrite and emerald was investigated. Luminescence characteristics of stable crystal lattice defects were probed by 3.6-MeV accelerated helium ion beams [ru

  14. Effects of Cr 3+ impurity concentration on the crystallography of synthetic emerald crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Lun; Huang, Eugene; Lee, Jan-Shing; Yu, Shu-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    Flux method has been adopted for the synthesis of emerald crystals using PbO-V 2O 5 as a flux in order to study the crystallography of the synthetic crystals. In general, the hue of green color of emerald deepens with the addition of Cr 3+. The molar volume of the synthesized crystals was found to increase with the incorporation of Cr 2O 3 dopant. The substitution of Cr 3+ for Al 3+ in the octahedral sites of beryl results in the expansion of a-axis, while c-axis remains nearly unchanged. The maximum Cr 2O 3-content allowed in the crystal lattice of emerald has been found to be about 3.5 wt%. When the doping Cr 2O 3-content exceeds 3.5 wt%, a significant anomaly in lattice parameters starts to take place, accompanying the precipitation of an unknown phase in the emerald matrix.

  15. Mineral potential for incompatible element deposits hosted in pegmatites, alkaline rocks, and carbonatites in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 87): Chapter Q in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Review of PRISM-I documents and the National inventory of mineral occurrences suggests that resources of U, Th, Nb, Ta, Be, rare earth elements (REEs) and fluorite are known in Mauritania and have been exploited in the past at the Bou Naga alkaline complex. Several different deposit types are indicated by the available data. Pegmatitic veins are recorded in several areas of the Archean and Paleoproterozoic portions of the Rgueïbat Shield and are prospective for resources of Li, Be, Nb, Ta, U, Th, and REEs. Over 150 beryl pegmatites are known in the Khnefissat and Inkebden areas of the Chami greenstone belt, and additional concentrations of pegmatites are known in the Guelb Nich Sud area of the Sebkhet Nich greenstone belt and in the northeastern part of the Amsaga Complex. Due to the small size of these deposits, they are unlikely to be economic unless additional value can be gained by processing contained minerals for their industrial uses.

  16. Doppler Radar and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis; Cammarata, Michael; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Data from a single WSR-88D Doppler radar and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak within Tropical Storm Beryl's remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 12 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 hours, spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 hours. Time-height analyses of the three strongest supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and evolution. These Beryl mini-supercells were comparable in radar-observed intensity but much more persistent than other tropical cyclone-spawned tornadic cells documented thus far with Doppler radars. Cloud-to-ground lightning data are also examined for all the tornadic cells in this severe swarm-type tornado outbreak. These data show many of the characteristics of previously reported heavy-precipitation supercells. Lightning rates were weak to moderate, even in the more intense supercells, and in all the storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. No lightning at all was detected in some of the single-tornado storms. In the stronger cells, there is some evidence that lightning rates can decrease during tornadogenesis, as has been documented before in some midlatitude tornadic storms. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. These findings suggest possible benefits from implementation of observing systems capable of monitoring intracloud as well as cloud-to-ground lightning activity.

  17. Temperature dependence of the defect luminescence in La2Be2O5 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, I.N.; Pustovarov, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature quenching (TQ) curves in the temperature range of 80–500 K have been studied for both the undoped, and doped with RE 3+ -ions (RE = Ce, Eu, Er, Pr, Nd) lanthanum beryllate (BLO) single crystals. Photoluminescence spectra and TQ-curves were recorded upon excitation in the absorption bands of the lattice defects. The reaction rate model has been developed to describe the experimental results. The model includes two competing processes with characteristic temperatures: thermal quenching of intracenter PL (T 1 ) and thermally stimulated migration of electronic excitations (T 2 ). The competition between these two processes leads to the observed non-monotonic TQ-curves. The rationalized formulas using three parameters (intensity, activation energy, characteristic temperature), were developed to describe each of these processes. Within the framework of the unified model, all the experimental results were described and the best fit parameters were obtained. Classification of the investigated lanthanum beryllate crystals was carried out in line with the best fit parameters obtained for the TQ-curves. - Highlights: • We studied La 2 Be 2 O 5 (BLO) single crystals (pristine and RE 3+ -doped). • We studied PL emission spectra of defects in BLO and BLO:RE 3+ . • Temperature quenching of the defect PL emission was studied at 80–500 K. • We developed the reaction rate model to describe non-monotonic TQ-curves. • TQ-curves were parameterized for BLO, BLO:RE 3+ (RE = Ce, Pr, Eu, Nd, Er).

  18. Occupational exposure to natural radionuclides due to mining activities in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ademola, J.A.; Okpalaonwuka, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    The activity concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium in minerals and soil samples from a mining site in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria were measured using gamma ray spectroscopy method. Effective dose per annum has been calculated from the activity concentrations of dominant gamma-emitting natural radionuclides, potassium, uranium and thorium. Samples collected include minerals (beryl, quartz and feldspar), soil samples from the mining pits, heaps and undisturbed land around the mining site. The activity concentrations of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th, respectively in Bq kg-1 in the mineral samples were as follows: 1985 ± 16, 4.8 ± 0.9 and 11.8 ± 5.8 for beryl sample, 115.1 ± 27.9, 5.0 ± 1.3 and 6.3 ± 5.0 for feldspar samples and 1421 ± 122, 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th, respectively, were 314.2 ± 5.7, 27.7 ± 2.6 and 11.5 ± 5.9 Bq kg-1 for soil samples from the pits and 278.1 ± 5.4, 21.1 ± 2.0 and 15.3 ± 7.5 Bq kg-1 for soil samples from heaps. The mean activity concentrations of soil samples from the undisturbed land around the mining site were 194.3 ± 25.2, 14.5 ± 5.1 and 13.3 ± 5.9 Bq kg-1 for 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th, respectively. The effective dose to which the miners are exposed according to exposure scenarios were calculated as 89.9 μSv y-1 for digging and handling of soil and mineral samples in the pit and 63.6 μSv y-1 for handling of soil and mineral samples at the heaps. (authors)

  19. Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Beryllium is a mineral commodity that is used in a variety of industries to make products that are essential for the smooth functioning of a modern society. Two minerals, bertrandite (which is supplied domestically) and beryl (which is currently supplied solely by imports), are necessary to ensure a stable supply of high-purity beryllium metal, alloys, and metal-matrix composites and beryllium oxide ceramics. Although bertrandite is the source mineral for more than 90 percent of the beryllium produced globally, industrial beryl is critical for the production of the very high purity beryllium metal needed for some strategic applications. The current sole domestic source of beryllium is bertrandite ore from the Spor Mountain deposit in Utah; beryl is imported mainly from Brazil, China, Madagascar, Mozambique, and Portugal. High-purity beryllium metal is classified as a strategic and critical material by the Strategic Materials Protection Board of the U.S. Department of Defense because it is used in products that are vital to national security. Beryllium is maintained in the U.S. stockpile of strategic materials in the form of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder.Because of its unique chemical properties, beryllium is indispensable for many important industrial products used in the aerospace, computer, defense, medical, nuclear, and telecommunications industries. For example, high-performance alloys of beryllium are used in many specialized, high-technology electronics applications, as they are energy efficient and can be used to fabricate miniaturized components. Beryllium-copper alloys are used as contacts and connectors, switches, relays, and shielding for everything from cell phones to thermostats, and beryllium-nickel alloys excel in producing wear-resistant and shape-retaining high-temperature springs. Beryllium metal composites, which combine the fabrication ability of aluminum with the thermal conductivity and highly elastic modulus of beryllium, are ideal for

  20. Analysis of archaeological precious stones from Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž. [Facully of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršsek, M. [Slovenian Museum of Natural History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kržic, A. [Higher Vocational Centre, Sezana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an

  1. Chemical-mineralogical characterization and Moessbauer spectroscopy of aquamarine from Pedra Azul, Northeast of Minas Gerais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Rubia Ribeiro; Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna; Costa, Geraldo Magela da

    2001-01-01

    Aquamarines from three pegmatites located the vicinities of the Pedra Azul city, Minas Gerais state, were investigated in terms of chemical composition, physical properties and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The small lenticular pegmatite bodies are usually less than 5 m wide and exhibit a conspicuous mineralogical and textural zoning. The last thermal event in these pegmatites, determined by K-Ar method in muscovite, is of Neo proterozoic age, coincident with the late stages of the Brasiliano tectono- metamorphic cycle. Chemical analyses showed that sodium is the alkali with higher contents in the aquamarines, thus enabling their classification as sodic beryls. In zoned samples there is an increase of Fe as well as Mn from center to border, while no systematic variation could be detected for other elements. The specific gravity of 2.72 to 2.80 g/cm 3 is higher than the values determined for samples from other pegmatites of Minas Gerais. The refraction indices are ne=1.569 - 1.579 and NW= 1.573 - 1.581 and the birefringence varies from 0.002 to 0.008. The refraction indices increase with the Be O content. The color of aquamarines varies from medium to light blue, sometimes greenish blue. Moessbauer spectra obtained at room temperature and at 80 K show that Fe 2+ is the main chromophore-ion and suggest that the iron is present in octahedral sites as well as in the structural channels. Moessbauer spectra also indicate that the incorporation of Fe 3+ may cause a shift from deep blue to light blue colors. Based on their aquamarine composition the pegmatites were classified as barren, poor in rare alkalis (Li, Rb, Cs) and therefore little differentiated. The relatively simple mineralogy and the lack of lithium minerals such as lepidolite and spodumene confirm this classification. Thus, the composition of beryl can be used as a tracer for the prospection of pegmatites with different degrees of differentiation and consequently with different types of mineralization. (author)

  2. Analysis of archaeological precious stones from Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Fajfar, H.; Jeršsek, M.; Knific, T.; Kržic, A.; Lux, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an

  3. Different periods of uranium and thorium occurrence in Madagascar (1960); Cycles uraniferes et thoriferes a Madagascar (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In Madagascar, the first typical occurrences of thorium and uranium are about 500 million years old. Previously thorium and uranium were rather concentrated in the granitic and charnockitic zones, chiefly in minerals such as monazite, apatite and zircon. At the end of the Precambrian period, metasomatic granites occur especially in the anticlinal series (Andriba orthite granite). The granitization is followed by the formation of the main pegmatitic areas in the Island with Th-U niobotantalates, uraninite and beryl. The pegmatites are well developed in the synclinal series with a poor migmatization or no migmatization at all. In the same time a large uranium and thorium province with uranothorianite deposits appears within the calcomagnesian series of the Southern part of Madagascar. Later, large amounts of monazite were carried down to the detritic Karroo sediments during tile erosion of the metamorphic precambrian rocks. Monazite has been concentrated again by frequent marine incursions, till the present time. In the medium Karroo, near Folakara, uranium minerals occur in direct relation with carbonaceous material. Finally we must note the uranium occurrence in the pleistocene carbonaceous shales of Antsirabe basin, in contact with crystalline rocks. (author) [French] A Madagascar, le premier cycle uranifere et thorifere bien caracterise se situe aux alentours de 500 millions d'annees. Auparavant, le thorium et l'uranium sont concentres de preference dans les zones granitiques et charnockites sous forme de monazite, apatite ou zircon. Vers la fin du Precambrien, se produisent des granitisations metasomatiques, surtout dans les zones anticlinales (type Andriba a orthite). La fin de cette granitisation s'accompagne de la formation des principaux champs pegmatitiques de l'Ile a niobotantalates uraniferes, uraninite et beryl, qui se developpent de preference dans les series synclinales peu ou pas migmatisees. A cette meme epoque s'individualise au sein des series

  4. Annual report of the Metallurgy Division [for the] period ending December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elayaperumal, K.; Sridhar Rao, Ch.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Rao, S.V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The research and development work carried out and the various programmes underway in the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the calendar year 1977 have been reported. The R and D work and programmes cover extraction metallurgy, physical metallurgy, alloy development, corrosion metallurgy and ceramics. Some of the major studies and programmes are: (1) development of processes for extraction of niobium, vanadium, hafnium and nickel, (2) preparation of niobium alloys, ferro-zirconium, ceramic grade zirconia, (3) electro-refining of zircaloy scrap, (4) preparation of anhydrous beryllium fluoride from Indian beryl, (5) preparation of beryllium alloys, (6) studies on phase transformation and deformation behaviour of zirconium and zirconium-oxygen alloys, (7) self-diffusion studies in dilute Zr-Fe and Zr-Cr alloys, (8) studies on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of zirconium base alloys and (9) sintering studies on ZrO 2 -PuO 2 and BeO. (M.G.B.)

  5. Rare metal and rare earth pegmatites of Western India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, P.B.; Nagar, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    Rajasthan Mica Belt in western India is one of the three major mica-producing Proterozoic pegmatite belts of India, the others being in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh. The pegmatites of these mica belts, in general, are associated with the rare metal (RM) and rare earth element (REE)-bearing minerals like columbite-tantalite, beryl, lepidolite and other multiple oxides. RM-REE pegmatites of Gujarat are devoid of commercially workable mica. These pegmatites are geologically characterised in this paper, based on their association with granite plutons geochemistry, and RM and REE potential. In addition to RM and RE-bearing pegmatites, granites of the Umedpur area, Gujarat also show anomalous concentration (0.97 wt%) of rare metals (6431 ppm Nb, 1266 ppm Ta, 454 ppm Sn, 173 ppm W), (1098 ppm Ce 1.36% Y 2 O 3 ) rare earths, and uranium (0.40% eU 3 O 8 ). Eluvial concentrations in the soil and panned concentrate (0.04-0.28 wt%) analysed up to 7.4%Nb 2 O 5 , 836 ppm Ta, and 1.31% Y. Discrete columbite-tantalite and betafite have been identified in these concentrates in addition to other minerals like zircon, rutile, sphene and xenotime. This area with discrete RM R EE mineral phases could be significant as a non-pegmatite source for rare metal and rare earths. (author)

  6. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  7. Different periods of uranium and thorium occurrence in Madagascar (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, M.

    1960-01-01

    In Madagascar, the first typical occurrences of thorium and uranium are about 500 million years old. Previously thorium and uranium were rather concentrated in the granitic and charnockitic zones, chiefly in minerals such as monazite, apatite and zircon. At the end of the Precambrian period, metasomatic granites occur especially in the anticlinal series (Andriba orthite granite). The granitization is followed by the formation of the main pegmatitic areas in the Island with Th-U niobotantalates, uraninite and beryl. The pegmatites are well developed in the synclinal series with a poor migmatization or no migmatization at all. In the same time a large uranium and thorium province with uranothorianite deposits appears within the calcomagnesian series of the Southern part of Madagascar. Later, large amounts of monazite were carried down to the detritic Karroo sediments during tile erosion of the metamorphic precambrian rocks. Monazite has been concentrated again by frequent marine incursions, till the present time. In the medium Karroo, near Folakara, uranium minerals occur in direct relation with carbonaceous material. Finally we must note the uranium occurrence in the pleistocene carbonaceous shales of Antsirabe basin, in contact with crystalline rocks. (author) [fr

  8. Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausel, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as a complex, even though it has some characteristics of a greestone belt. At least three episodes of Precambrian deformation have affected the supracrustals, and two have disturbed the granites. The final Precambrian deformation event was preceded by a weak thermal event expressed by retrogressive metamorphism and restricted metasomatic alteration. During this event, a second phase of pegmatization was accompanied by hydrothermal solutions. During the Laramide orogeny, Copper Mountain was again modified by deformation. Laramide deformation produced complex gravity faults and keystone grabens. Uranium deposits were formed following major Laramide deformation. The genesis of these deposits is attributable to either the leaching of granites or the leaching of overlying tuffaceous sediments during the Tertiary. Production of metals and industrial minerals has been limited, although some gold, copper, silver, tungsten, beryl, feldspar, and lithium ore have been shipped from Copper Mountain. A large amount of uranium was produced from the Copper Mountain district in the 1950s

  9. The origin of emeralds embedded in archaeological artefacts in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Kržič

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Roman gold jewellery, which was excavated in Ptuj (Poetovio and consists of a necklace, earrings and a braceletwith embedded emeralds, is part of the Slovenian archaeological artefacts collections. Crystallographic characteristics,inclusions, luminous phenomena and geological characteristics were determined in order to establish theorigin of the emeralds. Chemical composition of the emeralds was determined non-destructively using the methodsof proton-induced X-rays and gamma rays (PIXE/PIGE. The results were compared with reference emeraldsfrom Habachtal in Austria and with green beryls from the Ural Mts. Literature data for emeralds from Egypt andmodern-day Afghanistan area were used to interpret the results. Specifically, these sites were known for emeraldsbeing mined for jewellery in Roman times. It was assumed that emeralds from archaeological artefacts originatedfrom Habachtal in Austria, given that this site was the nearest to the place where found. But the emeralds fromthe necklace and earrings in fact came from Egyptian deposits. The origin of emeralds from the bracelet could nothave been determined absolutely reliably due to the lack of comparative materials; they may originate from a site inmodern-day Afghanistan or from Egypt, but certainly not from the same site as the previously mentioned emeraldsin the necklace and earrings.

  10. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  11. Structure analysis on synthetic emerald crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Lun; Lee, Jiann-Shing; Huang, Eugene; Liao, Ju-Hsiou

    2013-05-01

    Single crystals of emerald synthesized by means of the flux method were adopted for crystallographic analyses. Emerald crystals with a wide range of Cr3+-doping content up to 3.16 wt% Cr2O3 were examined by X-ray single crystal diffraction refinement method. The crystal structures of the emerald crystals were refined to R 1 (all data) of 0.019-0.024 and w R 2 (all data) of 0.061-0.073. When Cr3+ substitutes for Al3+, the main adjustment takes place in the Al-octahedron and Be-tetrahedron. The effect of substitution of Cr3+ for Al3+ in the beryl structure results in progressively lengthening of the Al-O distance, while the length of the other bonds remains nearly unchanged. The substitution of Cr3+ for Al3+ may have caused the expansion of a axis, while keeping the c axis unchanged in the emerald lattice. As a consequence, the Al-O-Si and Al-O-Be bonding angles are found to decrease, while the angle of Si-O-Be increases as the Al-O distance increases during the Cr replacement.

  12. The k0-based neutron activation analysis: a mono standard to standardless approach of NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2006-01-01

    The k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) uses neutron flux parameters, detection efficiency and nuclear constants namely k 0 and Q 0 for the determination of concentration of elements. Gold ( 197 Au) or any other element having suitable nuclear properties is used as external or internal single comparator. This article describes the principle of k 0 -NAA and standardization of method by characterization of reactor irradiation sites and calibration of efficiency of the detector and applications. The method was validated using CRMs obtained from USGS, IAEA and NIST. The applications of method includes samples like gemstones (ruby, beryl and emerald), sediments, manganese nodules and encrustations, cereals, and medicinal and edible leaves. Recently, a k-o-based internal mono standard INAA (IM-NAA) method using in-situ relative efficiency has been standardized by us for the analysis of small and large samples of different shapes and sizes. The method was applied to a new meteorite sample and large size wheat samples. Non-standard size and shape samples of nuclear cladding materials namely zircaloy 2 and 4, stainless steels (SS 316M and D9) and 1S aluminium were analysed. Standard-less analysis of these cladding materials was possible by mass balance approach since all the major and minor elements were amenable to NAA. (author)

  13. LUCIA - a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS Beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janousch, M.; Schmidt, Th.; Wetter, R.; Grolimund, G.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Flank, A.-M.; Lagarde, P.; Cauchon, G.; Bac, S.; Dubuisson, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    LURE-SOLEIL (France) and the Swiss Light Source (SLS) are building together a new micro focused beamline for micro x-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro imaging. This line is designed to deliver a photon flux of the order of 1012 ph/sec on a 1 x 1 μm spot within the energy domain of 0.8 to 7 keV. This beam line is being installed on the X07M straight section of SLS. The source is an APPLE II undulator with a period of 54 mm. The main advantage of this device lies in the delivery of any degree of polarization, linear or circular, over the whole energy range, without the need of a sample-position change. The monochromator will be a fixed exit double crystal equipped with 5 sets of crystals, thanks to the very narrow photon beam from the undulator ( Beryl, KTP, YB66, InSb(111), Si(111) ). The optics includes a first horizontal focusing mirror (spherical), which produces an intermediate source for the horizontal mirror of a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) system. The vertical mirror of the KB directly images the source. Finally, a low-pass double mirror filter insures a proper harmonic rejection

  14. Detection of beryllium in oxides and silicates by electron-probe microanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Khiller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author developed the technique of electron-probe microanalysis for quantitative determination of beryllium content, providing the example of studying natural minerals (aluminosilicates and oxides. This technique allowed to obtain a quantitative content of beryllium (in combination with other elements in the emeralds of the Mariinsky beryllium deposit and in zonal mariinskite-chrysoberyl from the chromitites of the Bazhenov ophiolite complex. All analyzes of minerals were performed on a CAMECA SX 100 electron probe microanalyzer with five wave spectrometers (IGG UB RAS. The pressure in the sample chamber was 2 × 10–4 Pa, in the electron gun region – 4 × 10–6 Pa, in wave spectrometers – 7 Pa. Accelerating voltage was 10 kV, the current of absorbed electrons on the Faraday cylinder (beam current was 100–150 nA. Diameter of the electron beam focused on the sample was 2 μm, the angle of x-ray extraction was 40°. The spectra were obtained on wave spectrometers with TAP crystal analyzers (2d = 25.745 Å, LPET (2d = 8.75 Å, LiF (2d = 4.0226 Å, and PC3 (2d = 211.4 Å, a specialized crystal for determining the content of beryllium and boron; the author carried out all the elements measurements along the Kα-lines. To determine position of the analytical peak and the background from two sides with the minimum possible spectral overlap, the author preliminarily recorded spectra on wave spectrometers. The obtained microprobe analyzes of minerals with quantitative determination of beryllium converge well with the available theoretical compositions of beryl and chrysoberyl, which indicates the high efficiency of the developed technique. By using this technique, we can relatively quickly and reliably determine the quantitative content of beryllium in natural silicates and oxides, which is an acute need for geological researchers studying the mineralogy of beryllium deposits.

  15. Estimation of steady-state and transcient power distributions for the RELAP analyses of the 1963 loss-of-flow and loss-of-pressure tests at BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.; Tzanos, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    To support the safety analyses required for the conversion of the Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, the simulation of a number of loss-of-flow tests, with or without loss of pressure, has been undertaken. These tests were performed at BR2 in 1963 and used instrumented fuel assemblies (FAs) with thermocouples (TC) imbedded in the cladding as well as probes to measure the FAs power on the basis of their coolant temperature rise. The availability of experimental data for these tests offers an opportunity to better establish the credibility of the RELAP5-3D model and methodology used in the conversion analysis. In order to support the HEU to LEU conversion safety analyses of the BR2 reactor, RELAP simulations of a number of loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure tests have been undertaken. Preliminary analyses showed that the conservative power distributions used historically in the BR2 RELAP model resulted in a significant overestimation of the peak cladding temperature during the transient. Therefore, it was concluded that better estimates of the steady-state and decay power distributions were needed to accurately predict the cladding temperatures measured during the tests and establish the credibility of the RELAP model and methodology. The new approach ('best estimate' methodology) uses the MCNP5, ORIGEN-2 and BERYL codes to obtain steady-state and decay power distributions for the BR2 core during the tests A/400/1, C/600/3 and F/400/1. This methodology can be easily extended to simulate any BR2 core configuration. Comparisons with measured peak cladding temperatures showed a much better agreement when power distributions obtained with the new methodology are used.

  16. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  17. Rare metal granites and related rocks of the Ukrainian shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esipchuk, K.Ye.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rare metal leucocratic granites, Perga and Kamennaya complexes, can be distinquished on the Ukrainian shield. The Perga complex consists of medium- and coarse grained, mainly porphyric, biotite, riebeckite and aegirine granites, granite porphyries, microclinites and albitites with rare metal mineralization (genthelvite, phenacite, tantalite, cassiterite and wolframite etc.. Granites from several stocks (up to 30 km2 in the northwestern part of the shield, situated along the fracture zone, restricted the large Korosten pluton of rapakivi granites to the northwest. The age of these granites (Pb-Pb and U-Pb methods on zircon and monazite practically coincide with the age of rapakivi granites being 1750 Ma. Within the Korosten complex of rapakivi granites we consider that zinnwaldite granites, which are characterized by fluorite and topazine mineralization, represent the final phase of pluton. These granites differ from the Perga ones by their low content of rare metals. The Kamennaya Mogila complex lies in the southeastern part of the Ukrainian shield. It consists of biotite and muscovite-biotite, medium- and coarse-grained (also porphyric, and occasionally greisining granites with rare metal mineralization (cassiterite, columbite, molybdenite, wolframite and beryl. Granites form several stocks (5-30 km2 situated 10-30 km to the west-northwest of the South-Kalchik gabbro-syenite-granite pluton. Granitoids in both of these complexes have similar isotopic ages (1800 Ma. Leucocratic subalkaline granites (the Novoyanisol type are known within the pluton itself, occupying an intermediate position between the above mentioned in terms of mineral and geochemical composition. The gabbro-syenite-granite formation of the Nearazov region has a substantial similarity to the anorthosite-rapakivi-granite formation. In this respect the relation of each of them to rare metal granites is rather remarkable. This relation is, most probably, not only spatial, but

  18. Prediction of Exploration Target Areas for GEM Deposits in Mogok Stone Tract, Northern Myanmar by Integrating Remote Sensing and Geoscience Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Tin Ko

    2011-07-01

    The Mogok Stone Tract area has long been known for world famous finest ruby since 1597. The Mogok area lies in northern Myanmar and is located at about 205.99km northeast from Mandalay, the second largest city of Myanmar. The Mogok Group of metasedimentary rocks is divided into four units: (1) Wabyudaung Marble, (2) Ayenyeinchantha Calc-silicate, (3) Gwebin Quartzite, and (4) Kabe Gneiss. Igneous rocks in the Mogok area are classified into two units: (1) Kabaing Granite and (2) Pingutaung Leucogranite. The Mogok area has a complex structure involving several folds and faults. Using marbles and calc-silicates as marker horizons, a series of anticline and syncline can be identified such as Mogok syncline, Ongaing anticline, Bawpadan syncline, and Kyatpyin anticline. All the foldings show a low-angle plunge to the south. The main precious stones of the Mogok area are ruby and sapphire; and the other important semi-precious stones are spinel, topaz, peridot, garnet, apatite, beryl, tourmaline (rubellite), quartz, diopside, fluorite, and enstatite. Geological and remote sensing data are processed to extract the indicative features of gem mineralized areas: lithology, structure, and hydrothermal alteration. Density slice version of Landsat ETM band ratios 5/7 is used to map clay alterations. Filtering Landsat ETM band 5 by using edge detection filter is applied for lineament mapping. Spatial integration of various geoscience and remote sensing data sets such as geological maps, Landsat ETM images, and the location map of gem mines show the distribution of alteration zones associated with the gem mineralization in the study area. Geographic Information System (GIS) model has been designed and implemented by ARCVIEW software package based on the overlay of lithologic, lineament, and alteration vector maps. This process has resulted in delineation of most promising areas of probable gem mineralized zones as on the output map.

  19. Chemistry characterization and samples beryllium process impurity determination; Caracterizacao quimica e determinacao de impurezas de amostras de processo de berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonel Mathry de

    1992-12-01

    Brazil is the greatest world producer of beryl (3 Be O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.6SiO{sub 2}) and has recently begun to produce beryllium compounds by means of a pilot plant constructed at Governador Valadares city (Minas Gerais - Brazil). The aim of this work was the determination of trace level impurities and macro constituents in the tenth % range to support analytical control process of plant production and characterization of beryllium compounds. The impurities separations and purification process was developed by two steps procedure. The first one using EDTA complexation has separated and reduced some impurities to less than 1 {mu}g/ml level. In the second one it was used a chelating resin (Chelex 100) and the separation efficiency was about 75 to 97 % related with the element tested. High pure berylium oxide standard was obtained from purification of Be(OH)2. The R X fluorescence presented only traces of Cu and Si < 1 % Fe and Mn, Zn, Ca, Al, Na and S were completely removed. The beryllium content was determined by direct atomic emission spectroscopy in argon plasma (Dcp) and compared with classic gravimetric method as Be O. The results were in agreement (49,2+/-0,2 % and 48,3+/-0,1 % respectively) between 95 % of confidence. A low temperature gravimetric method for beryllium determination was also studied using Oxine with microwave furnace. A total of 24 elements including macro and trace level were determined by Dcp and/or spectrophotometric methods. The Be/B separation was studied using anionic resin in poly alcohols medium. A more detailed study of equilibrium conditions is necessary. This work was realized at Laboratorio de Analise Mineral (LAM) of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - Rio de Janeiro (CNEN). (author)

  20. Petrochemical Characteristics and Age of Rare Metal (Ta-Nb Mineralization in Precambrian Pegmatites, Komu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. OLUGBENGA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Precambrian pegmatites of Komu area intrude semi discordantly older rock types, such as biotite gneiss, amphibolites and pelitic schists. The pegmatites occur as near flat lying bodies. This study aims at elucidating the geological setting, petrography, geochemical features and age of mineralization of these pegmatite bodies, with a view to classifying them and knowing their economic potential. The petrographic analysis shows that the pegmatite samples contain mainly quartz (35%, plagioclase (15%, microcline (10% and muscovite (12% with accessories like tourmaline, tantalum, niobium and illmeno-rutiles. Geochemical analysis of the muscovites extracted from pegmatites show that these rocks are enriched in silica (>60% and Al2O3 (>12% and depleted in Fe2O3, MgO and TiO2. Trace element analysis shows that the pegmatites contain rare metals with moderately high Ta, Nb, Sn, Rb, Li and Cs values and depleted in Ti, Ba and Zr. Elemental ratios indicate low ratios of K/Cs, Th/U and K/Rb. Variation plots of Ta/(Ta+Nb versus Mn/ (Mn+Fe show that the pegmatites plot in the complex (beryl subtype field. The Na/K versus Sn, Nb, Rb variation plots show that the pegmatites of Komu area are mineralized and compare favourably with those of other mineralized pegma-tite areas like Egbe and Ijero in southwestern Nigeria. The variation plots of Ta versus K/Cs, and Ta/W versus Cs, also confirm rare metal mineralization of Komu pegmatites, which plot over the mineralized line of Beus and Gordiyenko. The K/Rb versus Rb, Cs and Sn plots indicate low K/Rb ratios indicating moderate differentiation. The Rare Earth Elements (REE show high heavy REE values and lower light REE values with prominent positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly from normalized chondrite plots. K/Ar dating of the age of mineralization of muscovites extracted from the pegmatite yielded late Pan-African ages between 502.8±13Ma and 514.5±13.2Ma. This period represents the cooling ages of the

  1. Processing of Vietnamese lithium ores to produce LiCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Thi Thu Hien

    2015-11-16

    A potential lithium deposit has been discovered in the La Vi mining district, located in Quang Ngai Province, Central Vietnam. The Li-rich rocks (average contents: 1.3±0.9 wt.% Li{sub 2}O) are highly fractionated, peraluminous granites, which are further characterized by high contents of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, F, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, but very low concentrations of all other main components (MgO, CaO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}tot, TiO{sub 2}). The granites exhibit a light pink color and contain mainly albite, quartz, muscovite, lithian muscovite, and lepidolite, with minor amounts of amblygonite-montebrasite, herderite, fluorapatite, topaz, and cassiterite, and accessory beryl and goyazite. Lepidolite from La Vi deposit was extracted to produce lithium chloride by using iron II sulphide (FeS)-CaO roasting and water leaching. The HSC program was applied for the simulation of the behavior of lepidolite and the additives during roasting, confirming the important role of SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} gas for extracting lithium from lepidolite. At optimum conditions roasting at 750 C using FeS/Li and Ca/F molar ratios of 5:1 and 1:1, respectively, followed by leaching at 50 C using water/calcine mass ratios of >5:1 could yield a maximum of ∝85% Li recovery (at <1 g/L Li concentration). Addition of CaO led to a decrease in the liberation of HF gas and insoluble LiF formation. NaOH and BaCl{sub 2} were used for removing the metal and sulphate impurities from the leach liquor by precipitation at ambient temperature. The efficiency of lithium extraction reached ∝100 % with washing of the precipitates after filtering. Alkali salts were separated from the LiCl solution via solar evaporation and isopropanol leaching. 96.3 wt.% LiCl could be produced using an isopropanol/salt mass ratio of 5:1 at ambient temperature in 3 h.

  2. Main activities in Kazakhstan aimed to substantiate ITER and demo reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Kenzhin, Ye.; Dzhakishev, M.; Goryaev, G.; Gagarin, A.; Shakhvorostov, Yr.; Savchuk, V.

    2004-01-01

    . At the same time the experiments on determination of reflectivity of beryllium and its alloys (titanium, beryl lide, for sample) in vacuum and under steam oxidation would be carried out. Finally so produced mock-ups would be tested with respect to its interaction with steam. The test temperature will be up to 1200 degree C. Also irradiation tests on in-pile saturation of beryllium with deuterium would be carried out. (author)

  3. Processing of Vietnamese lithium ores to produce LiCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Thi Thu Hien

    2015-01-01

    A potential lithium deposit has been discovered in the La Vi mining district, located in Quang Ngai Province, Central Vietnam. The Li-rich rocks (average contents: 1.3±0.9 wt.% Li 2 O) are highly fractionated, peraluminous granites, which are further characterized by high contents of Al 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, K 2 O, F, and P 2 O 5 , but very low concentrations of all other main components (MgO, CaO, Fe 2 O 3 tot, TiO 2 ). The granites exhibit a light pink color and contain mainly albite, quartz, muscovite, lithian muscovite, and lepidolite, with minor amounts of amblygonite-montebrasite, herderite, fluorapatite, topaz, and cassiterite, and accessory beryl and goyazite. Lepidolite from La Vi deposit was extracted to produce lithium chloride by using iron II sulphide (FeS)-CaO roasting and water leaching. The HSC program was applied for the simulation of the behavior of lepidolite and the additives during roasting, confirming the important role of SO 2 /SO 3 gas for extracting lithium from lepidolite. At optimum conditions roasting at 750 C using FeS/Li and Ca/F molar ratios of 5:1 and 1:1, respectively, followed by leaching at 50 C using water/calcine mass ratios of >5:1 could yield a maximum of ∝85% Li recovery (at <1 g/L Li concentration). Addition of CaO led to a decrease in the liberation of HF gas and insoluble LiF formation. NaOH and BaCl 2 were used for removing the metal and sulphate impurities from the leach liquor by precipitation at ambient temperature. The efficiency of lithium extraction reached ∝100 % with washing of the precipitates after filtering. Alkali salts were separated from the LiCl solution via solar evaporation and isopropanol leaching. 96.3 wt.% LiCl could be produced using an isopropanol/salt mass ratio of 5:1 at ambient temperature in 3 h.

  4. Crystal growth of emerald by flux method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Mikio; Narita, Eiichi; Okabe, Taijiro; Morishita, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Emerald crystals have been formed in two binary fluxes of Li 2 O-MoO 2 and Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 using the slow cooling method and the temperature gradient method under various conditions. In the flux of Li 2 O-MoO 3 carried out in the range of 2 -- 5 of molar ratios (MoO 3 /Li 2 O), emerald was crystallized in the temperature range from 750 to 950 0 C, and the suitable crystallization conditions were found to be the molar ratio of 3 -- 4 and the temperature about 900 0 C. In the flux of Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 carried out in the range of 1.7 -- 5 of molar ratios (V 2 O 5 /Li 2 O), emerald was crystallized in the temperature range from 900 to 1150 0 . The suitable crystals were obtained at the molar ratio of 3 and the temperature range of 1000 -- 1100 0 C. The crystallization temperature rised with an increase in the molar ratio of the both fluxes. The emeralds grown in two binary fluxes were transparent green, having the density of 2.68, the refractive index of 1.56, and the two distinct bands in the visible spectrum at 430 and 600nm. The emerald grown in Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 flux was more bluish green than that grown in Li 2 O-MoO 3 flux. The size of the spontaneously nucleated emerald grown in the former flux was larger than the latter, when crystallized by the slow cooling method. As for the solubility of beryl in the two fluxes, Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 flux was superior to Li 2 O-MoO 3 flux whose small solubility of SiO 2 caused an experimental problem to the temperature gradient method. The suitability of the two fluxes for the crystal growth of emerald by the flux method was discussed from the view point of various properties of above-mentioned two fluxes. (author)

  5. Features of phenacite mineralization from the Ural emerald mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Popov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problems of development of phenacite mineralization at the Ural Emerald Mines, which is rather well developed and described in the Mariinsky (Malyshevsky and Sretensky (Sverdlovsk emerald-beryllium deposits. Phenacite is widespread in many beryllium deposits, but crystals of jewelry quality, with such large sizes as at the Emerald Mines, form rarely. Despite the prescription of the discovery (1833, and because of the rare occurrence of jewelry quality of crystals, and the presence of more expensive and valuable stones – emeralds and alexandrites – in deposits of the Emerald mines, phenacite remains almost unknown in the precious stones market, and especially abroad. Phenacite mineralization mostly occurs in the micaceous veins represented by gray and greenish-gray phlogopite. Distribution of phenacite in the micaceous veins is extremely uneven. Mineralization is typically nesting. High content of phenacite appears in the micaceous veins, mineral composition of which is mostly phlogopite, veins and concretions of beryllium-containing margarite (B-margarite and chlorite. Content of phenacite is low in the micaceous veins that include phlogopite, plagioclase, beryl, fluorite, smoky quartz. At the Sretensky deposit is located a vein that refers to a new type of ore bodies of the chrysoberyl-phenacite composition lying in ultrabasic rocks. Unlike emerald-bearing micaceous veins that have a northwestern spread, the chrysoberyl-phenacite ore bodies are oriented in the near-latitudinal direction and have a northern incidence at an angle of 75°–80°. The most common form of phenacite crystals on the Emerald Mines is rhombohedral and short columned. Crystals have a large number of faces. The usual shapes are a hexagonal prism and rhombohedrons. Twin crystals are common, druses, columnar aggregates, and spherulites are characteristic. Phenacite can be colorless or slightly colored in wine yellow, sometimes pinkish, light

  6. Leachability characteristics of beryllium in redmud waste and its stabilization in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saradhi, I.V.; Mahadevan, T.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    More than 70% of the beryl ore processed by the Beryllium Metal Plant at the BARC Vashi Complex ends up as redmud waste. The presence of significant quantities (0.4 to 0.8%) of beryllium in the redmud qualifies it as hazardous requiring safe handling, storage and disposal. The waste also contains 0.09% of water soluble fluoride. The various standard protocol of procedures were employed to estimate the leachability of beryllium from redmud for both short term and long term periods. Nearly 50% of beryllium present in redmud is leachable in water. We have tried the stabilization of redmud using portland cement. The proportion of redmud to cement was in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4. The blocks were cast, cured and used in the leachability experiments using standard protocols as above. The results of the TCLP test gave the levels of beryllium well below the standard limits in the TCLP extract of cement stabilized waste indicating the suitability of stabilization of redmud with cement whereas that of raw waste (redmud) are much higher than the prescribed limits. The total leach percent of beryllium in 1:2 block is 0.05% over period of 164 days whereas 1:1 and 1:4 gave a leach percent of 0.26 and 0.15% respectively. The DLT results indicate, diffusion controlled release of beryllium from the cement stabilized redmud blocks. The effective diffusion coefficient of beryllium obtained from the modelling study is 10 orders of magnitude less than the molecular diffusion coefficient of beryllium indicating the effectiveness of cement stabilization. From the detailed experiments performed, it is felt that 1:2 proportion of redmud and cement will be the best suited option for stabilization of redmud waste. The 1:1 proportion of redmud to cement mixture which could not be cast into compact cement blocks also exhibited very low leachability characteristics similar to 1:2 and 1:4 and can be be favourably considered for stabilization in case of space constraints at storage sites. The

  7. Mineral-deposit model for lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; McCauley, Andrew D.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2017-06-20

    Lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites comprise a compositionally defined subset of granitic pegmatites. The major minerals are quartz, potassium feldspar, albite, and muscovite; typical accessory minerals include biotite, garnet, tourmaline, and apatite. The principal lithium ore minerals are spodumene, petalite, and lepidolite; cesium mostly comes from pollucite; and tantalum mostly comes from columbite-tantalite. Tin ore as cassiterite and beryllium ore as beryl also occur in LCT pegmatites, as do a number of gemstones and high-value museum specimens of rare minerals. Individual crystals in LCT pegmatites can be enormous: the largest spodumene was 14 meters long, the largest beryl was 18 meters long, and the largest potassium feldspar was 49 meters long.Lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatites account for about one-fourth of the world’s lithium production, most of the tantalum production, and all of the cesium production. Giant deposits include Tanco in Canada, Greenbushes in Australia, and Bikita in Zimbabwe. The largest lithium pegmatite in the United States, at King’s Mountain, North Carolina, is no longer being mined although large reserves of lithium remain. Depending on size and attitude of the pegmatite, a variety of mining techniques are used, including artisanal surface mining, open-pit surface mining, small underground workings, and large underground operations using room-and-pillar design. In favorable circumstances, what would otherwise be gangue minerals (quartz, potassium feldspar, albite, and muscovite) can be mined along with lithium and (or) tantalum as coproducts.Most LCT pegmatites are hosted in metamorphosed supracrustal rocks in the upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies. Lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatite intrusions generally are emplaced late during orogeny, with emplacement being controlled by pre-existing structures. Typically, they crop out near evolved, peraluminous granites and leucogranites from which they are inferred to be

  8. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McMleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 104 samples collected from numerous thermal and non-thermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2006-2008. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from 10 areas of YNP including Apollinaris Spring and Nymphy Creek along the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Crater Hills, the Geyser Springs Group, Nez Perce Creek, Rabbit Creek, the Mud Volcano area, and Washburn Hot Springs. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur redox species in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved on-site. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, emf (electromotive force or electrical potential), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured on-site at the time of sampling. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide was measured a few to several hours after sample collection by ion-specific electrode on samples preserved on-site. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally a few to several hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved iron and ferrous iron concentrations often were measured on-site in the

  9. Design and development of a high energy photo-electron spectroscopy beamline on Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannath; Bhandarkar, V.B.; Pradeep, R.; Sharma, R.K.; Sule, U.S.; Goutam, U.K.; Gadkari, S.C.; Yakhmi, J.V.; Sahni, V.C.

    2007-08-01

    We report on the design and development of a high energy x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) beamline for one of the bending magnets (BM-6) at the 2.5 GeV, 3 rd generation Indus-2 synchrotron radiation (SR) source under commissioning at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. The beamline (BL) extends up to 40 m in length, and has been designed based on certain criteria such as its working energy range (0.8 - 15.0 keV), the resolution (∼ 10 -4 ), the flux throughput (10 10 -10 11 ), and the requirement of a focused beam at the sample position. Two pairs of identical crystals in the (+1, -1) double crystal monochromator (DCM) geometry, based on beryl (10i0) and Si (111) reflections with their intrinsic resolution of ∼ 10 -4 have been chosen to respectively cover the lower (0.8-2.0 keV) and higher energy (2 - 15.0 keV) ranges of the BL. The DCM has been placed at a distance of 30.0 m from the BM source. The effect of pitch (ΔΘ P ) and roll errors (ΔΘ R ) of the DCM on the vertical and horizontal shifts in the exit beam has been evaluated and minimized to acceptable values (ΔΘ P R < 2 μrad) that correspond to shifts of less than 20 % of the beam width at the sample position. Sagittal focusing has been achieved by bending the 2 nd Si crystal of the DCM in the sagittal direction. A mirror has been placed at 20.0 m from the BM source. The toroidal surface of the mirror substrate (1.2 m long Si crystal) is coated with a thin film of Pt metal (∼ 50 nm), and held at a grazing angle of 9.0 μrad so that it provides high reflectivity in a much wider energy range from 0.8 to 8.0 keV. The effect of mirror surface imperfections, such as the roughness and figure error, on the spot size at its focal position has been evaluated and optimized using a ray-trace program SHADOW. The optimum value for the roughness is found to be 3.0 A, while those for figure errors are found to be 2.0 and 20.0 μrad in the meridional and sagittal directions

  10. Mixing of fluids in hydrothermal ore-forming (Sn,W) systems: stable isotope and rare earth elements data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, T. M.; Popova, J. A.; Velivetskaya, T. A.; Ignatiev, A. V.; Matveeva, S. S.; Limantseva, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    Experimental and physico-chemical modeling data witness to important role of mixing of different type of fluids during tin and tungsten ore formation in hydrothermal systems. Mixing of magmatogeneous fluids, exsolved from granite melts, with exogenic, initially meteoric waters in hydrothermal ore-forming systems may change chemical composition of ore-forming fluid, causing cassiterite and/or wolframite precipitation (Heinrich, 1990; Sushchevskaya, Ryzhenko, 2002). We studied the process of genetically different fluids mixing for two economic Sn-W deposits, situated in the Iultin ore region (North-East of Russia, Chukotka Penninsula). The Iultin and Svetloe deposits are located in the apical parts of close situated leucogranite stocks, formed at the final stage of the Iultin complex emplacement. Both deposits are composed of a series of quartz veins among the flyschoid rocks (T 1-2), cut by the dikes (K1) of lamprophyre, granodiorite porphyre and alpite. The veins of the deposits are dominated by the productive quartz-wolframite-cassiterite-arsenopyrite-muscovite mineral assemblage. Topaz, beryl, fluorite, and albite occur sporadically. The later sulfide (loellingite-stannite-chalcopyrite) and quartz-fluorite-calcite assemblages show insignificant development. The preore quartz veinlets in host hornfels contain disseminated iron sulfides, chalcopyrite, muscovite. Isotopic (H, O, Ar) study of minerals, supplemented by oxygen isotope data of host granites and metamorphic rocks gave us possibility to conclude, that at the Iultin and the Svetloye deposits fluid mixing was fixed on the early stages of deposit formation and could be regarded as probable cause of metal (W, Sn) precipitation. During postore time the intensive involvement of isotopically light exogenic waters have changed: a) the initial character of oxygen isotope zonality; b) the initial hydrogen isotope composition of muscovites, up to meteoric calculated values for productive fluid (while the δ18O

  11. Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

    1987-01-01

    studies, confirmed the presence of more extensive aureoles than shown in published geologic maps; few misclassified areas were noted. Additional plowed fields consisting of exposed contact metamorphic soil were mapped digitally in an August 1985 TM scene. Subsequently, this approach was used to map two 1-km-wide linear zones of contact metamorphosed rock and oil in the San Nicolas-Sn-W Mine area, which is located approximated 125 km southeast of the Caceras study area. Exposures of granite in the San Nicolas area are limited to a few unaltered granitic dikes in the mine and a small exposure of unaltered pegmatite-bearing granite in a quarry about 1.5 km west of the mine. The present of coarsely crystalline biotite and beryl in the granite in the quarry and of contact metamorphosed slate up to 2.5 km from the nearest granite exposure suggest that only the apical part of a pluton is exposed in the quarry and that a larger, shallowly buried body is probably present. These results indicate that potential application of TM image analysis to mineral exploration in lithologically similar areas that are cultivated in spite of poor rock exposures.

  12. Raman-spectroscopic (Fe/Fe+Mg, CO2) and Structural studies of Mg-Fe cordierites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefeker, U.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of this dissertation synthetic hexagonal and orthorhombic Mg-Fe-cordierites have been investigated with Raman-spectroscopy and XRD methods. Cordierite´s Mg- and Fe-end-members as well as their Mg-Fe solid solutions with the chemical formula (Mg, Fe 2+ ) 2 Al 4 Si 5 O 18 *nH 2 O have been synthesized. Raman-data of synthetic hydrous Mg- and Fe-cordierites have been obtained in the wavenumber-region 100-1250 cm-1 and the experimental data were then compared with the results of quantum-mechanical calculations. 86 theoretical bands could be related to specific vibrational modes of the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the cordierite structure. Maximum and mean deviation between experimentally-derived bands and calculated modes were ±7 cm -1 for Mg-cordierite and ±19 cm -1 for Fe-cordierite. Spectra comparison revealed a trend of peak downshifting as a consequence of Fe-incorporation. The calculations now allow more accurate interpretation of the Raman spectra with respect to structural changes of cordierite, resulting from Al-Si ordering and Mg-Fe exchange. Atomic motions in cordierite have been compared with those of the structurally similar mineral beryl. Investigations of 16 H 2 O-bearing synthetic well-ordered Mg-Fe-cordierites (XFe =0-1) with micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed a linear correlation between the Fe/Mg ratio and the position of certain Raman peaks. The peaks (wave-number Mg-/Fe-cordierite) at 122/111, 262/257, 430/418, 579/571, 974/967, and 1012/1007 cm -1 were selected for a detailed deconvolution analysis . The shifts of these peaks were then plotted vs. XFe and regression of the data lead to the formulation of a set of linear equations. In addition, the effect of different H 2 O contents and the degree of Al-Si ordering on the Fe/Mg determination were also investigated. Testing the calibration against data from six well-characterized natural cordierite samples yielded excellent agreement. Existing calibration diagrams for CO 2