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Sample records for beryl

  1. Rare Earth Elements Distribution in Beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser ablation method is applied to a double focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to determine the rare earth element distribution in some selected beryl samples. White, green and blue beryl samples are selected from the Egyptian eastern desert. Distributions of chondrite- normalized plot for the rare earth element in the selected beryl samples are investigated

  2. Concentration of beryl by flotation: review of art state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of beryl has been mainly investigated to develop a product as good as the ''hand-cobbed'' mineral used in the extrative metallurgy of beryllium. The purpose of this paper is to show a review of the concentration of beryl by cationic and anionic flotation depicting their principal aspects. (author)

  3. Optical absorption in irradiated natural beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three species of beryl irradiated with γ-rays of 60Co were studied by optical absorption. One became yellow and the other two Maxixe's blue. The effects of heat treatments were determined by the thermal isochronal decays of the optical absorption bands. Activation energies and frequency factor were obtained through the first order process kinetic model. Discussions lend us to assign for the UV band-edge the model of absorption by a hole center stabilized by a Fe2+ (substituting Al3+) ion in a neighbour oxygen. (Author)

  4. Coloration of natural beryl by iron ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaibullin, R.I. E-mail: rik@kfti.knc.ru; Lopatin, O.N.; Vagizov, F.G.; Bazarov, V.V.; Bakhtin, A.I.; Khaibullin, I.B.; Aktas, B

    2003-05-01

    Natural colorless crystals of Ural beryl were implanted at room temperature with 40 keV Fe{sup +} ions with fluences in the range of 0.5-1.5 x 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}. As-implanted samples show dark-grey tone due to radiation damage of beryl crystal. Subsequent thermal annealing of irradiated crystals in oxygen at 600 deg. C for 30 min results in the color change, to yellowish or yellow-orange tones with golden luster, depending on value of iron fluence. The nature of beryl coloration was studied by optical absorption, Moessbauer and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectroscopes. It was established that the thermal treatment of iron-irradiated beryl lead to inward diffusive redistribution of iron ions. An appearance of optical absorption bands connected with charge-transfers O{sup 2-} {yields} Fe{sub VI}{sup 3+} and O{sup 2-} {yields} Fe{sub IV}{sup 2+}, Fe{sub IV}{sup 3+} determine the yellow tone in colored beryls. Most of implanted iron ions are founded in both tetrahedral Fe{sub IV}{sup 2+} and octahedral Fe{sub VI}{sup 3+} sites where they may substitute beryllium and aluminum host ions by isomorphic way.

  5. Effects of metallic cations in the beryl flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beryl zeta potential in microelectrophoretic cell is studied in the presence of neutral electrolyte, cations of calcium, magnesium and iron. The petroleum sulfonate is used how collector in Hallimond tube. Hydroxy complex of metallic cations seems activate the ore and precipitates of colloidal metallic hidroxies seems lower him when added to the mixture. (M.A.C.)

  6. Beryl-II, a high-pressure phase of beryl: Raman and luminescence spectroscopy to 16.4 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Earl; Williams, Quentin

    2016-10-01

    The Raman and Cr3+ and V2+ luminescence spectra of beryl and emerald have been characterized up to 15.0 and 16.4 GPa, respectively. The Raman spectra show that an E 1g symmetry mode at 138 cm-1 shifts negatively by -4.57 (±0.55) cm-1/GPa, and an extrapolation of the pressure dependence of this mode indicates that a soft-mode transition should occur near 12 GPa. Such a transition is in accord with prior theoretical results. Dramatic changes in Raman mode intensities and positions occur between 11.2 and 15.0 GPa. These changes are indicative of a phase transition that primarily involves tilting and mild distortion of the Si6O18 rings. New Raman modes are not observed in the high-pressure phase, which indicates that the local bonding environment is not altered dramatically across the transition (e.g., changes in coordination do not occur). Both sharp line and broadband luminescence are observed for both Cr3+ and V2+ in emerald under compression to 16.4 GPa. The R-lines of both Cr3+ and V2+ shift to lower energy (longer wavelength) under compression. Both R-lines of Cr3+ split at ~13.7 GPa, and the V2+ R1 slope changes at this pressure and shifts more rapidly up to ~16.4 GPa. The Cr3+ R-line splitting and FWHM show more complex behavior, but also shift in behavior at ~13.7 GPa. These changes in the pressure dependency of the Cr3+ and V2+ R-lines and the changes in R-line splitting and FWHM at ~13.7 GPa further demonstrate that a phase transition occurs at this pressure, in good agreement with our Raman results. The high-pressure phase of beryl appears to have two Al sites that become more regular under compression. Hysteresis is not observed in our Raman or luminescence spectra on decompression, suggesting that this transition is second order in nature: The occurrence of a second-order transition near this pressure is also in accord with prior theoretical results. We speculate that the high-pressure phase (beryl-II) might be a mildly modulated structure, and/or that

  7. Beryl-II, a high-pressure phase of beryl: Raman and luminescence spectroscopy to 16.4 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Earl; Williams, Quentin

    2016-08-01

    The Raman and Cr3+ and V2+ luminescence spectra of beryl and emerald have been characterized up to 15.0 and 16.4 GPa, respectively. The Raman spectra show that an E 1g symmetry mode at 138 cm-1 shifts negatively by -4.57 (±0.55) cm-1/GPa, and an extrapolation of the pressure dependence of this mode indicates that a soft-mode transition should occur near 12 GPa. Such a transition is in accord with prior theoretical results. Dramatic changes in Raman mode intensities and positions occur between 11.2 and 15.0 GPa. These changes are indicative of a phase transition that primarily involves tilting and mild distortion of the Si6O18 rings. New Raman modes are not observed in the high-pressure phase, which indicates that the local bonding environment is not altered dramatically across the transition (e.g., changes in coordination do not occur). Both sharp line and broadband luminescence are observed for both Cr3+ and V2+ in emerald under compression to 16.4 GPa. The R-lines of both Cr3+ and V2+ shift to lower energy (longer wavelength) under compression. Both R-lines of Cr3+ split at ~13.7 GPa, and the V2+ R1 slope changes at this pressure and shifts more rapidly up to ~16.4 GPa. The Cr3+ R-line splitting and FWHM show more complex behavior, but also shift in behavior at ~13.7 GPa. These changes in the pressure dependency of the Cr3+ and V2+ R-lines and the changes in R-line splitting and FWHM at ~13.7 GPa further demonstrate that a phase transition occurs at this pressure, in good agreement with our Raman results. The high-pressure phase of beryl appears to have two Al sites that become more regular under compression. Hysteresis is not observed in our Raman or luminescence spectra on decompression, suggesting that this transition is second order in nature: The occurrence of a second-order transition near this pressure is also in accord with prior theoretical results. We speculate that the high-pressure phase (beryl-II) might be a mildly modulated structure, and/or that

  8. High-dose dosimetry of beta rays using blue beryl dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do, E-mail: lsatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Bittencour, Jose F., E-mail: Lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    High dose radiation is widely used in industrial applications as sterilization of medical products, improvement of materials properties, color enhancement of jewelry stones, etc. The radiation dosimetry of high doses is quite important for these applications. In this work we have investigated the usage of blue beryl crystal also known as aquamarine in high dose dosimetry of beta rays. Some works have shown that silicate minerals exhibit a good Thermoluminescent response when irradiated up to 2000 kGy of gamma rays. Here, we have produced small beryl pellets of approximately 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thickness to measure high doses of beta rays produced at an electron accelerator at IPEN. Twelve beryl dosimeters were made and six of them were irradiated from 10kGy up to 100 kGy. The technique used to create a calibration curve was the thermoluminescence using the glow peak at 310°C. (author)

  9. Effects of Metallic Ions on the Flotation of Spodumene and Beryl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-hua; YU Fu-shun

    2007-01-01

    Effects of multivalent metallic cations, such as Ca2+ and Fe3+, on the flotation of spodumene and beryl were studied. The results show that Fe3+ and Ca2+ exhibit efficient activation on the flotation of spodumene and beryl. The activation of Fe3+ happens quite well within a pH range of 6-9 while the concentration of Fe3+ is 35 mg/L. Efficient activation of Ca2+ takes place over at a pH over 11.6 at a concentration of 140 mg/L. The zeta potential of beryl and spodumene shifts slightly to positive values when activated by Ca2+, but markedly by Fe3+. New stretching frequencies of 1594.24 cm-1 and 1587.13 cm-1 have been found in the FTIR spectra of the two minerals after their interaction with Fe3+ and the collector. These new stretching frequencies are the asymmetric stretching frequencies of COO- (carboxyl anion), so thecollector may be chemically absorbed on the surface of Fe3+-activated beryl and spodumene.

  10. Road and Street Centerlines, Beryl Hwy, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Beryl Hwy'. The extent of these data...

  11. Road and Street Centerlines, 4000 w Beryl, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as '4000 w Beryl'. The extent of these...

  12. Optical and crystal-chemical changes in aquamarines and yellow beryls from Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam induced by heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrichová, Jana; Bačík, Peter; Rusinová, Petra; Antal, Peter; Škoda, Radek; Bizovská, Valéria; Miglierini, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Optical and crystal-chemical changes in two beryl varieties after the heat treatment were determined using a wide spectrum of analytical methods. Studied aquamarines are generally more enriched in Fe (up to 0.25 apfu) and alkali (up to 0.08 apfu) than yellow beryls (up to 0.07 apfu Fe, up to 0.04 apfu alkali). The determined c/ a ratio of 0.997-0.998 classified all our studied beryls as "normal" beryls. While no crystal structure changes were observed in samples heated to 700 °C, those heated to 900 and 1,100 °C exhibited cracks and fissures. Reduced Fe occurred in samples heated between 300 and 700 °C, and subsequent oxidation from 900 to 1,100 °C induced changes in their colour and clarity. The Fe-bearing beryl colour is controlled by the position of the absorption edge and the presence of a broad band attributed to Fe2+ in the NIR region. Blue colour results from the absorption edge located deeper in the UV region and the presence of broad band in the NIR region. Shift of absorption edge to the visible region at the presence of the broad band gives a yellow colour. Although our studied beryls are enriched in H2O I molecule due to their low alkali content, the H2O II molecule is also present. The following two dehydration processes were observed: (1) release of one double-coordinating H2O II molecule at 300-500 °C and (2) total dehydration at 900-1,100 °C. The observed cracks and fissures likely resulted from channel water release in large beryl crystals.

  13. Hydrothermal growth of beryl single crystals and morphology of their singular faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface morphology of the best developed faces of emerald and red beryl monocrystals grown from high-temperature hydrothermal solutions has been studied by atomic force microscopy. The results attest to dislocation-mediated layer-by-layer growth of the faces. Using experimentally determined growth front profiles, the fractal dimensions DFp and DFa of the faces are evaluated to be 1.1-1.4. These values indicate that the surfaces studied have a fractal character and can be investigated using elements of fractal theory

  14. Characterization and application of tourmaline and beryl from Brazilian pegmatite in adsorption process with divalent metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denis L.Guerra; Silze P.Oliveira; Ricardo A.R.Silva; Victor Leidens; Adriano C.Batista

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the original tourmaline and beryl mineral samples have been collected from a Brazilian pegmatite.The objective of this study was to examine the adsorption behavior of Brazilian ciclosilicate sampies,towards divalent metals (Pb2+,Mn2+,and Zn2+) in ethanol solution has been studies by a batch technique.The ciclosilicate samples were characterized by elemental analysis,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,helium picnometry,mercury porosity,and nitrogen adsorption-desorption.The Langmuir expression for adsorption isotherm was applied in order to determine the adsorption capacity to form a monolayer and the constant related to the adsorption intensity.In aqueous solution there was a significant adsorption increase with the temperature and pronounced synergistic effects were observed.The maximum number of moles adsorbed was determined to be 12.48 and 11.49 mmol/g for systems Pb2+/beryl and Pb2+/tourmaline,respectively.The energetic effects caused by metal cations adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations.Thermodynamics indicated the existence of favorable conditions for such Pb2+-,Mn2+-,and Zn2+-OH interactions.

  15. Structure Refinement of Cs-rich Na-Li Beryl and Analysis of Its Typomorphic Characteristics of Configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; DENG Jun; LI Guowu; SHI Guanghai

    2007-01-01

    The tabular beryl found in Huya Country, Sichuan Province is a rare and special member among beryls. Chemical analysis reveals that the beryl is a new type of Cs-rich Na-Li beryl, and the content of alkalis (Li2O, Na2O, K2O, Rb2O, Cs2O) is up to 2.41%. The CCD system on the SMART APEX four circle single crystal diffractometer was used in this experiment to determine the structure of the sample accurately. The beryl belongs to the hexagonal system; its space group is P6/mcc. The dimensions of the unit cell are as follows: a = 0.91961(3) nm, c = 0.91969(7) nm, c/a= 1.0000, V= 0.67357nm3, γ = 120°, a = 90°, β = 90°. The accurate atomic coordinates of alkali metal ions and other crystallographic parameters are also obtained: Z = 2, the calculated density D = 2.754 g/cm3 and final R ( Ⅰ> 2 σ (Ⅰ))= 0.046 for 5597 reflections. The crystal structure was described by coordination polyhedron. Based on the data gained, a three-dimensional graph of the crystal structure of tabular beryl was made with the ATOMS 6.0 software. The refinement of crystal structure indicates that there are two main reasons for the cause of the tabular configuration: (1) The substitution of Be by Li into the tetrahedral framework weakened the stacked six-sided rings [Si6O1s]12- of the tetrahedral Si; (2) Alkalis (mainly Na and Cs) are too large to substitute in four-fold or six-fold coordination within the structure and are accommodated in the vacant channel. The accommodation of these alkalis strengthened the structure of six-sided rings of the tetrahedral Si. And other alkali metal ions and free volatile molecules such as H2O and CO2 occupy variable positions in the channel. The equation of the electrovalence is Li++Na+→Be2+. According to structural and compositional differences, the monoclinic crystal of tabular beryl is considered to be a new member of the beryl group. Chemical constraints of the environment, namely, the bulk-rock chemistry and the fluid-phase composition and

  16. Road and Street Centerlines, Beryl Junction B roads, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'Beryl Junction B roads'. The extent of...

  17. Road and Street Centerlines, 1600 w Beryl jct, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as '1600 w Beryl jct'. The extent of these...

  18. Road and Street Centerlines, Beryl Lund rr frontage, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Beryl Lund rr frontage'. The extent of...

  19. Road and Street Centerlines, 4800 n Beryl jct, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as '4800 n Beryl jct'. The extent of these...

  20. Physicochemical Conditions of the Formation of Beryl and Aquamarin in Mufushan Granopegmatite Deposit,Hunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆麟; 牛贺才; 等

    1994-01-01

    The formation of the Mufushan granopegmatite was closely related to the Late Yenshanian multiphase and multistage magmatic activities,More than one generation of beryl and aquamarine occur in different types of pegmatite in the granites.The presence of melt and melt-fluid inclusions strongly indicates a melt-solution character of the pegmatitic magma.Forming temperatures of the different generations of beryl in a Na+-K+,Ca2+-CO32--Cl--SO42- solution ranges from 990℃to 200℃.Aquamarine was formed at 720-180℃.The contents of alkali metals(Na++K+)in th ore-formming solution of aquamarine are lower than those in the beryl,but the contents of alkali earths(Ca) and salinity are higher,The granite was generated by remelting of the basement formation(meta-sedimentary rocks of the Lengjiaxi Group)which also served as the source of ore-forming material.Beryllium in the pegmatite was transported mainly in the form of Na[Be(CO3)2],with part of it being complexed with Cl- and SO42-.During the generation and evolution of the pegmatite,equilibrium might have been reached in the solid-melt-fluid or solid-fluid system.The intergranular solutions may have reacted with the early crystallized minerals,resulting in potash-feldsparization,albitization and muscovitization during which the ore-forming elements were mobilized and transported in favour of ore deposition.

  1. Spectroscopic and bond-topological investigation of interstitial volatiles in beryl from Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrichová, Jana; Bačík, Peter; Bizovská, Valéria; Libowitzky, Eugen; Škoda, Radek; Uher, Pavel; Ozdín, Daniel; Števko, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Nine beryl samples from Western Carpathians, Slovakia, were investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. Two types of water H2O I and H2O II were detected. Infrared spectroscopy proved the presence of water type I and II in the presence of alkali cations with several bands: (1) symmetric stretching vibration—ν1; (2) antisymmetric stretching mode—ν3; (3) bending vibration—ν2. The presence of singly and doubly coordinated type II water (IIs and IId) was confirmed by single-crystal IR spectroscopy. From Raman spectra a band at 3606 cm-1 was assigned to ν1 of water type I and the range of 3597-3600 cm-1 to water type II. The presence of doubly coordinating water indicates a relatively highly hydrated environment with the presence of alkali ions including Na as the dominant cation coordinated by H2O II. CO2 bands were detected only by single-crystal IR spectroscopy. Thermal analysis proved total water loss in the range of 1.4-2.0 wt% and three main dehydration events. Based on the study of bond-topological arrangements two molecules of H2O IId are each bound with two H···O1 bonds and one Na-OW bond with an angular distortion, and by releasing one H2O molecule more stable H2O IIs is produced. The H2O I molecule is bound only by two equivalent hydrogen bonds. The H2O IIs molecule with a Na-OW bond strength of 0.28 vu and two H···O1 bonds of 0.14 vu without any forced angular distortion is the most stable of all.

  2. Neutron activation analysis for some nonstoichiometric constituents in a large number of natural and synthetic beryl samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 100 natural beryls from very different locations were analyzed. An appreciable content of all five alkali metals was present, so that determination with a good precision was an important crystalochemical as well as geochemical problem. The trace amounts of Cr, As, Sc, Mn, Eu, and Dy in some natural samples, as well as Co, Ni, Fe, Mo, Sc, Cs and Na were measured in a gamma-spectrometric arrangement with a 500-channel pulse height analyzer, without chemical treatment (i.e., in a nondestructive NAA procedure). The results obtained were partly controlled and compared by emission spectrography, flame spectrometry, and atomic absorption spectrometry, in order to determine the general reliability, as well as precision and accuracy in various analytical procedures and different samples

  3. Application of Multi-well Subsidence Analysis of the Beryl Embayment,Viking Graben, Northern North Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Lirong; Jon D.TURNER; Roger A.SCRUTTON

    2006-01-01

    The Beryl Embayment is situated at the south end of the North Viking Graben in the North Sea. Three sets of normal faults, with N-S, NW-SE and NE-SW orientations, have been recognized in the Beryl Embayment. High-resolution subsidence analysis of 73 wells, combined with some seismic data, has been used to document Middle to Late Jurassic subsidence patterns in this area. The high temporal resolution achieved (1 to 2 million years per data point) has also allowed an assessment to be made of temporal evolution of faults with different orientations, and a study made of how and when the East Shetland Fault was linked and controlled sedimentary facies distributions. The results indicate that the East Shetland Fault can be divided into northern and southern parts which were linked together during the Early-Mid Oxfordian. The Mid-Late Jurassic syn-rift phase can be divided into four stages: minor active extension stage during the Bathonian-Middle Callovian, early syn-rotational stage during the Late Callovian-Early-Mid Oxfordian, syn-rotational climax stage during the Late Oxfordian-Early Volgian, and late syn-rotational stage during the Mid-Late Volgian. The results also show that there was a sequential variation of extension direction of active normal faults with different orientations, with an overall shift in the dominant orientation of active normal faults from N-S in the Bathonian-Middle Oxfordian, through NNW-SSE in the Late Oxfordian-Early Volgian (≈N30°E), to NW-SE (≈N45°E) in the Mid-Late Volgian.

  4. Geologic and geochemical features of the volatile-rich ore fluid and its tracing and dating in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Laser Raman spectrochemical analysis on single inclusion reveals that multi-phase fluid inclusions exist in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit.Besides the solid daughter mineral,there are vapor CO2,liquid CO2,water-deficient CO2 and salt water solution from its center to the border.A close study on the fluid inclusion components and carbon,oxygen,helium and argon isotope tracing and dating suggests that the volatile-rich ore fluid might derive from postmagmatic fluid and rare element enrichment is the result of the mixture of the plutonic alkali granite with crustal material.

  5. Geologic and geochemical features of the volatile-rich ore fluid and its tracing and dating in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志敏; 任建国; 郑建斌; 徐仕进; 李佑国; 王汝成; T.SHOJ; H.KANEDA; S.KABAYASHI

    2002-01-01

    Laser Raman spectrochemical analysis on single inclusion reveals that multi-phase fluid inclusions exist in the Xuebaoding Beryl- Scheelite Vein Deposit. Besides the solid daughter mineral, there are vapor CO2, liquid CO2, water-deficient CO2 and salt water solution from its center to the border. A close study on the fluid inclusion components and carbon, oxygen, helium and argon isotope tracing and dating suggests that the volatile-rich ore fluid might derive from postmagmatic fluid and rare element enrichment is the result of the mixture of the plutonic alkali granite with crustal material.

  6. Heat capacities and thermodynamic functions for beryl, Be3Al2Si6O18, phenakite, Be2SiO4, euclase, BeAlSiO4(OH), bertrandite, Be4Si2O7(OH)2, and chrysoberyl, BeAl2O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, B.S.; Barton, M.D.; Robie, R.A.; Haselton, H.T., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The heat capacities of beryl, phenakite, euclase and bertrandite have been measured between approx 5 and 800 K by combined quasi-adiabatic cryogenic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The heat capacities of chrysoberyl have been measured from 340 to 800 K. The resulting data have been combined with solution and phase-equilibrium experimental data and simultaneously adjusted using the programme PHAS20 to provide an internally consistent set of thermodynamic properties for several important beryllium phases. The experimental heat capacities and tables of derived thermodynamic properties are presented.-J.A.Z.

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Beryl Junction parcels, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as...

  8. Ferroindialite (Fe2+,Mg)2Al4Si5O18, a new beryl-group mineral from the Eifel volcanic region, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Aksenov, S. M.; Pekov, I. V.; Ternes, B.; Schüller, W.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Van, K. V.; Blass, G.

    2014-12-01

    A new mineral, ferroindialite, a Fe2+-dominant analog of indialite, has been found in a pyrometamorphosed xenolith of pelitic rock hosted in alkaline basalts. Associated minerals are phlogopite, sanidine, sillimanite, pyroxenes of the enstatite-ferrosilite series, wagnerite, fluorapatite, tridymite, zircon and almandine. Ferroindialite forms brown-purple to gray with a violet-blue tint short prismatic or thick tabular hexagonal crystals up to 1.5 mm in size. The new mineral is brittle, with a Mohs' hardness of 7. Cleavage is not observed. D meas = 2.66(1), D calc = 2.667 g/cm3. IR spectrum shows neither H2O nor OH groups. Ferroindialite is anomalously biaxial (-), α = 1.539(2), β = 1.552(2), γ = 1.554(2), 2 V meas = 30(10)°. The mineral is weakly pleochroic, ranging from colorless on X to pale violet on Z. Dispersion is weak, r < v. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, mean of five point analyses, wt %) is as follows: 0.14 Na2O, 0.46 K2O, 4.95 MgO, 1.13 MnO, 12.66 FeO, 2.64 Fe2O3, 30.45 Al2O3, 47.22 SiO2, total is 99.65. The distribution of total iron content between Fe2+ and Fe3+ was carried out according to structural data. The empirical formula of ferroindialite is: (K0.06Na0.03)(Fe{1.12/2+}Mg0.78Mn0.10)Σ2.00(Al3.79Fe{0.21/3+})Σ4.00Si4.98O18. The simplified formula is: (Fe2+,Mg)2Al4Si5O18. The crystal structure has been refined on a single crystal, R = 0.049. Ferroindialite is hexagonal, space group P6/ mcc; a = 9.8759(3), c = 9.3102(3) Å, V = 786.40(3) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d, Å ( I, %) ( hkl)] are: 8.59 (100) (100), 4.094 (27) (102), 3.390 (35) (112), 3.147 (19) (202), 3.055 (31) (211), 2.657 (12) (212), 1.695 (9) (224). The type specimen of ferroindialite is deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, registration number 4400/1.

  9. 75 FR 69158 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Besner Rejean Besson William Thomas Lim Bider Marc Daniel Bignell Carl Black Johanna Marie Blackwell... Douglas Rodd Celia Jane Rogers-Perz Beryl M. Sabukosek Thomas Michael Sakai Sumie Sattler Glenn...

  10. Thermal Induced Processes in Laminar System of Stainless Steel - Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on investigation of the laminar system 'stainless steel 12Cr18Ni10Ti - Be' at thermal treatment. There have been determined sequences of phase transformations along with relative amount of iron-containing phases in the samples subjected to thermal beryllization. It has been revealed that thermal beryllization of stainless steel thin foils results in γ→α transformation and formation of the beryllides NiBe and FeBe2. It has also been revealed that direct γ→α- and reverse α→γ-transformations are accompanied by, correspondingly, formation and decomposition of the beryllide NiBe. It is shown that distribution of the formed phases within sample bulk is defined by local concentration of beryllium. Based on obtained experimental data there is proposed a physical model of phase transformations in stainless steel at thermal beryllization.

  11. Beryllium development programme in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has fairly large deposits of beryl. The requirement of beryllium and copper-beryllium alloys in space and electronic industries has provided the incentive for the setting up of an indigenous base for the development of beryllium process metallurgy. The paper presents the developmental work carried out, in the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, on the preparation of beryllium metal and its alloys starting from Indian beryl. A laboratory facility incorporating essential precautionary measures has been set up for the safe handling of beryllium and its compounds. Based on the laboratory investigations a flow-sheet suitable to Indian conditions has been developed. The flow-sheet involves preparation of anhydrous beryllium fluoride from beryl through the silico-fluoride route, magnesiothermic reduction of beryllium fluoride for the production of beryllium metal or its master alloy with copper or aluminium, and fabrication of beryllium metal. (author)

  12. Experience with piston and piston-rod seals for high-pressure reciprocating compressors injecting natural gas on North Sea production platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.S.

    1983-12-01

    The need to restrict flaring of associated natural gas has emphasized the importance of reliability of high-pressure reinjection compressors installed on certain North Sea platforms. This paper reviews the contribution made by the development of piston and rod seals used on injection compressors, with reference to three important fields: Beryl, Statfjord, and Thistle.

  13. Experience with piston and piston rod seals for high pressure reciprocating compressors injecting natural gas on North Sea production platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wison, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The need to restrict flaring of associated natural gas has emphasized the importance of reliability of high-pressure reinjection compressors installed on certain North Sea platforms. This work reviews the contribution made by the development of piston and rod seals used on injection compressors, with reference to 3 important fields: Beryl, Statfjord, and Thistle.

  14. Gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    The estimated value of natural gemstones produced from U.S. deposits during 2012 was $11.1 million, a slight increase from 2011. U.S. gemstone production included agate, amber, beryl, coral, garnet, jade, jasper, opal, pearl, quartz, sapphire, shell, topaz, tourmaline, turquoise and many other gem materials.

  15. Social Security Disability Reviews: The Human Costs. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives and the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Part 3 - Hot Springs, Arkansas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document provides transcripts of witness testimony and prepared statements from the third of three Congressional hearings called to examine at the local level the administration of the social security disability review program. Opening statements are presented from Representatives J. J. Pickle and Beryl Anthony, Jr., and Senator Daniel Pryor.…

  16. Quantum tunneling and vibrational dynamics of ultra-confined water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Ehlers, Georg; Mamontov, Eugene; Podlesnyak, Andrey; Prisk, Timothy R.; Seel, Andrew; Reiter, George F.

    2015-03-01

    Vibrational dynamics of ultra-confined water in single crystals beryl, the structure of which contains ~ 5 Å diameter channels along the c-axis was studied with inelastic (INS), quasi-elastic (QENS) and deep inelastic (DINS) neutron scattering. The results reveal significantly anisotropic dynamical behavior of confined water, and show that effective potential experienced by water perpendicular to the channels is significantly softer than along them. The observed 7 peaks in the INS spectra (at energies 0.25 to 15 meV), based on their temperature and momentum transfer dependences, are explained by transitions between the split ground states of water in beryl due to water quantum tunneling between the 6-fold equivalent positions across the channels. DINS study of beryl at T=4.3 K shows narrow, anisotropic water proton momentum distribution with corresponding kinetic energy, EK=95 meV, which is much less than was previously observed in bulk water (~150 meV). We believe that the exceptionally small EK in beryl is a result of water quantum tunneling ∖ delocalization in the nanometer size confinement and weak water-cage interaction. The neutron experiment at ORNL was sponsored by the Sci. User Facilities Div., BES, U.S. DOE. This research was sponsored by the Div. Chemical Sci, Geosciences, and Biosciences, BES, U.S. DOE. The STFC RAL is thanked for access to ISIS neutron facilities.

  17. Studies on extraction of beryllium from thiocyanate solutions by quaternary ammonium halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yamani, I S; El-Messieh, E N

    A 0.4M tricaprylmethylammonium chloride solution in n-hexane was used for the quantitative extraction of beryllium from hydrochloric acid (pH 3) and 5M potassium thiocyanate. Beryllium was stripped from the organic phase with 1M sodium hydroxide, then determined volumetrically with bismuthyl perchlorate and bromocresol green indicator. Beryllium was extracted in presence of a large number of elements which are usually associated with it in beryl and in fission products of nuclear fuel.

  18. Doppler Radar and Lightning Network Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Goodman, Steven J.; Cammarata, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Data from a single Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak, including three tornadoes that reached F3 intensity, within Tropical Storm Beryl s remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 13 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 h. spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 h. Several other tornadic cells also exhibited great longevity, with cell lifetimes longer than ever previously documented in a landfalling tropical cyclone (TC) tornado event. This event is easily the most intense TC tornado outbreak yet documented with WSR-88Ds. Time-height analyses of the three strongest tornadic supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and to show how these storms appear at different ranges from a WSR-88D. In addition, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data are examined in Beryl s remnants. Although the tornadic cells were responsible for most of Beryl's CG lightning, their flash rates were only weak to moderate, and in all the tornadic storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. A few of the single-tornado storms produced no detectable CG lightning at all. There is evidence that CG lightning rates decreased during the tornadoes, compared to 30-min periods before the tornadoes. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final CG lightning flashes. Contrary to the findings for flash rates, both peak currents and positive flash percentages were larger in Beryl's nontornadic storms than in the tornadic ones.

  19. Pressure-temperature-fluid constraints for the Emmaville-Torrington emerald deposit, New South Wales, Australia: Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughrey, Lara; Marshall, Dan; Jones, Peter; Millsteed, Paul; Main, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The Emmaville-Torrington emeralds were first discovered in 1890 in quartz veins hosted within a Permian metasedimentary sequence, consisting of meta-siltstones, slates and quartzites intruded by pegmatite and aplite veins from the Moule Granite. The emerald deposit genesis is consistent with a typical granite-related emerald vein system. Emeralds from these veins display colour zonation alternating between emerald and clear beryl. Two fluid inclusion types are identified: three-phase (brine+vapour+halite) and two-phase (vapour+liquid) fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion studies indicate the emeralds were precipitated from saline fluids ranging from approximately 33 mass percent NaCl equivalent. Formational pressures and temperatures of 350 to 400 °C and approximately 150 to 250 bars were derived from fluid inclusion and petrographic studies that also indicate emerald and beryl precipitation respectively from the liquid and vapour portions of a two-phase (boiling) system. The distinct colour zonations observed in the emerald from these deposits is the first recorded emerald locality which shows evidence of colour variation as a function of boiling. The primary three-phase and primary two-phase FITs are consistent with alternating chromium-rich `striped' colour banding. Alternating emerald zones with colourless beryl are due to chromium and vanadium partitioning in the liquid portion of the boiling system. The chemical variations observed at Emmaville-Torrington are similar to other colour zoned emeralds from other localities worldwide likely precipitated from a boiling system as well.

  20. Optical properties of natural and synthetic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigation of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) of topaz, beryl and yttrium aluminium garnet crystals doped with different concentrations of transition ions exposed to fast neutron irradiation and electron irradiation are presented. We suppose that irradiation leads to the formation of two types of complex centers: “Me2+- F+ (or F) centre” and complex centers, which consist of a cation vacancy and an impurity (iron, manganese and chromium) ion. Exchange interaction between radiation defects and impurity ions during neutron or electron irradiation gives rise to appearance of additional absorption and luminescence band broadening in investigated crystals. (author)

  1. 政策、法规及治疗准则——FDA开始考虑纳米技术监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beryl Lieff Benderly撰文称,在美国已上市的纳米技术产品达到几百种,其中包括药品、医疗器械和食品。今后几年,纳米技术产品数量将呈指数级增加,但主要监管部门FDA才刚刚开始考虑纳米技术所带来的特有问题,文章刊登在食品药品法律研究所(FDLI)的网站www.fdli.org上。

  2. Cost study - Norwegian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolstadas, A.

    1983-01-01

    Offshore development projects completed on the Norwegian continental shelf by the end of 1979 reported cost increases of 178% above initial estimates. To clarify the reasons for these huge escalations, Norway evaluated the cost development, technical solution, and project execution for the Ekofisk, Frigg, Statfjord, Valhall, and Murchison projects. Comparative data were also obtained for the British Brent, Beryl, Forties, and Ninian field developments, which showed cost increases of 179%. Only 48% of the escalation proved to be caused by inflation. The rest was due to cost overruns in manpower and resources because of poor management, incomplete planning, weather conditions, logistical problems in obtaining goods, and enforcement of new safety regulations.

  3. Croquet club

    CERN Document Server

    Croquet club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Croquet season started Saturday 7 May with the annual opening tournament. A total of 14 very happy players in the spring sunshine. It was a  lovely day in all senses - friendly competition, a lot of laughter and catching up with one another. Players are divided into PROs (low-handicap) and AMs (high-handicap), all matches are played as doubles. The pairings are changed during the day and the individual points go towards determining the winner. Congratulations to Ian Sexton for winning the Pros and Beryl Allardyce who won the Ams. Many of the games were very close and Ian seemed to have some good challenges in his block! Overall results: Pros: 1st - Ian 2nd - Brian 3rd - Angelina 4th - Jean Ams: 1st - Beryl 2nd - Frank 3rd - Peter (+Margaret) 4th - Roberta (+Jenny) Special thanks to the manager Danny Davids for making this tournament such a smooth and well run affair. CERN croquet club hold...

  4. Croquet club

    CERN Multimedia

    Croquet club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Croquet season started Saturday 7 May with the annual opening tournament. A total of 14 very happy players in the spring sunshine. It was a  lovely day in all senses - friendly competition, a lot of laughter and catching up with one another. Players are divided into PROs (low-handicap) and AMs (high-handicap), all matches are played as doubles. The pairings are changed during the day and the individual points go towards determining the winner. Congratulations to Ian Sexton for winning the Pros and Beryl Allardyce who won the Ams. Many of the games were very close and Ian seemed to have some good challenges in his block! Overall results: Pros: 1st - Ian 2nd - Brian 3rd - Angelina 4th - Jean Ams: 1st - Beryl 2nd - Frank 3rd - Peter (+Margaret) 4th - Roberta (+Jenny) Special thanks to the manager Danny Davids for making this tournament such a smooth and well run affair. CERN croquet club holds...

  5. Quantum behaviour of water molecule in gemstone: terahertz fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Elena S.; Gorshunov, Boris P.; Torgashev, Victor I.; Lebedev, Vladimir V.; Shakurov, Gil'man S.; Kremer, Reinhard K.; Pestrjakov, Efim V.; Thomas, Victor G.; Fursenko, Dimitry A.; Dressel, Martin

    2014-03-01

    We have shown that a weak interaction of a lone H2O molecule with the ''walls'' of nano-sized crystalline cage of gemstone (beryl) results in emergence of a rich set of molecular vibrational states. By analogy with translational and librational bands in liquid water and ice corresponding absorption bands are explained as due to translational (T) and librational (L) movements of the H2O molecule which is hydrogen bonded to the cage walls. In beryl crystal lattice, however, the six-fold symmetry of the cage brings about additional effect of splitting of the T and L bands into fine structure due to tunnelling within the six-well potential relief. The presented results will be of use for analysis of more complicated systems with confined water molecules like H2O chains in carbon nano-tubes, molecular clusters in e.g. zeolites, clays, silica gels and other natural or synthetic frameworks, as well as for interfacial water in biological systems.

  6. Emerald mineralization and metasomatism of amphibolite, khaltaro granitic pegmatite - Hydrothermal vein system, Haramosh Mountains, Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurs, B.M.; Dilles, J.H.; Snee, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    Emerald mineralization is found within 0.1- to 1-m-thick hydrothermal veins and granitic pegmatites cutting amphibolite within the Nanga Parbat - Haramosh massif, in northern Pakistan. The amphibolite forms a sill-like body within garnet-mica schist, and both are part of a regional layered gneiss unit of Proterozoic (?) age. The 40Ar/39Ar data for muscovite from a pegmatite yield a plateau age of 9.13 ?? 0.04 Ma. Muscovite from mica schist and hornblende from amphibolite yield disturbed spectra with interpreted ages of 9 to 10 Ma and more than 225 Ma, respectively, which indicate that peak Tertiary metamorphism reached 325 to 550??C prior to 10 Ma. Pegmatites were emplaced after peak metamorphism during this interval and are older than pegmatites farther south in the massif. At Khaltaro, simply zoned albite-rich miarolitic pegmatites and hydrothermal veins containing various proportions of quartz, albite, tourmaline, muscovite, and beryl are associated with a 1- to 3-m-thick heterogeneous leucogranite sill, that is locally albitized. The pegmatites likely crystallized at 650 to 600??C at pressures of less than 2 kbar. Crystals of emerald form within thin (0.20, 0.54-0.89 wt%), to pale blue beryl (emerald results from introduction of HF-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluids into the amphibolite, which caused hydrogen ion metasomatism and released Cr and Fe into the pegmatite-vein system.

  7. Geología y mineralogía de algunas pegmatitas del borde oriental del distrito Punilla, Córdoba Geology and mineralogy of some pegmatites in the eastern border of the Punilla District, Córdoba province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Colombo

    2006-09-01

    -zoned and are of rare-element class, complex type, beryl-columbite subtype. They probably belong to the hybrid family. Minerals found in all pegmatites include quartz, ordered microcline, plagioclase and muscovite (occasionally pink due to Mn>Fe. Biotite is a very frequent accessory. Beryl can be classified as alkali-poor sodicpotassic beryl and has Fe replacing Al in its structure. Fluorapatite, displaying a marked negative Eu anomaly, may contain up to 2.95% Mn and 0.77% Fe. Xenotime-(Y occurs as inclusions within apatite. Garnet (spessartine-almandine is compositionally unzoned. Other minerals found in small quantities are fluorite, rutile, hematite, columbite-group minerals (generally Nb>Ta and Fe>Mn with disordered structure, members of the pyrochlore group (mainly Nb-, Pb- and U-rich, malachite, mottramite, zircon (with low to null Hf, chrysocolla, kaolinite, interstratified illite/smectite, illite, bertrandite, kettnerite, bismutite, clinobisvanite and probably gahnite. Fluid inclusions in beryl and miarolitic quartz from SD-2 show that supercritical CO2 was present in a stage of the pegmatite evolution. Late solutions have no detectable CO2 and record a cooling history. These pegmatites crystallized from a Be-rich peraluminous melt, with Nb>>Ta, between 0.4 and 0.8% P2O5 and almost no S. Fractionation of Mn from Fe was moderate.

  8. Progress in the Synthesis of 4 -Trifluoromethylphenyl Acetic Acid%对三氟甲基苯乙酸的合成研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓绍平; 陈洁

    2012-01-01

    Research progress on the synthesis method of 4 -trifluoromethylphenyl acetic acid and its application as pharmaceutical intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals were described. The methods including 4 -trifluoromethyl beryl chloride, 4 -trifluoromethyl acetophenone, diethyl malonate and 4 - trifluoromethyl aniline were reviewed and summarized.%叙述了对三氟甲基苯乙酸合成方法的研究进展,及其作为医药中间体在药物合成中的应用。将对三氟甲基氯苄法、对三氟甲基苯乙酮法、丙二酸二乙酯法、对三氟甲基苯胺法合成对三氟甲基苯乙酸进行了概括总结。

  9. Reported industrial minerals occurrences and permissive areas for other occurrences in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, (phase V, deliverable 89): Chapter R in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous PRISM reports discuss a variety of industrial minerals. Gypsum, phosphate, salt, stone, sulfur, and ilmenite command the majority of the attention in the earlier geologic reports. (Ilmenite is evaluated in a separate U.S. Geological Survey report in the current study). Asbestos, arsenic, barite, fluorite, and kaolin are listed in indices (occurrence datasets) as potential mineral resources (Marsh and Anderson, 2015), but previous reports do not elaborate on their development potential. Beryl, described herein with the discussions of pegmatites, is also listed in indices of potential mineral resources, but has not been described in terms of its industrial mineral potential. Short discussions on the potential for cement (carbonate rocks), glass sand, peat, and sillimanite resources are included in this report.

  10. Solution of rocks and refractory minerals by acids at high temperatures and pressures. Determination of silica after decomposition with hydrofluoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, I.; Rowe, J.J.

    1965-01-01

    A modified Morey bomb was designed which contains a removable nichromecased 3.5-ml platinium crucible. This bomb is particularly useful for decompositions of refractory samples for micro- and semimicro-analysis. Temperatures of 400-450?? and pressures estimated as great as 6000 p.s.i. were maintained in the bomb for periods as long as 24 h. Complete decompositions of rocks, garnet, beryl, chrysoberyl, phenacite, sapphirine, and kyanite were obtained with hydrofluoric acid or a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids; the decomposition of chrome refractory was made with hydrochloric acid. Aluminum-rich samples formed difficultly soluble aluminum fluoride precipitates. Because no volatilization losses occur, silica can be determined on sample solutions by a molybdenum-blue procedure using aluminum(III) to complex interfering fluoride. ?? 1965.

  11. Vibrating Wire for Beam Profile Scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Mailian, M R; Sinenko, I G; Vasiniuk, I E

    1999-01-01

    The method for measurement of transverse profile (emittance) of the bunch by detecting of radiation arising scattering at of the bunch on the scanning wire is wide-spread. In this work the information about scattering bunch is proposed to measure using the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such way the system of radiation (or secondary particles) extraction and measurement can be removed. Dependence of oscillations frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam, influence of beam self field. Preliminary calculations show that influence caused by wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, niobium zirconium alloys). A scheme of self oscillations generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. Special method of wire fixation and elimination of trans...

  12. Radiation dosimetry using decreasing TL intensity in a few variety of silicate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the TLD is used for Radiation Dosimetry, the calibration curve is produced by plotting increasing TL intensity as function of dose. There are cases where the TL intensity decreases as dose increases and can be used in radiation dosimetry. Such behavior can be found in green quartz, three varieties of beryl and pink tourmaline. In all these silicate crystals we can show that if we irradiate with increasing γ-dose there is a dose Dm for which the TL intensity is maximum. Of course, Dm varies depending on the crystal and irradiated crystal with the dose Dm is stable. If we take one of these crystals and irradiate with dose Dm and we irradiate with doses from low values up to 400-500 Gy we obtain a curve of decreasing TL intensity, such curve can be used as calibration curve. (authors)

  13. Geologic and radiometric prospect of the mine ''El Muerto'' Oaxaca, Mex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies realized in the mine demonstrated that the uranium mineral inclosure obtained in the pegmatites exists in very little concentrations and does not constitute useful deposits. Therefore, there are found rare earths minerals like monazite and euxenite so the mine may be proficient in the extraction of other type of minerals like spodumene, beryl, etc. Because of the scarce knowledges that we have about the pegmatites referring to the radiactive minerals study, it is stated the necessity of making programs perfectly coordinated and projected in the application of the metallurgic investigation that permits the increase in results of useful value, without to lose sight that the principal objective is to have a real economic, industrial and scientific view of the radiactive minerals localized in the pegmatites, considering the refractory character of the same, and the mineral little volume that in general they contain. (author)

  14. Effects of Cr 3+ impurity concentration on the crystallography of synthetic emerald crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Lun; Huang, Eugene; Lee, Jan-Shing; Yu, Shu-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    Flux method has been adopted for the synthesis of emerald crystals using PbO-V 2O 5 as a flux in order to study the crystallography of the synthetic crystals. In general, the hue of green color of emerald deepens with the addition of Cr 3+. The molar volume of the synthesized crystals was found to increase with the incorporation of Cr 2O 3 dopant. The substitution of Cr 3+ for Al 3+ in the octahedral sites of beryl results in the expansion of a-axis, while c-axis remains nearly unchanged. The maximum Cr 2O 3-content allowed in the crystal lattice of emerald has been found to be about 3.5 wt%. When the doping Cr 2O 3-content exceeds 3.5 wt%, a significant anomaly in lattice parameters starts to take place, accompanying the precipitation of an unknown phase in the emerald matrix.

  15. Mineral potential for incompatible element deposits hosted in pegmatites, alkaline rocks, and carbonatites in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 87): Chapter Q in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Review of PRISM-I documents and the National inventory of mineral occurrences suggests that resources of U, Th, Nb, Ta, Be, rare earth elements (REEs) and fluorite are known in Mauritania and have been exploited in the past at the Bou Naga alkaline complex. Several different deposit types are indicated by the available data. Pegmatitic veins are recorded in several areas of the Archean and Paleoproterozoic portions of the Rgueïbat Shield and are prospective for resources of Li, Be, Nb, Ta, U, Th, and REEs. Over 150 beryl pegmatites are known in the Khnefissat and Inkebden areas of the Chami greenstone belt, and additional concentrations of pegmatites are known in the Guelb Nich Sud area of the Sebkhet Nich greenstone belt and in the northeastern part of the Amsaga Complex. Due to the small size of these deposits, they are unlikely to be economic unless additional value can be gained by processing contained minerals for their industrial uses.

  16. Study of the mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers in some gemstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total mass attenuation coefficients for natural beryl, corundum, garnet, pearl, and tourmaline gemstones were measured at 81, 356.5, 661.6, 1173.2, and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The samples were irradiated with 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co radioactive point sources using gamma ray transmission method. Total atomic and electronic cross-sections, effective atomic numbers and electron densities were determined experimentally and theoretically. The experimental values were compared with the calculated values for all samples. The calculations were extended for total photon interactions in a wide energy range (1 keV-100 GeV) using WinXCom program of the most commonly irradiated gemstones with different sources of ionized radiation. The values of these parameters have been found to vary with photon energy and chemical composition of the gemstones. All variations of these parameters against energy are shown graphically for total photon interactions. (author)

  17. Doppler Radar and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis; Cammarata, Michael; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Data from a single WSR-88D Doppler radar and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak within Tropical Storm Beryl's remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 12 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 hours, spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 hours. Time-height analyses of the three strongest supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and evolution. These Beryl mini-supercells were comparable in radar-observed intensity but much more persistent than other tropical cyclone-spawned tornadic cells documented thus far with Doppler radars. Cloud-to-ground lightning data are also examined for all the tornadic cells in this severe swarm-type tornado outbreak. These data show many of the characteristics of previously reported heavy-precipitation supercells. Lightning rates were weak to moderate, even in the more intense supercells, and in all the storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. No lightning at all was detected in some of the single-tornado storms. In the stronger cells, there is some evidence that lightning rates can decrease during tornadogenesis, as has been documented before in some midlatitude tornadic storms. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. These findings suggest possible benefits from implementation of observing systems capable of monitoring intracloud as well as cloud-to-ground lightning activity.

  18. Geology and pegmatites of part of the Fourmile area, Custer County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew J.; Redden, Jack Allison

    1953-01-01

    The Fourmile area, Custer County, S. Dak., is underlain by pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks that surround the granitic core of the Black Hills. The main structure in the area is the upright limb of an overturned anticline that plunges about 30 ? S. 10 ? E. Three units of metamorphic rocks are described that have a total thickness of at least 7, 700 feet. The oldest of these units, a quartz-mica schist, is more than 6, 500 feet thick. The overlying unit, about 200 feet thick, is composed of thin beds of amphibolite and hornblende schist, lime-silicate rock, cordierite-biotite schist, microcline-biotite schist, and other types of rocks. The youngest unit, a quartz-mica-feldspar schist, is more than 1,000 feet thick. The presence of kyanite, staurolite, cordierite, and sillimanite in the rocks indicates that they have been subjected to high-grade metamorphism. About 420 pegmatites were mapped in the quartzmica-schist and the quartz-mica-feldspar schist. A few thin pegmatites in the third unit were not mapped. Most of these are concordant with the schistosity and relict (?) bedding of the enclosing metamorphic rocks. They are as much as 250 feet thick and range from 10 to 2, 600 feet in length. Nine peqmatites are zoned and classified as heterogeneous. The remainder are homogeneous and are poorly zoned. The major constituents are plaqioclase, quartz, perthite, and muscovite. The accessory minerals are tourmaline, apatite, garnet, and biotite. Beryl was observed in 15 peqmatites. The heterogeneous pegmatites contain commercial deposits of potash feldspar, mica (sheet and scrap), and beryl.

  19. 新疆南部祖母绿(绿柱石)成矿地质条件初探%Preliminary discussion of the the metailogenic conditions of emerald deposit, Southern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹秀艳; 李甲平; 汪立今; 罗卫东; 石玉君; 陈勇; 陈俊华

    2011-01-01

    The emeralds of Xinjiang are good in quality, and the deposit has enormous potential yields of excellent quality emerald. This paper is mainly to analyze the geological characteristics of this deposit, including the regional geological features; mining and geological characteristics of ore body; ore mineralogi-cal characteristics of micro. The formation and distribution of emerald ore bodies found in Xinjiang are controlled by regional stratigraphy, magmatic, tectonic and other factors. Emerald (Beryl) Produced in the carbonaceous limestone, shale, calcite, calcite-quartz veinlets. Veins mostly were shaped by oblique veins, bedding pulse. Based on this study, according to samples collected, carrying on microscopic order of mineral assemblages and the formation of micro-mineralogy, mineralization process will be divided into three periods, namely before mineralization, mineralization period, after forming, obtained in the main ore minerals of the formation of calcite, quartz, albite, beryl, etc.. Through this research, the area emerald (beryl) exploration of important guiding significance.%新疆南部首次发现质量好的祖母绿(绿柱石),其成矿地质条件研究意义重大.本文主要对新疆南部祖母绿(绿柱石)矿的成矿地质条件进行初步探讨,包括区域地质特征、矿区及矿体地质特征、矿石显微矿物学特征等.发现新疆祖母绿矿体的形成和分布,受区内地层、岩浆、构造等多种因素和条件限制.祖母绿(绿柱石)多产于含碳质灰岩、页岩的方解石、方解石-石英细脉中,含祖母绿(绿柱石)矿脉多以斜交脉、顺层脉产出.在此研究基础上,根据所采集的样品,进行了显微矿物组合特征和生成顺序的微观矿物学研究,将成矿作用过程划分为三个期次,即成矿前、成矿期、成矿后.得出在成矿期形成的主要矿物为方解石、石英、钠长石、绿柱石等.通过上述研究,对该区祖母绿(绿柱石)找矿具有重要的指导意义.

  20. Analysis of archaeological precious stones from Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž. [Facully of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršsek, M. [Slovenian Museum of Natural History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kržic, A. [Higher Vocational Centre, Sezana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an

  1. Chemical-mineralogical characterization and Moessbauer spectroscopy of aquamarine from Pedra Azul, Northeast of Minas Gerais; Caracterizacao quimico-mineralogica e espectroscopia Moessbauer de agua-marinha da regiao de Pedra Azul, nordeste de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Rubia Ribeiro; Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: rubia@degeo.ufop.br; hanna@degeo.ufop.br; Costa, Geraldo Magela da [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: magela@iceb.ufop.br

    2001-03-01

    Aquamarines from three pegmatites located the vicinities of the Pedra Azul city, Minas Gerais state, were investigated in terms of chemical composition, physical properties and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The small lenticular pegmatite bodies are usually less than 5 m wide and exhibit a conspicuous mineralogical and textural zoning. The last thermal event in these pegmatites, determined by K-Ar method in muscovite, is of Neo proterozoic age, coincident with the late stages of the Brasiliano tectono- metamorphic cycle. Chemical analyses showed that sodium is the alkali with higher contents in the aquamarines, thus enabling their classification as sodic beryls. In zoned samples there is an increase of Fe as well as Mn from center to border, while no systematic variation could be detected for other elements. The specific gravity of 2.72 to 2.80 g/cm{sup 3} is higher than the values determined for samples from other pegmatites of Minas Gerais. The refraction indices are ne=1.569 - 1.579 and NW= 1.573 - 1.581 and the birefringence varies from 0.002 to 0.008. The refraction indices increase with the Be O content. The color of aquamarines varies from medium to light blue, sometimes greenish blue. Moessbauer spectra obtained at room temperature and at 80 K show that Fe{sup 2+} is the main chromophore-ion and suggest that the iron is present in octahedral sites as well as in the structural channels. Moessbauer spectra also indicate that the incorporation of Fe{sup 3+} may cause a shift from deep blue to light blue colors. Based on their aquamarine composition the pegmatites were classified as barren, poor in rare alkalis (Li, Rb, Cs) and therefore little differentiated. The relatively simple mineralogy and the lack of lithium minerals such as lepidolite and spodumene confirm this classification. Thus, the composition of beryl can be used as a tracer for the prospection of pegmatites with different degrees of differentiation and consequently with different types of

  2. Geology of the Spruce Pine District, Avery, Mitchell, and Yancy Counties, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald Albert

    1962-01-01

    The Spruce Pine pegmatite district, a northeastward-trending belt 25 miles long and 10 miles wide, lies in parts of Avery, Mitchell, and Yancey Counties in the Blue Ridge Province of western North Carolina. The most abundant rocks in the district are interlayered mica and amphibole gneisses and schists, all of which are believed to be of Precambrian age. These rocks are cut by small bodies of dunite and associated rocks of Precambrian (?) age, large bodies of alaskite and associated pegmatite of early Paleozoic age, and basaltic and diabasic dikes and sills of Triassic (?) age. The rocks of the district have been weathered to saprolite that is locally 50 feet thick. The major structure in the area is a southwestward-plunging asymmetrical synclinorium that has its steeper limb on the northwest side. Feldspar, muscovite as sheet and scrap (ground) mica, and kaolin from the alaskite and associated pegmatite account for over 90 percent of the total mineral production of the district. Amounts of other pegmatite minerals, including quartz, beryl, columbite-tantalite, rare-earth and uranium minerals are an extremely small part of the mineral resources. Actual or potential products from other rocks are olivine, vermiculite, asbestos, talc, chromium and nickel, soapstone, mica schist, garnet, kyanite, dolomite marble, and construction materials.

  3. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  4. Satellite Data Assimilation of Upper-Level Sounding Channels in HWRF with Two Diff erent Model Tops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓蕾; 翁富忠; 林琳; 张邦林; 吴陈锋; 秦正坤

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) onboard the NOAA satellites NOAA-18 and NOAA-19 and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) MetOp-A, the hyperspectral Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Aqua, the High resolution In-fraRed Sounder (HIRS) onboard NOAA-19 and MetOp-A, and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite provide upper-level sounding channels in tropical cyclone environments. Assimilation of these upper-level sounding channels data in the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) system with two diff erent model tops is investigated for the tropical storms Debby and Beryl and hurricanes Sandy and Isaac that occurred in 2012. It is shown that the HWRF system with a higher model top allows more upper-level microwave and infrared sounding channels data to be assimilated into HWRF due to a more accurate upper-level background profi le. The track and intensity forecasts produced by the HWRF data assimilation and forecast system with a higher model top are more accurate than those with a lower model top.

  5. The origin of emeralds embedded in archaeological artefacts in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Kržič

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Roman gold jewellery, which was excavated in Ptuj (Poetovio and consists of a necklace, earrings and a braceletwith embedded emeralds, is part of the Slovenian archaeological artefacts collections. Crystallographic characteristics,inclusions, luminous phenomena and geological characteristics were determined in order to establish theorigin of the emeralds. Chemical composition of the emeralds was determined non-destructively using the methodsof proton-induced X-rays and gamma rays (PIXE/PIGE. The results were compared with reference emeraldsfrom Habachtal in Austria and with green beryls from the Ural Mts. Literature data for emeralds from Egypt andmodern-day Afghanistan area were used to interpret the results. Specifically, these sites were known for emeraldsbeing mined for jewellery in Roman times. It was assumed that emeralds from archaeological artefacts originatedfrom Habachtal in Austria, given that this site was the nearest to the place where found. But the emeralds fromthe necklace and earrings in fact came from Egyptian deposits. The origin of emeralds from the bracelet could nothave been determined absolutely reliably due to the lack of comparative materials; they may originate from a site inmodern-day Afghanistan or from Egypt, but certainly not from the same site as the previously mentioned emeraldsin the necklace and earrings.

  6. Structure analysis on synthetic emerald crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Lun; Lee, Jiann-Shing; Huang, Eugene; Liao, Ju-Hsiou

    2013-05-01

    Single crystals of emerald synthesized by means of the flux method were adopted for crystallographic analyses. Emerald crystals with a wide range of Cr3+-doping content up to 3.16 wt% Cr2O3 were examined by X-ray single crystal diffraction refinement method. The crystal structures of the emerald crystals were refined to R 1 (all data) of 0.019-0.024 and w R 2 (all data) of 0.061-0.073. When Cr3+ substitutes for Al3+, the main adjustment takes place in the Al-octahedron and Be-tetrahedron. The effect of substitution of Cr3+ for Al3+ in the beryl structure results in progressively lengthening of the Al-O distance, while the length of the other bonds remains nearly unchanged. The substitution of Cr3+ for Al3+ may have caused the expansion of a axis, while keeping the c axis unchanged in the emerald lattice. As a consequence, the Al-O-Si and Al-O-Be bonding angles are found to decrease, while the angle of Si-O-Be increases as the Al-O distance increases during the Cr replacement.

  7. The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Dissanayake

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene being common.Rare element concentrations in sediments from the three main gem fields of Sri Lanka, namely Ratnapura, Elahera and Walawe, were studied. It was found that some sediments are considerably enriched in certain elements compared to their average continental crustal abundances. The Walawe Ganga sediments show anomalous enrichments of the high field strength and associated elements, particularly Zr, Hf, W and Ti. This is attributed to the presence of accessory mineralssuch as zircon, monazite and rutile. Some of these heavy minerals comprise as much as 50 wt% of sediment. The geochemical enrichment of some trace elements compared to their average crustal abundances indicates that highly differentiated granites and associated pegmatites have provided the source materials for enrichment.

  8. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Teeuw

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, J.H. Beaglehole, The district: A study in decentralization in West Malaysia. Hull Monographs on South-East Asia no. 6. Published for the University of Hull by Oxford University Press, 1976. 122 pages. - C.D. Grijns, Sri Soekesi Adiwimarta, Omong Djakarta-Texte (bearbeitet und übersetzt von -. Veröffentlichung des Seminars für Indonesische und Südsesprachen der Universität Hamburg Band 8. Verlag von Dietrich Reimer, Berlin, 1973. - H.K.J. Cowan, V.I. Braginskij, Evoljutsija Malajskogo klassitsjeskogo sticha. Uitg. “Nauka”, glavnaja redaktsija vostotsjnoj literatury, Moskou 1975. 206 blzn. - J.J. Ras, Wolfgang Marschall, Der Berg des Herrn der Erde, Alte Ordnung und Kulturkonflikt in einem indonesischen Dorf. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, München 1976. 204 pp., 30 illustrations. - A. Teeuw, Muhammad Haji Salleh, Tradition and change in contemporary Malay-Indonesian poetry. Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1977. IX, 190 pp. - J.J. Ras, Beryl de Zoete, Dance and drama in Bali. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur 1973. XX 343 pp., 112 illustrations., Walter Spies (eds.

  9. Annual report of the Metallurgy Division [for the] period ending December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development work carried out and the various programmes underway in the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the calendar year 1977 have been reported. The R and D work and programmes cover extraction metallurgy, physical metallurgy, alloy development, corrosion metallurgy and ceramics. Some of the major studies and programmes are: (1) development of processes for extraction of niobium, vanadium, hafnium and nickel, (2) preparation of niobium alloys, ferro-zirconium, ceramic grade zirconia, (3) electro-refining of zircaloy scrap, (4) preparation of anhydrous beryllium fluoride from Indian beryl, (5) preparation of beryllium alloys, (6) studies on phase transformation and deformation behaviour of zirconium and zirconium-oxygen alloys, (7) self-diffusion studies in dilute Zr-Fe and Zr-Cr alloys, (8) studies on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of zirconium base alloys and (9) sintering studies on ZrO2-PuO2 and BeO. (M.G.B.)

  10. Twenty years of oil production; Vingt and de production petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-07-01

    In june 1975, Great Britain took delivery of the first barrel of oil produced in the North Sea. Since the start-up of production of the first field, that of Argyll, more than 1.8 billion tonnes of oil have been produced in the British sector, which supplied an average of 2.7 Mb/d in 1994. Over the last twenty years, several fields have been brought on stream, amongst which the most productive have been Beryl, Brent - which gave its name to the reference crude of the North Sea - Claymore, Forties, Ninian, Piper... A record level should be achieved in 1995-96, at over 2.8 Mb/d following the new productions carried out in 1994 and scheduled for this year (see article in this issue). On the Norwegian side, the production of hydrocarbons started in 1971 with the Ekofisk field, followed by Frigg (gas), Statfjord, Gullfaks, Oseberg and many others. As from 1980, exploration stretched up to north of the 62 nd parallel, where several major fields were also discovered : Draugen, Heidrun, Njord, Norne... Constantly increasing since the beginning of the 1980 s, oil production from the Norwegian sector should reach 2.7 Mb/d in 1995, according to the forecasts of the Norwegian Energy Ministry, and achieve some 3 Mb/d in 1996.

  11. $YB_{66} a new soft X-ray monochromator for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, J; Rowen, M; Schäfers, F; Müller, B R; Rek, Z U

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., vol.A291, p.243-8, 1990. YB/sub 66/, a complex boron-rich man-made crystal, has been singled out as a potential monochromator material to disperse synchrotron soft X-rays in the 1-2 keV region. Results of a series of systematic property characterizations pertinent for this application are presented in this paper. These include Laue diffraction patterns and high-precision lattice-constant determination, etch rate, stoichiometry, thermal expansion, soft X-ray reflectivity and rocking-curve measurements, thermal load effects on monochromator performance, nature of intrinsic positive glitches and their reduction. The 004 reflection of YB/sub 66/ has a reflectance of ~3 in this spectral region. The width of the rocking curve varies from 0.25 eV at 1.1 keV to 1.0 eV at 2 keV, which is a factor of two better than that of beryl(1010) in the same energy range, and enables measurements of high-resolution XANES spectra at the Mg, Al and Si K- edges. The thermal bump on the...

  12. Regional background assessment of groundwater wells in the Greater Hudson Hope Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial exploration activities for coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Hudson Hope area of British Columbia (BC) have now begun. This baseline survey of water resources was conducted as a result of concerns over the impacts of CBM development on water quality and quantity. Eight environmental monitoring sites were located and water samples were collected to analyze potability, dissolved metals, and extractable petroleum hydrocarbons. Quantity data were collected to measure static water levels as well as to obtain flow measurements on springs and creeks. The study also included a review of surficial and bedrock geology in order to identify aquifers. Risk areas were identified in order to increase monitoring activities at sites requiring higher levels of protection. Risk areas included the Peace River Terrace, which has a large fluvial deposit of gravels and sands susceptible to contamination, and the Beryl Prairie Road Corridor, which has an aquifer that flows over sedimentary bedrock and supplies water to approximately 40 dwellings. 11 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  13. Results of weekly chemical and isotopic monitoring of selected springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park during June-September, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.; Weltman, U.; Counce, D.; White, L.D.; Janik, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year at Norris Geyser Basin, generally in August or September, a widespread hydrothermal 'disturbance' occurs that is characterized by simultaneous changes in the discharge characteristics of many springs, particularly in the Back Basin. During the summer season of 1995, water samples from eight widely distributed hot springs and geysers at Norris were collected each week and analyzed to determine whether chemical and isotopic changes also occurred in the thermal waters at the time of the disturbance. In addition, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, 5.8 km southwest of Norris Geyser Basin, was included in the monitoring program. Waters discharged by four of the monitored hot springs and geysers appear to issue from relatively deep reservoirs where temperatures are at least 270 C and possibly higher than 300 C. At the time of, and for several days after, the onset of the 1995 disturbance, the normally neutral-chloride waters discharged by these four features all picked up an acid-sulfate component and became isotopically heavier. The acid-sulfate component appears to be similar in composition to some waters discharged in 100 Spring Plain that issue from subsurface regions where temperatures are in the range 170-210 C. However, the two monitored springs that discharge acid-chloride-sulfate waters in the 100 Spring Plain region did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. Beryl Spring, and two neutral-chloride hot springs at Norris that appear to draw their water from reservoirs where temperatures are 250 C or less, also did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. After the start of the annual disturbance, chloride concentrations in water sampled from Double Bulger Geyser in the Back Basin increased from about 800 ppm to about 1500 ppm, nearly twice as high as any previously reported chloride concentration in a thermal water at Yellowstone. The isotopic composition of that water

  14. Analyzing noninferiority trials: it is time for advantage deficit assessment – an observational study of published noninferiority trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladstone BP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Werner Vach Clinical Epidemiology Group, Center for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Abstract: The concept of noninferiority (NI trials is based on a belief that the new therapy may potentially offer a benefit for the patient or society in spite of it having a slightly lower efficacy. We introduce advantage deficit assessment (ADA, a simple framework similar to the benefit-risk assessment in superiority trials. ADA balances the advantage gained against the deficit in efficacy on a two-dimensional plane. It requires that NI trials provide quantitative information on both the advantage as well as on efficacy on scales, which can be compared in a meaningful manner. From this perspective, we study the feasibility of ADA among a set of NI trials published in four major medical journals. Among 113 published NI trials, about half assessed and reported at least one claimed advantage. For most other studies, an assessment seems to be feasible if considered in the planning of the study. Many studies claiming noninferiority report a positive gain in advantage. These trials have the potential to demonstrate a significant net benefit in an ADA, substantially changing the final judgment of the study results. ADA seems promising as it overcomes the current limitation of NI trials to demonstrate “only” noninferiority and brings them back to the mainstream of superiority trials by aiming to demonstrate a positive net benefit. ADA seems to be feasible in the majority of NI trials. Keywords: noninferiority, new treatment, potential advantage, advantage deficit assessment, benefit-risk assessment, loss of efficacy

  15. Thermal equation of state of natural tourmaline at high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingui; Kuang, Yunqian; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Yonggang; Fan, Dawei; Li, Xiaodong; Xie, Hongsen

    2016-05-01

    Synchrotron-based in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments were conducted on a natural uvite-dominated tourmaline sample by using an external-heating diamond anvil cell at simultaneously high pressures and temperatures up to 18 GPa and 723 K, respectively. The angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction data reveal no indication of a structural phase transition over the P-T range of the current experiment in this study. The pressure-volume-temperature data were fitted by the high-temperature Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Isothermal bulk modulus of K 0 = 96.6 (9) GPa, pressure derivative of the bulk modulus of K0^' } = 12.5 (4), thermal expansion coefficient of α 0 = 4.39 (27) × 10-5 K-1 and temperature derivative of the bulk modulus ( ∂K/∂T) P = -0.009 (6) GPa K-1 were obtained. The axial thermoelastic properties were also obtained with K a0 = 139 (2) GPa, K_{a0}^' } = 11.5 (7) and α a0 = 1.00 (11) × 10-5 K-1 for the a-axis, and K c0 = 59 (1) GPa, K_{c0}^' } = 11.4 (5) and α c0 = 2.41 (24) × 10-5 K-1 for the c-axis. Both of axial compression and thermal expansion exhibit large anisotropic behavior. Thermoelastic parameters of tourmaline in this study were also compared with that of the other two ring silicates of beryl and cordierite.

  16. REE composition in scheelite and scheelite Sm-Nd dating for the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposit in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; DENG Jun; LI ChaoFeng; SHI GuangHai; ZHENG AiLi

    2007-01-01

    The scheelite with large size and euhedral shape from Xuebaoding, Sichuan Province is an ideal mineral to study REE patterns and Sm-Nd dating of non-gold deposits. The scheelite has diameters of 1―10 cm and colors of pale beige to deep orange. Most of these scheelites occur in association with beryl, cassiterite and muscovite. The rare earth elements indicate that scheelite samples from Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposits contain high concentrations of rare earth elements with total ΣREE+Y contents in the range of 369―1725 μg·g(-)1 and nearly all of these scheelite samples are enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE and have negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns of the scheelites are similar to those of A-type granite with obvious tetrad effect, similar to that of type II scheelites. Based on reported fluid inclusion studies, the mineralizing-fluid of the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposit indicates low Na activity. The REE patterns of the scheelite are probably controlled by partition coefficient in hydrothermal fluid. In the 147Sm/144Nd-143Nd/144Nd diagram, the scheelites show a linear array corresponding to an isochron age of 182.0±9.2 Ma (MSWD = 0.52). The Sm-Nd age represents the formation age of the scheelite and can indicate that the W, Sn and Be mineralization at Xuebaoding took place in the Early Yanshanian. The Sm-Nd dating result is important for the study of the multi-metal resources in western Sichuan Province.

  17. Estimation of steady-state and transcient power distributions for the RELAP analyses of the 1963 loss-of-flow and loss-of-pressure tests at BR2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.; Tzanos, C. P. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-05-23

    To support the safety analyses required for the conversion of the Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, the simulation of a number of loss-of-flow tests, with or without loss of pressure, has been undertaken. These tests were performed at BR2 in 1963 and used instrumented fuel assemblies (FAs) with thermocouples (TC) imbedded in the cladding as well as probes to measure the FAs power on the basis of their coolant temperature rise. The availability of experimental data for these tests offers an opportunity to better establish the credibility of the RELAP5-3D model and methodology used in the conversion analysis. In order to support the HEU to LEU conversion safety analyses of the BR2 reactor, RELAP simulations of a number of loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure tests have been undertaken. Preliminary analyses showed that the conservative power distributions used historically in the BR2 RELAP model resulted in a significant overestimation of the peak cladding temperature during the transient. Therefore, it was concluded that better estimates of the steady-state and decay power distributions were needed to accurately predict the cladding temperatures measured during the tests and establish the credibility of the RELAP model and methodology. The new approach ('best estimate' methodology) uses the MCNP5, ORIGEN-2 and BERYL codes to obtain steady-state and decay power distributions for the BR2 core during the tests A/400/1, C/600/3 and F/400/1. This methodology can be easily extended to simulate any BR2 core configuration. Comparisons with measured peak cladding temperatures showed a much better agreement when power distributions obtained with the new methodology are used.

  18. Pegmatito Gentil (Mendes Pimentel, MG e suas paragêneses mineralógicas de fosfatos raros Gentil Pegmatite (Mendes Pimentel, MG and their rare phosphate mineral assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz de Sá C. Chaves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Centenas de corpos pegmatíticos na região nordeste de Minas Gerais produzem minerais gemológicos e de coleção, muitos desses corpos possuindo afinidades com determinada espécie, grupo ou classe mineral. O Pegmatito Gentil em Mendes Pimentel, ora descrito, notabiliza-se por sua assembléia de minerais fosfáticos, a maior parte dos quais raros ou raríssimos na natureza. A associação mineral identificada inclui microclínio, quartzo, muscovita, almandina-espessartita, berilo e trifilita como fosfato primário, que foi alterado formando uma extensa paragênese de espécies secundárias. Entre essas, destacam-se brazilianita, frondelita, gormanita, huréaulita, lazulita, litiofilita, purpurita, reddingita, woodhouseíta, zanaziíta e, recentemente descrita nesse corpo, a matioliíta.Hundreds of pegmatitic bodies occur in the northern region of the State of Minas Gerais, several of these bodies producing gemologic and collection minerals. Such pegmatites are known by the mineral affinity with certain minerals species, groups or classes. The Gentil Pegmatite (Mendes Pimentel county is characterized by the phosphatic mineral assemblage, and some of these minerals are rare or very rare in nature. Primary species are microcline, quartz, muscovite, almandine-espessartine, beryl, and triphylite as the main phosphate that was altered to an extensive paragenesis of secondary phosphates. In this list are noted brazilianite, frondelite, gormanite, hureaulite, lazulite, lithiophilite, purpurite, reddingite, woodhouseite, zanaziite, and matioliite, a species recently described in the Gentil Pegmatite.

  19. Chemistry characterization and samples beryllium process impurity determination; Caracterizacao quimica e determinacao de impurezas de amostras de processo de berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonel Mathry de

    1992-12-01

    Brazil is the greatest world producer of beryl (3 Be O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.6SiO{sub 2}) and has recently begun to produce beryllium compounds by means of a pilot plant constructed at Governador Valadares city (Minas Gerais - Brazil). The aim of this work was the determination of trace level impurities and macro constituents in the tenth % range to support analytical control process of plant production and characterization of beryllium compounds. The impurities separations and purification process was developed by two steps procedure. The first one using EDTA complexation has separated and reduced some impurities to less than 1 {mu}g/ml level. In the second one it was used a chelating resin (Chelex 100) and the separation efficiency was about 75 to 97 % related with the element tested. High pure berylium oxide standard was obtained from purification of Be(OH)2. The R X fluorescence presented only traces of Cu and Si < 1 % Fe and Mn, Zn, Ca, Al, Na and S were completely removed. The beryllium content was determined by direct atomic emission spectroscopy in argon plasma (Dcp) and compared with classic gravimetric method as Be O. The results were in agreement (49,2+/-0,2 % and 48,3+/-0,1 % respectively) between 95 % of confidence. A low temperature gravimetric method for beryllium determination was also studied using Oxine with microwave furnace. A total of 24 elements including macro and trace level were determined by Dcp and/or spectrophotometric methods. The Be/B separation was studied using anionic resin in poly alcohols medium. A more detailed study of equilibrium conditions is necessary. This work was realized at Laboratorio de Analise Mineral (LAM) of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - Rio de Janeiro (CNEN). (author)

  20. Detecting Nanophase Weathering Products with CheMin: Reference Intensity Ratios of Allophane, Aluminosilicate Gel, and Ferrihydrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Achilles, C. N.; Ming, D W.; Blake, D. F.; Anderson, R. C.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, A.; DesMarais, D. J.; Downs, R. T.; Farmer, J. D.; Morookian, J. M.; Morrison, S. M.; Sarrazin, P.; Spanovich, N.; Stolper, E. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Yen, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) data collected of the Rocknest samples by the CheMin instrument on Mars Science Laboratory suggest the presence of poorly crystalline or amorphous materials [1], such as nanophase weathering products or volcanic and impact glasses. The identification of the type(s) of X-ray amorphous material at Rocknest is important because it can elucidate past aqueous weathering processes. The presence of volcanic and impact glasses would indicate that little chemical weathering has occurred because glass is highly susceptible to aqueous alteration. The presence of nanophase weathering products, such as allophane, nanophase iron-oxides, and/or palagonite, would indicate incipient chemical weathering. Furthermore, the types of weathering products present could help constrain pH conditions and identify which primary phases altered to form the weathering products. Quantitative analysis of phases from CheMin data is achieved through Reference Intensity Ratios (RIRs) and Rietveld refinement. The RIR of a mineral (or mineraloid) that relates the scattering power of that mineral (typically the most intense diffraction line) to the scattering power of a separate mineral standard such as corundum [2]. RIRs can be calculated from XRD patterns measured in the laboratory by mixing a mineral with a standard in known abundances and comparing diffraction line intensities of the mineral to the standard. X-ray amorphous phases (e.g., nanophase weathering products) have broad scattering signatures rather than sharp diffraction lines. Thus, RIRs of X-ray amorphous materials are calculated by comparing the area under one of these broad scattering signals with the area under a diffraction line in the standard. Here, we measured XRD patterns of nanophase weathering products (allophane, aluminosilicate gel, and ferrihydrite) mixed with a mineral standard (beryl) in the CheMinIV laboratory instrument and calculated their RIRs to help constrain the abundances of these phases in

  1. Trisomy 18 (Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Poureisa

    2009-01-01

    unable to unclench their hands. Heredity This is an autosomal trisomic syndrome. Natural history and outcome Fetuses with trisomy 18 often die in utero. Ninety percent of live- borns with this abnormality die in the first year of life. The 10% who survive are profoundly mentally retarded and handicapped. Reference: Beryl R Benacerrafe, M.D; Ultrasound of fetal syndromes:  (322 - 324    

  2. Geological setting and timing of the cassiterite vein type mineralization of the Kalima area (Maniema, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, S.; Muchez, Ph; Burgess, R.; Boyce, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Central African Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole belt in the Great Lakes area (DRCongo, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and Tanzania) forms a metallogenic province that hosts a variety of granite-related mineralization, which contains cassiterite, columbite-tantalite, wolframite/ferberite, spodumene and beryl. The Kalima area in the Maniema province of the DRCongo forms one of the most important areas for cassiterite mineralization in the eastern part of the DRCongo, even after many decades of exploitation. The mineralization dominantly consists of quartz veins that are hosted in Mesoproterozoic metasediments at the contact with granitic rocks of the Kalima granite (Avuanga and Yubuli) or directly crosscutting these granitic rocks (Atondo). Only limited - and mainly unmineralized pegmatites - have been described in the Lutshurukuru area. Mineralized quartz veins - and some granite bodies - intruded following the regional tectonic foliation or existing fracture zones, confirming the late-to post-tectonic origin of the fertile granite system. The emplacement of the quartz veins resulted in an alteration of the metasedimentary and granitic host-rocks, mainly resulting in muscovitization, tourmalinization and silicification. Cassiterite itself formed relatively late during vein formation and is associated with muscovite in fractures in or along the margins of the quartz veins. 40Ar-39Ar age dating of muscovite of an unmineralized pegmatite from the Lutshurukuru area gave an excellent plateau age of 1024 ± 5.5 Ma, while the muscovite associated with mineralization gave plateau ages of 986 ± 5.3 Ma for the Atondo deposit and 992.4 ± 5.4 Ma for the Yubuli deposit. The rather large spread in ages between the supposed parental granite/pegmatite and quartz veins is interpreted to reflect different magmatic events in the evolution of a composite granite system, starting at ∼1020 Ma and ending with mineralized quartz vein formation at ∼990 Ma. The latter age corresponds with

  3. Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianjakavah, Prosper Rakotovao; Salvi, Stefano; Béziat, Didier; Rakotondrazafy, Michel; Giuliani, Gaston

    2009-10-01

    . Emerald composition was controlled by the chemistry of the host rock. The presence of carbonate mineral inclusions in the emeralds and the high F-activity indicated by elevated F-contents in newly formed minerals suggest transport of Be as a fluoride-carbonate complex. It seems likely that beryl formation was triggered by precipitation of F-rich phlogopite, which removed the complexing ligand from the fluid.

  4. Geology of the Ralston Buttes district, Jefferson County, Colorado: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Douglas M.; Maxwell, Charles H.; Albee, Arden L.; Van Horn, Richard

    1956-01-01

    The Ralston Buttes district in Jefferson County is one of the most significant new uranium districts located east of the Continental Divide in Colorado. The district is east of the Colorado Front Range mineral belt, along the east front of the range. From November 1953 through October 1956, about 10,000 tons of uranium ore, much of which was high-grade pitchblende-bearing vein material, was shipped from the district. The ore occurs in deposits that range in size from bodies containing less than 50 tons to ore shoots containing over 1,000 tons. The only other mining activity in the area has been a sporadic production of beryl, feldspar, and scrap mica from Precambrian pegmatites, and quarrying of dimension stone, limestone, and clay from sedimentary rocks. Most of the Ralston Buttes district consists of complexly folded Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks - gneiss, schist, quartzite, amphibolite, and granodiorite. Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks crop out in the northeastern part of the district. These rocks are cut by northwesterly-trending fault systems of Laramide age and by small bodies of intrusive rocks that are Tertiary in age. The typical uranium deposits in the district are hydrothermal veins occupying openings in Laramide fault breccias or related fractures that cut the Precambrian rocks. Pitchblende and lesser amounts of secondary uranium minerals are associated with sparse base-mental sulfides in a gangue of carbonate minerals, potash feldspar, and, more rarely, quartz. Less common types of deposits consist of pitchblende and secondary uranium minerals that occupy fractures cutting pegmatites and quartz veins. The uranium deposits are concentrated in two areas, the Ralston Creek area and the Golden Gate Canyon area. The deposits in the Ralston Creek area are located along the Rogers fault system, and the deposits in the Golden Gate Canyon area are along the Hurricane Hill fault system. Two geologic factors were important to the localization

  5. Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Poureisa

    2009-01-01

    picture and survival is usually longer. "nReference: Beryl R.Benacerrafe, M.D; Ultrasound of fetal syndromes: trisomy 13 (316- 321  

  6. Graphical representations of the chemistry of garnets in a three-dimensional MATLAB based provenance plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Palzer, Markus; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria; Gier, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed, MATLAB based garnet provenance plot allows a three-dimensional tetrahedral representation of the chemistry of garnets for the endmembers almandine, pyrope, spessartine and grossular. Based on a freely accessible database of Suggate & Hall (2013) and additional EPMA-data on the internet, the chemistry of more than 2500 garnets was evaluated and used to create various subfields that correspond to different facies conditions of metapelitic, metasomatic and metaigneous rocks as well as granitic rocks. These triangulated subfields act as reference structures within the tetrahedron, facilitating assignments of garnet chemistries to different lithologies. In comparison with conventional tenary garnet discrimination diagrams by Mange & Morton (2007), Wright/Preston et al. (1938/2002) and Aubrecht et al. (2009), this tetrahedral provenance plot enables a better assessment of the conditions of formation of garnets by reducing the overlapping of certain subfields. In particular, a clearer distinction between greenschist facies rocks, amphibolite facies rocks and granitic rocks can be achieved. First applications of the tetrahedral garnet plot provided new insights on sedimentary processes during the Lower Miocene in the pre-Alpine Molasse basin. Bibliography Aubrecht, R., Meres, S., Sykora, M., Mikus, T. (2009). Provenance of the detrital garnets and spinels from the Albian sediments of the Czorsztyn Unit (Pieniny Klippen Belt , Western Carpathians, Slovakia). In: Geologica Carpathica, Dec. 2009, 60, 6, pp. 463-483. Mange, M.A., Morton, A.C. (2007). Geochemistry of Heavy Minerals. In: Mange, M.A. & Wright, D.T.(2007).Heavy Minerals in Use, Amsterdam, pp. 345-391. Preston, J., Hartley, A., Mange-Rajetzky, M., Hole, M., May, G., Buck, S., Vaughan, L. (2002). The provenance of Triassic continental sandstones from the Beryl Field, northern North Sea: Mineralogical, geochemical and sedimentological constraints. In: Journal of Sedimentary Research, 72, pp. 18

  7. Study on Chemical Compositions and Infrared Absorption Spectra of Natural and Synthetic Emeralds%天然祖母绿与合成祖母绿的成分及红外吸收光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申柯娅

    2011-01-01

    祖母绿是一种高档名贵的宝石,其矿物学名称为绿柱石,化学成分为铍铝硅酸盐.鉴别天然祖母绿和人工合成祖母绿,已成为祖母绿宝石鉴定中的一个重要课题.文章采用常规宝石学研究方法、激光剥蚀-电感耦合等离子体质谱法和红外光谱技术对天然祖母绿(包括哥伦比亚祖母绿和巴西祖母绿)、合成祖母绿(包括助熔剂法合成祖母绿和水热法合成祖母绿)样品进行了系统的分析和研究.结果表明,天然祖母绿与合成祖母绿的主要致色微量元素Cr的含量越高,祖母绿的绿色越浓艳;天然祖母绿与合成祖母绿的红外吸收光谱特征具有明显的差异;根据祖母绿中是否含水、水的赋存状态以及氯的吸收峰,可作为准确鉴别天然祖母绿和合成祖母绿的重要依据.等离子体质谱法化学成分分析不能确定祖母绿是天然形成还是人工合成,需在常规宝石学检测的基础上,综合研究祖母绿的红外吸收光谱特征及内含物特征,才能准确地鉴别天然祖母绿、水热法合成祖母绿和助熔剂法合成祖母绿.%As a top-grade and rare gemstone, emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl with the chemical composition Be3 Al2 (SiO3) 6. It is a significant research project to identify natural emerald as opposed to synthetic emerald. The routine gemological methods, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( LA-ICP-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) absorption techniques were used to study natural emeralds from Colombia and Brazil and synthetic emeralds made by flux-grown and hydrothermal synthetic methods. The green color of emerald was closely related to the concentration of the trace element Cr( Ⅲ). The infrared absorption spectra characteristics indicated obvious differences between natural and synthetic emeralds. This technique can provide important information for identifying natural and synthetic emeralds, combined

  8. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McMleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 104 samples collected from numerous thermal and non-thermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2006-2008. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from 10 areas of YNP including Apollinaris Spring and Nymphy Creek along the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Crater Hills, the Geyser Springs Group, Nez Perce Creek, Rabbit Creek, the Mud Volcano area, and Washburn Hot Springs. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur redox species in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved on-site. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, emf (electromotive force or electrical potential), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured on-site at the time of sampling. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide was measured a few to several hours after sample collection by ion-specific electrode on samples preserved on-site. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally a few to several hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved iron and ferrous iron concentrations often were measured on-site in the

  9. Water-Chemistry Data for Selected Springs, Geysers, and Streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.

    2008-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 157 samples collected from numerous hot springs, their overflow drainages, and Lemonade Creek in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2003-2005. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from ten areas of YNP including Terrace and Beryl Springs in the Gibbon Canyon area, Norris Geyser Basin, the West Nymph Creek thermal area, the area near Nymph Lake, Hazle Lake, and Frying Pan Spring, Lower Geyser Basin, Washburn Hot Springs, Mammoth Hot Springs, Potts Hot Spring Basin, the Sulphur Caldron area, and Lemonade Creek near the Solfatara Trail. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, and sulfur redox distribution in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved onsite. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh (redox potential relative to the Standard Hydrogen Electrode), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured onsite at the time of sampling. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally minutes to hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved-iron and ferrous-iron concentrations often were measured onsite in the mobile laboratory vehicle. Concentrations of dissolved

  10. 铸瓷贴面在前牙美容修复中的临床效果观察%Observation on the effect of ceramic faced in the repair of anterior teeth beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳青

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of ceramic cover anterior on teeth beauty.Methods 138 teeth in 34 patients with dental fluorosis were divided into two groups,the control group (69 teeth in 16 patients) was given traditional PFM cover repair,the treatment group (69 teeth in 18 patients) was given ceramic cover,they were followed up for three years.The teeth remaining rate and patient satisfaction were compared,the match color,edge fit,healthy gums,restoration integrity were compared according to the Ryge standard.Results Teeth remaining rate in treatment group was 95.7%,which was significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05).The patient satisfaction was 94.4% in treatment group and 87.5% in the control group,the difference was significant (P < 0.05).The match color,edge coloring,healthy gums and teeth sensitivity were not different between the two groups (P > 0.05).The restoration integrity and marginal fit of treatment group was better than control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion The clinical effect of ceramic faced in the anterior teeth beauty repair,especially in the repair of dental fluorosis is remarkable,and the remaining teeth rate higher,repair,dental restoration integrity and marginal fit is significantly better than that of resin repair,patient satisfaction is higher,the water area from non-beryl popularization and application.%目的 研究铸瓷贴面在前牙美容修复中的临床效果.方法 将34例(138牙)氟斑牙患者随机分为两组,对照组16例(69牙)采用传统烤瓷贴面修复,治疗组18例(69牙)采用铸瓷贴面技术进行修复,随访3年,记录并比较两组患者的牙齿存留率及患者满意度,并采用改良Ryge标准对两组患者牙齿的颜色匹配、边缘密合度、牙龈健康、修复体完整度等指标进行评价.结果 3年后治疗组患者牙齿存留率为95.7%,明显高于对照组的89.9%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组患者满意度为94.4%,对照组为87

  11. A preliminary study of the retention of noble gases in fluid inclusions of different minerals%矿物流体包裹体中稀有气体的保存能力初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东亮; 郑德顺; 彭建堂; 袁顺达

    2011-01-01

    查明流体包裹体中稀有气体的保存能力,对于判断其初始组分特征是否因后生作用而发生改变具有重要意义.文章以Ar为例,从扩散动力学角度对稀有气体地球化学研究中常用的矿物中流体包裹体稀有气体的保存能力进行了定量分析和系统比较,计算了Ar在这些矿物中的封闭温度以及不同温度条件下的保存时间,得出相同条件下各矿物对Ar、He等保存能力的大小顺序为:重晶石(天青石)>黄铜矿>黄铁矿>方铅矿>钾盐>闪锌矿>萤石>黑钨矿>白钨矿>绿柱石>方解石>石英,其中石英中Ar的封闭温度对矿物颗粒大小变化十分敏感,它会随着晶体颗粒半径的增大而迅速提高,但其扩散速率受温度变化的影响相对较小.这为准确评估不同矿物的流体包裹体中稀有气体信息受后生地质作用的影响程度提供了理论依据,有望促进稀有气体同位素地球化学的发展.%Studies of the retention of noble gases in fluid inclusions from various hydrothermal minerals are necessary for tracing the source of ore-forming fluid by using noble gas isotopic geochemistry. Mainly with Ar as an example, the retention of noble gases in several minerals commonly used to study fluid inclusion geochemistry was quantitatively evaluated and systematically compared with each other in this paper in terms of diffusion dynamics. In addition, closure temperature and preservation time of noble gases in these minerals were also calculated. The result reveals that, under the same conditions, the component characteristics of Ar, He and other noble gases can be preserved in these minerals in order of barite ( = celestite) > chalcopyrite> pyrite> galena> sylvite> sphalerite> fluorite> wolframite > scheelite> beryl > calcite> quartz. It is also indicated that the closuretemperature of Ar in quartz is more sensitive to the change of grain size than that of other minerals and will increase rapidly

  12. Are Cenozoic topaz rhyolites the erupted equivalents of Proterozoic rapakivi granites? Examples from the western United States and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric H.; Haapala, Ilmari; Hart, Garret L.

    2007-08-01

    Eruptions of topaz rhyolites are a distinctive part of the late Cenozoic magmatic history of western North America. As many as 30 different eruptive centers have been identified in the western United States that range in age from 50 to 0.06 Ma. These rhyolite lavas are characteristically enriched in fluorine (0.2 to 2 wt.% in glass) and lithophile trace elements, such as Be, Li, Rb, Cs, Ga, Y, Nb, and Ta. REE patterns are typically flat with large negative Eu anomalies; negative Nb-Ta anomalies are small or nonexistent; and F/Cl ratios in glasses are high (> 3). These features, together with high Fe/Mg ratios and usually low fO 2, set them apart from subduction-related (I-type) silicic rocks. The rhyolites are metaluminous to only slightly peraluminous, lack indicator minerals of strongly peraluminous magmas, and have low P and B contents; these features set them apart from S-type silicic magmas. Instead, topaz rhyolites have the major and trace element, mineralogic, and isotopic characteristics of aluminous A-type or within-plate granites. Topaz rhyolites were formed during regional extension, lithospheric thinning, and high heat flow. Topaz rhyolites of the western United States crystallized under subsolvus conditions, and have quartz, sanidine, and Na-plagioclase as the principal phenocrysts. Fluorite is a common magmatic accessory, but magmatic topaz occurs only in a few complexes; both are mineralogical indicators of F-enrichment. Many also crystallized at relatively low fO 2 (near QFM) and contain mafic silicate minerals with high Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios. Some crystallized at higher oxygen fugacities and are dominated by magnetite and have titanite as an accessory mineral. Post-eruption vapor-phase minerals include topaz, garnet, red Fe-Mn-rich beryl, bixbyite, pseudobrookite, and hematite. They are genetically related to deposits of Be, Mo, F, U, and Sn. Topaz rhyolites erupted contemporaneously with a variety of other igneous rocks, but most typically they form

  13. Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

    1987-01-01

    studies, confirmed the presence of more extensive aureoles than shown in published geologic maps; few misclassified areas were noted. Additional plowed fields consisting of exposed contact metamorphic soil were mapped digitally in an August 1985 TM scene. Subsequently, this approach was used to map two 1-km-wide linear zones of contact metamorphosed rock and oil in the San Nicolas-Sn-W Mine area, which is located approximated 125 km southeast of the Caceras study area. Exposures of granite in the San Nicolas area are limited to a few unaltered granitic dikes in the mine and a small exposure of unaltered pegmatite-bearing granite in a quarry about 1.5 km west of the mine. The present of coarsely crystalline biotite and beryl in the granite in the quarry and of contact metamorphosed slate up to 2.5 km from the nearest granite exposure suggest that only the apical part of a pluton is exposed in the quarry and that a larger, shallowly buried body is probably present. These results indicate that potential application of TM image analysis to mineral exploration in lithologically similar areas that are cultivated in spite of poor rock exposures.

  14. Review on the Application of X-ray Diffraction in Gem Identification, Synthesis and Crystal Structure Research%X 射线衍射技术应用于宝石鉴定-合成及晶体结构研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妮; 林春明

    2016-01-01

    Due to the nondestructive requirements of gem testing,evaluation of precious stones shows characteristics of science and uncertainty.Gemological application of X-ray Diffraction (XRD)is specialized,with its application mainly concentrated in three aspects:① Gemstone identification:phase identification of the monocrystalline gemstones and polycrystalline gemstones;origin of the gemstones;classification of the pleomorphic gem minerals.For example,according to the XRD patterns of microcrystalline cryptocrystalline quartz variants,different silica mineral phases of the chalcedony can be distinguished accurately;types of ‘Di’in bloodstone can be distinguished through the composition and content of clay mineral.②Research on crystal structure of the gem minerals:analysis of crystal chemistry of the monocrystalline gems with complex composition;situation of the substitution of mineral isomorphism;quality of the gem by using the degree of crystallinity.For example,through the c/a ratio in lattice parameters of beryl,aluminium octahedral isomorphism and the beryllium tetrahedral isomorphism can be distinguished.The relationship between the crystallinity calculated from XRD data and the quality of nephrite is close.③Development of gemological research technology:to monitor the process of gemstone optimization;to inspect the mineral crystal size, crystalline quality and internal stress during the synthetic process of gemstones;to research the artificial breeding technology based on the crystal structure of organic gemstones.Take the heat treatment process of spinel as example:magnesium irons moved from octahedral M—O to tetrahedral T—O,resulting in the bond length of M—O and T—O changing upon temperature and being reflected in the spinel color.During the synthesis process of topaz,XRD data shows that the structure of the formed fluorine topaz is similar to natural topaz at 770 -800℃.At 950℃ and 1000℃, the fluorine topaz is decomposed to corundum and