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Sample records for beryl

  1. Dipole defects in beryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, B A; Cordeiro, R C; Blak, A R, E-mail: bruna.holanda@usp.br, E-mail: renan.cordeiro@usp.br, E-mail: anablak@if.usp.br

    2010-11-15

    Dipole defects in gamma irradiated and thermally treated beryl (Be{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 18}) samples have been studied using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) technique. TSDC experiments were performed in pink (morganite), green (emerald), blue (aquamarine) and colourless (goshenite) natural beryl. TSDC spectra present dipole peaks at 190K, 220K, 280K and 310K that change after gamma irradiation and thermal treatments. In morganite samples, for thermal treatments between 700K and 1100K, the 280K peak increase in intensity and the band at 220K disappears. An increase of the 280K peak and a decrease of the 190K peak were observed in the TSDC spectra of morganite after a gamma irradiation of 25kGy performed after the thermal treatments. In the case of emerald samples, thermal treatments enhanced the 280K peak and gamma irradiation partially destroyed this band. The goshenite TSDC spectra present only one band at 280K that is not affected either by thermal treatments or by gamma irradiation. All the observed peaks are of dipolar origin because the intensity of the bands is linearly dependent on the polarization field, behaviour of dipole defects. The systematic study, by means of TSDC measurements, of ionizing irradiation effects and thermal treatments in these crystals makes possible a better understanding of the role played by the impurities in beryl crystals.

  2. Irradiated victims of Beryl; Les irradies de Beryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulidon, L.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this testimony book is to shade light on the Beryl nuclear test accident which was carried out in the Hoggar desert (Algeria) on May 1, 1962. The underground explosion took place despite some bad weather conditions. The unpredictable collapse of the mountain led to the release of a radioactive cloud and to the contamination of the audience, and in particular of two ministers invited at the honor tribune. The minimization of the impact of this nuclear accident by the French government and army is denounced in this book

  3. Luminescence behaviour of beryl (aquamarine variety) from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kat Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , M.I.; Tueremis, M.; Keskin, I.C.; Tastekin, B.; Kibar, R.; Cetin, A. [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Can, N., E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, 45140 Manisa (Turkey)

    2012-10-15

    Natural blue-green beryl from Turkey has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Cathodoluminescence (CL). Beryl has the chemical formula Be{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 18} and is hexagonal with space group P6/mcc. Chemical analyses of the beryl sample utilised inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for major oxides and trace elements. It shows that the beryl sample is rich in Cs (531 ppm) and contains low concentrations of transition-metal ions, in total 2.29 wt.% Fe, 269 ppm Mn, V<5 ppm and Cr 20 ppm. Ideas on the origin of the green colour of this mineral are presented. The CL spectrum of the bulk sample display intense broad band emission from {approx}360 to {approx}800 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural blue-green beryl from Turkey were investigated by SEM-EDS, XRD, CL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence behaviour of Natural blue-green beryl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples exhibit an intense broad band emission from {approx}360 to {approx}800 nm.

  4. Use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the determination of gem provenance: beryls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Catherine E; McMillan, Nancy J; Harmon, Russell S; Whitmore, Robert C; De Lucia, Frank C; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2008-11-01

    The provenance of gem stones has been of interest to geologists, gemologists, archeologists, and historians for centuries. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a minimally destructive tool for recording the rich chemical signatures of gem beryls (aquamarine, goshenite, heliodor, and morganite). Broadband LIBS spectra of 39 beryl (Be(3)Al(2)Si(6)O(18)) specimens from 11 pegmatite mines in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Maine (USA) are used to assess the potential of using principal component analysis of LIBS spectra to determine specimen provenance. Using this technique, beryls from the three beryl-bearing zones in the Palermo #1 pegmatite (New Hampshire) can be recognized. However, the compositional variation within this single mine is comparable to that in beryls from all three states. Thus, a very large database with detailed location metadata will be required to routinely determine gem beryl provenance.

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of BERYL (AQUAMARINE) from the Erongo Volcanic Complex, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jullieta Enone; Viljoen, Fanus; Cairncross, Bruce; Frei, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    The granite hosted pegmatites of the Erongo Volcanic Complex in central Namibia are well known for the wide variety of minerals present, of considerable interest to mineral collectors. These include (amongst others) often spectacular, museum quality examples of beryl, schorl, jeremejevite, fluorite, quartz, goethite and cassiterite. The locality is particularly recognized for hosting a variety of beryl types, including green, yellow (heliodor), colorless (goshenite) and blue/greenish blue (aquamarine) variants. Comprehensive geochemical studies of the Erongo beryls are very limited. The present contribution serves to document the visual characteristics (colour, colour zoning, inclusion content) as well as the major and trace element chemistry of 42 blue, two green and one colorless beryl from Erongo, and to compare these with other localities worldwide. The beryls from Erongo are generally subhedral to euhedral with a well-formed prismatic habit. Idiomorphic crystals, characterised by strong hexagonal prisms, are common. Beryl is commonly associated with schorl, quartz, muscovite, alkali feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, iron oxides, foitite, rossmanite and cassiterite. Aquamarines range from pale blue to deep blue or greenish blue, with marked colour zoning seen in a number of samples. One of the two green beryls examined is of a medium green colour, and is heavily included, while the other specimen has a pale yellowish green colour. The goshenite sample is colourless, clear, and transparent. Numerous cracks are present in the samples examined, and these are usually filled by iron oxides. Inclusions species encountered in the beryl samples are schorl, quartz, muscovite, feldspar, iron oxides and cassiterite, clearly reflective of the host pegmatite mineralogy. Aquamarine and green beryl contain iron as the main chromophore while goshenite is devoid of chromophores. Fe contents in beryl increase with colour intensity, consistent with the known chromatic effects of Fe

  6. UV optical absorption spectra analysis of beryl crystals from Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isotani, Sadao, E-mail: sisotani@if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Regina Blak, Ana; Watanabe, Shigueo [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    The spectral decomposition analysis was applied to the optical absorption spectra of green and colorless beryl crystals from the Brazilian Eastern Pegmatitic province in the natural state, submitted to heat treatment and irradiated with UV light. The attributions of the lines were made taking into account highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations. The deconvolution of the green beryl spectra revealed four lines, two of them around 12,000 cm{sup -1} (1.5 eV) and two of them around 34,000 cm{sup -1} (4.2 eV) attributed to Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively. The deconvolution of the colorless beryl spectra without any treatment, after heating and for the same heat treatment followed by UV light irradiation revealed five lines. The analysis of ratio relations showed that the lines at 36,400 cm{sup -1} (4.5 eV) and 41,400 cm{sup -1} (5.1 eV) belongs to a single defect attributed to a silicon dangling bond defect (=Si:). Discussions and comparison with reported defects in quartz have supported the allocation of the lines at 61,000 cm{sup -1} (7.6 eV) and 43,800 cm{sup -1} (5.4 eV) to diamagnetic oxygen vacancy defect (ident toSi-Siident to) and unrelaxed (ident toSi...Siident to) defect, respectively. Finally, the line at 39,100 cm{sup -1} (4.8 eV), quite polarized along the c-axis, was attributed to a (Fe{sup 2+}OH{sup -}) defect in the structural channels.

  7. Infrared Spectroscopic Characteristics and Ionic Occupations in Crystalline Tunneling System of Yellow Beryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Dingyu; Niu, Xiaowei; Kang, Weirui

    2017-02-01

    Infrared spectroscopic characteristics and ionic occupations in a crystalline tunneling system of yellow beryl crystals from Inner Mongolia, China, were investigated by standard gemological methods, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy in this study. The refractive index, specific gravity, and chemical composition of the samples are shown within the range of natural yellow beryls previously reported. The unit cell dimensions of the beryls are 9.208-9.212 Å for a and 9.105-9.206 Å for c with a ratio of c/a = 0.9985-0.9994. The beryl samples are generally alkali-poor beryls with Fe beryl. However, polarized UV-Vis spectra showed an absorption band at 689 nm, and all polarized IR spectra of samples displayed a 7217-cm-1 infrared absorption in the studied samples which was associated with irradiation of the coloration. This treatment of color irradiation can be detected from the beryl channels with 689-nm absorption and 7217-cm-1 infrared absorption.

  8. Quantum behavior of water nano-confined in beryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.; Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K.

    2017-03-01

    The proton mean kinetic energy, Ke(H), of water confined in nanocavities of beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) at 5 K was obtained by simulating the partial vibrational density of states from density functional theory based first-principles calculations. The result, Ke(H) = 104.4 meV, is in remarkable agreement with the 5 K deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measured value of 105 meV. This is in fact the first successful calculation that reproduces an anomalous DINS value regarding Ke(H) in nano-confined water. The calculation indicates that the vibrational states of the proton of the nano-confined water molecule distribute much differently than in ordinary H2O phases, most probably due to coupling with lattice modes of the hosting beryl nano-cage. These findings may be viewed as a promising step towards the resolution of the DINS controversial measurements on other H2O nano-confining systems, e.g., H2O confined in single and double walled carbon nanotubes.

  9. Beryl-II, a high-pressure phase of beryl: Raman and luminescence spectroscopy to 16.4 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Earl; Williams, Quentin

    2016-10-01

    The Raman and Cr3+ and V2+ luminescence spectra of beryl and emerald have been characterized up to 15.0 and 16.4 GPa, respectively. The Raman spectra show that an E 1g symmetry mode at 138 cm-1 shifts negatively by -4.57 (±0.55) cm-1/GPa, and an extrapolation of the pressure dependence of this mode indicates that a soft-mode transition should occur near 12 GPa. Such a transition is in accord with prior theoretical results. Dramatic changes in Raman mode intensities and positions occur between 11.2 and 15.0 GPa. These changes are indicative of a phase transition that primarily involves tilting and mild distortion of the Si6O18 rings. New Raman modes are not observed in the high-pressure phase, which indicates that the local bonding environment is not altered dramatically across the transition (e.g., changes in coordination do not occur). Both sharp line and broadband luminescence are observed for both Cr3+ and V2+ in emerald under compression to 16.4 GPa. The R-lines of both Cr3+ and V2+ shift to lower energy (longer wavelength) under compression. Both R-lines of Cr3+ split at ~13.7 GPa, and the V2+ R1 slope changes at this pressure and shifts more rapidly up to ~16.4 GPa. The Cr3+ R-line splitting and FWHM show more complex behavior, but also shift in behavior at ~13.7 GPa. These changes in the pressure dependency of the Cr3+ and V2+ R-lines and the changes in R-line splitting and FWHM at ~13.7 GPa further demonstrate that a phase transition occurs at this pressure, in good agreement with our Raman results. The high-pressure phase of beryl appears to have two Al sites that become more regular under compression. Hysteresis is not observed in our Raman or luminescence spectra on decompression, suggesting that this transition is second order in nature: The occurrence of a second-order transition near this pressure is also in accord with prior theoretical results. We speculate that the high-pressure phase (beryl-II) might be a mildly modulated structure, and/or that

  10. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of complex silicate minerals--beryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Nancy J; McManus, Catherine E; Harmon, Russell S; De Lucia, Frank C; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2006-05-01

    Beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) is a chemically complex and highly compositionally variable gem-forming mineral found in a variety of geologic settings worldwide. A methodology and analytical protocol were developed for the analysis of beryl by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) that minimizes the coefficient of variance for multiple analyses of the same specimen. The parameters considered were laser energy/pulse, time delay and crystallographic orientation. Optimal analytical conditions are a laser energy/pulse of 102 mJ and a time delay of 2 micros. Beryl compositions measured parallel and perpendicular to the c axis were identical within analytical error. LIBS analysis of 96 beryls from 16 countries (Afghanistan, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Ireland, Italy, Madagascar, Mexico, Mozambique, Namibia, Norway, Russia, Tanzania and United States), Antarctica, and ten US states (AZ, CA, CO, CT, ID, ME, NC, NH, NM and UT) were undertaken to determine whether or not LIBS analysis can be used to determine the provenance of gem beryl.

  11. Atomic resolution imaging of beryl: an investigation of the nano-channel occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, V; Schmitz, F D; Vullum, P E; VAN Helvoort, A T J; Holst, B

    2017-02-01

    Beryl in different varieties (emerald, aquamarine, heliodor etc.) displays a wide range of colours that have fascinated humans throughout history. Beryl is a hexagonal cyclo-silicate (ring-silicate) with channels going through the crystal along the c-axis. The channels are about 0.5 nm in diameter and can be occupied by water and alkali ions. Pure beryl (Be3 Al2 Si6 O18 ) is colourless (variety goshenite). The characteristic colours are believed to be mainly generated through substitutions with metal atoms in the lattice. Which atoms that are substituted is still debated it has been proposed that metal ions may also be enclosed in the channels and that this can also contribute to the crystal colouring. So far spectroscopy studies have not been able to fully answer this. Here we present the first experiments using atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscope imaging (STEM) to investigate the channel occupation in beryl. We present images of a natural beryl crystal (variety heliodor) from the Bin Thuan Province in Vietnam. The channel occupation can be visualized. Based on the image contrast in combination with ex situ element analysis we suggest that some or all of the atoms that are visible in the channels are Fe ions.

  12. High-dose dosimetry of beta rays using blue beryl dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do, E-mail: lsatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Bittencour, Jose F., E-mail: Lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    High dose radiation is widely used in industrial applications as sterilization of medical products, improvement of materials properties, color enhancement of jewelry stones, etc. The radiation dosimetry of high doses is quite important for these applications. In this work we have investigated the usage of blue beryl crystal also known as aquamarine in high dose dosimetry of beta rays. Some works have shown that silicate minerals exhibit a good Thermoluminescent response when irradiated up to 2000 kGy of gamma rays. Here, we have produced small beryl pellets of approximately 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thickness to measure high doses of beta rays produced at an electron accelerator at IPEN. Twelve beryl dosimeters were made and six of them were irradiated from 10kGy up to 100 kGy. The technique used to create a calibration curve was the thermoluminescence using the glow peak at 310°C. (author)

  13. Reconnaissance of beryl-bearing pegmatites in the Ruby Mountains, other areas in Nevada, and northwestern Mohave County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jerry Chipman; Hinrichs, E. Neal

    1957-01-01

    Pegmatite occurs widely in Nevada and northwestern Arizona, but little mining has been done for such pegmatite minerals as mica, feldspar, beryl, and lepidolite.  Reconnaissance for beryl-bearing pegmatite in Nevada and in part of Mohave County, Ariz., and detailed studies in the Dawley Canyon area, Elko County, Nev., have shown that beryl occurs in at least 11 districts in the region.  Muscovite has been prospected or mined in the Ruby Mountains and the Virgin Mountains, Nevada, and in Mohave County, Ariz.  Feldspar has been mined in the southern part of the region near Kingman, Ariz., and in Clark County, Nev.

  14. Effects of Metallic Ions on the Flotation of Spodumene and Beryl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-hua; YU Fu-shun

    2007-01-01

    Effects of multivalent metallic cations, such as Ca2+ and Fe3+, on the flotation of spodumene and beryl were studied. The results show that Fe3+ and Ca2+ exhibit efficient activation on the flotation of spodumene and beryl. The activation of Fe3+ happens quite well within a pH range of 6-9 while the concentration of Fe3+ is 35 mg/L. Efficient activation of Ca2+ takes place over at a pH over 11.6 at a concentration of 140 mg/L. The zeta potential of beryl and spodumene shifts slightly to positive values when activated by Ca2+, but markedly by Fe3+. New stretching frequencies of 1594.24 cm-1 and 1587.13 cm-1 have been found in the FTIR spectra of the two minerals after their interaction with Fe3+ and the collector. These new stretching frequencies are the asymmetric stretching frequencies of COO- (carboxyl anion), so thecollector may be chemically absorbed on the surface of Fe3+-activated beryl and spodumene.

  15. Road and Street Centerlines, Beryl Hwy, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Beryl Hwy'. The extent of these data...

  16. Road and Street Centerlines, 4000 w Beryl, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as '4000 w Beryl'. The extent of these...

  17. Ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of selected ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Iron and Washington Counties, Utah. The records of the wells include such information as driller 's logs, yield, drawdown, use, and temperature of the well water. There are also records of water levels in selected wells for the period 1973-79, chemical analyses of ground water, records of selected springs, and a tabulation of ground-water withdrawals for 1937-78. (USGS)

  18. Optical and crystal-chemical changes in aquamarines and yellow beryls from Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam induced by heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrichová, Jana; Bačík, Peter; Rusinová, Petra; Antal, Peter; Škoda, Radek; Bizovská, Valéria; Miglierini, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Optical and crystal-chemical changes in two beryl varieties after the heat treatment were determined using a wide spectrum of analytical methods. Studied aquamarines are generally more enriched in Fe (up to 0.25 apfu) and alkali (up to 0.08 apfu) than yellow beryls (up to 0.07 apfu Fe, up to 0.04 apfu alkali). The determined c/ a ratio of 0.997-0.998 classified all our studied beryls as "normal" beryls. While no crystal structure changes were observed in samples heated to 700 °C, those heated to 900 and 1,100 °C exhibited cracks and fissures. Reduced Fe occurred in samples heated between 300 and 700 °C, and subsequent oxidation from 900 to 1,100 °C induced changes in their colour and clarity. The Fe-bearing beryl colour is controlled by the position of the absorption edge and the presence of a broad band attributed to Fe2+ in the NIR region. Blue colour results from the absorption edge located deeper in the UV region and the presence of broad band in the NIR region. Shift of absorption edge to the visible region at the presence of the broad band gives a yellow colour. Although our studied beryls are enriched in H2O I molecule due to their low alkali content, the H2O II molecule is also present. The following two dehydration processes were observed: (1) release of one double-coordinating H2O II molecule at 300-500 °C and (2) total dehydration at 900-1,100 °C. The observed cracks and fissures likely resulted from channel water release in large beryl crystals.

  19. Minerals from Macedonia XXIII. Spectroscopic and structural characterization of schorl and beryl cyclosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makreski, Petre; Jovanovski, Gligor

    2009-08-01

    IR and Raman spectroscopy study on two collected cyclosilicate species: schorl (from tourmaline group), Na(Fe,Mg)(3)Al(6)(BO(3))(3)Si(6)O(18)(OH,F)(4) and beryl (Be,Mg,Fe)(3)Al(2)Si(6)O(18) were carried out. Although beryl is nominally anhydrous mineral, vibrational results strongly indicate that H(2)O molecules exist in the structural channels. The number of vibrational bands and their frequencies revealed the presence of H(2)O type II, in which C(2) symmetry axis of the water molecule is parallel to the structural channel (and to the c-axis of beryl). On the other hand, it was found that observed bands in the IR and Raman OH stretching region of the other tourmaline varieties appear as a result of the cation combinations involving dominant presence of Mg and Fe cations in the Y structural sites. The strong indication derived from the vibrational spectroscopic results that the studied mineral represents a schorl variety, coincide very well with the results obtained by powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray microprobe analysis. Both minerals show IR spectral similarities in the region below 1500 cm(-1), whereas the resemblance between the Raman spectra (1500-100 cm(-1)) is less expressed confirming that these spectra are more sensitive to compositional changes and to structural disorder. The identification of both minerals was additionally supported by studying the powder X-ray diffraction diagrams.

  20. Quantum Tunneling of Water in Beryl: A New State of the Water Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Reiter, George F; Choudhury, Narayani; Prisk, Timothy R; Mamontov, Eugene; Podlesnyak, Andrey; Ehlers, George; Seel, Andrew G; Wesolowski, David J; Anovitz, Lawrence M

    2016-04-22

    Using neutron scattering and ab initio simulations, we document the discovery of a new "quantum tunneling state" of the water molecule confined in 5 Å channels in the mineral beryl, characterized by extended proton and electron delocalization. We observed a number of peaks in the inelastic neutron scattering spectra that were uniquely assigned to water quantum tunneling. In addition, the water proton momentum distribution was measured with deep inelastic neutron scattering, which directly revealed coherent delocalization of the protons in the ground state.

  1. EFFECT OF AGING ON MECHANICAL AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF BERYL PARTICULATE REINFORCED METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. REDDAPPA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the study of effect of aging on mechanical and wear properties of ‘hot rolled’ Al6061-10% wt. of beryl particulate reinforced composites produced by stir casting have been examined. The result shows that hardness and tensile strength of ‘90% hot rolled and aged’ composites were increased by 10.28% and 3.78% as compared to ‘hot rolled’ composites respectively. The ‘hot rolled and aged’ composite shows significant decrease in specific wear rate when compared to that of ‘hot rolled’ composites.

  2. Investigations of EPR parameters for the trigonal Ti3+-Ti3+ pair in beryl crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2007-08-01

    By using the complete diagonalization of energy matrix of 3d1 ions in trigonal symmetry, the EPR parameters (g factors g( parallel), g( perpendicular) and zero-field splitting D) of the trigonal Ti3+-Ti3+ pair in beryl crystal are calculated. In the calculations, the exchange interaction in the Ti3+-Ti3+ pair is taken as the perturbation and the local trigonal distortion in the defect center is considered. The results (which are in agreement with the experimental values) are discussed.

  3. Characterization and application of tourmaline and beryl from Brazilian pegmatite in adsorption process with divalent metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denis L.Guerra; Silze P.Oliveira; Ricardo A.R.Silva; Victor Leidens; Adriano C.Batista

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the original tourmaline and beryl mineral samples have been collected from a Brazilian pegmatite.The objective of this study was to examine the adsorption behavior of Brazilian ciclosilicate sampies,towards divalent metals (Pb2+,Mn2+,and Zn2+) in ethanol solution has been studies by a batch technique.The ciclosilicate samples were characterized by elemental analysis,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,helium picnometry,mercury porosity,and nitrogen adsorption-desorption.The Langmuir expression for adsorption isotherm was applied in order to determine the adsorption capacity to form a monolayer and the constant related to the adsorption intensity.In aqueous solution there was a significant adsorption increase with the temperature and pronounced synergistic effects were observed.The maximum number of moles adsorbed was determined to be 12.48 and 11.49 mmol/g for systems Pb2+/beryl and Pb2+/tourmaline,respectively.The energetic effects caused by metal cations adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations.Thermodynamics indicated the existence of favorable conditions for such Pb2+-,Mn2+-,and Zn2+-OH interactions.

  4. EFFECT OF SOLUTIONIZING ON DRY SLIDING WEAR OF AL2024-BERYL METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Sharief

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, Al2024–Beryl particulate composites were fabricated by stir casting by varying the weight percentage of beryl particulates from 0 wt% to 10 wt% in steps of 2 wt%. The cast Al2024 alloy and its composites have been subjected to solutionizing treatment at a temperature of 495°C for 2 hrs, followed by ice quenching. Microstructural studies were carried out to determine the nature of the structure. The Brinell hardness test was conducted on both the Al2024 alloy and its composites before and after solutionizing. Pin-on disc wear tests were conducted to examine the wear behavior of the Al2024 alloy and its composites. Sliding wear tests were conducted at various applied loads, sliding velocities and sliding distances. The results reveal that the wear rate of the composites is lower than that of the matrix alloy. The wear rate increased with an increasing applied load and sliding distance, and decreased with increasing sliding velocity.

  5. Structure Refinement of Cs-rich Na-Li Beryl and Analysis of Its Typomorphic Characteristics of Configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; DENG Jun; LI Guowu; SHI Guanghai

    2007-01-01

    The tabular beryl found in Huya Country, Sichuan Province is a rare and special member among beryls. Chemical analysis reveals that the beryl is a new type of Cs-rich Na-Li beryl, and the content of alkalis (Li2O, Na2O, K2O, Rb2O, Cs2O) is up to 2.41%. The CCD system on the SMART APEX four circle single crystal diffractometer was used in this experiment to determine the structure of the sample accurately. The beryl belongs to the hexagonal system; its space group is P6/mcc. The dimensions of the unit cell are as follows: a = 0.91961(3) nm, c = 0.91969(7) nm, c/a= 1.0000, V= 0.67357nm3, γ = 120°, a = 90°, β = 90°. The accurate atomic coordinates of alkali metal ions and other crystallographic parameters are also obtained: Z = 2, the calculated density D = 2.754 g/cm3 and final R ( Ⅰ> 2 σ (Ⅰ))= 0.046 for 5597 reflections. The crystal structure was described by coordination polyhedron. Based on the data gained, a three-dimensional graph of the crystal structure of tabular beryl was made with the ATOMS 6.0 software. The refinement of crystal structure indicates that there are two main reasons for the cause of the tabular configuration: (1) The substitution of Be by Li into the tetrahedral framework weakened the stacked six-sided rings [Si6O1s]12- of the tetrahedral Si; (2) Alkalis (mainly Na and Cs) are too large to substitute in four-fold or six-fold coordination within the structure and are accommodated in the vacant channel. The accommodation of these alkalis strengthened the structure of six-sided rings of the tetrahedral Si. And other alkali metal ions and free volatile molecules such as H2O and CO2 occupy variable positions in the channel. The equation of the electrovalence is Li++Na+→Be2+. According to structural and compositional differences, the monoclinic crystal of tabular beryl is considered to be a new member of the beryl group. Chemical constraints of the environment, namely, the bulk-rock chemistry and the fluid-phase composition and

  6. Road and Street Centerlines, Beryl Lund rr frontage, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Beryl Lund rr frontage'. The extent of...

  7. Road and Street Centerlines, Beryl Junction B roads, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'Beryl Junction B roads'. The extent of...

  8. Road and Street Centerlines, 1600 w Beryl jct, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as '1600 w Beryl jct'. The extent of these...

  9. Road and Street Centerlines, 4800 n Beryl jct, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as '4800 n Beryl jct'. The extent of these...

  10. Incipient ferroelectricity of water molecules confined to nano-channels of beryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshunov, B P; Torgashev, V I; Zhukova, E S; Thomas, V G; Belyanchikov, M A; Kadlec, C; Kadlec, F; Savinov, M; Ostapchuk, T; Petzelt, J; Prokleška, J; Tomas, P V; Pestrjakov, E V; Fursenko, D A; Shakurov, G S; Prokhorov, A S; Gorelik, V S; Kadyrov, L S; Uskov, V V; Kremer, R K; Dressel, M

    2016-09-30

    Water is characterized by large molecular electric dipole moments and strong interactions between molecules; however, hydrogen bonds screen the dipole-dipole coupling and suppress the ferroelectric order. The situation changes drastically when water is confined: in this case ordering of the molecular dipoles has been predicted, but never unambiguously detected experimentally. In the present study we place separate H2O molecules in the structural channels of a beryl single crystal so that they are located far enough to prevent hydrogen bonding, but close enough to keep the dipole-dipole interaction, resulting in incipient ferroelectricity in the water molecular subsystem. We observe a ferroelectric soft mode that causes Curie-Weiss behaviour of the static permittivity, which saturates below 10 K due to quantum fluctuations. The ferroelectricity of water molecules may play a key role in the functioning of biological systems and find applications in fuel and memory cells, light emitters and other nanoscale electronic devices.

  11. Incipient ferroelectricity of water molecules confined to nano-channels of beryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshunov, B. P.; Torgashev, V. I.; Zhukova, E. S.; Thomas, V. G.; Belyanchikov, M. A.; Kadlec, C.; Kadlec, F.; Savinov, M.; Ostapchuk, T.; Petzelt, J.; Prokleška, J.; Tomas, P. V.; Pestrjakov, E. V.; Fursenko, D. A.; Shakurov, G. S.; Prokhorov, A. S.; Gorelik, V. S.; Kadyrov, L. S.; Uskov, V. V.; Kremer, R. K.; Dressel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Water is characterized by large molecular electric dipole moments and strong interactions between molecules; however, hydrogen bonds screen the dipole-dipole coupling and suppress the ferroelectric order. The situation changes drastically when water is confined: in this case ordering of the molecular dipoles has been predicted, but never unambiguously detected experimentally. In the present study we place separate H2O molecules in the structural channels of a beryl single crystal so that they are located far enough to prevent hydrogen bonding, but close enough to keep the dipole-dipole interaction, resulting in incipient ferroelectricity in the water molecular subsystem. We observe a ferroelectric soft mode that causes Curie-Weiss behaviour of the static permittivity, which saturates below 10 K due to quantum fluctuations. The ferroelectricity of water molecules may play a key role in the functioning of biological systems and find applications in fuel and memory cells, light emitters and other nanoscale electronic devices.

  12. Development of spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in beryl minerals using chrome Azurol S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham K. Fouad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A developed, direct, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in beryl minerals with Chrome Azurol S (CAS as a chromogenic reagent was developed in the present article. The determination was performed without either solvent extraction or ion exchange separation of beryllium from its matrix. The stable 1:1 Be-CAS complex was formed instantly with duration time of at least 24 h with constant absorbance. Different parameters such as wavelengths, pH, EDTA concentration and dye concentration were studied for the optimum determination of beryllium. Interference due to presence of high aluminum concentrations was overcome by adding 5% EDTA disodium salt solution. Maximum absorbance for Be-CAS complex was performed at λmax 568 NM using acetate buffer at pH 4.6. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range from 0.02 to 9 ppm with molar absorptivity ε = 0.22 × 104 mol−1 cm−1 and an average standard deviation of 0.7. The R.S.D for 10 replicate measurements of 1 ppm Be was 1.2%.

  13. Physicochemical Conditions of the Formation of Beryl and Aquamarin in Mufushan Granopegmatite Deposit,Hunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆麟; 牛贺才; 等

    1994-01-01

    The formation of the Mufushan granopegmatite was closely related to the Late Yenshanian multiphase and multistage magmatic activities,More than one generation of beryl and aquamarine occur in different types of pegmatite in the granites.The presence of melt and melt-fluid inclusions strongly indicates a melt-solution character of the pegmatitic magma.Forming temperatures of the different generations of beryl in a Na+-K+,Ca2+-CO32--Cl--SO42- solution ranges from 990℃to 200℃.Aquamarine was formed at 720-180℃.The contents of alkali metals(Na++K+)in th ore-formming solution of aquamarine are lower than those in the beryl,but the contents of alkali earths(Ca) and salinity are higher,The granite was generated by remelting of the basement formation(meta-sedimentary rocks of the Lengjiaxi Group)which also served as the source of ore-forming material.Beryllium in the pegmatite was transported mainly in the form of Na[Be(CO3)2],with part of it being complexed with Cl- and SO42-.During the generation and evolution of the pegmatite,equilibrium might have been reached in the solid-melt-fluid or solid-fluid system.The intergranular solutions may have reacted with the early crystallized minerals,resulting in potash-feldsparization,albitization and muscovitization during which the ore-forming elements were mobilized and transported in favour of ore deposition.

  14. Tropical Storm Beryl as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: AIRS Microwave Image This is an infrared image of Tropical Storm Beryl in the western Atlantic, from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on July 20, 2006, 1:30 am local time. This AIRS image shows the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the hurricane. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds. Where there are no clouds the AIRS instrument reads the infrared signal from the surface of the Earth, revealing warmer temperatures (red). This infrared image shows three large regions of strong convection surrounding the core of the storm. The largest, on the northern edge of the core, also appears in the companion microwave image to contain intense precipitation. The image in figure 1 is created from microwave radiation emitted by Earth's atmosphere and received by the instrument. It shows where the heaviest rainfall is taking place (in blue) in the storm. Blue areas outside of the tropical storm, where there are either some clouds or no clouds indicate where the sea surface shines through. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California

  15. Spectroscopic and bond-topological investigation of interstitial volatiles in beryl from Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrichová, Jana; Bačík, Peter; Bizovská, Valéria; Libowitzky, Eugen; Škoda, Radek; Uher, Pavel; Ozdín, Daniel; Števko, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Nine beryl samples from Western Carpathians, Slovakia, were investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. Two types of water H2O I and H2O II were detected. Infrared spectroscopy proved the presence of water type I and II in the presence of alkali cations with several bands: (1) symmetric stretching vibration—ν1; (2) antisymmetric stretching mode—ν3; (3) bending vibration—ν2. The presence of singly and doubly coordinated type II water (IIs and IId) was confirmed by single-crystal IR spectroscopy. From Raman spectra a band at 3606 cm-1 was assigned to ν1 of water type I and the range of 3597-3600 cm-1 to water type II. The presence of doubly coordinating water indicates a relatively highly hydrated environment with the presence of alkali ions including Na as the dominant cation coordinated by H2O II. CO2 bands were detected only by single-crystal IR spectroscopy. Thermal analysis proved total water loss in the range of 1.4-2.0 wt% and three main dehydration events. Based on the study of bond-topological arrangements two molecules of H2O IId are each bound with two H···O1 bonds and one Na-OW bond with an angular distortion, and by releasing one H2O molecule more stable H2O IIs is produced. The H2O I molecule is bound only by two equivalent hydrogen bonds. The H2O IIs molecule with a Na-OW bond strength of 0.28 vu and two H···O1 bonds of 0.14 vu without any forced angular distortion is the most stable of all.

  16. Vibrational states of a water molecule in a nano-cavity of beryl crystal lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Elena S; Torgashev, Victor I; Gorshunov, Boris P; Lebedev, Vladimir V; Shakurov, Gil'man S; Kremer, Reinhard K; Pestrjakov, Efim V; Thomas, Victor G; Fursenko, Dimitry A; Prokhorov, Anatoly S; Dressel, Martin

    2014-06-14

    Low-energy excitations of a single water molecule are studied when confined within a nano-size cavity formed by the ionic crystal lattice. Optical spectra are measured of manganese doped beryl single crystal Mn:Be3Al2Si6O18, that contains water molecules individually isolated in 0.51 nm diameter voids within the crystal lattice. Two types of orientation are distinguished: water-I molecules have their dipole moments aligned perpendicular to the c axis and dipole moments of water-II molecules are parallel to the c-axis. The optical conductivity σ(ν) and permittivity ɛ'(ν) spectra are recorded in terahertz and infrared ranges, at frequencies from several wavenumbers up to ν = 7000 cm(-1), at temperatures 5-300 K and for two polarizations, when the electric vector E of the radiation is parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. Comparative experiments on as-grown and on dehydrated samples allow to identify the spectra of σ(ν) and ɛ'(ν) caused exclusively by water molecules. In the infrared range, well-known internal modes ν1, ν2, and ν3 of the H2O molecule are observed for both polarizations, indicating the presence of water-I and water-II molecules in the crystal. Spectra recorded below 1000 cm(-1) reveal a rich set of highly anisotropic features in the low-energy response of H2O molecule in a crystalline nano-cavity. While for E∥c only two absorption peaks are detected, at ~90 cm(-1) and ~160 cm(-1), several absorption bands are discovered for E⊥c, each consisting of narrower resonances. The bands are assigned to librational (400-500 cm(-1)) and translational (150-200 cm(-1)) vibrations of water-I molecule that is weakly coupled to the nano-cavity "walls." A model is presented that explains the "fine structure" of the bands by a splitting of the energy levels due to quantum tunneling between the minima in a six-well potential relief felt by a molecule within the cavity.

  17. Vibrational states of a water molecule in a nano-cavity of beryl crystal lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukova, Elena S., E-mail: zhukovaelenka@gmail.com; Gorshunov, Boris P. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy per., 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); 1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova Street 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Torgashev, Victor I. [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, 5 Zorge St., 344090 Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Lebedev, Vladimir V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy per., 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademika Semenova av., 1-A, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Shakurov, Gil' man S. [Kazan Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 10/7 Sibirsky Trakt, 420029 Kazan (Russian Federation); Kremer, Reinhard K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Pestrjakov, Efim V. [Institute of Laser Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/3 Ac. Lavrentyev' s Prosp., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Thomas, Victor G.; Fursenko, Dimitry A. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Ac. Koptyug' s Prosp., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Prokhorov, Anatoly S. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy per., 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova Street 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-06-14

    Low-energy excitations of a single water molecule are studied when confined within a nano-size cavity formed by the ionic crystal lattice. Optical spectra are measured of manganese doped beryl single crystal Mn:Be{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 18}, that contains water molecules individually isolated in 0.51 nm diameter voids within the crystal lattice. Two types of orientation are distinguished: water-I molecules have their dipole moments aligned perpendicular to the c axis and dipole moments of water-II molecules are parallel to the c-axis. The optical conductivity σ(ν) and permittivity ε{sup ′}(ν) spectra are recorded in terahertz and infrared ranges, at frequencies from several wavenumbers up to ν = 7000 cm{sup −1}, at temperatures 5–300 K and for two polarizations, when the electric vector E of the radiation is parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. Comparative experiments on as-grown and on dehydrated samples allow to identify the spectra of σ(ν) and ε{sup ′}(ν) caused exclusively by water molecules. In the infrared range, well-known internal modes ν{sub 1}, ν{sub 2}, and ν{sub 3} of the H{sub 2}O molecule are observed for both polarizations, indicating the presence of water-I and water-II molecules in the crystal. Spectra recorded below 1000 cm{sup −1} reveal a rich set of highly anisotropic features in the low-energy response of H{sub 2}O molecule in a crystalline nano-cavity. While for E∥c only two absorption peaks are detected, at ∼90 cm{sup −1} and ∼160 cm{sup −1}, several absorption bands are discovered for E⊥c, each consisting of narrower resonances. The bands are assigned to librational (400–500 cm{sup −1}) and translational (150–200 cm{sup −1}) vibrations of water-I molecule that is weakly coupled to the nano-cavity “walls.” A model is presented that explains the “fine structure” of the bands by a splitting of the energy levels due to quantum tunneling between the minima in a six-well potential

  18. Anisotropic dynamics of water ultraconfined in macroscopically oriented channels of single-crystal beryl: a multifrequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovitz, Lawrence M; Mamontov, Eugene; ben Ishai, Paul; Kolesnikov, Alexander I

    2013-11-01

    The properties of fluids can be significantly altered by the geometry of their confining environments. While there has been significant work on the properties of such confined fluids, the properties of fluids under ultraconfinement, environments where, at least in one plane, the dimensions of the confining environment are similar to that of the confined molecule, have not been investigated. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of water in beryl (Be(3)Al(2)Si(6)O(18)), the structure of which contains approximately 5-Å-diam channels parallel to the c axis. Three techniques, inelastic neutron scattering, quasielastic neutron scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy, have been used to quantify these properties over a dynamic range covering approximately 16 orders of magnitude. Because beryl can be obtained in large single crystals we were able to quantify directional variations, perpendicular and parallel to the channel directions, in the dynamics of the confined fluid. These are significantly anisotropic and, somewhat counterintuitively, show that vibrations parallel to the c-axis channels are significantly more hindered than those perpendicular to the channels. The effective potential for vibrations in the c direction is harder than the potential in directions perpendicular to it. There is evidence of single-file diffusion of water molecules along the channels at higher temperatures, but below 150 K this diffusion is strongly suppressed. No such suppression, however, has been observed in the channel-perpendicular direction. Inelastic neutron scattering spectra include an intramolecular stretching O-H peak at ~465 meV. As this is nearly coincident with that known for free water molecules and approximately 30 meV higher than that in liquid water or ice, this suggests that there is no hydrogen bonding constraining vibrations between the channel water and the beryl structure. However, dielectric spectroscopic measurements at higher temperatures and lower

  19. Application of Multi-well Subsidence Analysis of the Beryl Embayment,Viking Graben, Northern North Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Lirong; Jon D.TURNER; Roger A.SCRUTTON

    2006-01-01

    The Beryl Embayment is situated at the south end of the North Viking Graben in the North Sea. Three sets of normal faults, with N-S, NW-SE and NE-SW orientations, have been recognized in the Beryl Embayment. High-resolution subsidence analysis of 73 wells, combined with some seismic data, has been used to document Middle to Late Jurassic subsidence patterns in this area. The high temporal resolution achieved (1 to 2 million years per data point) has also allowed an assessment to be made of temporal evolution of faults with different orientations, and a study made of how and when the East Shetland Fault was linked and controlled sedimentary facies distributions. The results indicate that the East Shetland Fault can be divided into northern and southern parts which were linked together during the Early-Mid Oxfordian. The Mid-Late Jurassic syn-rift phase can be divided into four stages: minor active extension stage during the Bathonian-Middle Callovian, early syn-rotational stage during the Late Callovian-Early-Mid Oxfordian, syn-rotational climax stage during the Late Oxfordian-Early Volgian, and late syn-rotational stage during the Mid-Late Volgian. The results also show that there was a sequential variation of extension direction of active normal faults with different orientations, with an overall shift in the dominant orientation of active normal faults from N-S in the Bathonian-Middle Oxfordian, through NNW-SSE in the Late Oxfordian-Early Volgian (≈N30°E), to NW-SE (≈N45°E) in the Mid-Late Volgian.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy of OD vibrators in minerals at natural dilution: hydroxyl groups in talc and kaolinite, and structural water in beryl and emerald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Donato, Philippe; Cheilletz, Alain; Barres, Odile; Yvon, Jacques

    2004-05-01

    An infrared (IR) study of natural deuteration is conducted on minerals containing hydroxyl groups (talc and kaolinite) and channel-water-bearing minerals (beryl and emerald). In talc, the OD valence vibration is located at 2710 cm(-1), corresponding to OD groups surrounded by 3 Mg atoms. In kaolinite, the OD valence vibrations are located at 2671 cm(-1) (inner OD group), 2712, 2706, and 2700 cm(-1) (three inner-surface OD groups). In beryl and emerald, natural deuteration of channel water is observed for the first time by infrared microspectroscopy. In beryl from Minas Gerais (Brazil), the OD profiles are characterized by four bands at 2735, 2686, 2672, and 2641 cm(-1). In emeralds from Colombia and Brazil, the OD profiles are characterized by five or four bands, respectively, at 2816, 2737, 2685, 2673, and 2641 cm(-1) (Colombia) and 2730, 2684, 2672, and 2640 cm(-1) (Brazil). The band at 2816 cm(-1) can be assigned to -OD or OD(-), and bands at 2686-2684, 2673-2672, and 2641-2640 cm(-1) can be assigned to type-I and type-II HOD molecules. The band at 2737-2730 cm(-1) is partially disturbed by combination bands of the mineral. Such OD profiles are different from those obtained by artificial deuteration at higher OD dilution.

  1. Chemical evolution and origin of the Luumäki gem beryl pegmatite: Constraints from mineral trace element chemistry and fractionation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michallik, Radoslaw M.; Wagner, Thomas; Fusswinkel, Tobias; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Heikkilä, Pasi

    2017-03-01

    The 1928 Ma old Luumäki gem beryl pegmatite is hosted by rapakivi granites of the Wiborg batholith in southeast Finland. The moderately evolved niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) pegmatite system belongs to the topaz-beryl type of the rare-element pegmatite class. It has a simple major mineral assemblage of K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + biotite ± fluorite throughout the main pegmatite zones (border, wall, intermediate, and core zone). It consists of at least two chemically related bodies (Luumäki N and Luumäki S), of which only Luumäki N contains gem beryl (heliodor) bearing miarolitic pockets. We characterize the geology, mineral assemblages, and the major and trace element chemistry of K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and quartz from the pegmatite. The mineral chemistry data show a progressive enrichment of Rb, Cs and Tl in K-feldspars, and depletion in Sr and Ba. The K-feldspar from the beryl-bearing pockets records the highest enrichment in incompatible elements, distinct from the data trend shown by K-feldspar from the main pegmatite zones. The REE data for plagioclase show a decrease of the positive Eu-anomaly and then a change to negative Eu-anomaly in the more evolved inner zones. This demonstrates an increase of the oxidation state of the pegmatite melt over time, consistent with the abundance of hematite in late-stage mineral assemblages including those of the miarolitic pockets. Fractional crystallization modeling is able to replicate the progressive enrichment of incompatible elements in K-feldspar, and to predict degrees of crystallization, which are in good agreement with volume estimates for the different pegmatite zones. The modeling results demonstrate that formation of the zoned pegmatite up to the quartz core can be well explained by an igneous crystallization process, leading up to considerable enrichment in incompatible elements. The melt reached saturation with an aqueous hydrothermal fluid only after more than 90% of the pegmatite melt

  2. Geologic and geochemical features of the volatile-rich ore fluid and its tracing and dating in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Laser Raman spectrochemical analysis on single inclusion reveals that multi-phase fluid inclusions exist in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit.Besides the solid daughter mineral,there are vapor CO2,liquid CO2,water-deficient CO2 and salt water solution from its center to the border.A close study on the fluid inclusion components and carbon,oxygen,helium and argon isotope tracing and dating suggests that the volatile-rich ore fluid might derive from postmagmatic fluid and rare element enrichment is the result of the mixture of the plutonic alkali granite with crustal material.

  3. Geologic and geochemical features of the volatile-rich ore fluid and its tracing and dating in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志敏; 任建国; 郑建斌; 徐仕进; 李佑国; 王汝成; T.SHOJ; H.KANEDA; S.KABAYASHI

    2002-01-01

    Laser Raman spectrochemical analysis on single inclusion reveals that multi-phase fluid inclusions exist in the Xuebaoding Beryl- Scheelite Vein Deposit. Besides the solid daughter mineral, there are vapor CO2, liquid CO2, water-deficient CO2 and salt water solution from its center to the border. A close study on the fluid inclusion components and carbon, oxygen, helium and argon isotope tracing and dating suggests that the volatile-rich ore fluid might derive from postmagmatic fluid and rare element enrichment is the result of the mixture of the plutonic alkali granite with crustal material.

  4. FTIR imaging in diffusion studies: CO2 and H2O in a synthetic sector-zoned beryl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo eDella Ventura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of CO2 and H2O in a synthetic beryl having a peculiar hourglass zoning of Cr due to the crystal growth. The sample was treated at 800°C, 500 MPa, in a CO2-rich atmosphere. High-resolution FESEM images revealed that the hourglass boundary is not correlated to physical discontinuities, at least at the scale of tens of nanometers. Polarized FPA-FTIR imaging, on the other side, revealed that the chemical zoning acts as a fast pathway for carbon dioxide diffusion, a feature never observed so far in minerals. The hourglass zone boundary may be thus considered as a structural defect possibly due to the mismatch induced by the different growth rates of each sector. High-resolution synchrotron-light FTIR imaging, in addition, also allows enhancement of CO2 diffusion along the hourglass boundary to be distinguished from diffusion along fractures in the grain. Therefore, FTIR imaging provides evidence that different diffusion mechanisms may locally combine, suggesting that the distribution of the target molecules needs to be be carefully characterized in experimental studies. This piece of information is mandatory when the study is aimed at extracting diffusion coefficients from analytical profiles. Combination of TOF-SIMS and FPA data shows a significant depletion of type II H2O along the hourglass boundary, indicating that water diffusion could be controlled by the distribution of alkali cations within channels, coupled to a plug effect of CO2.

  5. Anisotropic dynamics of water ultra-confined in macroscopically oriented channels of single-crystal beryl: A multi-frequency analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Ishai, Paul ben [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The properties of fluids can be significantly altered by the geometry of their confining environments. While there has been significant work on the properties of such confined fluids, the properties of fluids under ultraconfinement, environments where, at least in one plane, the dimensions of the confining environment are similar to that of the confined molecule, have not been investigated. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of water in beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18), the structure of which contains approximately 5-A-diam channels parallel to the c axis. Three techniques, inelastic neutron scattering, quasielastic neutron scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy, have been used to quantify these properties over a dynamic range covering approximately 16 orders of magnitude. Because beryl can be obtained in large single crystals we were able to quantify directional variations, perpendicular and parallel to the channel directions, in the dynamics of the confined fluid. These are significantly anisotropic and, somewhat counterintuitively, show that vibrations parallel to the c-axis channels are significantly more hindered than those perpendicular to the channels. The effective potential for vibrations in the c direction is harder than the potential in directions perpendicular to it. There is evidence of single-file diffusion of water molecules along the channels at higher temperatures, but below 150 K this diffusion is strongly suppressed. No such suppression, however, has been observed in the channel-perpendicular direction. Inelastic neutron scattering spectra include an intramolecular stretching O-H peak at 465 meV. As this is nearly coincident with that known for free water molecules and approximately 30 meV higher than that in liquid water or ice, this suggests that there is no hydrogen bonding constraining vibrations between the channel water and the beryl structure. However, dielectric spectroscopic measurements at higher temperatures and lower frequencies

  6. Hydrology of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah, with emphasis on ground water; With a section on surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Reed W.; Sandberg, George Woodard

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah (pl. 1), was made during 1976-78 as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights. Wells were the most important source of water for all purposes in the Beryl-Enterprise area during 1978, but it has not always been so. For nearly a century after the first settlers arrived in about 1860, streams supplied most of the irrigation water and springs supplied much of the water for domestic and stock use. A few shallow wells were dug by the early settlers for domestic and stock water, but the widespread use of ground water did not start until the 1920's when shallow wells were first dug to supply irrigation water. Ground-water withdrawals from wells, principally for irrigation, have increased nearly every year since the 1920's. The quantity withdrawn from wells surpassed that diverted from surface sources during the mid-1940's and was about eight times that amount during the 1970's. As a result, water levels have declined measurably throughout the area resulting in administrative water-rights problems.The primary purpose of this report is to describe the water resources with emphasis on ground water. The surface-water resources are evaluated only as they pertain to the understanding of the ground-water resources. A secondary purpose is to discuss the extent and effects of the development of ground water in order to provide the hydrologic information needed for the orderly and optimum development of the resource and for the effective administration and adjudication of water rights in the area. The hydrologic data on which this report is based are given in a companion report by Mower (1981).

  7. CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF RASPBERRY "BERYL"%草莓红“绿柱石”的晶体化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖尚宜; 彭明生

    2003-01-01

    利用扫描电镜-能谱仪(SEM-EDS)、电子探针(EPMA)、高分辨等离子质谱仪 (HR-ICP-MS)和X-射线单晶衍射仪等方法,对一种新的含高铯矿物进行了分析,发现其成分、结构和光学特征等均异于常见的含Cs绿柱石(Morganite).它是一种含高铯属三方晶系的、新发现的宝石矿物,称此宝石矿物为草莓红"绿柱石"(Raspberry "Beryl"). 晶体化学式为:(Cs0.627 Na0.095 K0.041 Rb0.031 Ca0.028)0.822(Be2.099 Li0.869)2.968(Al1.964 Fe0.010)1.974 Si6.040 O18.晶胞参数a=1.59735 nm,c=2.78444 nm,α=β=90°,γ=120°,V=6.15274 nm3.折射率No=1.615~1.616, Ne=1.607±,双折射率为0.008~0.009,S.G.为3.00~3.10.

  8. 四川平武富碱型绿柱石晶体的晶格缺陷与生长机制%CRYSTAL DEFECT AND GROWTH MECHANISM OF ALKALI-RICH BERYL CRYSTAL FROM PINGWU,SICHUAN,CHIAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓利剑; 裴景成; 石国华; 罗永安; 周开灿

    2001-01-01

    在低饱和度、碱性、气成—热液条件下形成的四川平武绿柱石宝石晶体,具有特征的扁平板状几何外形。在绿柱石晶体的{0001}、{1010}、{1121}面上,普遍发育螺旋位错、束合螺旋位错、层错及接触双晶,它们共同构成了绿柱石晶体生长的主要台阶源。微分干涉显微镜、扫描电镜和透射电镜研究结果证实,由填隙变形、位错滑移和水解弱化等综合作用,直接导致绿柱石硅氧四面体六方环结构和铍氧四面体结构的局部畸变,并相应引起多面体体积、化学键力、键合能及晶面的法向生长速率发生变化,从而决定了该区绿柱石晶体生长的形态。由绿柱石晶体中的线缺陷(螺旋位错)、面缺陷(层错、双晶)及点缺陷(空位、包裹体)的协同作用,是导致四川平武扁平板状绿柱石晶体形成的主要原因。%The beryl crystal from Pingwu County,Sichuan Province that occurred on the low-saturation,alkaline and pneumatogenic—thermal conditions,is characterized by the flat tabular shape.On the crystal surfaces of the beryl crystal at {0001},{1010},{1121} occur universally screw dislocation,constriction screw dislocation,stacking fault,and contact twin that serve as the major step-like source for the growth of beryl crystal.The research results obtained through differential interference microscope,scanning electron microscope,and transmission electron microscope show that the comprehensive effects of interstitial deformation,dislocation sliding and hydrolytic weakening lead directly to the local deformation of the silica tetrahedral hexagonal ring-like structure and the beryllium oxide tetragonal structure,and at the same time to the change in polyhedral volume,chemical bond force,bonding energy,and in the normal growth rate of the crystal face.These changes determine the morphology of the beryl crystal growth in this zone.The formation of the flat

  9. THE MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ITS APPLICATION PROSPECT OF BERYL IN PINGWU,SICHUAN%四川平武绿柱石结晶学特征研究及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琰; 张斌; 余晓艳

    2001-01-01

    The color of beryl found in Pingwu is from light green tocolorless, and its transparence is from transparence to semi-transparent. Its shape is plate. Its special and beautiful co-existant compositions have been developed as the stones for people's admiration and enjoyment. The berylis prized as a gem when clear and free from flows. This unique characteristic and other characteristics have drawn wide attention among the mineralogists. Based on electron probe analysis and x-ray analysis, the crystallogy of Pingwu beryl was studied. Its application prospects was discussed.%产于四川平武的绿柱石颜色呈现浅绿色至无色,透明至半透明,形状为独特的板状,是国内绿柱石呈现板柱晶形的惟一实例,其共生组合已经作为观赏石开发。采用电子探针、X射线分析等多种方法对平武绿柱石进行了结晶学的研究,并分析了其应用前景。

  10. The features of structure and isomorphic substitutions in flux-synthesized V-containing beryls and V-containing beryllian indialite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, M. A., E-mail: mikmik@igc.irk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Rozhdestvenskaya, I. V.; Bannova, I. I. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    An X-ray diffraction study of isostructural V-containing beryl (V-Iz) and V-containing beryllian indialite (V-BI) (the general formula M{sub 2}{sup VI}T2{sub 3}{sup IV}T1{sub 6}{sup IV}O{sub 18}){sup 1} synthesized in the Al{sub 2}Be{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 18}-Mg,Ca/F,Cl flux system with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} impurity has been performed. It is shown for V-Iz that the isomorphic replacement of some part of Al{sup 3+} in the octahedron with larger V{sup 3+} and Mg{sup 2+} cations and a small fraction of Be{sup 2+} ions with Al{sup 3+} in the interring tetrahedron T2, as well as the introduction of alkaline ions into R voids, leads to an increase in the average bonds lengths in the M position and increases the unit-cell parameter a at an insignificant increase in the parameter c. In V-Bi, the heterovalent replacement of some part of Mg{sup 2+} ions by V{sup 3+} ions, with complex isomorphism in all structural positions, is accompanied by the isovalent Mg{sup 2+} {yields} Fe{sup 2+} scheme. These substitutions cause some decrease in the parameter c of V-Bi with the preservation of its parameter a. It is found that T1 tetrahedra in V-BI are much closer to ideal than in V-Iz, T2 tetrahedra are distorted much more weakly, and M octahedra are distorted somewhat more strongly. However, the degree of distortion of the ring tetrahedron T1 in V-BI reaches 0.9 rel. %. This fact indicates that V-BI and Cr-BI have a similar disposition to congruent melting, which significantly inferior that of 'pure' species.

  11. Nondestructive Analysis of Chemical Composition, Structure and Mineral Phase of Natural Beryl Gems%天然绿柱石类宝石化学成分、结构和物相的无损分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 干福熹; 赵虹霞

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition, structure and mineral phase of fourteen beryl group samples were analyzed by portalbe X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD)and laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), respectively. To make up the insufficiency of the pXRF measurement, the light element (Be, Li) was qualitatively analyzed by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). According to the results of XRD, the characteristic diffraction peaks of single crystal beryl samples were around 0.786 63, 0.396 39 and 0.265 11nm. Combined with chemical composition, the coloration mechanism of Cr3+, V3+and Fe3+were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). According to the result of Raman spectra, the forms of alkali metal ions in samples were discussed by the relative intensity of I-type and II-type water. All these results can provide the useful information for the application of non-destructive techniques in jewelry market.%通过便携式能量色散型X射线荧光(pXRF)、X射线衍射(XRD)、激光Raman光谱(LRS)等技术分别对天然绿柱石类宝石样品的化学成分、结构和物相进行了无损分析。同时,为弥补pXRF对轻元素测量上的不足,探索应用激光诱导击穿光谱(LIBS)对样品中的轻元素Be和Li进行了定性分析。根据XRD的分析结果,得到绿柱石单晶宝石样品的特征衍射峰晶面间距d=0.78663、0.39639、0.26511 nm。对14件样品进行电子顺磁共振分析,在此基础上结合化学成分研究了Cr3+、V3+、Fe3+等离子的致色机理。同时,根据I型水、II型水的Raman光谱相对强度对样品中碱金属的存在形式进行了讨论。上述研究将为无损分析技术在珠宝市场中的应用提供参考信息。

  12. 新疆绿柱石(祖母绿)包裹体矿物学及成矿地质条件研究%Mineralogy and Ore-forming Geological Conditions of Beryl (Emerald) Inclusions from South Area of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 王龙江; 汪立今; 张春疆; 石玉君; 陈勇; 李甲平

    2012-01-01

    High grade beryl (emerald) discovered in the south area of Xinjiang Autonomous Region has attracted attention by domestic and foreign scholars. This paper is mainly focused on the inclusions mineralogy and ore-forming geological conditions of the beryl (emerald) ore. It's discovered that the fluid inclusions have two main types, Type A, two phase brine inclusions, and Type B, three-phase brine inclusions (including the son mineral). The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions ranges from 270 to 500 ℃, and is mainly between 300 and 480 ℃, belonging to the high temperature fluid. The salinity of fluid inclusions ranges from 18% to 60%, and is mainly between 20% and 50%, belonging to the high-salinity fluid. Ore-forming fluid density is 0.95 g/cm3. The pressure of ore-forming fluid is about 65 MPa. We can determine that the type of beryl deposits in Xinjiang is the high temperature gas-hydrothermal type, and the beryl (emerald) in this area has important guiding significance for theoretical and practical application.%新疆发现优质绿柱石(祖母绿)受到了国内外学者的高度关注。本文主要对新疆绿柱石(祖母绿)矿的包裹体矿物学及成矿地质条件进行研究,发现流体包裹体主要有2种类型:A型,两相盐水溶液包裹体;B型,三相盐水包裹体(含子矿物)。流体包裹体均一温度变化范围为:270~500℃,主要集中在300~480℃,最高峰值为500℃,属中高温度流体。流体包裹体盐度变化范围为:18%~60%,主要集中在20%~50%,最高峰值为60%,属中高盐度流体。成矿流体密度为0.95 g/cm3。成矿流体的压力约为65 MPa,确定新疆绿柱石矿床类型为中高温气成-热液型。

  13. Heat capacities and thermodynamic functions for beryl, Be3Al2Si6O18, phenakite, Be2SiO4, euclase, BeAlSiO4(OH), bertrandite, Be4Si2O7(OH)2, and chrysoberyl, BeAl2O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, B.S.; Barton, M.D.; Robie, R.A.; Haselton, H.T.

    1986-01-01

    The heat capacities of beryl, phenakite, euclase and bertrandite have been measured between approx 5 and 800 K by combined quasi-adiabatic cryogenic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The heat capacities of chrysoberyl have been measured from 340 to 800 K. The resulting data have been combined with solution and phase-equilibrium experimental data and simultaneously adjusted using the programme PHAS20 to provide an internally consistent set of thermodynamic properties for several important beryllium phases. The experimental heat capacities and tables of derived thermodynamic properties are presented.-J.A.Z.

  14. Zircon LA ICPMS U Pb Geochronology of the Beryl-Bearing Pegmatite and Its Geological Significance,Western Yunnan,Southwest China%滇西含绿柱石伟晶岩锆石UPb年代学及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李再会; 唐发伟; 林仕良; 丛峰; 谢韬; 邹光富

    2014-01-01

    Zircon LA ICP MS U Pb dating and geochemical analyses were carried out for the beryl-bearing pegmatite of Tengchong Lianghe area,western Yunnan.Dating results revealed that the beryl-bearing pegmatite were formed at (48.1±0.8)Ma (MSWD=4.0).Zircon morphology and trace element feature indicate that the zircons suffered from hydrothermal alteration.The beryl-bearing pegmatite shows similar characteristics with respect to major elements,trace elements and rare elements with muscovite granite which formed during 55 52 Ma.They are sub-alkaline series,peraluminous granite with strongly Eu depletion,relatively enriched HREE with (La/Yb)N=1.61 1.92 and showing typical M-type of REE tetrad effect.The genesis of beryl-bearing pegmatite is related to the evolution of muscovite granitoids and the crystallization temperature of beryl-bearing pegmatite is 581 ℃.It indicates the overthickened crust tectonic setting caused by India-Asia continental collision.%对腾冲梁河地区含绿柱石伟晶岩进行了锆石 LA ICP MS U Pb 定年和地球化学分析。结果表明:含绿柱石伟晶岩的形成时代为(48.1±0.8)Ma(MSWD=4.0),锆石形态特征和微量元素特征显示,伟晶岩锆石受到热液的改造。含绿柱石伟晶岩与55~52 Ma 的白云母花岗岩在主量元素、微量元素及稀土元素方面表现出极其相似的特征,为钙碱性系列,过铝质花岗岩,表现出强烈的 Eu 亏损,δEu 为0.074~0.083,相对富集 HREE,(La/Yb)N =1.61~1.92,总体表现出典型的“M”型稀土元素四分组效应。含绿柱石伟晶岩是白云母花岗岩浆高度演化的结果,伟晶岩结晶温度为581℃,代表了印度欧亚板块碰撞导致地壳加厚的构造背景。

  15. Crystal structure of a new variety of lead dodecaborate Pb{sub 6}(Li{sub 0.65}Na{sub 0.19})[B{sub 12}O{sub 24}]I{sub 0.84} {center_dot} 0.168H{sub 2}O and its comparison with beryl and cordierite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belokoneva, E. L., E-mail: elbel@geol.msu.ru; Derkach, I. K.; Dimitrova, O. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    Crystals of a new representative of ring-radical dodecaborates Pb{sub 6}(Li{sub 0.65}Na{sub 0.19})[B{sub 12}O{sub 24}]I{sub 0.84} {center_dot} 0.168H{sub 2}O, space group R3bar m , are obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The structure is determined with-out preliminary knowledge of the chemical formula. It is close to that of the Pb{sub 6}[B{sub 12}O{sub 24}] {center_dot} H{sub 2}O dodecaborate studied earlier, but unlike the latter structure it contains admixtures of iodide anion, lithium cation, and water molecule, which incompletely populate positions in channels. The formation of the second variety, which brings to light ion-exchange properties of the crystals, is due to mineralizing ions available in the concen-trated solution in the course of crystallization. The new compound is compared with beryl and cordierite, which have close structures with channels capable of capturing various groups. Structures of synthetic Na and Ag dodecaborates with analogous but distorted ring dodecaborate radicals are discussed.

  16. 平武板状绿柱石{0001}晶面的溶蚀像特征与晶体生长%The Crystal Growth and Characteristics of Etched Figures on c { 0001 } Face of Tabular Beryl Crystal from Pinwu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良钜; 阮青锋; 饶灿

    2012-01-01

    板状绿柱石产于花岗岩云英岩化边部或晶洞壁的白云母-钠长石-绿柱石-水晶的矿物组合中,钠长石呈自形晶,绿柱石的洁净度与透明度相对较差。晶体测量表明,晶体的单形晶面发育依次为c{0001}→s{11 2-1}→p{10 1-1}→m{10 1-0}→v{21 3-1}、n{45 9-4}、a{11 2-0}。微分干涉显微镜(DIC)及扫描电镜(SEM)研究表明:各单形晶面上生长纹(微形貌)反映面网结构的对称性,c{0001}单形晶面上的六边形溶蚀坑(50~170μm)是由平行晶体C轴的各单形晶面生长层从晶体中心向外叠堆组成,层生长机理制约晶体生长全过程,平行双面(c)的生长层较薄(5~8μm)且较稳定,六方双锥(s)生长层较厚且圆滑,六方柱(m)生长层由晶体中心往外其厚度由厚逐渐变薄(12~20μm),台间隔由窄变宽。晶体溶蚀是从面网密度最大的c{0001}开始,溶蚀面积依平行双面(c)、六方双锥(s)单形晶面由大变小,六方柱(a)、复六方双锥(v、n)单形晶面因面网密度小而未受到溶蚀。据矿物共生组合、流体包裹体均一法测量与拉曼光谱(LRS)分析表明板状绿柱石是在中–高温(303℃)、过饱和度较大、成矿介质的钠长石化发育且热动力环境相对稳定的条件下形成,气液包裹体主要由H2O、CO2及微量CH4、N2组成,CO2及微量CH4、N2可能与碳酸盐围岩有关。%Beryl occurred in mineral association of granite greisened muscovite, albite, beryl and quartz. Goniometry indicated that the single form crystal face growth is in turn c{0001 } , s{ 11 21} , P{ 10 11 }, m{ 10 10} and v{21 31} , the next place is n{45 94} and a{11 20}. There are some growth pattern (surface micromorphology) in different single form crystal face is observed by differential interference phase contrast microscope (DIC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and those growth pattern have related to the net

  17. 雪宝顶绿柱石的谱学研究%Mineral Spectroscopic Studies of Beryls from Xuebaoding, Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金辉; 曹志敏; 刘菁; 李佑国; 张以云; 应三丛

    2000-01-01

    本文对雪宝顶绿柱石的晶体化学、矿物谱学、热释光和流体包裹体特征等进行了分析讨论.结果表明,雪宝顶绿柱石化学成分具有富碱、富水,过渡金属离子以Fe3+、Fe2+为主的特点.碱金属离子、水和Fe2+存在于绿柱石结构隧道中,隧道水分为Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型两类,Ⅰ型水可以进一步区分为Ⅰ1和Ⅰ2两亚类,Fe 2+主要与隧道水结合形成水合离子[Fe2+(H2O)].Fe3+主要占位于绿柱石AlO6八面体中的Al3+位,是导致绿柱石呈浅绿色的主要杂质离子.绿柱石的热释光强度和峰温可作为其标型特征之一.成矿溶液属于气成高温热水溶液,且富含大量碳酸或碳酸气.

  18. Gemmological Characteristics of Tairus Synthetic Beryl%Tairus合成绿柱石的宝石学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gagan Choudhary

    2009-01-01

    以泰国曼谷Tairus有限公司生产的Tairus水热法合成绿柱石样品为研究对象,对其宝石学特征进行了测试与研究.结果显示,样品的常规宝石学特征(如RI,相对密度)与其天然绿柱石的相同;肉眼可见其锯齿状生长纹,可作为其合成绿柱石的特征.当这种合成绿柱石产品的内部特征不明显时,可采用FTIR和EDXRF分析技术对其进行诊断性鉴定.

  19. IRRADIATION COLORING AND EFFECT OF BERYL%绿柱石的辐照赋色与效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向长金; 亓利剑; 周开灿; 罗永安

    2001-01-01

    利用电子加速器为辐照源,对四川、新疆等地产的无色绿柱石进行了辐照改色处理.在改色实验中,对辐照源的输出功率、电子能量、扫描面积、扫描速度、辐照剂量等参数,及辐照后样品的辐照效应、环境适应性、时效考验等特性进行了较系统的实验研究,并拟定出一套适合不同成因的无色绿柱石辐照改色的优选方案;对绿柱石的辐照机制和效应进行了探讨.

  20. RESEARCH PROGRESS OF INCLUSION IN BERYL%绿柱石中包裹体研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴景成; 张汉凯

    2000-01-01

    从包裹体性质、类型、成分特征等方面详细介绍了近年来国内外绿柱石中包裹体研究在绿柱石的成因类型、形成条件及绿柱石宝石的产地的判别、绿柱石宝石的鉴别等方面的进展;同时也介绍了包裹体研究中某些测试技术的进展,并对绿柱石中包裹体研究提出了一些建议.

  1. 绿柱石的成因与特征的研究%Genesis and characteristics of beryl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮青锋; 张良钜; 张昌龙; 雷威; 饶灿; 廖宝丽; 曾伟来

    2008-01-01

    绿柱石是提炼稀有金属钦的重要矿石矿物,也是重要的宝石矿物.文章从绿柱石的矿床特点、包裹体和谱学特征、绿柱石的优化处理及人工合成等方面,对国内近年来在绿柱石研究方面的进展进行了综述,并对绿柱石的研究方向提出了一些建议.

  2. Emulating Excellence: Financial Management Lessons for the Navy from the Experiences of the Corporation for National and Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    concern at 173 Beryl A. Radin, Challenging the Performance Movement: Accountability Complexity and...Notes in Computer Science 3591, 2005. Public Law 108-45. Radin, Beryl A., Challenging the Performance Movement: Accountability Complexity and

  3. 76 FR 21006 - United States and State of New York v. Stericycle, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ..., Beryl A. Assign. Date: 4/8/2011 Description: Antitrust Complaint Plaintiffs, the United States of..., Beryl A. Assign. Date: 4/8/2011 Description: Antitrust Competitive Impact Statement Plaintiff...

  4. 78 FR 32443 - United States, et al. v. Cinemark Holdings, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ..., TX 75251, Defendants. Civil Action No.: 1:13-cv-00727. Judge: Beryl A. Howell. Filed: 05/20/2013..., LLC, and Alder Wood Partners, L.P., Defendants. Civil Action No.: 1:13-cv-00727. Judge: Beryl...

  5. 40 CFR 421.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fluoride 78,610.000 44,700.000 (b) Solvent extraction raffinate from beryl ore. BAT Limitations for the... average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of beryllium carbonate produced from beryl ore as beryllium....000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium...

  6. 40 CFR 421.154 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... times. (b) Solvent extraction raffinate from beryl ore. NSPS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory... pounds) of beryllium carbonate produced from beryl ore as beryllium Beryllium 180.4 81.4 Chromium (total... range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. NSPS for the Primary...

  7. Vibrational Spectra of Beryl from Xuebaoding, Pingwu County, Sichuan Province%四川平武雪宝顶绿柱石的振动光谱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭延军; 王汝成; 徐士进

    2000-01-01

    自然界中绿柱石晶体多为柱状,具板状晶形的绿柱石非常少见.对产于四川雪宝顶云英岩晶洞中的无色透明板状绿柱石及产于雪宝顶蒲口坡石英脉中的绿柱石进行了红外和拉曼光谱分析,并与产于阿尔泰三号伟晶岩脉中的柱状绿柱石进行了比较.雪宝顶两个绿柱石的结构通道中的水以II型水为主,而阿尔泰绿柱石结构通道中的水以I型水为主.雪宝顶绿柱石中Li对Be的替换也对它的红外及拉曼光谱造成了影响.

  8. COLOR CENTER AND COLORING MECHANISM OF IRRADIATED BERYL%辐照绿柱石的色心与赋色机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓利剑; 叶松; 向长金; 裴景成; 罗永安

    2001-01-01

    在不同辐照剂量的带电粒子作用下,四川无色绿柱石因赋色而呈现浅蓝色、蓝绿色、黄绿色、浅黄色及橙黄色.紫外可见吸收光谱(UV-VIS)和阴极发光光谱(CLS)研究表明,辐照绿柱石中存在两组与赋色密切相关的色心组合,其一为相对稳定的[Fe3+]OH和[Fe3+4]S心;其二则为不稳定的[H0]i心和F+心.二者对可见光的能量分别具有不同程度的选择性吸收和发射,由此产生特征的吸收与发射光谱.低温退火处理(210°C),有助于消除辐照绿柱石中不稳定的色心,使相对稳定的[Fe3+]OH心浓度再度聚集,并形成新的缺陷(二次缺陷),进而提高稳定色心的主波长和饱和度.研究证实,二次缺陷形成的初始温度,可近似代表辐照绿柱石的最佳热固色温度点.经辐照与热固色作用而形成的黄色、橙黄色绿柱石的颜色相对稳定,并不因长期日照或低温受热(<280°C)而褪色.

  9. 绿柱石中的Fe2+的d-d跃迁分析%An investigation of absorption spectra of Fe2+ doped in beryl crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先龙; 杜懋陆; 赵林; 崔江; 文久富; 龙梅

    2010-01-01

    本文引入平均共价因子模型及有效电荷, 计算了绿柱石晶体中的Fe2+离子的d-d跃迁, 并和实验数据进行了详细的比较, 对实验结果中吸收峰进行了识别.结果表明, 实验与理论相符合.

  10. RESEARCH ON CRYSTAL MORPHOLOGY OF BERYL FROM JIULONG COUNTY%九龙绿柱石晶体形貌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良钜; 饶灿; 雷威

    2005-01-01

    四川九龙绿柱石晶体形态有短柱状、板柱状、扁平板状以及板锥状晶体,晶体上出现的单形有平行双面c{0001}、六方双锥p{10(-1)1}、s{11(-2) 1}、六方柱m{10(-1)0}、a{11(-2)0}以及复六方双锥v{21(-3)1}、n{31(-4)1}.利用微分干涉显微镜等手段,对九龙绿柱石晶体进行了形貌研究,发现{0001}、{11(-2)1}和{10(-1)0}面上具有丰富的表面微形貌.晶面上的六边形溶蚀丘、六边形生长丘、拉长六边形螺旋生长纹和三角生长丘体现了相应面网结构的对称性,螺旋生长纹发生束合、三角形圆化等现象均反映了环境条件的变化.

  11. The Sustainable Development Strategy of Malipo Beryl Mine%麻栗坡绿柱石(祖母绿)矿山的可持续发展战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕伟; 张勇; 王跃

    2002-01-01

    麻栗坡绿柱石矿山是我国惟一的祖母绿矿山,目前存在着缺乏规划、设备简陋、管理和技术水平低、安全保障条件差以及劳动者素质低等问题,由此造成的资源浪费和环境污染现象十分严重,如何使该矿山保持可持续发展成为一项非常艰巨的任务.

  12. In-Situ High-Pressure X-Ray Diffraction of Natural Beryl%绿柱石的原位高压X射线研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦善; 刘景; 李海建; 祝向平; 李晓东

    2008-01-01

    采用同步辐射光源和金刚石对顶砧(DAC)技术,对绿柱石进行了室温下的原位高压能散X射线衍射(EDXD)研究,实验的最高压力为19.2 GPa.在实验压力范围内,未观察到绿柱石发生相交,轴压缩率c大于a;在小于9.3 GPa的压力范围内,其体积压缩率符合二阶Murnaghan状态方程,而压力在9.3~19.2 GPa范围内时,其体积压缩率有所增加,且体积-压力关系近乎线性变化.

  13. Scheelite, Cassiterite and Beryl from Pingwu, Sichuan Province%四川平武的白钨矿、锡石和绿柱石宝石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周开灿; 李强; 向长金; 冯启明; 万吉善; 郝芹

    2002-01-01

    四川平武产出世界十分稀少和珍贵的桔红色和桔黄色透明白钨矿、亮黑色锡石、无色透明的板状绿柱石. 它们既是重要的宝石原料, 又是珍贵的矿物晶体观赏石, 具有极高的观赏、收藏和经济价值. 对其产出和宝石矿物特征进行了论述.

  14. GEOLOGIC CHARACTERISTIC OF FORMING BERYL GEM FORM PINGWU SICHUAN%四川平武绿柱石宝石成矿地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周开灿; 亓利剑; 向长金; 冯启明; 万吉善; 郝芹

    2002-01-01

    四川平武产出世界上十分稀少和珍贵的无色透明扁平板状绿柱石宝石.在野外详细调研和系统分析、测试基础上,全面总结和介绍矿床成矿地质环境,绿柱石宝石产出特征,绿柱石宝石矿物学、化学成分、结晶习性及晶体化学、谱学特征、包裹体特征,花岗岩与Be及W,Sn矿化关系和成矿的物理、化学条件.从而,确认该矿床为岩浆期后气成-热液型绿柱石宝石矿床.

  15. 四川九龙绿柱石晶体形貌与成因%Genesis and Crystal Morphology of Beryl in Jiulong of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良钜; 饶灿; 雷威

    2004-01-01

    四川九龙绿柱石多呈独特的六方板状晶体形态,具有丰富的晶体表面微形貌.初步研究表明:溶液的补给方向和杂质是导致四川九龙绿柱石呈板状的主要原因.

  16. Determination of 10 Elements in Beryl by ICP-AES with Alkali-Melt%碱熔-ICP-AES测定绿柱石中10种元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔德松

    2011-01-01

    绿柱石经氢氧化钠和过氧化钠熔融分解,电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法同时测定绿柱石中的硅、铍、铝、钙、铁、锰、钛、镁、钾、磷等10种元素的含量.对试样分解方式、元素分析谱线、仪器工作条件选择和基体匹配等做了实验和讨论,确定碱加入量,在标准溶液中加入一定量熔剂、盐酸和主量元素进行基体匹配,以消除基体效应,各待测元素间无明显干扰.克服了传统方法测定周期长,化学处理操作繁杂等缺点.方法用于有证标准物质分析,结果和标准值一致,均在允许误差范围内;方法的精密度(RSD,n=12)为0.65%-3.69%;回收率为93%-106%.适于绿柱石中主、次、微量多元素分析.

  17. Flotation of spodumene and beryl with a new collector%新型捕收剂浮选锂辉石和绿柱石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓华; 于福顺

    2005-01-01

    通过浮选实验研究了油酸钠、 C7-9羟肟酸、十二烷基磺酸钠和新型两性捕收剂YOA-15对锂辉石和绿柱石的捕收性能. 研究结果表明: 十二烷基磺酸钠在强酸性介质条件下对锂辉石和绿柱石具有一定的捕收能力, 在中性和碱性条件下不具有捕收能力;C7-9羟肟酸和油酸钠对这2种矿物的捕收能力相近, 在中性条件下对绿柱石的捕收能力较强, 在整个pH值范围内对锂辉石的捕收性能很弱;YOA-15在酸性条件下对2种矿物具有很强的捕收能力, 在中性和碱性条件下捕收效果一般;经碱擦洗后, 2种矿物的可浮性均得到增强;在中性和碱性条件下, YOA-15的捕收性能强于油酸钠及其他类捕收剂的捕收性能;加入少量的Fe3+可使锂辉石和绿柱石充分活化, 最佳活化pH值为中性;Ca2+在用量较大时才体现出对锂辉石和绿柱石的活化, 其最佳活化pH值为强碱性.

  18. Investigation on Crystal Growth and Characteristics of Hydrothermal Beryl Crystal%绿柱石晶体的水热法生长及特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮青锋; 邱志惠; 张良钜; 雷威; 曾伟来

    2009-01-01

    采用温差水热法,以分析纯的Al(OH)3和BeO以及无色纯净的石英为原材料,球形和//s(1121)的片状无色绿柱石为籽晶,在复杂的盐酸混合溶液中生长了无色透明的绿柱石晶体.利用双圈反射测角仪、电子探针、X射线衍射仪和红外光谱仪等仪器,对合成绿柱石晶体的形态、成分及晶体结构进行了详细的研究.结果表明,合成的绿柱石晶体为六方短柱状,主要发育平行双面c{0001}、六方柱m{1010}、a{1120}和六方双锥p{1011}四种单形.合成的绿柱石晶体的成分中(Na2O+ K2O)的质量分数约为0.59%,且c0/a0值为0.9988,可归属于"正常"绿柱石向"四面体"绿柱石的过渡范畴.在中性或弱碱性环境体系中,通过调整绿柱石中各成分的百分含量,有望在更低的温度、压力条件下合成出高质量的板柱状绿柱石晶体.

  19. Selective Flotation between Spodumene and Beryl%锂辉石与绿柱石浮选分离的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓华; 于福顺; 陈兴华; 黄传兵; 胡业民; 兰叶

    2005-01-01

    通过单矿物浮选试验考察了无机调整剂Na2S和六偏磷酸钠, 有机小分子抑制剂柠檬酸、草酸、乳酸、酒石酸和EDTA二钠对受Fe3+活化的锂辉石、绿柱石两种矿物浮选行为的影响. 结果表明, 柠檬酸和乳酸对锂辉石与绿柱石的抑制作用具有一定的选择性, 但这种选择性并不高; 酒石酸和草酸可强烈抑制这两种矿物, 其抑制作用无任何选择性; 硫化钠、六偏磷酸钠和EDTA二钠对锂辉石和绿柱石都具有较强的选择性抑制作用, 且六偏磷酸钠和EDTA二钠对这两种矿物抑制作用的选择性优于硫化钠. 锂辉石与绿柱石表面ζ-电位测定结果表明, 锂辉石比绿柱石更易与EDTA二钠和Na2S发生吸附.

  20. Research on Beryl Recovery from Wolfram Tailings in Western Yunnan%滇西某选钨尾矿中回收绿柱石的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志峰

    2014-01-01

    滇西某选钨尾矿主要有价矿物为绿柱石,另外还伴生有萤石等可回收的矿物,针对滇西某选钨尾矿的矿石性质特点,研究采用浮选回收萤石反浮选回收绿柱石的工艺流程,确定了萤石浮选和反浮选工艺条件.闭路试验从BeO品位为0.85%的尾矿中得到了BeO品位为7.5%,回收率为60.65%的绿柱石精矿,取得了良好的技术指标,实现了对含铍矿物资源的综合回收,达到综合回收的目的,具有一定的参考价值.

  1. 华贵的金黄色绿柱石惊现云南市场%Luxury Golden Beryl Found in Yunnan Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施加辛

    2008-01-01

    当前,昆明、河口、瑞丽等市场上出现一批由越南或老挝进入的黄色绿柱石宝石晶体,颜色变化范围从淡到深的金黄色、褐黄色、黄色、微绿的黄色(图1)。特别是金黄色绿柱石晶体,受到研究、收藏、加工和商贸界的关注,部分外地客商闻讯前来采购。

  2. 板状绿柱石晶体的结构测定%A Study of the Structure of a Rare Tabular Crystal of Beryl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭延军; 王汝成; 徐士进; Francois Fontan; 骆耀南; 曹志敏

    2000-01-01

    自然界中绿柱石晶体多为柱状,具板状晶形的绿柱石非常少见.本文对产于四川雪宝顶云英岩晶洞中的无色透明板状绿柱石进行了精确的结构分析,并与产于阿尔泰三号伟晶岩脉中的柱状绿柱石进行了比较.与阿尔泰柱状绿柱石相比,雪宝顶板状绿柱石富Li、Na,c/a值较高,为1.001,属钠-锂绿柱石或"四面体"绿柱石.本文还对这种特殊形貌绿柱石的形成机制进行了初步讨论,成矿流体中Li的浓度以及Si的化学形态可能是影响绿柱石形貌的重要因素.

  3. Gemmological Characteristics of Light Pink to Pink Beryls%浅粉红色—粉红色绿柱石的宝石学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    那宝成; 孙瑞皎; 李增胜; 刘海梅

    2014-01-01

    以前珠宝市场上粉色系列绿柱石并不常见,近期发现粉色绿柱石数量增加,笔者对彩宝市场上的浅粉红色 粉红色绿柱石进行了宝石学特征研究.浅粉红色 粉红色这一系列的绿柱石与以前研究较多的祖母绿、海蓝宝石相比,颜色明显不同,在折射率、密度等方面也存在一定的差别.通过常规宝石仪器,红外光谱仪,X射线荧光能谱仪对这一系列绿柱石进行测试分析,对比发现其与常见的海蓝宝石存在一些差异;本文按照粉色绿柱石测试的折射率的结果分为A、B、C 3组,将同时检测的黄绿色绿柱石和常见的海蓝宝石分成2组,发现浅粉红色—粉红色绿柱石的折射率与密度存在正相关性,而且随着Cs元素替代的增加,Rb元素替代的减少,折射率与密度升高,粉红色绿柱石的折射率可高达1.61.

  4. Gemmology of Beryl from Pingwu, Sichuan Province%四川平武绿柱石宝石学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琰; 何明跃; 张大林; 余晓艳; 潘兆橹

    2001-01-01

    自然界中绿柱石多为柱状晶形, 外观呈板状的绿柱石非常少见. 四川省平武县板状透绿柱石晶体硕大, 晶形完美, 透明度高, 具有很高的宝石学价值, 其奇特的共生组合具有极高的观赏价值. 通过化学全分析、红外光谱、 X射线粉晶衍射、透射光谱等先进测试技术, 对平武板状绿柱石的地质产状、形态特征、物理性质等进行了初步研究, 探讨了其发展前景.

  5. Beryl Crystal Synthesis and Morphology by Hydrothermal Method%绿柱石晶体的水热法合成与形貌特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮青锋; 邱志惠; 曾伟来; 张良钜

    2008-01-01

    利用温差水热法,在复杂的盐酸体系下,合成了不同形态的无色绿柱石晶体.晶体生长所用试剂Al(OH)3BeO、HCl等均为分析纯,SiO2为高纯度的石英碎块,高压釜内溶剂填充度为40%~55%,晶体生长温度500~600℃,生长时间7~15 d.通过电子探针、X射线衍射分析,合成绿柱石的成分与其理想成分接近,晶体结晶程度高;利用双圈反射测角仪和微分干涉显微镜的测试与观察,合成绿柱石为六方短柱状晶形,主要发育平行双面c{0001}、六方柱m{1010}、α{1120}以及六方双锥p{1011}等4种单形晶面,各单形晶面的微观形貌相对比较单一,平行双面只有六边形生长台阶,柱面上主要为平行c轴的平直条纹,在局部地方出现多边形生长台阶,六方双锥单形晶面上存在比较丰富的多边形生长锥和乳状生长丘.

  6. The Sustainable Development Strategies of Malipo Beryl Mine%麻栗坡绿柱石矿山的可持续发展战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕伟

    2003-01-01

    作为我国目前惟一的祖母绿矿山麻栗坡存在着缺乏规划、设备简陋、管理和技术水平低、安全保障条件差以及劳动者素质低等问题,并由此造成的浪费资源、环境污染十分严重.进入21世纪后,如何使该矿山保持可持续发展成为一项非常艰巨的任务.

  7. MX Siting Investigation. Preliminary Biological and Cultural Resources Inventory and Environmental Evaluation of the Proposed Operational Base Sites in Coyote Spring Valley and the Milford-Beryl Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-20

    Stanleya pinriata (desert prince- plume) Stanleya sp. X CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii (Engel- X X X X X X mann echinocereus) Ferocactus acanthodes...TABLE 3-3 (Cont.) Site Number Species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CACTACEAE (Cont.) Ferocactus sp X X X X *Neolloydia sp. X *-Opuntia basilaris (beavertail X X

  8. 40 CFR 421.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times (b) Solvent Extraction Raffinate from Beryl Ore. BPT Limitations... for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of beryllium carbonate produced from beryl ore... 0.000 0.000 pH 1 1 1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (k) Beryl Ore Gangue...

  9. A Leadership Competency Model for U.S. Air Force Wing Chaplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    Ronald Ash, Mariana Batista, Linda Carr, Lorraine D. Eyde, Beryl Hesketh, Jerry Kehoe, Kenneth Pearlman, Erich Prien, and Juan I. Sanchez, “The Practice of...Jeffrey S. Schippmann, Ronald Ash, Mariana Batista, Linda Carr, Lorraine D. Eyde, Beryl Hesketh, Jerry Kehoe, Kenneth Pearlman, Erich Prien, and Juan I...Lorraine D. Eyde, Beryl Hesketh, Jerry Kehoe, Kenneth Pearlman, Erich Prien, and Juan I. Sanchez. “The Practice of Competency Modeling.” Personnel

  10. 40 CFR 421.156 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... raffinate from beryl ore. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum... produced from beryl ore as beryllium Beryllium 180.4 81.4 Chromium (total) 81.4 33.0 Copper 281.6 134.2....000 0.000 Ammonia (as N) 0.000 0.000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS...

  11. Adaptive Leadership Theories Applied to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    Compromise is the name of the game in NATO and it behooves potential leaders to know and understand this concept. In Beryl Radin’s book The Accountable...6 Beryl Radin, The Accountable Juggler: The Art of Leadership in a Federal Agency, (CQ Press, 2002), 12. The refreezing and beyond...category of NATO’s culture is the apex of any strategy. Specifically focusing on NATO’s leaders and their individual 7 Beryl Radin, The Accountable

  12. Ca3Na4LiBe4B10O24F: a new beryllium borate with a unique beryl borate ∞(2)[Be8B16O40F2] layer intrabridged by [B12O24] groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyang; Yao, Wenjiao; Gong, Pifu; Yao, Jiyong; Lin, Zheshuai; Chen, Chuangtian

    2014-08-18

    A novel beryllium borate, Ca3Na4LiBe4B10O24F, has been discovered. It possesses a unique ∞(2)[Be8B16O40F2] layer composed of two opposite parallel [Be4B4O12F]∞ layers bridged with [B12O24] polyborates. The linkage of [B12O24] to other structural units is first found in anhydrous borates. In the ∞(2)[Be8B16O40F2] layer, multiple tunnels are arranged along different directions resided by the alkali and alkaline-earth cations. The compound remains stable in an ambient atmosphere from room temperature to the melting point at 830 °C and melts incongruently.

  13. 河南西峡-淅川一带的墨绿玉矿床及开发利用%DEVELOPMENT AND ULTILIZATION BLACK BERYL DEPOSITS IN XIXIA -XICHUAN AREA, HENAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周世全; 丁莉

    2004-01-01

    河南西峡-淅川一带的墨绿玉矿床,为蚀变的超基性岩类,分别产于北、南秦岭褶皱带内,矿体呈脉状、透镜状,分布于岩体的边部、中部,矿石类型主要有蛇纹岩类及次闪石-蛇纹岩类,矿床属热液交代变质矿床.原料及产品在市场上有一定的竞争力,具有较好的开发利用前景.

  14. Colouration and Gemmological Characters of natural and Synthetic Beryls%天然与合成彩色绿柱石的致色和宝石学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张本宏; 陈振强

    2002-01-01

    在前人对天然绿柱石和人工合成绿柱石研究的基础上, 分析归纳了两者在致色离子和成因上的不同, 总结了合成绿柱石的宝石学特征, 指出了水热法合成彩色绿柱石和天然绿柱石的区别以及发展的前景.

  15. 四川平武稀有金属花岗岩与绿柱石的成矿属性%RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE RARE-METAL CONTAINED GRANITIC INTRUSIONS AND BERYL MINERALIZATION IN PINGWU,SICHUAN,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶松; 亓利剑; 罗永安; 周开灿; 裴景成

    2001-01-01

    通过对四川平武稀有金属花岗岩体的岩石地球化学特征的研究,阐述该区花岗岩与绿柱石的成矿关系.研究表明:平武花岗岩体造岩矿物组合为石英、钠长石、钾长石和白云母;岩石化学成分铝过饱和、富钠、偏碱性,稀土元素含量很低,富含Be,W,Sn,Li,Ta,Rb等稀有元素;属花岗岩浆高度分异演化晚期阶段的产物;由岩浆期后的云英岩化形成气成-热液型绿柱石宝石矿床.

  16. 绿柱石通道中配合物的振动光谱和辐照裂解%VIBRATION SPECTRUM AND IRRADIATION SPLITTING OF MIXTURE IN BERYL CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓利剑; 叶松; 向长金; 裴景成; 石国华

    2001-01-01

    以四川平武富碱型绿柱石为研究对象,采用IR和LRM测试方法,重点对通道中氢化物和多聚合离子的配位构型、辐照裂解及热致转型进行了较深入系统的研究.研究表明,在该区成矿作用条件下,绿柱石通道中的钠离子趋向与氢离子化合反应生成NaH氢化物,并占据通道中的C2位.在垂直c轴方向上,以3 165 cm-1,3 114 cm-1及3 031 cm-1伸缩振动弱吸收谱带为特征.[Fe2(OH)4]2+多聚合离子占据通道中的C1位,以3 234 cm-1伸缩振动锐吸收谱带为特征(∥c轴).辐照作用导致上述多聚合离子的裂解,并形成不稳定的[H0]i心和相对稳定的[Fe3+]OH心.与之对应的吸收谱带分别出现在3 110 cm-1(⊥c轴)和3 355 cm-1(∥c轴)处.通道中NaH和[Fe2(OH)4]2+多聚合离子的存在,可视为该类型绿柱石的一个重要的成因标志.

  17. STUDY ON GEMMOLOGY OF BERYL GEM FROM PINGWU SICHUAN AND MECHANISM OF IRRADIATION INDUCING COLORATION%四川平武绿柱石宝石学及辐照赋色机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周开灿; 亓利剑; 向长金

    2005-01-01

    四川平武产出世界上十分稀少和珍贵的无色透明扁平扁板状绿柱石宝石.本文介绍了绿柱石宝石学特征;扁平板状绿柱石晶体生长机制及无色透明绿柱石辐照赋色机理.

  18. 在绿柱石晶体中掺入Fe3+的吸收光谱研究%An investigation of absorption spectra of Fe3+ doped in beryl crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先龙; 杜懋陆; 赵林; 文久富

    2009-01-01

    绿柱石是一种结构较复杂的硅酸盐矿物, 其晶体结构中Al3+可以被Fe2+,Fe3+等取代, 对这种晶体的吸收光谱的研究有助于认识绿柱石晶体的结构, 从而更好的使这种晶体得到应用. 本文引入平均共价因子 , 在立方晶场下考虑电子静电相互作用, 通过完全对角化的方法对掺入Fe3+的绿柱石晶体的吸收光谱进行理论计算, 并对实验结果中吸收峰进行了识别. 结果表明, 实验与理论符合的比较好.

  19. 新疆大卡拉苏花岗伟晶岩锥状绿柱石矿物特征%THE MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HEXAGONAL PYRAMID BERYL FOR DACALASU GRANITE-PEGMATITE IN ALTAY,XINJIANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋文程; 段焕春

    2003-01-01

    在自然界中绿柱石多为柱状,往往呈杂乱无序状晶出,锥状绿柱石非常少见.大卡拉苏花岗伟晶中的六方锥状绿柱石,垂直花岗伟晶岩脉壁定向晶出,与熔浆期后钠质交代作用关系密切.

  20. Research on emerald (beryl) micromineralogy characteristic in certain south area of Xinjiang%新疆南部某地含祖母绿(绿柱石)显微矿物学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪立今; 吴艳爽; 任伟; 杜秀珍; 张春疆; 陈勇; 陈俊华; 李甲平

    2010-01-01

    本文从显微矿物学角度,对新疆南疆某地含祖母绿(绿柱石)矿物学组合特征进行了研究,认为含矿(绿柱石)岩石,碳酸盐化发育,且碳酸盐化和绿柱石关系密切.其岩石中钠长石含有Cr2O3,一般在0.01%~0.72%,该地质作用条件对形成祖母绿(绿柱石)非常有利.从交代关系看(钠长石交代绿柱石),可初步判断绿柱石形成不会太晚.至少可能于岩浆同源.在理论及实际开发应用上,对这一地区都具有重要的指导意义.

  1. The Mobile Aging on the Structure and Property of QBe2 Beryl Bronze%动态时效对铍青铜QBe2组织和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍芸; 耿香月

    2001-01-01

    研究了动态时效对铍青铜组织与性能的影响.确定了动态时效的最佳工艺参数.不仅使QBe2的松弛稳定性明量提高,而且其强度、硬度、弹性极限等性能均比一般时效有所提高.

  2. 西华山黑钨矿-石英脉绿柱石中熔融包裹体的成分%The composition of melt inclusions in beryl from wolframite-quartz veins in Xihuashan, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常海亮; 汪雄武; 王晓地; 刘家齐; 黄惠兰

    2007-01-01

    借助高温高压技术与电子探针分析,首次获得黑钨矿-石英脉绿柱石中晶质熔融包裹体的主要成分.熔融包裹体的成分主要是SiO2和Al2O3(分别平均为70.72%和13.94%)及少量K2O(2.0%),其他氧化物含量甚低,并且含有大量的挥发分(主要是H2O,达11.56%).激光拉曼光谱分析表明,熔融包裹体液相中CO2、H2S等含量不高(分别为7.8%和4.3%),气相部分主要是一些还原性气体.熔融包裹体代表HF-H2O-花岗岩体系结晶分异最后阶段残余熔融体的成分,证实脉钨矿床的成矿流体不是单一的热水溶液,而是硅酸盐熔体与超临界流体共存的岩浆-热液过渡性流体,其成矿作用始于岩浆-热液过渡阶段.

  3. STUDY ON FLUID INCLUSIONS IN BERYL FROM PINGWU,SICHUAN PROVINCE%四川省平武县绿柱石中的流体包裹体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志军; 万世明; 吕新彪; 王文魁

    2002-01-01

    介绍了四川省平武县产出的绿柱石晶体中流体包裹体的均一温度和激光拉曼光谱分析结果,探讨了绿柱石形成时的物理化学条件.研究表明绿柱石矿床属气成-热液成因,包裹体类型以气液流体包裹体为主,还有含方解石子晶的流体包裹体.绿柱石的形成温度较宽,最佳温度为275~300°C,成矿压力86 MPa左右,绿柱石形成时体系中的CO2密度较高,ρ(CO2)=0.662 g/cm3,成矿流体的盐度较低,w(NaCl)约为6.191%.

  4. ESR BEHAVIOUR OF PARAMAGNETIC MIXTURE IN IRRADIATED BERYL%辐照条件下绿柱石通道中顺磁配合物的ESR行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓利剑; 向长金; 刘国根; 裴景成; 罗永安

    2001-01-01

    四川平武贫铁富碱型无色绿柱石通道中主要存在碱氢化物(NaH)、[Fe2(OH)4]2+多聚合离子及OH自由基,在电子辐照作用下,通道中顺磁配合物的结构、带电性质及化学键易发生转型、裂解和变价,并形成自旋浓度不等的[H0]i心(裂距为500 G,g值分别为2.175 7,1.877 4的二重超精细结构线)、[Fe3+]OH(g=2.003 1)和[Fe3+4]s(g=4.317 2)等辐照损伤心.[Fe3+]OH心属一种有效的电子陷阱,其热稳定性大于[Fe3+4]s心.绿柱石中杂质铁离子的占位方式,与成矿物理、化学条件及成矿流体的pH值密切相关.由电子辐照作用而导致杂质离子价态的转变,属一种可逆的动态平衡过程.

  5. Mineralogical characteristics of beryl in Pingwu County, Sichuan Province, south-west China%四川平武板状绿柱石矿物学特征及板状成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琰; 朱悦荣; 邓军; 蔡克勤; 周彦; 王庆飞; 周应华; 高帮飞; 李德秀; 徐福玉

    2005-01-01

    在综合该区绿柱石产出背景的基础上,从围岩蚀变、矿物共生组合、矿物标型形态和绿柱石测温测压等方面确定平武绿柱石矿床是气成高温浅成石英脉型矿床.文中对绿柱石矿物进行了湿法化学分析、X射线粉晶衍射分析、微形貌分析,研究了该区绿柱石的形态、物性、化学成分及类质同象特征,确定该区绿柱石为板状晶形的含铯钠-锂绿柱石,碱金属平均质量分数为2.412%(Li2O+Na2O+K2O+ Rb2O+Cs2O).板状含碱绿柱石一般发育在伟晶岩中,气成高温热液矿床中产出板状含碱绿柱石极为罕见.在以上工作基础上,从绿柱石形成的内因和外因两方面探讨了绿柱石的板状成因.

  6. Statistical-Dynamical Forecasting of Tropical Cyclogenesis in the North Atlantic at Intraseasonal Lead Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    black dot represents TC Beryl that formed on 13 August 2000. Contours start at 1 percent and are in 1 percent increments...of 2000, constructed from a 40 percent NTCI model that jackknifed year 2000. The black dot represents TC Beryl that formed on 13 August 2000

  7. Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response (GEIS)- Avian Influenza Pandemic Influenza (AI/PI) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Silvanos Mukunzi, Meshack Wadegu, Finnley Osunna, Josephat Mwangi, James Njiri, Julia Wangui, Janet Nyambura, Beryl Obura, Ken Mitei, Duke Omariba...Mwangi, Julia M. Wangui, Janet N. Muthoni, James O. Njiri, Beryl D. Obura, Benjamin H. Opot, Keneth K. Mitei, Jane Barani, Samwel Lifumo, and David C

  8. Public-Sector Information Security: A Call to Action for Public-Sector CIOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Managing Decentralized Departments: The Case of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (October 1999) Beryl A. Radin Transforming Government: The...the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (November 2000) Beryl A. Radin Creating a Culture of Innovation: 10 Lessons from America’s Best Run

  9. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Affairs 45, no. 4 (Winter, 1972-1973): 508. The GNP growth rates experienced by the late 1960’s had increased to 12.2%. 90 Beryl W. Sprinkel, “Further...234. Sprinkel, Beryl W. “Further Expansion and Less Inflation in 1972.” The Journal of Business 45, no. 1 (January 1972): 1 – 5. Squassoni

  10. From National Defense Stockpile (NDS) to Strategic Materials Security Program (SMSP): Evidence and Analytic Support. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Shortfalls in units in $Mb Specialty Materials Beryllium Metal ST 36 $5.96M Beryllium Copper Master Alloy ST 0 $0.00M Beryl Ore ST 70 $0.01M...Beryllium Metalc ST 164 $26.96M Beryllium Copper Master Alloy ST 0 $0.00M Beryl Ored ST 1 $0.00M Boron MT 0 $0.00M Gallium KG 0 $0.00M Germanium KG...valuation) shown encompasses 18 short tons of vacuum-cast metal plus 146 short tons of hot-pressed powder (HPP) metal. d. Dollar valuation of beryl

  11. Mineralogy and petrograghy of some tin, lithium and beryllium bearing albite-pegmatites near Doade, Galicia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, B.J.

    1967-01-01

    The petrography and mineralogy of some Hercynian albite-pegmatites near Doade, Galicia, Spain is described. The mineral assemblage consists of albite, K-feldspar, quartz, muscovite, spodumene, petalite, cassiterite, beryl, columbitetantalite, montebrasite, apatite, eosphorite-childrenite, zircon, to

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to CBD. In comparison to high-CBD risk exposures where the chemical nature of aerosol

  13. Electron-Microprobe Compositions and Genesis of Beryls from the Nanping No.31 Granitic Pegmatite(Fujian Province,Southeastern China)%福建南平31号花岗伟晶岩脉中绿柱石的电子探针成分与成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶灿; 王汝成; 胡欢

    2009-01-01

    福建南平花岗伟晶岩是中国重要的稀有金属花岗伟晶岩之一,其中31号脉是分异程度最高、稀有金属成矿作用最重要的岩脉,绿柱石是其中最主要的铍矿物.利用电子探针和背散射电子成像技术对该岩脉中绿柱石进行了较系统分析.结果表明,南平31号花岗伟晶岩中绿柱石可分为原生绿柱石和晚期绿柱石.原生绿柱石形成于早期岩浆阶段,与造岩矿物石英、白云母、钠长石、锂辉石共生.晚期绿柱石与原生绿柱石密切伴生,是富铍流体沿原生绿柱石的边缘结晶而成.或热液沿原生绿柱石的解理、裂隙或孔隙度较大部位进行交代的产物.电子探针成分分析显示,南平31号花岗伟晶岩脉中原生绿柱石除含主要化学成分SiO_2,Al_2O_3和BeO外还含Na,Cs,Fe,Mg等元素;FeO,MgO,Na_2O和Cs_2O的最高含量分别为0.28%,0.89%,1.36%和3.92%.总体上,从Ⅰ带至Ⅳ带,原生绿柱石的FeO和MgO含量逐渐降低,Na_2O和Cs_2O的含量逐渐升高,尤其是Cs_2O的含量变化较大.Ⅲ-Ⅳ带中少量原生绿柱石分布于锂辉石中,具有富FeO和MgO的特征.晚期绿柱石的Cs_2O含量较低,可能是由于铯沸石和南平石(铯云母)等铯矿物的结晶,导致晚期熔体-热液中相对贫铯,而热液流体与富铯绿柱石之间可能存在铯的化学再平衡.

  14. 西华山黑钨矿石英脉绿柱石中熔融包裹体的发现及其意义%DISCOVERY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE OF MELT INCLUSIONS WITHIN BERYL FROM THE WOLFRAMITE-QUARTZ VEINS IN XIHUASHAN OREFIELD,JIANGXI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常海亮; 黄惠兰

    2001-01-01

    过去一直认为西华山黑钨矿石英脉是高中温热液充填而成.研究发现,在黑钨矿石英脉的绿柱石中存在与流体(气液)包裹体共生的流体-熔体包裹体和熔融包裹体,这表明形成黑钨矿石英脉的成矿流体是一种岩浆-热液过渡性流体.

  15. Research on Effect of Iron Grinding Media on Flotation Behaviors of Spodumene and Beryl by Molecular Simulation%铁介质磨矿对锂辉石和绿柱石浮选影响的分子模拟计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼振峰; 孙传尧

    2016-01-01

    利用分子模拟计算方法,研究了铁球作为磨矿介质,十二胺和油酸钠分别作为捕收剂,锂辉石和绿柱石与捕收剂在磨矿前后的相互作用能.结果表明,这两种典型硅酸盐矿物经过铁球磨矿后,矿物表面吸附的铁,使阳离子捕收剂十二胺与矿物的相互作用能增大,阴离子捕收剂油酸钠与矿物的相互作用能减小,进而影响捕收剂与矿物之间的相互作用.总体来讲,锂辉石和绿柱石经过铁球磨矿后,一般会阻止十二胺阳离子捕收剂在矿物表面的吸附,而对于油酸根阴离子捕收剂,则起到一定的活化作用,有利于油酸根离子在矿物表面的吸附.

  16. MIDDLE-LATE JURASSIC HIGH-RESOLUTION SUBSIDENCE ANALYSIS AND ITS IMPLICATION OF THE BERYL EMBAYMENT, VIKING GRABEN, NORTH SEA%北海维京地堑Beryl湾中、晚侏罗世高分辨率沉降分析及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    在Beryl湾发育南北向、北西向和北东向三组正断层.根据北海维京地堑Beryl湾73口井的高分辨率层序地层学分析和高分辨率沉降分析,阐明中、晚侏罗世沉积和沉降模式,确定应力场的变化及边界断层的连锁对沉积和含油气系统的控制作用.高分辨率(1~2Ma)允许评价不同走向断层随时间的演化.不仅阐明了东舍德兰断层连锁的时间和机制,而且阐明了对沉积相的控制作用.研究结果表明,在中、晚侏罗世同裂谷期Beryl湾伸展方向发生了45°的顺时针旋转;东舍德兰断层在早、中牛津期由两段连锁为一条统一的断层.

  17. Channel-Water Molecular Pattern and 1H, 23Na NMR Spectra Representation in Synthetic Red Beryl%合成红色绿柱石中通道水分子构型及1H和23Na核磁共振谱表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓利剑; 夏义本; 袁心强

    2002-01-01

    以水热法合成贫碱型红色绿柱石和天然富碱、贫碱型绿柱石为研究对象, 采用VU, IR, NMR测试方法, 重点对绿柱石中通道水分子的构型及与钠离子的耦合关系进行研究. 结果表明, 贫碱型水热法合成红色绿柱石中Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型通道水分子并存, 但以Ⅰ型通道水分子的丰度明显占优. 合成红色绿柱石的1H NMR谱属典型的两自旋系, 分属两个独立的共振信号. 中心共振谱峰(δ=1.7×10-6)与Be-OH-Al有关, 为Ⅰ型通道水分子的表征. 伴生共振谱峰(δ=4.9×10-6)与H-O…Na有关, 代表Ⅱ型通道水分子. 23Na NMR谱中心线的化学位移随通道中Na离子浓度的增大而发生有规律的变化, 表现为23Na的共振谱峰自高场区向低场区偏移, 分裂强度增大, 裂距和半峰宽减小. 同时, 1H NMR的峰形自双自旋系向单自旋系转化. 证实合成红色绿柱石中通道水分子与碱金属离子之间存在明显的耦合关系.

  18. 绿柱石晶体腐蚀像立体模型的建立及{0001}面腐蚀随时间变化的探讨%Three-dimensional Model of Etch Figure on Beryl Crystal and the Evolution of Etching Figure on {0001} Various with Corrosion Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹屹; 赵珊茸; 徐畅; 袁冠

    2013-01-01

    本文采用物质的量比为1∶1的NaOH-KOH混合熔融物和纯NaOH熔融物对绿柱石晶体各种不同结晶学方向的切面进行腐蚀实验,建立了绿柱石腐蚀像的立体模型,并探讨了绿柱石{0001}切面腐蚀坑随腐蚀时间的变化规律.研究发现绿柱石切面腐蚀像能很好地反映晶体的对称特点,晶体各切面的腐蚀坑形态在三维空间分布的立体模型和投影图可用来进行绿柱石晶体的定向.{0001 }切面腐蚀坑随腐蚀时间的延长,会呈现从最初浑圆不太规则状到逐渐稳定呈正六边形的变化,且腐蚀坑有逐渐从小变大、由少变多的特点.该研究对晶体腐蚀机理的探讨及绿柱石腐蚀像应用于晶体定向具有理论和实际意义.

  19. In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Vadose Zone Source Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Metal_ RL IDL Alwunum 200 28 Antimony 6 . 0 1. 4 Arsenl.c 3 . 0 1.2 San.um 200 Beryl lium 1.0 . 1 Boron 100 1.5 Cadmium 4 . 0 . 4 Calc1.um...QC Lunit s: result < RL Tl.me : Samp le I O: Metal_ RL IDL Alwunum 200 28 Antimony 6 . 0 1. 4 Arsenl.c 3 . 0 1.2 San.um 200 Beryl lium 1.0...Arsenl.c 3 . 0 1.2 San.um 200 Beryl lium 1.0 . 1 Boron 100 1.5 Cadmium 4 . 0 . 4 Ca lc1.um 5000 31 Chr omium 10 . 3 Cobalt 50 . 3 Copper 25

  20. Gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    The estimated value of natural gemstones produced from U.S. deposits during 2012 was $11.1 million, a slight increase from 2011. U.S. gemstone production included agate, amber, beryl, coral, garnet, jade, jasper, opal, pearl, quartz, sapphire, shell, topaz, tourmaline, turquoise and many other gem materials.

  1. Social Security Disability Reviews: The Human Costs. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives and the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Part 3 - Hot Springs, Arkansas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document provides transcripts of witness testimony and prepared statements from the third of three Congressional hearings called to examine at the local level the administration of the social security disability review program. Opening statements are presented from Representatives J. J. Pickle and Beryl Anthony, Jr., and Senator Daniel Pryor.…

  2. 南岭地区脉状黑钨矿床的地球化学类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭运金

    1982-01-01

    In accordance with the characteristics of associated minerals, trace elments in the altered rocks around the veins and the composition of wolframite and mica, the vein wolframite deposits in the Nanling Region can be divided into two geochemical types:the wolframite-beryl-molybdenite-bismutite (native bismuth) type and the wolframite.cassiterite-sulfide (copper, zine, lead) type. Vein wolframite deposits of these two geochemical types were formed under different conditions. The wolframite-beryl-molybdenite-bismutite (native bismuth) type may be connected with high pH-Eh conditions whereas the wolframite-eassiterite-sulfide (copper, zinc, lead) type with low pH-Eh conditions. It is concluded that the two geochemical types of vein wolframite deposits are genetically related with two different geochemical types of granites in the Nanling Region.

  3. “北美萍踪”连载之二 山重水复求职路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岩柏

    2003-01-01

    几年前,一个很大的公司和我们公司的伙伴关系破裂了。分手时,那个公司里的一个职位不错的熟人打电话来说:“BERYL,日后任何时候,你若想换个工作,就给我来个电话。你能把那么难弄的后处理

  4. 硅铍钠石在水热条件下的形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    水热矿物合成实验室

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the formation of chkalovite through reactions of beryl with aqueous solutions of Na2B4O7-·10H2O, NaHCO8 and NaOH respectively were carried out under hydrothermal conditions. Comparison of mineralogical features was also made between chkalovites formed under different alkaline media mentioned above. The order of crystallization of coexisting minerals (albite, cancrinite, and analcite) is discussed and possible cbemical reactions involved in the formation of chkalovite suggested.

  5. Studies on extraction of beryllium from thiocyanate solutions by quaternary ammonium halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yamani, I S; El-Messieh, E N

    A 0.4M tricaprylmethylammonium chloride solution in n-hexane was used for the quantitative extraction of beryllium from hydrochloric acid (pH 3) and 5M potassium thiocyanate. Beryllium was stripped from the organic phase with 1M sodium hydroxide, then determined volumetrically with bismuthyl perchlorate and bromocresol green indicator. Beryllium was extracted in presence of a large number of elements which are usually associated with it in beryl and in fission products of nuclear fuel.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

  7. Pressure-temperature-fluid constraints for the Emmaville-Torrington emerald deposit, New South Wales, Australia: Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughrey, Lara; Marshall, Dan; Jones, Peter; Millsteed, Paul; Main, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The Emmaville-Torrington emeralds were first discovered in 1890 in quartz veins hosted within a Permian metasedimentary sequence, consisting of meta-siltstones, slates and quartzites intruded by pegmatite and aplite veins from the Moule Granite. The emerald deposit genesis is consistent with a typical granite-related emerald vein system. Emeralds from these veins display colour zonation alternating between emerald and clear beryl. Two fluid inclusion types are identified: three-phase (brine+vapour+halite) and two-phase (vapour+liquid) fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion studies indicate the emeralds were precipitated from saline fluids ranging from approximately 33 mass percent NaCl equivalent. Formational pressures and temperatures of 350 to 400 °C and approximately 150 to 250 bars were derived from fluid inclusion and petrographic studies that also indicate emerald and beryl precipitation respectively from the liquid and vapour portions of a two-phase (boiling) system. The distinct colour zonations observed in the emerald from these deposits is the first recorded emerald locality which shows evidence of colour variation as a function of boiling. The primary three-phase and primary two-phase FITs are consistent with alternating chromium-rich `striped' colour banding. Alternating emerald zones with colourless beryl are due to chromium and vanadium partitioning in the liquid portion of the boiling system. The chemical variations observed at Emmaville-Torrington are similar to other colour zoned emeralds from other localities worldwide likely precipitated from a boiling system as well.

  8. Pegmatites of the Crystal Mountain district, Larimer County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, William R.

    1952-01-01

    The Front Range of Colorado is composed chiefly of schists of the pre-Cambrian Idaho Springs formation which have been intruded by a variety of granitic batholiths. In the Crystal Mountain district the Mount Olympus granite, a satellite of the Longs Peak batholith, forms sills and essentially concordant multiple intrusions in quartz-mica schist that dips southward at moderate to steep angles. A great number of pegmatites accompanied and followed the intrusion of the sills, and formed concordant and discordant bodies in schist and granite. Over 1,300 pegmatites in the Hyatt area north of the Big Thompson River are mapped and individually described. There are 27 pegmatites in the area that are made up of a wall zone and a core, and one, the pegmatite at the Hyatt mine, is composed of five zones. The largest pegmatites in the area are discordant in schist and occupy zones that are interpreted to be tear faults and tension fractures produced by the successive intrusions of granite that formed multiple sills. The majority of pegmatites in the large multiple sills were emplaced along the foliation and fractures. The composition of 96 percent of the pegmatites is granitic, 3.5 percent are quartz-rich pegmatites, and a few are tourmaline-rich. The pegmatites were intruded over a period of time and probably were derived from a granitic magma at different stages during differentiation. Solutions escaping from many of the pegmatites tournalinized and silicified the wall rocks for a few inches to two feet, but chemical and spectrographic analyses fail to show the transport of any other constituents. Perthite, plagioclase, and quartz are the essential minerals of the pegmatites, and muscovite is a minor but widespread constituent. Tourmaline, garnet, beryl, and apatite are common accessory minerals, and lithiophillitite-triphylite, bismuthinite, uraninite, columbite-tantalite, and chrysoberyl are rare constituents. Beryl is found in 250 or 27 percent of the pegmatites and makes

  9. 魔力之鞋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小七

    2010-01-01

    英国女演员贝里尔·里德(Beryl Reid)每次试戏或者彩排的时候,必须随身带去好几箱的各种鞋子。她当然并非去为时尚品牌的鞋履新品发布拍广告,对她而言,鞋子具有无法言说的强大力量,当她站在舞台上时,脚下的每—双鞋子都成了魔术师。

  10. P-T path fluid evolution in the Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Frindt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock (GSS is a zoned 30 km^2 epizonal intrusion that consists of three main granites: 1 medium-grained biotite granite (marginal, 2 a coarse-grained biotite granite, and 3 a central, porphyritic granite. The stock contains pegmatites as banded marginal stockscheiders and isolated pockets composed of large alkali feldspar and quartz, dark mica, interstitial fluorite, and euhedral topaz and beryl crystals. In the porphyritic granite there are local wolframite-bearing greisens and hydrothermal fluorite and topaz-rich veins.Fluid inclusion studies were conducted on: 1 topaz and quartz crystals from the marginal stockscheider; 2 quartz, topaz, fluorite and beryl crystals from isolated pegmatites; 3 topaz from a miarolitic pegmatite; 4 beryl and quartz veins from greisenized porphyritic granite; and 5 fluorite from a late fluorite vein inthe coarse-grained biotite granite. Preliminary data indicate the presence of three compositionally distinct primary and pseudosecondary inclusion types that are of late magmatic-hydrothermal origin.Type 1. Low salinity (0–10 eq. wt% NaCl H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz, topaz and beryl. Inclusions in fluorite from the fluorite vein homogenize at ~170˚C and have a salinity of ca. 1–2 eq. wt% NaCl.Type 2. Saline (25–30 eq. wt% NaCl halite-bearing H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 400˚C. These inclusions are from quartz.Type 3. Low salinity (0–3 eq. wt% NaCl H2O-CO2 inclusions that homogenize to vapor phase in the temperature range of 330 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz and topaz.Hydrothermal fluids from greisen minerals are represented by type 1 and type 2 H2O inclusions. They are predominantly of low salinity (~8 eq. wt% NaCl and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 500

  11. 政策、法规及治疗准则——FDA开始考虑纳米技术监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beryl Lieff Benderly撰文称,在美国已上市的纳米技术产品达到几百种,其中包括药品、医疗器械和食品。今后几年,纳米技术产品数量将呈指数级增加,但主要监管部门FDA才刚刚开始考虑纳米技术所带来的特有问题,文章刊登在食品药品法律研究所(FDLI)的网站www.fdli.org上。

  12. Croquet club

    CERN Multimedia

    Croquet club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Croquet season started Saturday 7 May with the annual opening tournament. A total of 14 very happy players in the spring sunshine. It was a  lovely day in all senses - friendly competition, a lot of laughter and catching up with one another. Players are divided into PROs (low-handicap) and AMs (high-handicap), all matches are played as doubles. The pairings are changed during the day and the individual points go towards determining the winner. Congratulations to Ian Sexton for winning the Pros and Beryl Allardyce who won the Ams. Many of the games were very close and Ian seemed to have some good challenges in his block! Overall results: Pros: 1st - Ian 2nd - Brian 3rd - Angelina 4th - Jean Ams: 1st - Beryl 2nd - Frank 3rd - Peter (+Margaret) 4th - Roberta (+Jenny) Special thanks to the manager Danny Davids for making this tournament such a smooth and well run affair. CERN croquet club hold...

  13. Croquet club

    CERN Multimedia

    Croquet club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Croquet season started Saturday 7 May with the annual opening tournament. A total of 14 very happy players in the spring sunshine. It was a  lovely day in all senses - friendly competition, a lot of laughter and catching up with one another. Players are divided into PROs (low-handicap) and AMs (high-handicap), all matches are played as doubles. The pairings are changed during the day and the individual points go towards determining the winner. Congratulations to Ian Sexton for winning the Pros and Beryl Allardyce who won the Ams. Many of the games were very close and Ian seemed to have some good challenges in his block! Overall results: Pros: 1st - Ian 2nd - Brian 3rd - Angelina 4th - Jean Ams: 1st - Beryl 2nd - Frank 3rd - Peter (+Margaret) 4th - Roberta (+Jenny) Special thanks to the manager Danny Davids for making this tournament such a smooth and well run affair. CERN croquet club holds...

  14. Geoquímica y metalogénesis de las pegmatitas y granitos asociados del sector sur del distrito Comechingones, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demartis, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical and metallogenetical study of the pegmatites and associated granites from southern Comechingones pegmatitic field, Córdoba. The Comechingones pegmatitic field (CPF is located in theeastern flank of the Sierra de Comechingones, Córdoba province. It is composed of granite pegmatites belonging to the Rare-Element class, beryl type, beryl-columbite-phosphate subtype; some of them are transitional into the Muscovite class. Beryllium, Nb, Ta and U deposits, as well as high-quality industrial mineral deposits, are frequently associated with these pegmatites. In the southern part of the CPF two different pegmatite types have been described.Type I pegmatites constitute large zoned bodies with up to 1000 m long and 50 m thick, and may constitute rare element deposits, whereas type II pegmatites occur as small, unzoned quartz-rich dykes, without metalliferous mineralizations, spatial and genetically associated with aplitic leucogranites. Preliminary geochemical data from bothpegmatites types and granites are presented and discussed in this contribution. Geochemical evidences, supported by field and petrographic observations, suggest that the two types of pegmatites identified in the study area represent two different, probably diachronic, magmatic stages. Type I pegmatites display a geochemical gradation in a S-N direction, from barren pegmatites in the south to fractionated pegmatites in the northern part of the study area, andare the lithological product of the first magmatic stage. The second stage lead to the crystallization of aplitic granites and barren type II pegmatites, geochemically less fractionated than type II pegmatites.

  15. Collapse Pressure Analysis of Transversely Isotropic Thick-Walled Cylinder Using Lebesgue Strain Measure and Transition Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide guidance for the design of the thick-walled cylinder made up of transversely isotropic material so that collapse of cylinder due to influence of internal and external pressure can be avoided. The concept of transition theory based on Lebesgue strain measure has been used to simplify the constitutive equations. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From this analysis, it has been concluded that, under the influence of internal and external pressure, circular cylinder made up of transversely isotropic material (beryl is on the safer side of the design as compared to the cylinders made up of isotropic material (steel. This is because of the reason that percentage increase in effective pressure required for initial yielding to become fully plastic is high for beryl as compared to steel which leads to the idea of “stress saving” that reduces the possibility of collapse of thick-walled cylinder due to internal and external pressure.

  16. 卢氏锂辉石-锂云母型稀有多金属矿石工艺矿物学研究%Processing Mineralogy of Spodumene-lepidolite Pattern Rare Polymetal Ore in Lushi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盘喜; 海东婧; 卞孝东; 赵海波; 朱黎宽; 刘璐

    2015-01-01

    深入研究了卢氏锂辉石-锂云母型稀有多金属矿石的工艺矿物学特征,为矿石选冶工艺提供理论基础和科学依据。查明了矿石中锂辉石、锂云母、绿柱石、铌钽铁矿、锑钽矿、细晶石和铯榴石等稀有金属矿物可供回收利用,石英和长石亦可综合回收,有用矿物占矿物量的94.3%。铌钽矿物与锂云母和锂电气石关系密切,铷无独立矿物、载体矿物为长石和锂云母。锂辉石和锂云母粒度较粗,铌钽铁矿和绿柱石粒度细小。铌钽铁矿主要呈粒柱状、绿柱石主要呈柱状和晶簇状集合体分布于粒间隙及微裂隙中。%This paper thoroughly studied the processing mineralogy features of Spodumene -Lepido-lite pattern rare polymetallic ore , which could supply theoretical base and scientific evidence for mineral separation and metallurgy technology .It was found out that rare metal minerals including spodumene, lepidolite, beryl, columbite-tantalite, stibiotantalite, microlite and pollucite can be recovered and utilized , quartz and feldspar can also be comprehensively recovered in this ore .Use-ful minerals accounted for 94 .3%in the ore .Niobo-tantalic minerals were closely related to le-pidolite and elbaite , there was no independent mineral of rubidium , which hosted in feldspar and lepidolite .Spodumene and lepidolite had comparatively rough granularity , columbite-tantalite and beryl had smaller particle size .Columbite -tantalite mainly presented grain and columnar , beryl mainly presented columnar and drusy -aggregate and distributed in intergranular and micro cracks .

  17. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite

  18. Progress in the Synthesis of 4 -Trifluoromethylphenyl Acetic Acid%对三氟甲基苯乙酸的合成研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓绍平; 陈洁

    2012-01-01

    Research progress on the synthesis method of 4 -trifluoromethylphenyl acetic acid and its application as pharmaceutical intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals were described. The methods including 4 -trifluoromethyl beryl chloride, 4 -trifluoromethyl acetophenone, diethyl malonate and 4 - trifluoromethyl aniline were reviewed and summarized.%叙述了对三氟甲基苯乙酸合成方法的研究进展,及其作为医药中间体在药物合成中的应用。将对三氟甲基氯苄法、对三氟甲基苯乙酮法、丙二酸二乙酯法、对三氟甲基苯胺法合成对三氟甲基苯乙酸进行了概括总结。

  19. The Ring Monstrance from the Loreto treasury in Prague: handheld Raman spectrometer for identification of gemstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlička, Jan; Culka, Adam; Baštová, Markéta; Bašta, Petr; Kuntoš, Jaroslav

    2016-12-13

    A miniature lightweight portable Raman spectrometer and a palm-sized device allow for fast and unambiguous detection of common gemstones mounted in complex jewels. Here, complex religious artefacts and the Ring Monstrance from the Loreto treasury (Prague, Czech Republic; eighteenth century) were investigated. These discriminations are based on the very good correspondence of the wavenumbers of the strongest Raman bands of the minerals. Very short laser illumination times and efficient collection of scattered light were sufficient to obtain strong diagnostic Raman signals. The following minerals were documented: quartz and its varieties, beryl varieties (emerald), corundum varieties (sapphire), garnets (almandine, grossular), diamond as well as aragonite in pearls. Miniature Raman spectrometers can be recommended for common gemmological work as well as for mineralogical investigations of jewels and cultural heritage objects whenever the antiquities cannot be transported to a laboratory.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'.

  20. Rue d’Odessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl Schlossman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce texte autobiographique, Beryl Schlossman revisite son enfance. Enfant d’immigrés juifs d’origine russe, elle s’intègre parfaitement à la vie et à la ville de New York. La France, pourtant, la fait rêver, à cause de sa mère qui lui parlait en français. Elle multiplie donc les séjours en France (Paris et province, acquiert une maîtrise de la langue qui lui permet de s’exprimer indifféremment en anglais ou en français dans des publications ou des revues de poésie.

  1. Cl can interfere with Al{sup 3+} AMS but B need not matter to Be measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Sheng, E-mail: s.xu@suerc.gla.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Freeman, Stewart P.H.T.; Sanderson, David; Shanks, Richard P.; Wilcken, Klaus M. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    Al AMS can be subject to particle detector ion interference despite effective {sup 26}Mg suppression and molecule digestion. Using our thinnest-yet 30 nm SiN membrane detector window to best separate four signals close to the 16 MeV {sup 26}Al{sup 3+} ions we identify {sup 35}Cl{sup 4+} interference consistent with molecular-dissociation before the accelerator, in addition to {sup 9}Be{sup 1+} and {sup 17}O{sup 2+} ions. The problem is likely generic and possibly applies to other charge-states too. Separately we have measured highly borated beryl {sup 10}Be blank samples to confirm the insensitivity to {sup 10}B{sup 3+} interference of our two different detector arrangement for {sup 10}Be{sup 3+} AMS. Be AMS correction for B is unnecessary, and is also invariant of {sup 9}Be beam current.

  2. The Durulgui rare-metal granite‒pegmatite system in the eastern Transbaikal region: Petrological and geochronological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorsky, V. E.

    2016-11-01

    The Durulgui granite‒pegmatite system unites the Dedova Gora granite massif and pegmatite field with the Chalotskoe beryl deposit. New geochronological data on micas from porphyric biotite granites, fine-grained biotite granites, two-mica granites, and Be-bearing pegmatites are discussed. The plateau age of 128.5(±1.5)-131.2(±1.5) should be considered as indicating the formation time of the granite‒pegmatite system as a whole. The age of the system implies the possibility of its formation owing to several magmatic pulses. This assumption concerns porphyric and fine-grained biotite granites and two-mica and muscovite granites, the contact between which is locally sharp. At the same time, the succession "two-mica granites → muscovite granites → granite‒pegmatites → microcline pegmatites → microcline‒albite pegmatites → albite pegmatites" demonstrates gradual facies transitions between rocks, which indicates their emplacement during a single magmatic pulse.

  3. Geología y mineralogía de algunas pegmatitas del borde oriental del distrito Punilla, Córdoba Geology and mineralogy of some pegmatites in the eastern border of the Punilla District, Córdoba province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Colombo

    2006-09-01

    -zoned and are of rare-element class, complex type, beryl-columbite subtype. They probably belong to the hybrid family. Minerals found in all pegmatites include quartz, ordered microcline, plagioclase and muscovite (occasionally pink due to Mn>Fe. Biotite is a very frequent accessory. Beryl can be classified as alkali-poor sodicpotassic beryl and has Fe replacing Al in its structure. Fluorapatite, displaying a marked negative Eu anomaly, may contain up to 2.95% Mn and 0.77% Fe. Xenotime-(Y occurs as inclusions within apatite. Garnet (spessartine-almandine is compositionally unzoned. Other minerals found in small quantities are fluorite, rutile, hematite, columbite-group minerals (generally Nb>Ta and Fe>Mn with disordered structure, members of the pyrochlore group (mainly Nb-, Pb- and U-rich, malachite, mottramite, zircon (with low to null Hf, chrysocolla, kaolinite, interstratified illite/smectite, illite, bertrandite, kettnerite, bismutite, clinobisvanite and probably gahnite. Fluid inclusions in beryl and miarolitic quartz from SD-2 show that supercritical CO2 was present in a stage of the pegmatite evolution. Late solutions have no detectable CO2 and record a cooling history. These pegmatites crystallized from a Be-rich peraluminous melt, with Nb>>Ta, between 0.4 and 0.8% P2O5 and almost no S. Fractionation of Mn from Fe was moderate.

  4. A compact low cost “master–slave” double crystal monochromator for x-ray cameras calibration of the Laser MégaJoule Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, S., E-mail: sebastien.hubert@cea.fr; Prévot, V.

    2014-12-21

    The Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA-CESTA, France) built a specific double crystal monochromator (DCM) to perform calibration of x-ray cameras (CCD, streak and gated cameras) by means of a multiple anode diode type x-ray source for the MégaJoule Laser Facility. This DCM, based on pantograph geometry, was specifically modeled to respond to relevant engineering constraints and requirements. The major benefits are mechanical drive of the second crystal on the first one, through a single drive motor, as well as compactness of the entire device. Designed for flat beryl or Ge crystals, this DCM covers the 0.9–10 keV range of our High Energy X-ray Source. In this paper we present the mechanical design of the DCM, its features quantitatively measured and its calibration to finally provide monochromatized spectra displaying spectral purities better than 98%.

  5. 史密森学会基于时间的艺术和数字艺术工作小组采访项目

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    人物介绍:莎拉·库克是一位加拿大/英国历史学家、新媒体艺术、数字艺术和当代艺术领域的策展人。她2000年在桑德兰大学任研究员时与贝利尔·格雷汉姆(Beryl Graham)共同创办了“新媒体策展资源在线狂欢”(CRUMB—Curatorial Resource for Upstart Media Bliss),并执教策展硕士课程,目前在敦提大学任职研究员。

  6. Solution of rocks and refractory minerals by acids at high temperatures and pressures. Determination of silica after decomposition with hydrofluoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, I.; Rowe, J.J.

    1965-01-01

    A modified Morey bomb was designed which contains a removable nichromecased 3.5-ml platinium crucible. This bomb is particularly useful for decompositions of refractory samples for micro- and semimicro-analysis. Temperatures of 400-450?? and pressures estimated as great as 6000 p.s.i. were maintained in the bomb for periods as long as 24 h. Complete decompositions of rocks, garnet, beryl, chrysoberyl, phenacite, sapphirine, and kyanite were obtained with hydrofluoric acid or a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids; the decomposition of chrome refractory was made with hydrochloric acid. Aluminum-rich samples formed difficultly soluble aluminum fluoride precipitates. Because no volatilization losses occur, silica can be determined on sample solutions by a molybdenum-blue procedure using aluminum(III) to complex interfering fluoride. ?? 1965.

  7. Solvent extraction of beryllium from malonate solutions with liquid anion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, R.R.; Khopkar, S.M.

    1983-12-01

    Beryllium was quantitatively extracted at pH 5.5-7.0 in microgram amounts with 0.06 M Aliquat 336S in xylene from 5 x 10/sup -3/ M malonic acid solution, stripped with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid, and determined spectrophotometrically at 523 nm as its complex with thorin. Those metals which could not form anionic complexes with malonic acid and were not extracted with beryllium at pH 6.5 were separated from it. Metals forming weak malonato complexes were scrubbed from the organic phase with water. The elements like bismuth, antimony, iron, uranium, gallium, and vanadium which form strong malonato complexes were separated by selective stripping with hydrochloric, sulfuric, or nitric acid. The method was extended for the analysis of beryllium in beryl and beryllium alloys. 1 figure, 6 tables.

  8. Maps Showing Geology, Structure, and Geophysics of the Central Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, Jack A.; DeWitt, Ed

    2008-01-01

    This 1:100,000-scale digital geologic map details the complex Early Proterozoic granitic rocks, Early Proterozoic supracrustal metamorphic rocks, and Archean crystalline basement of the Black Hills. The granitic rocks host pegmatite deposits renowned for their feldspar, mica, spodumene, and beryl. The supracrustal rocks host the Homestake gold mine, which produced more than 40 million ounces of gold over a 125-year lifetime. The map documents the Laramide deformation of Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover rocks; and shows the distribution of Laramide plutonic rocks associated with precious-metals deposits. Four 1:300,000-scale maps summarize Laramide structures; Early Proterozoic structures; aeromagnetic anomalies; and gravity anomalies. Three 1:500,000-scale maps show geophysical interpretations of buried Early Proterozoic to Archean rocks in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming.

  9. Effects of Cr 3+ impurity concentration on the crystallography of synthetic emerald crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Lun; Huang, Eugene; Lee, Jan-Shing; Yu, Shu-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    Flux method has been adopted for the synthesis of emerald crystals using PbO-V 2O 5 as a flux in order to study the crystallography of the synthetic crystals. In general, the hue of green color of emerald deepens with the addition of Cr 3+. The molar volume of the synthesized crystals was found to increase with the incorporation of Cr 2O 3 dopant. The substitution of Cr 3+ for Al 3+ in the octahedral sites of beryl results in the expansion of a-axis, while c-axis remains nearly unchanged. The maximum Cr 2O 3-content allowed in the crystal lattice of emerald has been found to be about 3.5 wt%. When the doping Cr 2O 3-content exceeds 3.5 wt%, a significant anomaly in lattice parameters starts to take place, accompanying the precipitation of an unknown phase in the emerald matrix.

  10. Release of beryllium into artificial airway epithelial lining fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Inhaled beryllium particles that deposit in the lung airway lining fluid may dissolve and interact with immune-competent cells resulting in sensitization. As such, solubilization of 17 beryllium-containing materials (ore, hydroxide, metal, oxide, alloys, and process intermediates) was investigated using artificial human airway epithelial lining fluid. The maximum beryllium release in 7 days was 11.78% (from a beryl ore melter dust), although release from most materials was beryllium ions may be released in the respiratory tract via dissolution in airway lining fluid. Beryllium-containing particles that deposit in the respiratory tract dissolve in artificial lung epithelial lining fluid, thereby providing ions for absorption in the lung and interaction with immune-competent cells in the respiratory tract.

  11. Reaction of sources of resistance to white mold to microsatellite haplotypes of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller da Silva Lehner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT White mold caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is the most yield-limiting disease of common bean in Brazil. To date, there has been no commercial cultivar resistant to this disease. In a greenhouse we evaluated white mold resistance sources (Cornell 605, A195 and G122 against eight isolates of S. sclerotiorum from five Brazilian states. A Brazilian cultivar (BRSMG Madrepérola and a susceptible check (Beryl were used as control. Treatments were arranged in factorial combinations (5 × 8 in a completely random design with four replicates. Disease severity was assessed on a rating scale of 1-to-9 together with lesion length, which was used to determine an area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. Polymorphisms detected in ten microsatellite loci were used to assess variability between the isolates. Each isolate was a distinct haplotype; they formed a genetic tree with two clusters. One cluster was formed by three isolates collected from the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo (southeastern; the others, by isolates from Paraná, Santa Catarina (southern, Goiás (Mid-western, and again, Minas Gerais. Genotype × isolate interaction was significant. In general, Beryl was more susceptible than BRSMG Madrepérola. Considering the AUDPC and/or the white mold reaction score, Cornell 605 exhibited more physiological resistance than BRSMG Madrepérola to seven isolates, A195 to five isolates, and G122 to two isolates. Our results suggest that Cornell 605 is the best source of resistance to white mold for the southern region, whereas Cornell 605 and A195 are somewhat superior to G122 for the southeastern and mid-western regions.

  12. 犹他州Iron县Escalante沙漠南部Escalante山谷地裂缝的成因与范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; R.; Lurid; Christopher; B.; DuRoss; 赵玉军(翻译); 苑惠明(校对)

    2006-01-01

    犹他州地质调查局对犹他州西南部Escalante山谷内的5个地裂缝进行了勘查。2005年1月8—12日,在Escalante山谷突降一场强冬季暴风雪(可引起洪水)后,Escalant山谷内出现了地裂缝。洪水的渗透和层状冲刷(或片冲作用)扩大了地裂缝的范围。这些地裂缝长约100米(330英尺)至400米(1300公尺),而且在Beryl Junction地区中部形成了一个不连续的长9千米的裂缝带(一般向北部延伸)。在某些位置,洪水侵蚀了裂缝并形成宽3米、深2米的冲沟。据当地居民描述,在洪水泛滥期间,洪水源源不断地流入地裂缝(持续时间1天或几天),并在地裂缝上部形成旋涡。布格重力数据显示,Escalante山谷是一个沉积物充填的盆地(以下简称充填盆地),其最深位置正好位于Beryl Junetion东部。Escalante山谷也是一个农业耕作区,自20世纪20年代起开始从充填盆地含水层抽取地下水。监测结果表明,自从20世纪40年代以来,Escalante山谷的地下水位开始稳定下降。近年来,由于干旱,Escalante山谷地下水位的下降速率不断增加。Beryl Junction南部地区地下水位的下降速率最大。调查结果显示,地裂缝的物理特性类似于在其他西部地区(由地下水开采和水位下降引起)形成的裂缝。这些地裂缝长与宽的比值(长宽比)较大,且大多数地裂缝是线性结构,可以在多种地层中出现并能够延伸相当大的距离。基于流入地裂缝的洪水总量,地裂缝的深度能够延伸至更大范围(甚至达到地下水位)。沉积层(含粘土)范围内的能够产生不同裂纹特征的地裂缝(例如干缩裂缝、水压实或地表断层)的其他可能的成因是震级较大的地震(大于6.5级)。此外,对Escalante山谷地面进行的高分辨率GPS勘查结果显示,在1941年-1972年期间,Beryl Junction中

  13. 新疆南部祖母绿(绿柱石)成矿地质条件初探%Preliminary discussion of the the metailogenic conditions of emerald deposit, Southern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹秀艳; 李甲平; 汪立今; 罗卫东; 石玉君; 陈勇; 陈俊华

    2011-01-01

    The emeralds of Xinjiang are good in quality, and the deposit has enormous potential yields of excellent quality emerald. This paper is mainly to analyze the geological characteristics of this deposit, including the regional geological features; mining and geological characteristics of ore body; ore mineralogi-cal characteristics of micro. The formation and distribution of emerald ore bodies found in Xinjiang are controlled by regional stratigraphy, magmatic, tectonic and other factors. Emerald (Beryl) Produced in the carbonaceous limestone, shale, calcite, calcite-quartz veinlets. Veins mostly were shaped by oblique veins, bedding pulse. Based on this study, according to samples collected, carrying on microscopic order of mineral assemblages and the formation of micro-mineralogy, mineralization process will be divided into three periods, namely before mineralization, mineralization period, after forming, obtained in the main ore minerals of the formation of calcite, quartz, albite, beryl, etc.. Through this research, the area emerald (beryl) exploration of important guiding significance.%新疆南部首次发现质量好的祖母绿(绿柱石),其成矿地质条件研究意义重大.本文主要对新疆南部祖母绿(绿柱石)矿的成矿地质条件进行初步探讨,包括区域地质特征、矿区及矿体地质特征、矿石显微矿物学特征等.发现新疆祖母绿矿体的形成和分布,受区内地层、岩浆、构造等多种因素和条件限制.祖母绿(绿柱石)多产于含碳质灰岩、页岩的方解石、方解石-石英细脉中,含祖母绿(绿柱石)矿脉多以斜交脉、顺层脉产出.在此研究基础上,根据所采集的样品,进行了显微矿物组合特征和生成顺序的微观矿物学研究,将成矿作用过程划分为三个期次,即成矿前、成矿期、成矿后.得出在成矿期形成的主要矿物为方解石、石英、钠长石、绿柱石等.通过上述研究,对该区祖母绿(绿柱石)找矿具有重要的指导意义.

  14. Occupational exposure to natural radionuclides due to mining activities in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria; Exposition professionnelle aux radionucleides naturels emis par les activites minieres a Ibadan au sud-ouest du Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ademola, J.A.; Okpalaonwuka, N.E. [Ibadan Univ., Dept. of Physics, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2010-01-15

    The activity concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium in minerals and soil samples from a mining site in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria were measured using gamma ray spectroscopy method. Effective dose per annum has been calculated from the activity concentrations of dominant gamma-emitting natural radionuclides, potassium, uranium and thorium. Samples collected include minerals (beryl, quartz and feldspar), soil samples from the mining pits, heaps and undisturbed land around the mining site. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, respectively in Bq kg-1 in the mineral samples were as follows: 1985 +- 16, 4.8 +- 0.9 and 11.8 +- 5.8 for beryl sample, 115.1 +- 27.9, 5.0 +- 1.3 and 6.3 +- 5.0 for feldspar samples and 1421 +- 122, <4.8 and 20.1 +- 3.5 for quartz samples. For the soil samples, the mean activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, respectively, were 314.2 +- 5.7, 27.7 +- 2.6 and 11.5 +- 5.9 Bq kg-1 for soil samples from the pits and 278.1 +- 5.4, 21.1 +- 2.0 and 15.3 +- 7.5 Bq kg-1 for soil samples from heaps. The mean activity concentrations of soil samples from the undisturbed land around the mining site were 194.3 +- 25.2, 14.5 +- 5.1 and 13.3 +- 5.9 Bq kg-1 for {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, respectively. The effective dose to which the miners are exposed according to exposure scenarios were calculated as 89.9 muSv y-1 for digging and handling of soil and mineral samples in the pit and 63.6 muSv y-1 for handling of soil and mineral samples at the heaps. (authors)

  15. Analysis of archaeological precious stones from Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž. [Facully of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršsek, M. [Slovenian Museum of Natural History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kržic, A. [Higher Vocational Centre, Sezana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an

  16. Optical absorption, Mössbauer, and FTIR spectroscopic studies of two blue bazzites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Khomenko, Vladimir M.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    2017-02-01

    Two samples of bazzite, a very rare Sc analog of beryl, from Tørdal, Telemark, Norway and Kent, Central Kazakhstan were studied by electron microprobe, optical absorption, and Mössbauer spectroscopies; the latter sample was also studied by FTIR. Electron microprobe results show that the Norway bazzite is composed of two bazzites with slightly different FeO contents, viz. 5.66 and 5.43 wt%. The Kazakhstan sample consists of several varieties of bazzite displaying strong differences in iron, manganese, magnesium, and aluminum contents (in wt%): FeO from 2.02 to 6.73, MnO from 0.89 to 2.98, MgO from 0.37 to 1.86, and Al2O3 from 0.30 to 1.30. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows different degrees of iron oxidation. The Norway bazzite is completely Fe2+, while the Kazakhstan sample contains roughly equivalent Fe3+ and Fe2+ accommodated in the octahedral site. The difference in iron oxidation causes strong variations in the intensity of the broad optical absorption band around 13,850 cm-1, which is assigned to Fe2+ → Fe3+ IVCT; as a result, there are strong differences in the intensity of blue color. Dichroism (E||c ≫ E⊥c) is much stronger in the Kazakhstan sample than in the Norway one. Intensities of the electronic spin-allowed bands of [6]Fe2+ at 8900 and 10,400 cm-1 are somewhat higher in the latter than in the former. FTIR spectra of the sample from Kent show the presence of only water type II molecules with the H-H vector perpendicular to the c-axis, in contrast to more typical beryls that always show at least weak minor bands of H2O I. This result shows that trapped water molecules in structural channels of studied bazzite occupy only sites next to or between six-membered rings centered by Na atoms. Definite structure can be observed in the vicinities of ν2 and ν3 peaks. Peaks at 1621 and 3663 cm-1 are assigned to "doubly coordinated" H2O (IId), whereas maximums at 1633 and 3643 cm-1 likely represent "singly coordinated" H2O (IIs). Interpretation of the third

  17. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  18. The first X-ray diffraction measurements on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mars Science Laboratory landed in Gale crater on Mars in August 2012, and the Curiosity rover then began field studies on its drive toward Mount Sharp, a central peak made of ancient sediments. CheMin is one of ten instruments on or inside the rover, all designed to provide detailed information on the rocks, soils and atmosphere in this region. CheMin is a miniaturized X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF instrument that uses transmission geometry with an energy-discriminating CCD detector. CheMin uses onboard standards for XRD and XRF calibration, and beryl:quartz mixtures constitute the primary XRD standards. Four samples have been analysed by CheMin, namely a soil sample, two samples drilled from mudstones and a sample drilled from a sandstone. Rietveld and full-pattern analysis of the XRD data reveal a complex mineralogy, with contributions from parent igneous rocks, amorphous components and several minerals relating to aqueous alteration. In particular, the mudstone samples all contain one or more phyllosilicates consistent with alteration in liquid water. In addition to quantitative mineralogy, Rietveld refinements also provide unit-cell parameters for the major phases, which can be used to infer the chemical compositions of individual minerals and, by difference, the composition of the amorphous component.

  19. The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Dissanayake

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene being common.Rare element concentrations in sediments from the three main gem fields of Sri Lanka, namely Ratnapura, Elahera and Walawe, were studied. It was found that some sediments are considerably enriched in certain elements compared to their average continental crustal abundances. The Walawe Ganga sediments show anomalous enrichments of the high field strength and associated elements, particularly Zr, Hf, W and Ti. This is attributed to the presence of accessory mineralssuch as zircon, monazite and rutile. Some of these heavy minerals comprise as much as 50 wt% of sediment. The geochemical enrichment of some trace elements compared to their average crustal abundances indicates that highly differentiated granites and associated pegmatites have provided the source materials for enrichment.

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Teeuw

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, J.H. Beaglehole, The district: A study in decentralization in West Malaysia. Hull Monographs on South-East Asia no. 6. Published for the University of Hull by Oxford University Press, 1976. 122 pages. - C.D. Grijns, Sri Soekesi Adiwimarta, Omong Djakarta-Texte (bearbeitet und übersetzt von -. Veröffentlichung des Seminars für Indonesische und Südsesprachen der Universität Hamburg Band 8. Verlag von Dietrich Reimer, Berlin, 1973. - H.K.J. Cowan, V.I. Braginskij, Evoljutsija Malajskogo klassitsjeskogo sticha. Uitg. “Nauka”, glavnaja redaktsija vostotsjnoj literatury, Moskou 1975. 206 blzn. - J.J. Ras, Wolfgang Marschall, Der Berg des Herrn der Erde, Alte Ordnung und Kulturkonflikt in einem indonesischen Dorf. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, München 1976. 204 pp., 30 illustrations. - A. Teeuw, Muhammad Haji Salleh, Tradition and change in contemporary Malay-Indonesian poetry. Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1977. IX, 190 pp. - J.J. Ras, Beryl de Zoete, Dance and drama in Bali. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur 1973. XX 343 pp., 112 illustrations., Walter Spies (eds.

  1. Investigation of synthesized Be-bearing silicate glass as laboratory reference sample at X-ray electron probe microanalysis of silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerova, Olga Yu.; Mikhailov, Mikhail A.; Demina, Tamara V.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses estimates of the stability and homogeneity in Be-Mg-Al-silicate glass produced by the authors and its applicability as a laboratory reference sample for X-ray electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of Be-bearing silicate matters: crystals and quenching melt (glasses), silicates and oxides. The results were obtained using Superprobe-733 and Superprobe JXA-8200 (JEOL Ltd, Japan) devices. The sample homogeneity was studied on macro (10-100 μm) and micro (1-10 μm) levels and was evaluated by the scheme of dispersion analysis. The applicability of Be-bearing silicate glass as a reference sample for Mg, Al, Si determinations was tested on the international certified reference glasses and laboratory reference samples of minerals with a known composition. The obtained experimental metrological characteristics correspond to the "applied geochemistry" type of analysis (second category) and suggest that Be-bearing silicate glass is appropriate as a laboratory reference sample for EPMA of Be-bearing silicate matters, silicates and oxides. Using Be-Mg-Al-silicate glass as a reference sample we obtained satisfactory data on the composition of both some minerals including cordierite and beryllium cordierite, beryllium indialite, beryl and metastable phases (chrysoberyl, compounds with structure of β-quartz and petalite).

  2. $YB_{66} a new soft X-ray monochromator for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, J; Rowen, M; Schäfers, F; Müller, B R; Rek, Z U

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., vol.A291, p.243-8, 1990. YB/sub 66/, a complex boron-rich man-made crystal, has been singled out as a potential monochromator material to disperse synchrotron soft X-rays in the 1-2 keV region. Results of a series of systematic property characterizations pertinent for this application are presented in this paper. These include Laue diffraction patterns and high-precision lattice-constant determination, etch rate, stoichiometry, thermal expansion, soft X-ray reflectivity and rocking-curve measurements, thermal load effects on monochromator performance, nature of intrinsic positive glitches and their reduction. The 004 reflection of YB/sub 66/ has a reflectance of ~3 in this spectral region. The width of the rocking curve varies from 0.25 eV at 1.1 keV to 1.0 eV at 2 keV, which is a factor of two better than that of beryl(1010) in the same energy range, and enables measurements of high-resolution XANES spectra at the Mg, Al and Si K- edges. The thermal bump on the...

  3. POLARISATION OF THE S - PHASE OF SEISMOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. STONELEY

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available In earthquakes recorded at moderate distances it lias been ohservedthat S phase appears first as SII, folloived some 10 to 14 seconds laterby SV. The object of tliis paper is to try to decide ichether doublérefraction is likely to be the explanation of tliis jìlwnomenon.A simpie model to consider ivould be a « transversely isotropie »material, symmetrical about the radiai direction. Formulae for thevelocities of SII and SV waves are available; tliese velocities dependon the angle that the ray makes ivi t li the norma!. It is unlikely thatthe Eartli could be as markedly anisotropie as the minerai beryl, whichis transversely isotropie; aceordingly, this material, of ivhich the fi veclastic constants are knoivn is taken as an extreme example, andthe velocities of SH and SV for different angles of incidence are« scaled down » so as to match the velocity of distortional ivaves ingranite. It is then possible to calcitiate the difference in the timo takenby ivaves from one point of the surface of the Earth to anotlier pointon the surface according as the S wave in the surface layer is of SHor SV type.

  4. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  5. Color Dependence on Thickness in Topaz Crystal from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Bonventi Jr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that crystals of topaz from the Eastern Brazilian Pegmatite Province may turn blue by the irradiation with 60Co gamma rays followed by heat treatment. Also, it is known that the sensation of color changes with the thickness of these crystals. The dependence of the color, given by 1931 CIE chromaticity coordinates, with the thickness of the crystal was analyzed. The absorbance used in the calculation of these coordinates was given by the sum of Gaussian lines. The parameters of these lines were determined through the decomposition of the optical absorption spectra in the ultraviolet and visible regions. The decomposition revealed several lines, whose assignment was made considering studies in spodumene and beryl crystals and highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations. The transmittance becomes very narrow with increasing thickness, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates converge to the borderline of the CIE Chromaticity Diagram at the wavelength of maximum transmittance. Furthermore, the purity of color increases with increasing thickness, and the dominant wavelength reaches the wavelength of maximum transmittance.

  6. The origin of emeralds embedded in archaeological artefacts in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Kržič

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Roman gold jewellery, which was excavated in Ptuj (Poetovio and consists of a necklace, earrings and a braceletwith embedded emeralds, is part of the Slovenian archaeological artefacts collections. Crystallographic characteristics,inclusions, luminous phenomena and geological characteristics were determined in order to establish theorigin of the emeralds. Chemical composition of the emeralds was determined non-destructively using the methodsof proton-induced X-rays and gamma rays (PIXE/PIGE. The results were compared with reference emeraldsfrom Habachtal in Austria and with green beryls from the Ural Mts. Literature data for emeralds from Egypt andmodern-day Afghanistan area were used to interpret the results. Specifically, these sites were known for emeraldsbeing mined for jewellery in Roman times. It was assumed that emeralds from archaeological artefacts originatedfrom Habachtal in Austria, given that this site was the nearest to the place where found. But the emeralds fromthe necklace and earrings in fact came from Egyptian deposits. The origin of emeralds from the bracelet could nothave been determined absolutely reliably due to the lack of comparative materials; they may originate from a site inmodern-day Afghanistan or from Egypt, but certainly not from the same site as the previously mentioned emeraldsin the necklace and earrings.

  7. On the Coupling between Helium Settling and Rotation-Induced Mixing in Stellar Radiative Zones II- Application to light elements in population I main-sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Théado, S; Theado, Sylvie; Vauclair, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    In the two previous papers of this series, we have discussed the importance of t he $\\mu$-gradients due to helium settling on rotation-induced mixing, first in a n approximate analytical way, second in a 2D numerical simulation. We have found that, for slowly rotating low mass stars, a process of ``creeping paralysis" in which the circulation and the diffusion are nearly frozen may take place below the convective zone. Here we apply this theory to the case of lithium and beryll ium in galactic clusters and specially the Hyades. We take into account the rota tional braking with rotation velocities adjusted to the present observations. We find that two different cells of meridional circulation appear on the hot side of the "lithium dip" and that the "creeping paralysis" process occurs, not dir ectly below the convective zone, but deeper inside the radiative zone, at the to p of the second cell. As a consequence, the two cells are disconnected, which ma y be the basic reason for the lithium increase with effecti...

  8. Sentinel-2 for Mapping Iron Absorption Feature Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald van der Werff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an indicator for soil fertility and the usability of an area for cultivating crops. Remote sensing is the only suitable tool for surveying large areas at a high temporal and spatial interval, yet a relative high spectral resolution is needed for mapping iron contents with reflectance data. Sentinel-2 has several bands that cover the 0.9 μm iron absorption feature, while space-borne sensors traditionally used for geologic remote sensing, like ASTER and Landsat, had only one band in this feature. In this paper, we introduce a curve-fitting technique for Sentinel-2 that approximates the iron absorption feature at a hyperspectral resolution. We test our technique on library spectra of different iron bearing minerals and we apply it to a Sentinel-2 image synthesized from an airborne hyperspectral dataset. Our method finds the wavelength position of maximum absorption and absolute absorption depth for minerals Beryl, Bronzite, Goethite, Jarosite and Hematite. Sentinel-2 offers information on the 0.9 μm absorption feature that until now was reserved for hyperspectral instruments. Being a satellite mission, this information comes at a lower spatial resolution than airborne hyperspectral data, but with a large spatial coverage and frequent revisit time.

  9. 常见一轴晶宝石矿物加工定向研究%Study of Some Uniaxial Minerals for Better Orientation of Faceting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shmakin,BM; Vassilyer,AV; 等

    2001-01-01

    For better manifestation of colours in anisotropic transparent stones the orientation of faceting along optical axes is necessary.Degree of absorption along and perpendicular to the main optical axis was studied for some uniaxial minerals, using several types of spectrophotometers.Tourmalines from Russian and American deposits, natural and synthetic rubies, blue beryls and apatites were measured.For all studied minerals the best orientation of faceting is recommended.%要使非均质性透明宝石矿物的颜色更好地表现出来,沿光轴方向的加工定向是非常必要的。用几种分光光度计研究了一些一轴晶矿物平行和垂直于主光轴方向的吸收程度。主要测定了产于俄罗斯和美国的电气石、 天然和合成的红宝石、 蓝色绿柱石及磷灰石。对所研究的矿物均提出了最佳的加工定向方案。

  10. Geology of the Spruce Pine District, Avery, Mitchell, and Yancy Counties, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald Albert

    1962-01-01

    The Spruce Pine pegmatite district, a northeastward-trending belt 25 miles long and 10 miles wide, lies in parts of Avery, Mitchell, and Yancey Counties in the Blue Ridge Province of western North Carolina. The most abundant rocks in the district are interlayered mica and amphibole gneisses and schists, all of which are believed to be of Precambrian age. These rocks are cut by small bodies of dunite and associated rocks of Precambrian (?) age, large bodies of alaskite and associated pegmatite of early Paleozoic age, and basaltic and diabasic dikes and sills of Triassic (?) age. The rocks of the district have been weathered to saprolite that is locally 50 feet thick. The major structure in the area is a southwestward-plunging asymmetrical synclinorium that has its steeper limb on the northwest side. Feldspar, muscovite as sheet and scrap (ground) mica, and kaolin from the alaskite and associated pegmatite account for over 90 percent of the total mineral production of the district. Amounts of other pegmatite minerals, including quartz, beryl, columbite-tantalite, rare-earth and uranium minerals are an extremely small part of the mineral resources. Actual or potential products from other rocks are olivine, vermiculite, asbestos, talc, chromium and nickel, soapstone, mica schist, garnet, kyanite, dolomite marble, and construction materials.

  11. Structure analysis on synthetic emerald crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Lun; Lee, Jiann-Shing; Huang, Eugene; Liao, Ju-Hsiou

    2013-05-01

    Single crystals of emerald synthesized by means of the flux method were adopted for crystallographic analyses. Emerald crystals with a wide range of Cr3+-doping content up to 3.16 wt% Cr2O3 were examined by X-ray single crystal diffraction refinement method. The crystal structures of the emerald crystals were refined to R 1 (all data) of 0.019-0.024 and w R 2 (all data) of 0.061-0.073. When Cr3+ substitutes for Al3+, the main adjustment takes place in the Al-octahedron and Be-tetrahedron. The effect of substitution of Cr3+ for Al3+ in the beryl structure results in progressively lengthening of the Al-O distance, while the length of the other bonds remains nearly unchanged. The substitution of Cr3+ for Al3+ may have caused the expansion of a axis, while keeping the c axis unchanged in the emerald lattice. As a consequence, the Al-O-Si and Al-O-Be bonding angles are found to decrease, while the angle of Si-O-Be increases as the Al-O distance increases during the Cr replacement.

  12. Satellite Data Assimilation of Upper-Level Sounding Channels in HWRF with Two Diff erent Model Tops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓蕾; 翁富忠; 林琳; 张邦林; 吴陈锋; 秦正坤

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) onboard the NOAA satellites NOAA-18 and NOAA-19 and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) MetOp-A, the hyperspectral Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Aqua, the High resolution In-fraRed Sounder (HIRS) onboard NOAA-19 and MetOp-A, and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite provide upper-level sounding channels in tropical cyclone environments. Assimilation of these upper-level sounding channels data in the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) system with two diff erent model tops is investigated for the tropical storms Debby and Beryl and hurricanes Sandy and Isaac that occurred in 2012. It is shown that the HWRF system with a higher model top allows more upper-level microwave and infrared sounding channels data to be assimilated into HWRF due to a more accurate upper-level background profi le. The track and intensity forecasts produced by the HWRF data assimilation and forecast system with a higher model top are more accurate than those with a lower model top.

  13. The spectral reflectance of water-mineral mixtures at low temperatures. [observed on natural satellites and other solar system objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance spectra in the 0.325-2.5 micron region of bound water, water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, and frost on minerals are presented. The materials used in this study are montmorillonite, kaolinite, beryl, Mauna Kea red cinder, and black charcoal. It is found that the wavelengths of bound water and bound OH absorptions do not shift appreciably with temperature and can be detected when large amounts of free water ice are present. The decrease in the visible reflectance seen in many planetary reflectance spectra containing strong water ice absorptions can be explained by water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, or frost on mineral grains. Mineral grains on frost are detectable in very small quantities (fractional areal coverage less than approximately 0.005) depending on the mineral reflectance features, while it takes a thick layer of frost (greater than approximately 1 mm) to mask a mineral below 1.4 microns, again depending on the mineral reflectance. Frost on a very dark surface (albedo about 6%) is easily seen; however, a dark mineral mixed with water could completely mask the water absorptions (shortward of 2.5 microns).

  14. 磨矿介质对典型硅酸盐矿物浮选的影响及机理%Effects and mechanism of different grinding media on the flotation behaviors of typical silicate minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼振峰; 孙传尧

    2016-01-01

    The flotation behavior of typical silicates was studied at wet grinding conditions with different grinding media ( iron ball and zircon ball) when dodecylamine or sodium oleate was chosen as a collector. The mechanism of these systems was systematically il-lustrated through measuring the zeta potential of pure minerals and micro scanning by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS) . When dodecylamine is chosen for a collector, below the optimum pH value, the recoveries of zircon, beryl, spodumene and quartz are higher by zircon balls as grinding media than those by iron balls. Above the optimum pH value, the recoveries of these four silicates are very similar whether by iron balls or zircon balls. However, different grinding methods have little effects on the recovery of feldspar. The recoveries of these five silicates with iron balls as grinding media are higher than those with zircon as grinding media when sodium ole-ate is chosen as a collector. The results show that the zeta potential of zircon, beryl, spodumene and quartz is higher by zircon balls, compared with iron balls. So the recoveries of these four minerals are higher by zircon balls versus iron balls when dodecylamine is chosen as a collector. The Fe content on the surface of these five minerals is higher significantly by wet grinding with iron balls, com-pared with zircon balls. So the recovery of the former grinding methods is higher than the latter because of activation by iron ions.%研究在湿式磨矿条件下,十二胺和油酸钠作为捕收剂时,锆球和铁球作为磨矿介质对典型硅酸盐矿物浮选的影响。通过对矿物表面动电位和X射线光电子能谱检测,分析磨矿介质对硅酸盐矿物浮选影响的机理。研究表明:十二胺作为捕收剂,低于最佳浮选pH值时,锆球湿磨锆英石、绿柱石、锂辉石和石英的浮选回收率均高于铁球湿磨,pH值继续升高,锆球湿磨和铁球湿磨这四种硅酸盐矿物的浮

  15. Interferences in determination of free silica in dust of workplaces with pyrophosphoric acid method%工作场所粉尘中游离二氧化硅含量焦磷酸测定法的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彦; 于会明; 于冬雪; 顾竹琳; 马岩; 孙玉凤; 王静; 苏红

    2012-01-01

    目的 准确测定工作场所粉尘中游离二氧化硅含量,为评价粉尘危害提供可靠依据.方法 用改进后的焦磷酸法对普通玻璃、硬质玻璃、石英玻璃、硅胶、硅藻土、焦磷酸难溶矿物,包括黄玉、刚玉、锆英石、绿柱石、电气石、碳化硅以及方石英和鳞石英进行实验分析,研究其在焦磷酸和氢氟酸中的溶解对游离二氧化硅定量测定的影响,以及石英在焦磷酸中的损失对游离二氧化硅定量测定的影响.结果 粉尘中含有普通玻璃、硅胶、黄玉、刚玉、锆英石时,不影响粉尘中游离二氧化硅含量的测定,而硬质玻璃、石英玻璃、硅藻土、绿柱石、电气石、碳化硅的存在则影响游离二氧化硅的测定结果,方石英和磷石英在焦磷酸中的溶解损失影响耐火材料和陶瓷生产等工业粉尘中游离二氧化硅含量的测定,石英溶解损失也对游离二氧化硅测定存在影响.结论 明确某些物质对工作场所粉尘中游离二氧化硅含量测定的影响,从而对游离二氧化硅在工作场所粉尘中的存在状况做出正确判断.%Objective To accurately determine the free silica content in settled dust of workplaces so as to provide reliable criteria for assessing the dust hazard. Methods Ordinary glass, hard glass, quartz glass, silica gel, diatomaceous earth, and pyrophosphoric acid slightly or hardly soluble minerals including topaz, corundum, zircon, beryl, tourmaline, silicon carbide, cristobalite and tridymite were analyzed by modified pyrophosphoric acid method. The impact of their solution in pyrophosphoric acid and hydrofluoric acid on the determination of free silica was studied. The impact of quartz loss in pyrophosphoric acid on the determination of free silica was also studied. Results Results showed that ordinary glass, silica gel, topaz, corundum, and zircon did not affect the determination of free silica content, whereas hard glass, quartz glass

  16. The heat capacity of hydrous cordierite above 295 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. William

    1993-04-01

    The heat capacity of synthetic hydrous cordierite (Mg2Al4Si5O18·nH2O) has been determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) from 295 to 425 K as a function of H2O content. Six samples with H2O contents ranging from 0 to 0.82 per formula unit were examined. The partial molar heat capacity of H2O in cordierite over the measured temperature interval is independent of composition and temperature within experimental uncertainty and is equal to 43.3 ±0.8 J/mol/ K. This value exceeds the molar heat capacity of gaseous H2O by 9.7 J/mol/K, but is significantly smaller than the heat capacity of H2O in several zeolites and liquid H2O. A statistical-mechanical model of the heat capacity of adsorbed gas species (Barrer 1978) is used to extrapolate the heat capacity of hydrous cordierite to temperatures greater than 425 K. In this model, the heat capacity of hydrous cordierite (Crd·nH2O) is represented as follows: Cp(Crd · nH2O) = Cp(Crd)+ n{Cp(H2O, gas)+ R(gas constant)} (1) An examination of calorimetric data for hydrous beryl, analcime, mordenite, and clinoptilolite (Hemingway et al. 1986; Johnson et al. 1982, 1991, 1992) demonstrates the general applicability of the statistical-mechanical model for the extrapolation of heat capacity data of zeolitic minerals. The heat capacity data for cordierite are combined with the data of Carey and Navrotsky (1992) to obtain the molar enthalpy of formation and enthalpy of hydration of hydrous cordierite as a function of temperature.

  17. Pegmatito Gentil (Mendes Pimentel, MG e suas paragêneses mineralógicas de fosfatos raros Gentil Pegmatite (Mendes Pimentel, MG and their rare phosphate mineral assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz de Sá C. Chaves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Centenas de corpos pegmatíticos na região nordeste de Minas Gerais produzem minerais gemológicos e de coleção, muitos desses corpos possuindo afinidades com determinada espécie, grupo ou classe mineral. O Pegmatito Gentil em Mendes Pimentel, ora descrito, notabiliza-se por sua assembléia de minerais fosfáticos, a maior parte dos quais raros ou raríssimos na natureza. A associação mineral identificada inclui microclínio, quartzo, muscovita, almandina-espessartita, berilo e trifilita como fosfato primário, que foi alterado formando uma extensa paragênese de espécies secundárias. Entre essas, destacam-se brazilianita, frondelita, gormanita, huréaulita, lazulita, litiofilita, purpurita, reddingita, woodhouseíta, zanaziíta e, recentemente descrita nesse corpo, a matioliíta.Hundreds of pegmatitic bodies occur in the northern region of the State of Minas Gerais, several of these bodies producing gemologic and collection minerals. Such pegmatites are known by the mineral affinity with certain minerals species, groups or classes. The Gentil Pegmatite (Mendes Pimentel county is characterized by the phosphatic mineral assemblage, and some of these minerals are rare or very rare in nature. Primary species are microcline, quartz, muscovite, almandine-espessartine, beryl, and triphylite as the main phosphate that was altered to an extensive paragenesis of secondary phosphates. In this list are noted brazilianite, frondelite, gormanite, hureaulite, lazulite, lithiophilite, purpurite, reddingite, woodhouseite, zanaziite, and matioliite, a species recently described in the Gentil Pegmatite.

  18. Estimation of steady-state and transcient power distributions for the RELAP analyses of the 1963 loss-of-flow and loss-of-pressure tests at BR2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.; Tzanos, C. P. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-05-23

    To support the safety analyses required for the conversion of the Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, the simulation of a number of loss-of-flow tests, with or without loss of pressure, has been undertaken. These tests were performed at BR2 in 1963 and used instrumented fuel assemblies (FAs) with thermocouples (TC) imbedded in the cladding as well as probes to measure the FAs power on the basis of their coolant temperature rise. The availability of experimental data for these tests offers an opportunity to better establish the credibility of the RELAP5-3D model and methodology used in the conversion analysis. In order to support the HEU to LEU conversion safety analyses of the BR2 reactor, RELAP simulations of a number of loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure tests have been undertaken. Preliminary analyses showed that the conservative power distributions used historically in the BR2 RELAP model resulted in a significant overestimation of the peak cladding temperature during the transient. Therefore, it was concluded that better estimates of the steady-state and decay power distributions were needed to accurately predict the cladding temperatures measured during the tests and establish the credibility of the RELAP model and methodology. The new approach ('best estimate' methodology) uses the MCNP5, ORIGEN-2 and BERYL codes to obtain steady-state and decay power distributions for the BR2 core during the tests A/400/1, C/600/3 and F/400/1. This methodology can be easily extended to simulate any BR2 core configuration. Comparisons with measured peak cladding temperatures showed a much better agreement when power distributions obtained with the new methodology are used.

  19. REE composition in scheelite and scheelite Sm-Nd dating for the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposit in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; DENG Jun; LI ChaoFeng; SHI GuangHai; ZHENG AiLi

    2007-01-01

    The scheelite with large size and euhedral shape from Xuebaoding, Sichuan Province is an ideal mineral to study REE patterns and Sm-Nd dating of non-gold deposits. The scheelite has diameters of 1―10 cm and colors of pale beige to deep orange. Most of these scheelites occur in association with beryl, cassiterite and muscovite. The rare earth elements indicate that scheelite samples from Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposits contain high concentrations of rare earth elements with total ΣREE+Y contents in the range of 369―1725 μg·g(-)1 and nearly all of these scheelite samples are enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE and have negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns of the scheelites are similar to those of A-type granite with obvious tetrad effect, similar to that of type II scheelites. Based on reported fluid inclusion studies, the mineralizing-fluid of the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposit indicates low Na activity. The REE patterns of the scheelite are probably controlled by partition coefficient in hydrothermal fluid. In the 147Sm/144Nd-143Nd/144Nd diagram, the scheelites show a linear array corresponding to an isochron age of 182.0±9.2 Ma (MSWD = 0.52). The Sm-Nd age represents the formation age of the scheelite and can indicate that the W, Sn and Be mineralization at Xuebaoding took place in the Early Yanshanian. The Sm-Nd dating result is important for the study of the multi-metal resources in western Sichuan Province.

  20. 新疆塔什库尔干祖母绿(绿柱石)成矿区域地质背景研究%Research on Metallogenic Geological Background of Emerald in Taxkorgan, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹秀艳; 李甲平; 汪立今; 石玉君; 罗卫东; 陈勇

    2011-01-01

    本文通过对新疆祖母绿(绿柱石)成矿区域地质背景研究,主要对新疆祖母绿矿床产出地层——温泉沟组地层的火山岩的岩石地球化学特征进行了一系列研究、测试、分析,包括岩石化学特征,微量元素特征,稀土元素特征等,确定其构造环境为消减带活动大陆边缘,洋壳向陆壳俯冲形成岛弧之后的弧后拉张环境.总体上为大陆一侧的活动陆缘(或大陆弧)环境,具有由岛弧向大陆过渡的迹象.%Based on research on regional metallogenic background of emerald (beryl) in Xinjiang, the authors made a systematic study, test and analysis of petrologic geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks in strata of Wenquangou Fomration, the strata that produced emerald deposits, which included its petrologic chemical characteristics, trace elements and REE, and determined that its tectonic environment was an active epicontinental subduction zone, I.e., a back-arc pull-apart environment formed after the formation of island arc resulting from the subduction of the ocean crust towards the continental crust. It was generally an active epicontinental environment on the side of the continent, and somewhat had characteristics of the transition from the island arc to the continent.

  1. Analyzing noninferiority trials: it is time for advantage deficit assessment – an observational study of published noninferiority trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladstone BP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Werner Vach Clinical Epidemiology Group, Center for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Abstract: The concept of noninferiority (NI trials is based on a belief that the new therapy may potentially offer a benefit for the patient or society in spite of it having a slightly lower efficacy. We introduce advantage deficit assessment (ADA, a simple framework similar to the benefit-risk assessment in superiority trials. ADA balances the advantage gained against the deficit in efficacy on a two-dimensional plane. It requires that NI trials provide quantitative information on both the advantage as well as on efficacy on scales, which can be compared in a meaningful manner. From this perspective, we study the feasibility of ADA among a set of NI trials published in four major medical journals. Among 113 published NI trials, about half assessed and reported at least one claimed advantage. For most other studies, an assessment seems to be feasible if considered in the planning of the study. Many studies claiming noninferiority report a positive gain in advantage. These trials have the potential to demonstrate a significant net benefit in an ADA, substantially changing the final judgment of the study results. ADA seems promising as it overcomes the current limitation of NI trials to demonstrate “only” noninferiority and brings them back to the mainstream of superiority trials by aiming to demonstrate a positive net benefit. ADA seems to be feasible in the majority of NI trials. Keywords: noninferiority, new treatment, potential advantage, advantage deficit assessment, benefit-risk assessment, loss of efficacy

  2. 新疆塔什库尔干县一带铁多金属矿床成矿地质特征及找矿潜力分析%Features and Potential Analysis of the Iron Polymentallic Deposits in the Taxkorgan Area, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯昌荣; 何立东; 郝延海; 黄朝阳

    2012-01-01

    Taxkorgan area is one of the important mineral prospects in Southern Xinjiang. As the national geological survey and geological prospecting works proceed, a lot of geological prospecting achievements have been obtained in this area. Geochemical and aeromagnetic survey indicates this area is a promising prospecting target. 34 iron poly-metallic deposits have been discovered during the preliminary investigation and detailed investigation, most of which are small to medium sized metamorphosed sedimentary type ( Tahaxi iron deposit, Zankan iron deposit, Laobing I-ron deposit, Tahaman iron deposit) , post magmatic superposition filled vein skarn type ( Kangdaer Zn-bearing magnetite , Waqia copper lead and zinc deposit) and magmatic hydrothermal vein type ( Kekeshenlaoke lead-zinc deposit, Dabudaer beryl) deposits. Comparative researches show that this area is a favorable prospecting area for diverse mineralization of rich ores.%作者对研究区做了多次踏勘与详细检查,对塔什库尔干县一带铁多金属矿床的成矿地质特征获得了一些新的认识.区内已发现的34处铁多金属矿产地多为中-小型规模,矿化类型以沉积变质型、矽卡岩型及岩浆热液脉型为主.通过对典型矿床的对比研究,并结合航磁异常解释和化探异常分析,认为研究区内各类型矿产分布具一定的规律性,且成矿范围广、矿化集中、品位较富.表明研究区成矿地质背景优越,具有较好的找矿前景和资源潜力.

  3. Rare metal granites and related rocks of the Ukrainian shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esipchuk, K.Ye.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rare metal leucocratic granites, Perga and Kamennaya complexes, can be distinquished on the Ukrainian shield. The Perga complex consists of medium- and coarse grained, mainly porphyric, biotite, riebeckite and aegirine granites, granite porphyries, microclinites and albitites with rare metal mineralization (genthelvite, phenacite, tantalite, cassiterite and wolframite etc.. Granites from several stocks (up to 30 km2 in the northwestern part of the shield, situated along the fracture zone, restricted the large Korosten pluton of rapakivi granites to the northwest. The age of these granites (Pb-Pb and U-Pb methods on zircon and monazite practically coincide with the age of rapakivi granites being 1750 Ma. Within the Korosten complex of rapakivi granites we consider that zinnwaldite granites, which are characterized by fluorite and topazine mineralization, represent the final phase of pluton. These granites differ from the Perga ones by their low content of rare metals. The Kamennaya Mogila complex lies in the southeastern part of the Ukrainian shield. It consists of biotite and muscovite-biotite, medium- and coarse-grained (also porphyric, and occasionally greisining granites with rare metal mineralization (cassiterite, columbite, molybdenite, wolframite and beryl. Granites form several stocks (5-30 km2 situated 10-30 km to the west-northwest of the South-Kalchik gabbro-syenite-granite pluton. Granitoids in both of these complexes have similar isotopic ages (1800 Ma. Leucocratic subalkaline granites (the Novoyanisol type are known within the pluton itself, occupying an intermediate position between the above mentioned in terms of mineral and geochemical composition. The gabbro-syenite-granite formation of the Nearazov region has a substantial similarity to the anorthosite-rapakivi-granite formation. In this respect the relation of each of them to rare metal granites is rather remarkable. This relation is, most probably, not only spatial, but

  4. Radiometric reconnaissance in the Garfield and Taylor park quadrangles, Chaffee and Gunnison counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dings, M.G.; Schafer, Max

    1953-01-01

    During the summer of 1952 most of the mines and prospects in the Garfield and Taylor Park quadrangles of west-central Colorado were examined radiometrically by the U. S. Geological Survey to determine the extent, grade, and mode of occurrence of radioactive substances. The region contains a relatively large number of rock types, chiefly pre-Cambrian schists, gneisses, and granites; large and small isolated areas of sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages; and a great succession of intrusive rocks of Tertiary age that range from andesite to granite and occur as stocks, chonoliths, sills, dikes, and one batholith. The prevailing structures are northwest-trending folds and faults. Ores valued at about $30,000,000 have been produced from this region. Silver, lead, zinc, and gold have accounted for most of this value, but small tonnages of copper, tungsten, and molybdenum have also been produced. The principal ore minerals are sphalerite, silver-bearing galena, cerussite, smithsonite, and gold-bearing pyrite and limonite; they occur chiefly as replacement bodies in limestone and as shoots in pyritic quartz veins. Anomalous radioactivity is uncommon and the four localities at which it is known are widely separated in space. The uranium content of samples from these localities is low. Brannerite, the only uranium-bearing mineral positively identified in the region, occurs sparingly in a few pegmatites and in one quartz-beryl-pyrite vein. Elsewhere radioactivity is associated with (l) black shale seams in the Manitou dolomite, (2) a quartz-pyrite-molybdenite vein, (3) a narrow border zone of oxidized material surrounding a small lead zinc ore body in the Manitou dolomite along a strong fault zone.

  5. A theoretical framework for evaluating analytical digestion methods for poorly soluble particulate beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Brink, Christopher A; Dickerson, Robert M; Day, Gregory A; Brisson, Michael J; Hoover, Mark D; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2007-04-01

    Complete digestion of all chemical forms and sizes of particulate analytes in environmental samples is usually necessary to obtain accurate results with atomic spectroscopy. In the current study, we investigate the physicochemical properties of beryllium particles likely to be encountered in samples collected from different occupational environments and present a hypothesis that a dissolution theory can be used as a conceptual framework to guide development of strategies for digestion procedures. For monodisperse single-chemical constituent primary particles, such as those encountered when handling some types of beryllium oxide (BeO) powder, theory predicts that a digestion procedure is sufficient when it completely dissolves all primary particles, independent of cluster size. For polydisperse single-chemical constituent particles, such as those encountered during the handling of some types of beryllium metal powder, theory predicts that a digestion procedure is sufficient only when it completely dissolves the largest particle in the sample. For samples with unknown or multi-chemical constituent particles and with particles having undefined sizes, e.g., fume emissions from a copper-beryllium alloy furnace operation or dust from a beryl ore crushing operation, a surface area-limited and single-constituent-dependent dissolution theory may not predict complete dissolution, thereby requiring non-routine robust treatment procedures with post-digestion filtration, followed by examination of residual particulate material. Additionally, for beryllium, and likely other poorly soluble materials, particulate reference materials of various chemical forms and size distributions are needed to better evaluate and harmonize analytical digestion procedures. Figure Generation of aerosol particles during machining of beryllium oxide.

  6. Chemistry characterization and samples beryllium process impurity determination; Caracterizacao quimica e determinacao de impurezas de amostras de processo de berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonel Mathry de

    1992-12-01

    Brazil is the greatest world producer of beryl (3 Be O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.6SiO{sub 2}) and has recently begun to produce beryllium compounds by means of a pilot plant constructed at Governador Valadares city (Minas Gerais - Brazil). The aim of this work was the determination of trace level impurities and macro constituents in the tenth % range to support analytical control process of plant production and characterization of beryllium compounds. The impurities separations and purification process was developed by two steps procedure. The first one using EDTA complexation has separated and reduced some impurities to less than 1 {mu}g/ml level. In the second one it was used a chelating resin (Chelex 100) and the separation efficiency was about 75 to 97 % related with the element tested. High pure berylium oxide standard was obtained from purification of Be(OH)2. The R X fluorescence presented only traces of Cu and Si < 1 % Fe and Mn, Zn, Ca, Al, Na and S were completely removed. The beryllium content was determined by direct atomic emission spectroscopy in argon plasma (Dcp) and compared with classic gravimetric method as Be O. The results were in agreement (49,2+/-0,2 % and 48,3+/-0,1 % respectively) between 95 % of confidence. A low temperature gravimetric method for beryllium determination was also studied using Oxine with microwave furnace. A total of 24 elements including macro and trace level were determined by Dcp and/or spectrophotometric methods. The Be/B separation was studied using anionic resin in poly alcohols medium. A more detailed study of equilibrium conditions is necessary. This work was realized at Laboratorio de Analise Mineral (LAM) of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - Rio de Janeiro (CNEN). (author)

  7. A comparative study of fluid inclusions from coexisting transparent minerals and opaque minerals in Xihuashan tungsten deposit%西华山钨矿床共生透明矿物与不透明矿物中流体包裹体的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠兰; 常海亮; 李芳; 张春红; 谭靖; 周云

    2012-01-01

    The Xihuashan tungsten deposit, which has a mining history of more than 100 years, is a large vein-type deposit in Yanshanian granite. There exists controversy concerning the metallogenic conditions and ore-forming fluid properties. The fluid inclusions in nine groups of coexisting transparent minerals (quartz, beryl and fluo-rite) and opaque minerals (wolframite and pyrite) of the Xihuashan tungsten deposit were studied by using infrared microscopy and other related equipment. The data obtained show that characteristics of fluid inclusions in coexisting transparent and opaque minerals can be similar to or obviously different from each other. Generally, wolframite can effectively preserve primary inclusions (with only small amounts of secondary inclusions), whereas primary inclusions have almost been destroyed in associated quartz. The inclusions observed should be mainly secondary inclusions or inclusions captured during late crystallization. Only the crystals and associated wolframite in drusy cavities subjected to no late stress and fluid transformation have the same result. There are abundant both secondary inclusions and primary inclusions in beryls. Silicate melt inclusions were found in wolframite and beryl, indicating that the mineralization of the Xihuashan tungsten deposit began at the magma- hydrothermal transition stage. The initial ore-forming fluid was probably a magmatic- hydrothermal transitional fluid, which subsequently evolved into single hydrothermal solutions. In the authors' opinion, the comparative research on fluid inclusions in coexisting transparent minerals and opaque minerals is important for the study of metal deposits. Detailed basic geological study and petrographic observation are essential. Cautiousness must be taken when we explain the geological significance of a metal deposit, especially when we only use the transparent mineral inclusion data.%西华山钨矿床是一个产于燕山期花岗岩中的大脉型钨矿床.笔者利

  8. Petrochemical Characteristics and Age of Rare Metal (Ta-Nb Mineralization in Precambrian Pegmatites, Komu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. OLUGBENGA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Precambrian pegmatites of Komu area intrude semi discordantly older rock types, such as biotite gneiss, amphibolites and pelitic schists. The pegmatites occur as near flat lying bodies. This study aims at elucidating the geological setting, petrography, geochemical features and age of mineralization of these pegmatite bodies, with a view to classifying them and knowing their economic potential. The petrographic analysis shows that the pegmatite samples contain mainly quartz (35%, plagioclase (15%, microcline (10% and muscovite (12% with accessories like tourmaline, tantalum, niobium and illmeno-rutiles. Geochemical analysis of the muscovites extracted from pegmatites show that these rocks are enriched in silica (>60% and Al2O3 (>12% and depleted in Fe2O3, MgO and TiO2. Trace element analysis shows that the pegmatites contain rare metals with moderately high Ta, Nb, Sn, Rb, Li and Cs values and depleted in Ti, Ba and Zr. Elemental ratios indicate low ratios of K/Cs, Th/U and K/Rb. Variation plots of Ta/(Ta+Nb versus Mn/ (Mn+Fe show that the pegmatites plot in the complex (beryl subtype field. The Na/K versus Sn, Nb, Rb variation plots show that the pegmatites of Komu area are mineralized and compare favourably with those of other mineralized pegma-tite areas like Egbe and Ijero in southwestern Nigeria. The variation plots of Ta versus K/Cs, and Ta/W versus Cs, also confirm rare metal mineralization of Komu pegmatites, which plot over the mineralized line of Beus and Gordiyenko. The K/Rb versus Rb, Cs and Sn plots indicate low K/Rb ratios indicating moderate differentiation. The Rare Earth Elements (REE show high heavy REE values and lower light REE values with prominent positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly from normalized chondrite plots. K/Ar dating of the age of mineralization of muscovites extracted from the pegmatite yielded late Pan-African ages between 502.8±13Ma and 514.5±13.2Ma. This period represents the cooling ages of the

  9. 海蓝宝石热处理改色机理及其光谱特征研究%Color-Correction Mechanisms in Aquamarine During Heat Treatment and Characteristics of the UV–Visible Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨如增; 薛景; 郑越

    2012-01-01

      热处理工艺可使绿柱石类宝石的色泽与透明度增强,从而提高宝石品质和价值。对新疆阿勒泰地区的海蓝宝石进行热处理实验,分析了热处理过程中温度、气氛、保温时间等因素对改善宝石颜色及透明度的影响,并对热处理前后的紫外—可见光谱特征进行了对比。结果表明,采用石墨为填料,加热温度450℃并保温3h,颜色由原黄绿色转变为海水蓝色,透明度也相应提高,改色效果理想和稳定。热处理及石墨的还原性,使矿物中含有的铁离子价态发生变化,是宝石颜色及光谱特性发生变化的关键。%  Heat treatment can enhance the color and transparency of gem-class beryl to improve its quality and value. To test the effects of heat treatment on aquamarine of the Altay region, Xinjiang, we measured the influence of temperature, atmosphere, and holding time on improvements to color and clarity. These effects were quantified by comparing the characteristics of the UV–visible spectrum before and after heat treatment. The results show that the effects of color-correction are enhanced and more stable when graphite is used as the fil er material, temperature is 450℃, and holding time is 3 hours. This changes the gem color from the original yel ow–green to sea blue, and improves transparency. The changes in color and transparency are controlled by the valence state of the iron ions and by reduction of graphite during heat treatment.

  10. Rare metal-bearing pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert of Egypt: Geology, geochemical characteristics, and petrogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The pegmatite province of the Southeastern Desert (SED) is part of a pegmatite district that extends from Egypt (extends to 1200 km2). Rare metal pegmatites are divided into (1) unzoned, Sn-mineralized; (2) zoned Li, Nb, Ta and Be-bearing; and (3) pegmatites and pegmatites containing colored, gem-quality tourmaline. The Rb/Sr data reflect a crustal origin for the rare metal pegmatites and indicate that the original SED magma was generated during the peak of regional metamorphism and predates the intrusion of post-tectonic leucogranites. These bodies developed an early border zone consisting of coarse to very coarse muscovite+quartz+alkali feldspar, followed by an intermediate zone of dominant quartz+feldspar+muscovite rock. Garnet, tourmaline, beryl, galena, pyrite, amblygonite, apatite and monazite are rare accessories in both zones. Cassiterite tends to concentrate in replacement zones and along fractures in albite+quartz+muscovite-rich portions. The highest concentrations of cassiterite occur in irregular greisenized zones which consist dominantly of micaceous aggregates of green Li-rich muscovite, quartz, albite and coarse-grained cassiterite. The different metasomatic post-solidification alterations include sodic and potassic metasomatism, greisenization and tourmalinization. Geochemically, the pegmatite-generating granites have a metaluminous composition, showing a differentiation trend from coarse-grained, unfractionated plagioclase-rich granite towards highly fractionated fine- to medium-grained, local albite-rich rock. Economically important ore minerals introduced by volatile-rich, rare metal-bearing fluids, either primarily or during the breakdown of the primary mineral assemblages, are niobium-tantalum oxides, Sn-oxides (cassiterite), Li-silicates (petalite, spodumene, euctyptite, and pollucite), Li-phosphates (amblygonite, montebrasite and lithopilite) and minor REE-minerals (Hf-zircon, monazite, xenotime, thorian, loparite and yttrio-fluorite). The

  11. Trisomy 18 (Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Poureisa

    2009-01-01

    unable to unclench their hands. Heredity This is an autosomal trisomic syndrome. Natural history and outcome Fetuses with trisomy 18 often die in utero. Ninety percent of live- borns with this abnormality die in the first year of life. The 10% who survive are profoundly mentally retarded and handicapped. Reference: Beryl R Benacerrafe, M.D; Ultrasound of fetal syndromes:  (322 - 324    

  12. Geology of the Ralston Buttes district, Jefferson County, Colorado: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Douglas M.; Maxwell, Charles H.; Albee, Arden L.; Van Horn, Richard

    1956-01-01

    The Ralston Buttes district in Jefferson County is one of the most significant new uranium districts located east of the Continental Divide in Colorado. The district is east of the Colorado Front Range mineral belt, along the east front of the range. From November 1953 through October 1956, about 10,000 tons of uranium ore, much of which was high-grade pitchblende-bearing vein material, was shipped from the district. The ore occurs in deposits that range in size from bodies containing less than 50 tons to ore shoots containing over 1,000 tons. The only other mining activity in the area has been a sporadic production of beryl, feldspar, and scrap mica from Precambrian pegmatites, and quarrying of dimension stone, limestone, and clay from sedimentary rocks. Most of the Ralston Buttes district consists of complexly folded Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks - gneiss, schist, quartzite, amphibolite, and granodiorite. Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks crop out in the northeastern part of the district. These rocks are cut by northwesterly-trending fault systems of Laramide age and by small bodies of intrusive rocks that are Tertiary in age. The typical uranium deposits in the district are hydrothermal veins occupying openings in Laramide fault breccias or related fractures that cut the Precambrian rocks. Pitchblende and lesser amounts of secondary uranium minerals are associated with sparse base-mental sulfides in a gangue of carbonate minerals, potash feldspar, and, more rarely, quartz. Less common types of deposits consist of pitchblende and secondary uranium minerals that occupy fractures cutting pegmatites and quartz veins. The uranium deposits are concentrated in two areas, the Ralston Creek area and the Golden Gate Canyon area. The deposits in the Ralston Creek area are located along the Rogers fault system, and the deposits in the Golden Gate Canyon area are along the Hurricane Hill fault system. Two geologic factors were important to the localization

  13. Geology and mineral deposits of the Jabal ash Shumta quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, C.L.; Ankary, Abdullah O.

    1972-01-01

    Rocks, structures, and mineral deposits which are the result of both the older Halaban petro-tectonic cycle and the younker Najd Wrench Fault deformation are present in the Ash Shumta area. Northward-trending belts of granitic rocks and folded, layered metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Halaban Formation which they intrude represent the effects of the Halaban cycle. These older rocks are everywhere transected and deformed by northwestward- and northeastward-striking fractures and strike-slip faults and by eastward-striking fractures and fracture-controlled silicic dikes which belong to the Najd Wrench Fault deformation. Several kinds of epigenetic mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are present throughout the Ash Shumta area. All occur in or ape closely associated with structures of the Najd Wrench Fault deformation. The mineralization which produced the deposits is thought to have taken place during the period of deformation which produced the Najd Wrench Fault structures. The hydrothermal deposits include many metalliferous quartz veins most of which occur in three mineralized areas: two major areas at Jabal Ash Shumta and Jabal El Khom in the northern half of the quadrangle and a minor area along Wadj al Boharah in the southeastern part of the quadrangle. The metalliferous lodes possess the only economic potential in the area of the Jabal Ash Shumta quadrangle. These lodes consist mainly of gold and base metal-bearing quartz veins, some of which were mined for gold in ancient times. The mineralized area at Jabal Ash Shumta has the best of these veins. Higher temperature veins with wolframite as a major constituent and beryl as a minor one occur in a granite cupola in the eastern part of the El Khom area. These veins have altered, gneissen-like wall rocks. Although the grade of the veins is low at the surface, the made could increase at depth. The tungsten-bearing veins and El Khom area possess the greatest economic promise in the Jabal Ash Shumta

  14. Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Poureisa

    2009-01-01

    picture and survival is usually longer. "nReference: Beryl R.Benacerrafe, M.D; Ultrasound of fetal syndromes: trisomy 13 (316- 321  

  15. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McMleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 104 samples collected from numerous thermal and non-thermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2006-2008. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from 10 areas of YNP including Apollinaris Spring and Nymphy Creek along the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Crater Hills, the Geyser Springs Group, Nez Perce Creek, Rabbit Creek, the Mud Volcano area, and Washburn Hot Springs. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur redox species in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved on-site. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, emf (electromotive force or electrical potential), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured on-site at the time of sampling. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide was measured a few to several hours after sample collection by ion-specific electrode on samples preserved on-site. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally a few to several hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved iron and ferrous iron concentrations often were measured on-site in the

  16. Water-Chemistry Data for Selected Springs, Geysers, and Streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.

    2008-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 157 samples collected from numerous hot springs, their overflow drainages, and Lemonade Creek in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2003-2005. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from ten areas of YNP including Terrace and Beryl Springs in the Gibbon Canyon area, Norris Geyser Basin, the West Nymph Creek thermal area, the area near Nymph Lake, Hazle Lake, and Frying Pan Spring, Lower Geyser Basin, Washburn Hot Springs, Mammoth Hot Springs, Potts Hot Spring Basin, the Sulphur Caldron area, and Lemonade Creek near the Solfatara Trail. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, and sulfur redox distribution in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved onsite. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh (redox potential relative to the Standard Hydrogen Electrode), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured onsite at the time of sampling. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally minutes to hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved-iron and ferrous-iron concentrations often were measured onsite in the mobile laboratory vehicle. Concentrations of dissolved

  17. Are Cenozoic topaz rhyolites the erupted equivalents of Proterozoic rapakivi granites? Examples from the western United States and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric H.; Haapala, Ilmari; Hart, Garret L.

    2007-08-01

    Eruptions of topaz rhyolites are a distinctive part of the late Cenozoic magmatic history of western North America. As many as 30 different eruptive centers have been identified in the western United States that range in age from 50 to 0.06 Ma. These rhyolite lavas are characteristically enriched in fluorine (0.2 to 2 wt.% in glass) and lithophile trace elements, such as Be, Li, Rb, Cs, Ga, Y, Nb, and Ta. REE patterns are typically flat with large negative Eu anomalies; negative Nb-Ta anomalies are small or nonexistent; and F/Cl ratios in glasses are high (> 3). These features, together with high Fe/Mg ratios and usually low fO 2, set them apart from subduction-related (I-type) silicic rocks. The rhyolites are metaluminous to only slightly peraluminous, lack indicator minerals of strongly peraluminous magmas, and have low P and B contents; these features set them apart from S-type silicic magmas. Instead, topaz rhyolites have the major and trace element, mineralogic, and isotopic characteristics of aluminous A-type or within-plate granites. Topaz rhyolites were formed during regional extension, lithospheric thinning, and high heat flow. Topaz rhyolites of the western United States crystallized under subsolvus conditions, and have quartz, sanidine, and Na-plagioclase as the principal phenocrysts. Fluorite is a common magmatic accessory, but magmatic topaz occurs only in a few complexes; both are mineralogical indicators of F-enrichment. Many also crystallized at relatively low fO 2 (near QFM) and contain mafic silicate minerals with high Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios. Some crystallized at higher oxygen fugacities and are dominated by magnetite and have titanite as an accessory mineral. Post-eruption vapor-phase minerals include topaz, garnet, red Fe-Mn-rich beryl, bixbyite, pseudobrookite, and hematite. They are genetically related to deposits of Be, Mo, F, U, and Sn. Topaz rhyolites erupted contemporaneously with a variety of other igneous rocks, but most typically they form

  18. MINERALIZATION POTENTIALS OF PEGMATITES IN THE NASARAWA AREA OF CENTRAL NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintola O. F

    2008-12-01

    barren, Be-, Li-Be, and Li-Cs-Be-Ta types. Comparably low Nb/Ta ratios in the late albites and amblygonites indicate the paragenesis of theseminerals with the tantalumores in themiddle/inner zones of the complexmineralized pegmatites. While the Be-, and Li-Be-types are highly prospective for gem tourmaline, beryl and 213 Accepted for publication: November 4th, 2008. columbite; themost evolved pegmatites in this area are good candidates for tantalite, amblygonite-montebrasite, and probably pollucite prospecting/mining. 

  19. Silica enrichment, graphic granite and aquamarine growth: a new exploration guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. BHASKARA RAO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Granitic pegmatites are traditionally known to contain graphic, perthitic and myrmekitic intergrowths related to quartz and K- and Na- feldspars. They are further considered to characterise the pegmatite types distinguishing them from the granites and other related plutonic rock types. Graphic granite is accepted also as a synonym to granitic pegmatite. Systematic studies, by the author and colleagues, on the granitic pegmatite gem deposits have permitted the definition of two aquamarine gem provinces in ENE Brazil, one in the NeoProterozoic and the other in the Archaean sequences. Potash feldspars in the pegmatites in the former show perthitic intergrowths, whereas in the latter graphic intergrowth dominates with anomalously coarse centimetric quartz along the cleavages of K-feldspar. Several granitic pegmatites hosted in Archaean complex, in Lages Pintadas Aquamarine Province, Santa Cruz, RN State, present this texture-structure. Graphic intergrowth is attributed to the eutectic crystallization, succeeded by hydrothermal fluids with silica enrichment permitting the growth through diffusion and nucleation of quartz and along cleavages of potash feldspar. In the Archaean terrain, the abundance of recycled chert forming metapsammitic migmatites traversed by numerous quartz veins and coarse graphic granites, has contributed to the growth of beryl and also the aquamarines.Pegmatitos graníticos são tradicionalmente conhecidos por terem intercrescimentos gráficos, pertíticos e mirmequíticos, relacionados a quartzo e feldspatos potássicos e sódicos. Também são considerados para caracterizar os tipos de pegmatitos, distinguindo-os dos granitos e outros tipos de rochas plutônicas relacionadas. Granito gráfico é aceito como sinônimo do pegmatito granítico. Estudos sistemáticos, do autor e seus colegas, sobre depósitos de pegmatitos graníticos de gemas permitiram a definição de duas províncias de gemas águas marinhas no ENE do Brasil

  20. 铸瓷贴面在前牙美容修复中的临床效果观察%Observation on the effect of ceramic faced in the repair of anterior teeth beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳青

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of ceramic cover anterior on teeth beauty.Methods 138 teeth in 34 patients with dental fluorosis were divided into two groups,the control group (69 teeth in 16 patients) was given traditional PFM cover repair,the treatment group (69 teeth in 18 patients) was given ceramic cover,they were followed up for three years.The teeth remaining rate and patient satisfaction were compared,the match color,edge fit,healthy gums,restoration integrity were compared according to the Ryge standard.Results Teeth remaining rate in treatment group was 95.7%,which was significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05).The patient satisfaction was 94.4% in treatment group and 87.5% in the control group,the difference was significant (P < 0.05).The match color,edge coloring,healthy gums and teeth sensitivity were not different between the two groups (P > 0.05).The restoration integrity and marginal fit of treatment group was better than control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion The clinical effect of ceramic faced in the anterior teeth beauty repair,especially in the repair of dental fluorosis is remarkable,and the remaining teeth rate higher,repair,dental restoration integrity and marginal fit is significantly better than that of resin repair,patient satisfaction is higher,the water area from non-beryl popularization and application.%目的 研究铸瓷贴面在前牙美容修复中的临床效果.方法 将34例(138牙)氟斑牙患者随机分为两组,对照组16例(69牙)采用传统烤瓷贴面修复,治疗组18例(69牙)采用铸瓷贴面技术进行修复,随访3年,记录并比较两组患者的牙齿存留率及患者满意度,并采用改良Ryge标准对两组患者牙齿的颜色匹配、边缘密合度、牙龈健康、修复体完整度等指标进行评价.结果 3年后治疗组患者牙齿存留率为95.7%,明显高于对照组的89.9%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组患者满意度为94.4%,对照组为87

  1. Study on Chemical Compositions and Infrared Absorption Spectra of Natural and Synthetic Emeralds%天然祖母绿与合成祖母绿的成分及红外吸收光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申柯娅

    2011-01-01

    祖母绿是一种高档名贵的宝石,其矿物学名称为绿柱石,化学成分为铍铝硅酸盐.鉴别天然祖母绿和人工合成祖母绿,已成为祖母绿宝石鉴定中的一个重要课题.文章采用常规宝石学研究方法、激光剥蚀-电感耦合等离子体质谱法和红外光谱技术对天然祖母绿(包括哥伦比亚祖母绿和巴西祖母绿)、合成祖母绿(包括助熔剂法合成祖母绿和水热法合成祖母绿)样品进行了系统的分析和研究.结果表明,天然祖母绿与合成祖母绿的主要致色微量元素Cr的含量越高,祖母绿的绿色越浓艳;天然祖母绿与合成祖母绿的红外吸收光谱特征具有明显的差异;根据祖母绿中是否含水、水的赋存状态以及氯的吸收峰,可作为准确鉴别天然祖母绿和合成祖母绿的重要依据.等离子体质谱法化学成分分析不能确定祖母绿是天然形成还是人工合成,需在常规宝石学检测的基础上,综合研究祖母绿的红外吸收光谱特征及内含物特征,才能准确地鉴别天然祖母绿、水热法合成祖母绿和助熔剂法合成祖母绿.%As a top-grade and rare gemstone, emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl with the chemical composition Be3 Al2 (SiO3) 6. It is a significant research project to identify natural emerald as opposed to synthetic emerald. The routine gemological methods, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( LA-ICP-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) absorption techniques were used to study natural emeralds from Colombia and Brazil and synthetic emeralds made by flux-grown and hydrothermal synthetic methods. The green color of emerald was closely related to the concentration of the trace element Cr( Ⅲ). The infrared absorption spectra characteristics indicated obvious differences between natural and synthetic emeralds. This technique can provide important information for identifying natural and synthetic emeralds, combined

  2. A preliminary study of the retention of noble gases in fluid inclusions of different minerals%矿物流体包裹体中稀有气体的保存能力初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东亮; 郑德顺; 彭建堂; 袁顺达

    2011-01-01

    查明流体包裹体中稀有气体的保存能力,对于判断其初始组分特征是否因后生作用而发生改变具有重要意义.文章以Ar为例,从扩散动力学角度对稀有气体地球化学研究中常用的矿物中流体包裹体稀有气体的保存能力进行了定量分析和系统比较,计算了Ar在这些矿物中的封闭温度以及不同温度条件下的保存时间,得出相同条件下各矿物对Ar、He等保存能力的大小顺序为:重晶石(天青石)>黄铜矿>黄铁矿>方铅矿>钾盐>闪锌矿>萤石>黑钨矿>白钨矿>绿柱石>方解石>石英,其中石英中Ar的封闭温度对矿物颗粒大小变化十分敏感,它会随着晶体颗粒半径的增大而迅速提高,但其扩散速率受温度变化的影响相对较小.这为准确评估不同矿物的流体包裹体中稀有气体信息受后生地质作用的影响程度提供了理论依据,有望促进稀有气体同位素地球化学的发展.%Studies of the retention of noble gases in fluid inclusions from various hydrothermal minerals are necessary for tracing the source of ore-forming fluid by using noble gas isotopic geochemistry. Mainly with Ar as an example, the retention of noble gases in several minerals commonly used to study fluid inclusion geochemistry was quantitatively evaluated and systematically compared with each other in this paper in terms of diffusion dynamics. In addition, closure temperature and preservation time of noble gases in these minerals were also calculated. The result reveals that, under the same conditions, the component characteristics of Ar, He and other noble gases can be preserved in these minerals in order of barite ( = celestite) > chalcopyrite> pyrite> galena> sylvite> sphalerite> fluorite> wolframite > scheelite> beryl > calcite> quartz. It is also indicated that the closuretemperature of Ar in quartz is more sensitive to the change of grain size than that of other minerals and will increase rapidly

  3. A new mineral species rossovskyite, (Fe3+,Ta)(Nb,Ti)O4: crystal chemistry and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, Sergey I.; Ananyev, Sergey A.; Chukanov, Nikita V.; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Baeva, Anna A.; Gainov, Ramil R.; Vagizov, Farit G.; Lopatin, Oleg N.; Nebera, Tatiana S.

    2015-11-01

    A new mineral rossovskyite named after L.N. Rossovsky was discovered in granite pegmatites of the Bulgut occurrence, Altai Mts., Western Mongolia. Associated minerals are microcline, muscovite, quartz, albite, garnet of the almandine-spessartine series, beryl, apatite, triplite, zircon, pyrite, yttrobetafite-(Y) and schorl. Rossovskyite forms flattened anhedral grains up to 6 × 6 × 2 cm. The color of the mineral is black, and the streak is black as well. The luster is semi-metallic, dull. Mohs hardness is 6. No cleavage or parting is observed. Rossovskyite is brittle, with uneven fracture. The density measured by the hydrostatic weighing method is 6.06 g/cm2, and the density calculated from the empirical formula is 6.302 g/cm3. Rossovskyite is biaxial, and the color in reflection is gray to dark gray. The IR spectrum contains strong band at 567 cm-1 (with shoulders at 500 and 600 cm-1) corresponding to cation-oxygen stretching vibrations and weak bands at 1093 and 1185 cm-1 assigned as overtones. The reflection spectrum in visible range is obtained. According to the Mössbauer spectrum, the ratio Fe2+:Fe3+ is 35.6:64.4. The chemical composition is as follows (electron microprobe, Fe apportioned between FeO and Fe2O3 based on Mössbauer data, wt%): MnO 1.68, FeO 5.92, Fe2O3 14.66, TiO2 7.69, Nb2O5 26.59, Ta2O5 37.51, WO3 5.61, total 99.66. The empirical formula calculated on four O atoms is: {{Mn}}_{0.06}^{2 + } {{Fe}}_{0.21}^{2 + } {{Fe}}_{0.47}^{3 + } Ti0.25Nb0.51Ta0.43W0.06O4. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is monoclinic, space group P2/ c, a = 4.668(1), b = 5.659(1), c = 5.061(1) Å, β = 90.21(1)º; V = 133.70(4) Å3, Z = 2. Topologically, the structure of rossovskyite is analogous to that of wolframite-group minerals. The crystal-chemical formula of rossovskyite is [(Fe3+, Fe2+, Mn)0.57Ta0.32Nb0.11][Nb0.40Ti0.25Fe0.18Ta0.11W0.06]O4. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern

  4. Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

    1987-01-01

    studies, confirmed the presence of more extensive aureoles than shown in published geologic maps; few misclassified areas were noted. Additional plowed fields consisting of exposed contact metamorphic soil were mapped digitally in an August 1985 TM scene. Subsequently, this approach was used to map two 1-km-wide linear zones of contact metamorphosed rock and oil in the San Nicolas-Sn-W Mine area, which is located approximated 125 km southeast of the Caceras study area. Exposures of granite in the San Nicolas area are limited to a few unaltered granitic dikes in the mine and a small exposure of unaltered pegmatite-bearing granite in a quarry about 1.5 km west of the mine. The present of coarsely crystalline biotite and beryl in the granite in the quarry and of contact metamorphosed slate up to 2.5 km from the nearest granite exposure suggest that only the apical part of a pluton is exposed in the quarry and that a larger, shallowly buried body is probably present. These results indicate that potential application of TM image analysis to mineral exploration in lithologically similar areas that are cultivated in spite of poor rock exposures.

  5. Review on the Application of X-ray Diffraction in Gem Identification, Synthesis and Crystal Structure Research%X 射线衍射技术应用于宝石鉴定-合成及晶体结构研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妮; 林春明

    2016-01-01

    Due to the nondestructive requirements of gem testing,evaluation of precious stones shows characteristics of science and uncertainty.Gemological application of X-ray Diffraction (XRD)is specialized,with its application mainly concentrated in three aspects:① Gemstone identification:phase identification of the monocrystalline gemstones and polycrystalline gemstones;origin of the gemstones;classification of the pleomorphic gem minerals.For example,according to the XRD patterns of microcrystalline cryptocrystalline quartz variants,different silica mineral phases of the chalcedony can be distinguished accurately;types of ‘Di’in bloodstone can be distinguished through the composition and content of clay mineral.②Research on crystal structure of the gem minerals:analysis of crystal chemistry of the monocrystalline gems with complex composition;situation of the substitution of mineral isomorphism;quality of the gem by using the degree of crystallinity.For example,through the c/a ratio in lattice parameters of beryl,aluminium octahedral isomorphism and the beryllium tetrahedral isomorphism can be distinguished.The relationship between the crystallinity calculated from XRD data and the quality of nephrite is close.③Development of gemological research technology:to monitor the process of gemstone optimization;to inspect the mineral crystal size, crystalline quality and internal stress during the synthetic process of gemstones;to research the artificial breeding technology based on the crystal structure of organic gemstones.Take the heat treatment process of spinel as example:magnesium irons moved from octahedral M—O to tetrahedral T—O,resulting in the bond length of M—O and T—O changing upon temperature and being reflected in the spinel color.During the synthesis process of topaz,XRD data shows that the structure of the formed fluorine topaz is similar to natural topaz at 770 -800℃.At 950℃ and 1000℃, the fluorine topaz is decomposed to corundum and

  6. Geología, mineralogía y geoquímica de la pegmatita Las Cuevas, San Luis Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Las Cuevas pegmatite, San Luis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana A Martínez

    2011-12-01

    interpretation of the geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Las Cuevas pegmatite, Conlara pegmatitic district, Sierra de San Luis, Argentina. This ore deposit belongs to the Rare-Element class, REL-Li subclass, complex type, spodumene-subtype of granitic pegmatites. it is a tabular bodie trending to the northwest, with dips ranging from vertical to subhorizontal. The host-rocks of the pegmatite are usually quartz-micaceous schists. The depth of emplacement was in the ductile to brittle transition domain, possibly ranging between 7 and 12 km. The intrusion of the pegmatite was forced, producing secondary folding in the host rock and enclosing metric-sized xenoliths. The emplacement took place during the Eopaleozoic, shortly after the regional metamorphic peak of the Famatinian Cycle. The pegmatite and its host-rock were deformed by the late tectonism belonging to the Ocloyic phase. Eight zones of different mineral association, texture and setting have been identified in this pegmatite. The mineralogy comprises: quartz, microcline, spodumene, albite, muscovite, apatite, beryl, schörl, zircon, garnet, columbite-(Mn, tantalite-(Mn, pyrochlore and microlite group minerals, ambligonite-montebrasite, triphylite-litiophilite, elbaite, eucriptite, lepidolite, bismuthinite, pyrite, huréaulite, phosphosiderite, beraunite, rockbridgeite, stewartite, bismutite, ferric oxides, manganese oxides, and mitridatite.The processes of pegmatitic differentiation, indicated by the chemical composition of trace elements in K-feldspar and muscovite, are comparable and do not differ from the known paths of similar world- and argentinian- pegmatites of this type showing lineal fractionation trends. Besides, the individual analysis shows a lineal differentiation, in some cases with an overprint between the samples of different zones, resulting from changes in the physico-chemical conditions of cristalization. Based on the muscovite geochemistry, Las Cuevas has an interesting but limited potential