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Sample records for berry extract spbe

  1. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rawani, Anjali; Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals are widely used as biocontrol agent against vector mosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of various extracts of berries of S. nigrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts of fresh, mature, green berries of S. nigrum were tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration was determined and the chemical nature of the active substance was evaluated. A qualitative phyt...

  2. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawani, Anjali; Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-05-01

    Phytochemicals are widely used as biocontrol agent against vector mosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of various extracts of berries of S. nigrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts of fresh, mature, green berries of S. nigrum were tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration was determined and the chemical nature of the active substance was evaluated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis of chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was performed in search of the active ingredient. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was also studied on non-target organisms. In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 3 per cent extract. In the chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract, the maximum mortality was recorded at a concentration of 120 μg/ml. The log probit analysis (95% confidence level) recorded lowest LC 50 value at 72 h of exposure. Both crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts showed good larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The isolated active ingredient may be tested as a potential larvicide after determination of its structure.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methanolic Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn Berries

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    V Ravi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of berries of Solanum nigrum Linn. The medicinal values of the berries of Solanum nigrum (Black night shades have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of inflammation. Dried pulverized berries of Solanum nigrum were extracted with methanol by using soxhlet apparatus. The effect of methanolic extracts of berries of Solanum nigrum were studied on carrageenan induced paw edema. The methanolic extract decreased the edema induced in hind paw. The methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum (375 mg/kg b.w. has showed significant anti-inflammatory. It has been concluded that methanolic extract of berries of Solanum nigrum Linn (375 mg/kg b.w. augments that it is having good anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw edema. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the toxic effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicine are less toxic and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against inflammation.

  4. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  5. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins.

  6. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  7. The Lignan-containing Extract of Schisandra chinensis Berries Inhibits the Growth of Chlamydia pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena L; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki J; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and selectivity of an extract of Schisandra chinensis berries against Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. Among the ethnopharmacological uses of the extract from Schisandrae fructus are cough and pneumonia. Therefore we focused on respiratory pathogens. The extract completely inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae strain CV6 at 250 μg/mL concentration. The inhibition of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis growth was dose dependent and established with three different strains. The extract inhibited C. pneumoniae production of infectious progeny in a dose dependent manner. Chlamydia selectivity was elucidated with growth inhibition measurements of three other respiratory bacterial species. A pure compound found in Schisandra chinensis berries, schisandrin B at 20.0 μg/mL concentration inhibited the growth of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. The extract was found to be non-toxic to the human host cells. These findings highlight the potential of the extract from Schisandra chinensis berries as a source for antichlamydial compounds.

  8. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

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    Emma M Brown

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents, the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  9. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:18065095

  10. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis and anticancer potential of Oplopanax horridus: Comparison of stem and berry extracts

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    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Aung, Han H.; Mehendale, Sangeeta R.; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2009-01-01

    Oplopanax horridus or devil’s club is a herbal medicine distributed in North America. The constituents and pharmacological activities of O. horridus (OPH) are largely unknown. In this study, we assayed OPH stem and berry extracts using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anticancer potentials of extracts on different human cancer cell lines (SW-480, HCT-116, HT-29, MCF-7 and NSCLC) were determined by MTS method. The effect of stem extract on cancer cell cycle, expression of cyclin A, and apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. HPLC data showed that the composition of OPH stem extract is more complicated than the berry extract. The wavelength of maximum absorption of the major constituent in stem and berry is 196.0 nm and 201.9 nm, respectively. Compared to the berry extract, the stem extract showed significant potent antiproliferative effect on all the studied cell lines. The stem extract at 0.1 mg/ml arrested cancer cells in S- and G2/M-phases, and significantly induced expression of cyclin A. After treatment with 0.1 mg/ml of stem extract for 72 h, apoptotic cells were increased to 45.2%, while control was 9.6%. The cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis may play a critical role in cancer chemoprevention by Oplopanax horridus stem extract. PMID:19686820

  11. Antimicrobial properties of berries

    OpenAIRE

    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta

    2007-01-01

    Berries, especially their antimicrobial properties, have been studied intensively at VTT over the past ten years in several research projects. In these in vitro studies phenolic berry extracts of common Nordic berries selectively inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria and human intestinal pathogens, without affecting the growth of beneficial lactic acid bacteria.

  12. Bioavailability of anthocyanins and colonic polyphenol metabolites following consumption of aronia berry extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liyang; Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Wang, Ying; Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Chun, Ock K; Bolling, Bradley W

    2016-11-15

    A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 6 adults to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins and colonic polyphenol metabolites after consumption of 500mg aronia berry extract. UHPLC-MS methods were developed to quantitate aronia berry polyphenols and their metabolites in plasma and urine. While anthocyanins were bioavailable, microbial phenolic catabolites increased ∼10-fold more than anthocyanins in plasma and urine. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside was rapidly metabolized to peonidin-3-O-galactoside. Aronia polyphenols were absorbed and extensively metabolized with tmax of anthocyanins and other polyphenol catabolites from 1.0h to 6.33h in plasma and urine. Despite significant inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetic parameters, concentrations of polyphenol metabolites in plasma and urine at 24h were positively correlated with total AUC in plasma and urine (r=0.93, and r=0.98, respectively). This suggests that fasting blood and urine collections could be used to estimate polyphenol bioavailability and metabolism after aronia polyphenol consumption. PMID:27283706

  13. Fortified Extract of Red Berry, Ginkgo biloba, and White Willow Bark in Experimental Early Diabetic Retinopathy

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    Claudio Bucolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS. Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats.

  14. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) using Response Surface Methodology.

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    Celli, Giovana Bonat; Ghanem, Amyl; Brooks, Marianne Su-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) are a rich source of bioactive molecules. As such, the extraction of anthocyanins is important for the development of many value-added products and functional food ingredients. In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from haskap berries was investigated. Significant independent variables were screened and optimized using Plackett-Burman (PB) and Box-Behnken (BB) designs, respectively. The mathematical model showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.9396) and the optimum conditions for the extraction were as follows: liquid/solid ratio 25:1 (mL/g), solvent composition of 80% ethanol, addition of 0.5% formic acid, ultrasound bath temperature of 35°C for 20 min. Under these conditions, the total anthocyanin content of 22.73 mg cyaniding 3-glucoside equivalents (C3G)/g dry weight (DW) was consistent with the predicted response of 22.45 mg C3G/g DW from the model (mean error of 1.28%). Five anthocyanins were identified in the optimized extract, namely cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, and peonidin 3-glucoside. Thus, UAE is a suitable technique for the extraction of anthocyanins from haskap berries. PMID:26186866

  15. Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector Stegomyia aegypti

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    Chandra Goutam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Although several plants have been reported for mosquitocidal activity, only a few botanicals have moved from the laboratory to field use, because they are poorly characterized, in most cases active principals are not determined and most of the works are restricted to preliminary screening. Solanum villosum is a common weed distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties, but the larvicidal activity of this plant has not been reported so far. Methods Aqueous and polar/non-polar solvent extract of fresh, mature, green berries of S. villosum was tested against Stegomyia aegypti, a common vector of dengue fever. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform:methanol extract was performed to search for the active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined (log probit analysis and compared with Malathion. The chemical nature of the active substance was also evaluated following ultraviolet-visual (UV-Vis and infrared (IR analysis. Results In a 72 hour bioassay experiment with the aqueous extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 0.5% extract. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (p p Y was positively correlated with the period of exposure (X and the log probit analysis (95% confidence level recorded lowest value (5.97 ppm at 72 hours of exposure. Phytochemical analysis of the chlororm:methanol extract reported the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals. Two toxic compounds were detected having Rf = 0.82 (70% and 73.33% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively and Rf = 0.95 (40% and 50% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively. IR analysis provided preliminary information about the steroidal nature of the active ingredient. Conclusion S. villosum offers promise as

  16. Development of dye-sensitized solar cells based on naturally extracted dye from the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

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    Leyrer, Julio; Hunter, Renato; Rubilar, Monica; Pavez, Boris; Morales, Eduardo; Torres, Simont

    2016-10-01

    The mini modules of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated for their conversion efficiency using anthocyanin-enriched extracts from maqui berry, which to date has never been tested in a DSSC. Anthocyanins are a group of red, purple, violet and blue water-soluble polyphenolic pigments widely found in berry fruits. Maqui berries are a particularly rich source. The aqueous extract concentrations of maqui fruit were tested at 750 and 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L. The immersion time to produce sensitized TiO2 film was 8 h. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSC prepared with 750 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.14%, with an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.43 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 0.38 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.450. The conversion efficiency attained with 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.19%, with (VOC) of 0.45 V, (JSC) of 0.44 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.55. Therefore, a higher concentration brought about a higher photosensitized performance. The maqui extracts were successfully dye sensitized over a layer of TiO2 nanoparticles, providing useful information for further studies related to the use of natural pigments as sensitizers for solar cells.

  17. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

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    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  18. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanol extracts from berries, leaves and stems of Hedera pastuchovii Woron. ex Grossh.

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    Baharfar, Robabeh; Rahmani, Zahra; Mohseni, Mojtaba; Azimi, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, radical scavenging and antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts from leaves, berries and stems of Hedera pastuchovii Woron. ex Grossh. The berry extract, which contained the highest phenolic and flavonoid compounds, showed an appreciable DPPH(·) scavenging ability in comparison with leaf and stem extracts. The various extracts exhibited moderate to good activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and the effectiveness of leaf extract was higher for all tested bacteria. PMID:25564294

  19. Identification and characterization of low molecular weight polyphenols in berry leaf extracts by HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI/MS.

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    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Gorzelany, Józef; Kapusta, Ireneusz

    2011-12-28

    This paper reports the results of qualitative and quantitative analyses of low molecular weight phenolics from five berry leaf extract using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI/MS. The identification of the black currant, raspberry, bilberry, honeysuckle, and strawberry leaf phytochemicals was based on the comparison of UV-vis absorption maxima (λ(max)) and mass spectral analysis. The peak identification in samples was also based on comparisons of the retention times (t(R)) of the isolated phytochemical standards. Knowledge of the precise phenolic profile of berry leaves may offer a scientific basis to put the underutilized berry leaves to good use as very cheap raw materials for polyphenol extract production. These studies indicated that these leaves can be used as a good and cheap source of bioactive constituents. These results suggest that berry leaves are a potential source of phenolics and have potential pro-healthy properties to contribute to human health.

  20. Hypoglycaemic activity of Embelia ribes berries (50% etoh) extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Ashok; Vyas, Keshav Bihari; Vyas, Surendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of Embelia ribes berries (50% EtoH) reduced blood sugar level significantly. In intact rats, blood sugar levels were decreased by 13.1% and 20.3% after 3 hrs. and 5 hrs. of treatment respectively. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats blood glucose levels were decreased after 3 hours and 5hours by 28.1% and 34.5% respectively. Hypoglycaemic action of Embelia ribes berries may be due to its direct action on tissue or due to increase in insulin secretion.

  1. Bioactive constituents in aronia berries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate some of the potential health benefits of aronia berries with main focus on the phenolic substances. Extractions and fractionations of aronia berries were performed to obtain several crude extracts and subfractions. In addition, well known constituents of aronia berries (anthocyanins, procyanidins and phenolic acids) were isolated. The different samples obtained were then tested in various in vitro bioassays to determine their biological activities as ...

  2. Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Fixed Oils from Berries of Laurus nobilis L. by Supercritical CO2

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    M. Assunta Dessì

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of volatile and fixed oils from dried berries of Laurus nobilis L. from Tunisia have been obtained by supercritical fractioned extraction with carbon dioxide. Extraction experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40 °C and pressures of 90 and 250 bar. The extraction step performed at 90 bar produced a volatile fraction mainly composed of (E-β-ocimene (20.9%, 1,8-cineole (8.8%, α-pinene (8.0%, β-longipinene (7.1%, linalool acetate (4.5%, cadinene (4.7%, β-pinene (4.2%, α-terpinyl acetate (3.8% and α-bulnesene (3.5%. The oil yield in this step of the process was 0.9 % by weight charged. The last extraction step at 250 bar produced an odorless liquid fraction, in which a very small percentage of fragrance compounds was found, whereas triacylglycerols were dominant. The yield of this step was 15.0 % by weight. The most represented fatty acids of the whole berry fixed oil were 12:0 (27.6%, 18:1 n-9 (27.1%, 18:2 n-6 (21.4%, and 16:0 (17,1%, with the 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 unsaturated fatty acids in particular averaging 329 μg/mg of oil.

  3. Cellular Stress and p53-Associated Apoptosis by Juniperus communis L. Berry Extract Treatment in the Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

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    Lantto, Tiina A; Laakso, Into; Dorman, H J Damien; Mauriala, Timo; Hiltunen, Raimo; Kõks, Sulev; Raasmaja, Atso

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenolics have shown to activate apoptotic cell death in different tumourigenic cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of juniper berry extract (Juniperus communis L.) on p53 protein, gene expression and DNA fragmentation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we analyzed the phenolic composition of the extract. We found that juniper berry extract activated cellular relocalization of p53 and DNA fragmentation-dependent cell death. Differentially expressed genes between treated and non-treated cells were evaluated with the cDNA-RDA (representational difference analysis) method at the early time point of apoptotic process when p53 started to be activated and no caspase activity was detected. Twenty one overexpressed genes related to cellular stress, protein synthesis, cell survival and death were detected. Interestingly, they included endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer and sensor HSPA5 and other ER stress-related genes CALM2 and YKT6 indicating that ER stress response was involved in juniper berry extract mediated cell death. In composition analysis, we identified and quantified low concentrations of fifteen phenolic compounds. The main groups of them were flavones, flavonols, phenolic acids, flavanol and biflavonoid including glycosides of quercetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein and hypolaetin. It is suggested that juniper berry extract induced the p53-associated apoptosis through the potentiation and synergism by several phenolic compounds. PMID:27420050

  4. Cellular Stress and p53-Associated Apoptosis by Juniperus communis L. Berry Extract Treatment in the Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

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    Tiina A. Lantto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have shown to activate apoptotic cell death in different tumourigenic cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of juniper berry extract (Juniperus communis L. on p53 protein, gene expression and DNA fragmentation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we analyzed the phenolic composition of the extract. We found that juniper berry extract activated cellular relocalization of p53 and DNA fragmentation-dependent cell death. Differentially expressed genes between treated and non-treated cells were evaluated with the cDNA-RDA (representational difference analysis method at the early time point of apoptotic process when p53 started to be activated and no caspase activity was detected. Twenty one overexpressed genes related to cellular stress, protein synthesis, cell survival and death were detected. Interestingly, they included endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress inducer and sensor HSPA5 and other ER stress-related genes CALM2 and YKT6 indicating that ER stress response was involved in juniper berry extract mediated cell death. In composition analysis, we identified and quantified low concentrations of fifteen phenolic compounds. The main groups of them were flavones, flavonols, phenolic acids, flavanol and biflavonoid including glycosides of quercetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein and hypolaetin. It is suggested that juniper berry extract induced the p53-associated apoptosis through the potentiation and synergism by several phenolic compounds.

  5. Anthocyanin Characterization, Total Phenolic Quantification and Antioxidant Features of Some Chilean Edible Berry Extracts

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    Anghel Brito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS. The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA, and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty one anthocyanins were identified, and the major ones were quantified by HPLC-DAD, mostly branched 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (2.33 ± 0.21 μg/mL in the DPPH assay, followed by blueberry (3.32 ± 0.18 μg/mL, and arrayán (5.88 ± 0.21, respectively.

  6. Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract (GB0710) on penile erection: evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Su Cho; Chan Woong Park; Chun-Ki Kim; Hee Young Jeon; Wan Gi Kim; Sang Jun Lee; Young-Myeong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have promoted the root-derived Korean red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) as alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED),and ginsenosides are known to be the principal active ingredients of ginseng.Recent studies showed that ginseng berries produce more ginsenosides than KRG; thus,we investigated the ability of the Korean ginseng berry extract GB0710 to relax the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) in this study.As a comparative control,the results were compared to those obtained using KRG.In addition,possible mechanisms of action for GB0710 were investigated.While KRG and GB0710 both displayed dose-dependent relaxation effects on precontracted rabbit CCSM in vitro,GB0710 was shown to be more potent than KRG.The GB0710-induced relaxation could be partially reduced by removing the endothelium.In addition,pre-treatment with several nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors significantly inhibited the relaxation of muscle strips.Furthermore,administration of GB0710 increased intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in a rat in vivo model in both a dose-and duration-dependent manner.Intracellular NO production in human microvascular endothelial cells could be induced by GB0710 and inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.In conclusion,GB0710 had a greater relaxation effect on rabbit CCSM than did KRG extract,and increased ICP in a rat model in both a dose-and a duration-dependent manner.This relaxing effect might be mediated by NO production.

  7. In vitro studies on the relationship between the antioxidant activities of some berry extracts and their binding properties to serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiesnik, Jacek; Vearasilp, Kann; Nemirovski, Alina; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Pasko, Pawel; Martinez-Ayala, Alma Leticia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Suhaj, Milan; Gorinstein, Shela

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to use the bioactive components from cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana), blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extracts as a novel source against oxidation in food supplementation. The quantitative analysis of bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, carotenoids, and chlorophyll) was based on radical scavenging spectrophometric assays and mass spectrometry. The total phenolic content was the highest (P < 0.05) in water extract of blueberries (46.6 ± 4.2 mg GAE/g DW). The highest antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity were in water extracts of blueberries, showing 108.1 ± 7.2 and 131.1 ± 9.6 μMTE/g DW with correlation coefficients of 0.9918 and 0.9925, and by β-carotene linoleate assay at 80.1 ± 6.6 % with correlation coefficient of 0.9909, respectively. The water extracts of berries exhibited high binding properties with human serum albumin in comparison with quercetin. In conclusion, the bioactive compounds from a relatively new source of gooseberries in comparison with blueberries and cranberries have the potential as food supplementation for human health. The antioxidant and binding activities of berries depend on their bioactive compounds. PMID:24449373

  8. Berry fruits for cancer prevention: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that edible small and soft-fleshed berry fruits may have beneficial effects against several types of human cancers. The anticancer potential of berries has been related, at least in part, to a multitude of bioactive phytochemicals that these colorful fruits contain, including polyphenols (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins, gallotannins, phenolic acids), stilbenoids, lignans, and triterpenoids. Studies show that the anticancer effects of berry bioactives are partially mediated through their abilities to counteract, reduce, and also repair damage resulting from oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, berry bioactives also regulate carcinogen and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various transcription and growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and subcellular signaling pathways of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. Berry phytochemicals may also potentially sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting pathways that lead to treatment resistance, and berry fruit consumption may provide protection from therapy-associated toxicities. Although a wide variety of berry fruits are consumed worldwide, this paper focuses on those commonly consumed in North America, namely, blackberries, black raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, red raspberries, and strawberries. In addition, a large body of studies on singly purified berry bioactives is available, but this paper focuses on studies of "whole berries" per se, that is, as berry extracts and purified fractions, juices, and freeze-dried powders. Potential mechanisms of anticancer action and bioavailability of berry phenolics, as well as gaps in knowledge and recommendations for future berry research, are also briefly discussed. PMID:18211019

  9. Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Extracts from Sea Buckthorn Berries (Hippophae rhamnoides, Apricot Pulp and Apricot Kernel (Prunus armeniaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreea Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A healthy human diet requires the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds. Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and apricot fruits (Prunus armeniaca L. are cultivated and appreciated in Romania both as fresh fruits and as derived products. Characterized by a complex chemical composition, sea buckthorn is rich in unsaturated lipids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Except for β-carotene content, less is known about other lipophilic compounds in apricot fruits. The aim of this paper was to separate and quantify the individual carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn, apricot pulp and kernels and also to determine the antioxidant activity of the lipophilic extracts using the TEAC  method.  Chemical characterization of lipophilic extract was performed by HPLC with PDA and fluorescence detection. The total carotenoid content was 17.19±1.4 mg/100g F.W. in sea buckthorn; 3.51±0.25 mg/100g F.W. in apricot fruits and 0.58±0.04 mg/100 g F.W. in apricot kernels. The major carotenoids in sea buckthorn were β-carotene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin esters. Apricots fruits are rich in β-carotene and its geometric isomers while in kernels we could properly identified only lycopene. The α-tocopherol concentration was higher in sea buckthorn (46 mg/kg than in apricot fruits (1.09 mg/kg while apricot kernel contain large amounts of γ-tocopherol (111 mg/kg. Sea buckthorn fruits showed the highest antioxidant capacity, correlated with a high content of both tocopherols and carotenoids.

  10. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed

  11. Supersymmetric Berry index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilinskii, K N; Melezhik, V S; Ilinski, K N; Kalinin, G V; Melezhik, V V

    1994-01-01

    We revise the sequences of SUSY for a cyclic adiabatic evolution governed by the supersymmetric quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. The condition (supersymmetric adiabatic evolution) under which the supersymmetric reductions of Berry (nondegenerated case) or Wilczek-Zee (degenerated case) phases of superpartners are taking place is pointed out. The analogue of Witten index (supersymmetric Berry index) is determined. As the examples of suggested concept of supersymmetric adiabatic evolution the Holomorphic quantum mechanics on complex plane and Meromorphic quantum mechanics on Riemann surface are considered. The supersymmetric Berry indexes for the models are calculated.

  12. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  13. Zitterbewegung and gravitational Berry phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, Giorgio, E-mail: papini@uregina.ca [Department of Physics and Prairie Particle Physics Institute, University of Regina, Regina, Sask S4S 0A2 (Canada); International Institute for Advanced Scientific Studies, 89019 Vietri sul Mare (Italy)

    2012-03-12

    Berry phases mix states of positive and negative energy in the propagation of fermions and bosons in external gravitational and electromagnetic fields and generate Zitterbewegung oscillations. The results are valid in any reference frame and to any order of approximation in the metric deviation. -- Highlights: ► Berry phases generate Zitterbewegung oscillations in the propagation of particles. ► The covariant approach applies to gravitational and electromagnetic fields. ► The curvature of space–time affects Hilbert space via Berry phases. ► Berry phases mix the positive and negative energy states of relativistic particles.

  14. Variability of Polyphenol Compounds in Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae Berries from Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chiaramonti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compounds were myricetin-3-O-arabinoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside. Principal components analysis (PCA is applied to study the chemical composition and variability of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts from the seven localities. Canonical analysis and PCA data distinguishes two groups of myrtle berries characterized by different concentrations of polyphenols according to soil and years of harvest. The variations in the polyphenol concentration were due to biotic and abiotic factors.

  15. Berry's Phase in Noncommutative Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. Alavi

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the perturbative aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Then we study Berry's phase within the framework of noncommutative quantum mechanics. The results show deviations from the usual quantum mechanics, which depend on the parameter of space/space noncommutativity.

  16. Roy Fuentes: Fuentes Berry Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As president of Fuentes Berry Farms, Rogelio (Roy) Fuentes is one of many independent growers producing organic berries for Driscoll’s—a company that was initiated more than a century ago by two strawberry farmers on California’s Central Coast, and has since evolved into an international concern devoted to research, breeding, production, sales and distribution of conventionally and organically farmed strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. Driscoll’s CEO Miles Reiter and his ...

  17. Phenolic extracts from Sorbus aucuparia (L.) and Malus baccata (L.) berries: antioxidant activity and performance in rapeseed oil during frying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Matthäus, Bertrand

    2014-09-15

    In the present study, phenolic extracts and fractions from Canadian rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia) and crabapple (Malus baccata) were screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Furthermore, rapeseed oil was supplemented with extracts/fractions and performance was assessed during accelerated storage at 65°C, under Rancimat at 120°C, and during frying at 180°C. A number of phenolic fractions showed significantly higher radical scavenging and antioxidant activity in the oil than the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). At the end of the 7-day storage, the peroxide value was reduced by up to 42% in the presence of extracts. The extent of thermooxidative degradation was significantly lower in oils fortified with the fruit extracts, with fractions from Sorbus species being more effective. Results from the present study suggested that polyphenolic extracts from these fruits can offer effective alternative to synthetic antioxidants during frying and storage of vegetable oils. PMID:24767055

  18. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Zuzana Mašková; Soňa Felšöciová; Miroslava Císarová

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine) on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar). The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal ...

  19. Zitterbewegung and gravitational Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Papini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Berry phases mix states of positive and negative energy in the propagation of fermions and bosons in external gravitational and electromagnetic fields and generate Zitterbewegung oscillations. The results are valid in any reference frame and to any order of approximation in the metric deviation.

  20. Berry's phase in noncommutative spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Alavi, S A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the perturbative aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Then we study the Berry's phase in the framework of noncommutative quantum mechanics. The results show deviations from the usual quantum mechanics which depend on the parameter of space/space noncommtativity.

  1. American Ginseng Berry Juice Intake Reduces Blood Glucose and Body Weight in ob/ob Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, J.T.; Wang, C.Z.; Ni, M.; Wu, J.A.; Mehendale, S.R.; Aung, H.H.; Foo, A.; Yuan, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disease and has a significant impact on patients' lives and the health care system. We previously observed that the organic solvent extract of American ginseng berry possessed significant antidiabetic effects in obese diabetic ob/ob mice after intraperitoneal injection. If American ginseng berry is useful as a dietary supplement, simple preparation and oral intake would be a convenient, safe, and practical means for consumers. In this study, the simply ...

  2. Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Acosta, Monica L; Lenihan-Geels, Georgia N; Corpe, Christopher P; Hall, Wendy L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D. PMID:27170557

  3. Lantana camara berry for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brajesh; Kumar; Kumari; Smita; Luis; Cumbal; Alexis; Debut

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize the silver nunoparticles(AgNPs) by reduction of silver ions into nano silver,using ripened berry extract of Lantana camara and evaluate its antioxidant activity against 1.1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl.Methods:The prepared AgNPs were characterized by visual,UV-visible spectrophotometer.dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction.Results:Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed the AgNPs are spherical and 75.2 nm average sized.Selected area electron diffraction analysis supports that the obtained nanoparticles were in crystalline form.In addition,the antioxidant efficacy of prepared AgNPs was found to be higher than berry extract against 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.Conclusions:From the results obtained it is suggested that surface modified AgNPs at lower concentration,showed higher antioxidant activity than berry extract against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and could be used effectively in future ethno pharmacological concerns.

  4. 越橘粗提物体外抑菌活性及稳定性的研究%Study on antimicrobial properties and stability of extracts from berries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沙; 罗秋水; 张凤英

    2012-01-01

    研究了两种越橘(野生蓝莓和红豆越橘)粗提物的抑菌作用及稳定性。方法:采用牛津杯法探讨越橘果粗提物对6种食源性致病菌和1种食品中常见腐败菌的抑菌作用及温度、pH、紫外线等因素对抑菌稳定性的影响。结果:越橘对金黄色葡萄球菌等7种细菌具有明显的抑菌作用,最大抑菌直径可达30mm。经测定,野生蓝莓对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、产气肠杆菌、志贺氏菌、溶血性链球菌、沙门氏菌、枯草芽孢杆菌7种菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)分别为:9.38、18.75、18.75、37.50、37.50、18.75、18.75mg/mL;红豆越橘的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)分别为:18.75、18.75、37.50、37.50、37.50、18.75、18.75mg/mL。野生蓝莓较红豆越橘提取物抑菌活性稳定,受紫外线照射、温度、无机盐等因素影响较小。结论:越橘提取物具有较强的广谱抑菌效果,且受外界影响小,抑菌稳定性好。在食品中添加越橘提取物,既能提高食品的功能品质,又能提高食品的卫生安全。%Antimicrobial properties and stability of extracting solution from two billberries(wild blueberry and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L)were studied.The antimicrobial properties of extracting solution from two berries against six food-borne pathogens and one spoilage bacteria from food were screened by oxford cup and doubling dilution method measured minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC),the antimicrobial stability under certain temperature,pH,UV exposure time and so on.The result showed that bacterias like Staphylococcus aureus and other six bacterial were inhibited by the extracting solution well.The biggest antibacterial circle diameter reached 30.0mm.the MIC of blueberry extracts against Staphylococcus aureus was 9.38mg/mL,Escherichia coli 18.75mg/mL,Enterobacter aerogenes 18.75mg/mL,Salmonella typhi 37.50mg/mL,Streptococcus hemolytic 37.50mg/mL,Shigella 18.75mg/mL,Bacillus Sukatilis 18.75mg

  5. Ants defend coffee from berry borer colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, DJ; Ennis, KK; Philpott, SM; Vandermeer, J; Perfecto, I.

    2013-01-01

    Ants frequently prevent herbivores from damaging plants. In agroecosystems they may provide pest control services, although their contributions are not always appreciated. Here we compared the ability of eight ant species to prevent the coffee berry borer from colonizing coffee berries with a field exclusion experiment. We removed ants from one branch (exclusion) and left ants to forage on a second branch (control) before releasing 20 berry borers on each branch. After 24 h, six of eight spec...

  6. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  7. Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Sampath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your high sugar levels.It has anti cancer and anti viral properties. Jamun juice has carminative and mild astringent properties. The extracts of the bark, seeds and leaves are used for the treatment of diabetes. The leaves have antibacterial properties and used for strenghthening teeths and gums.Oral administration of dried alcohalic extracts of the seeds to diabetic patients was found to reduce the level of blood sugar and glycosuria in trials conducted at CDRI, Lucknow.The bark of black berry tree is astringent, digestive, diuretic, anthelmintic and is considered useful for throat problems.A decoction of the bark and powdered seeds is believed to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and dyspepsia.The antibiotic activity of black berry extract has been widely studied and found useful against a number of microbial agents. The fruit is also considered to be stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic.Vinegar made from black berry fruit is administered in cases of enlargement of spleen, chronic diarrhoea and urine retention for ringworm treatment, water diluted juice is used as lotion.

  8. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska's environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Hupp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality. Objective: To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions. Design: We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities. Results: Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum, cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable. Conclusions: Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how

  9. Lattice QCD simulation of the Berry curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-01-01

    The Berry curvature is a fundamental concept describing topological order of quantum systems. While it can be analytically tractable in non-interacting systems, numerical simulations are necessary in interacting systems. We present a formulation to calculate the Berry curvature in lattice QCD.

  10. Anatomy of Vitis Berries During Their Coloring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yi-zhen; HE Pu-chao

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-1999, the course of the berry coloring and the development of the pigment cells from veraison to ripeness were studied by freeze sectioning 43 accessions of 12 Vitis species (including 10 Chinese wild species). External observation showed that the berries of most species began coloring on the fruit top surface or on the sun-lit surface, and the berry surface color was evenly distributed when the berry was ripe.Internal observation revealed that the pigment cells in a few layers between cuticle and sub-cuticle colored first, the cuticle colored from inner layers to outer layers while the sub-cuticle from outer to inner, and the cuticle cells began coloring a little earlier than the sub-cuticle ones in most species. The pigment cells developed unevenly during the berry ripening. In the beginning of berry coloring, the cell pigment density among the layers or among the cells in the same layer was different. Both the numbers of the pigmented cells and the cell pigment density increased during the berry coloring, while the former lasted a short time; however, the latter kept increasing from veraison to ripeness, and they reached the deepest color when the berry was ripe.

  11. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.120 Canned berries. (a... section are prepared from stemmed fruit of the following optional varietal types of berry...

  12. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was determinate using ORAC assay which measures the decrease of AAPH-radical level by the scavenging action of the antioxidant substance. In addition, the vitamin C content and total tannins of the berries extracts were determined using spetophomotmetric methods. The phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of analyzed berries did not varied considerably. The highest amounts of TPC and the strongest antioxidant activities were found in blueberry and blackberries (678 GAE mg/100 g FW, 442 mg/100g FW respectively. Vitamin C content was found in higher concentration in raspberries 21.7 mg/100 g FW while the lower concentration was found in blackberry.  All berries contain higher levels of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or tannins which are responsible for their antioxidant potential and bring their nutritional value, being highly recommended for daily consumption.

  13. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  14. Assessment of Shape Changes of Mistletoe Berries: A New Software Approach to Automatize the Parameterization of Path Curve Shaped Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Renatus Derbidge; Linus Feiten; Oliver Conradt; Peter Heusser; Stephan Baumgartner

    2013-01-01

    Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. ...

  15. Potential Benefits of Edible Berries in the Management of Aerodigestive and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishayee, Anupam; Haskell, Yennie; Do, Chau; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Mohandas, Nima; Sethi, Gautam; Stoner, Gary D

    2016-07-26

    Epidemiological reports as well as experimental studies have demonstrated the significant health benefits provided by regular berry consumption. Berries possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potential against several chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Berries owe their health benefits to phytoconstituents, such as polyphenolic anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and a diverse array of phytochemicals bestowed with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the ability to engage a multitude of signaling pathways. This review highlights the principal chemical constituents present in berries and their primary molecular targets. The article presents and critically analyzes the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of berry extracts, fractions, and bioactive components on various cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including esophageal, stomach, intestinal, and colorectal cancers as well as cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as oral cancer. The current status of clinical studies evaluating berry products in several aforementioned cancers is presented. Various emerging issues including dose-ranging and dosage forms, the role of synergy and the usage of combination therapy as well as other relevant areas essential for the development of berry phytoconstituents as mainstream chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against aerodigestive and GIT cancers are critically discussed. PMID:25781639

  16. Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...

  17. Combined Enzymatic and High-Pressure Processing Affect Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Berries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Lille, M.; Poutanen, K.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on cell wall polysaccharides in berries was investigated. HPP decreased the degree of methyl esterification (DM), probably by activation of pectin methyl esterase (PME), and improved the extractability of pectins. When commercial enzyme mixtures were adde

  18. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  19. BlackBerry All-in-One for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sarigumba, Dante; Petz, William

    2010-01-01

    Go beyond BlackBerry basics and get everything your BlackBerry can deliver. BlackBerry is the leading smartphone for business users, and its popularity continues to explode. When you discover the amazing array of BlackBerry possibilities in this fun and friendly guide, you'll be even happier with your choice of smartphones. BlackBerry All-in-One For Dummies explores every feature and application common to all BlackBerry devices. It explains the topics in depth, with tips, tricks, workarounds, and includes detailed information about cool new third-party applications, accessories, and downloads

  20. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Liu, J Y; Graf, D; Radmanesh, S M A; Adams, D J; Chuang, A; Wang, Y; Chiorescu, I; Wei, J; Spinu, L; Mao, Z Q

    2016-01-01

    The recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. Here we report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state, including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted. PMID:26726050

  1. Photon Drag Effect due to Berry Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kei; Ohno, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    A theoretical investigation reveals that the photon drag effect (PDE) is induced in a grating slab with deformation by the Berry curvature in phase space. It drifts the momentum of light, and gives asymmetric PDE signals in momentum space. Large PDE signals are observed even near the Γ point. This characteristic agrees well with our theoretical results.

  2. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  3. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  4. BlackBerry's Long March Into China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAYET SELLAMI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Some time in the coming weeks, Research In Motion Ltd (RIM) will launch its wireless BlackBerry e-mail service on the Chinese mainland in a partnership with China Mobile Ltd, which has two-thirds of the Chinese market and is the world's biggest mobile carrier by number of subscribers. The exact date of the launch has yet to be set.

  5. Analysis of free and bound aroma compounds in grape berries using headspace solid-phase microextraction with GC-MS and a preliminary study of solid-phase extraction with LC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Prosen, H.; Janes, L.; Strlic, M.; D. Rusjan; Kocar, D.

    2007-01-01

    An extraction procedure for the aroma compounds from musts and wines has been developed, using solid-phase microextraction (DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre) from the headspace of heated samples (50 degrees C). Analysis was performed with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The method was applicable to the analysis of different aroma compounds ( aliphatic, aromatic aldehydes, terpenes) in a broad concentration range (1-5000 mu g L-1). A stir-bar sorptive extraction procedure was also tested, but was no...

  6. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Zong-Lun; Tsai Ming-Tz; Lee Alan; Yang Hsin-Ling; Hseu You-Cheng; Hwang Chi-Ching; Chen Jeff; Chang Fang-Rong; Chiu Chien-Chih; Yen Ching-Yu; Cheng Yu-Shan; Liu Yin-Chang; Lan Yu-Hsuan; Chang Yu-Ching; Ko Ying-Chin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkalin...

  7. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  8. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  9. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during this study. The product presented qood quality criteria and it was highly appreciated by consumers who tasted it. This study presents a valuable method to preserve fresh widberries in honey over a long period of time. The economical value of this experiment resides in making these fruits available outside the harvesting season.

  10. Colonization of grapes berries by Alternaria sp. and their ability to produce mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research focused on identify the Alternaria species from grapes (surface sterilized berries and non-surface sterilized berries of Slovak origin and characterize their toxinogenic potential in in vitro conditions. We analyzed 47 samples of grapes, harvested in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species, the method of direct plating berries and surface-sterilized berries (using 1 % freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar was used. For each analysis was used 50 berries. Only undamaged berries have been used for analysis. The cultivation was carried at 25 ±1°C, for 5 to 7 days in dark. After incubation, the colonies of Alternaria were transferred on PCA - potato-carrot agar and CYA - Czapek-yeast extract agar and cultured for 7 days at room temperature and natural light. A total 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from grapes berries: Alternaria alternata (1369 isolates, Alternaria arborescens (734 isolates, Alternaria infectoria (143 isolates, and Alternaria tenuissima (3579 isolates. According to European Union legislation mycotoxins produced by species genus Alternaria are not monitored in foods and food commodities. Mycotoxins such as alternariol and alternariol monomethylether are mutagenic and genotoxic in various in vitro systems. Selected strains were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins in in vitro conditions by TLC method. The ability to produce altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol in in vitro conditions was detected in isolates of Alternaria alternata, Alternaria arborescens and Alternaria tenuissima species-groups. Isolates of Alternaria alternata species-group (44 tested isolates were able to produce altenuene (24 isolates, alternariol monomethyleter (42 isolates

  11. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Subash; Musthafa Mohamed Essa; Samir Al-Adawi; Mushtaq A.Memon; hTamilarasan Manivasagam; Mohammed Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegen-erative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kae-mpferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneifcial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents.

  13. Berry ripening: recently heard through the grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nathalie; Guan, Le; Dai, Zhan Wu; Wu, Ben-Hong; Lauvergeat, Virginie; Gomès, Eric; Li, Shao-Hua; Godoy, Francisca; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Delrot, Serge

    2014-08-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a non-climacteric fruit species used as table fruit, dried raisins, and for vinification (wines) and distillation (liquors). In recent years, our knowledge of the molecular basis of ripening regulation has improved. Water status, light conditions, and temperature may hasten, delay, or enhance ripening. Hormones seem to play a central role, as their concentrations change prior to and during ripening and in response to several environmental cues. The review summarizes recent data related to the molecular and hormonal control of grape berry development and ripening, with special emphasis on secondary metabolism and its response to the environment, and pinpoints some experimental limitations. PMID:24285825

  14. Gradient Nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Lee, Jongwon; Nookala, Nishant; Belkin, Mikhail A; Alù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach to plasmonic metasurfaces loaded by highly nonlinear multi-quantum well substrates, establishing a platform to control the nonlinear wavefront at will based on giant localized nonlinear effects. We apply this approach to design flat nonlinear metasurfaces for efficient second-harmonic radiation, including beam steering, focusing, and polarization manipulation. Our findings open a new direction for nonlinear optics, in which phase matching issues are relaxed, and an unprecedented level of local wavefront control is achieved over thin devices with giant nonlinear responses.

  15. Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.

  16. Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

  17. Untargeted Metabolomics for Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. carpatica Berries and Leaves: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy as a Rapid Approach for Evaluation and Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca M. POP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolomics coupled with chemometric analysis was applied to evaluate and discriminate six Romanian sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. berries and leaves. Total carotenoids and total phenolics were determined quantitatively by UV-Vis spectrometry. The qualitative evaluation and discrimination was obtained using the FTIR fingerprints (by using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy of raw carotenoid and phenolic extracts. The average concentration of total carotenoids was 54 and 3.9 mg carotenoids/ 100g DW in berries and leaves, respectively. The average concentration of total phenolics was 746 mg GAE/100g DW in berries, approximately 1.8 times lower than total phenolics found in leaves. By PCA (Principal Component Analysis of fingerprints (900-1800 cm-1, the responsible bands for samples discrimination were identified. In case of total carotenoids extract the biomarker bands were: 1745, 1743, 1500 cm-1 for berries and 1458 cm-1 and 1735 cm-1 for leaves, while for total phenolic extract the key bands were 1731, 1033, 1622 cm-1 for berries and 1047 cm-1, 1616, 1512 and 1454 cm-1 for leaves. FTIR spectroscopy proved to be a simple and sensitive analytical technique that can be successfully used in sample discrimination and classification.

  18. Solute accumulation differs in the vacuoles and apoplast of ripening grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Shrestha, Pradeep M

    2014-03-01

    Phloem unloading is thought to switch from a symplastic route to an apoplastic route at the beginning of ripening in grape berries and some other fleshy fruits. However, it is unclear whether different solutes accumulate in both the mesocarp vacuoles and the apoplast. We modified a method developed for tomato fruit to extract apoplastic sap from grape berries and measured the changes in apoplastic and vacuolar pH, soluble sugars, organic acids, and potassium in ripening berries of Vitis vinifera 'Merlot' and V. labruscana 'Concord'. Solute accumulation varied by genotype, compartment, and chemical species. The apoplast pH was substantially higher than the vacuolar pH, especially in Merlot (approximately two units). However, the vacuole-apoplast proton gradient declined during ripening and in Merlot, but not in Concord, collapsed entirely at maturity. Hexoses accumulated in both the vacuoles and apoplast but at different rates. Organic acids, especially malate, declined much more in the vacuoles than in the apoplast. Potassium accumulated in the vacuoles and apoplast of Merlot. In Concord, by contrast, potassium increased in the vacuoles but decreased in the apoplast. These results suggest that solutes in the fruit apoplast are tightly regulated and under developmental control. PMID:24310282

  19. Berry Phase Physics in Free and Interacting Fermionic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Berry phase plays an important role in many non-trivial phenomena over a broad range of many-body systems. In this thesis we focus on the Berry phase due to the change of the particles' momenta, and study its effects in free and interacting fermionic systems. We start with reviewing the semi-classical kinetic theory with Berry phase for a non-interacting ensemble of fermions -- a Berry Fermi gas -- which might be far-from-equilibrium. We particularly review the famous Berry phase contribution to the anomalous Hall current. We then provide a concrete and general path integral derivation for the semi-classical theory. Then we turn to the specific example of Weyl fermion, which exhibits the profound quantum phenomenon of chiral anomaly; we review how this quantum effect, and its closely related chiral magnetic effect and chiral vortical effect, arise from Berry phase in the semi-classical kinetic theory. We also discuss how Lorentz symmetry in the kinetic theory of Weyl fermion, seemly violated by the Berry phas...

  20. Berry Phase in an Entangled Spin Cluster with Five Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiao-Bo

    2007-01-01

    @@ The geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, in an entangled state of five spin-1/2 particles is studied.A time-dependent magnetic field is applied to control the time evolution of the cluster. Using the method of algebraic dynamics, we calculate the non-adiabatic geometric phase or Berry phase and the degeneracy energy levels when the magnetic rotates around Z axis. Based on the exact analytical solutions, we show how the Berry phase of the entangled state of this cluster depends on the external magnetic field parameters ω (the angular velocity of the rotating magnetic field) and θ (the angle between the magnetic field and Z axis).

  1. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  2. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra;

    2016-01-01

    therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  3. Assessment of shape changes of mistletoe berries: a new software approach to automatize the parameterization of path curve shaped contours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renatus Derbidge

    Full Text Available Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L. berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. Here we present methods and software to capture and measure these changes of form over time. The present paper describes the software used to automatize a number of tasks including contour recognition, optimization of fitting the contour via hill-climbing, derivation of the path curves, computation of Lambda and blinding the pictures for the operator. The validity of the program is demonstrated by results from three independent measurements showing circadian rhythm in mistletoe berries. The program is available as open source and will be applied in a project to analyze the chronobiology of shape in mistletoe berries and the buds of their host trees.

  4. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rezaei-Golmisheh

    2015-07-01

    Results: The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (P

  5. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-04-13

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  6. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  7. Bioactive compounds in berries relevant to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Denoyes-Rothan, B.; Laimer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Berries contain powerful antioxidants, potential allergens, and other bioactive compounds. Genetic and environmental factors affect production and storage of such compounds. For this reason breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to control or to increase the content of specific

  8. Preliminary Studies on the Antinociceptive Activity of Vaccinium ashei Berry in Experimental Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Maria Rosana; Guterres, Leandra; Dickel, Odila E.; de Castro, Micheli R.; Henriques, Amelia T.; Márcia M. de Souza; Barros, Daniela Martí

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out pharmacological screening in order to evaluate the potential effects of lyophilized fruits of different cultivars of Vaccinium ashei Reade (Family Ericaceae) berries, commonly known as rabbiteye blueberries, on nociception. This was achieved using the formalin, hot plate, tail-flick, and writhing tests in mice. During this experiment the mice consumed approximately 3.2–6.4 mg/kg/day (p.o.) of the anthocyanins. The extract was administered for 21 days or ...

  9. Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra, topological parameter and Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengcheng; Xue, Kang; Gou, Lidan; Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Hu, Taotao

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a 3 × 3-matrix representation of Birman-Wenzl-Murakami (BWM) algebra has been presented. Based on which, unitary matrices A( θ, φ 1, φ 2) and B( θ, φ 1, φ 2) are generated via Yang-Baxterization approach. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary B( θ, φ) matrix. Then we study Berry phase of the Yang-Baxter system, and obtain the relationship between topological parameter and Berry phase.

  10. Bioactive Phytochemicals from Wild Arbutus unedo L. Berries from Different Locations in Portugal: Quantification of Lipophilic Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F. S. Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The lipophilic composition of wild Arbutus unedo L. berries, collected from six locations in Penacova (center of Portugal, as well as some general chemical parameters, namely total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was studied in detail to better understand its potential as a source of bioactive compounds. The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts, focused on the fatty acids, triterpenoids, sterols, long chain aliphatic alcohols and tocopherols, was investigated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of the dichloromethane extracts. The lipophilic extractives of the ripe A. unedo berries ranged from 0.72% to 1.66% (w/w of dry weight, and consisted mainly of triterpenoids, fatty acids and sterols. Minor amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and tocopherols were also identified. Forty-one compounds were identified and among these, ursolic acid, lupeol, α-amyrin, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, and β-sitosterol were highlighted as the major components. To the best of our knowledge the current research study provides the most detailed phytochemical repository for the lipophilic composition of A. unedo, and offers valuable information for future valuation and exploitation of these berries.

  11. Berry composition and climate: responses and empirical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    Climate is a strong modulator of berry composition. Accordingly, the projected change in climate is expected to impact on the composition of berries and of the resultant wines. However, the direction and extent of climate change impact on fruit composition of winegrape cultivars are not fully known. This study utilised a climate gradient along a 700 km transect, covering all wine regions of Western Australia, to explore and empirically describe influences of climate on anthocyanins, pH and titratable acidity (TA) levels in two or three cultivars of Vitis vinifera (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Shiraz). The results showed that, at a common maturity of 22° Brix total soluble solids, berries from the warmer regions had low levels of anthocyanins and TA as well as high pH compared to berries from the cooler regions. Most of these regional variations in berry composition reflected the prevailing climatic conditions of the regions. Thus, depending on cultivar, 82-87 % of TA, 83 % of anthocyanins and about half of the pH variations across the gradient were explained by climate-variable-based empirical models. Some of the variables that were relevant in describing the variations in berry attributes included: diurnal ranges and ripening period temperature (TA), vapour pressure deficit in October and growing degree days (pH), and ripening period temperatures (anthocyanins). Further, the rates of change in these berry attributes in response to climate variables were cultivar dependent. Based on the observed patterns along the climate gradient, it is concluded that: (1) in a warming climate, all other things being equal, berry anthocyanins and TA levels will decline whereas pH levels will rise; and (2) despite variations in non-climatic factors (e.g. soil type and management) along the sampling transect, variations in TA and anthocyanins were satisfactorily described using climate-variable-based empirical models, indicating the overriding impact of climate on berry

  12. Expression and in situ localization of two major PR proteins of grapevine berries during development and after UV-C exposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Colas

    Full Text Available In grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir, the Pathogenesis-Related (PR proteins CHI4D and TL3 are among the most abundant extractable PR proteins of ripe berries and accumulate during berry ripening from véraison until full maturation. Evidence was supplied in favor of the involvement of these two protein families in plant defense mechanisms and plant development. In order to better understand CHI4D and TL3 function in grapevine, we analyzed their temporal and spatial pattern of expression during maturation and after an abiotic stress (UV-C by in situ hybridization (ISH and immunohistolocalization. In ripening berries, CHI4D and TL3 genes were mainly expressed in the exocarp and around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. In UV-C exposed berries, CHI4D and TL3 gene expression was strongly induced before véraison. Corresponding proteins localized in the exocarp and, to a lesser extent, around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. The spatial and temporal accumulation of the two PR proteins during berry maturation and after an abiotic stress is discussed in relation to their putative roles in plant defense.

  13. Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods—A SUSFOOD Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Rohm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.

  14. Mondo Grass Berry Pigment for Visible to Near Infrared Absorption in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilva, L. A. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2013-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Synthesis of artificial dyes with broad response is important in developing an efficient DSSC. Artificial dyes can add up to the cost of the device; therefore, it is important to identify natural dyes with broad abortion and required energy levels. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 degree C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2 were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination and have a broad spectral response extending from 400 nm to 750 nm. This work is supported by COSM at UWG.

  15. Experimental Measurement of the Berry Curvature from Anomalous Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, Martin; Carusotto, Iacopo; Peschel, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical properties of energy bands underlie fascinating phenomena in a wide-range of systems, including solid-state materials, ultracold gases and photonics. Most famously, local geometrical characteristics like the Berry curvature can be related to global topological invariants such as those classifying quantum Hall states or topological insulators. Regardless of the band topology, however, any non-zero Berry curvature can have important consequences, such as in the semi-classical evolution of a wave packet. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time that wave packet dynamics can be used to directly map out the Berry curvature. To this end, we use optical pulses in two coupled fibre loops to study the discrete time-evolution of a wave packet in a 1D geometrical "charge" pump, where the Berry curvature leads to an anomalous displacement of the wave packet under pumping. This is both the first direct observation of Berry curvature effects in an optical system, and, more generally, the proof-of-...

  16. BlackBerry PlayBook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Use your BlackBerry PlayBook for work and for play—this book shows you how For all you business road warriors who don't go anywhere without your BlackBerrys, the road just got a little more comfortable. The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet is your go-to-gadget for working on the go. Learn how to take full advantage of this powerful newcomer to the tablet market with this full-color For Dummies guide. You'll discover how to use your PlayBook to connect to corporate systems, manage your finances, keep track of your travel and other schedules—even how to use the PlayBook as an e-reade

  17. Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-02-01

    The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

  18. Berry phases for interacting spins in composite environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Da-Bao; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Due to the potential application in quantum information process, geometric phase of interacting system arouse many interests. Some physicists concentrate on the system in pure classical envi- ronment, while others study the system in pure quantized environment. So a natural question is asked: how about an interacting system in composite environments made up of both classical and quantized field. In this letter, we analyze a quantum system composed of two interacting spins, of which one is in classical magnetic field and the other is in quantized field. First, classical magnetic field driven Berry phases for the whole system and subsystem are studied. The effect of couplings between particles and photon on these phases are analyzed. In comparison with the dynamical quantized field, We find that even a static quantized field in its vacuum state can also have an effect on Berry phase. Second, quantized field driven Berry phases for the whole system and sub- system are formulated, including both one and two mode ...

  19. Effect of Noise on Berry's Phase for Quantum Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景辉; 葛墨林

    2003-01-01

    Based on a new type of two-level-system reservoir, we investigate the impact of dissipation on Berry's phase of a spin trapped in a periodical external field. It is found that the existence of environmental noise could lead to a decaying term in the matrix of Berry's phase as the sign of a decoherence process, which is in agreement with the result of Nazir et al. (Phys. Rev. A 65 (2002) 042303). Particularly, in comparison with a specialized case of the traditional Leggett dissipation model, we only shows the dependence of time but not temperature in decaying term. A concrete case is exhibited by using the one-dimensional Ohmic function.

  20. Berry syndrome in association with familial limb malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    We describe a newborn boy diagnosed with Berry syndrome consisting of a distal aortopulmonary septal defect, aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery, and interruption of the aorta. The child was noted to have reduplication of the right thumb. The child\\'s mother had a claw malformation of her left hand but a normal cardiovascular status. Genetic analysis for TBX5 and SALL4 mutations were negative in both the patient and his mother. This case describes the first ever report of Berry syndrome in an infant with reduplication of the right thumb and familial limb malformation.

  1. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  2. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

  3. Supersymmetric manipulation of quasienergy states. Application to the Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Samsonov, B F; Nieto, L M

    2003-01-01

    Time-dependent supersymmetry allows one to delete quasienergy levels for time-periodic Hamiltonians and to create new ones. We illustrate this by examining an exactly solvable model related to the simple harmonic oscillator with a time-varying frequency. For an interesting nonharmonic example we present the change of the Berry phase due to a supersymmetry transformation.

  4. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    On field-grown vines, temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied, and resulting ...

  5. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  6. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  7. Jos Berry and Her New Avant-garde Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As the lingerie’s top trend spotter,Ms Jos Berry directs an international team of designers based in Paris-Concepts Paris-and provides the latest trends for worldwide lingerie professionals. This Paris consultancy company is devoted to a unique mix of services,such as trend book,online trend & news updates,color cards and design projects.

  8. Better-bred berries for the retail market

    Science.gov (United States)

    While there are many exciting new choices for berry cultivars for the Northwest commercial industry, very few of them are available in the retail nursery market. It’s an odd thing where the top-selling cultivars in the region haven’t seen the light of day in the retail nursery market. For many other...

  9. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food.

  10. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. PMID:26593612

  11. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-01

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  12. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  13. Social licence for the utilization of wild berries in the context of local traditional rights and the interests of the berry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Peltola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Everyman’s right, as applied in Finland and other Nordic countries, allows the picking of natural products (wild berries, mushrooms, etc. regardless of land ownership. Harvesting and selling natural products has been an important source of income in rural areas of northern Finland. As household berry picking has more or less replaced small-scale commercial berry picking, foreign seasonal pickers are now supplying raw material for the berry industry. This has aroused vivid discussions about the limits of everyman’s right and inhabitants’ rights to local natural resources. Critics claim that commercially organized berry picking makes it difficult for inhabitants to fully use natural resources. In this article, we present the results of a survey aimed at nature-oriented, mainly northern residents of Finland and a telephone and e-mail service to which residents of northern Finland sent feedback regarding foreign berry pickers. The results of the survey and the feedback show that, in general, organized berry picking by foreign labourers is accepted if some basic guidelines or rules are respected. These guidelines may stem from local customary laws or traditions which have regulated berry picking. Another factor which would improve local acceptance and promote social licence for organized berry picking by foreign and non–local labourers is the distribution of benefits. At present, the advantages of organized berry picking are seen as benefiting stakeholders outside the local community, whereas local communities have to bear the costs: for example, increased berry picking activity in areas which they have utilized for a prolonged time, sometimes through generations.

  14. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  15. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva N. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire spectrum of yeast. The grown colonies after preliminary microscoping were separated into the cultures and subjected to testing according to the culturalmorphological signs, being guided by determinants and benefits. It was established the specific variety of microflora on the surface of the berries of grapes of all investigated types, without dependence on the place of their growth. Obtained data showed that the group of yeast, which constantly is present in the complex of the epiphytic microorganisms of grapes of Saccharomyces, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora was characteristic for all types of grapes in all investigated regions. The heterogeneity of the taxonometric composition of microflora is shown. Prevailed yeasts were of family Saccharomycetaceae, form Saccharomyces vini. A quantity of yeast of Saccharomyces vini decreases in a number of Myskhako-Caucasus-Fanagoriya, that as a whole will be coordinated with the climatic conditions. Only the type of Pinot nuar grapes had yeasts of Brettanomyces Dekkera. On the berries of Cabernets and Karaburnu we have discovered yeasts of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus, causing acid-reduction. On the berries of the grapes, which grew in joint stock company APF “Fanagoriya” we haven’t revealed the presence of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts of the form of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus. In the same farm the smallest quantity of yeastswreckers is noted, which we the forms of Pichia and

  16. Isolation and amplification of genomic DNA from recalcitrant dried berries of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)--a medicinal spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, K; Kizhakkayil, Jaleel; Syamkumar, S; Sasikumar, B

    2007-10-01

    Black pepper is an important medicinal spice traded internationally. The extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification from dried black pepper is challenging because of the presence of the exceptionally large amount of oxidized polyphenolic compounds, polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites. Here we report a modified hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by incorporating potassium acetate and a final PEG precipitation step to isolate PCR amplifiable genomic DNA from dried and powdered berries of black pepper. The protocol has trade implication as it will help in the PCR characterization of traded black peppers from different countries.

  17. Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics--a Finnish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2007-06-01

    In Finland, berries are part of the traditional diet significantly contributing to the intake of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and included in the national food composition database. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health. A great amount of in vitro evidence exists showing that berry phenolics are powerful antioxidants. However, the antioxidant effect of berry phenolics is strongly dependent on the choice of berry raw material, as the antioxidant activity differs between the different phenolic constituents, including anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. In foods, the antioxidant effect is also influenced by the structure of food. Tannin-containing berries exhibit antimicrobial properties against pathogenic bacteria, thus offering many new applications for food industry. Much of the interest in berry phenolics has focused on cranberries and both cultivated and wild blueberries, although also other berries including black currants, cloudberries, lingonberries, and red raspberries possess promising bioactivities that may have relevance to human health. Antioxidant activity of berry phenolics, in addition to other mechanisms, may contribute to human health, but the possible relationship remains yet to be scientifically substantiated. PMID:17492800

  18. Subcritical extraction as sample treatment method for antioxidant screening of various plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hohnová, B. (Barbora); Šťavíková, L. (Lenka); Karásek, P. (Pavel); Roth, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressurized Hot Water Extraction performed in both static and dynamic modes followed by HPLC with UV-ViS detection was employed for fast and efficient determination of rutin and quercetin from various berries. Moreover, the antioxidant power of subcritical extracts applying •DPPH was evaluated.

  19. Mediterranean Berries as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Porcine Burger Patties Subjected to Cooking and Chilled Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Ganho; Mario Estvez; Mnica Armenteros; David Morcuende

    2013-01-01

    The efifciency of extracts from Arbutus unedo L. (AU), Crataegus monogyna L. (CM), Rosa canina L. (RC), and Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (RU) to inhibit lipid oxidation in raw, cooked and cooked and chilled (2°C/12 d) porcine burger patties, was investigated. The modiifcation of the fatty acid proifle during processing treatments (cooking and chilling), the quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS), and lipid-derived volatiles, were used as indicators of lipid oxidation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) gradually decreased during cooking and the subsequent storage of cooked burger patties with this decrease being signiifcantly greater (P<0.05) in control patties than in those with added berry extracts. In accordance, the control patties showed signiifcantly higher TBA-RS numbers and counts of lipid-derived volatiles in all treatments when compared to the berry-added counterparts (P<0.05). Results from the present work show, for the ifrst time, that extracts from A. unedo, C. monogyna, R. canina, and R. ulmifolius are promising antioxidants which could enhance the nutritional, safety and sensory properties of porcine burger patties.

  20. Measurement of topological Berry phase in highly disordered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaceur, K.; Guillemette, J.; Lévesque, P. L.; Cottenye, N.; Mahvash, F.; Hemsworth, N.; Kumar, Abhishek; Murata, Y.; Heun, S.; Goerbig, M. O.; Proust, C.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.

    2015-09-01

    We have observed the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in highly disordered graphene at magnetic fields up to 65 T. Disorder was introduced by hydrogenation of graphene up to a ratio H/C ≈0.1 %. The analysis of SdH oscillations and QHE indicates that the topological part of the Berry phase, proportional to the pseudospin winding number, is robust against introduction of disorder by hydrogenation in large-scale graphene.

  1. Berry Phases, Quantum Phase Transitions and Chern Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, H. A.; Reyes-Lega, A. F.

    2007-01-01

    We study the relation between Chern numbers and Quantum Phase Transitions (QPT) in the XY spin-chain model. By coupling the spin chain to a single spin, it is possible to study topological invariants associated to the coupling Hamiltonian. These invariants contain global information, in addition to the usual one (obtained by integrating the Berry connection around a closed loop). We compute these invariants (Chern numbers) and discuss their relation to QPT. In particular we show that Chern nu...

  2. An analogue of the Berry phase for simple harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluate a variant of Berry's phase for a ‘missing’ family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables (in a natural way). Instead, it is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. A simple closed formula for the phase (in terms of elementary functions) is found here by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.

  3. Proposal for a Mesoscopic Optical Berry-Phase Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelykh, I. A.; Pavlovic, G.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel spin-optronic device based on the interference of polaritonic waves traveling in opposite directions and gaining topological Berry phase. It is governed by the ratio of the TE-TM and Zeeman splittings, which can be used to control the output intensity. Because of the peculiar orientation of the TE-TM effective magnetic field for polaritons, there is no analogue of the Aharonov-Casher phase shift existing for electrons.

  4. Proposal for a Mesoscopic Optical Berry-Phase Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Shelykh, I. A.; Pavlovic, G.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel spin-optronic device based on the interference of polaritonic waves traveling in opposite directions and gaining topological Berry phase. It is governed by the ratio of the TE-TM and Zeeman splittings, which can be used to control the output intensity. Because of the peculiar orientation of the TE-TM effective magnetic field for polaritons, there is no analogue of the Aharonov- Casher phase shift existing for electrons.

  5. Jos Berry and Her New Avant-garde Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Peng

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the Iinge rie's top t rend spotte r,Ms JOS Berry directs an irite rnational team of designers based in Paris-Concepts Paris-and provides the latest trends for worldwide lingerie professionals.This Paris consultancy company iS devoted to a unique mix of services,such as trend book,online trend&news updates,color cards and design projects.

  6. Lipoxygenase distribution in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patui, Sonia; Peresson, Carlo; Braidot, Enrico; Tubaro, Franco; Colussi, Alessio; Bonnländer, Bernd; Macrì, Francesco; Vianello, Angelo

    2007-10-01

    In this paper lipoxygenase (LOX) presence was investigated in coffee berries to determine its involvement in lipid degradative metabolism of plants grown in organic and conventional cultivations. An immunochemical analysis has evidenced a ca. 80 kDa protein, cross-reacting with an anti-LOX antibody, only in the pulp fraction of berries obtained from plants of both cultivations. LOX activity in this fraction could be monitored either as conjugated diene formation or reaction products (determined by HPLC) and was mainly associated with a heavy membrane fraction (HMF, enriched in tonoplast, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, and mitochondria) and a light membrane fraction (LMF, enriched in plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum, with low levels of tonoplast and mitochondria). The LOX activity of LMF from berries of both cultivations showed an optimum at pH 8.0. The HMF exhibited a different activity peak in samples from conventional (pH 8.0) and organic (pH 5.5) cultures, suggesting the presence of different isoenzymes. These findings were also confirmed by variation of the ratio of 9- and 13-hydroperoxides in organic (1:1) and conventional cultivations (1:10), indicating that the organic one was subjected to an oxidative stress in the coffee pulp fraction leading to the expression of an acidic LOX. Such de novo synthesized LOX activity could be responsible for the production of secondary metabolites, which may interfere with the organoleptic profile of coffee.

  7. Berry Curvature and Chiral Plasmons in Massive Dirac Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Justin; Rudner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    In the semiclassical model of carrier dynamics, quasiparticles are described as nearly free electrons with modified characteristics modified characteristics such as effective masses which may differ significantly from those of an electron in vacuum. In addition to being influenced by external electric and magnetic fields, the trajectories of electrons in topological materials are also affected by the presence of an interesting quantum mechanical field - the Berry curvature - which is responsible for a number of anomalous transport phenomena recently observed in Dirac materials including G/hBN, and MoS2. Here we discuss how Berry curvature can affect the collective behavior of electrons in these systems. In particular, we show that the collective electronic excitations in metallic massive Dirac materials can feature a chirality even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The chirality of these plasmons arises from the Berry curvature of the massive Dirac bands. The corresponding dispersion is split between left- and right-handed modes. We also discuss experimental manifestations.

  8. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-12-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer.

  9. Other Kinds of Violence: Wendell Berry, Industrialism, and Agrarian Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Major

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the need to understand pacifism and environmentalism as essentially consonant philosophies and practices, just as a proper theorization of ecocide must also include the violence inherent to industrialism and militarism. Few contemporary writers understand the stakes involved in this conflation as well as Wendell Berry, and few have had more occasion to enact the entwined values of pacifism and environmentalism than he has. Berry therefore marries pacifist politics to a land ethic of care, a union from which emerges an environmentalism highly critical of the violence of American corporate capitalism and militarism, the apotheosis of which can be seen in the guise of war (Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the “War on Terror”. Moreover, such violence has its domestic ecocidal analogy, best evidenced by strip mining and mountaintop removal. Berry’s union of peaceableness and agrarian environmentalism does, however, deserve critical examination, for it often rests upon the construction of a sometimes frustrating disconnection between a precious and benign domesticity and a theoretically corrupt public sphere. To be sure, in his reworking of the fluid boundaries between the private and public through which his agrarian ethics is often articulated, Berry simultaneously invokes and disavows a separation he clearly understands to be artificial. In Berry’s peaceful agrarian vision, then, the agrarian pacifist who is also by definition an environmentalist must draw upon enormous internal resources if she is to revolutionize the economies of ruin that characterize modern life.

  10. Antioxidant capacities and anthocyanin characteristics of the black-red wild berries obtained in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengyong; Su, Shang; Wang, Lijin; Wu, Jie; Tang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Yanjun; Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng

    2016-08-01

    Various edible berries widely accessible in nature in Northeast China are poorly exploited. The compositions and contents of anthocyanins in black (Padus maackii, Padus avium, Lonicera caerulea, and Ribes nigrum) and red (Ribes rubrum, Sambucus williamsii, Rubus idaeus, and Ribes procumbens) wild berries in Northeast China were firstly characterized by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2). Twenty-three anthocyanins were detected and identified. Cyanidin glycosides were dominant in both berries. Six anthocyanins were reported for the first time in P. avium, R. rubrum, and Sambucus. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) ranged from 10mg/100gfreshweight (FW) (R. procumbens) to 1058mg/100gFW (P. maackii) among berries. The TACs and antioxidant activities assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays were much higher in black than in red berries. Black-red berries, especially P. maackii and P. avium, can be used in developing functional foods and in improving breeding programs. PMID:26988488

  11. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application.

  12. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. PMID:26572446

  13. Inhibition of adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells by berry juice polyphenolic fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Toivanen, Marko; Huttunen, Sanna; Lapinjoki, Seppo; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Adhesion of pathogens to host tissues is the requirement for the initiation of the majority of infectious diseases. We recently showed that the binding of Neisseria meningitidis pili to immobilised human epithelial cells is inhibited by molecular size fractions (10?100 kDa) of berry juices. Additionally, the isolated meningococcal pili bound to polyphenolic fractions of berry juices. In the present study we investigated the antiadhesive effects of berry juice polyphenolics...

  14. Grape berry vacuole : a complex and heterogeneous membrane system specialized in the accumulation of solutes

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, N.; Gerós, H.; Delrot, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Vacuoles fulfill highly specialized functions depending on cell type and tissue and plant developmental stage. This complex and dynamic organelle is the main reservoir of grape berry cells, playing a major role during fruit development and ripening. Berry development is accompanied by modifications in size, composition, color, texture, flavor, and pathogen susceptibility, primarily because of changes in vacuolar content. Most aroma and flavor compounds are not evenly distributed in the berry,...

  15. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa; Florica Ranga; Dumitriţa Rugină; Loredana Leopold; Oana Pop; Dan Vodnar; Lucian Cuibus; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was d...

  16. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    OpenAIRE

    Pranabendu Mitra; Venkatesh Meda; Rick Green

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon be...

  17. Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2012-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

  18. Transitioning from preclinical to clinical chemopreventive assessments of lyophilized black raspberries: interim results show berries modulate markers of oxidative stress in Barrett's esophagus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresty, Laura A; Frankel, Wendy L; Hammond, Cynthia D; Baird, Maureen E; Mele, Jennifer M; Stoner, Gary D; Fromkes, John J

    2006-01-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreased risk of a number of cancers of epithelial origin, including esophageal cancer. Dietary administration of lyophilized black raspberries (LBRs) has significantly inhibited chemically induced oral, esophageal, and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Likewise, berry extracts added to cell cultures significantly inhibited cancer-associated processes. Positive results in preclinical studies have supported further investigation of berries and berry extracts in high-risk human cohorts, including patients with existing premalignancy or patients at risk for cancer recurrence. We are currently conducting a 6-mo chemopreventive pilot study administering 32 or 45 g (female and male, respectively) of LBRs to patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant esophageal condition in which the normal stratified squamous epithelium changes to a metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium. BE's importance lies in the fact that it confers a 30- to 40-fold increased risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a rapidly increasing and extremely deadly malignancy. This is a report on interim findings from 10 patients. To date, the results support that daily consumption of LBRs promotes reductions in the urinary excretion of two markers of oxidative stress, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso-PGF2) and, to a lesser more-variable extent, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), among patients with BE.

  19. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  20. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  1. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Extract against Memory Impairment Induced by Scopolamine in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Yong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aronia melanocarpa (A. melanocarpa berries are a fruit with a marked antioxidant effect. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. Moreover, we determined a possible mechanism of the cognitive-enhancing effect involving AChE activity and BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus of mice. A. melanocarpa berries extract attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in the Morris water maze (79.3 ± 0.8 s of 200 mg/kg and 64.4 ± 10.7 s of 400 mg/kg on day 4 and passive avoidance tests (46.0 ± 41.1 s of 200 mg/kg and 25.6 ± 18.7 s of 400 mg/kg. A. melanocarpa berries extract reduced the acetylcholinesterase level in the hippocampus of scopolamine-injected mice and increased BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus. The major compound, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, also reversed memory impairment. These results showed that A. melanocarpa berries extract improved memory impairment by inhibiting AChE and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression, and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside may be responsible for the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract.

  2. Measurement of Topological Berry Phase in Highly Disordered Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Bennaceur, K.; Guillemette, J.; Lévesque, P. L.; Cottenye, N.; Mahvash, F.; Hemsworth, N.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Murata, Y; Heun, S.; Goerbig, M. O.; Proust, C.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in highly disordered graphene at magnetic fields up to 65 T. Disorder was introduced by hydrogenation of graphene up to a ratio H/C $\\approx 0.1\\%$. The analysis of SdH oscillations and QHE indicates that the topological part of the Berry phase, proportional to the pseudo-spin winding number, is robust against introduction of disorder by hydrogenation in large scale graphene.

  3. The Pioneer's Anomalous Doppler Drift as a Berry Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales, J L

    2004-01-01

    The detected anomalous frequency drift acceleration in Pioneer's radar data finds its explanation in a Berry phase that obtains the quantum state of a photon that propagates within an expanding space-time. The clock acceleration is just the adiabatic expansion rate and an analogy between the effect and Foucault's experiment is fully suggested. In this sense, light rays play a similar role in the expanding space than Foucault's Pendulum does while determining Earth's rotation. On the other hand, one could speculate about a suitable future experiment at "laboratory" scales able to measure the local cosmological expansion rate using the procedure of outlined in this paper.

  4. Bragg-Berry mirrors: reflective broadband q-plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Brasselet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    We report on the experimental realization of flat mirrors enabling the broadband generation of optical vortices upon reflection. The effect is based on the geometric Berry phase associated with the circular Bragg reflection phenomenon from chiral uniaxial media. We show the reflective optical vortex generation from both diffractive and nondiffractive paraxial light beams using spatially patterned chiral liquid crystal films. The intrinsic spectrally broadband character of spin-orbit generation of optical phase singularities is demonstrated over the full visible domain. Our results do not rely on any birefringent retardation requirement and, consequently, foster the development of a novel generation of robust optical elements for spin-orbit photonic technologies. PMID:27607950

  5. Quantum Dynamics of Magnetic and Electric Dipoles and Berry's Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Furtado, C; Furtado, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of neutral particle that posseses a permanent magnetic and electric dipole moments in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The analysis of this dynamics demonstrates the appearance of a quantum phase that combines the Aharonov-Casher effect and the He-Mckellar-Wilkens effect. We demonstrate that this phase is a special case of the Berry's quantum phase. A series of field configurations where this phase would be found are presented. A generalized Casella-type effect is found in one these configurations. A physical scenario for the quantum phase in an interferometric experiment is proposed.

  6. Bragg-Berry mirrors: reflective broadband q-plates

    CERN Document Server

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh

    2016-01-01

    We report on the experimental realization of flat mirrors enabling the broadband generation of optical vortices upon reflection. The effect is based on the geometric Berry phase associated with the circular Bragg reflection phenomenon from chiral uniaxial media. We show the reflective optical vortex generation from both diffractive and nondiffractive paraxial light beams using spatially patterned chiral liquid crystal films. The intrinsic spectrally broadband character of spin-orbit generation of optical phase singularities is demonstrated over the full visible domain. Our results do not rely on any birefringent retardation requirement and consequently foster the development of a novel generation of robust optical elements for spin-orbit photonic technologies.

  7. Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States

    CERN Document Server

    Mondragón, A

    1997-01-01

    We study the complex geometric phase acquired by the resonant states of an open quantum system which evolves irreversibly in a slowly time dependent environment. In analogy with the case of bound states, the Berry phase factors of resonant states are holonomy group elements of a complex line bundle with structure group C*. In sharp contrast with bound states, accidental degeneracies of resonances produce a continuous closed line of singularities formally equivalent to a continuous distribution of "magnetic" charge on a "diabolical" circle, in consequence, we find different classes of topologically inequivalent non-trivial closed paths in parameter space.

  8. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  9. Correlation of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to oxygen radical scavenging activities in berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and their glycosides. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of...

  10. Miracle Berry for Increasing Health Benefits of beta-Glucan Soluble Fiber Functional Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum) is known for its taste modification of sour materials to give them an excellent sweetening taste. Although miracle berry was known in West African since the 1800’s, the earliest chemical composition studies were first performed in 1965 by Inglett and co-workers...

  11. Application of Berry's Phase to the Effective Mass of Bloch Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rave, M. J.; Kerr, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Berry's phase, although well known since 1984, has received little attention among textbook authors of solid state physics. We attempt to address this lack by showing how the presence of the Berry's phase significantly changes a standard concept (effective mass) found in most solid state texts. Specifically, we show that the presence of a non-zero…

  12. On Membership, Humility, and Pedagogical Responsibilities: A Correspondence on the Work of Wendell Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusewicz, Rebecca A.; Edmundson, Jeff; Kahn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Wendell Berry is a novelist, essayist, conservation activist and farmer who has had a lot to say over the last half century about the impact of modern industrial society on small farm communities and the land especially since WWII. In this three-way conversation, the authors take up central aspects of Berry's work to think about how it has…

  13. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  14. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Guerrero C; Luigi Ciampi P; Andrea Castilla C; Fernando Medel S; Heidi Schalchli S; Emilio Hormazabal U; Emma Bensch T; Miren Alberdi L

    2010-01-01

    It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC),...

  15. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...... herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns...... related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste...

  16. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  17. Berry phases in the three-level atoms driven by quantized light fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mai-Lin Liang; Zong-Cheng Xu; Bing Yuan

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of Berry's phases is given for the three-level atoms interacting with external one-mode and two-mode quantized light fields. Three main results are obtained: (i) There is a Berry phase which vanishes in the classical limit or this Berry phase is completely induced by the field quantization; (ii) Berry's phases for the one-mode field and the two-mode field can be equal so long as the photon numbers of the two-mode field are properly chosen; (iii) In the two-mode case, Berry phases of the atom interacting with one mode is affected by the other mode even if the photon number of the other mode is zero.

  18. Berry skin development in Norton grape: Distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. Results A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet

  19. Chemical Composition of Golden Berry Leaves Against Hepato-renal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf-Allah, Abd El-Rahman M; El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2016-01-01

    The role of Physalis peruviana (golden berry) as functional food against hepato-renal fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was evaluated. The chemical composition of leaves referred the presence of withanolides and flavonoids. Two compounds, ursolic acid and lupeol, were isolated and their structures were elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control orally treated with plant extract (500 mg/kg body weight twice a week for six consecutive weeks), CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight diluted to 1:9 (v/v) in olive oil and injected intraperitoneally) group, CCl4 treated with plant extract and CCl4 treated with silymarin as a reference herbal drug. The evaluation was done through measuring oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO). Liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea and serum protein were also evaluated. The results revealed plant safety and decrease in NO, MDA, IgG, ALP, tissue protein, bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels. Increase in SOD, AST, ALT, GGT and serum protein levels were observed. Improvement in liver and kidney histopathological architectures were also seen. In conclusion, Physalis peruviana recorded a significant protective role in liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate its isolated compounds and its use in pharmacological applications and clinical uses. PMID:26634867

  20. Artificial diet sandwiches reveal sub-social behavior in the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diet sandwich, consisting of coffee berry borer artificial diet within two glass panes, has been developed to elucidate the behavior of the coffee berry borer, an insect that in nature spends most of its life cycle inside the coffee berry. Various types of behavior have been observed for the first...

  1. Chemical quality parameters and bioactive compound content of brazilian berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing consumer demand for higher healthy foods such as berries which are a rich source of phenolic compounds. The current work evaluated blackberry cultivars: Cherokee, Tupy and Xavante; raspberry cultivars: Heritage, Fallgold and Black; and the hybrid Boysenberry. All berries were grown under homogenous subtropical conditions in Brazil. Black raspberry, Cherokee and Tupy blackberry cultivars showed the highest ratio between soluble solid contents and titratable acidity, and Fallgold and Heritage raspberry showed the highest titratable acidity. Total phenolic content ranged from 2.03 to 5.33 g kg–1 fresh weight and total anthocyanin content registered values from 0.41 to 1.81 g kg–1 fresh weight. The most common phenolic acids were gallic, p-coumaric and ellagic, and for anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvinidin-3-glucoside. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 14.13 to 21.51 mol equivalent trolox kg–1 fresh weight. Black raspberry, all blackberry cultivars and the Boysenberry hybrid are appropriate to be consumed fresh, while Fallgold and Heritage raspberries are recommended to the food industry. Due to their phenolic richness and antioxidant properties, these fruits are of great interest to the fresh fruit market and to pharmaceutical industries. These results could help breeders and growers when planning the cultivar selection according to their foreseeable destination.

  2. Micronutrient Accumulation in Conilon Coffee Berries with Different Maturation Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Braida Marré

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The number of days between anthesis and maturation of conilon coffee berries varies according to the genotype. Thus, it is believed that periods of greater nutrient demand for fruit formation also vary according to the genotype, directly influencing fertilizer management. The goal of this study was to establish accumulation curves for the micronutrients boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in conilon coffee trees with different maturation cycles. The experiment was conducted in Nova Venécia, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the reproductive cycle of the 2010/2011 crop year. Four coffee genotypes with different maturation cycles (early, intermediate, late, and super-late were studied. A completely randomized experimental design was used with five replications. The treatments correspond to the accumulation of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the berries every 28 days in the period from flowering to harvest. The early, intermediate, and late genotypes accumulated Fe, Cu, and Mn in a similar manner, with sigmoid curves, whereas the super-late genotype accumulated these nutrients exponentially. Zn was accumulated by all four genotypes following a sigmoid curve. The early, intermediate, and late genotypes accumulated B linearly, whereas the super-late genotype accumulated B following a sigmoid curve. The maturation cycle of the genotype must be taken into account to apply the correct rate of micronutrient fertilization in coffee plantations.

  3. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  4. ACROPOLIS - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest aromatic wine white berry grape variety Acropolis was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi and L.Troshinym in 2006 by crossing the Greek variety Kidonitsa with European Riesling. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics it is related to the eco-geographical group of Black Sea. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Degree of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length, except for the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. High yield 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster is 360 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with common varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, spherical, greenish-yellow color with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal type taste of Riesling. Sugar content is very high: up to 24% more. Bunches of variety Acropolis continuously stored in the bushes. Variety is intended for manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines, suitable for production of high quality aromatic juices

  5. AGAPI - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Newest aromatic white berry wine grape variety Agapi was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskiy in 2006 by crossing the Greek varieties Afiri white with central European variety Traminer pink. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Level of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length except the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. Productivity is very high: 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster 300 g. Characterized by a high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases compared to varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, short elliptical or spherical, greenish-yellow in color, with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, and durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. The sugar content is very high, more than 24%. Clusters of Agapi variety regardless of autumn weather conditions persist for a long time in the bushes. Variety intended for the manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high quality fragrant juices

  6. 1H NMR and chemometrics to characterize mature grape berries in four wine-growing areas in Bordeaux, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Giuliano E; Gaudillere, Jean-Pierre; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Lavialle, Olivier; Maucourt, Mickael; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Rolin, Dominique

    2005-08-10

    The biochemical composition of grape berries depends on the cultivar genome and is influenced by environmental conditions and growing practices, which vary according to origin and "terroir" (French word accounting for the factors of climate, soil, and cultural practices on grape and wine quality). The components currently measured to determine the potential quality of grapes for wine-making at harvest are sugars, acidity, pH, and total phenolics, referred to as "classic analysis". The aim of this work was to establish metabolic profiles using both conventional physicochemical analyses and 1H NMR spectrometry of the skin and pulp of mature berry extracts in order in four appellations situated in different locations in southern-western France (Bordeaux). Principal component analysis was applied to the physiochemical and 1H NMR data to investigate the variability of the grape composition and to characterize groups of samples. A significant clustering of the metabolic profile of pulps or skins in relation to their terroir was observed. Physicochemical analyses were more discriminant than 1H NMR data, but NMR spectroscopy allowed metabolic finger-printings using identified metabolites and some still nonattributed resonances.

  7. Effects of different maturity stages on antioxidant content of Ivorian Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'dri, Denis; Calani, Luca; Mazzeo, Teresa; Scazzina, Francesca; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Rio, Daniele Del; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio

    2010-10-15

    Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L.) is a spontaneous plant widely distributed in Ivory Coast. During ripening stages, Solanum indicum L. presents different colours (green, yellow and red) and is reported to contain several albeit poorly characterized antioxidant compounds. This paper describes in detail the antioxidant profile (ascorbic acid, carotenoids and polyphenols), antioxidant capacity (FRAP test and Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the colour changes of Gnagnan berries at different ripening levels. Ascorbic acid content was similar in green and yellow berries, but significantly lower in red ones. Red berries showed a higher content of carotenoids compared to green and yellow ones. Regarding polyphenols, several phenolic acids and flavonoids were found in all berries. The content of caffeoylquinic acids, caffeic acid, flavonol glycosides and naringenin was higher in red berries, while the content of p-coumaric acid and feruloylquinic acids was similar among the three colours. The FRAP assay increased with the ripening process, whereas total polyphenols were similar among berries. Significant differences were found for the colorimetric indexes among products of different degrees of ripening. The present results show the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of Gnagnan berries.

  8. Effects of Different Maturity Stages on Antioxidant Content of Ivorian Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L. Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Brighenti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L. is a spontaneous plant widely distributed in Ivory Coast. During ripening stages, Solanum indicum L. presents different colours (green, yellow and red and is reported to contain several albeit poorly characterized antioxidant compounds. This paper describes in detail the antioxidant profile (ascorbic acid, carotenoids and polyphenols, antioxidant capacity (FRAP test and Folin-Ciocalteau assay and the colour changes of Gnagnan berries at different ripening levels. Ascorbic acid content was similar in green and yellow berries, but significantly lower in red ones. Red berries showed a higher content of carotenoids compared to green and yellow ones. Regarding polyphenols, several phenolic acids and flavonoids were found in all berries. The content of caffeoylquinic acids, caffeic acid, flavonol glycosides and naringenin was higher in red berries, while the content of p-coumaric acid and feruloylquinic acids was similar among the three colours. The FRAP assay increased with the ripening process, whereas total polyphenols were similar among berries. Significant differences were found for the colorimetric indexes among products of different degrees of ripening. The present results show the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of Gnagnan berries.

  9. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  10. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  11. Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Effects of Edible Berries: A Focus on Colon Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Sadia; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Varela-López, Alfonso; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases across the world. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that diets rich in fruit, such as berries, provide significant health benefits against several types of cancer, including colon cancer. The anticancer activities of berries are attributed to their high content of phytochemicals and to their relevant antioxidant properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that berries and their bioactive components exert therapeutic and preventive effects against colon cancer by the suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation and angiogenesis, through the modulation of multiple signaling pathways such as NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AKT/PKB/mTOR, and ERK/MAPK. Based on the exciting outcomes of preclinical studies, a few berries have advanced to the clinical phase. A limited number of human studies have shown that consumption of berries can prevent colorectal cancer, especially in patients at high risk (familial adenopolyposis or aberrant crypt foci, and inflammatory bowel diseases). In this review, we aim to highlight the findings of berries and their bioactive compounds in colon cancer from in vitro and in vivo studies, both on animals and humans. Thus, this review could be a useful step towards the next phase of berry research in colon cancer.

  12. Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with "beyond antioxidant" functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561

  13. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Polyphenols and antioxidant activities of Kombucha beverage enriched with Coffeeberry® extract

    OpenAIRE

    Essawet Najmi Ahmed; Cvetković Dragoljub; Velićanski Aleksandra; Čanadanović-Brunet Jasna; Vulić Jelena; Maksimović Vuk; Markov Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened black tea with tea fungus, which represents a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Also, CoffeeBerry® products, which derived from the whole fruit of the coffee plant, are valuable ingredients with nutritional and health-enhancing potential. Samples of fermentation broths enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract and traditional Kombucha were analysed. The fermentation was performed in a...

  15. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a Floquet Bloch band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fläschner, N.; Rem, B. S.; Tarnowski, M.; Vogel, D.; Lühmann, D.-S.; Sengstock, K.; Weitenberg, C.

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid-state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology of the bands can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Using fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineered the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and show a full momentum-resolved measurement of the ensuing Berry curvature. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  16. Luttinger liquid with complex forward scattering: Robustness and Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich

    2016-02-01

    Luttinger liquids (LLs) are one-dimensional systems with well-understood instabilities due to Umklapp or backscattering. We study a generalization of the Luttinger model, which incorporates a time reversal symmetry breaking interaction producing a complex forward scattering amplitude (g2 process). The resulting low energy state is still a LL and belongs to the family of interacting Schulz-Shastry models. Remarkably, it becomes increasingly robust against additional perturbations—for purely imaginary g2, both Umklapp and local backscattering are always irrelevant. Changing the phase of the interaction generates a nontrivial Berry phase, with a universal geometric phase difference between ground and a one boson excited state depending only on the LL parameter.

  17. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajčić Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, contents of total phenolic (TPh, total flavonoid (TF, and total monomeric anthocyianin (TMA, as well as the antioxidant activity of two raspberry cultivars (Meeker and Willamette, two blackberry cultivars (Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree and wild bilberry were studied. The raspberry cultivars had the highest total solids among fruits investigated. Bilberry fruits had the highest sugar-to-acid ratio. Blackberry fruits were richer in crude fibers (cellulose in comparison to raspberry and bilberry fruits. The content of pectic substances was highest in the bilberry. Also, bilberry had a highest content of TPh (808.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, TF (716.31 mg RE/100 g FW and TMA (447.83 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as the EC50 value (in mg of fresh weight of berry fruit per ml of the reaction mixture, of bilberry (0.3157 ± 0.0145 mg/ml was the highest. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW bilberry, raspberry - Willamette, raspberry - Meeker, blackberry - Čačanska bestrna and blackberry - Thornfree is equivalent to 576.50 mg, 282.74 mg, 191.58 mg, 222.28 mg and 272.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and content of total phenolics (RTPh 2=0.9627, flavonoids (RTF 2=0.9598 and anthocyanins (RTMA 2=0.9496 in berry fruits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  18. Anthocyanin content in dried berry skins and wine produced from dried grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEÇULI ANISA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin, are the substances which are biosynthesized in the grape skin, extracted during the maceration and vinification and which contribute in wine color. During the aging of wines these substances are converted in their derivates, contributing in wine quality. For this reasons in nowadays there is a big attention of studies in these components. Wines from two grapes variety, a French variety, Cabernet Sauvignon and the other an autochthonous variety of Albania Kallmet were observed. The role of drying in concentration of anthocyanin in skins berry and if this technique is reflected in wine produced from this dried grape, was studied. The results shown that the quantity of anthocyanins from dried skins varied from 136 mg/100gr fresh product to 468 mg/100gr. The dried skins had the higher quantity, but this result was more significant for Cabernet Sauvignon wine than Kallmet wine. Measurement of phenolic content showed no significant changes between wines from dried and non-dried grapes.

  19. The Symmetry Protected Piecewise Berry Phases, Enhanced Pumping and Non-reciprocity in Trimer Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xuele

    2016-01-01

    Finding new phase is a fundamental task in physics. Landau's theory explained the deep connection between symmetry breaking and phase transition commonly occurring in magnetic, superconducting and super uid systems. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect led to Z topological phases which could be different for same symmetry and are characterized by the discrete values of the Berry phases. By studying 1D trimer lattices we report new phases characterized by Berry phases which are piecewise continuous rather than discrete numbers. The phase transition occurs at the discontinuity point. With time-dependent changes, trimer lattices also give a 2D phases characterized by very specific 2D Berry phases of half period. These Berry phases change smoothly within a phase while change discontinuously at the transition point. We further demonstrate the existence of adiabatic pumping for each phase and gain assisted enhanced pumping. The non-reciprocity of the pumping process makes the system a good optical diode.

  20. Rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for determination and quantitation of polyphenols in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Gubbiotti, Riccardo; Sacchetti, Paolo; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2008-10-01

    A rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (RRLC/MS) method for detection and quantitation of polyphenols in grape berry skins and seeds has been developed. Pulp-free berry skins were treated with liquid nitrogen and ground; seeds were also ground. Then, 3 g of samples were extracted with 30 mL of a mixture of methanol/water/formic acid 70:30:1 (v/v/v) under sonication and 1 microL of the final extract was injected into two 100 x 2.1 mm i.d., 1.8 microm Zorbax Eclipse plus C18 columns connected in series. Compounds were fractionated using a gradient elution of acidified acetonitrile/methanol 50:50 (v/v)/water. Columns were thermostatted at 70 degrees C. MS was carried out on an Agilent 6410 QqQ instrument equipped with an electrospray ionization source. Positive and negative MS/MS product ion scans were used for compound identification, whereas positive full scan MS in the m/z range 200-1400 was used for quantitation. By means of mass spectra comparison, various flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins and stilbenes were identified. Quantitation was performed by external calibration, and concentration values were corrected for matrix effect that was evaluated in separate experiments. Semi-quantitative estimation was performed for compounds for which standards were not commercially available. Recoveries ranged from 90-102% with relative standard deviation (RSD) quality control. The developed method was applied to analyze the polyphenol content of three Vitis vinifera table cultivars at physiological maturity and after proper preservation for 6 weeks. Results demonstrated that during preservation about half of the polyphenol content was lost. PMID:18819110

  1. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

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    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC, total anthocyanins (TA, and total phenols (TP of wild and cultivated berries in different localities of La Araucanía and Los Ríos Regions in Chile. These parameters were analyzed by using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH method, pH-differential, and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Percentages of DPPH discoloration of different berries studied were between 67.8% and 95.3% for red sarsaparilla and rosehip, respectively. Maqui berries showed a significantly higher TA content (2240.2 and 1445.3 mg L-1 cyanidin 3-glucoside than other berries, and a mean for all berries of 335.5 mg L-1. Higher phenol content levels were obtained in two cultivars of saskatoon (773.9 and 1001.9 mg L-1 gallic acid and wild rosehip (1457.0 and 1140.4 mg L-1 gallic acid. We conclude that there are significant differences in antioxidant capacity of wild and cultivated Chilean berries in this study which show a strong correlation between AC and TP content.Por medio del consumo de berries es posible incorporar al organismo una gran cantidad de antioxidantes capaces de prevenir múltiples enfermedades generadas por la acción de los radicales libres. Los antioxidantes actúan neutralizando los radicales libres y de esta forma protegen al organismo del daño oxidativo de lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Entre variadas frutas y hortalizas, se destacan los berries como una de las fuentes más ricas en fitonutrientes antioxidantes. El objetivo de esta investigaci

  2. Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum): Composition and Health Effects – a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kulczyński Bartosz; Gramza-Michałowska Anna

    2016-01-01

    Goji berries contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds which allowed to classify them as superfruits. A short description of the fruits is presented together with cultivation requirements. The chemical composition of the berries and their health-promoting properties are described later in this literature review. Based on the available data, their potentially beneficial application in dietary prevention of diseases of affluence, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, is ela...

  3. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  4. Berry and Citrus Phenolic Compounds Inhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV: Implications in Diabetes Management

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Fan; Johnson, Michelle H.; Mary Ann Lila; Gad Yousef; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial health effects of fruits and vegetables in the diet have been attributed to their high flavonoid content. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a serine aminopeptidase that is a novel target for type 2 diabetes therapy due to its incretin hormone regulatory effects. In this study, well-characterized anthocyanins (ANC) isolated from berry wine blends and twenty-seven other phenolic compounds commonly present in citrus, berry, grape, and soybean, were individually investigated for thei...

  5. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  6. In vitro cultures of grape tissues : new possibilities to study grape berry physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Grape berries suffer important morphological, biochemical and physiological changes during its development and maturation. It is known that photoassimilates translocated from leaves serve as the major source of carbon and energy to support fruit needs, but recent findings revealed that, at least in the green phase, grape berries show high photosynthetic activity especially in the exocarp. The contribution of fruit photosynthesis for fruit growth and production of organic compounds is far from...

  7. Roostocks/scion/ nitrogen interactions affect secondary metabolism in the grape berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Habran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS and Pinot Noir (PN varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM or 110 Richter (110R rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  8. Optical characterization of topological insulator surface states: Berry curvature-dependent response

    OpenAIRE

    Hosur, Pavan

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the optical response of the surface states of a topological insulator, especially the generation of helicity-dependent direct current by circularly polarized light. Interestingly, the dominant current, due to an interband transition, is controlled by the Berry curvature of the surface bands. This extends the connection between photocurrents and Berry curvature beyond the quasiclassical approximation where it has been shown to hold. Explicit expressions are derived for t...

  9. The Role of Bee Pollinators in Improving Berry Weight and Coffee Cup Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca H.N. Karanja; Njoroge, Grace N; John M. Kihoro; Mary W. Gikungu; L.E. Newton

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted at Kiambu County in Kenya. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pollination improves the coffee yield and quality of processed coffee in terms of taste and aroma. Among the parameters evaluated when grading coffee for sale in world market are berry weight and cup quality. No previous work in Kenya describes the role of bee pollinators in enhancement of coffee yields and quality. Data on berry weights and the resulting processed coffee quality from different...

  10. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Selected Wild Berries (Rubus moluccanus L., R. fraxinifolius Poir., and R. alpestris Blume)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ismail, Nur Amalina; Isha, Azizul; Mei Ling, Angelina Lee

    2016-01-01

    Berries, from the genus Rubus, are among the vital components in a healthy diet. In this study, 80% methanol extracts from the three wild Rubus species (Rubus moluccanus L., Rubus fraxinifolius Poir., and Rubus alpestris Blume) were evaluated for their phytochemical contents (total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content), antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays), antiacetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial activities. GC-MS was used for quantification of naturally occurring phytochemicals. The results showed that R. alpestris contained the highest total phenolic [24.25 ± 0.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g] and carotenoid content [21.86 ± 0.63 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/g], as well as the highest DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities. The highest total flavonoid [18.17 ± 0.20 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g] and anthocyanin content [36.96 ± 0.39 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (c-3-gE)/g] have been shown by R. moluccanus. For antibacterial assays, R. moluccanus and R. alpestris extracts showed mild inhibition towards Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. Anticholinesterase activity for all extracts was in the range of 23–26%. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 12, 21, and 7 different organic compounds in 80% methanol extracts of R. alpestris, R. moluccanus, and R. fraxinifolius, respectively, which might contribute to the bioactivity. PMID:27437023

  11. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Selected Wild Berries (Rubus moluccanus L., R. fraxinifolius Poir., and R. alpestris Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berries, from the genus Rubus, are among the vital components in a healthy diet. In this study, 80% methanol extracts from the three wild Rubus species (Rubus moluccanus L., Rubus fraxinifolius Poir., and Rubus alpestris Blume were evaluated for their phytochemical contents (total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content, antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays, antiacetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial activities. GC-MS was used for quantification of naturally occurring phytochemicals. The results showed that R. alpestris contained the highest total phenolic [24.25±0.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g] and carotenoid content [21.86±0.63 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC/g], as well as the highest DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities. The highest total flavonoid [18.17±0.20 mg catechin equivalents (CE/g] and anthocyanin content [36.96±0.39 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (c-3-gE/g] have been shown by R. moluccanus. For antibacterial assays, R. moluccanus and R. alpestris extracts showed mild inhibition towards Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. Anticholinesterase activity for all extracts was in the range of 23–26%. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 12, 21, and 7 different organic compounds in 80% methanol extracts of R. alpestris, R. moluccanus, and R. fraxinifolius, respectively, which might contribute to the bioactivity.

  12. Berry anthocyanins reduce proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by inducing caspase-3 activation and p21 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sirajudheen; Fratantonio, Deborah; Ferrari, Daniela; Saija, Antonella; Cimino, Francesco; Speciale, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide, and adenocarcinoma cells that form the majority of colorectal tumors are markedly resistant to antineoplastic agents. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of fruits and vegetables that are rich in polyphenols, is linked to reduced risk of colorectal cancer. In the present study, the effect of a standardized anthocyanin (ACN)‑rich extract on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in the Caco-2 human colorectal cancer cell line was evaluated by trypan blue and clonogenic assays and western blot analysis of cleaved caspase‑3 and p21Waf/Cif1. The results of the current study demonstrated that the ACN extract markedly decreased Caco‑2 cell proliferation, induced apoptosis by activating caspase‑3 cleavage, and upregulated cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21Waf/Cif1) expression in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, ACN extract was able to produce a dose‑dependent increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caco‑2 cells, together with a light increase of the cell total antioxidant status. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that a standardized berry anthocyanin rich extract inhibited proliferation of Caco‑2 cells by promoting ROS accumulation, inducing caspase‑3 activation, and upregulating the expression of p21Waf/Cif1. PMID:27314273

  13. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  14. A method for the isolation of protoplasts from grape berry mesocarp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Natacha; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni

    2010-06-01

    As single cell systems, protoplasts have been used in physiological, biochemical and molecular studies aiming towards the investigation, improvement or modification of plants. In grapevine, protoplasts have been isolated from several source tissues but not from grape berry, a major challenge given the uniqueness of grape fruit for human diet and wine production. Also, as the ripe grape berry has long been considered a 'small bag of sugary water' without cell compartmentation and/or membrane integrity, the isolation of intact cells from the mesocarp is of special scientific significance. Protoplasting from grape berry mesocarp cells was achieved with cellulase and pectolyase digestion, followed by differential and gradient centrifugations; however, given the special characteristics of berry tissue, cell wall digestion and protoplast purification were performed in a special environment to maintain their integrity and viability. Light and epifluorescence microscopy revealed the spatial organization of the cytoplasm, where an intricate acidic vacuolar apparatus predominates supporting the idea that berry softening during ripening is not strictly associated with loss in compartmentation and/or membrane integrity. Following the worldwide economical and social importance of wine in modern days, grape berry protoplasts are a major advance for both basic research of fruit ripening and biotechnological applications.

  15. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue.

  16. Using juniper berry ( Juniperus communis as a supplement in Japanese quail diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Inci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemented juniper berry (Juniperus communis on fattening performance and some carcass traits of quails. A total of 150 one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into five groups (one control and four treated groups with three replicates. Four different juniper berry levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% and a control treatment (0% were added to the diet. Juniper berry supplementation to the diets initiated at the end of the 1st week and sustained for seven weeks. Live weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio during the trial and some carcass traits after slaughter were determined. Juniper berry supplementation in the diet during seven weeks of growing period significantly increased body weight, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of the treated groups. Carcass weight, carcass yield, and breast yield were also significantly increased by supplemented juniper berry. No significant difference was observed between viability of different groups. Supplementation of 0.5-1% juniper berry in quail diets has positive impacts on fattening performance and carcass traits.

  17. Le Berry antique - De la carte au modèle-chorème Ancient berry – from map to chorematic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Batardy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available L’Atlas du Berry réalisé à l’aide d’un système d’information géographique (SIG a posé les bases d’une analyse géographique de la cité des Bituriges Cubes. La chorématique peut permettre d’aller au-delà.The Atlas du Berry achieved with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS lays the foundations for a geographical analysis of the town of Bituriges Cubes. Chorematic techniques can enable us to go further.

  18. Risk of contamination of wild berries from upper Orava region by cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Zupka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper Orava region is located at the North Slovakia, near of potential sources of environmental contamination due by mining of coal, zinc and lead ores. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of consumption of wild forest fruit from Upper Orava region from the aspect of cadmium content. Ten sampling points were found by random search. From these points samples of soil, leaves and fruits of wild berries (9 samples of blueberries Vaccinium Myrtillus and 1 sample of strawberries Fragaria Vesca were collected. In soil samples the active soil reaction (pH/H2O ranged from 3.53 (strong acidity to 4.56 (extremly strong acidity, and the determined percentage of humus ranged from 1.66 (low humic soil to 4.90 (high humic soil.  In two soil samples the total content of cadmium determinated in soil extracts by aqua regia exceeded limit 0.70 mg.kg-1 given by the legislation in tne Slovak Republic. In three soil samples the determined content of cadmium mobile forms determined in soil extracts by NH4NO3 exceeded the limit 0.10 mg.kg-1. The content of Cd determined in leaves as well as in fruits was evaluated according to Food Codex of the Slovak Republic. Only in one sample of leaf samples the limit 1.00 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. The other leaf samples are safely when used as an ingredient in tea mixtures. On the other hand even in 7 fruit samples the limit 0.05 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. This fruit can pose a risk for the human organism when is directly consumed as well as may negatively affect the human health when is used as raw materials in the food industry. 

  19. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae.

  20. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zong-Lun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry, demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299 using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. Results It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p p 50 of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.

  1. Effect of decoherence on the Berry phase of a spin-half in a rotating magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIN; Shi, Yu

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the decoherence effect of a bosonic bath on the Berry phase of a spin-1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, without making the Markovian approximation. A two-cycle process resulting in a pure Berry phase is considered. The low-frequency quantum noise significantly affects the Berry phase. In the adiabatic limit, the high-frequency quantum noise only has a small effect. The result is also valid in some more general situations.

  2. Biological control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, J; Bustillo, A E; Montoya, E C; Borgemeister, C

    2005-10-01

    The potential of the eulophid parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle to control coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) populations under field conditions in Colombia was evaluated. Parasitoid adults were released one, five and nine days after artificial infestations of 90-, 150- and 210-day-old coffee berries with H. hampei females. The position of the beetle inside the berry and the parasitism levels were assessed ten days after each P. coffea release. Parasitism of H. hampei by P. coffea was significantly affected by the age of the berries at the time of infestation, and by the position of the beetle inside the berries. Highest levels of parasitism were recorded in 150-day-old berries (75-85%) and in 90-day-old berries (75%) when P. coffea were released one day after the artificial infestation with H. hampei. In 150-day-old berries, highest levels of parasitism were recorded for H. hampei found in the outer layer of the endosperm followed by beetles penetrating the exocarp. Increasing the time of P. coffea releases after the artificial infestations with H. hampei led to decreased levels of parasitism in beetles attacking 90- and 150-day-old coffee berries. Low levels of parasitism were recorded in H. hampei females infesting older coffee berries because most of the beetles had already constructed galleries deep in the endosperm of the berries, i.e. out of reach of the parasitoid. The potential of P. coffea for biological control of coffee berry borer in Colombia is discussed. PMID:16197567

  3. Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Ryan J.; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Clarke, Simon J.; Rogiers, Suzy Y.; Bobek, Gabriele; Price, William S

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry developmen...

  4. Age/Radiation Parallels in the Effects of 56Fe Particle Irradiation and Protection by Berry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James; Bielinski, Donna; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    Exposing young rats to particles of high-energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2% blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats, perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A subsequent study has shown that whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation; these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets. The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information, while the blueberry-supplemented animals showed enhanced learning that was dependent on striatal functioning. Additional experiments in cell models to examine possible mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects have shown that, in addition to the well known free radical scavenging effects of berries, it appears that berry fruit can directly reduce stress signaling and enhance protective signals, suggesting the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the beneficial effects observed. Enhancements of "protective" signals (e.g., extracellular signal regulated kinase, ERK) include those that are involved in neuronal communication, neurogenesis, and learning and memory. Reductions in stress signaling include inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytokines, among others, induced by oxidative and inflammatory stressors. We have found these changes in both BV2 mouse microglial and hippocampal cells. We believe that the possible addition of colorful fruits such as berry fruits to the diet can possibly

  5. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  6. PLASTICITY OF THE BERRY RIPENING PROGRAM IN A WHITE GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dal Santo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices, defined as terroir, which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture and composition. These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation

  7. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  8. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  9. Mechanical behavior of 'Niagara Rosada' grape berry detachment Comportamento mecânico do destacamento de bagos de uva 'Niagara Rosada'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 'Niagara Rosada' grape is the main Brazilian table grape belonging to the Labrusca family. It develops medium, cylindrical and compact bunches with berries presenting a pinkish skin and a foxy flavor that is valued in the Brazilian market. These berries are tender and have a pedicel-berry connection provided by the vascular bundles and surrounding skin. This cultivar is very susceptible to berry drop mainly caused by vibration and senescence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal mechanical behavior of the pedicel-berry detachment, using resistance indexes extracted from traction force-deformation curves. Test results showed two different detachment types. In the first one, which exhibited higher average resistance, a considerable portion of the vascular bundle came out attached to the pedicel and in the second type; the vascular bundle was retained inside the berry. The proposed indexes based on maximum detachment force, force at 0.2; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.2 mm, and maximum force to corresponding deformation ratio did not discriminate the senescence of the berry.A uva Niagara Rosada é a principal uva de mesa brasileira, da família das Labruscas, possui cachos médios cilíndricos e compactos, coloração rosada e sabor denominado Foxy muito apreciado pelo consumidor brasileiro. Os frutos são delicados, a junção do pedicelo com o bago é feita pela casca e por feixes vasculares. Essa cultivar é muito suscetível à degrana causada, principalmente, pela vibração e pelo envelhecimento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento mecânico da junção pedicelo-bago e sua variação temporal, utilizando-se de índices de resistência ao destacamento, extraídos das curvas força-deslocamento, obtidos em ensaios de tração de uvas. Os ensaios revelaram dois tipos de destacamento: um em que porção considerável do pincel (feixes vasculares saiu preso ao pedicelo, e outro, em que o pincel ficou no interior do bago

  10. Hippophae salicifolia D.Don berries attenuate cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santhrani Thakur; Pradeepthi Chilikuri; Bindu Pulugurtha; Lavanya Yaidikar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Hippophae salicifolia D.Don (H. salicifolia) berries extract against cerebral reperfusion injury induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Methods: Rats were pretreated with alcoholic extract of H. salicifolia (250 and 500 mg/kg) for 14 d and focal cerebral ischemia was induced by MCAO. After 60 min of MCAO, reperfused for 24 h, a battery of behavioral tests were assessed the extent of neurological deficits. Infarct volume and brain edema were measured in 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride stained brain sections. TNF-α, oxidative stress parameters like reduced glutathione, calcium, glutamate, malondialdehyde and apoptotic parameters like caspase-3, and caspase-9 were estimated in the brain homogenates. Results:Pretreatment with alcoholic extract of H. salicifolia at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly improved the neurobehavioral alterations and reduced the infarct volume, edema induced by ischemia reperfusion injury. H. salicifolia significantly prevented ischemia induced increase in malondialdehyde, glutamate, calcium, caspase-3, caspase-9 and TNF-αlevels as compared to ischemic animals. Conclusions: Our results indicate that H. salicifolia mitigated the ischemia reperfusion induced neuronal damage.

  11. Partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during the whole berry growth maintain yield and berry quality in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo, Rafael; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Rosario Conesa Saura, M.°

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during post-veraison and the whole berry growth on water relations, yield and berry quality, one experiment was conducted in a commercial vineyard of 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Five irrigation treatments were imposed: (i) Control (CTL) irrigated to 110% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), (ii) regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated at 50% of CTL during the non- critical period of post-verasion, (iii) continuous deficit irrigation (DIc), irrigated at 50% of CTL throughout the whole berry growing season, (iv) partial root-zone drying (PRD), irrigated similar to RDI, but alternating the irrigation applied in the dry side every 10-14 days; and (v) continuous partial root-zone drying (PRDc), irrigated as DIc but alternating the irrigation in the dry side every 10-14 days. RDI and PRD received 24% and 28% less water than CTL, respectively. These reductions were higher in DIc and PRDc (65% and 53%, respectively). Total yield was not affected by any DI strategy. Only significantly lower values were observed in the weight and height's berries in respect to CTL. However, the colour parameters evaluated increased in all DI treatments, being slightly higher in DIc and PRDc compared with RDI and PRD. In addition, total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in DIc, compared to other irrigated counterparts. Our findings showed that the application of water deficit during the whole berry growth through the use of DIc and PRDc, can be considered for irrigation scheduling in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  12. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and In Vitro Availability of Four Different Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marhuenda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols from berries have proved healthy effects after “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies, such as preventing tumor growing and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. We compared four different kinds of berries—strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and blueberry—with the aim to distinguish their phenolic composition, concerning their antioxidant capacity along with their “in vitro” availability. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant capacity was measured by ORAC method. Moreover, the determination of anthocyanins was accomplished with an HPLC-DAD. Finally, we carried out an “in vitro” digestion to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion. All berries showed good antioxidant capacity with significant differences, besides high total phenolic compounds. Content of anthocyanins measured by HPLC-DAD varied between the different berries, namely, blackberries and strawberries which showed higher anthocyanin concentration. After “in vitro” digestion, berries showed poor bioavailability of the analysis of anthocyanins (9.9%–31.7%. Availability of total phenolic compounds was higher than anthocyanins (33%–73%. Moreover, strawberries and blackberries presented the less availability grade. Decrease in antioxidant activity measured by ORAC method was about 90% in all berries studied. Therefore, bioavailability of phenolic compounds remains unclear and more correlation between “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies seems to be necessary.

  13. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  14. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  15. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  16. Berry phase theory of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and spin-orbit torques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, F; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y

    2014-03-12

    Recent experiments on current-induced domain-wall motion in chiral domain walls reveal important contributions both from spin-orbit torques (SOTs) and from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We derive a Berry phase expression for the DMI and show that within this Berry phase theory DMI and SOTs are intimately related, in a way formally analogous to the relation between orbital magnetization (OM) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE). We introduce the concept of the twist torque moment, which probes the internal twist of wavepackets in chiral magnets in a similar way as the orbital moment probes the wavepacket's internal self-rotation. We propose to interpret the Berry phase theory of DMI as a theory of spiralization in analogy to the modern theory of OM. We show that the twist torque moment and the spiralization together give rise to a Berry phase governing the response of the SOT to thermal gradients, in analogy to the intrinsic anomalous Nernst effect. The Berry phase theory of DMI is computationally very efficient because it only needs the electronic structure of the collinear magnetic system as input. As an application of the formalism we compute the DMI in Co/Pt(111), O/Co/Pt(111) and Al/Co/Pt(111) magnetic bi- and trilayers and show that the DMI is highly anisotropic in these systems.

  17. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

  18. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Bianca; Lange, B Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose and [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries. PMID:23954075

  19. Acculturation and mental health--empirical verification of J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, M W; Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, C

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many studies concerning mental health among ethnic minorities have used the concept of acculturation as a model of explanation, in particular J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress. But Berry's theory has only been empirically verified few times. The aims of the study were...... to examine whether Berry's hypothesis about the connection between acculturation and mental health can be empirically verified for Greenlanders living in Denmark and to analyse whether acculturation plays a significant role for mental health among Greenlanders living in Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS......: The study used data from the 1999 Health Profile for Greenlanders in Denmark. As measure of mental health we applied the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Acculturation was assessed from answers to questions about how the respondents value the fact that children maintain their traditional cultural...

  20. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants.

  1. A new method to calculate Berry phase in one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Based on the residue theorem and degenerate perturbation theory, we derive a new, simple and general formula for Berry phase calculation in a two-level system for which the Hamiltonian is a real symmetric matrix. The special torus topology possessed by the first Brillouin zone (1 BZ) of this kind of systems ensures the existence of a nonzero Berry phase. We verify the correctness of our formula on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Then the Berry phase of one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator (1DQAHI) is calculated analytically by applying our method, the result being -π/2 -π/4 sgn (B) [ sgn (Δ - 4 B) + sgn (Δ) ]. Finally, illuminated by this idea, we investigate the Chern number in the two-dimensional case, and find a very simple way to determine the parameter range of the non-trivial Chern number in the phase diagram.

  2. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  3. Berry curvature and four-dimensional monopoles in the relativistic chiral kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Pu, Shi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2013-06-28

    We derive a relativistic chiral kinetic equation with manifest Lorentz covariance from Wigner functions of spin-1/2 massless fermions in a constant background electromagnetic field. It contains vorticity terms and a four-dimensional Euclidean Berry monopole which gives an axial anomaly. By integrating out the zeroth component of the 4-momentum p, we reproduce the previous three-dimensional results derived from the Hamiltonian approach, together with the newly derived vorticity terms. The phase space continuity equation has an anomalous source term proportional to the product of electric and magnetic fields (FσρF[over ˜]σρ∼EσBσ). This provides a unified interpretation of the chiral magnetic and vortical effects, chiral anomaly, Berry curvature, and the Berry monopole in the framework of Wigner functions.

  4. Berry curvature and four-dimensional monopoles in the relativistic chiral kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Pu, Shi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2013-06-28

    We derive a relativistic chiral kinetic equation with manifest Lorentz covariance from Wigner functions of spin-1/2 massless fermions in a constant background electromagnetic field. It contains vorticity terms and a four-dimensional Euclidean Berry monopole which gives an axial anomaly. By integrating out the zeroth component of the 4-momentum p, we reproduce the previous three-dimensional results derived from the Hamiltonian approach, together with the newly derived vorticity terms. The phase space continuity equation has an anomalous source term proportional to the product of electric and magnetic fields (FσρF[over ˜]σρ∼EσBσ). This provides a unified interpretation of the chiral magnetic and vortical effects, chiral anomaly, Berry curvature, and the Berry monopole in the framework of Wigner functions. PMID:23848865

  5. Preserving Brain Function in Aging: The Anti-glycative Potential of Berry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are naturally occurring macromolecules that are formed in vivo by the non-enzymatic modification of proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids by sugar, even in the absence of hyperglycemia. In the diet, AGEs are found in animal products, and additional AGEs are produced when those foods are cooked at high temperatures. Studies have linked AGEs to various age-related physiological changes, including wrinkles, diabetic complications, and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease. Dietary berry fruits have been shown to reduce the severity or slow the progression of many physiological changes and disease pathologies that accompany aging. Emerging evidence has shown that the phytochemicals found in berry fruits exhibit anti-glycative activity. In this review, we briefly summarize the current evidence supporting the neuroprotective anti-glycative activity of berry fruits and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. PMID:27166828

  6. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study.

  7. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  8. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (map) on the quality of sea buckthorn berry fruits during postharvest storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of the berry fruits of sea buckthorn (SBT) during refrigerated storage was investigated. SBT berries were packaged in 160 and 525 oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films or in vented clamshell containers (air control) and stored at 10C fo...

  9. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  10. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  11. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  12. Polyphenols and antioxidant activities of Kombucha beverage enriched with Coffeeberry® extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essawet Najmi Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a traditional beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened black tea with tea fungus, which represents a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Also, CoffeeBerry® products, which derived from the whole fruit of the coffee plant, are valuable ingredients with nutritional and health-enhancing potential. Samples of fermentation broths enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract and traditional Kombucha were analysed. The fermentation was performed in a bioreactor at 28±1°C for nine days. The results showed that the CoffeeBerry® extract has contributed to a faster fermentation of cultivation medium. Some individual polyphenolic compounds and catehins in fermentation broth samples were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Among the bioactive compounds present in investigated samples obtained during Kombucha fermentation of the sweetened black tea enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract, chlorogenic acid (188.94-458.56 μg/mL was the predominant. The antioxidant activity of investigated samples was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were increased with duration of fermentation. IC50 values for Kombucha fermentation broth enriched with CoffeBerry®, based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, were in the range 26.33-170.13 μL/mL and 11.33-102.22 μL/mL, respectively.

  13. Influence of juice processing factors on quality of black chokeberry pomace as a future resource for colour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagiri, Michael; Jensen, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are a rich source of anthocyanins and its pomace, a by-product of juice processing, could be efficiently used for extraction of natural colours for the food industry. This study evaluated the influence blanching, freezing, maceration temperatures (2°C, 50°C) and enzyme treatments before juice pressing on the yield and anthocyanin composition of both juice and pomace. Total anthocyanin levels in pomace were affected mostly by enzyme treatment followed by maceration temperature. The pre-heating of the mash prior to processing increased juice yield and retention of anthocyanins in the pomace. Cold maceration of frozen berries without enzyme addition gave the highest concentrations of anthocyanins in the pomace, and both cold and hot maceration of fresh unblanched berries with enzyme the lowest. The results support future exploitation of natural colours from pomace side streams of Aronia, thus increasing competitiveness of Aronia berry production.

  14. Influence of juice processing factors on quality of black chokeberry pomace as a future resource for colour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagiri, Michael; Jensen, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are a rich source of anthocyanins and its pomace, a by-product of juice processing, could be efficiently used for extraction of natural colours for the food industry. This study evaluated the influence blanching, freezing, maceration temperatures (2°C, 50°C) and enzyme treatments before juice pressing on the yield and anthocyanin composition of both juice and pomace. Total anthocyanin levels in pomace were affected mostly by enzyme treatment followed by maceration temperature. The pre-heating of the mash prior to processing increased juice yield and retention of anthocyanins in the pomace. Cold maceration of frozen berries without enzyme addition gave the highest concentrations of anthocyanins in the pomace, and both cold and hot maceration of fresh unblanched berries with enzyme the lowest. The results support future exploitation of natural colours from pomace side streams of Aronia, thus increasing competitiveness of Aronia berry production. PMID:27664652

  15. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  16. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  17. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  18. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes.

  19. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a topological Bloch band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitenberg, Christof; Flaeschner, Nick; Rem, Benno; Tarnowski, Matthias; Vogel, Dominik; Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Sengstock, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Employing fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineer the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and measure it with full momentum resolution. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  20. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways-VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT-were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full maturity

  1. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article in response to: Barber-Meyer, S. (2015) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12338. We used multiple data sets and study areas as well as several lines of evidence to investigate potential trophic linkages in Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that a trophic cascade from wolves to elk to berry production to berry consumption by grizzly bears may now be underway in the Park.

  2. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  3. Ampelographic description of cluster, berry and seed of merlot cultivar (Vitis vinifera L. and its selected clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Dragan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a four-year period, ampelographic experiments focusing on the berry cluster (average length of grape cluster, number of grape clusters per shoot, number of berries per grape cluster and length of peduncle, berry (length of berry and berry juice yield, length of pedicel and seed (length of berry seed of Merlot cultivar (used as a relevant standard and 11 clones (Nos. 022, 023, 025, 026, 027, 028, 029, 030, 031, 033 and 034 were performed in order to establish the differences among them. These experiments were actually conducted in the third phase of individual clonal selection of Merlot cultivar carried out in Serbia. The lengths of grape cluster and pedicel as well as berry must yields differed significantly among the examined clones. The cluster and principal component analyses classified 12 samples into three divergent clusters/groups, respectively. The clones belonging to the cluster II /the second group/ had significantly higher values of numbers of grape clusters per shoot and berries per grape cluster; lengths of peduncle and berry; berry must yield and length of pedicel, compared both to standard Merlot /the cluster I, the first group/ and the clones of the cluster III /the third group/. The phenological observations showed no significant differences in the beginnings and durations of phenological stages and vegetation period of the examined clones. The obtained results indicate the real need for further research work focused both on the agrobiological and technological properties of the grapes and wines aiming to better describe the selected clones. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 0719, br. 46009 i br. 172053

  4. Penicillium strains isolated from Slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Antonello; Mikušová, Petra; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Labuda, Roman; Srobárová, Antónia

    2014-11-01

    The secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in Slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. Three Slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. Cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. The species Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium palitans and Penicillium polonicum were identified according to growth and morphology. The related strains were found to produce a broad spectrum of fungal metabolites, including roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A, penitrem A, cyclopeptin, cyclopenin, viridicatin, methylviridicatin, verrucofortine, secalonic acid D, cyclopiazonic acid, fumigaclavine and mycophenolic acid. Chemotaxonomy was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Dried grape berries were also analyzed allowing to assess the presence of patulin, roquefortine C and penicillic acid; this last one has been identified in dried berries but not in vitro.

  5. Berry phase effects in the dynamics of Dirac electrons in doubly special relativity framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) generalization of Dirac equation in an external potential in the Magueijo-Smolin base. The particles obey a modified energy-momentum dispersion relation. The semiclassical diagonalization of the Dirac Hamiltonian reveals the intrinsic Berry phase effects in the particle dynamics

  6. A Berry-Esseen Type Bound in Kernel Density Estimation for Negatively Associated Censored Data

    OpenAIRE

    Qunying Wu; Pingyan Chen

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the kernel estimation of a density function based on censored data when the survival and the censoring times form the stationary negatively associated (NA) sequences. Under certain regularity conditions, the Berry-Esseen type bounds are derived for the kernel density estimator and the Kaplan-Meier kernel density estimator at a fixed point $x$ .

  7. Selection of Arabica coffee types resistant to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C. arabica -parasites; Coffee Berry Disease, symptoms, epidemiology, geographic

  8. With BlackBerry in Decline,RIM Will Shed 2,000Jobs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    as it struggles with the declining popularity of the BlackBerry line of smartphones, Research in Motion said on Monday that it would begin laying off about 2,000 employees, 10.5 percent of its work force, this week.

  9. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  10. Classical geometric phase of gyro-motion is a coherent quantum Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongxuan

    2016-01-01

    We show that the geometric phase of the gyro-motion of a classical charged particle in a uniform time-dependent magnetic field described by Newton's equation is a coherent quantum Berry phase for the coherent states of the Schr\\"odinger equation or the Dirac equation. This equivalence is established by constructing coherent states for a particle using the energy eigenstates on the Landau levels and proving that the coherent states can maintain their status of coherent states during the slow varying of the magnetic field. It is discovered that orbital Berry phases of the eigenstates interfere coherently such that a coherent Berry phase for the coherent states can be naturally defined, which is exactly the geometric phase of the classical gyro-motion. This technique works for particles with and without spin. For particles with spin, on each of the eigenstates that makes up the coherent states, the Berry phase consists of two parts that can be identified as those due to the orbital and the spin motion. It is the...

  11. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  12. 137Cs in Finnish wild berries, mushrooms and game meat in 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 137Cs in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat were measured in samples collected during 2000-2005 in areas with varying 137Cs deposition levels in Finland. Depending on the 137Cs deposition levels in the sampling areas, the areal-mean activity concentrations of 137Cs were 10-230 Bq kg-1 in wild berries, 20-240 Bq kg-1 in moose meat and 10-3000 Bq kg-1 in all mushroom species. Compared with the 137Cs level of samples collected in 1986 in the corresponding areas, the reduction in the 137Cs level was about one third for wild berries, equal to the rate of radioactive decay of 137Cs. More reduction was observed in the activity concentrations of 137Cs in moose meat, on average up to 50% since 1986. The aggregated transfer coefficients from soil to wild berries showed no change since 1986-1988, while there was about one third reduction in those from soil to game meat. (orig.)

  13. Inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid grape cross population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation patterns and inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid table grape cross population were investigated in two successive years. The population segregated for three different ploidy levels: dipolids, triploids, and tetraploids. A total of 28 different a...

  14. The Martha Berry Digital Archive Project: A Case Study in Experimental pEDagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Schlitz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Martha Berry Digital Archive Project as an exploratory case study, this article discusses experimental methods in digital archive development, describing how and why a small project team is leveraging undergraduate student support, a participatory (crowdsourced editing model, and free and open source software to digitize and disseminate a large documentary collection.

  15. Blowing the Fuse: Berry's Phase and Runaway Vibrations in Molecular Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Brandbyge, Mads; Hedegård, P.

    2010-01-01

    mechanism, which surprisingly involves the quantum mechanical phase of the electronic waves, the "Berry phase". This mechanism works for highly conducting bridges, and contrary to breakdown by traditional joule heating, this instability is deterministic and occurs at certain critical voltages. We...

  16. TIME-DEPENDENT LANDAU SYSTEM AND NON-ADIABATIC BERRY PHASE IN TWO DIMENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Hui; Wu Jian-sheng

    2000-01-01

    By applying the time-independent unitary transformation, thetime-dependent Landau system is transformed into a product of atime-independent Landau system's Hamiltonian and a factor only dependingon time, which can be solved exactly. Both the invariant operator andthe eigenstate are obtained. In the periodical time-dependent case, thenon-adiabatic Berry's phase is also presented.

  17. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, Malverina, Laurot, and Hibernal harvested during six consecutive weeks. Mechanical behaviour was measured using compression and puncture tests using of TIRATEST 27025 testing machine. Skin mechanical properties were evaluated using a puncture test carried out on the equatorial side. The dependence of these properties on the chemical composition has been evaluated. These parameters of force/time curves were studied by puncture test: the berry skin break force, the needle displacement at the skin break and the berry skin break energy. The crushing force, the plate displacement at the crushing strength and the berry crushing energy were studied from force/time curves by compression test. Results of the puncture test shows that there the skin break strength and the acidity content are monotonic functions of the time. A comparison of different varieties from the point of the value of the crushing force was obtained by vertical and transversal loading. The crushing force is monotonically decreasing function of the harvesting time like the break force evaluated at the puncture test. The correlation between the skin break strength and the sugar content is significant namely for the varieties: Hibernal, Riesling, Malverina, and Cerason. 

  18. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. Hossain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries. The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content.

  19. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2016-01-01

    The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries). The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content. PMID:27023503

  20. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  1. Chemical Characterization of Different Sumac and Pomegranate Extracts Effective against Botrytis cinerea Rots

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo, Flora V.; Gabriele Ballistreri; Simona Fabroni; Sonia Pangallo; Maria Giulia Li Destri Nicosia; Leonardo Schena; Paolo Rapisarda

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia) rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were applied and extracts were characterized through Ultra Fast High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Photodiode array detector and Electrospray ionization Mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn) for th...

  2. Mechanosensory Neuron Aging: Differential Trajectories with Lifespan-Extending Alaskan Berry and Fungal Treatments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerbak, Courtney; Vayndorf, Elena M; Hernandez, Alicia; McGill, Colin; Taylor, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Many nutritional interventions that increase lifespan are also proposed to postpone age-related declines in motor and cognitive function. Potential sources of anti-aging compounds are the plants and fungi that have adapted to extreme environments. We studied the effects of four commonly consumed and culturally relevant Interior Alaska berry and fungus species (bog blueberry, lowbush cranberry, crowberry, and chaga) on the decline in overall health and neuron function and changes in touch receptor neuron morphology associated with aging. We observed increased wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and improved markers of healthspan upon treatment with Alaskan blueberry, lowbush cranberry, and chaga extracts. Interestingly, although all three treatments increased lifespan, they differentially affected the development of aberrant morphologies in touch receptor neurons. Blueberry treatments decreased anterior mechanosensory neuron (ALM) aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths and abnormal cell bodies) while lowbush cranberry treatment increased posterior mechanosensory neuron (PLM) aberrations, namely process branching. Chaga treatment both decreased ALM aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths) and increased PLM aberrations (i.e., process branching and loops). These results support the large body of knowledge positing that there are multiple cellular strategies and mechanisms for promoting health with age. Importantly, these results also demonstrate that although an accumulation of abnormal neuron morphologies is associated with aging and decreased health, not all of these morphologies are detrimental to neuronal and organismal health. PMID:27486399

  3. Mechanosensory Neuron Aging: Differential Trajectories with Lifespan-Extending Alaskan Berry and Fungal Treatments in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerbak, Courtney; Vayndorf, Elena M.; Hernandez, Alicia; McGill, Colin; Taylor, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    Many nutritional interventions that increase lifespan are also proposed to postpone age-related declines in motor and cognitive function. Potential sources of anti-aging compounds are the plants and fungi that have adapted to extreme environments. We studied the effects of four commonly consumed and culturally relevant Interior Alaska berry and fungus species (bog blueberry, lowbush cranberry, crowberry, and chaga) on the decline in overall health and neuron function and changes in touch receptor neuron morphology associated with aging. We observed increased wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and improved markers of healthspan upon treatment with Alaskan blueberry, lowbush cranberry, and chaga extracts. Interestingly, although all three treatments increased lifespan, they differentially affected the development of aberrant morphologies in touch receptor neurons. Blueberry treatments decreased anterior mechanosensory neuron (ALM) aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths and abnormal cell bodies) while lowbush cranberry treatment increased posterior mechanosensory neuron (PLM) aberrations, namely process branching. Chaga treatment both decreased ALM aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths) and increased PLM aberrations (i.e., process branching and loops). These results support the large body of knowledge positing that there are multiple cellular strategies and mechanisms for promoting health with age. Importantly, these results also demonstrate that although an accumulation of abnormal neuron morphologies is associated with aging and decreased health, not all of these morphologies are detrimental to neuronal and organismal health. PMID:27486399

  4. 巨峰葡萄成熟过程中挥发性香气物质的变化%Changes of Aroma Volatiles during Berry Ripening of Kyoho Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁园园; 马盼; 门洪文; 黄翊鹏; 郭守鹏; 姚玉新

    2015-01-01

    香气是葡萄果实的重要品质性状之一。本文以8年生巨峰(Vitis vinifera-V. Labrusca. cv, Kyoho)葡萄为试材,利用顶空固相微萃取技术提取挥发性香气物质,利用 GC/MS QP2010 Plus 气质联用仪分析葡萄成熟过程中可挥发性香气的种类和含量变化。巨峰葡萄的香气主要由酯、萜、醛、醇和其它杂环类物质组成,转色后可挥发性香气成分总的种类和含量明显增加;酯和萜是成熟的巨峰葡萄最主要的香气物质;邻苯二甲酸二乙酯、角鲨烯、己-2-烯醛和(E)-2-己烯-1-醇分别是最主要的酯、萜烯、醛和醇类物质,并且它们随着果实成熟含量逐渐升高,在成熟果实中邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和角鲨烯分别占总香气含量的28.8%和26.2%。邻苯二甲酸二乙酯、角鲨烯、己-2-烯醛和(E)-2-己烯-1-醇是成熟的巨峰葡萄最主要的香气物质,并且随着果实成熟含量逐渐升高。%Aroma is one of the most important berry qualities. The eight-year Kyoho grape vines were selected to determine berry aroma. Aroma volatiles of Kyoho grape were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction. Aroma variety and amount were detected by GC/MS QP2010 Plus. The results showed that aroma volatiles of Kyoho berries consisted of esters, terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols and other volatiles. The total variety and amount were clearly enhanced after veraison. Esters and terpenes consisted of the two most important aroma volatiles in the ripened berries. Diethyl Phthalate, Squalane, 2-Hexenal and 2-Hexen-1-ol, (E)- exhibited the highest amount for esters, terpenes, aldehydes and alcohols, respectively; in addition, the above four volatiles kept increasing along with the berry ripening. In the ripened berries, Diethyl Phthalate and Squalane accounted for 28.8% and 26.2% of the total volatiles, respectively. Diethyl Phthalate, Squalane, 2-Hexenal and 2-Hexen-1-ol, (E)- were the most important aroma volatiles

  5. CLUSTERS AND BIOCHEMISTRY COMPOSITION OF BLACK BERRY VINE SORTS OF GRAPE FOR PRODUCING JUICES OF DIRECT PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chausov V. M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of the study of the texture of the grapes and biochemical characteristics of red wine grape varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sapeari, Tsimladar, Pinot Noir for the production of juice of direct extraction and blending. The studied varieties in terms of the structure of the cluster may be divided into three groups of blackpinene (21.1, Cabernet Franc and Tsimladar (18.7 - 17.5, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi (16.5 - 16.8 , and bunches of addition in terms of two groups - Tsimladar (17.6, Cabernet - Sauvignon and other (15.6 - 16.4. The structural component of grapes varieties ranged from 5.2 to 5.9, berry index - from 62.1 to 83.4, the output of the wort from 74.2 to 76.3%. The content of sugars and acids in the berries of all varieties is favorable for the production of beverages. The largest Tartaric acid content was found in the juice of the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Black, malic acid - in the juice of varieties Saperavi, Merlot, Tsimladar, citric acid - in the juice Tsimladar varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi. The ratio of tartaric acid to the content of the apple juice Cabernet Sauvignon was 2.9: 1, Cabernet Franc 2.6: 1, Pinot Black 2.5: 1, Merlot and Tsimladar 1.6: 1, 1.1 Sapevari: 1. According to the content of potassium cations, sodium, magnesium and calcium there were chosen three varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc. The lowest content of potassium and magnesium cations was in the variety of Tsimladar, Sodium – in the varieties Merlot and Saperavi, calcium – in Saperavi. Excellent tasting commended for juices was given to Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi, Tsimladar, good – to Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot black. Best blending juice obtained by mixing the juice of the grape of the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot black 70:30, Saperavi and Pinot black 50:50. From the grapes of produced varieties, we can produce juice and varietal by

  6. Differential behavior within a grapevine cluster: decreased ethylene-related gene expression dependent on auxin transport is correlated with low abscission of first developed berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kühn

    Full Text Available In grapevine, fruit abscission is known to occur within the first two to three weeks after flowering, but the reason why some berries in a cluster persist and others abscise is not yet understood. Ethylene sensitivity modulates abscission in several fruit species, based on a mechanism where continuous polar auxin transport across the pedicel results in a decrease in ethylene perception, which prevents abscission. In grapevine, flowering takes about four to seven days in a single cluster, thus while some flowers are developing into berries, others are just starting to open. So, in this work it was assessed whether uneven flowering accounted for differences in berry abscission dependent on polar auxin transport and ethylene-related gene expression. For this, flowers that opened in a cluster were tagged daily, which allowed to separately analyze berries, regarding their ability to persist. It was found that berries derived from flowers that opened the day that flowering started--named as "first berries"--had lower abscission rate than berries derived from flowers that opened during the following days--named as "late berries". Use of radiolabeled auxin showed that "first berries" had higher polar auxin transport, correlated with lower ethylene content and lower ethylene-related transcript abundance than "late berries". When "first berries" were treated with a polar auxin transport inhibitor they showed higher ethylene-related transcript abundance and were more prone to abscise than control berries. This study provides new insights on fruit abscission control. Our results indicate that polar auxin transport sustains the ability of "first berries" to persist in the cluster during grapevine abscission and also suggest that this could be associated with changes in ethylene-related gene expression.

  7. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening. PMID:26218433

  8. Influence of Bioregulator Gibberellic Acid on Some Technological Characteristics of Cluster and Berry from Some Seedless Grape Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Ivanova, Violeta; Ilieva, Fidanka; Sofijanova, Elenica

    2011-01-01

    Solutions of gibberellic acid prepared at threeconcentration levels including 5, 10 and 20 mg/L, were applied at two seedless grape varieties, Thompson and Belgrade, by spraying, during the three different periods of the vine growing: before blooming, after blooming and before veraison, in order to study their influence on some cultural technological characteristics. Dimension and shape of the cluster and berry, mechanical characteristics of the berries and chemical content of the must (sugar...

  9. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  10. Phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of a natural hybrid between bilberry and lingonberry (Vaccinium × intermedium Ruthe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Anja K; Riihinen, Kaisu R; Jaakola, Laura

    2011-06-01

    Hybridization between species plays an important role in the evolution of secondary metabolites and in the formation of combinations of existing secondary metabolites in plants. We have investigated the content of phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of Vaccinium×intermedium Ruthe, which is a rare natural hybrid between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). The berries and flowers of the hybrid showed characteristics inherited from both parent species in the distribution and contents of phenolic compounds. Bilberry is known as one of the richest sources of anthocyanins and to have a profile of 15 major forms combining cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin with galactose, glucose and arabinose. Lingonberry contains only cyanidin glycosides. Hybrid berries contained all bilberry anthocyanins with pronounced cyanidin content. With regard to proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides, the hybrid inherited diverse profiles combining those of both parental species. The distribution of hydroxycinnamic acids was quite uniform in all studied berries. Of the identified compounds, 30 were detected in lingonberry, 46 in bilberry, 53 in hybrid berries and 38 in hybrid flowers. Hence, compared with the parent species, hybrid berries possess a more diverse profile of phenolic compounds and, therefore, can offer interesting material for breeding purposes. PMID:21382629

  11. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  12. Classical surgical approach and treatment with clips of extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Vukas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.

  13. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  14. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-03-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  15. Long Range Topological Order, the Chiral Condensate, and the Berry Connection in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, H B

    2014-01-01

    Topological insulators are substances which are bulk insulators but which carry current via special "topologically protected" edge states. The understanding of long range topological order in these systems is built around the idea of a Berry connection, which is a gauge connection obtained from the phase of the electron wave function transported over momentum space rather than coordinate space. The phase of a closed Wilson loop of the Berry connection around the Brillouin zone defines a topological order parameter which labels discrete flux vacua. The conducting states are surface modes on the domain walls between discrete vacua. Evidence from large-$N_c$ chiral dynamics, holographic QCD, and Monte Carlo observations has pointed to a picture of the QCD vacuum that is very similar to that of a topological insulator, with discrete quasivacua labelled by $\\theta$ angles that differ by mod $2\\pi$. In this picture, the domain walls are membranes of Chern-Simons charge, and the quark condensate consists of surface ...

  16. Topological insulators and the QCD vacuum: the theta parameter as a Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, H B

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence, based on large $N_c$ chiral dynamics, holographic QCD, and Monte Carlo studies, that the QCD vacuum is permeated by discrete quasivacua separated by domain walls across which the local value of the topological $\\theta$ parameter jumps by $\\pm2\\pi$. In the 2-dimensional $CP^{N-1}$ sigma model, a pointlike charge is a domain wall, and $\\theta$ describes the background electric flux and the polarization of charged pairs in the vacuum. We show that the screening process, and the role of $\\theta$ as an order parameter describing electric polarization, are naturally formulated in terms of Bloch wave eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian in the background gauge field. This formulation is similar to the Berry phase description of electric polarization and quantized charge transport in topological insulators. The Bloch waves are quasiperiodic superpositions of localized Dirac zero modes. They define a Berry connection around the Brillouin zone of the zero mode band which describes the lo...

  17. Berry phase and band structure analysis of the Weyl semimetal NbP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergelius, Philip; Gooth, Johannes; Bäßler, Svenja; Zierold, Robert; Wiegand, Christoph; Niemann, Anna; Reith, Heiko; Shekhar, Chandra; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Nielsch, Kornelius

    2016-01-01

    Weyl semimetals are often considered the 3D-analogon of graphene or topological insulators. The evaluation of quantum oscillations in these systems remains challenging because there are often multiple conduction bands. We observe de Haas-van Alphen oscillations with several frequencies in a single crystal of the Weyl semimetal niobium phosphide. For each fundamental crystal axis, we can fit the raw data to a superposition of sinusoidal functions, which enables us to calculate the characteristic parameters of all individual bulk conduction bands using Fourier transform with an analysis of the temperature and magnetic field-dependent oscillation amplitude decay. Our experimental results indicate that the band structure consists of Dirac bands with low cyclotron mass, a non-trivial Berry phase and parabolic bands with a higher effective mass and trivial Berry phase. PMID:27667203

  18. Observation of Berry's phase in a superconducting qubit embedded in a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leek, Peter; Fink, Johannes; Bianchetti, Romeo; Goeppl, Martin; Wallraff, Andreas [Department of Physics, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Blais, Alexandre [Departement de Physique, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Gambetta, Jay [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo (Canada); Departments of Applied Physics and Physics, Yale University (United States); Schuster, David; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert [Departments of Applied Physics and Physics, Yale University (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In quantum information science, the phase of a wavefunction plays an important role in encoding information. While most experiments in this field rely on dynamic effects to manipulate this information, an alternative approach is to use geometric phase, which has been argued to have potential fault tolerance. Here we demonstrate the controlled accumulation of a geometric phase, Berry's phase, in a superconducting qubit, manipulating the qubit geometrically using microwave radiation, and observing the accumulated phase in an interference experiment. This is achieved using the excellent phase coherence and qubit control possible in circuit QED. We find excellent agreement with Berry's predictions, and also observe a geometry dependent contribution to dephasing.

  19. Antiaggregation potential of berry fractions against pairs of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii

    OpenAIRE

    Riihinen, Kaisu Ristiina; Ryynanen, Anu; Toivanen, Marko; Kononen, Eija; Torronen, Riitta; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Coaggregation is an interspecies adhesion process which is central to the development of dental plaque. Here we studied the antiaggregation effect and the composition of the soluble solids in the berry juice molecular size fractions [100 kDa fraction (FIII)] derived from apple, bilberry, blackcurrant, cloudberry, crowberry, and lingonberry. We investigated their ability to inhibit and reverse coaggregation of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces...

  20. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    OpenAIRE

    Michael James Considine; Christine Helen Foyer

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to th...

  1. With BlackBerry in Decline, RIM Will Shed 2,000 Jobs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ As it struggles with the declining popularity of the BlackBerry line of smartphones, Research in Motion said on Monday that it would begin laying off about 2,000 employees, 10.5 percent of its work force, this week. While the company had previously announced that it planned to cut employees, the number of jobs lost was higher than some analysts expected, perhaps suggesting that the company's situation was deteriorating more rapidly than earlier thought.

  2. The use of the quality model of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry in health services

    OpenAIRE

    Mileide Morais Pena; Edenise Maria Santos da Silva; Daisy Maria Rizatto Tronchin; Marta Maria Melleiro

    2013-01-01

    This is an article about the theoretical model for assessing quality in health services proposed by Parasuraman, Zheitaml and Berry, in order to measure the degree of satisfaction of users. This model is based on the analysis of expectations and perceptions of users of health services, by means of five dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. From the difference between what is expected by the user and the service offered, gaps or shortcomings are derived t...

  3. Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Ariane Renee

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation, Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography interrogates how pornography, from the 1930s to the present, functions as an essential site in the production of black female sexuality. Closely reading a diverse pool of primary pornographic visual materials, across print, moving image and the internet, such as photographs, magazines, trade magazines, videos, DVDs, and internet website viewings, I argue that pornograph...

  4. Comment on "Higher Order Pancharatnam-Berry Phase and the Angular Momentum of Light"

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Masato; Oka, Kazuhiko; Toda, Yasunori; Morita, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    In a recent letter, Milione et al. reported the Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP) on a higher-order Poincar\\'e sphere (HOPS) [Phys. Rev. Lett, 108, 190401 (2012)]. They used two spin-orbit converters (SOCs) to make a trajectory along the HOPS. However, the SOCs actually do not make a path on the HOPS. We briefly discuss a way of acquiring a PBP made by SOCs.

  5. On the Geometry of the Berry-Robbins Approach to Spin-Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Reyes-Lega, Andrés F.

    2010-07-01

    Within a geometric and algebraic framework, the structures which are related to the spin-statistics connection are discussed. A comparison with the Berry-Robbins approach is made. The underlying geometric structure constitutes an additional support for this approach. In our work, a geometric approach to quantum indistinguishability is introduced which allows the treatment of singlevaluedness of wave functions in a global, model independent way.

  6. BERRY-ESSEEN BOUNDS OF ERROR VARIANCE ESTIMATION IN PARTLY LINEAR MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOJITI; HONGSHENGYAN; LIANGHUA

    1996-01-01

    Consider the regression model Yi =xriβ + g(ti) + εi for i =11… , n. Here (xi, ii ) are known and nonrandom design points and εi are i.i.d, random errors. The family of nonparametricestimates gn(·) of g(-) including some known estimates is proposed. Based on the model Yi=xriβ+gn(ti)+εi, the Berry-Esseen bounds of the distribution of the least-squares estimator of are investigated.

  7. A 2d in vivo approach to study photosynthesis in grape berry

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Vieira, S.; Silva, J. Marques da; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Is argued that fruit photosynthesis serves mainly as a respiratory CO2 refixation mechanism [1] but its contribution to growth and metabolism, localization and dynamics during fruit development are poorly known. Unlike the leaves, fruit volume imposes a constraint to photosynthesis by limiting light penetration. However, the patterns of chlorophyll distribution are apparently independent of a light intensity gradient. Microscopic observations of transversal slices of green stage grape berries...

  8. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  9. The Role of Bee Pollinators in Improving Berry Weight and Coffee Cup Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca H.N. Karanja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Kiambu County in Kenya. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pollination improves the coffee yield and quality of processed coffee in terms of taste and aroma. Among the parameters evaluated when grading coffee for sale in world market are berry weight and cup quality. No previous work in Kenya describes the role of bee pollinators in enhancement of coffee yields and quality. Data on berry weights and the resulting processed coffee quality from different pollination levels in organically grown coffee were analyzed. Results from this study indicate that coffee benefits immensely from pollinators. The highest berry weight and coffee cup quality were recorded in open pollinated and cross pollinated coffee. There were significant differences in weight and cup quality (p<0.001 between open pollinated coffee and wind pollination, self pollination and autogamy. The study concludes that pollination not only improves the coffee yields but also enhance the coffee cup taste and aroma. High quality coffee fetches higher prices in the world coffee market.

  10. MIR – NEWEST HIGHT QUALITY BLACK BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Newest wine black berry with painted pulp and juice grape variety called Mir was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by Zamanidi P., Troshin L. and Radchevsky P. in 2006 by crossing the Ukrainian variety of Odessa black (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with new Greek black berry variety Iliad. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period - 146-155 days. Strong growth of arms (2,1-3,0 m. Percentage of productive shoots - over 90. Productivity is very high: 20-30 t / ha. The average mass of clusters is 260 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Lobes, the stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Bunch medium, often with tapered wing, the average density. Berry small, round, blue-black, with a thick waxy coating. The peel is medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice intensely colored. Sugar content is very high. Prolonged preservation of different crop on bushes. Variety intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines; and is suitable for the manufacture of high quality strong colored juices. When used in blends with other varieties, it enhances color, flavor and improves the bouquet of wine

  11. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenchang; Owens, Christopher L; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Cheng, Lailiang

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenolic profiles in the berry samples of 344 European grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars were evaluated for two consecutive years. These cultivars represent a diverse collection of V. vinifera germplasm maintained at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Vitis Clonal Repository in Davis of California, USA. A total of 36 polyphenolic compounds, including 16 anthocyanins, 6 flavonols, 6 flavanols, 6 hydroxycinnamic acids and 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified via HPLC-MS and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The mean contents for anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids were 0.946 (coloured cultivars), 0.147, 0.043, 0.195 and 0.016mgg(-1) FW, respectively. On average, wine grapes had higher concentrations than had table grapes for all of these compounds except hydroxycinnamic acids. Berry colours affected the total contents of anthocyanins, but not others. Positive correlations (0.151-0.535) were found among these groups of compounds. As expected, these groups of compounds were all negatively correlated with berry weight.

  12. Polarization transport of transverse acoustic waves: Berry phase and spin Hall effect of phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, K. Yu.; Freilikher, V. D.

    2006-11-01

    We carry out a detailed analysis of the short-wave (semiclassical) approximation for the linear equations of the elasticity in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the polarization properties of the transverse waves are completely analogous to those of electromagnetic waves and can be considered as spin properties of optical phonons. In particular, the Hamiltonian of the transverse waves contains an additional term of the phonon spin-orbit interaction arising from the Berry gauge potential in the momentum space. This potential is diagonal in the basis of the circularly polarized waves and corresponds to the field of two “magnetic monopoles” of opposite signs for phonons of opposite helicities. This leads to the appearance of the Berry phase in the equation for the polarization evolution and an additional “anomalous velocity” term in the ray equations. The anomalous velocity has the form of the “Lorentz force” caused by the Berry gauge field in momentum space and gives rise to the transverse transport of waves of opposite helicities in opposite directions. This is a manifestation of the spin Hall effect of optical phonons. The effect directly relates to the conservation of total angular momentum of phonons and also influences reflection from a sharp boundary (acoustic analog of the transverse Ferdorov-Imbert shift).

  13. Serenoa repens extract in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Geavlete, Petrisor; Multescu, Razvan; Geavlete, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    We are experiencing a revival of interest in phytotherapeutic agents, both in Europe and North America, especially as a consequence of patients’ dissatisfaction with the adverse effects of the medical alternatives. One of the most frequently prescribed and studied such agents is Serenoa repens extract, derived from the berry of the dwarf palm tree. We aimed to review the most important published data regarding this type of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. A review of the existing a...

  14. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  15. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sweetman Crystal; Wong Darren CJ; Ford Christopher M; Drew Damian P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes...

  16. Effects of ABA Content on the Development of Abscission Zone and Berry Falling After Harvesting of Grapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-lin; ZHANG Run-guang

    2009-01-01

    The commodity price of grape reduces as berry falling after harvest. It is crucial to prevent grape from berry falling during storage. In this article, the structure change of grape cells in the abscission zone was observed, the ABA content and the activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase (PG) were measured, and the relationship of ABA and berry falling was investigated. The results suggest that cells in the abscission zone grow into a separation layer soon after the grapes are cut off. According to the level of development, we designed 6 grades to sort the different development stages. The grade 3 plays an important role in berry falling. ABA enhances the activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase, and accelerates the decomposition of cellulose and pectin, which determines the level of development of abscission zone and berry falling. If ABA ratio is less than 20 ng g-1 fresh weight (FW), the abscission zone is not developed to the grade 3, and the berry falling is effectively stopped. We treated grape bunches with nine plant growth regulators and two chemicals. The results indicated that 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) can (a) inhibit the generation of ABA significantly, (b) inactivate the activities of cellulase and PG, (c) delay the development of the grade 3 of abscission zone, and (d) stop berry falling. Indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) caused similar results as TIBA. Chlorocholine chloride (CCC), dimethyl amino succinamic acid (B9), chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) and exogenous ABA showed opposite effects.

  17. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  18. Golden berry juice attenuates the severity of hepatorenal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hamed, Manal A; Khalaf-Allah, Abd El-Rahman M; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana fruits as a hepatorenal protective agent against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic and renal fibrosis. The phytochemical screening test revealed the presence of alkaloids, free withanolides, glycowithanolides, and flavonoids. Acute toxicity study (500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight) revealed extract safety. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups: control, control treated with fruit, CCl4 group, CCl4 treated with fruit, and CCl4 treated with silymarin drug. The evaluation was done through measuring oxidative stress markers: malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). Liver function indices such as aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total protein were estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers such as creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. Treatment improved all the investigated parameters, and the histopathological analysis confirmed our results. In conclusion, Physalis peruviana fruit succeeded to protect liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to identify the molecules responsible for its pharmacological application. PMID:24168372

  19. Accumulation Characteristics of Volatile Compounds in Wine Grape Berries Grown in High Altitude Regions of Yunnan%云南高原区酿酒葡萄果实香气物质的积累规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓帆; 高媛; 韩梅梅; 彭振雪; 潘秋红

    2014-01-01

    Objective] Aroma is an important factor determining the quality of wine grape berries and wines. Terrior greatly affects the composition and concentration of volatiles. Study on aroma accumulation of grape fruit of Yunnan plateau region will not only help uncover the formation mechanism of grape flavor under the high altitude climate, but also provide some guidelines for the production of high-quality grape berries. [Method] Grape berries (Vitisvinifera L. Cabernet sauvignon) were collected from Meilishi (located at about 2 300 m above sea level) and Shuiri (about 2 900 m) vineyards of Deqin County, Yunnan Province in 2010 and 2011 vintages. Free volatile compounds were extracted using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) method. The extraction of glycosidically-bound volatiles was followed by the separation using Cleanert PEP-SPE column, the hydrolysis of glycosidase AR2000 and the adsorption of HS-SPME. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed via the technology of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These volatiles were classified into three groups according to their biosynthetic pathways, including fatty acid-derived, amino acid-derived and isoprene-derived volatiles, and the effects of vintage and grape-growing region on the accumulation of the three groups of volatiles were assessed.[Result]The accumulation of soluble solid and variation of pH in grape berries were affected scarcely by vintages, either for Meilishi or Shuiri vineyards, but volatiles showed a great difference in the concentration between vintages. Compared with the 2010-vintage berries, regardless of the vineyard altitude, the berry samples of the year 2011 contained significantly higher concentrations of free-form straight-chain aliphatic alcohols, acids and esters that were produced from fatty acid metabolism, as well as norisoprenoids (free and glycosidically-bound) and free terpenes that were all generated from isoprene metabolism. As for amino acid

  20. Survival of cancer patients treated with mistletoe extract (Iscador): a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Büssing Arndt; Raak Christa; Ostermann Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In Europe, extracts from Viscum album (VA-E), the European white-berry mistletoe, are widely used to treat patients with cancer. Methods We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline. Inclusion criteria were controlled clinical studies on parameters associated with survival in cancer patients treated with Iscador. Outcome data were extracted as they were given in the publication, and expressed as hazard ratios (HR), their l...

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on dyes extracted from dried plant leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Sofyan A. Taya; Taher M. El-Agez; ELREFI, Kamal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, natural dyes were extracted from dried plant leaves of plant cream, apricot, figs, apples, sage, thyme, mint, Ziziphus jujuba, orange, shade tree, basil, berry, Mirabelle plum, Victoria plum, peach, mango, pomegranate, banana, guava, and fluoridation-treated plant. The extracts were used as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The cells were assembled using nanostructured TiO2 films. The best performance was observed for the DSSC sensitized with Ziziphus juju...

  2. Berry density and size as factors related to the physicochemical characteristics of Muscat Hamburg table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luca; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Río Segade, Susana

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to determine the impact of using independently berry density and diameter as sorting methodologies on important physicochemical parameters affecting the grape quality, such as mechanical properties, phenolic composition and aromatic profile. Muscat Hamburg berries were classified according to the density by flotation in different salt solutions and to the diameter. The three most representative density (1081, 1088 and 1094 kg/m(3)) and diameter (16-17, 18-19 and 20-21 mm) classes were selected. The results showed that there were relationships of both density and diameter with the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the berries. Densimetric sorting is a more promising methodology to separate grape berries with different quality attributes, particularly skin hardness, berry cohesiveness and resilience, total hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins and rose oxide, than diameter sorting. This knowledge can be of great interest for the 'fresh-cut' industry in the production of 'ready-to-eat' fruits salad. PMID:25466001

  3. Effects of different N fertilizers on the activity of Glomus mosseae and on grapevine nutrition and berry composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, N; Nikolaou, N; Ipsilantis, I; Zioziou, E

    2007-12-01

    Grapevine N fertilization may affect and be affected by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and change berry composition. We studied the effects of different N fertilizers on AM fungal grapevine root colonization and sporulation, and on grapevine growth, nutrition, and berry composition, by conducting a 3.5-year pot study supplying grapevine plants with either urea, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, or ammonium nitrate. We measured the percentage of AM fungal root colonization, AM fungal sporulation, grapevine shoot dry weight and number of leaves, nutrient composition (macro- and micronutrients), and grapevine berry soluble solids (total sugars or degrees Brix) and total acidity. Urea suppressed AM fungal root colonization and sporulation. Mycorrhizal grapevine plants had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaves than non-mycorrhizal and with a higher growth response with calcium nitrate as the N source. For the macronutrients P and K, and for the micronutrient B, leaf concentration was higher in mycorrhizal plants. Non-mycorrhizal plants had higher concentration of microelements Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu than mycorrhizal. There were no differences in soluble solids ( degrees Brix) in grapevine berries among mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. However, non-mycorrhizal grapevine berries had higher acid content with ammonium nitrate, although they did not have better N nutrition and vegetative growth. PMID:17987325

  4. 黑莓企业服务平台架设结构%The Frame Structure of BlackBerry Enterprises' Service Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨微微

    2012-01-01

      Black Berry English referred to as BlackBerry, it is the Canadian RIM Company launched a terminal of mobile E-mail system. 1, The first problem is guided into what's BlackBerry business and its business characteristics, let every-body understand it; 2, And then, expressed the internal division component and service independently accomplished of their respective functions of BES server, analyzes BES. Then through the BlackBerry enterprise service system structure diagram to present the frame structure of BlackBerry service.; 3, Expressed BlackBerry's cell phone types and the characteristics of the mobile phone used and more press closed to BlackBerry; 4, Through the BlackBerry's mobile E-mail and office solutions and banking system solutions to further BlackBerry, analyzing its use. 5, Finally, an overview to Blackberry advantages and current social development of domestic situation and future trends.%  黑莓英文简称 BlackBerry,它是加拿大 RIM 公司推出的一种移动电子邮件系统终端.一、首先问题导入什么是 BlackBerry业务与 BlackBerry 业务的特点,让大家对其有所了解.二、之后表述 BES 服务器的内部划分组件和服务独立完成各自的功能,剖析BES.随之通过 BlackBerry 的企业服务系统框架图来呈现 BlackBerry 的服务架设.三、表述 BlackBerry 的手机类型及其手机的特点与使用,更加贴近黑莓手机.四、通过 BlackBerry 移动邮件及办公解决方案与银行业金融系统解决方案来深入黑莓,解析其用途.五、最后总述黑莓的优点与当前社会发展国内现状及未来走向.

  5. Berry phase of light Bragg-reflected by chiral liquid crystal media

    CERN Document Server

    Barboza, Raouf; Residori, Stefania; Clerc, Marcel G

    2016-01-01

    Berry phase is revealed for circularly polarized light when it is Bragg-reflected by a chiral liquid crystal medium of the same handedness. By using a chiral nematic layer we demonstrate that if the input plane of the layer is rotated with respect to a fixed reference frame, then, a geometric phase effect occurs for the circularly polarized light reflected by the periodic helical structure of the medium. Theory and numerical simulations are supported by an experimental observation, disclosing novel applications in the field of optical manipulation and fundamental optical phenomena.

  6. Berry Phase of Light under Bragg Reflection by Chiral Liquid-Crystal Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Raouf; Bortolozzo, Umberto; Clerc, Marcel G; Residori, Stefania

    2016-07-29

    A Berry phase is revealed for circularly polarized light when it is Bragg reflected by a chiral liquid-crystal medium of the same handedness. By using a chiral nematic layer we demonstrate that if the input plane of the layer is rotated with respect to a fixed reference frame, a geometric phase effect occurs for the circularly polarized light reflected by the periodic helical structure of the medium. Theory and numerical simulations are supported by an experimental observation, disclosing novel applications in the field of optical manipulation and fundamental optical phenomena. PMID:27517773

  7. Berry's Phase Induced Bose-Einstein condensation into a Vortex State

    OpenAIRE

    Olshanii, M.; Naraschewski, M.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of a geometric phase in magnetic traps can be used to Bose condense a magnetically trapped atomic gas into a vortex state. We propose an experimental setup where a magnetic trap together with a blue detuned laser beam form a multiply connected trap geometry. The local variation of the magnetic quantization axis induces a geometric or Berry's phase that allows the atoms to acquire an effective gauge charge interacting with the analog of a magnetic solenoid. It is shown that the g...

  8. The development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Blaž

    2014-01-01

    The diploma paper presents in detail the development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5, i. e. the path from idea to product. First, it examines the previously mentioned platform, the technologies used (HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript) and environments for development (NetBeans, GIMP). The central part is dedicated to the development of our product (Game Time Attacker), which includes a description of the program code, implementation and publication of the game. The usefulness of ou...

  9. The development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    The diploma paper presents in detail the development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5, i. e. the path from idea to product. First, it examines the previously mentioned platform, the technologies used (HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript) and environments for development (NetBeans, GIMP). The central part is dedicated to the development of our product (Game Time Attacker), which includes a description of the program code, implementation and publication of the game. The usefulness of ou...

  10. Influence of canopy-applied chitosan on the composition of organic cv. Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon berries and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarin, Paola; Chinnici, Fabio; Donnini, Silvia; Liquori, Enrico; Riponi, Claudio; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The effects of canopy-applied chitosan on grapes and derived wine were evaluated in an organically managed mature vineyard. The experiment was performed on Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon red grape cultivars, the application of a chitosan solution was compared to water spraying. Each treatment was applied 3 times (beginning and end of veraison, and pre-harvest) in a randomized block experimental design. Significant differences in (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 amounts in berries and wines were detected in Cabernet Sauvignon but not in Sangiovese. Chitosan did not influence the berry skin anthocyanin and flavonol amount or t-resveratrol concentration in both skins and wines. A considerable increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together with some other amino acids, ammonium and amines was observed in the berry flesh of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The increase in phenolic acids and nitrogenous compounds, especially GABA, in the pulp of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes suggests changes in stress response. PMID:27211677

  11. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berry skin, pulp, and seeds in 13 grapevine varieties grown in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Milica M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Davidović, Sonja M; Todić, Slavica R; Bešlić, Zoran S; Gašić, Uroš M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2016-11-15

    Phenolic profile of 13 grapevine varieties was determined, with respect to three different parts of berries: skin, seed and pulp. Identification and quantification of the phenols was done using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The most abundant phenols in grape seeds were found to be flavan-3-ols, most of which are gallocatechin gallate and catechin. The skins were characterized mostly by flavonols, i.e. quercetin and myricetin. Characterization of anthocyanins in the berry skin by UHPLC coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer revealed a total of twenty derivatives of malvidin, delphinidin, petunidin, cyanidin, and peonidin. To the extent of our knowledge this is the first work that shows the presence of malvidin 3,5-O-dihexoside in the berry skin of 'Merlot', 'Cabernet Franc', 'Shiraz' 'Sangiovese', 'Pinot Noir' and 'Prokupac', untypical for Vitis vinifera Linneo species. PMID:27283628

  12. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  13. Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zheng Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  14. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  15. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Light quantity and quality modulate grapevine development and influence berry metabolic processes. Here we studied light as an information signal for developing and ripening grape berries. A Vitis vinifera Sauvignon Blanc field experiment was used to identify the impacts of UVB on core metabolic processes in the berries under both high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates. The primary objective was therefore to identify UVB-specific responses on berry processes and metabolites and distinguish them from those responses elicited by variations in light incidence. Canopy manipulation at the bunch zone via early leaf removal, combined with UVB-excluding acrylic sheets installed over the bunch zones resulted in four bunch microclimates: (1) HL (control); (2) LL (control); (3) HL with UVB attenuation and (4) LL with UVB attenuation. Metabolite profiles of three berry developmental stages showed predictable changes to known UV-responsive compound classes in a typical UV acclimation (versus UV damage) response. Interestingly, the berries employed carotenoids and the associated xanthophyll cycles to acclimate to UV exposure and the berry responses differed between HL and LL conditions, particularly in the developmental stages where berries are still photosynthetically active. The developmental stage of the berries was an important factor to consider in interpreting the data. The green berries responded to the different exposure and/or UVB attenuation signals with metabolites that indicate that the berries actively managed its metabolism in relation to the exposure levels, displaying metabolic plasticity in the photosynthesis-related metabolites. Core processes such as photosynthesis, photo-inhibition and acclimation were maintained by differentially modulating metabolites under the four treatments. Ripe berries also responded metabolically to the light quality and quantity, but mostly formed compounds (volatiles and polyphenols) that have direct antioxidant and

  16. The Berry curvature of the Bogoliubov quasiparticle Bloch states in the unconventional superconductor Sr2RuO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradhand, Martin; Annett, James F

    2014-07-01

    We will extend the concept of electron band Berry curvatures to superconducting materials. We show that this can be defined for the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation describing the superconducting state in a periodic crystal. In addition, the concept is exploited to understand the driving mechanism for the optical Kerr effect in time reversal symmetry breaking superconductors. Finally, we establish a sum rule analogue to the normal state Hall sum rule making quantitative contact between the imaginary part of the optical conductivity and the Berry curvature. The general theory will be applied and tested against the drosophila of the p-wave paired materials Sr2RuO4.

  17. Effects of different origins and harvesting time on vitamin C, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru; Peippo, Pekka

    2002-10-01

    Vitamin C, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in berries of wild and cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) of different origins and harvesting dates were determined with HPLC. Wild berries of subsp. sinensis, native to China, contained 5-10 times more vitamin C in the juice fraction than the berries of subsp. rhamnoides from Europe and subsp. mongolica from Russia (4-13 vs 0.02-2 g/L juice). Genetic background and berry-harvesting date were two primary factors determining the vitamin C content in the berries. Crossing different subspecies influenced the vitamin C content to some extent. For bushes cultivated in southwest Finland, the best berry-harvesting date for high vitamin C content was the end of August. The seeds of subsp. sinensis contained less tocopherols and tocotrienols (average 130 mg/kg) compared with seeds of subsp. rhamnoides (average 290 mg/kg) and mongolica (average 250 mg/kg). The fruit flesh of sinensis berries had contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols 2-3 times higher than those found in the other two subspecies (120 mg/kg vs 40 mg/kg in rhamnoides and 50 mg/kg in mongolica). The fresh whole berries of subsp. sinensis were clearly the best source of total tocopherols and tocotrienols. The total content of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the soft parts of the berries reached the maximum level around early- to mid-September, whereas the content in seeds continued to increase until the end of November. The excellent combination of the highest content of vitamin C and tocopherols and tocotrienols makes the berries of subsp. sinensis an optimal raw material for nutritional investigation as a candidate for functional foods with special antioxidative properties. PMID:12358492

  18. Acute, subacute and subchronic safety assessment of betalains rich Rivina humilis L. berry juice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj; Denny Joseph, K M; Muralidhara; Ramesh, H P; Giridhar, P; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-12-01

    Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae) accumulates vacuolar pigments betalains. These pigments are synthesized by plants of 11 families in the order caryophyllales. Red beet is the only industrial source of these hydrophilic and low acidic pigments. Betalains rich R. humilis berry juice (RBJ) could be used as alternative source of these pigments. However, there is no information on safety of these berries. In this research work, RBJ was fed to adult (single-dose: 1, 2 and 5 g RBJ/kg bw) and growing (repeated-dosing: 2.5 and 5 g RBJ/kg bw for 35 days; dietary feeding: 0.5%, 1% and 2% RBJ in diet, w/w for 90 days) male rats to assess acute, subacute and subchronic toxic responses. In all the three studies, RBJ was well tolerated plus the feed intake, body and organ weights of RBJ administered groups were comparable to that of untreated control rats. Data on hematology, histology of vital organs, biochemical measurements in serum and liver of RBJ treated rats were comparable to that of control in repeated-dosing and subchronic dietary study. These results suggest that intake of RBJ does not affect growth and normal biochemical homeostasis. Hence, RBJ is safe to consume without any adverse effects in the body. PMID:21914457

  19. Antiaggregation potential of berry fractions against pairs of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihinen, Kaisu; Ryynänen, Anu; Toivanen, Marko; Könönen, Eija; Törrönen, Riitta; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Coaggregation is an interspecies adhesion process, which is essential to the development of dental plaque. This is an in vitro study of the composition of the soluble solids in the berry juice molecular size fractions (100 kDa, FIII) derived from apple, bilberry, blackcurrant, cloudberry, crowberry and lingonberry and their ability to inhibit and reverse coaggregation of the pairs of common species in dental plaque: Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii. Inhibitory and reversal activity was found in the molecular size fractions FII and FIII of bilberry, blackcurrant, crowberry and lingonberry. The active fractions contained higher amounts of polyphenols (5-12% of soluble solids) than those without activity (<2% of soluble solids). Proanthocyanidins dominated in the active lingonberry juice fractions FII and FIII and also small amounts of anthocyanins were detected. Anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides were prevalent in FII and FIII fractions of bilberry, blackcurrant and crowberry juices. Comparable amounts of sugars and titratable acids were present in the latter three berry juice fractions of different size. The results indicate that the high molecular size fractions of lingonberry, bilberry, blackcurrant and crowberry juices have antiaggregation potential on common oral bacteria, the potential being associated with their polyphenolic content. PMID:20623601

  20. HARA – NEWEST WINE HIGH QUALITY AROMATIC GRAPE VERIETY WITH PINK BERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The newest high-tech pink berry aromatic grape variety Hara selected by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece researchers P.K. Zamanidi and L.P. Troshin in 2004 by crossing the Greek varieties Avgulato with Traminer pink. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics related to the eco-geographical group of Black Sea. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m. Degree of ripening vines is very high (over the entire length other than top of shoot. Length of production period from bud burst to harvest 146-155 days. Productivity is very high, 25-30 t/ha. Percentage of productive shoots - 90. The average mass of clusters within 350 g. Characterized by a high winter hardiness, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties Vitis vinifera. Hermaphrodite flower with stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Cluster medium, conical, medium density. Berry medium, spherical, pink color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice with pronounced varietal flavor of Gewurztraminer. Sugar content is very high, more than 24%. When overripening dry-curing and continuously stored on the clusters. Variety intended for the manufacture of dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality dessert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high quality juices, compotes

  1. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins. PMID:26687319

  2. Cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-02-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape farms to evaluate cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens). At each farm, wild grapevines were cut in the woods adjacent to one vineyard for control of P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received no such cutting. Both vineyards received a standard broad-spectrum insecticide program for control of P. viteana and other vineyard insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between treatments in the total number of male moths trapped in both woods and vineyards. Egglaying by P. viteana was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation by P. viteana, no differences were observed between programs in the percent of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In all but one sample, survival of P. viteana larvae was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments, parasitism of P. viteana larvae within vineyards was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments on all sample dates, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two treatments throughout the study. The opportunities and benefits of cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control in grape integrated pest management programs in eastern North America are discussed.

  3. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins.

  4. Determination of anthocyanidins in berries and red wine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, N A; Kumpulainen, J T

    2001-09-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of anthocyanidins from berries and red wine is described. Delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin contents of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa cv. Jonsok), and a Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) red wine were determined. The aglycon forms of the anthocyanins present in the samples were revealed by acid hydrolysis. A reversed phase analytical column was employed to separate the anthocyanidins before identification by diode array detection. The suitability of the method was tested by determining the recovery (95-102% as aglycons and 69-104% from glycosides) for each anthocyanidin. Method repeatability was tested by charting the total aglycon content of two samples over a period of 14 analyses and determining the coefficients of variation (1.41% for bilberry and 2.56% for in-house reference material). The method developed proved thus to be effective for reliable determination of anthocyanidins from freeze-dried berry samples and red wine. The total anthocyanidin content of the tested samples was as follows: in-house reference material, 447 +/- 8 mg/100 g; strawberry, 23.8 +/- 0.4 mg/100 g; black currant, 135 +/- 3 mg/100 g; bilberry, 360 +/- 3 mg/100 g; and Cabernet sauvignon red wine, 26.1 +/- 0.1 mg/100 mL. PMID:11559107

  5. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars. PMID:26471534

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Polyphenols of Aronia in Comparison to other Berry Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Jakobek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of various berries: [aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, red raspberry (Rubus idaeus, and strawberry (Fragaria anannassa] have been evaluated in this study by using Folin-Ciocalteau, pH-differential, and DPPH method. Amount of anthocyanins ranged from 232 to 4341 mg kg-1 in strawberry and aronia, respectively. Total polyphenol content varied from 1005 mg kg-1 in strawberry to 10637 mg kg-1 in aronia. Aronia contains the highest amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins among the berries studied. It shows the highest antioxidant activity, as well. Therefore, individual polyphenolic compounds of aronia were studied further in more details. The amount of fl avonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and anthocyanins in aronia was determined by using HPLC method. Anthocyanins found in aronia were derivatives of cyanidin of which the most abundant were cyanidin-3- galactoside (68.9% and cyanidin-3-arabinoside (24.5%. Quercetin was the main flavonol, with 93.07 % in total flavonol amount. The level of kaempferol was low (6.93% while myricetin was not identified.

  7. Evaluation of berries of Phytolacca dodecandra for growth inhibition of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum and treatment of cases of epizootic lymphangitis in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negesse Mekonnen; Eyasu Makonnen; Nigatu Aklilu; Gobena Ameni

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the berries of Phytolacca dodecandra (P. dodecandra) for its effect on Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum (HCF) and for the treatment of cases of epizootic lymphangitis (EL). Methods:Samples were collected from un-ruptured nodules of cases of EL at Debre Zeit and Akaki (central Ethiopia). Mycological culture and isolation of HCF were performed at the Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology. Phytochemical screening was done for n-butanol extract of P. dodecandra to detect alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of aqueous and n-butanol extracts of P. dodecandra against HCF were determined by agar dilution assay. For the in vivo trial, 5%simple ointment was prepared from n-butanol extract and applied topically to 24 (twelve early and twelve moderate) cases of EL. Results:Phytochemical screening showed that n-butanol extract of P. dodecandra was positive for alkaloids, saponins and phenolic compounds but negative for flavonoids. The MICs of n-butanol and aqueous extracts of P. dodecandra were (0.039%-0.078%) and (0.625%-1.250%), respectively. The MFCs of n-butanol and aqueous extracts of P. dodecandra were (0.078%-0.156%) and (1.250%-2.500%), respectively. The MIC and MFC of ketoconazole (positive control) was (1.200×10-5%-2.500×10-5%) and (5.000×10-5%-1.000×10-4%), respectively while growth was observed on free medium (negative control). From the total of 24 treated cases of EL, 14 (58.3%) responded to treatment;however, 10 (41.7%) did not respond to treatment. There was no significant difference in the degree of response to treatment between early and moderate cases (χ²=0.686;P=0.408). Conclusions:It can be concluded that n-butanol extract of P. dodecandra demonstrates antifungal effects while the aqueous extract shows no antifungal activity.

  8. Evaluation of biological activities of Physalis peruviana ethanol extracts and expression of Bcl-2 genes in HeLa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Çakir; Murat Pekmez; Elif Çepni; Bilgin Candar; Kerem Fidan

    2014-01-01

    Physalis species are used in folk medicine for phytotherapeutic properties. The extracts of medicinal plants are known to possess cytotoxic and chemopreventative compounds. In this study we investigated antibacterial, antioxidant, DNA damage preventative properties of Physalis peruviana (golden berry) on leaf and shoot ethanol extracts and their effects on cytotoxicity of HeLa cells and expression of apoptotic pathway genes. Among the tested bacteria for antibacterial activity, maximum inhibi...

  9. A Berry-Esseen Theorem and a Law of the Iterated Logarithm for Asymptotically Negatively Associated Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Feng WANG; Li Xin ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Negatively associated sequences have been studied extensively in recent years. Asymp-totically negative association is a generalization of negative association. In this paper a Berry-Esseen theorem and a law of the iterated logarithm are obtained for asymptotically negatively associated sequences.

  10. Natural parasitism of Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...

  11. Mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of berry components in in vitro models of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma M; Gill, Chris I R; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of several cancers, particularly colorectal cancer, possibly linked to their phytochemical content, which is of interest due to several proposed health benefits, including potential anticancer activity. Epidemiological data suggests that cancers of the digestive tract are most susceptible to dietary modification, possibly due to being in direct contact with bioactive food constituents and therefore investigating the effects of these bioactive compounds on the prevalent colorectal cancer is feasible. Berries are a common element of Western diets, with members of the Rubus, Fragria, Sorbus, Ribes and Vaccinum genus featuring in desserts, preserves, yoghurts and juices. These soft fruit are rich in bioactive phytochemicals including several classes of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols) and phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids). Whilst there is little data linking berry consumption to reduced risk of colorectal cancer, in vitro evidence from models representing colorectal cancer suggests that berry polyphenols may modulate cellular processes essential for cancer cell survival, such as proliferation and apoptosis. The exact mechanisms and berry constituents responsible for these potential anticancer activities remain unknown, but use of in vitro models provides a means to elucidate these matters.

  12. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  13. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  14. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) Berries in Nordic Environment: Compositional Response to Latitude and Weather Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-06-22

    Flavonol glycosides (FGs) in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) berries of varieties 'Tytti' and 'Terhi', cultivated in northern Finland (68°02' N) for six years and southern Finland (60°23' N) for seven years, were investigated and compared by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The average total content of 23 identified glycosides of isorhamnetin and quercetin was 103 ± 23 and 110 ± 21 mg/100 g fresh berries in 'Terhi' and 'Tytti', respectively. The total contents of FGs, flavonol diglycosides, and triglycosides in both varieties were higher in the north than in the south, whereas total flavonol monoglycoside content behaved vice versa (p < 0.05). Among the 89 weather variables studied, the sum of the daily mean temperatures that are 5 °C or higher from the start of growth season until the day of harvest was the most important variable which associated negatively with the accumulation of FGs in berries. Such influence was much stronger in berries from the north than from the south. PMID:27215398

  15. Foliar reflective film and water deficit increase anthocyanin to soluble solids ratio during berry ripening in Merlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated temperature can decrease the ratio of anthocyanins to soluble solids in red-skinned berries and warming trends in grape production regions have raised concern about color to alcohol balance in wines produced from fruit with altered ratios. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of a fol...

  16. Theory of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo and parity violating Berry-phases in atoms; Theorie des longitudinalen Atomstrahl-Spinechos und paritaetsverletzende Berry-Phasen in Atomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, T.F.

    2006-07-19

    We present a nonrelativistic theory for the quantum mechanical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments, where a beam of neutral atoms is subjected to static electric and magnetic fields. The atomic wave function is the solution of a matrix-valued Schroedinger equation and can be written as superposition of local (atomic) eigenstates of the potential matrix. The position- and time-dependent amplitude function of each eigenstate represents an atomic wave packet and can be calculated in a series expansion with a master formula that we derive. The zeroth order of this series expansion describes the adiabatic limit, whereas the higher order contributions contain the mixing of the eigenstates and the corresponding amplitude functions. We give a tutorial for the theoretical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments and for the so-called Fahrplan model, which is a visualisation tool for the propagation of wave packets of different atomic eigenstates. As an example for the application of our theory, we study parity violating geometric (Berry-)phases. In this context, we define geometric flux densities, which for certain field configurations can be used to illustrate geometric phases in a vector diagram. Considering an example with a specific field configuration, we prove the existence of a parity violating geometric phase. (orig.)

  17. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  18. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit (goji berry of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25% would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65% would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  19. Flavonol glycosides in berries of two major subspecies of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) and influence of growth sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueying; Laaksonen, Oskar; Zheng, Jie; Yang, Wei; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-06-01

    Flavonol glycosides of wild sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries from China and cultivated berries (H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) from Finland and Canada were identified and quantified. Twenty-six flavonol glycosides were found with isorhamnetin and quercetin as the major aglycones. The contents of flavonol glycosides ranged 23-250 mg/100 g fresh berries and were significantly higher in the berries of ssp. sinensis than in those of ssp. mongolica. Among the cultivars of ssp. mongolica, the berries of 'Oranzhevaya' had the lowest (23 mg/100 g) content, and those of 'Prevoshodnaya' the highest content of flavonol glycosides (80 mg/100 g). Within the ssp. mongolica, the samples from Kittilä (Northern Finland) had higher levels of most flavonol glycosides than those from Turku (Southern Finland) and Québec. Among the ssp. sinensis berries of different growth sites, increasing trends were detected in the contents of most of the compounds as the altitude increased and as the latitude decreased. The wild berries (ssp. sinensis) from Sichuan had remarkably high contents and unique profiles of flavonol glycosides. PMID:26830578

  20. Polyols in grape berry: transport and metabolic adjustments as a physiological strategy for water-deficit stress tolerance in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Regalado, Ana; Rodrigues, Diana; Costa, J Miguel; Blumwald, Eduardo; Chaves, M Manuela; Gerós, Hernâni

    2015-02-01

    Polyols are important metabolites that often function as carbon and energy sources and/or osmoprotective solutes in some plants. In grapevine, and in the grape berry in particular, the molecular aspects of polyol transport and metabolism and their physiological relevance are virtually unknown to date. Here, the biochemical function of a grapevine fruit mesocarp polyol transporter (VvPLT1) was characterized after its heterologous expression in yeast. This H(+)-dependent plasma membrane carrier transports mannitol (K m=5.4mM) and sorbitol (K m=9.5mM) over a broad range of polyols and monosaccharides. Water-deficit stress triggered an increase in the expression of VvPLT1 at the fully mature stage, allowing increased polyol uptake into pulp cells. Plant polyol dehydrogenases are oxireductases that reversibly oxidize polyols into monosaccharides. Mannitol catabolism in grape cells (K m=30.1mM mannitol) and mature berry mesocarps (K m=79mM) was, like sorbitol dehydrogenase activity, strongly inhibited (50-75%) by water-deficit stress. Simultaneously, fructose reduction into polyols via mannitol and sorbitol dehydrogenases was stimulated, contributing to their higher intracellular concentrations in water-deficit stress. Accordingly, the concentrations of mannitol, sorbitol, galactinol, myo-inositol, and dulcitol were significantly higher in berry mesocarps from water-deficit-stressed Tempranillo grapevines. Metabolomic profiling of the berry pulp by GC-TOF-MS also revealed many other changes in its composition induced by water deficit. The impact of polyols on grape berry composition and plant response to water deficit stress, via modifications in polyol transport and metabolism, was analysed by integrating metabolomics with transcriptional analysis and biochemical approaches. PMID:25433029

  1. Oviposition preference and larval performance of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) infected berries of Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Z M; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Wheatley, Warwick M; Cook, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we tested the behavior of gravid Epiphyas postvittana in selecting the most-appropriate site for oviposition thus benefitting offspring performance. Our hypothesis was built on Jaenike's preference-performance hypothesis (also referred to as the "mother-knows-the-best" hypothesis). To test this, we used the interacting Epiphyas postvittana, its host Vitis vinifera, and the pathogenic microbe Botrytis cinerea system. Populations of E. postvittana and B. cinerea often exist concurrently on V. vinifera in Australasia and their interaction and mutual influence are currently being explored, although the suggestion presently is that the relationship between E. postvittana and B. cinerea is mutualistic. We tested the effect of volatiles from B. cinerea-infected berries and uninfected (control) berries of V. vinifera on the oviposition behavior of E. postvittana. We also characterized the effects of B. cinerea infection on the berries of V. vinifera on the growth and development of E. postvittana. Contrary to the preference-performance hypothesis, oviposition choices made by gravid E. postvittana did not result in the best offspring survival, development, and performance. The preference for oviposition by E. postvittana was strongly influenced by the olfactory and tactile cues. She laid fewer eggs on B. cinerea-infected berries compared to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae of E. postvittana showed no preference to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae fed on B. cinerea-infected berries of V. vinifera showing greater survival rate, shorter time to pupation, greater pupal mass, and on becoming adults they laid more numbers of eggs than the larvae that were enabled to feed on uninfected berries. The larvae of E. postvittana transport the conidia of B. cinerea and transmit grey-mould disease to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. PMID:25420720

  2. Berry-Esseen's central limit theorem for non-causal linear processes in Hilbert space

    CERN Document Server

    Machkouri, Mohamed EL

    2010-01-01

    Let $H$ be a real separable Hilbert space and $(a_k)_{k\\in\\mathbb{Z}}$ a sequence of bounded linear operators from $H$ to $H$. We consider the linear process $X$ defined for any $k$ in $\\mathbb{Z}$ by $X_k=\\sum_{j\\in\\mathbb{Z}}a_j(\\varepsilon_{k-j})$ where $(\\varepsilon_k)_{k\\in\\mathbb{Z}}$ is a sequence of i.i.d. centered $H$-valued random variables. We investigate the rate of convergence in the CLT for $X$ and in particular we obtain the usual Berry-Esseen's bound provided that $\\sum_{j\\in\\mathbb{Z}}\\vert j\\vert\\|a_j\\|_{\\mathcal{L}(H)}<+\\infty$ and $\\varepsilon_0$ belongs to $L_H^{\\infty}$.

  3. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-05-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF PONDS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN SMALL RIVERS OF BERRY (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid AZAROUAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ponds on dissolved oxygen in small rivers of Berry (France. Water temperature and oxygen saturation are two major indicators of water quality in surface hydrology. Geographical and cartographic studies about ponds of Central France did no exist until now. During two years, we measured dissolved oxygen using a hand oximeter upstream and downstream of three ponds in the headwaters of the Loire basin. Our results show that oxygen saturation depends on equipments located before and behind the dam, and upstream and downstream: spillways, outlets with a monk, diversion channel, artificial reoxygenation weirs and so on. In some cases (low water quality upstream, existence of weir, relative and absolute saturation of dissolved oxygen increases downstream of ponds.

  5. The use of the quality model of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry in health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileide Morais Pena

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an article about the theoretical model for assessing quality in health services proposed by Parasuraman, Zheitaml and Berry, in order to measure the degree of satisfaction of users. This model is based on the analysis of expectations and perceptions of users of health services, by means of five dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. From the difference between what is expected by the user and the service offered, gaps or shortcomings are derived that may be the main obstacle for users to perceive the provision of such services with quality. It was observed that the use of the psychometric scale called Service Quality (SERVQUAL in some studies about satisfaction, obtained very favorable results in the institutions in which it was employed. The analysis revealed the need to improve the existing models of evaluation, as well as the importance of measuring user satisfaction in health institutions.

  6. Berry productivity estimation of biological(botanical) reservations 'Milevichsky' and 'Zalyuchitsky'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of creation of local status biological (botanical) reservations in Zhitkovichi district is scientifically substantiated on he basis of performed investigations and analysis of location nature conditions of declared reservations, their nature potential and on the estimation of productivity of wild berr plantation and radiation situation. Forest districts of these reservations have high productivity of wild bilberries and great bilberry and natural background radiation. The specific radiation activity of bilverries collected in the foregoing districts of Milevichi and Zalyutichi forestry does not exceed 60 Bk/kg, that is less than 30% of the permissible rate. Main recommendations were developed for protection and utilization of reservations, for conservation of the conditions required for growing forests with optimum characteristics, which promote vegetation and high productivity of wild berry reservations

  7. Fully Controllable Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurface Array with High Conversion Efficiency and Broad Bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanbao; Bai, Yang; Zhao, Qian; Yang, Yihao; Chen, Hongsheng; Zhou, Ji; Qiao, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces have powerful abilities to manipulate the properties of electromagnetic waves flexibly, especially the modulation of polarization state for both linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) waves. However, the transmission efficiency of cross-polarization conversion by a single-layer metasurface has a low theoretical upper limit of 25% and the bandwidth is usually narrow, which cannot be resolved by their simple additions. Here, we efficiently manipulate polarization coupling in multilayer metasurface to promote the transmission of cross-polarization by Fabry-Perot resonance, so that a high conversion coefficient of 80–90% of CP wave is achieved within a broad bandwidth in the metasurface with C-shaped scatters by theoretical calculation, numerical simulation and experiments. Further, fully controlling Pancharatnam-Berry phase enables to realize polarized beam splitter, which is demonstrated to produce abnormal transmission with high conversion efficiency and broad bandwidth. PMID:27703254

  8. Pancharatnam-Berry phase induced spin-selective transmission in herringbone dielectric metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Kenney, Mitchell; Zhang, Xueqian; Su, Xiaoqiang; Kim, Teun-Teun; Wang, Dongyang; Wu, Dongmin; Ouyang, Chunmei; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Hongbo; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating the polarisation of light is crucial for sensing and imaging applications. One such aspect in particular is selective transmission of one circular polarisation (spin) when light is transmitted through a medium or a device. However, most present methods of achieving this have relatively low efficiency and selectivity, whilst high selectivity examples rely on lossy and complex three-dimensional helical or multilayer structures. Here, we propose a dielectric metamaterial approach for achieving spin-selective transmission of electromagnetic waves, utilizing spin-controlled constructive or destructive interference between two Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phases in conjunction with propagative dynamic phase. The dielectric metamaterial, consisting of monolithic silicon herringbone structures, exhibits a broadband operation in the terahertz regime whilst obtaining a spin-selective efficiency upwards of 60%. Such a device is robust and is not easily degraded by errors in fabrication.

  9. [The use of the quality model of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry in health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Mileide Morais; da Silva, Edenise Maria Santos; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Melleiro, Marta Maria

    2013-10-01

    This is an article about the theoretical model for assessing quality in health services proposed by Parasuraman, Zheitaml and Berry, in order to measure the degree of satisfaction of users. This model is based on the analysis of expectations and perceptions of users of health services, by means of five dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. From the difference between what is expected by the user and the service offered, gaps or shortcomings are derived that may be the main obstacle for users to perceive the provision of such services with quality. It was observed that the use of the psychometric scale called Service Quality (SERVQUAL) in some studies about satisfaction, obtained very favorable results in the institutions in which it was employed. The analysis revealed the need to improve the existing models of evaluation, as well as the importance of measuring user satisfaction in health institutions. PMID:24346466

  10. Berry phases and the intrinsic thermal Hall effect in high-temperature cuprate superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Vafek, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    Bogolyubov quasiparticles move in a practically uniform magnetic field in the vortex state of high-temperature cuprate superconductors. When set in motion by an externally applied heat current, the quasiparticles' trajectories may bend, causing a temperature gradient perpendicular to the heat current and the applied magnetic field, resulting in the thermal Hall effect. Here we relate this effect to the Berry curvature of quasiparticle magnetic sub-bands, and calculate the dependence of the intrinsic thermal Hall conductivity on superconductor's temperature, magnetic field and the amplitude of the d-wave pairing. The intrinsic contribution to thermal Hall conductivity displays a rapid onset with increasing temperature, which compares favourably with existing experiments at high magnetic field on the highest purity samples. Because such temperature onset is related to the pairing amplitude, our finding may help to settle a much-debated question of the bulk value of the pairing strength in cuprate superconductors in magnetic field. PMID:25758469

  11. [The use of the quality model of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry in health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Mileide Morais; da Silva, Edenise Maria Santos; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Melleiro, Marta Maria

    2013-10-01

    This is an article about the theoretical model for assessing quality in health services proposed by Parasuraman, Zheitaml and Berry, in order to measure the degree of satisfaction of users. This model is based on the analysis of expectations and perceptions of users of health services, by means of five dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. From the difference between what is expected by the user and the service offered, gaps or shortcomings are derived that may be the main obstacle for users to perceive the provision of such services with quality. It was observed that the use of the psychometric scale called Service Quality (SERVQUAL) in some studies about satisfaction, obtained very favorable results in the institutions in which it was employed. The analysis revealed the need to improve the existing models of evaluation, as well as the importance of measuring user satisfaction in health institutions.

  12. EFTIHIYA – THE NEWEST WINE AROMATIC VARIETY WITH PINK COLORED BERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The newest wine grape variety Eftihiya with aromatic pink colored skin (in Greek the name means “happi-ness” was breed with hybridization at the Athens In-stitute of Viticulture by P. Zamanidi, L. Troshin and P. Radchevskiy in 2005 by crossing the Greek varieties and Malaguzya with Eurasian Traminer pink. Dura-tion of production period from bud burst to harvest 146-155 days. Yields are very high: 25-30 t / ha. Modal mass of clusters is 250 g. Bunch is conical, me-dium density. Berry is medium, short elliptical, pink colored, with a thick wax coating. Pulp and juice with the expressed varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content of more than 24%. Vari-ety is designed for production for the dry white wines of excellent class and high-quality sparkling, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high quality aromatic juices

  13. Non-Abelian Berry phase in a semi-classical description of massive Dirac fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Pu, Shi; Wang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    We derive a semi-classical effective action for massive Dirac fermions in electromagnetic fields. We present two approaches to the effective action -- the path integral approach and the Dirac Lagrangian approach. The non-Abelian Berry phase structure emerges from two helicity states of massive fermions with positive energy. The pseudo-spin also emerges as a vector in SU(2) helicity space. The continuity equations for the fermion number and the helicity are derived. The fermion number is conserved while the helicity charge is not conserved by anomaly. Previous results about the coefficients of the chiral magnetic effect for the fermion and axial currents in the chiral limit can be reproduced after including the anti-fermion contributions.

  14. Interplay between diffraction and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase in inhomogeneously twisted anisotropic media

    CERN Document Server

    Jisha, Chandroth Pannian; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the propagation of an electromagnetic field in a inhomogeneously rotated anisotropic material. Rotation is taken invariant along the propagation direction, the latter corresponding to the rotation axis as well. In such a configuration, electromagnetic evolution is dictated by the Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP), responsible for the appearance of an effective photonic potential. In the accompanying paper [A. Alberucci et al., "Electromagnetic confinement via spin-orbit interaction in anisotropic dielectrics"] we demonstrate that the effective potential support transverse confinement of light. Here we find the profile of the quasi-modes and we show that the photonic potential arises from the Kapitza effect. Theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations, with particular attention to the dependence on the medium birefringence. Finally, we investigate a configuration capable to support non-leaky guided modes.

  15. A candidate-gene association study for berry colour and anthocyanin content in Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cardoso

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST. Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, MYC(A, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHS(A. Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYC(B, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies.

  16. Berry intake changes hepatic gene expression and DNA methylation patterns associated with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman-Lindén, Lovisa; Seki, Yoshinori; Storm, Petter; Jones, Helena A; Charron, Maureen J; Berger, Karin; Holm, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a critical organ for regulation of energy homeostasis and fatty liver disease is closely associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously found that lingonberries, blackcurrants and bilberries prevent, whereas açai berries exacerbate, the development of hepatic steatosis and obesity in the high-fat (HF)-fed C57BL/6J mouse model. In this follow-up study, we investigated the mechanisms behind these effects. Genome-wide hepatic gene expression profiling indicates that the protective effects of lingonberries and bilberries are accounted for by several-fold downregulation of genes involved in acute-phase and inflammatory pathways (e.g. Saa1, Cxcl1, Lcn2). In contrast, açai-fed mice exhibit marked upregulation of genes associated with steatosis (e.g. Cfd, Cidea, Crat) and lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis, which is in line with the exacerbation of HF-induced hepatic steatosis in these mice. In silico transcription factor analysis together with immunoblot analysis identified NF-κB, STAT3 and mTOR as upstream regulators involved in mediating the observed transcriptional effects. To gain further insight into mechanisms involved in the gene expression changes, the HELP-tagging assay was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites. Compared to the HF control group, lingonberries induced genome-wide hypermethylation and specific hypermethylation of Ncor2, encoding the corepressor NCoR/SMRT implicated in the regulation of pathways of metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. We conclude that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries and bilberries are associated with downregulation of inflammatory pathways, whereas for blackcurrants, exerting similar metabolic effects, different mechanisms of action appear to dominate. NF-κB, STAT3 and mTOR are potential targets of the health-promoting effects of berries. PMID:26423886

  17. Evolution of flavonoids in Mouratón berries taken from both bunch halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Boso, S; Santiago, J L; Martínez, M C; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-06-01

    Galicia (N.W. Spain) is a Spanish region with several old-traditional winegrowing areas. There are autochthonous grapevine varieties, such as Vitis vinifera L. cv. Mouratón, considered a biodiversity resource in viticulture and an opportunity for Galician sustainable wine production. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the potential of traditional cultivars to produce quality red wines. In this work, anthocyanin and flavonol evolution was followed in red berries from V. vinifera L. cv. Mouratón. The novelty of this study is that grapes were separately collected from two different positions (tips and shoulders) within the cluster, over ripening to examine the effects of berry position within the fruit cluster on the flavonoid compounds. Derivatives of five anthocyanins (malvidin, peonidin, petunidin, delphinidin and cyanidin) and derivatives of six flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempherol, laricitrin isorhamnetin and syringetin) were detected in both positions within the cluster. Dynamic of anthocyanins (from 819 mg/kg to 1206 mg/kg in tips; and from 786 mg/kg to 1077 mg/kg in shoulders) and dynamic of flavonols (from 25mg/kg to 41 mg/kg in tips; and from 18 mg/kg to 21 mg/kg in shoulders) confirmed their upward trends over ripening. Grapes located inside the shoulder bunch receive less sunlight radiation than those located inside the tip bunch and this fact could explain the different accumulation observed for both positions. These results can be useful for winemakers in order to obtain different final red wine quality.

  18. Berry flesh and skin ripening features in Vitis vinifera as assessed by transcriptional profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lijavetzky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar 'Muscat Hamburg' to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are

  19. [The movement to establish a Christian medical school proposed by medical missionary "John C. Berry"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseda, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    John C. Berry (1847-1936) came to Japan in 1872, worked as a medical missionary for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM . He attempted to influence Japanese medical education toward a more Christian-influenced approach. In early Meiji, the Japanese government adopted the German language and principles for its national medical program. This promoted a tendency towards the adoption of German concepts in Japanese medical education. The director of of Doshisha, Niijima, was concerned about such a tendency, which he considered rather science-oriented or skeptical and atheistic, according to his writings. The tradition of corruption among Japanese doctors also deeply disappointed him. Niijima sought the type of medical institution in which the students would learn Western medicine based on a moral base of Christianity, presumably in Kyoto, to take advantage of the foundation of Doshisha, which had already been built. Missionaries in Japan, especially Berry, supported Niijima's intentions. During his visit to the U.S. he promoted a mission statement in support of Niijima's idea in order to raise funds among Christian communities. This project produced a resolution among the Christian community in Philadelphia to establish an interdenominational foundation for establishing such a medical institution and it encouraged other cities to follow. However, the American Board of Missionaries in Japan disagreed with the idea of its being interdenominational, and then, along with other struggles such as the lack of funding in light of the economic slowdown, and the widespread social rejection of Christianity in Japan, the project fell apart and was suspended.

  20. Berry and Citrus Phenolic Compounds Inhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV: Implications in Diabetes Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial health effects of fruits and vegetables in the diet have been attributed to their high flavonoid content. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a serine aminopeptidase that is a novel target for type 2 diabetes therapy due to its incretin hormone regulatory effects. In this study, well-characterized anthocyanins (ANC isolated from berry wine blends and twenty-seven other phenolic compounds commonly present in citrus, berry, grape, and soybean, were individually investigated for their inhibitory effects on DPP-IV by using a luminescence assay and computational modeling. ANC from blueberry-blackberry wine blends strongly inhibited DPP-IV activity (IC50, 0.07 ± 0.02 to >300 μM. Of the twenty-seven phenolics tested, the most potent DPP-IV inhibitors were resveratrol (IC50, 0.6 ± 0.4 nM, luteolin (0.12 ± 0.01 μM, apigenin (0.14 ± 0.02 μM, and flavone (0.17 ± 0.01 μM, with IC50 values lower than diprotin A (4.21 ± 2.01 μM, a reference standard inhibitory compound. Analyses of computational modeling showed that resveratrol and flavone were competitive inhibitors which could dock directly into all three active sites of DPP-IV, while luteolin and apigenin docked in a noncompetitive manner. Hydrogen bonding was the main binding mode of all tested phenolic compounds with DPP-IV. These results indicate that flavonoids, particularly luteolin, apigenin, and flavone, and the stilbenoid resveratrol can act as naturally occurring DPP-IV inhibitors.

  1. Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Azzimonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine (CHX, one of the most effective drugs administered for periodontal treatment, presents collateral effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Bacterial inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl-5-[(phenyl amino carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT, and colony forming unit (CFU count were evaluated against the two biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary gingival fibroblasts (HGF and mucosal keratinocytes (HK. The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An inhibition halo test demonstrated that both bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05 reduction in bacteria count and viability towards both biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05. In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX.

  2. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB. PMID:27582326

  3. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v for 3 minutes and stored for 11 days under environmental conditions. Next, other berries were immersed into essential oil emulsions of Allium sativum, Copaifera langsdorfii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Eugenia caryophyllata at 5% for 3 minutes but stored for 11 days. Berries immersed into distilled water were used as control-treatments. The percentage of disease incidence observed in the control-treatment was similar to the ones observed in the extract of A. indica at 2%. The control-treatment showed disease severity of 75.13% and the percentage of disease control was 20.85%. Fruit immersed into distilled water presented less effectiveness than the ones immersed into citric extracts, which promoted the highest effectiveness. Citric extract at 4% was the most efficient treatment because the disease incidence was 19.44%, the disease severity was 9.34% and the disease control was 90.16%. Less severity and, consequently, more disease control were achieved by immersing the berries into the emulsion of essential oil of A. sativum, followed by treatments with C. langsdorfii, E. caryophyllata and C. zeylanicum.

  4. Long-term effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on the grape berry phenylpropanoid pathway: Gene expression and metabolite content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-González, Luis; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Ibáñez, Freddy; Pastenes, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    ABA has been proposed as the main signal triggering the onset of the ripening process in grapes, and modulating the secondary metabolism in grape berry skins. To determine the effect of ABA on secondary metabolism in berries, clusters of Carménère were sprayed with 0 μLL(-1) ABA; 50 μLL(-1) ABA and 100 μLL(-1) ABA during pre-véraison, and the gene expression of the transcription factors and enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were assessed from véraison to 70 days after véraison (DAV). Additionally, flavonols, tannins and anthocyanins were assessed from véraison until harvest (110 DAV). ABA accelerated sugar and anthocyanin accumulation at véraison. The grape transcript abundance of VvDFR, VvANS, VvUFGT and VvMybA1, all peaking around véraison mimicked the concentration of ABA throughout the season. The highest anthocyanin concentration occurred 35 DAV for all treatments, but higher pigment concentrations were observed in ABA-treated berries at véraison and from 60 to 70 DAV to harvest. VvPAL was also increased by treatment at the higher concentration of ABA from véraison to 40 DAV. Regarding flavanol synthesis, VvLAR2 and VvMyb4A decreased from véraison until 40 DAV and then increased again until 70 DAV. Compared to the control, both ABA treatments resulted in a less-than-proportional reduction of the expression of both genes compared to the control and, after 40 DAV, in a more-than-proportional increase compared to the control, suggesting a long-term effect of the pre-véraison ABA spray on the berries. A concomitant increase in flavanols was observed in berries after 40 DAV, and this occurred at a higher extent in berries treated with the highest ABA concentration. PMID:27116369

  5. The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chen, Jui-Hao; Liu, Yuh-Hwa; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Traditional therapy with proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics is regarded as optimal for H. pylori eradication whereas, the eradication rate is unsatisfactory. Studies have reported that cranberry may inhibit H. pylori adhesion to the human gastric mucus but lack of other berry extracts have been evaluated in clinical study. Thus, a 9-week add-on randomised controlled trial was conducted to explore the impact of blueberry and grape seed extract (BGE) combinations traditional therapy for H. pylori eradication. In results, we found that there was no significant difference of eradication rate between the berry extract group and placebo group in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis (94.64% versus 84.62%, p = 0.085). Diarrhoea, constipation and epigastric pain were observed increasing during ingestion of the berry extract in some cases. In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy.

  6. φ-混合删失模型中核密度估计的 Berry-Esseen界%Berry-Esseen type bound in kernel density estimation for φ-mixing random censored samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍欣叶; 吴群英; 叶彩园

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the estimation of a density function is studied based on censored data by kernel smoothing meth-od when the survival and censoring times form a stationary φ-mixed sequence.By the inequality of probability density function ofφ-mixing sequence,under some conditions,a Berry-Esseen type bound is obtained for the kernel density es-timator of the probability density function.%在生存时间与删失时间为φ-混合序列的情况下,研究了随机删失模型概率密度函数的核估计,利用φ-混合序列的概率不等式等研究方法,在一定的条件下,获得了此核估计的Berry-Esseen界。

  7. Analysis of the Pancharatnam-Berry phase of vector vortex states using the Hamiltonian based on the Maxwell-Schr\\"odinger equation

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Masato; Yamane, Keisaku; Oka, Kazuhiko; Toda, Yasunori; Morita, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    We derived the Berry connection of vector vortex states (VVSs) from the "true" Hamiltonian obtained through the Maxwell--Schr\\"odinger equation for an inhomogeneous anisotropic (IA) medium, and we experimentally demonstrated measurement of the corresponding Pancharatnam--Berry (PB) geometrical phase of VVSs. The PB phase (PBP) of VVSs can be divided into two phases: homogeneous and inhomogeneous PBPs. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous PBPs are related to the conventional PBP and the spatially-dep...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Berries are a perishable food which can be consumed as fresh or minimally-processed as well as a frozen ingredient added to many foods. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries are the most commonly consumed in the EU. Risk factors for berry contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens in berries were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in berry production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP, Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, should be primary objectives of berry producers. There is currently insufficient evidence to justify the establishment of microbiological criteria for Salmonella for fresh or frozen berries. Outbreaks associated with Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries are an emerging public health risk, although it is not known if in these outbreaks contamination occurred at minimal processing or during primary production. It is currently not possible to assess the suitability of an EU-wide Norovirus Hygiene Criterion at primary production for raspberries and strawberries. Microbiological criteria for Norovirus in berries are useful for validation and verification of food safety management systems, including HACCP-based processes and procedures, and can be used to communicate to food business operators and other stakeholders what is acceptable or unacceptable, however there is insufficient data to provide a risk base for establishing a Process Hygiene and Food Safety Criteria for Norovirus in berries. Collection of appropriate data and subsequent risk

  9. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  10. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  11. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  12. Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development ...

  13. The effect of inertia on the Dirac electron, the spin Hall current and the momentum space Berry curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Debashree; B. Basu

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the spin dependent force and the associated momentum space Berry curvature in an accelerating system. The results are derived by taking into consideration the non relativistic limit of a generally covariant Dirac equation under the presence of electromagnetic field where the methodology of Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is applied to achieve the non relativistic limit. Spin currents appear due to the combined action of the external electric field, crystal field and the induce...

  14. Phases of the Dirac determinant, Abelian Chern-Simons terms and Berry's phases in the field theoretic description of graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Santangelo, E M

    2008-01-01

    This talk presents a study of massless relativistic Dirac fields in three Euclidean dimensions, at finite temperature and density, in the presence of a uniform electromagnetic background. Apart from explaining the behavior of Hall's conductivity for graphene, our results show a direct relationship between the selection of a phase for the Dirac determinant and the generation (or lack thereof) of Berry's phases and Chern-Simons terms.

  15. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan R Morris; John Vandermeer; Ivette Perfecto

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the...

  16. Influence of Fungal Strain, Temperature, and Wetness Duration on Infection of Grapevine Inflorescences and Young Berry Clusters by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Languasco, Luca; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature and wetness duration on infection of Vitis vinifera inflorescences (from "inflorescence clearly visible" to "end of flowering" stages) and young berry clusters (at "fruit swelling" and "berries groat-sized" stages) by Botrytis cinerea was investigated. Artificial inoculations were carried out using conidial suspensions of eight B. cinerea strains belonging to the transposon genotypes transposa and vacuma. Infection incidence was significantly affected by strain but not by transposon genotype (transposon genotype accounted for only 6.5% of the variance). Infection incidence was also affected by the interaction between strain and growth stage of the inflorescence or berry cluster (overall accounting for approximately 57% of the experimental variance). Thus, under our experimental conditions, the ability to cause infection was a strain rather than a transposon genotype attribute. Across all strains, infection incidence was lowest when inflorescences were clearly visible or fully developed, highest at flowering (from beginning to end of flowering), and intermediate at the postflowering fruit stages (fruit swelling and berries groat-sized). One transposa strain, however, was highly virulent on all grapevine growth stages tested. The effects of temperature and wetness duration on infection incidence were similar for all fungal strains and grapevine growth stages; infection incidence was highest at 20°C and lowest at 30°C, and was also low at 5°C. Similar results were obtained for mycelial growth and conidial germination. Based on the pooled data for all strains and grapevine growth stages, an equation was developed that accounted for the combined effects of temperature and wetness duration on relative infection incidence. This equation should be useful for developing decision-making systems concerning B. cinerea control at early grapevine growth stages. PMID:25354016

  17. Potential for Ethanol Vapours to Limit Table Grape Berry Shatter and to Limit Ethylene Evolution from Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Chervin, Christian; Bouzambou, N.; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Westercamp, Pascale

    2005-01-01

    We have shown previously that ethanol vapours (given by 2 ml per kg of grapes) can prevent Botrytis development and stem browning, two of the major problems in postharvest quality of table grapes. In the present paper, we will give emphasis to preliminary results about (i) the role of ethanol vapours in the inhibition of berry shatter and (ii) the control of ethylene evolution from grapes bunches by ethanol vapours and the link to the control of Botrytis

  18. INTERRELATION BETWEEN TYPE AND CULTIVAR OF BERRY-LIKE CROP AND CUTTINGS CRYOPRESERVATION RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Gorbunov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal cryopreservation parameters were determined for the berry-like crop cuttings: blackcurrant (Dachnica, Yuviley, Sofiivska, Kitayskaya; redcurrant (Kitaivska, Djoker, Svyatkova; gooseberries (Krasen, Malachite, Kolobok; raspberries (Novost’ Kuz’mina, Struyka, Skromnica. This procedure allowed increasing viability of deconservation samples in 2–5 times compared to the existing methods of cryopreservation. Maximal values of cutting viability were obtained after their temperature adaptation at –10 °C during 14–60 days, stepwise cooling of the samples with 0.1–0.5 °C/hr rate down to –30 °C (exposure 3–7 days, direct plunging into liquid nitrogen, storage from 1 to 30 days and thawing rate of 70 °C/min. It was found that the in the region of allowable values for maximum viability of investigated birch (control cuttings humidity values correspond 32±40%, for blackcurrant are 40±50%, and raspberries 37±40 % in affirmative temperature span and 14±28 %, 30±40 %, 20±23 % in below zero. Using dispersion analysis it has been established that the development probability of frozenthawed plant cuttings significantly depends on the selected cultivar and cryopreservation method. It is noted that the force of influence η2А, due to the individual properties of the studied cultivars of berries, is comparable to that of the force of influence η2В of cryopreservation procedures. The differences of average indexes of viability of the studied cultivars were showed within a single species. It was found that these rates are different for black currant by 92%, redcurrant — 54%, gooseberries — 48%, raspberries — 70%. Using paired Student’s t-test has reduced to 3 times the error of representativeness of the sample that enabled to improve the reliability of the significance of differences compared to the values of the P ≥0,99. Selection of the cuttings’ cultivars and cryopreservation method significantly affect the

  19. Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

    2008-12-01

    Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes.

  20. Kaolin exogenous application boosts antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in berries and leaves of grapevine under summer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, L-T; Bernardo, S; Conde, A; Pimentel, D; Ferreira, H; Félix, L; Gerós, H; Correia, C M; Moutinho-Pereira, J

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves, high light intensities and water deficit are becoming important threats in many important viticultural areas worldwide, so the implementation of efficient and cost-effective mitigation strategies is crucial for the production of premium wines while maintaining productivity. In this context, the foliar application of kaolin, a chemically inert mineral with excellent reflective properties, is being developed and experimented as a strategy to reduce the impact of heat and drought in Douro vineyards (Northern Portugal), already revealing promising results. In the present study we investigated if an improved antioxidant capacity is part of the beneficial effects of kaolin, by studying changes in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant system in leaves and berries (cv Touriga Nacional). Results showed that mature grape berries contained higher amounts of total phenols (40%), flavonoids (24%), anthocyanins (32%) and vitamin C (12%) than fruits from control vines, and important changes were also measured in leaves. In parallel, kaolin application improved the antioxidant capacity in berries, which was correlated with the observed increased content in secondary metabolites. Kaolin application also regulated secondary metabolism at the transcriptional level through the increase in the transcript abundance of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase. PMID:26717011

  1. Dietary Polyphenols, Berries, and Age-Related Bone Loss: A Review Based on Human, Animal, and Cell Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice A. Hubert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly being resorbed by the body to maintain the calcium balance. Some causes of this bone loss can be attributed to dysregulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity mediated by increased oxidative stress through the aging process. Due to certain serious adverse effects of the currently available therapeutic agents that limit their efficacy, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has garnered interest as a natural means for the prevention of this debilitating disease. Natural antioxidant supplementation, a type of CAM, has been researched to aid in reducing bone loss caused by oxidative stress. Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as anthocyanins rich in berries, are known to have anti-oxidative properties. Several studies have been reviewed to determine the impact polyphenol intake—particularly that of berries—has on bone health. Studies reveal a positive association of high berry intake and higher bone mass, implicating berries as possible inexpensive alternatives in reducing the risk of age related bone loss.

  2. Ozone exposure causes a decoupling of conductance and photosynthesis: implications for the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, Danica; Sparks, Jed P; Bonan, Gordon; Levis, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    Industrialization has significantly altered atmospheric chemistry by increasing concentrations of chemicals such as nitrogen oxides (NO( x )) and volatile organic carbon, which react in the presence of sunlight to produce tropospheric ozone (O(3)). Ozone is a powerful oxidant that causes both visual and physiological damage to plants, impairing the ability of the plant to control processes like photosynthesis and transpiration. Damage to photosynthesis and stomatal conductance does not always occur at the same rate, which generates a problem when using the Ball-Berry model to predict stomatal conductance because the calculations directly rely on photosynthesis rates. The goals of this work were to develop a modeling framework to modify Ball-Berry stomatal conductance predictions independently of photosynthesis and to test the framework using experimental data. After exposure to elevated O(3) in open-top chambers, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in tulip poplar changed at different rates through time. We were able to accurately model observed photosynthetic and stomatal conductance responses to chronic O(3) exposure in a Ball-Berry framework by adjusting stomatal conductance in addition to photosynthesis. This led to a significant improvement in the modeled ability to predict both photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses to O(3).

  3. Landscape context and scale differentially impact coffee leaf rust, coffee berry borer, and coffee root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Jacques; Romero-Gurdián, Alí; Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F; Declerck, Fabrice A J

    2012-03-01

    Crop pest and disease incidences at plot scale vary as a result of landscape effects. Two main effects can be distinguished. First, landscape context provides habitats of variable quality for pests, pathogens, and beneficial and vector organisms. Second, the movements of these organisms are dependent on the connectivity status of the landscape. Most of the studies focus on indirect effects of landscape context on pest abundance through their predators and parasitoids, and only a few on direct effects on pests and pathogens. Here we studied three coffee pests and pathogens, with limited or no pressure from host-specific natural enemies, and with widely varying life histories, to test their relationships with landscape context: a fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, causal agent of coffee leaf rust; an insect, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Their incidence was assessed in 29 coffee plots from Turrialba, Costa Rica. In addition, we characterized the landscape context around these coffee plots in 12 nested circular sectors ranging from 50 to 1500 m in radius. We then performed correlation analysis between proportions of different land uses at different scales and coffee pest and disease incidences. We obtained significant positive correlations, peaking at the 150 m radius, between coffee berry borer abundance and proportion of coffee in the landscape. We also found significant positive correlations between coffee leaf rust incidence and proportion of pasture, peaking at the 200 m radius. Even after accounting for plot level predictors of coffee leaf rust and coffee berry borer through covariance analysis, the significance of landscape structure was maintained. We hypothesized that connected coffee plots favored coffee berry borer movements and improved its survival. We also hypothesized that wind turbulence, produced by low-wind-resistance land uses such as pasture, favored removal of coffee

  4. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Douglas R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million. Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed

  5. Victor Hess Price: neutron experiments on Berry's geometric phase and its stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Berry's phase has the interesting property that it remains more stable than the dynamical phase. The latter depends on the evolution time and the energy distribution of the quantum system, whereas the geometric phase is determined only by the path traced out by the system's state in a curved Hilbert space. This is analogous to the aberration angle of the oscillation plane of Foucault's pendulum after twenty-four hours depending on the curvature of the earth, in particular on the circle of latitude where it is sited. On that account, fluctuations in the path are predicted to be innocuous as long as the evolution of the system is slow enough. This leads to the intriguing situation that the geometric phase can be determined the more precise the longer it takes the system to arrive at its final state. Neutron optics is particularly suited for investigations in the geometric phase using for instance neutron interferometry techniques, but also ultra-cold neutrons - cold enough to be stored in appropriate bottles - can be utilized to study the influence of noise perturbations experimentally. (author)

  6. Assessment of cationic dye biosorption characteristics of untreated and non-conventional biomass: Pyracantha coccinea berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the assessment of the dye methylene blue biosorption properties of Pyracantha coccinea berries under different experimental conditions. Equilibrium and kinetic studies were carried out to determine the biosorption capacity and rate constants. The highest biosorption yield was observed at about pH 6.0, while the biosorption capacity of the biomass decreased with decreasing initial pH values. Batch equilibrium data obtained at different temperatures (15, 25, 35 and 45 deg. C) were modeled by Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Langmuir isotherm model fitted the equilibrium data, at the all studied temperatures, better than the other isotherm models indicating monolayer dye biosorption process. The highest monolayer biosorption capacity was found to be 127.50 mg/g dry biomass at 45 deg. C. Kinetic studies indicate that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model, rather than the pseudo-first-order model. ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo parameters of biosorption show that the process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The biosorbent-dye interaction mechanisms were investigated using a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The biosorption procedure was applied to simulated wastewater including several pollutants. The results obtained indicated that the suggested inexpensive and readily available biomaterial has a good potential for the biosorptive removal of basic dye.

  7. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.: photosynthetic tissues and berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Considine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the ‘ambient’ environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO¬2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  8. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  9. Improvement in fresh fruit and vegetable logistics quality: berry logistics field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Nunes, M Cecilia; Nicometo, Mike; Emond, Jean Pierre; Melis, Ricardo Badia; Uysal, Ismail

    2014-06-13

    Shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables is greatly influenced by environmental conditions. Increasing temperature usually results in accelerated loss of quality and shelf-life reduction, which is not physically visible until too late in the supply chain to adjust logistics to match shelf life. A blackberry study showed that temperatures inside pallets varied significantly and 57% of the berries arriving at the packinghouse did not have enough remaining shelf life for the longest supply routes. Yet, the advanced shelf-life loss was not physically visible. Some of those pallets would be sent on longer supply routes than necessary, creating avoidable waste. Other studies showed that variable pre-cooling at the centre of pallets resulted in physically invisible uneven shelf life. We have shown that using simple temperature measurements much waste can be avoided using 'first expiring first out'. Results from our studies showed that shelf-life prediction should not be based on a single quality factor as, depending on the temperature history, the quality attribute that limits shelf life may vary. Finally, methods to use air temperature to predict product temperature for highest shelf-life prediction accuracy in the absence of individual sensors for each monitored product have been developed. Our results show a significant reduction of up to 98% in the root-mean-square-error difference between the product temperature and air temperature when advanced estimation methods are used.

  10. Monte Carlo based investigation of Berry phase for depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S [ORNL; John, Dwayne O [ORNL; Koju, Vijay [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of light in turbid media is an active area of research with relevance to numerous investigational fields, e.g., biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics. The statistical random-walk nature of photon propagation through turbid media is ideal for computational based modeling and simulation. Ready access to super computing resources provide a means for attaining brute force solutions to stochastic light-matter interactions entailing scattering by facilitating timely propagation of sufficient (>10million) photons while tracking characteristic parameters based on the incorporated physics of the problem. One such model that works well for isotropic but fails for anisotropic scatter, which is the case for many biomedical sample scattering problems, is the diffusion approximation. In this report, we address this by utilizing Berry phase (BP) evolution as a means for capturing anisotropic scattering characteristics of samples in the preceding depth where the diffusion approximation fails. We extend the polarization sensitive Monte Carlo method of Ramella-Roman, et al.,1 to include the computationally intensive tracking of photon trajectory in addition to polarization state at every scattering event. To speed-up the computations, which entail the appropriate rotations of reference frames, the code was parallelized using OpenMP. The results presented reveal that BP is strongly correlated to the photon penetration depth, thus potentiating the possibility of polarimetric depth resolved characterization of highly scattering samples, e.g., biological tissues.

  11. Pancharatnam-Berry optical element sorter of full angular momentum eigenstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gary F

    2016-03-21

    We propose and numerically demonstrate a Pancharatnam-Berry optical element (PBOE) device that simultaneously sorts spin (SAM) and orbital (OAM) angular momentum. This device exploits the circular polarization selective properties of PBOEs to modulate independently the orthogonal SAM eigenstates within a geometric optical transformation that sorts OAM, enabling single measurement characterization of the full angular momentum eigenstate. This expands the available state space for OAM communication and enables characterization of the eigenmode composition of structured polarization beams. We define the two-dimensional orientation patterns of the transversely varying half-waveplate PBOEs that implement the angular momentum sorter. We show that the device discriminates the OAM and SAM eigenstates of optical beams including laser cavity modes such as Laguerre-Gaussian OAM eigenmodes, Hermite-Gaussian modes, and hybrid modes with complex structured polarization. We also demonstrate that it can determine the m parameter of higher order LGml Laguerre-Gaussian modes. The ability of this device to decode information from spatially structured optical phase has potential for applications in communication, encryption, modal characterization, and scientific measurements.

  12. Processes of malate catabolism during the anaerobic metabolism of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to precise malate fate during the anaerobic metabolism of grape, malate-3-14C was injected into Carignan berries kept in darkness at 350C under carbon dioxide atmosphere. The injection of labelled malate was effected in presence or not of non-labelled oxalate which inhibits malic enzyme (EC I.I.I.40). The analyses of the samples fixed after 3 and 7 days anaerobiosis concerned the titration of various substrates, organic acids, amino-acids and glycolysis products, and the measuring of the NADP+-malic enzyme (EC I.I.I.40) and malate dehydrogenase (EC I.I.I.40). Radioactivity is mainly observed in ethanol, amino-butyrate the non-separated group glycerate-shikimate and succinate. Malic enzyme acts in the first sequence of a process leading from malate to ethanol. Alanin synthesis seems to be stimulated in presence of oxalate. The results obtained and some hypotheses presented in the literature induce to suggest a utilization scheme for malate in the anaerobic metabolism of grape

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Social Performance of Global and Local Berry Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikelis Grivins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is twofold: to comparatively analyze the social performance of global and local berry supply chains and to explore the ways in which the social dimension is embedded in the overall performance of food supply chains. To achieve this goal, the social performance of five global and local food supply chains in two countries are analyzed: wild blueberry supply chains in Latvia and cultivated raspberry supply chains in Serbia. The study addresses two research questions: (1 What is the social performance of the local and global supply chains? (2 How can references to context help improve understanding of the social dimension and social performance of food supply chains? To answer these questions, two interlinked thematic sets of indicators (attributes are used—one describing labor relations and the other describing power relations. These lists are then contextualized by examining the micro-stories of the actors involved in these supply chains. An analysis of the chosen attributes reveals that global chains perform better than local chains. However, a context-sensitive analysis from the perspective of embedded markets and communities suggests that the social performance of food chains is highly context-dependent, relational, and affected by actors’ abilities to negotiate values, norms, and the rules embedded within these chains, both global and local. The results illustrate that the empowerment of the chains’ weakest actors can lead to a redefining of the meanings that performance assessments rely on.

  14. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  15. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yun Cui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый. Yan 73 and Pinot Noir had abundant anthocyanins, but only a few nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds. Gamay, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый contained only a few anthocyanins and flavonols. For a grape cultivar, the ratio of one anthocyanin content to total anthocyanin content did not change greatly from one year to the next, unlike for non-anthocyanins. Cluster analysis showed that except for Syrah and Yan 73, the phenolic profiles in the tested grape cultivars had no significant year-to-year variations.

  16. Topological order and Berry connection for the Maxwell Vacuum on a four-torus

    CERN Document Server

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    We study novel type of contributions to the partition function of the Maxwell system defined on a small compact manifold such as torus. These new terms can not be described in terms of the physical propagating photons with two transverse polarizations. Rather, these novel contributions emerge as a result of tunnelling events when transitions occur between topologically different but physically identical vacuum winding states. These new terms give an extra contribution to the Casimir pressure. The infrared physics in the system can be described in terms of the topological auxiliary non-propagating fields $a_i(\\mathbf{k})$ governed by Chern-Simons -like action. The system can be studied in terms of these auxiliary fields precisely in the same way as a topological insulator can be analyzed in terms of Berry's connection ${\\cal{A}}_i(\\mathbf{k})$. We also argue that the Maxwell vacuum defined on a small 4-torus behaves very much in the same way as a topological insulator with $\\theta\

  17. Detailed analyses of fresh and dried maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) berries and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, J E; Buchweitz, M; Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a detailed chemical characterization of nutritionally-relevant, quality-determining constituents in dried and fresh fruits as well as juices of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) is provided. A total of 8 glycosylated anthocyanins was characterized in maqui fruits, being composed of differently substituted cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. During processing into juice, a substantial loss in total anthocyanin contents (TAC) was observed. TAC values were also reduced after drying of maqui berries. Likewise, the browning index (BI) of fresh fruits increased during processing. Being composed of flavonol glycosides and ellagic acids, 17 non-anthocyanin phenolics were characterized in all maqui samples. Besides characterizing phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, total phenolics, major sugars, non-volatile organic acids, minerals and trace elements were quantitated. Moreover, total lipid contents and the fruits' mainly unsaturated fatty acid profiles are reported. The presented results indicate the high potential of maqui as so far under-utilized but extremely pigment-rich "superfruit". PMID:26212975

  18. Neuroprotective effects of anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts in cellular models of Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Strathearn, Katherine E.; Yousef, Gad G.; Grace, Mary H.; Roy, Susan L.; Tambe, Mitali A.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Wu, Qing-Li; Simon, James E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Rochet, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathological evidence indicates that dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves impairment of mitochondrial complex I, oxidative stress, microglial activation, and the formation of Lewy bodies. Epidemiological findings suggest that the consumption of berries rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins may reduce PD risk. In this study, we investigated whether extracts rich in anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, or other polyphenols suppress the neurotoxic effects of rotenon...

  19. ASSESSMENT OF BIOTHERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF PIMENTA DIOICA (ALLSPICE LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Pratima Khandelwal et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available All-spice (pimenta is one of the under-utilized resources available in the tropical regions of the globe. It is a variety of sweet pepper used as a spice and its leaves are used for traditional culinary purpose. Researchers have studied the antioxidant potentials of the berries of the plant, but no documented work is reported on its stem, leaf and roots for antimicrobial properties. Thus, the present investigation was carried out to access the antimicrobial and anti-oxidation potentials of leaf extracts using three solvent systems, (Aqueous, acetone and methanol. All solvent systems at different concentrations were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and reducing capacity against selected bacterial and fungal pathogens; zone of inhibition was exhibited by methanol leaf extracts in decreasing order for Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Lesser inhibitory zones were obtained by acetone leaf extracts, whereas, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not inhibited by any extracts. Aqueous extract demonstrated no inhibitory activity against tested bacterial pathogens. All the three leaf extracts were found to be ineffective against fungal strains (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans tested. Protein content in each extract was determined and reducing capability was estimated which was found to be high in methanol and acetone extract whereas aqueous extract showed low reducing ability.

  20. Reduction of anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in rats after one month of drinking Aronia melanocarpa berry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Mirko; Ignjatović, Đurđica; Tovilović-Kovačević, Gordana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Ranković, Slavica; Popović, Tamara; Glibetić, Marija

    2016-07-13

    The treatment of mood and anxiety disorders by nutraceuticals is gaining growing awareness. Berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Black chokeberry) and their extracts, exceptionally abundant in diverse phenolic compounds, have become famous for the highest in vitro antioxidant activity among fruits and notable health benefits (e.g. anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective). This study was designed to investigate the behavioral effects of month-long unlimited consumption of Aronia master juice (AJ) and/or juice reconstruct without polyphenols (RJ), in young male rats. AJ was initially evaluated for its content of phenolic compounds by spectrophotometric assays and HPLC-DAD. Rats that were supplied with three various water concentrations of AJ and RJ, respectively: 20% + 0% (ARO group), 5% + 15% (RAJ) and 0 + 20% (PLC), were compared with those which consumed only water (CTL). Daily drinking of AJ solution was significantly elevated from the second or third week onward, which was most expressed in the ARO group. Only this group displayed behavioral variations, manifested by certain hyperactivity in open field tests and prominent reductions of anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. The ARO rats also expressed an alleviation of depression-like behavior in forced swimming tests. These findings demonstrate the beneficial behavioral effects of the one-month-long free drinking of phenolic-rich AJ in rats (>20 ml per kg b. mass daily) that may be recognized as stimulating, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like. The in vitro assays suggested that MAO-A/MAO-B inhibitions by the phenolic compounds of AJ might be the possible in vivo mechanisms for such behavioral actions. PMID:27273205

  1. 树莓采摘机械研制必要性分析%Analysis of the Necessity of Inventing Tree Berry Picking Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟艳; 高希君; 国委文

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing of tree berry's cultivation, the low efficiency, high labour intensity of manual picking and high cost are blocking the development of tree berry industry. This article investigates the development status of tree berry's picking mechanization domestic and international, market requirement and expecting benefits, analyzes the necessity of inventing tree berry picking machine, provides a reference for promoting the development of tree berry production mechanization in our country.%随着树莓推广种植面积的不断增加,树莓人工采摘劳动强度大且效率低、成本高的问题已经严重影响到树莓产业的发展。在调查研究国内外树莓采摘机械化发展现状、市场需求情况和预期效益的基础上,分析研制树莓采摘机械的必要性,为促进我国树莓生产机械化发展提供依据。

  2. Polyphenolic responses of grapevine berries to light, temperature, oxidative stress, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid show specific developmental-dependent degrees of metabolic resilience to perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degu, Asfaw; Ayenew, Biruk; Cramer, Grant R; Fait, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    Grape-berries are exposed to a plethora of abiotic and biotic stimuli during their development. The developmental and temporal regulation of grape berry polyphenol metabolism in response to various cues was investigated using LC-QTOF-MS based metabolite profiling. High light (2500μmolm(-2)s(-1)), high temperature (40°C), jasmonic acid (200μM), menadione (120μM) and abscisic acid (3.026mM) treatments were applied to detached berries. Greater magnitudes of metabolite fluctuations characterize the pre-veraison berries than the veraison stage in response to the treatments. Furthermore, a tighter co-response of metabolic processes was shown at veraison, likely supporting the resilience to change in response to stress. High temperature and ABA treatments led to greater magnitudes of change during the course of the experiment. The present study demonstrates the occurrence of differential patterns of metabolic responses specific to individual cues and berry developmental stage, which in the field are commonly associated and thus hardly discernable. PMID:27374601

  3. Keefektifan insektisida cyantraniliprole terhadap hama penggerek buah kopi ( Hypothenemus hampei pada ko pi arabika ( Effectiveness cyantraniliprole against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampeion arabica coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A trial on cyantraniliprole 10% against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei has been conducted on arabica coffee at Kalibendo Estate, in Banyuwangi regency, East Java. The altitude of the estate is about 650 m above sea level (asl. and belongs to B type of climate classification according to Schmidt and Ferguson. Composite variety of arabica coffee at about four years old planted at the location was used as plant materials. Five levels of cyantranilprole dosage and two compared insecticides i.e: carbaryl 85% and lamda cyhalothrine 25 g/L have been applied as treatments and each treatment is replicated four times. Infestation of coffee berry borer (CBB has been observed on berries in the field as well as on harvested berries and green coffee. The results revealed that cyantraniliprole 10% was very effective in suppressing infestation and population of CBB on coffee berries in the field as well as on harvested parchment and green coffee. The dosage of 2,000 ml/ha was the most effective and the highest level of efficacy against CBB until the last observation during 14 weeks trial. Application of cyantraniliprole 10% also has increased the production of green coffee harvested. The highest increase occurred on the treatment of cyantraniliprole 10% with a dosage of 1000 ml/ha, which it reached 62.87% higher compared to untreated treatment. Carbaryl and lamda cyhalothrine have effectiveness and efficacy level lower than the highest dosage of cyantraniliprole 10%.

  4. Caracterização do suco de amora-preta elaborado em extrator caseiro Characterisation of black-berry juice prepared in a domestic extractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar a composição físico-química, aceitabilidade e efeito do armazenamento na qualidade do suco de amora-preta elaborado em um extrator caseiro. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto à composição físico-química e separados de acordo com o teor de antocianinas em três grupos: acima de 160 mg/100 g (Guarani, de 120-160 mg/100 g (Caingangue e Comanche e abaixo de 120 mg/100 g (Tupy, Seleção 97 e Cherokee. Os sucos foram pasteurizados e analisados quanto aos teores de pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, carboidratos solúveis, extrato seco e antocianinas. A extração por 2 h apresentou rendimento de 84%. As antocianinas foram os compostos que sofreram alteração mais significativa na elaboração do suco, com redução média de 42%. O suco apresentou aceitabilidade superior a 85%. O armazenamento em adega ou sob refrigeração alterou de forma significativa apenas o teor de antocianinas dos sucos, cuja degradação foi menor nas amostras conservadas sob refrigeração.The aim of this study was the evaluation of physico-chemical composition, acceptability and storage effects on the quality of black-berry juice prepared in a domestic extractor. Fruits were analysed for their chemical properties and divided in three groups, according to anthocyanin content: above 160 mg/100 g (Guarani, 120-160 mg/100 g (Caingangue and Comanche and below 120 mg/100 g (Tupy, Seleção 97, Cherokee. The pasteurised juices were analysed for parameters related to quality, such as pH, total soluble sugars, titratable acidity, dry extract and anthocyanin content. Extraction for two hours resulted in a yield of 84%. Juice extraction reduced the anthocyanin content in average 42%. The acceptability was over 85%. Storage in wine cellar or refrigerator reduced the anthocyanin content of the juices, whose degradation was smaller in samples stored under refrigeration.

  5. Pectins, Hemicelluloses and Celluloses Show Specific Dynamics in the Internal and External Surfaces of Grape Berry Skin During Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Marianna; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Dal Santo, Silvia; Balestrini, Raffaella; Sanson, Andrea; Pezzotti, Mario; Monti, Francesca; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Grapevine berry skin is a complex structure that contributes to the final size and shape of the fruit and affects its quality traits. The organization of cell wall polysaccharides in situ and their modification during ripening are largely uncharacterized. The polymer structure of Corvina berry skin, its evolution during ripening and related modifying genes were determined by combing mid-infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis with transcript profiling and immunohistochemistry. Spectra were acquired in situ using a surface-sensitive technique on internal and external sides of the skin without previous sample pre-treatment, allowing comparison of the related cell wall polymer dynamics. The external surface featured cuticle-related bands; the internal surface showed more adsorbed water. Application of surface-specific normalization revealed the major molecular changes related to hemicelluloses and pectins in the internal surface and to cellulose and pectins in the external surface and that they occur between mid-ripening and full ripening in both sides of the skin. Transcript profiling of cell wall-modifying genes indicated a general suppression of cell wall metabolism during ripening. Genes related to pectin metabolism-a β-galactosidase, a pectin(methyl)esterase and a pectate lyase-and a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, involved in hemicellulose modification, showed enhanced expression. In agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, patterns due to pectin methyl esterification provided new insights into the relationship between pectin modifications and the associated transcript profile during skin ripening. This study proposes an original description of polymer dynamics in grape berries during ripening, highlighting differences between the internal and external sides of the skin. PMID:27095736

  6. Determination of optimum harvesting time for vitamin C, oil and mineral elements in berries sea buckthorn (hippophae rhamnoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea buck thorn a magic plant from Northern areas of Pakistan has multiple uses against various ailments, soil enrichment and environmental purposes. The fruit berries are rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, essential oil, Phytosterol and minerals (Fe, Ca, P, Mn and K). The micro nutrient like vitamin C, oil, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium contents in fruit berries of cultivated sea buck thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides. L. spp. sinensis) harvested at three ripening times were determined using biochemical analysis techniques. Harvesting at different stages of fruit ripening was the primary factor determining maximum expression of these biochemical constituents. Biochemical contents were determined at three fruit developmental stages i.e., unripened stage, medium stage and at full-ripened stage. During this study a decline in vitamin C contents was observed along with the fruit ripening. The oil contents in both seed and pulp increased with fruit ripening. Similarly, the mineral contents like magnesium, calcium and phosphorus contents increases with the fruit ripening in sea buck thorn. The main idea was to identify the maximum expression of biochemical at different stages of fruit maturity. It is concluded that it is better to harvest fruit berries at medium stage of fruit ripening when maximum vitamin C is present. For maximum oil and mineral contents fruit must be harvested at ripening stage. The fruit mesocarp is the area where all genes related with micro nutrients are active at one time i.e., when fruit is maturing, hence the characterization of gene expression activities at this stage may help in the isolation of these genes for future commercial use. (author)

  7. Asymptotic Analysis of Quantum Dynamics in Crystals:the Bloch-Wigner Transform, Bloch Dynamics and Berry Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weinan E; Jian-feng LU; Xu YANG

    2013-01-01

    We study the semi-classical limit of the Schr(o)dinger equation in a crystal in the presence of an external potential and magnetic field.We first introduce the Bloch-Wigner transform and derive the asymptotic equations governing this transform in the semi-classical setting.For the second part,we focus on the appearance of the Berry curvature terms in the asymptotic equations.These terms play a crucial role in many important physical phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect.We give a simple derivation of these terms in different settings using asymptotic analysis.

  8. Cloning and expression of an endo-1,4-β-xylanase from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla-Hurtado Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was

  9. Exogenous application of pectin-derived oligosaccharides to grape berries modifies anthocyanin accumulation, composition and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Daniel; Handford, Michael; Alcalde, José Antonio; Perez-Donoso, Alonso

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites synthesized in grape berry skins via the phenylpropanoid pathway, with functions ranging from skin coloration to protection against pathogens or UV light. Accumulation of these compounds is highly variable depending on genetics, environmental factors and viticultural practices. Besides their biological functions, anthocyanins improve wine quality, as a high anthocyanin content in berries has a positive impact on the color, total phenolic concentration and, ultimately, the price of wine. The present work studies the effect of the pre-veraison application of pectin derived oligosaccharides (PDO) on the synthesis and accumulation of these compounds, and associates the changes observed with the expression of key genes in the phenylpropanoid pathways. To this end, pre-veraison Cabernet Sauvignon bunches were treated with PDO to subsequently determine total anthocyanin content, the anthocyanin profile (by HPLC-DAD) and gene expression (by qRT-PCR), using Ethrel and water treatments for comparison. The results show that PDO were as efficient as Ethrel in generating a significant rise in total anthocyanin content at 30 days after treatment (dat), compared with water treatments (1.32, 1.48 and 1.02 mg e.Mv-3G/g FW respectively) without any undesirable effect on berry size, soluble solids, tartaric acid concentration or pH. In addition, a significant alteration in the anthocyanin profile was observed. Specifically, a significant increase in the relative concentration of malvidin was observed for both PDO and Ethrel treatments, compared with water controls (52.8; 55.0 and 48.3%, respectively), with a significant rise in tri-hydroxylated forms and a fall in di-hydroxylated anthocyanins. The results of gene expression analyses suggest that the increment in total anthocyanin content is related to a short term increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) expression, mediated by a decrease in MYB4A expression. A longer term increase in UDP

  10. Herzberg Circuit and Berry's Phase in Chirality-based Coded Qubit in a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Rene, Alexandre; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical proposal for the Herzberg circuit and controlled accumulation of Berry's phase in a chirality-based coded qubit in a triangular triple quantum dot molecule with one electron spin each. The qubit is encoded in the two degenerate states of a three spin complex with total spin $S=1/2$. Using a Hubbard and Heisenberg model the Herzberg circuit encircling the degeneracy point is realized by adiabatically tuning the successive on-site energies of quantum dots and tunnel cou...

  11. A 9 × 9 Matrix Representation of Birman-Wenzl-Murakami Algebra and Berry Phase in Yang-Baxter System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU Li-Dan; XUE Kang; WANG Gang-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    We present a 9 × 9 S-matrix and E-matrix. A representation of specialized Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra is obtained. Starting from the given braid group representation S-matrix, we obtain the trigonometric solution of Yang-Baxter equation. A unitary matrix R(x,φ1,φ2) is generated via the Yang-Baxterization approach. Then we construct a Yang-Baxter Hamiltonian through the unitary matrixR(x, φ1, φ2). Berry phase of this Yang-Baxter system is investigated in detail.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-tumorigenic Effects of Açai Berry in Helicobacter felis-infected mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju Yup; Kim, Nayoung; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Lee, Seonmin; Ham, Min Hee; Suh, Ji Hyung; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic effect of açai berry after chronic Helicobacter felis colonization in the stomachs of C57BL/6 mice. Methods: A total of 57 four-week-old female C57BL/6 mice (18 control mice and 39 experimental mice) were used. The mice were administered orogastrically with vehicle only or vehicle containing H. felis, 5 times every other day. After inoculation of H. felis, mice were fed either a standard or an açai-co...

  13. Interannual climatic variability effects on yield, berry and wine quality indices in long-term deficit irrigated grapevines, determined by multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pascual Romero,1 Jose Ignacio Fernández-Fernández,2 Pablo Botía1 1Department of Natural Resources, Irrigation Group and Physiology of Stress, 2Department of Viticulture, The Murcian Institute of Agri-Food Research and Development (IMIDA, Murcia, Spain Abstract: The effects of climatic factors on yield and berry and wine quality for long-term (7 years deficit-irrigated (DI Monastrell wine grapes under the semiarid conditions of southeast Spain were analyzed. The relationships between climatic variables and the yield, and novel technological berry quality (QItechnologicalberry, phenolic berry quality (QIphenolicberry, overall berry quality (QIoverallberry, and wine quality (QIwine indices confirmed that the most important climatic factors were rainfall, temperature, and radiation. Climate was more influential in determining yield, berry, and wine composition in some important physiological periods such as early season (budburst–fruit set and ripening (véraison–harvest. In general, climate had more influence on berry quality than on wine quality indices and greater QIoverallberry was also reflected in greater QIwine. According to the stepwise multiple regression, the best fitted models for the partial root-zone drying irrigation (PRI system were less complex (with a lower number of climatic variables than for the regulated deficit irrigation (RDI system, suggesting that PRI is less influenced by climatic factors than RDI. For PRI, the models for yield, berry and wine quality were explained by three climatic factors (rainfall, Tª, and radiation, whereas for RDI, more climatic factors came into play (number of hours of sunshine, evapotranspiration, and vapor pressure deficit. According to these models, in RDI, a sunny and drier pre-véraison period followed by higher soil water availability and associated greater crop evapotranspiration during ripening favored final berry and wine quality. In contrast, in PRI, greater rainfall during the

  14. The effects of bud load and regulated deficit irrigation on sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Razakı table grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangolar Semih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the effects of increased bud load and irrigation applications on berry quality of the Razakı table grape. Two Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI having different irrigation levels (RDI-I and RDI-II based on the growth stages, in addition to a non-irrigated control treatment together with two different bud load practices (K-normal and 2K-two-fold buds of the normal were examined for their effects on quality attributes such as sugar and organic acids contents, phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant capacity of the berries. The non-irrigated vines had highest sugar level (198.86 g/kg in the first year (2013 of the experiment whilst the sugar content of the berries was increased with irrigation (RDI-II in 2014. However the highest organic acid (7.10 g/kg was recorded from the RDI-II treatment in 2013 whereas those of from non-irrigated vines were highest (7.81 g/kg in 2014. Considering the sugar and organic acid content of the berries, bud load effects were not significant. The total phenolic acids were higher under non-irrigated and 2K bud load conditions. Antioxidant activity of berries was increased with RDI-I irrigation and 2K practices in the first year (2013 although no significant effect was recorded in the second year of the experiment. In all applications, glucose among the sugars, tartaric acid among the organic acids, catechin and epicatechin among the phenolic compounds were detected to be higher compared to other components in berries.

  15. Evaluation of cardio protective Activity of Methanolic Extract Of Solanum Nigrum Linn. in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHATIA NITISH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the cardioprotective and anti-oxidant activity of methanolic extract of berries of the plant Solanum nigrum belonging to family solanaceae. The cardioprotective activity of the extract was evaluated by using global in-vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury and tissue biochemical anti-oxidant profile respectively. The study was carried out using doses of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg for 6 days per week for 30 days. The results indicate that the extract exhibited significant (p<0.001 cardioprotective activity against global in-vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury. The extract also exhibited significant (p<0.001 antioxidant potential as evident from the cardiac tissue biochemical antioxidant profile. Overall, the activities occurred in a dose-independent manner. The present study demonstrated that the methanolic extract of berries of the plant Solanum nigrum possessed cardioprotective and anti-oxidant activity and confirmed the traditional claims.

  16. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    be primary objectives of berry producers. There is currently insufficient evidence to justify the establishment of microbiological criteria for Salmonella for fresh or frozen berries. Outbreaks associated with Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries are an emerging public health risk, although......Berries are a perishable food which can be consumed as fresh or minimally-processed as well as a frozen ingredient added to many foods. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries are the most commonly consumed in the EU. Risk factors for berry contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus...... were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens in berries were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment...

  17. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweetman Crystal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest. Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the

  18. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  19. Frontón Euskal Jai Berri Huarte-Pamplona España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibert Tabar, Javier

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euskal Jai Berri sports pavilion in Huarte substitutes for the old Pamplona «pelota» court, and is located a few kilometers outside the city in ample grounds providing sufficient room for the building and car park area. The vast complex design plan includes from the regulationsized court, through the grandstand and boxes for the audience, to a number of facilities and services for payers, audience and staff, such as locker rooms, payers lounge, press room and book-makers hall, administration office, manager's living quarters, players lodging, a bar on each floor, cafeteria and restaurant with kitchen and a number of rest rooms. The building was designed based on three main points, namely: natural lighting, modular structure and clear visibility from all angles. Emphasis was placed on integration of the building into the surrounding landscape in an effort to avoid the contrast between the inevitable prismatic shape of the court and the rounded contour of the hails surrounding it.

    El pabellón deportivo de Euskal Jal Berrl, en Huarte, destinado a sustituir al antiguo frontón de Pamplona, se encuentra emplazado a pocos kilómetros de esta ciudad, en unos amplios terrenos que proporcionan suficiente espacio para la edificación y para una extensa zona de aparcamientos. Su complejo y vasto programa abarca desde la concha reglamentaria y las gradas y palcos para espectadores, fiesta una variada serie de instalaciones y servicios para jugadores, público y personal, tales como: vestuarios, salas para pelotaris, corredores y prensa; oficinas administrativas; vivienda para el gerente; residencias para jugadores; bares en cada planta; cafetería y restaurante con cocina; así como los correspondientes aseos. En su diseño, fundamentado en tres puntos principales —iluminación natural, modulación estructural y perfecta visibilidad—, se tuvo especial cuidado en armonizar la construcción con el paisaje circundante, con el fin de

  20. Temperature and water loss affect ADH activity and gene expression in grape berry during postharvest dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Bellincontro, Andrea; De Santis, Diana; Botondi, Rinaldo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Muleo, Rosario; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2012-05-01

    Clusters of Aleatico wine grape were picked at 18°Brix and placed at 10, 20, or 30°C, 45% relative humidity (RH) and 1.5m/s of air flow to dehydrate the berries up to 40% of loss of initial fresh weight. Sampling was done at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% weight loss (wl). ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene expression, enzyme activity, and related metabolites were analysed. At 10°C, acetaldehyde increased rapidly and then declined, while ethanol continued to rise. At 20°C, acetaldehyde and ethanol increased significantly with the same pattern and declined at 40%wl. At 30°C, acetaldehyde did not increase but ethanol increased rapidly already at 10%wl. At the latter temperature, a significant increase in acetic acid and ethyl acetate occurred, while at 10°C their values were low. At 30°C, the ADH activity (ethanol to acetaldehyde direction), increased rapidly but acetaldehyde did not rise because of its oxidation to acetic acid, which increased together with ethyl acetate. At 10°C, the ADH activity increased at 20%wl and continued to rise even at 40%wl, meaning that ethanol oxidation was delayed. At 20°C, the behaviour was intermediate to the other temperatures. The relative expression of the VvAdh2 gene was the highest at 10°C already at 10%wl in a synchrony with the ADH activity, indicating a rapid response likely due to low temperature. The expression subsequently declined. At 20 and 30°C, the expression was lower and increased slightly during dehydration in combination with the ADH activity. This imbalance between gene expression and ADH activity at 10°C, as well as the unexpected expression of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) gene, opens the discussion on the stress sensitivity and transcription event during postharvest dehydration, and the importance of carefully monitoring temperature during dehydration.

  1. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Brown, Stuart M; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Brodie, Eoin L; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies. PMID:26228545

  2. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    KAUST Repository

    Vega, Fernando E.

    2015-07-31

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.

  3. A Fast Hybrid Algorithm Approach for the Exact String Matching Problem Via Berry Ravindran and Alpha Skip Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Almazroi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: String matching algorithm had been an essential means for searching biological sequence database. With the constant expansion in scientific data such as DNA and Protein; the development of enhanced algorithms have even become more critical as the major concern had always been how to raise the performances of these search algorithms to meet challenges of scientific information. Approach: Therefore a new hybrid algorithm comprising Berry Ravindran (BR and Alpha Skip Search (ASS is presented. The concept is based on BR shift function and combines with ASS to ensure improved performance. Results: The results obtained in percentages from the proposed hybrid algorithm displayed superior results in terms of number of attempts and number of character comparisons than the original algorithms when various types of data namely DNA, Protein and English text are applied to appraise the hybrid performances. The enhancement of the proposed hybrid algorithm performs better at 71%, 60% and 63% when compared to Berry-Ravindran in DNA, Protein and English text correspondingly. Moreover the rate of enhancement over Alpha Skip Search algorithm in DNA, Protein and English text are 48%, 28% and 36% respectively. Conclusion: The new proposed hybrid algorithm is relevant for searching biological science sequence database and also other string search systems.

  4. Identification of a plastid-localized bifunctional nerolidol/linalool synthase in relation to linalool biosynthesis in young grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Cai, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS) synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars ("Riesling", "Cabernet Sauvignon", "Gewurztraminer") with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  5. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations. PMID:26925621

  6. Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Networks in the Grape Berry Illustrate That it Takes More Than Flavonoids to Fight Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental fluctuations. In response, they have developed a wide range of morphological and biochemical adaptations committed to ameliorate the effects of abiotic stress. When exposed to higher solar radiation levels, plants activate the synthesis of a large set of enzymes and secondary metabolites as part of a complex sunscreen and antioxidant defense mechanism. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has become a widely used system for studying adaptive responses to this type of stress since changes in berry composition, positively influenced by increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels, improve the quality of wines subsequently produced. Despite the fact that most of the attention has been directed toward the synthesis of flavonoids, recent transcriptomic and metabolomic studies have shown that stilbenoids and isoprenoids (e.g., terpenes and carotenoids) are also an important part of the grape UV-response machinery. This minireview focuses on the latest findings referring to the metabolic responses of grapes to UV radiation and proposes a model for its transcriptional control. Depending on the berry developmental stage and the type of radiation (i.e., irradiance level, exposure length), increased UV levels activate different metabolic pathways through the activity of master regulators belonging to the basic Leucine Zipper Domain (bZIP) and R2R3-MYB transcription factor families. This transcriptional control is influenced by the interaction of other environmental factors such as light, temperature or soil water availability. In grapevine, phenylpropanoids are part of, but are not the whole story, in the fight against radiation damage.

  7. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.

  8. Brix, pH and anthocyanin content determination in whole Port wine grape berries by hyperspectral imaging and neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Armando M.; Franco, Camilo; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana;

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of measuring pH, sugars, and anthocyanin content of whole grape berries. The spectrum of each sample, composed of six whole grape berries, was collected using hyperspectral imaging in reflectance mode from 380 to 1028 nm. The spectra were converted to enological...... parameters by multilayer perceptrons created using 240 samples that were split for 7-fold cross-validation and test. The test set with 30 samples revealed R2 values of 0.73, 0.92 and 0.95 and RMSE of 0.18, 0.95 °Brix and 14 mg/l for pH, sugars and anthocyanin content, respectively. This is the only work, up...... to the authors’ knowledge, that reports the simultaneous determination of pH, sugars and anthocyanin with a spatial resolution smaller than the bunch size, by spectroscopy measurements done in reflectance mode. The results presented show an improvement of the state-of-the-art, for both reflectance...

  9. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Qing Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer” with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  10. Coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei)—a vector for toxigenic molds and ochratoxin A contamination in coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu; Bhat, Rajeev; Gopinandhan, Thirukonda Nannier

    2010-10-01

    Coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari) is a common insect pest in coffee plantations and is a suspected vector of various mycotoxin-producing molds. In the present study, field trials were undertaken consecutively for 3 years to evaluate the impact of CBB on the microbial contamination of Arabica and Robusta coffee bean varieties, with emphasis laid toward ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing fungi. Results revealed higher microbial contamination in CBB-infested beans in both the varieties of coffee with the presence of toxigenic molds (such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus). The "timely harvested" coffee, which was infested with CBB, was found to possess comparatively lesser OTA levels than those berries left in soil or on coffee plants. Studies carried out on coffee beans collected from nine curing factories indicated the presence of OTA in almost all the CBB-infested coffee beans, irrespective of the variety. Results of the present study provide sufficient baseline information and evidence to understand and correlate the role of CBB with various OTA-producing molds in coffee beans. Understanding the role of CBB might be useful and applicable in the coffee-growing regions of the world, especially in plantations for production of quality coffee. PMID:20618085

  11. Extraction and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Rose Hip (Rosa canina L. Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea STĂNILĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild berry are a rich of natural compounds which provide them high antioxidant potential. The compounds which provide them these proprieties are known to be vitamins, flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The aim of this study was to extract and characterize bioactive compounds from rose hip (Rosa canina L. currently found in Romania. A qualitative high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS detection in positive ion mode has been used to identify phenolic compounds from rose hip crude extract. The chromatograms revealed the presence of a large number of compounds (19, identified and grouped as phenolic acids and flavones/ols, flavan-3-ols and also anthocyanins. Based on obtained results these berries can be highly recommended as part of our diet. Also this finding represents a contribution to the chemical characterization of phenolic profile of rose hip.

  12. Extraction and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Rose Hip (Rosa canina L.) Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Stănilă, Andreea; Diaconeasa, Zoriţa; Roman, Ioana; Nicușor SIMA; Dănuț MĂNIUȚIU; Alin ROMAN; Rodica SIMA

    2015-01-01

    Wild berry are a rich of natural compounds which provide them high antioxidant potential. The compounds which provide them these proprieties are known to be vitamins, flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The aim of this study was to extract and characterize bioactive compounds from rose hip (Rosa canina L.) currently found in Romania. A qualitative high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection in positive ion mode has...

  13. PENGARUH TINGKAT BRAND KNOWLEDGE TERHADAP BRAND IMAGE (Studi Eksplanatif Produk Smartphone BlackBerry dan Samsung pada Mahasiswa Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta)

    OpenAIRE

    WINOTO, MICHAELA TANTRI ATMADJA

    2014-01-01

    Seiring dengan kemajuan teknologi, konsumen menuntut suatu produk yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan mereka. Smartphone sebagai kebutuhan, hal inilah yang dilihat oleh perusahaan produsen telekomunikasi sehingga smartphone berbagai merek mulai bermunculan dan bersaing secara ketat, sebut saja BlackBerry dan Samsung. Program promosi dilakukan melalui iklan baik iklan media cetak, iklan outdoor ataupun iklan media elektronik untuk memasarkan produknya. Persaingan yang ketat menjadi tan...

  14. Present practice, on-going research and future potential for non-chemical pest management in fruit and berry production in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Sigsgaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Workshop prensentation - Present practice, ongoing research and future potential for non-chemical pest management in fruit and berry production in Denmark. Chinese-Danish networking on systemic approaches to pest management without pesticides. Hand-out (Flowerstrips and beneficials in orchards)

  15. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature r...

  16. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  17. UHPLC/PDA–ESI/MS Analysis of the Main Berry and Leaf Flavonol Glycosides from Different Carpathian Hippophaë rhamnoides L. Varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, R.M.; Socaciu, C.; Pintea, A.; Buzoianu, A.D.; Sanders, M.G.; Gruppen, H.; Vincken, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction - Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) is known to be rich in many bioactive compounds (such as vitamins, phenolics, carotenoids) important for human health and nutrition. Among the phenolics, berries and leaves contain a wide range of flavonols that are good quality and authenticity

  18. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  19. Berry's Phases for Arbitrary Spins Non-Linearly Coupled to External Fields. Application to the Entanglement of N > 2 Non-Correlated One-Half Spins

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchiat, Marie-Anne

    2010-01-01

    We derive the general formula giving the Berry phase for an arbitrary spin, having both magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole couplings with external time-dependent fields. We assume that the effective E and B fields remain orthogonal during the quantum cycles. This mild restriction has many advantages. It provides simple symmetries leading to selection rules and the Hamiltonian-parameter and density-matrix spaces coincide for S=1. This implies the identity of the Berry and Aharonov-Anandan phases, which is lost for S>1. We have found that new features of Berry phases emerge for integer spins>2. We provide explicit numerical results of Berry phases for S=2,3,4. We give a precise analysis of the non-adiabatic corrections. The accuracy for satisfying adiabaticity is greatly improved if one chooses for the time derivatives of the parameters a time-dependence having a Blackman pulse shape. This has the effect of taming the non-adiabatic oscillation corrections which could be generated by a linear ramping. For r...

  20. Data on cell viability of human lung fibroblasts treated with polyphenols-rich extract from Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg Kausel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Calloni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaboticaba (Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg Kausel is a Brazilian native berry, which presents high levels of polyphenols. Here we provide data related to the effects of the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba on the cell viability, mitochondrial complex I (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/CoQ oxidoreductase activity and ATP biosynthesis of human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5 treated with amiodarone. The data presented in this article demonstrate that the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba was able to reduce cell death as well as the decrease in complex I activity and ATP biosynthesis caused by amiodarone in MRC-5 cells.

  1. Analytical Techniques of BlackBerry File System%黑莓文件系统解析技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永兴; 沈长达; 林艺滨; 钱镜洁

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a it to form a logical unit and the contents of the ifle to start the mapping ifle by the speciifc content of the general rules of the system analysis method, and stored in the directory structure of files and other information structures unfold, and ultimately get the basic structure of the ifle system and the various kinds of parameters to achieve a written argument based on manual semi-manual analytical techniques. In addition it can be used to parse the ifle system in general, and more importantly applied to the unknown ifle system-direct data ifle system mirroring BlackBerry resolution. By application of this method can be more in-depth understanding of the general rules of the ifle system, the ifle system to improve analytical thinking, and to master certain BlackBerry ifle systems thinking, and ifnally realize the mirror BlackBerry forensics.%文章阐述了一种由具体内容映射文件系统一般规律的分析方法,从逻辑单元和文件内容的组成入手,从文件目录和其它信息结构的存储结构展开,最终得到文件系统的基本结构和各种参数,实现了基于手动写入参数的半手工解析技术。文中技术除了可以用于一般文件系统的解析,更重要的是可以应用于未知文件系统-黑莓文件系统的直接数据镜像解析。通过这种方法的应用,可以更深入理解文件系统的一般规律,完善文件系统解析的思路,并掌握一定的黑莓文件系统思想,最后实现黑莓手机镜像的取证。

  2. Changes in Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Following Exposure to 56Fe Particles and Protection by Berry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis; Carey, Amanda; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), such as 56 Fe, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals. Behaviors affected by radiation include deficits in motor performance, spatial learning and memory behavior, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, conditioned place preference, and operant conditioning. Berry fruit diets are high in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, and prevent the occurrence of the neurochemical and behavioral changes that occur in aging and by exposure to 56 Fe particles. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression in the hippocampus, an area of the brain important in memory, is affected by exposure to 56 Fe particles 36 hours post-irradiation. We also evaluated whether the blueberry (BB) and strawberry (SB) diets could ameliorate irradiation-induced deficits in gene expression by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to radiation. Therefore, to measure gene expression, 4 rats/group were euthanized 36 hours post whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy or 2.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles. Alterations in gene expression profile induced by radiation were analyzed by pathway-focused microarrays on the inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in NF-κB signal transduction pathways. For the diet studies, 3 rats/group were irradiated with 2.5 Gy of 56 Fe following 8 weeks supplementation with either the 2% BB or the 2% SB diet. We found that genes that directly or indirectly interact in the regulation of growth and differentiation of neurons were changed following irradiation. Genes that regulate apoptosis were up-regulated whereas genes that modulate cellular proliferation were down-regulated, possibly to eliminate damaged cells and to stop cell proliferation to prevent

  3. Generation of ESTs in Vitis vinifera wine grape (Cabernet Sauvignon) and table grape (Muscat Hamburg) and discovery of new candidate genes with potential roles in berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Reid, Karen E; Liao, Nancy; Schlosser, James; Lijavetzky, Diego; Holt, Robert; Martínez Zapater, José M; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Bohlmann, Jörg; Lund, Steven T

    2007-11-01

    We report the generation and analysis of a total of 77,583 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon (wine grape) and Muscat Hamburg (table grape) with a focus on EST sequence quality and assembly optimization. The majority of the ESTs were derived from normalized cDNA libraries representing berry pericarp and seed developmental series, pooled non-berry tissues including root, flower, and leaf in Cabernet Sauvignon, and pooled tissues of berry, seed, and flower in Muscat Hamburg. EST and unigene sequence quality were determined by computational filtering coupled with small-scale contig reassembly, manual review, and BLAST analyses. EST assembly was optimized to better discriminate among closely related paralogs using two independent grape sequence sets, a previously published set of Vitis spp. gene families and our EST dataset derived from pooled leaf, flower, and root tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon. Sequence assembly within individual libraries indicated that those prepared from pooled tissues contributed the most to gene discovery. Annotations based upon searches against multiple databases including tomato and strawberry sequences helped to identify putative functions of ESTs and unigenes, particularly with respect to fleshy fruit development. Sequence comparison among the three wine grape libraries identified a number of genes preferentially expressed in the pericarp tissue, including transcription factors, receptor-like protein kinases, and hexose transporters. Gene ontology (GO) classification in the biological process aspect showed that GO categories corresponding to 'transport' and 'cell organization and biogenesis', which are associated with metabolite movement and cell wall structural changes during berry ripening, were higher in pericarp than in other tissues in the wine grape studied. The sequence data were used to characterize potential roles of new genes in berry development and composition. PMID

  4. [Antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from clove bud and pimento].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Medvedeva, I B

    2015-01-01

    The antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from the clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.) and berries of tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Meriff) were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (2,6-ditret-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHT) in model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The essential oils of clove bud and pimento had qualitatively close composition of the main components but differed by their quantitative content. In the studied samples, eugenol was the main compound with high antiradical activity. The reaction rates of essential oils and extracts with the DPPH radical were practically the same for essential oils and twice the reaction rate of BHT. The values of antiradical efficiency (AE) were also close for essential oils and were twice that for extracts and ionol. A synergetic action of components in the essential oil and extract of pimento on antiradical efficiency values was found. PMID:25842910

  5. Leadership and Innovation – the Catalyst of IT&C Industry. A Case Study of BlackBerry Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Cojocaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available IT&C companies need to adapt themselves to an environment featuring a high level of competition. Innovation stays as the main vector of the domain, while the renewal rate of new technologies grows in speed (there are cases where new technologies emerge and replace the older ones in months. With this series of research we aim to analyse several local or global companies within the IT&C field, as well as the importance of leadership for their development. This first article will focus on leadership within a company called Research In Motion – RIM (currently named BlackBerry and on the main problems that have arisen within the company after the organisation was left without support from the leaders that created its worldwide brand.

  6. Transport adiabatique et phases de Berry : application au contrôle quantique cohérent passif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennot, D.

    2004-11-01

    L'étude de l'interaction d'atomes ou de molécules avec des champs électromagnétiques intenses, nécéssite le développement de nouveaux outils de modélisation rendant compte de la dynamique quantique de ces systèmes. Une approche purement perturbative étant impossible en champs forts, on s'est tourné vers une approche “adiabatique”. Afin de traiter correctement le cas des croisements de valeurs propres, on a généralisé les formules de transport adiabatique en faisant intervenir une généralisation de la phase de Berry non-abélienne.

  7. Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Networks in the Grape Berry Illustrate That it Takes More Than Flavonoids to Fight Against Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental fluctuations. In response, they have developed a wide range of morphological and biochemical adaptations committed to ameliorate the effects of abiotic stress. When exposed to higher solar radiation levels, plants activate the synthesis of a large set of enzymes and secondary metabolites as part of a complex sunscreen and antioxidant defense mechanism. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has become a widely used system for studying adaptive responses to this type of stress since changes in berry composition, positively influenced by increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels, improve the quality of wines subsequently produced. Despite the fact that most of the attention has been directed toward the synthesis of flavonoids, recent transcriptomic and metabolomic studies have shown that stilbenoids and isoprenoids (e.g., terpenes and carotenoids) are also an important part of the grape UV-response machinery. This minireview focuses on the latest findings referring to the metabolic responses of grapes to UV radiation and proposes a model for its transcriptional control. Depending on the berry developmental stage and the type of radiation (i.e., irradiance level, exposure length), increased UV levels activate different metabolic pathways through the activity of master regulators belonging to the basic Leucine Zipper Domain (bZIP) and R2R3-MYB transcription factor families. This transcriptional control is influenced by the interaction of other environmental factors such as light, temperature or soil water availability. In grapevine, phenylpropanoids are part of, but are not the whole story, in the fight against radiation damage. PMID:27625679

  8. Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Networks in the Grape Berry Illustrate That it Takes More Than Flavonoids to Fight Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental fluctuations. In response, they have developed a wide range of morphological and biochemical adaptations committed to ameliorate the effects of abiotic stress. When exposed to higher solar radiation levels, plants activate the synthesis of a large set of enzymes and secondary metabolites as part of a complex sunscreen and antioxidant defense mechanism. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has become a widely used system for studying adaptive responses to this type of stress since changes in berry composition, positively influenced by increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels, improve the quality of wines subsequently produced. Despite the fact that most of the attention has been directed toward the synthesis of flavonoids, recent transcriptomic and metabolomic studies have shown that stilbenoids and isoprenoids (e.g., terpenes and carotenoids) are also an important part of the grape UV-response machinery. This minireview focuses on the latest findings referring to the metabolic responses of grapes to UV radiation and proposes a model for its transcriptional control. Depending on the berry developmental stage and the type of radiation (i.e., irradiance level, exposure length), increased UV levels activate different metabolic pathways through the activity of master regulators belonging to the basic Leucine Zipper Domain (bZIP) and R2R3-MYB transcription factor families. This transcriptional control is influenced by the interaction of other environmental factors such as light, temperature or soil water availability. In grapevine, phenylpropanoids are part of, but are not the whole story, in the fight against radiation damage. PMID:27625679

  9. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...... of the scale. Main outcome measures. Consensus for the content of the scale. To test the scale Cronbachs alpha, interclass correlation and differential item function was calculated in the prospective study. Results. 89% completed the first and 61% completed the second Delphi round. Hereafter, consensus......Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  10. Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Darakhshan; Khan, Hira; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Liver is the main site in the body for intense metabolism and excretion. A number of chemicals and drugs which are used routinely cause liver damage. The present study investigates the antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana whole ripe fruit, water and ethanol extracts of fruit in normal as well as in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxicated rats. The CCl(4) treated rats showed marked elevation in liver enzymes: alanine transaminse, aspratate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and other biochemical parameters: bilirubin, creatinine and urea, thus indicating liver injury. Whereas animal treated/fed with various preparations of Physalis peruviana showed significant lowering effect (pPhysalis peruviana showed highest activity in both rat models while ripe fruit and ethanol extract showed moderate activity compared to standard drug. PMID:24811807

  11. Hypolipidemic and cardioprotective benefits of a novel fireberry hawthorn fruit extract in the JCR:LA-cp rodent model of dyslipidemia and cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Borthwick, Faye; Wu, Sheng; Lee, Jeanette; Brown, Paula N; Dickinson, Timothy A; Croft, Kevin D; Vine, Donna F; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-09-14

    Hawthorn is a widely used herbal alternative medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. However, the attributed health benefits, purported to be due to the presence of phenolic compounds, may depend on both the specific species and plant part. Studies to date investigating effects of hawthorn on heart disease(s) have used well-described European and/or Asian species, while little is known regarding the bioactivity of species native to North America. Six weeks of supplementation of both fireberry hawthorn berry (native Crataegus chrysocarpa) and English hawthorn leaf (C. monogyna, naturalized in North America) in the JCR:LA-cp rat, resulted in a significant reduction in heart weight, fasting LDL-C and improved heart function (p < 0.05). Fasting triglyceride and myocardial fibrosis were also reduced, but only by the berry extract. We demonstrate that both of the Canadian-sourced hawthorn extracts (introduced leaf and native berry) have cardioprotective benefits, likely via increased availability of nitric oxide.

  12. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Polish blue-berried honeysuckle genotypes by HPLC-DAD-MS, HPLC postcolumn derivatization with ABTS or FC, and TLC with DPPH visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Piekarska, Anna; Mrugalska, Barbara; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2012-02-22

    In this study, different Polish cultivars of blue-berried honeysuckles (Lonicera caerulea L.), wild and bog bilberry, were analyzed for bioactive compounds. The chemical properties verified included composition of anthocyanins and other polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and profiles of antioxidants by HPLC postcolumn derivatization or TLC. The antioxidant activities of different blue-berried honeysuckle cultivars were similar to that of wild-growing bilberries (ranging from 170 to 417 μmol TE/g dm in ABTS and from 93 to 166 μmol TE/g dm in DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu tests). The major anthocyanin in the blue-berried honeysuckle was cyanidin-3-glucoside, which constituted 84-92% of the total anthocyanins. The TLC and HPLC postcolumn antioxidant profiles indicated that anthocyanins are the major antioxidants in all berries studied. Wild berries and the cultivars of the blue-berried honeysuckles are also a similar source of such minerals as K, Mg, and Ca. PMID:22264130

  13. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product.

  14. The impact of absorption coefficient on polarimetric determination of Berry phase based depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples: a polarized Monte Carlo investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S [ORNL; Koju, Vijay [ORNL; John, Dwayne O [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scattering sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.

  15. Analysis of the Pancharatnam-Berry phase of vector vortex states using the Hamiltonian based on the Maxwell-Schr\\"odinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Masato; Oka, Kazuhiko; Toda, Yasunori; Morita, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    We derived the Berry connection of vector vortex states (VVSs) from the "true" Hamiltonian obtained through the Maxwell--Schr\\"odinger equation for an inhomogeneous anisotropic (IA) medium, and we experimentally demonstrated measurement of the corresponding Pancharatnam--Berry (PB) geometrical phase of VVSs. The PB phase (PBP) of VVSs can be divided into two phases: homogeneous and inhomogeneous PBPs. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous PBPs are related to the conventional PBP and the spatially-dependent geometric phase given by an IA medium such as a polarization converter, respectively. We theoretically detected that inhomogeneous PBP accumulation originates from the gauge dependence of the index of the hybrid-order Poincar\\'e sphere, which provides an alternate method for understanding optical spin--orbital angular momentum conversion. The homogeneous PBP, which is explicitly observed for the first time, has implications for quantum state manipulation and information processing.

  16. 黑加仑等浆果资源开发(四)%Development of Resource of Black Currant and Qther Berries (IV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白超

    2015-01-01

    相当详细的介绍了黑加仑等浆果浓缩果汁生产的工艺流程、设备选型、操作规程、生产效果;越桔红豆、蓝莓浓缩果汁及系列产品开发;果汁加工的新技术及发展趋势和对浆果开发现状的看法。%Process, equipment selection, operating procedure, production effects of concentrated juice of black currant and other berries were introduced in detail. The development of concentrated juice of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), blueberry and a series of products, the novel technology and trends in fruit juice process, and the view of the current development in berries were also described.

  17. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment. PMID:27451171

  18. Real-space and reciprocal-space Berry phases in the Hall effect of Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C; Freimuth, F; Bauer, A; Ritz, R; Schnarr, C; Duvinage, C; Adams, T; Blügel, S; Rosch, A; Mokrousov, Y; Pfleiderer, C

    2014-05-01

    We report an experimental and computational study of the Hall effect in Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Si, as complemented by measurements in Mn(1-x)Co(x)Si, when helimagnetic order is suppressed under substitutional doping. For small x the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the topological Hall effect (THE) change sign. Under larger doping the AHE remains small and consistent with the magnetization, while the THE grows by over a factor of 10. Both the sign and the magnitude of the AHE and the THE are in excellent agreement with calculations based on density functional theory. Our study provides the long-sought material-specific microscopic justification that, while the AHE is due to the reciprocal-space Berry curvature, the THE originates in real-space Berry phases.

  19. The Immunomodulation Effect of Aronia Extract Lacks Association with Its Antioxidant Anthocyanins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols comprise a diverse group of molecules with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. To compare the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity of Aronia melanocarpa berries (chokeberries), recognized for their high content of anthocyanins, a noncytotoxic isolation method...... was developed to obtain high-purity anthocyanins in the extract. The antioxidative activity of the extract, the anthocyanin-rich fraction (AF) was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferric-reducing ability of plasma along with resveratrol as a reference. The immunomodulation properties were......, whereas AF only had a slight effect in reducing IL-10. These results demonstrated that there was no major relationship between the antioxidative effect and immunomodulation capacities of AF and resveratrol. The immunomodulatory activity of the extract is associated with bioactive compounds in Aronia other...

  20. A decision support system coupling fuzzy logic and probabilistic graphical approaches for the agri-food industry: prediction of grape berry maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, Nathalie; Brousset, Jean-Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Herve; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation re...

  1. Low intake of fruits, berries and vegetables is associated with excess mortality in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Tiina H; Voutilainen, Sari; Virtanen, Jyrki K; Venho, Birgitta; Vanharanta, Meri; Mursu, Jaakko; Salonen, Jukka T

    2003-01-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been of interest because of their potential health benefits against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The aim of this work was to assess the association of the dietary intake of a food group that includes fruits, berries and vegetables with all-cause, CVD-related and non-CVD-related mortality. The subjects were Finnish men aged 42-60 y examined in 1984-1989 in the prospective Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study. Dietary intakes were assessed by 4-d food intake record during the baseline phase of the KIHD Study. The risk of all-cause and non-CVD-related deaths was studied in 2641 men and the risk of CVD-related death in 1950 men who had no history of CVD at baseline. During a mean follow-up time of 12.8 y, cardiovascular as well as noncardiovascular and all-cause mortality were lower among men with the highest consumption of fruits, berries and vegetables. After adjustment for the major CVD risk factors, the relative risk for men in the highest fifth of fruit, berry and vegetable intake for all-cause death, CVD-related and non-CVD-related death was 0.66 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.88], 0.59 (0.33-1.06), and 0.68 (0.46-1.00), respectively, compared with men in the lowest fifth. These data show that a high fruit, berry and vegetable intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality in middle-aged Finnish men. Consequently, the findings of this work indicate that diets that are rich in plant-derived foods can promote longevity.

  2. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Teng-Fei Xu; Jiang-Fei Meng; Peng-Fei Ning; Zhen-Wen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grap...

  3. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Perrot; Cédric Baudrit; Jean Marie Brousset; Philippe Abbal; Hervé Guillemin; Bruno Perret; Etienne Goulet; Laurence Guerin; Gérard Barbeau; Daniel Picque

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation re...

  4. 引种鲜食葡萄浆果品质分析%Quality Analysis on the Introduced Grape Berries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史洪琴; 蒋丽光

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide the basic data for screening fine grape varieties in Guizhou province, the quality of 11 varieties of grape berries were analyzed by field trials approaching combined with quality analysis. The results showed that there were differences in the berry character of the tested grape; soluble solids content was in the range of 11.67% to 20.67% ; the total sugar content was 9.13%~17.17% ; titratable acidity was 0.21%~1.10%; vitamin C content was 0.31~1.16 mg/100 mL; fruit shape index was 1.08 to 1.39; longitudinal diameter was 1.86-3.23 cm; diameter was 1.27-2.76 cm, stalk length was 0.68~1.02 cm. In conclusion, the Eurasian grape's quality was better than hybrids of Europe and America, late-maturing varieties were better than early varieties.%为给贵州本地鲜食葡萄筛选优良品种提供基本数据,以11种鲜食葡萄浆果为材料,用田间试验与品质分析相结合的方法,对影响葡萄浆果品质的主要性状进行分析.结果表明,11个葡萄品种浆果品质性状存在差异,可溶性固形物含量为11.67%~20.67%,总糖含量为9.13%~17.17%,可滴定酸为0.21%~1.10%,维生素C含量为0.31~1.16 mg/100 mL,果形指数为1.08~1.39,纵径为1.86~3.23 cm,横径为1.27~2.76 cm,果柄长0.68~1.02 cm.综合比较,欧亚种葡萄品质优于欧美杂交品种,晚熟品种品质优于早熟品种.

  5. The Berry-Keating operator on $L^2(\\rz_>,\\ud x)$ and on compact quantum graphs with general self-adjoint realizations

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Berry-Keating operator $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}:= -\\ui\\hbar(x\\frac{\\ud\\phantom{x}}{\\ud x}+{1/2})$ [M. V. Berry and J. P. Keating, SIAM Rev. 41 (1999) 236] governing the Schr\\"odinger dynamics is discussed in the Hilbert space $L^2(\\rz_>,\\ud x)$ and on compact quantum graphs. It is proved that the spectrum of $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}$ defined on $L^2(\\rz_>,\\ud x)$ is purely continuous and thus this quantization of $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}$ cannot yield the hypothetical Hilbert-Polya operator possessing as eigenvalues the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. A complete classification of all self-adjoint extensions of $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}$ acting on compact quantum graphs is given together with the corresponding secular equation in form of a determinant whose zeros determine the discrete spectrum of $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}$. In addition, an exact trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics of the eigenvalue counting function are derived. Furthermore, we introduce the ``squared'' Berry-Keating operator $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}^2:= -x^2\\frac{\\ud^2...

  6. Identification and expression analysis of genes associated with the early berry development in the seedless grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar Sultanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenaro-da-Silva, Danielle; Passaia, Gisele; Henriques, João A P; Margis, Rogério; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís F

    2010-11-01

    Sultanine grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important commercial seedless table-grape varieties and the main source of seedlessness for breeding programs around the world. Despite its commercial relevance, little is known about the genetic control of seedlessness in grapes, remaining unknown the molecular identity of genes responsible for such phenotype. Actually, studies concerning berry development in seedless grapes are scarce at the molecular level. We therefore developed a representational difference analysis (RDA) modified method named Bulk Representational Analysis of Transcripts (BRAT) in the attempt to identify genes specifically associated with each of the main developmental stages of Sultanine grapevine berries. A total of 2400 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified and cloned by RDA according to three specific developmental berry stages. After sequencing and in silico analysis, 1554 (64.75%) TDFs were validated according to our sequence quality cut-off. The assembly of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) yielded 504 singletons and 77 clusters, with an overall EST redundancy of approximately 67%. Amongst all stage-specific cDNAs, nine candidate genes were selected and, along with two reference genes, submitted to a deeper analysis of their temporal expression profiles by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Seven out of nine genes proved to be in agreement with the stage-specific expression that allowed their isolation by RDA. PMID:21802609

  7. Influence of age and diet on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.

  8. Exploiting the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana for improving the biological control of the coffee berry borer through the use of strain mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Lina P; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Gongora, Carmenza E

    2006-08-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogen widely used to control the coffee berry borer in Colombia, as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. Traditionally, the development of fungal insect pathogens as biocontrol agents in crop pests has been oriented towards the selection and formulation of elite clonal strains. Instead, we explored the potential application of genetic diversity in B. bassiana by determining the effect of strain mixtures on coffee berry borer mortality compared to clonal isolates. Genomic DNA from 11 strains was characterized using internal transcribed spacers and beta-tubulin sequences as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Cluster analysis produced three genetic groups and confirmed the low but significant intraspecific genetic diversity present among the strains. Single strain virulence towards the coffee berry borer under laboratory conditions, using 1x10(6) conidia ml(-1), ranged between 89.9 and 57.5%. All the inoculations with mixtures resulted in coinfection events. Combinations of genetically similar strains showed no significant differences when their virulences were compared. However, mixtures of genetically different strains led to both antagonism and synergism. The lowest virulence percentage (57%) was obtained by putting together the most virulent strain of each group, contrary to the highest virulence percentage (93%) that resulted from mixing the three least virulent strains. The results indicate the promising potential of designing strain mixtures as an alternative for the biocontrol of Hypothenemus hampei and other pests and provide tools for the understanding of the ecological dynamics of entomopathogen populations under natural conditions. PMID:16362818

  9. Identification of Iridoids in Edible Honeysuckle Berries (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast. by UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Z. Kucharska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Iridoid profiles of honeysuckle berry were studied. Compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS in positive and negative ions mode. The MS fragmentation pathways of detected iridoid glycosides were also studied in both modes. In the negative ESI mass spectra, iridoids with a methyl ester or lactone structure have preferentially produced adduct [M + HCOOH − H]− ions. However, protonated ions of molecular fragments, which were released by glycosidic bond cleavage and following fragmentation of aglycone rings, were more usable for iridoid structure analysis. In addition, the neutral losses of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, acetylene, ethenone and cyclopropynone have provided data confirming the presence of functional substituents in the aglycone. Among the 13 iridoids, 11 were identified in honeysuckle berries for the first time: pentosides of loganic acid (two isomers, pentosides of loganin (three isomers, pentosyl sweroside, and additionally 7-epi-loganic acid, 7-epi-loganin, sweroside, secologanin, and secoxyloganin. The five pentoside derivatives of loganic acid and loganin have not been previously detected in the analyzed species. Honeysuckle berries are a source of iridoids with different structures, compounds that are rarely present in fruits.

  10. Uptake of heavy metals in berries and edible fungi, and changes in the floral composition after treatment with ashes on forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of treatment with ash on fungi and vascular plants, and on metal contents in berries and edible fungi, were studied in pine, spruce and birch forest stands in southern Sweden. Different types of ashes were studied. The changes to the vascular flora and the fungal flora that are today taking place in southern Sweden, and probably influenced by soil acidification and nitrogen deposition, are characterised by an impoverishment of mycorrhiza-forming species and thus cannot be corrected by supply of wood ashes. Instead, supply of at least raw ashes appears to hasten the process towards a nitrogen-favoured flora. It is known that raw ashes can cause nitrate-formation whereas granulated ashes have hardly increased the pH or lead to the formation of nitrate in any field experiment. The study has now been completed and has thus largely provided answers to the questions posed: Spreading of ashes does not lead to a general increase in the uptake of heavy metals in fungi and berries. The risk that berries and fungi will contain increased contents of heavy metals during the first season after spreading is small. The studies do not suggest that raw ashes can offer a short-term answer to counteracting the changes that are taking place to the composition of the fungal flora, probably as a result of soil acidification, or as a means of recreating conditions suitable for species requiring more alkaline conditions. 7 refs, 32 tabs

  11. Amperometric Enzyme Sensor to Check the Total Antioxidant Capacity of Several Mixed Berries. Comparison with Two Other Spectrophotometric and Fluorimetric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tomassetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to test the correctness of response of a superoxide dismutase amperometric biosensor used for the purpose of measuring and ranking the total antioxidant capacity of several systematically analysed mixed berries. Several methods are described in the literature for determining antioxidant capacity, each culminating in the construction of an antioxidant capacity scale and each using its own unit of measurement. It was therefore endeavoured to correlate and compare the results obtained using the present amperometric biosensor method with those resulting from two other different methods for determining the total antioxidant capacity selected from among those more frequently cited in the literature. The purpose was to establish a methodological approach consisting in the simultaneous application of different methods that it would be possible to use to obtain an accurate estimation of the total antioxidant capacity of different mixed berries and the food products containing them. Testing was therefore extended to also cover jams, yoghurts and juices containing mixed berries.

  12. One DOF mechanism for the mechanical harvest of vines in an arbor structure and the validation of the acceleration of grape berry harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penisi, Osvaldo; Bocca, José; Aguilar, Horacio; Bocca, Pedro

    2015-09-01

    In the mechanized harvest of vines, grape berries are detached through the vibration to the structure supporting the clusters. According to the kind of guide selected, the clusters require one or two vibration directions in the structure. For guiding in parral structures, vibration is necessary in two directions or planes: One perpendicular to the other. The guide branches producing the clusters develop in these planes, and the guiding is called H-guiding. Mechanism theory indicates that a mechanism has as many degrees of freedom as its actuators, and an actuator is needed to achieve a certain vibration. Having the smallest number of possible actuators is beneficial in reducing moving parts and achieving more compact and easily controllable mechanisms. In this case, a single degree-of-freedom mechanism is proposed. It is capable of generating vibrations on two planes: One perpendicular to the other. This mechanism is the sum of two link mechanisms on perpendicular planes with a common outlet located at the output rod of the mechanism where the actuator is found. As the distance between the soil and the elements containing the clusters is not constant, a system has been designed to measure the accelerations at the bars and the rocker to validate the acceleration values that detach the grape berries in a prototype in a lab experiment, to ensure that the acceleration needed for pulling the grape berries are produced at any contact point of the bar.

  13. Modulation of Pancharatnam-Berry Phase by Electro-Optic Method in Sagnac Interferometer%Sagnac干涉仪中Pancharatnam-Berry位相的电光调制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灏; 刘念华

    2011-01-01

    We study the modulation of Pancharatnam-Berry phase by lonexugitudinal electro-optical modulator which is an uniaxial crystal inserted into Sagnac interferometer. Because the difference of optical paths between clockwise and anticlockwise loop is zero, under the condition of zero-phase-difference related to the optical paths, the Pancharatnam-Berry phase between clockwise and anticlockwise loop can be distinguished more favorably. The results show that when the applied voltage vary continuously, the Pancharatnam-Berry phase jumps twice due to the characteristics of uniaxial crystal, while the coherent superposition intensity vary continuously.%本文研究了在Sagnac干涉仪中插入单轴晶体,利用单轴晶体的纵向电光效应调制PancharatnamBerry位相.由于Sagnac干涉仪的顺、逆时针环路之间光程差为零,所以有利于区分顺、逆时针环路之间的非光程差引起的Pancharatnam-Berry相.本文结果发现在施加的电压连续变化下,由于单轴晶体纵向电光效应的特点使得Pancharatnam-Berry相发生两次突变,而顺、逆时针环路的光相干叠加后的光强却连续变化.

  14. Use of response surface methodology for the assessment of changes in the volatile composition of Moscato bianco (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Vilanova, Mar; Río Segade, Susana; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Giordano, Manuela; Rolle, Luca

    2016-12-01

    The changes in the volatile composition of Moscato bianco grapes were evaluated during ripening. Grape berries were sampled for five weeks (16-20 °Brix) and sorted for each date in ten density classes (1.05-1.12g/cm(3)). The highest total concentration of free terpenes was found at 19.3 °Brix; however, total concentration of the bound fraction increased significantly throughout ripening. Response surface methodology was used to assess the simultaneous effect of sampling time and berry density on the volatile composition, which was satisfactorily fitted to regression models for some key terpene compounds. Total free and bound terpenes were more affected by grape density than by sampling date. The same behaviour was observed for free and bound linalool and bound nerol, whereas the stronger effect of sampling date was exhibited for bound t-rose oxide, c-rose oxide and geraniol. The results showed that the sampling strategy impacted strongly on the aroma quality of berries. PMID:27374570

  15. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L. Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Höferl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods, the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%, myrcene (8.3%, sabinene (5.8%, limonene (5.1% and β-pinene (5.0%. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН• scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical (•O2− scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx.

  16. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Krastev, Lutsian; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН(•)) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical ((•)O₂(-)) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). PMID:26784665

  17. Profiling the Hydrolysis of Isolated Grape Berry Skin Cell Walls by Purified Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Anscha J J; Moore, John P; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Vivier, Melané A

    2015-09-23

    The unraveling of crushed grapes by maceration enzymes during winemaking is difficult to study because of the complex and rather undefined nature of both the substrate and the enzyme preparations. In this study we simplified both the substrate, by using isolated grape skin cell walls, and the enzyme preparations, by using purified enzymes in buffered conditions, to carefully follow the impact of the individual and combined enzymes on the grape skin cell walls. By using cell wall profiling techniques we could monitor the compositional changes in the grape cell wall polymers due to enzyme activity. Extensive enzymatic hydrolysis, achieved with a preparation of pectinases or pectinases combined with cellulase or hemicellulase enzymes, completely removed or drastically reduced levels of pectin polymers, whereas less extensive hydrolysis only opened up the cell wall structure and allowed extraction of polymers from within the cell wall layers. Synergistic enzyme activity was detectable as well as indications of specific cell wall polymer associations.

  18. 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am in boreal forest soil and their transfer into wild mushrooms and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profiles of podzolic soil from boreal forests were sampled from eight sites in Finland and the distribution of 137Cs in the soil layers was determined. In addition, 239,240Pu and 241Am were determined from two soil profiles taken at one sampling site. Inventories of 137Cs in the soil profiles varied between 1.7 kBq/m2 and 42 kBq/m2, reflecting known variation in 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The highest proportions of the radionuclides were found in the organic layer at a depth of less than 5 cm, which on average contained 47% of 137Cs, 76% of 239,240Pu and 79% of 241Am. In the litter, clearly higher proportions of 137Cs were found compared to 239,240Pu and 241Am, probably indicating its more effective recycling from the organic layer back to the surface. Only very minor proportions of 137Cs were recorded below 20 cm. The concentration of 137Cs in the soil profiles could be approximated with a declining logarithmic trend. The activity concentrations of 137Cs were determined for six wild mushroom species and three wild berry species at two sites, as well as the aggregated transfer factors and the distribution of 137Cs between their various parts. In addition, 239,240Pu and 241Am were determined in one mushroom and three berry species at one site. Very high concentrations of 137Cs, up to 20 kBq/kg (d.w.), were found in mushrooms, and their transfer factors were between 0.1 m2/kg and 1.0 m2/kg. In berries, the transfer factors were an order of magnitude lower. 137Cs accumulated more in the caps of mushrooms and in the fruits of berries than in other parts. Transfer factors for 239,240Pu and 241Am were two to three orders of magnitude lower than those of 137Cs. - Highlights: ► 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am mainly concentrated in organic layer in podzolic soil. ► Distribution of 137Cs in the upper 20 cm soil follows exponential declining trend. ► 137Cs concentrates into mushrooms but varies considerably between species. ► 137Cs concentrates in mushroom

  19. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010, coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids, chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi, and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions.

  20. Development of an electrochemical sensor for the determination of the total antioxidant capacity in berries based on boron doped diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNA PEKEC

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many antioxidants can be electrochemically oxidized using graphite-based electrodes; nevertheless problems arise due to the strong adsorption of redox species at the sensing area. We have demonstrated that boron doped diamond (BDD electrodes do not show this property, which can be exploited for the design of a new amperometric sensor for the quantification of antioxidants as “total antioxidant capacity” (AOC. As reference substances hydroquinone (HQ and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox were studied in more detail. The supporting electrolyte was a phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 0.1 mol/L, pH 7.0. The limits of detection (LOD were 1.5 mg/L and 2.5 mg/L for HQ and Trolox, respectively. The repeatability was 3 % RSD for concentration of 200 mg/L HQ. The method could be applied for the determination of AOC in different berry samples, such as strawberry, blueberry, grape and bramble. A comparison with a standard photometric assay showed good correlation between both methods. The BDD sensor features good reproducibility without fatiguing over at least two months of operation.

  1. Flavonoid Interaction with a Chitinase from Grape Berry Skin: Protein Identification and Modulation of the Enzymatic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Filippi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an antibody raised against a peptide sequence of rat bilitranslocase (anti-peptide Ab was tested on microsomal proteins obtained from red grape berry skin. Previously, this antibody had demonstrated to recognize plant membrane proteins associated with flavonoid binding and transport. Immuno-proteomic assays identified a number of proteins reacting with this particular antibody, suggesting that the flavonoid binding and interaction may be extended not only to carriers of these molecules, but also to enzymes with very different functions. One of these proteins is a pathogenesis-related (PR class IV chitinase, whose in vitro chitinolytic activity was modulated by two of the most representative flavonoids of grape, quercetin and catechin, as assessed by both spectrophotometric and fluorimetric assays in grape microsomes and commercial enzyme preparations. The effect of these flavonoids on the catalysis and its kinetic parameters was also evaluated, evidencing that they determine a hormetic dose-dependent response. These results highlight the importance of flavonoids not only as antioxidants or antimicrobial effectors, but also as modulators of plant growth and stress response. Implications of the present suggestion are here discussed in the light of environment and pesticide-reduction concerns.

  2. Large anomalous Hall effect driven by a nonvanishing Berry curvature in the noncolinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajaya K; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan; Yan, Binghai; Karel, Julie; Komarek, Alexander C; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Kübler, Jürgen; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn3Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ~500 (ohm·cm)(-1) at 2 K and ~50 (ohm·cm)(-1) at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual in-plane magnetic moment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect in Mn3Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (ħ/e) (ohm·cm)(-1), comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effect-based data storage devices. PMID:27152355

  3. Large anomalous Hall effect driven by a nonvanishing Berry curvature in the noncolinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajaya K; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan; Yan, Binghai; Karel, Julie; Komarek, Alexander C; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Kübler, Jürgen; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn3Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ~500 (ohm·cm)(-1) at 2 K and ~50 (ohm·cm)(-1) at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual in-plane magnetic moment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect in Mn3Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (ħ/e) (ohm·cm)(-1), comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effect-based data storage devices.

  4. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir. PMID:27610237

  5. Ginsenoside-free molecules from steam-dried ginseng berry promote ethanol metabolism: an alternative choice for an alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Ik; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Dong Hoon; Yu, Jung Min; Jang, Su Kil; Joo, Seong Soo

    2014-07-01

    Ethanol metabolism produces harmful compounds that contribute to liver damage and cause an alcohol hangover. The intermediate metabolite acetaldehyde is responsible for alcohol hangover and CYP2E1-induced reactive oxygen species damage liver tissues. In this study, we examined whether ginsenoside-free molecules (GFMs) from steam-dried ginseng berries promote ethanol metabolism and scavenge free radicals by stimulating primary enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, CYP2E1, and catalase) and antioxidant effects using in vitro and in vivo models. The results revealed that GFM effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Notably, GFM significantly enhanced the expression of primary enzymes within 2 h in HepG2 cells. GFM clearly removed the consumed ethanol and significantly reduced the level of acetaldehyde as well as enhancement of primary gene expression in BALB/c mice. Moreover, GFM successfully protected HepG2 cells from ethanol attack. Of the major components identified in GFM, it was believed that linoleic acid was the most active ingredient. Based on these findings, we conclude that GFM holds promise for use as a new candidate for ethanol metabolism and as an antihangover agent. PMID:24962619

  6. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions. PMID:26848690

  7. Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

  8. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei: predictions of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20-30 degrees C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32 degrees C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1-2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1 degrees C rise in thermal optimum (T(opt., the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (r(max will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2.

  9. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  10. Safety evaluation of an acai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active®)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of an acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active®, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 μg/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active® juice is non-toxic.

  11. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei: predictions of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20-30 degrees C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32 degrees C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1-2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1 degrees C rise in thermal optimum (T(opt.)), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (r(max)) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

  12. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Morris

    Full Text Available Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82% than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  13. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  14. Non-invasive real-time monitoring of vineyard soils, berries and leaves with FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopo Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality wines requires a permanent monitoring during the entire winemaking process. A healthy production, ensured by tailor-made strategies that will lead to consumer's satisfaction is of the utmost importance. The influence of the terroir characteristics on the features of a wine has always been prone to much debate amongst the wine industry. The composition of grapes is the result of the characteristics of each individual terroir. Soil impact on growth of the vineyard, grape variety characteristics and ultimately wine quality is well known. Current strategy for analysing soils (pedology is based on wet chemistry methods, which are often laborious, expensive, time-consuming and may be of limited use. An efficient, high-throughput analytical method for estimating the impact of soil quality, tillage and thinning on the grapes quality is of paramount importance for the wine industry. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a rapid, non-destructive, inexpensive and accurate analysis technique and its use in soil evaluation for discriminating different types of soil as well as soil constituents is rapidly increasing. Results obtained from direct monitoring of four Portuguese vineyards in different locations (wine appellation regions “Alentejo”, “Dão”, “Douro” and “Vinhos Verdes” using two different portable near-infrared spectrometers are presented. In-situ measurements of soils (at different depths, plant leaves and berries were performed on different stages of the ripening period. Spectral analysis was performed with chemometric methods: PCA and PLS-DA. This monitoring approach revealed to be an excellent tool for the support of a vineyard's micro-zoning process.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF WAREHOUSE SERVICE FOR THE MARKET OF FRUIT AND BERRY PRODUCTS IN THE KRASNODAR REGION AS THE FACTOR OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BRANCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of warehouse service for the market of fruit and berry products in the Krasnodar region are analyzed in the article. It is established that one of the primary issues of further development in both general crop growing and gardening is providing with the qualitative modern warehouse capable to consider all features of products range. The lack of agricultural producers using own storages which meet high technical production requirements, is that region logistic centers set inflated prices which force producers to sell products at adverse price conditions. Warehousing costs and postharvest processing are so high that storage of production becomes uneconomic in the long-term period. Tendencies and prospects of regional production growth and sale of fruits and berries in interrelation with development of warehouse infrastructure are characterized. Considerable discrepancy of growth rates of the available and entered warehouse infrastructure to the growing regional needs for production of plant growing is observed. First of all the following is connected with reorientation of the region from market import-oriented strategy on import substitution. The measures of the state support of warehouse infrastructure aimed at providing effective development of the market of agri-food products are presented. Factors and the directions of development of warehouse infrastructure of the market of fruit and berry products in the Krasnodar region are revealed, the perspective directions of development of the studied branch are defined. It is necessary to consider growth of efficiency of the applied intensive technologies, activization of investment processes in the form of new methods of warehousing, and also growth of level of automation as a condition of warehouse infrastructure improvement in the Krasnodar region, that will promote decrease in warehouse costs and increase of competitiveness of the organizations

  16. The Berry-Keating operator on L{sup 2}(R{sub >},dx) and on compact quantum graphs with general self-adjoint realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Sebastian; Steiner, Frank, E-mail: sebastian.endres@uni-ulm.d, E-mail: frank.steiner@uni-ulm.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2010-03-05

    The Berry-Keating operator H{sub BK} := -i h-bar (x d/dx + 1/2) (Berry and Keating 1999 SIAM Rev. 41 236) governing the Schroedinger dynamics is discussed in the Hilbert space L{sup 2}(R{sub >},dx) and on compact quantum graphs. It has been proved that the spectrum of H{sub BK} defined on L{sup 2}(R{sub >},dx) is purely continuous and thus this quantization of H{sub BK} cannot yield the hypothetical Hilbert-Polya operator possessing as eigenvalues the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. A complete classification of all self-adjoint extensions of H{sub BK} acting on compact quantum graphs is given together with the corresponding secular equation in form of a determinant whose zeros determine the discrete spectrum of H{sub BK}. In addition, an exact trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics of the eigenvalue counting function are derived. Furthermore, we introduce the 'squared' Berry-Keating operator H{sub BK}{sup 2} := -x{sup 2} d{sup 2}/dx{sup 2} -2x d/dx - 1/4 which is a special case of the Black-Scholes operator used in financial theory of option pricing. Again, all self-adjoint extensions, the corresponding secular equation, the trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics are derived for H{sup 2}{sub BK} on compact quantum graphs. While the spectra of both H{sub BK} and H{sup 2}{sub BK} on any compact quantum graph are discrete, their Weyl asymptotics demonstrate that neither H{sub BK} nor H{sup 2}{sub BK} can yield as eigenvalues the nontrivial Riemann zeros. Some simple examples are worked out in detail.

  17. The Berry-Keating operator on L^2({\\mathbb R}_\\gt,dx) and on compact quantum graphs with general self-adjoint realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Sebastian; Steiner, Frank

    2010-03-01

    The Berry-Keating operator H_{BK}:= -i\\hbar \\big(x\\frac{d}{dx}+\\frac{1}{2}\\big) (Berry and Keating 1999 SIAM Rev. 41 236) governing the Schrödinger dynamics is discussed in the Hilbert space L^2({\\mathbb R}_\\gt,dx) and on compact quantum graphs. It has been proved that the spectrum of HBK defined on L^2({\\mathbb R}_\\gt,dx) is purely continuous and thus this quantization of HBK cannot yield the hypothetical Hilbert-Polya operator possessing as eigenvalues the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. A complete classification of all self-adjoint extensions of HBK acting on compact quantum graphs is given together with the corresponding secular equation in form of a determinant whose zeros determine the discrete spectrum of HBK. In addition, an exact trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics of the eigenvalue counting function are derived. Furthermore, we introduce the 'squared' Berry-Keating operator H_{BK}^2:= -x^2\\frac{d^2}{dx^2}-2x\\frac{d}{dx}-\\frac{1}{4} which is a special case of the Black-Scholes operator used in financial theory of option pricing. Again, all self-adjoint extensions, the corresponding secular equation, the trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics are derived for H2BK on compact quantum graphs. While the spectra of both HBK and H2BK on any compact quantum graph are discrete, their Weyl asymptotics demonstrate that neither HBK nor H2BK can yield as eigenvalues the nontrivial Riemann zeros. Some simple examples are worked out in detail.

  18. The Berry-Keating operator on L2(R>,dx) and on compact quantum graphs with general self-adjoint realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berry-Keating operator HBK := -i h-bar (x d/dx + 1/2) (Berry and Keating 1999 SIAM Rev. 41 236) governing the Schroedinger dynamics is discussed in the Hilbert space L2(R>,dx) and on compact quantum graphs. It has been proved that the spectrum of HBK defined on L2(R>,dx) is purely continuous and thus this quantization of HBK cannot yield the hypothetical Hilbert-Polya operator possessing as eigenvalues the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. A complete classification of all self-adjoint extensions of HBK acting on compact quantum graphs is given together with the corresponding secular equation in form of a determinant whose zeros determine the discrete spectrum of HBK. In addition, an exact trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics of the eigenvalue counting function are derived. Furthermore, we introduce the 'squared' Berry-Keating operator HBK2 := -x2 d2/dx2 -2x d/dx - 1/4 which is a special case of the Black-Scholes operator used in financial theory of option pricing. Again, all self-adjoint extensions, the corresponding secular equation, the trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics are derived for H2BK on compact quantum graphs. While the spectra of both HBK and H2BK on any compact quantum graph are discrete, their Weyl asymptotics demonstrate that neither HBK nor H2BK can yield as eigenvalues the nontrivial Riemann zeros. Some simple examples are worked out in detail.

  19. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Brunfeldt, M.; Rasilainen, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Skipperud, L.; Valle, L.; Popic, J.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Life Science, Aas (Norway); Roos, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Sundell-Bergman, S.; Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) are the major contributors to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation of the population. Especially hazardous are the decay products of U: {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and {sup 226}Ra in soils, water and plants. The most important exposure route to {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po is through wild gathered food. Some studies show that {sup 210}Po and also some other NORs accumulate from uranium-rich grounds in mushrooms. In berries the levels are usually lower. In Finland, Sweden and Norway there are sites enriched in NORs. In these areas e.g. the {sup 210}Po levels in certain edible mushroom species may be as high as a few hundred Bq/kg, leading to effective doses of several mSv/year among certain consumer groups. The intake of wild forest products varies greatly among the population, but the public should be informed of the exposure risk and ways to minimize it. In this study, NORs and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mushrooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sampling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO standards were used when applicable, to make all stages of the work harmonized between partners. For the analytical work, samples will be sent to partners with suitable analytical facilities. The analyses will be done during the year 2013 and the results reported in the final report and in scientific publications. (Author)

  20. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening