WorldWideScience

Sample records for berries

  1. Antimicrobial properties of berries

    OpenAIRE

    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta

    2007-01-01

    Berries, especially their antimicrobial properties, have been studied intensively at VTT over the past ten years in several research projects. In these in vitro studies phenolic berry extracts of common Nordic berries selectively inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria and human intestinal pathogens, without affecting the growth of beneficial lactic acid bacteria.

  2. Bioactive berry phenolics

    OpenAIRE

    Heinonen, Marina

    2007-01-01

    Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and readily included in the national food composition data base. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health.

  3. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed

  4. Supersymmetric Berry index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilinskii, K N; Melezhik, V S; Ilinski, K N; Kalinin, G V; Melezhik, V V

    1994-01-01

    We revise the sequences of SUSY for a cyclic adiabatic evolution governed by the supersymmetric quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. The condition (supersymmetric adiabatic evolution) under which the supersymmetric reductions of Berry (nondegenerated case) or Wilczek-Zee (degenerated case) phases of superpartners are taking place is pointed out. The analogue of Witten index (supersymmetric Berry index) is determined. As the examples of suggested concept of supersymmetric adiabatic evolution the Holomorphic quantum mechanics on complex plane and Meromorphic quantum mechanics on Riemann surface are considered. The supersymmetric Berry indexes for the models are calculated.

  5. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  6. Berry phase in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-01-01

    We propose the lattice QCD calculation of the Berry phase which is defined by the ground state of a single fermion. We perform the ground-state projection of a single-fermion propagator, construct the Berry link variable on a momentum-space lattice, and calculate the Berry phase. As the first application, the first Chern number of the (2+1)-dimensional Wilson fermion is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Bioactive constituents in aronia berries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate some of the potential health benefits of aronia berries with main focus on the phenolic substances. Extractions and fractionations of aronia berries were performed to obtain several crude extracts and subfractions. In addition, well known constituents of aronia berries (anthocyanins, procyanidins and phenolic acids) were isolated. The different samples obtained were then tested in various in vitro bioassays to determine their biological activities as ...

  8. Berry Fermi Liquid Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We develop an extension of the Landau Fermi liquid theory to systems of interacting fermions with non-trivial Berry curvature. We propose a kinetic equation and a constitutive relation for the electromagnetic current that together encode the linear response of such systems to external electromagnetic perturbations, to leading and next-to-leading orders in the expansion over the frequency and wave number of the perturbations. We analyze the Feynman diagrams in a large class of interacting quantum field theories and show that, after summing up all orders in perturbation theory, the current-current correlator exactly matches with the result obtained from the kinetic theory.

  9. Qubit rotation and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has the spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them results the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states. (author)

  10. Berry's Phase in Noncommutative Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. Alavi

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the perturbative aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Then we study Berry's phase within the framework of noncommutative quantum mechanics. The results show deviations from the usual quantum mechanics, which depend on the parameter of space/space noncommutativity.

  11. Roy Fuentes: Fuentes Berry Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As president of Fuentes Berry Farms, Rogelio (Roy) Fuentes is one of many independent growers producing organic berries for Driscoll’s—a company that was initiated more than a century ago by two strawberry farmers on California’s Central Coast, and has since evolved into an international concern devoted to research, breeding, production, sales and distribution of conventionally and organically farmed strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. Driscoll’s CEO Miles Reiter and his ...

  12. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Zuzana Mašková; Soňa Felšöciová; Miroslava Císarová

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine) on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar). The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal ...

  13. Berry's phase in noncommutative spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Alavi, S A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the perturbative aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Then we study the Berry's phase in the framework of noncommutative quantum mechanics. The results show deviations from the usual quantum mechanics which depend on the parameter of space/space noncommtativity.

  14. Ants defend coffee from berry borer colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, DJ; Ennis, KK; Philpott, SM; Vandermeer, J; Perfecto, I.

    2013-01-01

    Ants frequently prevent herbivores from damaging plants. In agroecosystems they may provide pest control services, although their contributions are not always appreciated. Here we compared the ability of eight ant species to prevent the coffee berry borer from colonizing coffee berries with a field exclusion experiment. We removed ants from one branch (exclusion) and left ants to forage on a second branch (control) before releasing 20 berry borers on each branch. After 24 h, six of eight spec...

  15. The Berry phase in frustrated spin glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter we have pointed out that frustration in spin glass is realized through the Berry phase due to the conflict between the spin ordering in the course of parallel transport. We came to the point that the Berry phase depicting the chiral change of helicity of a quantized spinor is prominent only in the presence of frustration. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 51.904 - Shot berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shot berries. 51.904 Section 51.904 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.904 Shot berries....

  17. Anatomy of Vitis Berries During Their Coloring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yi-zhen; HE Pu-chao

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-1999, the course of the berry coloring and the development of the pigment cells from veraison to ripeness were studied by freeze sectioning 43 accessions of 12 Vitis species (including 10 Chinese wild species). External observation showed that the berries of most species began coloring on the fruit top surface or on the sun-lit surface, and the berry surface color was evenly distributed when the berry was ripe.Internal observation revealed that the pigment cells in a few layers between cuticle and sub-cuticle colored first, the cuticle colored from inner layers to outer layers while the sub-cuticle from outer to inner, and the cuticle cells began coloring a little earlier than the sub-cuticle ones in most species. The pigment cells developed unevenly during the berry ripening. In the beginning of berry coloring, the cell pigment density among the layers or among the cells in the same layer was different. Both the numbers of the pigmented cells and the cell pigment density increased during the berry coloring, while the former lasted a short time; however, the latter kept increasing from veraison to ripeness, and they reached the deepest color when the berry was ripe.

  18. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned berries. 145.120 Section 145.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... percent, calculated as calcium, of the weight of the finished canned berries. (iii) Organic acids....

  19. Decision making by Berry's flux

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Benjamin O.; Lawler, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Order by disorder is a decision making process for frustrated systems but often leads to simple answers. We study order by disorder in the kagome Kondo model known for its complexity seeking rich decision making capabilities. At half filling and large Kondo coupling to hopping ratio $J_K/t$, the full manifold of 120$^o$ kagome ground states are degenerate at second order in $t/J_K$. We show this degeneracy lifts at sixth order when a fermion can hop around a hexagon and feel the Berry flux in...

  20. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  1. Berry Phases and Quantum Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamma, A

    2006-01-01

    We study the connection between Berry phases and quantum phase transitions of generic quantum many-body systems. Consider sequences of Berry phases associated to sequences of loops in the parameter space whose limit is a point. If the sequence of Berry phases does not converge to zero, then the limit point is a quantum critical point. Quantum critical points are associated to failures of adiabaticity. We discuss the remarkable example of the anisotropic XY spin chain in a transverse magnetic field and detect the XX region of criticality.

  2. Interview with Jo Berry, 6 May 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the following interview, Jo Berry remembers and reflects on the Brighton bombing which killed her father, Sir Anthony Berry thirty years ago in 1984. She describes her first meeting with one of the bombers, Pat Magee, her growing and unexpected friendship with him and her journey into healing and forgiveness. She elaborates how her understanding of forgiveness has changed and become more nuanced over the years. She also offers reflections on what justice means for her.

  3. Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...

  4. BlackBerry All-in-One for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sarigumba, Dante; Petz, William

    2010-01-01

    Go beyond BlackBerry basics and get everything your BlackBerry can deliver. BlackBerry is the leading smartphone for business users, and its popularity continues to explode. When you discover the amazing array of BlackBerry possibilities in this fun and friendly guide, you'll be even happier with your choice of smartphones. BlackBerry All-in-One For Dummies explores every feature and application common to all BlackBerry devices. It explains the topics in depth, with tips, tricks, workarounds, and includes detailed information about cool new third-party applications, accessories, and downloads

  5. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway. PMID:25920225

  6. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  7. Northern berries are superfruits - how to increase consumption and appreciation?

    OpenAIRE

    Tahvonen, Raija

    2010-01-01

    Health effects of Northern berries have been studied intensively already for years. Different berries show different health effects. Beneficial effects have been found in weight management, glucose metabolism, liver and eye health, immune function, oxidative metabolism (cancer prevention) and lipid metabolism. However, results of different studies are unanimous due to differences in test materials (whole berries / different berry fractions) and methods (in vitro studies, cell s...

  8. Berry fruits for cancer prevention: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that edible small and soft-fleshed berry fruits may have beneficial effects against several types of human cancers. The anticancer potential of berries has been related, at least in part, to a multitude of bioactive phytochemicals that these colorful fruits contain, including polyphenols (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins, gallotannins, phenolic acids), stilbenoids, lignans, and triterpenoids. Studies show that the anticancer effects of berry bioactives are partially mediated through their abilities to counteract, reduce, and also repair damage resulting from oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, berry bioactives also regulate carcinogen and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various transcription and growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and subcellular signaling pathways of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. Berry phytochemicals may also potentially sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting pathways that lead to treatment resistance, and berry fruit consumption may provide protection from therapy-associated toxicities. Although a wide variety of berry fruits are consumed worldwide, this paper focuses on those commonly consumed in North America, namely, blackberries, black raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, red raspberries, and strawberries. In addition, a large body of studies on singly purified berry bioactives is available, but this paper focuses on studies of "whole berries" per se, that is, as berry extracts and purified fractions, juices, and freeze-dried powders. Potential mechanisms of anticancer action and bioavailability of berry phenolics, as well as gaps in knowledge and recommendations for future berry research, are also briefly discussed. PMID:18211019

  9. Photon Drag Effect due to Berry Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kei; Ohno, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    A theoretical investigation reveals that the photon drag effect (PDE) is induced in a grating slab with deformation by the Berry curvature in phase space. It drifts the momentum of light, and gives asymmetric PDE signals in momentum space. Large PDE signals are observed even near the Γ point. This characteristic agrees well with our theoretical results.

  10. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  11. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  12. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during this study. The product presented qood quality criteria and it was highly appreciated by consumers who tasted it. This study presents a valuable method to preserve fresh widberries in honey over a long period of time. The economical value of this experiment resides in making these fruits available outside the harvesting season.

  13. Control of virus diseases of berry crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2015-01-01

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top-tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all certified plants are produced, usually after multiple cycles of propagation. In certification schemes, efforts are made to produce plants free of the targeted pathogens to provide plants of high health status to berry growers. This is achieved using a systems approach to manage virus vectors. Once planted in fruit production fields, virus control shifts to disease control where efforts are focused on controlling viruses or virus complexes that result in disease. In fruiting fields, infection with a virus that does not cause disease is of little concern to growers. Virus control is based on the use of resistance and tolerance, vector management, and isolation. PMID:25591882

  14. Coffee Berry Borer Resistance in Coffee Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Hiroshi Sera; Tumoru Sera; Dhalton Shiguer Ito; Claudionor Ribeiro Filho; Amador Villacorta; Fabio Seidi Kanayama1; Clayton Ribeiro Alegre; Leandro Del Grossi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the coffee germplasm of the Paraná Agronomic Institute (IAPAR) for resistance to the coffee-berry-borer. Preliminary field evaluation was performed in August 2004 and the fruits of less damaged genotypes in the field were evaluated under controlled condition with obligated and free choice experiments established in a randomized complete design with three replications. The genotypes were evaluated fifteen days after infestation with one borer per fruit in ...

  15. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Subash; Musthafa Mohamed Essa; Samir Al-Adawi; Mushtaq A.Memon; hTamilarasan Manivasagam; Mohammed Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegen-erative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kae-mpferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneifcial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents.

  17. Three elaborations on Berry's connection, curvature and phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss how symmetries and conservation laws are affected when Barry's phase occurs in a quantum system: symmetry transformations of coordinates have to be supplemented by gauge transformations of Berry's connection, and consequently constants of motion acquire terms beyond the familiar kinematical ones. They show how symmetries of a problem determine Berry's connection, curvature and, once a specific path is chosen, the phase as well. Moreover, higher order corrections are also fixed. They demonstrate that in some instances Berry's curvature and phase can be removed by a globally well-defined, time-dependent canonical transformation. Finally, the authors describe how field theories anomalies may be viewed as manifestations of Berry's phase

  18. BerryMeat - New market perspectives using herbs and berries in organic meat products. What has been achieved?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grevsen, Kai; Fenger, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to increase the portfolio of organic meat products for the consumer, by supplying new products preserved by organic grown herbs and berries. The consumers will benefit from a growing range of new, attractive, organic meat products, the Danish producers of organic meat products will benefit form a growing market and the producers of organic herbs and berries will experience an increasing demand for organic grown herbs and berries. The project has bee...

  19. The Politics of Thinking About China: 1. Mary Berry on China. 2. Shanker Versus Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mary; Shanker, Albert

    1978-01-01

    Mary Berry's speech suggesting that America had much to learn from Chinese education prompted a sharply critical letter from Albert Shanker, head of the American Federation of Teachers. Parts of the speech and the subsequent exchange with Shanker are reprinted here. (LBH)

  20. Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

  1. Gradient Nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Lee, Jongwon; Nookala, Nishant; Belkin, Mikhail A; Alù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach to plasmonic metasurfaces loaded by highly nonlinear multi-quantum well substrates, establishing a platform to control the nonlinear wavefront at will based on giant localized nonlinear effects. We apply this approach to design flat nonlinear metasurfaces for efficient second-harmonic radiation, including beam steering, focusing, and polarization manipulation. Our findings open a new direction for nonlinear optics, in which phase matching issues are relaxed, and an unprecedented level of local wavefront control is achieved over thin devices with giant nonlinear responses.

  2. Gradient Nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Gomez-Diaz, J. Sebastian; Lee, Jongwon; Nookala, Nishant; Belkin, Mikhail A.; Alù, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    We apply the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach to plasmonic metasurfaces loaded by highly nonlinear multiquantum-well substrates, establishing a platform to control the nonlinear wave front at will based on giant localized nonlinear effects. We apply this approach to design flat nonlinear metasurfaces for efficient second-harmonic radiation, including beam steering, focusing, and polarization manipulation. Our findings open a new direction for nonlinear optics, in which phase matching issues are relaxed, and an unprecedented level of local wave front control is achieved over thin devices with giant nonlinear responses.

  3. Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.

  4. Berry Phase Physics in Free and Interacting Fermionic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Berry phase plays an important role in many non-trivial phenomena over a broad range of many-body systems. In this thesis we focus on the Berry phase due to the change of the particles' momenta, and study its effects in free and interacting fermionic systems. We start with reviewing the semi-classical kinetic theory with Berry phase for a non-interacting ensemble of fermions -- a Berry Fermi gas -- which might be far-from-equilibrium. We particularly review the famous Berry phase contribution to the anomalous Hall current. We then provide a concrete and general path integral derivation for the semi-classical theory. Then we turn to the specific example of Weyl fermion, which exhibits the profound quantum phenomenon of chiral anomaly; we review how this quantum effect, and its closely related chiral magnetic effect and chiral vortical effect, arise from Berry phase in the semi-classical kinetic theory. We also discuss how Lorentz symmetry in the kinetic theory of Weyl fermion, seemly violated by the Berry phas...

  5. Berry's Phase for Standing Wave Near Graphene Edge

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Ken-ichi; Wakabayashi, Katsunori; Enoki, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Standing waves near the zigzag and armchair edges, and their Berry's phases are investigated. It is suggested that the Berry's phase for the standing wave near the zigzag edge is trivial, while that near the armchair edge is non-trivial. A non-trivial Berry's phase implies the presence of a singularity in parameter space. We have confirmed that the Dirac singularity is absent (present) in the parameter space for the standing wave near the zigzag (armchair) edge. The absence of the Dirac singu...

  6. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  7. Berry's phase for standing waves near graphene edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standing waves near zigzag and armchair edges, and their Berry's phases, are investigated. It is suggested that the Berry's phase for the standing wave near the zigzag edge is trivial, while that near the armchair edge is nontrivial. A nontrivial Berry's phase implies the presence of a singularity in parameter space. We have confirmed that Dirac singularity is absent (present) in parameter space for the standing wave near the zigzag (armchair) edge. The absence of Dirac singularity has a direct consequence in the local density of states near the zigzag edge. The transport properties of graphene nanoribbons observed by recent numerical simulations and experiments are discussed from the point of view of Berry's phases for standing waves.

  8. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  9. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrovankova, Sona; Sumczynski, Daniela; Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits. PMID:26501271

  10. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-04-13

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  11. Inactivation of Enteric Viruses in Minimally Processed Berries and Herbs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Butot, S.; Putallaz, T.; Amoroso, R; Sánchez, G.

    2009-01-01

    Several hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated berries and vegetables have recently been reported. Model experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of freeze-drying, freeze-drying combined with heating, and steam blanching for inactivation of enteric viruses that might be present on the surface of berries and herbs. Inactivation of HAV and inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for HuNoV, were assessed by viral ...

  12. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Ageeva N. M.; Suprun I. I.; Prakh A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire s...

  13. Ampelographic description of cluster, berry and seed of merlot cultivar (Vitis vinifera L.) and its selected clones

    OpenAIRE

    Vujović Dragan S.; Žunić Dragoljub M.; Pejin Boris M.; Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2016-01-01

    During a four-year period, ampelographic experiments focusing on the berry cluster (average length of grape cluster, number of grape clusters per shoot, number of berries per grape cluster and length of peduncle), berry (length of berry and berry juice yield), length of pedicel and seed (length of berry seed) of Merlot cultivar (used as a relevant standard) and 11 clones (Nos. 022, 023, 025, 026, 027, 028, 029, 030, 031, 033 and 034) were performed in order...

  14. New observations on the integrity, structure and physiology of flesh cells from fully ripened grape berry

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, N.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Gerós, H.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological/structural status of the soft ripened berry is still a matter of debate. In this paper isolated mesocarp cells from ripened berries of both wine and table varieties were studied by bright-field, fluorescence and confocal microscopy and flow cytometry to highlight the organization of berry flesh cell, function and viability. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that protoplasting from grape berry mesocarp tissue yields a single heterogenous population of intact and viable cells....

  15. Berry phases for interacting spins in composite environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Da-Bao; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Due to the potential application in quantum information process, geometric phase of interacting system arouse many interests. Some physicists concentrate on the system in pure classical envi- ronment, while others study the system in pure quantized environment. So a natural question is asked: how about an interacting system in composite environments made up of both classical and quantized field. In this letter, we analyze a quantum system composed of two interacting spins, of which one is in classical magnetic field and the other is in quantized field. First, classical magnetic field driven Berry phases for the whole system and subsystem are studied. The effect of couplings between particles and photon on these phases are analyzed. In comparison with the dynamical quantized field, We find that even a static quantized field in its vacuum state can also have an effect on Berry phase. Second, quantized field driven Berry phases for the whole system and sub- system are formulated, including both one and two mode ...

  16. BlackBerry PlayBook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Use your BlackBerry PlayBook for work and for play—this book shows you how For all you business road warriors who don't go anywhere without your BlackBerrys, the road just got a little more comfortable. The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet is your go-to-gadget for working on the go. Learn how to take full advantage of this powerful newcomer to the tablet market with this full-color For Dummies guide. You'll discover how to use your PlayBook to connect to corporate systems, manage your finances, keep track of your travel and other schedules—even how to use the PlayBook as an e-reade

  17. Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-02-01

    The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

  18. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  19. Post Harvest Handling, Storage, and Treatment for Fresh Market of Berry Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A perfect berry growing in the field may not reach the consumer in the same flawless condition. Producing high-quality berry fruit is only the first step. Delivering them to market in premium condition is also essential to command the buyer’s attention. The handling of berries during harvesting, sor...

  20. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

  1. Berry Curvature of interacting bosons in a honeycomb lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun; Sengupta, Pinaki; Batrouni, George G.; Miniatura, Christian; Grémaud, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    We consider soft-core bosons with onsite interaction loaded in the honeycomb lattice with different site energies for the two sublattices. Using both a mean-field approach and quantum Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that the topology of the honeycomb lattice results in a non-vanishing Berry curvature for the band structure of the single-particle excitations of the system. This Berry curvature induces an anomalous Hall effect. It is seen by studying the time evolution of a wavepacket, namely ...

  2. Berry syndrome in association with familial limb malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    We describe a newborn boy diagnosed with Berry syndrome consisting of a distal aortopulmonary septal defect, aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery, and interruption of the aorta. The child was noted to have reduplication of the right thumb. The child\\'s mother had a claw malformation of her left hand but a normal cardiovascular status. Genetic analysis for TBX5 and SALL4 mutations were negative in both the patient and his mother. This case describes the first ever report of Berry syndrome in an infant with reduplication of the right thumb and familial limb malformation.

  3. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    On field-grown vines, temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied, and resulting ...

  4. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  5. Social licence for the utilization of wild berries in the context of local traditional rights and the interests of the berry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Peltola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Everyman’s right, as applied in Finland and other Nordic countries, allows the picking of natural products (wild berries, mushrooms, etc. regardless of land ownership. Harvesting and selling natural products has been an important source of income in rural areas of northern Finland. As household berry picking has more or less replaced small-scale commercial berry picking, foreign seasonal pickers are now supplying raw material for the berry industry. This has aroused vivid discussions about the limits of everyman’s right and inhabitants’ rights to local natural resources. Critics claim that commercially organized berry picking makes it difficult for inhabitants to fully use natural resources. In this article, we present the results of a survey aimed at nature-oriented, mainly northern residents of Finland and a telephone and e-mail service to which residents of northern Finland sent feedback regarding foreign berry pickers. The results of the survey and the feedback show that, in general, organized berry picking by foreign labourers is accepted if some basic guidelines or rules are respected. These guidelines may stem from local customary laws or traditions which have regulated berry picking. Another factor which would improve local acceptance and promote social licence for organized berry picking by foreign and non–local labourers is the distribution of benefits. At present, the advantages of organized berry picking are seen as benefiting stakeholders outside the local community, whereas local communities have to bear the costs: for example, increased berry picking activity in areas which they have utilized for a prolonged time, sometimes through generations.

  6. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  7. Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics--a Finnish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2007-06-01

    In Finland, berries are part of the traditional diet significantly contributing to the intake of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and included in the national food composition database. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health. A great amount of in vitro evidence exists showing that berry phenolics are powerful antioxidants. However, the antioxidant effect of berry phenolics is strongly dependent on the choice of berry raw material, as the antioxidant activity differs between the different phenolic constituents, including anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. In foods, the antioxidant effect is also influenced by the structure of food. Tannin-containing berries exhibit antimicrobial properties against pathogenic bacteria, thus offering many new applications for food industry. Much of the interest in berry phenolics has focused on cranberries and both cultivated and wild blueberries, although also other berries including black currants, cloudberries, lingonberries, and red raspberries possess promising bioactivities that may have relevance to human health. Antioxidant activity of berry phenolics, in addition to other mechanisms, may contribute to human health, but the possible relationship remains yet to be scientifically substantiated. PMID:17492800

  8. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva N. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire spectrum of yeast. The grown colonies after preliminary microscoping were separated into the cultures and subjected to testing according to the culturalmorphological signs, being guided by determinants and benefits. It was established the specific variety of microflora on the surface of the berries of grapes of all investigated types, without dependence on the place of their growth. Obtained data showed that the group of yeast, which constantly is present in the complex of the epiphytic microorganisms of grapes of Saccharomyces, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora was characteristic for all types of grapes in all investigated regions. The heterogeneity of the taxonometric composition of microflora is shown. Prevailed yeasts were of family Saccharomycetaceae, form Saccharomyces vini. A quantity of yeast of Saccharomyces vini decreases in a number of Myskhako-Caucasus-Fanagoriya, that as a whole will be coordinated with the climatic conditions. Only the type of Pinot nuar grapes had yeasts of Brettanomyces Dekkera. On the berries of Cabernets and Karaburnu we have discovered yeasts of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus, causing acid-reduction. On the berries of the grapes, which grew in joint stock company APF “Fanagoriya” we haven’t revealed the presence of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts of the form of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus. In the same farm the smallest quantity of yeastswreckers is noted, which we the forms of Pichia and

  9. Revegetation of oil sands tailings. Growth improvement of silver-berry and buffalo-berry by inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, S.; Danielson, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of actinorhizal shrubs to tolerate inhospitable conditions while improving soil fertility and organic matter status has led to increased usage of these plants for land reclamation and amenity planting purposes. Silver-berry and buffalo-berry are two such shrubs being tested as potential candidates for the revegetation of the oil sands tailings in northeastern Alberta. Associated with the roots of silver-berry and buffalo-berry are two symbiants, the N/sub 2/-fixing actimomycete Frankia and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Numerous studies have demonstrated that, particularly in nutrient-limited conditions, mycorrhization and nodulation can result in significantly better plant performance as a consequence of improved N and P nutrition. It was found in this study that in Alberta, silver-berry and buffalo-berry are strictly VA mycorrhizal; that they are highly dependent on their symbiants for optimum growth; and that the VAM inoculum potential of both stockpiled and undisturbed muskeg peak is negligible, due to the absence of VAM hosts. Means to increase the inoculum potential of peat have been studied. The efficacy of inoculating seedlings grown in greenhouses with VAM and Frankia has been demonstrated. Overwinter mortality was higher for inoculated shrubs, but after one growing season, shoot-weights of silver-berry were 3 to 7 times greater than for uninoculated shrubs, and shoot weights of buffalo-berry were 3 to 5 times greater. 122 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Observation of Berry's Phase in a Superconducting Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, P. J.; Fink, J. M.; Blais, A.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Wallraff, A.

    2008-03-01

    In quantum information science, the phase of a wavefunction plays an important role in encoding information. While most experiments in this field rely on dynamic effects to manipulate this information, an alternative approach is to use geometric phase, which has been argued to have potential fault tolerance [1]. Here we demonstrate the controlled accumulation of a geometric phase, Berry's phase, in a superconducting qubit, manipulating the qubit geometrically using microwave radiation, and observing the accumulated phase in an interference experiment [2]. This is achieved utilising the excellent phase coherence and qubit control possible in Circuit QED [3]. We find excellent agreement with Berry's predictions, and also observe a geometry dependent contribution to dephasing. [1] J.A. Jones et al, Nature 403, 869 (2000) [2] P.J. Leek et al, Science, 22 November 2007 (10.1126/science.1149858) [3] A. Wallraff et al, Nature 431, 162 (2004)

  11. Berry curvature of interacting bosons in a honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Sengupta, Pinaki; Batrouni, George G.; Miniatura, Christian; Grémaud, Benoît.

    2015-10-01

    We consider soft-core bosons with on-site interaction loaded in the honeycomb lattice with different site energies for the two sublattices. Using both a mean-field approach and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the topology of the honeycomb lattice results in a nonvanishing Berry curvature for the band structure of the single-particle excitations of the system. This Berry curvature induces an anomalous Hall effect when driving the system out of equilibrium. It is seen by studying the time evolution of a wave packet, namely, a superfluid ground state in a harmonic trap, subjected either to a constant force (Bloch oscillations) or to a sudden shift of the trap center.

  12. Steroidal glycoalkaloids from the berries of Solanum distichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzid, Sameh; Fawzy, Nermeen; Darweesh, Nebal; Orihara, Yutaka

    2008-01-20

    Two steroidal glycoalkaloids, Solanidine 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'' --> 4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1' --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (1) and Solanidine 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'' --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (2) commonly known as alpha-chanonine and beta 2-chanonine, were isolated from the berries of Solanum distichum. The structures of the isolated compounds were studied by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and FAB MS analysis. The 13C NMR signal assignments and direct elucidation of the glycoside linkages were established. Glycoalkaloids level in the dried berries, determined by a simple colorimetric method, was found to be 5.08 +/- 0.18 g%. PMID:18075898

  13. Berry Phases, Quantum Phase Transitions and Chern Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, H. A.; Reyes-Lega, A. F.

    2007-01-01

    We study the relation between Chern numbers and Quantum Phase Transitions (QPT) in the XY spin-chain model. By coupling the spin chain to a single spin, it is possible to study topological invariants associated to the coupling Hamiltonian. These invariants contain global information, in addition to the usual one (obtained by integrating the Berry connection around a closed loop). We compute these invariants (Chern numbers) and discuss their relation to QPT. In particular we show that Chern nu...

  14. Measurement of topological Berry phase in highly disordered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaceur, K.; Guillemette, J.; Lévesque, P. L.; Cottenye, N.; Mahvash, F.; Hemsworth, N.; Kumar, Abhishek; Murata, Y.; Heun, S.; Goerbig, M. O.; Proust, C.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.

    2015-09-01

    We have observed the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in highly disordered graphene at magnetic fields up to 65 T. Disorder was introduced by hydrogenation of graphene up to a ratio H/C ≈0.1 %. The analysis of SdH oscillations and QHE indicates that the topological part of the Berry phase, proportional to the pseudospin winding number, is robust against introduction of disorder by hydrogenation in large-scale graphene.

  15. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies de...

  16. Antioxidant capacities and anthocyanin characteristics of the black-red wild berries obtained in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengyong; Su, Shang; Wang, Lijin; Wu, Jie; Tang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Yanjun; Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng

    2016-08-01

    Various edible berries widely accessible in nature in Northeast China are poorly exploited. The compositions and contents of anthocyanins in black (Padus maackii, Padus avium, Lonicera caerulea, and Ribes nigrum) and red (Ribes rubrum, Sambucus williamsii, Rubus idaeus, and Ribes procumbens) wild berries in Northeast China were firstly characterized by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2). Twenty-three anthocyanins were detected and identified. Cyanidin glycosides were dominant in both berries. Six anthocyanins were reported for the first time in P. avium, R. rubrum, and Sambucus. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) ranged from 10mg/100gfreshweight (FW) (R. procumbens) to 1058mg/100gFW (P. maackii) among berries. The TACs and antioxidant activities assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays were much higher in black than in red berries. Black-red berries, especially P. maackii and P. avium, can be used in developing functional foods and in improving breeding programs. PMID:26988488

  17. Berry Curvature and Chiral Plasmons in Massive Dirac Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Justin; Rudner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    In the semiclassical model of carrier dynamics, quasiparticles are described as nearly free electrons with modified characteristics modified characteristics such as effective masses which may differ significantly from those of an electron in vacuum. In addition to being influenced by external electric and magnetic fields, the trajectories of electrons in topological materials are also affected by the presence of an interesting quantum mechanical field - the Berry curvature - which is responsible for a number of anomalous transport phenomena recently observed in Dirac materials including G/hBN, and MoS2. Here we discuss how Berry curvature can affect the collective behavior of electrons in these systems. In particular, we show that the collective electronic excitations in metallic massive Dirac materials can feature a chirality even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The chirality of these plasmons arises from the Berry curvature of the massive Dirac bands. The corresponding dispersion is split between left- and right-handed modes. We also discuss experimental manifestations.

  18. A biophysical model of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alistair J; Minchin, Peter E H; Clearwater, Michael J; Génard, Michel

    2013-12-01

    A model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of Fishman and Génard used for peach fruit. That model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. First, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. Second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit berries is stored as starch until the fruit matures late in the season, when the starch hydrolyses to soluble sugars. This starch storage has a major effect on the osmotic potential of the fruit, so an existing model of kiwifruit starch dynamics was included in the model. Using previously published approaches, we also included elasticity and extended the modelling period to cover both the cell division and cell expansion phases of growth. The resulting model showed close simulation of field observations of fresh weight, dry matter, starch, and soluble solids in kiwifruit. Comparison with continuous measurements of fruit diameter confirmed that elasticity was needed to adequately simulate observed diurnal variation in fruit size. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the model is particularly sensitive to variation in inputs relating to water (stem water potential and the humidity of the air), and to parameters controlling cell expansion (cell wall extensibility). Some limitations in the model structure were identified, suggesting that a revised model including current apoplastic/symplastic concepts needs to be developed. PMID:24123250

  19. Lantana camara berry for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brajesh; Kumar; Kumari; Smita; Luis; Cumbal; Alexis; Debut

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize the silver nunoparticles(AgNPs) by reduction of silver ions into nano silver,using ripened berry extract of Lantana camara and evaluate its antioxidant activity against 1.1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl.Methods:The prepared AgNPs were characterized by visual,UV-visible spectrophotometer.dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction.Results:Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed the AgNPs are spherical and 75.2 nm average sized.Selected area electron diffraction analysis supports that the obtained nanoparticles were in crystalline form.In addition,the antioxidant efficacy of prepared AgNPs was found to be higher than berry extract against 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.Conclusions:From the results obtained it is suggested that surface modified AgNPs at lower concentration,showed higher antioxidant activity than berry extract against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and could be used effectively in future ethno pharmacological concerns.

  20. Other Kinds of Violence: Wendell Berry, Industrialism, and Agrarian Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Major

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the need to understand pacifism and environmentalism as essentially consonant philosophies and practices, just as a proper theorization of ecocide must also include the violence inherent to industrialism and militarism. Few contemporary writers understand the stakes involved in this conflation as well as Wendell Berry, and few have had more occasion to enact the entwined values of pacifism and environmentalism than he has. Berry therefore marries pacifist politics to a land ethic of care, a union from which emerges an environmentalism highly critical of the violence of American corporate capitalism and militarism, the apotheosis of which can be seen in the guise of war (Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the “War on Terror”. Moreover, such violence has its domestic ecocidal analogy, best evidenced by strip mining and mountaintop removal. Berry’s union of peaceableness and agrarian environmentalism does, however, deserve critical examination, for it often rests upon the construction of a sometimes frustrating disconnection between a precious and benign domesticity and a theoretically corrupt public sphere. To be sure, in his reworking of the fluid boundaries between the private and public through which his agrarian ethics is often articulated, Berry simultaneously invokes and disavows a separation he clearly understands to be artificial. In Berry’s peaceful agrarian vision, then, the agrarian pacifist who is also by definition an environmentalist must draw upon enormous internal resources if she is to revolutionize the economies of ruin that characterize modern life.

  1. Grape berry vacuole : a complex and heterogeneous membrane system specialized in the accumulation of solutes

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, N.; Gerós, H.; Delrot, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Vacuoles fulfill highly specialized functions depending on cell type and tissue and plant developmental stage. This complex and dynamic organelle is the main reservoir of grape berry cells, playing a major role during fruit development and ripening. Berry development is accompanied by modifications in size, composition, color, texture, flavor, and pathogen susceptibility, primarily because of changes in vacuolar content. Most aroma and flavor compounds are not evenly distributed in the berry,...

  2. Inhibition of adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells by berry juice polyphenolic fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Toivanen, Marko; Huttunen, Sanna; Lapinjoki, Seppo; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Adhesion of pathogens to host tissues is the requirement for the initiation of the majority of infectious diseases. We recently showed that the binding of Neisseria meningitidis pili to immobilised human epithelial cells is inhibited by molecular size fractions (10?100 kDa) of berry juices. Additionally, the isolated meningococcal pili bound to polyphenolic fractions of berry juices. In the present study we investigated the antiadhesive effects of berry juice polyphenolics...

  3. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa; Florica Ranga; Dumitriţa Rugină; Loredana Leopold; Oana Pop; Dan Vodnar; Lucian Cuibus; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was d...

  4. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    OpenAIRE

    Pranabendu Mitra; Venkatesh Meda; Rick Green

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon be...

  5. Measurement of Berry Phase Associated with Higher Dimensional Orbital Angular Momentum of Light by Interference Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry phase of higher-dimensional orbital angular momentum of light is studied. When an Nth order orbital state, described by a vector in (N + 1)-dimensional space, evolves through a closed path in space of orbital states, there will exist a higher order orbital Berry phase. We calculate this phase by using the matrix transformation theory. A direct measurement of the higher-order orbital Berry phase is also carried out by the interference method. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical description, which shows that the Berry phase is proportional to the orbital angular momentum of light

  6. Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6 ± 8.2 g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9 ± 31.7 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

  7. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  8. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  9. Correlation of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to oxygen radical scavenging activities in berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and their glycosides. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of...

  10. Miracle Berry for Increasing Health Benefits of beta-Glucan Soluble Fiber Functional Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum) is known for its taste modification of sour materials to give them an excellent sweetening taste. Although miracle berry was known in West African since the 1800’s, the earliest chemical composition studies were first performed in 1965 by Inglett and co-workers...

  11. On Membership, Humility, and Pedagogical Responsibilities: A Correspondence on the Work of Wendell Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusewicz, Rebecca A.; Edmundson, Jeff; Kahn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Wendell Berry is a novelist, essayist, conservation activist and farmer who has had a lot to say over the last half century about the impact of modern industrial society on small farm communities and the land especially since WWII. In this three-way conversation, the authors take up central aspects of Berry's work to think about how it has…

  12. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  13. Changes in ginsenoside composition of ginseng berry extracts after a microwave and vinegar process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Shin-Jung; Kim, Ju-Duck; Ko, Sung-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    MGB-20 findings show that the ginseng berry extracts that had been processed with microwave and vinegar for 20 min peaked in the level of ginsenoside Rg2 (2.28%) and Rh1 (1.28%). MGB-1 peaked in the level of ginsenoside Rg3 (1.13%) in the ginseng berry extract processed with microwave and vinegar for 1 min.

  14. Time and Frequency Domain Response of Grape Berries to Nondestructive Impact during the Harvesting Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Pavloušek, P.; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2016), s. 24-33. ISSN 0022-4901 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : berry´s response * dominant frequency * elastic modulus * grape berries Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com

  15. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  16. Application of Berry's Phase to the Effective Mass of Bloch Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rave, M. J.; Kerr, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Berry's phase, although well known since 1984, has received little attention among textbook authors of solid state physics. We attempt to address this lack by showing how the presence of the Berry's phase significantly changes a standard concept (effective mass) found in most solid state texts. Specifically, we show that the presence of a non-zero…

  17. Bragg-Berry mirrors: reflective broadband q-plates

    CERN Document Server

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh

    2016-01-01

    We report on the experimental realization of flat mirrors enabling the broadband generation of optical vortices upon reflection. The effect is based on the geometric Berry phase associated with the circular Bragg reflection phenomenon from chiral uniaxial media. We show the reflective optical vortex generation from both diffractive and nondiffractive paraxial light beams using spatially patterned chiral liquid crystal films. The intrinsic spectrally broadband character of spin-orbit generation of optical phase singularities is demonstrated over the full visible domain. Our results do not rely on any birefringent retardation requirement and consequently foster the development of a novel generation of robust optical elements for spin-orbit photonic technologies.

  18. Measurement of Topological Berry Phase in Highly Disordered Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Bennaceur, K.; Guillemette, J.; Lévesque, P. L.; Cottenye, N.; Mahvash, F.; Hemsworth, N.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Murata, Y; Heun, S.; Goerbig, M. O.; Proust, C.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in highly disordered graphene at magnetic fields up to 65 T. Disorder was introduced by hydrogenation of graphene up to a ratio H/C $\\approx 0.1\\%$. The analysis of SdH oscillations and QHE indicates that the topological part of the Berry phase, proportional to the pseudo-spin winding number, is robust against introduction of disorder by hydrogenation in large scale graphene.

  19. The Pioneer's Anomalous Doppler Drift as a Berry Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales, J L

    2004-01-01

    The detected anomalous frequency drift acceleration in Pioneer's radar data finds its explanation in a Berry phase that obtains the quantum state of a photon that propagates within an expanding space-time. The clock acceleration is just the adiabatic expansion rate and an analogy between the effect and Foucault's experiment is fully suggested. In this sense, light rays play a similar role in the expanding space than Foucault's Pendulum does while determining Earth's rotation. On the other hand, one could speculate about a suitable future experiment at "laboratory" scales able to measure the local cosmological expansion rate using the procedure of outlined in this paper.

  20. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m). The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire le...

  1. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns...... related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste......This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...

  2. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  3. Berry phases in the three-level atoms driven by quantized light fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mai-Lin Liang; Zong-Cheng Xu; Bing Yuan

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of Berry's phases is given for the three-level atoms interacting with external one-mode and two-mode quantized light fields. Three main results are obtained: (i) There is a Berry phase which vanishes in the classical limit or this Berry phase is completely induced by the field quantization; (ii) Berry's phases for the one-mode field and the two-mode field can be equal so long as the photon numbers of the two-mode field are properly chosen; (iii) In the two-mode case, Berry phases of the atom interacting with one mode is affected by the other mode even if the photon number of the other mode is zero.

  4. Berry phase of the Rabi model beyond the rotating-wave approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berry phase of the Rabi model beyond the rotating-wave approximation is investigated. By use of two unitary transformations, the analytical expressions of the Berry phase are obtained approximately for the Rabi model. The obtained analytical solutions reproduce accurately the high-accuracy numerical results of the Berry phase in the strong coupling regime. It is found that the Berry phase of the ground state is relevant to the second-order terms of the coupling strength, and the Berry phases of the first and second excited states are mainly relevant to the first-, second- and third-order terms of the coupling strength when the effect of the counter-rotating-wave terms is taken into account. (paper)

  5. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Guerrero C; Luigi Ciampi P; Andrea Castilla C; Fernando Medel S; Heidi Schalchli S; Emilio Hormazabal U; Emma Bensch T; Miren Alberdi L

    2010-01-01

    It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC),...

  6. Chemical quality parameters and bioactive compound content of brazilian berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing consumer demand for higher healthy foods such as berries which are a rich source of phenolic compounds. The current work evaluated blackberry cultivars: Cherokee, Tupy and Xavante; raspberry cultivars: Heritage, Fallgold and Black; and the hybrid Boysenberry. All berries were grown under homogenous subtropical conditions in Brazil. Black raspberry, Cherokee and Tupy blackberry cultivars showed the highest ratio between soluble solid contents and titratable acidity, and Fallgold and Heritage raspberry showed the highest titratable acidity. Total phenolic content ranged from 2.03 to 5.33 g kg–1 fresh weight and total anthocyanin content registered values from 0.41 to 1.81 g kg–1 fresh weight. The most common phenolic acids were gallic, p-coumaric and ellagic, and for anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvinidin-3-glucoside. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 14.13 to 21.51 mol equivalent trolox kg–1 fresh weight. Black raspberry, all blackberry cultivars and the Boysenberry hybrid are appropriate to be consumed fresh, while Fallgold and Heritage raspberries are recommended to the food industry. Due to their phenolic richness and antioxidant properties, these fruits are of great interest to the fresh fruit market and to pharmaceutical industries. These results could help breeders and growers when planning the cultivar selection according to their foreseeable destination.

  7. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  8. ACROPOLIS - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest aromatic wine white berry grape variety Acropolis was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi and L.Troshinym in 2006 by crossing the Greek variety Kidonitsa with European Riesling. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics it is related to the eco-geographical group of Black Sea. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Degree of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length, except for the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. High yield 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster is 360 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with common varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, spherical, greenish-yellow color with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal type taste of Riesling. Sugar content is very high: up to 24% more. Bunches of variety Acropolis continuously stored in the bushes. Variety is intended for manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines, suitable for production of high quality aromatic juices

  9. AGAPI - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Newest aromatic white berry wine grape variety Agapi was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskiy in 2006 by crossing the Greek varieties Afiri white with central European variety Traminer pink. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Level of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length except the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. Productivity is very high: 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster 300 g. Characterized by a high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases compared to varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, short elliptical or spherical, greenish-yellow in color, with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, and durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. The sugar content is very high, more than 24%. Clusters of Agapi variety regardless of autumn weather conditions persist for a long time in the bushes. Variety intended for the manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high quality fragrant juices

  10. Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in the Born–Oppenheimer hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.D. [National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Yi, X.X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Fu, L.B., E-mail: lbfu.iapcm@gmail.com [National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) hybrid systems and obtain their algebraic expressions in terms of one form connection. The semiclassical relation of Berry phase and Hannay’s angle is discussed. We find that, besides the usual connection term, the Berry phase of quantum BO composite system also contains a novel term brought forth by the coupling induced effective gauge potential. This quantum modification can be viewed as an effective Aharonov–Bohm effect. Moreover, the similar phenomenon is founded in Hannay’s angle of classical BO composite system, which indicates that the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle possess the same relation as the usual one. An example is used to illustrate our theory. This scheme can be used to generate artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms. Besides, the quantum–classical hybrid BO system is also studied to compare with the results in full quantum and full classical composite systems. -- Highlights: •We have derived the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in BO hybrid systems. •The Berry phase contains a novel term brought by the effective gauge potential. •This mechanism can be used to generate artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms. •The relation between Hannay’s angles and Berry phases is established.

  11. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  12. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  13. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with "beyond antioxidant" functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561

  15. Vacuum induced Berry phases in single-mode Jaynes-Cummings models

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yu; Jia, W Z; Liang, J Q

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 220404 (2002)] for detecting the vacuum-induced Berry phases with two-mode Jaynes-Cummings models (JCMs), we show here that, for a parameter-dependent single-mode JCM, certain atom-field states also acquire the photon-number-dependent Berry phases after the parameter slowly changed and eventually returned to its initial value. This geometric effect related to the field quantization still exists, even the filed is kept in its vacuum state. Specifically, a feasible Ramsey interference experiment with cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) system is designed to detect the vacuum-induced Berry phase.

  16. Vacuum-induced Berry phases in single-mode Jaynes-Cummings models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 220404 (2002)] for detecting the vacuum-induced Berry phases with two-mode Jaynes-Cummings models (JCMs), we show here that, for a parameter-dependent single-mode JCM, certain atom-field states also acquired photon-number-dependent Berry phases after the parameter slowly changed and eventually returned to its initial value. This geometric effect related to the field quantization still exists, even if the field is kept in its vacuum state. Specifically, a feasible Ramsey interference experiment with a cavity quantum electrodynamics system is designed to detect the vacuum-induced Berry phase.

  17. Holographic Josephson Junctions and Berry holonomy from D-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Domokos, Sophia K; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    We construct a holographic model for Josephson junctions with a defect system of a Dp brane intersecting a D(p+2) brane. In addition to providing a geometrical picture for the holographic dual, this leads us very naturally to suggest the possibility of non-Abelian Josephson junctions characterized in terms of the topological properties of the branes. The difference between the locations of the endpoints of the Dp brane on either side of the defect translates into the phase difference of the condensate in the Josephson junction. We also add a magnetic flux on the D(p+2) brane and allow it evolve adiabatically along a closed curve in the space of the magnetic flux, while generating a non-trivial Berry holonomy.

  18. Anthocyanins in berries of Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Muñoz, Orlando; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2006-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of berries of Maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz] was determined by HPLC with photodiode array and MS detection. Eight pigments corresponding to the 3-glucosides, 3,5-diglucosides, 3-sambubiosides and 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were identified, the principal anthocyanin being delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (34% of total anthocyanins). The average total anthocyanin content was 137.6 +/- 0.4mg/100g of fresh fruit (211.9 +/- 0.6 mg/100g of dry fruit). The relative high anthocyanin content and the important presence of polar polyglycosylated derivatives makes the fruits of A. chilensis an interesting source of anthocyanin extracts for food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:16454470

  19. Luttinger liquid with complex forward scattering: Robustness and Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich

    2016-02-01

    Luttinger liquids (LLs) are one-dimensional systems with well-understood instabilities due to Umklapp or backscattering. We study a generalization of the Luttinger model, which incorporates a time reversal symmetry breaking interaction producing a complex forward scattering amplitude (g2 process). The resulting low energy state is still a LL and belongs to the family of interacting Schulz-Shastry models. Remarkably, it becomes increasingly robust against additional perturbations—for purely imaginary g2, both Umklapp and local backscattering are always irrelevant. Changing the phase of the interaction generates a nontrivial Berry phase, with a universal geometric phase difference between ground and a one boson excited state depending only on the LL parameter.

  20. Characterization of a multifunctional caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase activated in grape berries upon drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Debora; Provenzano, Sofia; Ferrandino, Alessandra; Vitali, Marco; Pagliarani, Chiara; Roman, Federica; Cardinale, Francesca; Castellarin, Simone D; Schubert, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Drought stress affects anthocyanin accumulation and modification in vegetative and reproductive plant tissues. Anthocyanins are the most abundant flavonoids in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) coloured berry genotypes and are essential markers of grape winemaking quality. They are mostly mono- and di-methylated, such modifications increase their stability and improve berry quality for winemaking. Anthocyanin methylation in grape berries is induced by drought stress. A few caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs) active on anthocyanins have been described in grape. However, no drought-activated O-methyltransferases have been described in grape berries yet. In this study, we characterized VvCCoAOMT, a grapevine gene known to induce methylation of CoA esters in cultured grape cells. Transcript accumulation of VvCCoAOMT was detected in berry skins, and increased during berry ripening on the plant, and in cultured berries treated with ABA, concomitantly with accumulation of methylated anthocyanins, suggesting that anthocyanins may be substrates of this enzyme. Contrary as previously observed in cell cultures, biotic stress (Botrytis cinerea inoculation) did not affect VvCCoAOMT gene expression in leaves or berries, while drought stress increased VvCCoAOMT transcript in berries. The recombinant VvCCoAOMT protein showed in vitro methylating activity on cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. We conclude that VvCCoAOMT is a multifunctional O-methyltransferase that may contribute to anthocyanin methylation activity in grape berries, in particular under drought stress conditions. PMID:26851572

  1. Organic production: does it enhance the health-promoting compounds in berries?

    OpenAIRE

    Anttonen, Mikko; Karjalainen, Reijo

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed phenolic compounds from organically and conventionally grown blackcurrants and strawberries to test the idea if organically grown berries contain a higher amount of health-promoting phenolic compounds.

  2. THE ESTIMATION OF DEPENDENCY OF FRESH BERRIES PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES ON STORAGE AND PROCESSING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sandulachi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available strawberries and raspberries in different level of ripeness. Here are presented: physico-chemical composition of the investigated samples, dry matter content, pH, anthocyanin content, polyphenols, ascorbic acid and K coefficient, which evidence oxido-reducing state of berries. It has been studied, also, the oxido-reducing state of this berries during storage condition.It was found that berries are rich in bioantioxidants. From physico-chemical point of view these fruits are in a reduced state, characterized by high values of index K. Biological value expressed by the oxidation-reducing state of berries depends on the ripeness level. Samples spectral analysis showed that depreciation of strawberries aspect and appearance of brown color is determined by anthocyans and polyphenols degradation and brown compounds formation.

  3. Berries from South America: a comprehensive review on chemistry, health potential, and commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckinger, Maria Elisa; Lotton, Jennifer; Lila, Mary Ann; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-04-01

    Dietary intake of berry fruits has been demonstrated to positively impact human health. Interest in exploring new and exotic types of berries has grown in recent years. This article provides botanical descriptions and reviews the chemistry, biological activities, and commercialization of berry-producing plants from South America, specifically Aristotelia chilensis, Euterpe oleracea, Malpighia emarginata, Ugni molinae, Fragaria chiloensis, Rubus glaucus, Rubus adenotrichus, and Vaccinium floribundum. These species possess a rich and diversified composition of bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. The most significant health benefits have been attributed to phenolic compounds and vitamin C, potentially protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although both traditional folk medicine and composition of these berries suggest significant health benefits, few studies to date have investigated these potentials. PMID:20170356

  4. The Symmetry Protected Piecewise Berry Phases, Enhanced Pumping and Non-reciprocity in Trimer Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xuele

    2016-01-01

    Finding new phase is a fundamental task in physics. Landau's theory explained the deep connection between symmetry breaking and phase transition commonly occurring in magnetic, superconducting and super uid systems. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect led to Z topological phases which could be different for same symmetry and are characterized by the discrete values of the Berry phases. By studying 1D trimer lattices we report new phases characterized by Berry phases which are piecewise continuous rather than discrete numbers. The phase transition occurs at the discontinuity point. With time-dependent changes, trimer lattices also give a 2D phases characterized by very specific 2D Berry phases of half period. These Berry phases change smoothly within a phase while change discontinuously at the transition point. We further demonstrate the existence of adiabatic pumping for each phase and gain assisted enhanced pumping. The non-reciprocity of the pumping process makes the system a good optical diode.

  5. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC, total anthocyanins (TA, and total phenols (TP of wild and cultivated berries in different localities of La Araucanía and Los Ríos Regions in Chile. These parameters were analyzed by using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH method, pH-differential, and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Percentages of DPPH discoloration of different berries studied were between 67.8% and 95.3% for red sarsaparilla and rosehip, respectively. Maqui berries showed a significantly higher TA content (2240.2 and 1445.3 mg L-1 cyanidin 3-glucoside than other berries, and a mean for all berries of 335.5 mg L-1. Higher phenol content levels were obtained in two cultivars of saskatoon (773.9 and 1001.9 mg L-1 gallic acid and wild rosehip (1457.0 and 1140.4 mg L-1 gallic acid. We conclude that there are significant differences in antioxidant capacity of wild and cultivated Chilean berries in this study which show a strong correlation between AC and TP content.Por medio del consumo de berries es posible incorporar al organismo una gran cantidad de antioxidantes capaces de prevenir múltiples enfermedades generadas por la acción de los radicales libres. Los antioxidantes actúan neutralizando los radicales libres y de esta forma protegen al organismo del daño oxidativo de lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Entre variadas frutas y hortalizas, se destacan los berries como una de las fuentes más ricas en fitonutrientes antioxidantes. El objetivo de esta investigaci

  6. Berry and Citrus Phenolic Compounds Inhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV: Implications in Diabetes Management

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Fan; Johnson, Michelle H.; Mary Ann Lila; Gad Yousef; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial health effects of fruits and vegetables in the diet have been attributed to their high flavonoid content. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a serine aminopeptidase that is a novel target for type 2 diabetes therapy due to its incretin hormone regulatory effects. In this study, well-characterized anthocyanins (ANC) isolated from berry wine blends and twenty-seven other phenolic compounds commonly present in citrus, berry, grape, and soybean, were individually investigated for thei...

  7. Experimental Determination of the Berry Phase in a Superconducting Charge Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Möttönen, Mikko; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Pekola, Jukka P.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first measurements of the Berry phase in a superconducting Cooper pair pump. A fixed amount of Berry phase is accumulated to the quantum-mechanical ground state in each adiabatic pumping cycle, which is determined by measuring the charge passing through the device. The dynamic and geometric phases are identified and measured quantitatively from their different response when pumping in opposite directions. Our observations, in particular, the dependencies of the dynamic and geom...

  8. American Ginseng Berry Juice Intake Reduces Blood Glucose and Body Weight in ob/ob Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, J.T.; Wang, C.Z.; Ni, M.; Wu, J.A.; Mehendale, S.R.; Aung, H.H.; Foo, A.; Yuan, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disease and has a significant impact on patients' lives and the health care system. We previously observed that the organic solvent extract of American ginseng berry possessed significant antidiabetic effects in obese diabetic ob/ob mice after intraperitoneal injection. If American ginseng berry is useful as a dietary supplement, simple preparation and oral intake would be a convenient, safe, and practical means for consumers. In this study, the simply ...

  9. MIR – NEWEST HIGHT QUALITY BLACK BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Newest wine black berry with painted pulp and juice grape variety called Mir was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece) by Zamanidi P., Troshin L. and Radchevsky P. in 2006 by crossing the Ukrainian variety of Odessa black (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon) with new Greek black berry variety Iliad. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period - 146-155 days. Strong gro...

  10. In Vitro and in Vivo Anti-Diabetic Effects of Anthocyanins from Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo, Leonel E.; Ribnicky, David; Logendra, Sithes; Poulev, Alex; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Kuhn, Peter; Dorn, Ruth; Grace, Mary H; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We used a murine model of type II diabetes, which reproduces the major features of the human disease, and a number of cellular models to study the antidiabetic effect of ANC, a standardised anthocyanin-rich formulation from maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis). We also isolated delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (D3S5G), a characteristic anthocyanin from maqui berry, and studied its antidiabetic properties. We observed that oral administration of ANC improved fasting blood glucose levels a...

  11. Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum): Composition and Health Effects – a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kulczyński Bartosz; Gramza-Michałowska Anna

    2016-01-01

    Goji berries contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds which allowed to classify them as superfruits. A short description of the fruits is presented together with cultivation requirements. The chemical composition of the berries and their health-promoting properties are described later in this literature review. Based on the available data, their potentially beneficial application in dietary prevention of diseases of affluence, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, is ela...

  12. In vitro cultures of grape tissues : new possibilities to study grape berry physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Grape berries suffer important morphological, biochemical and physiological changes during its development and maturation. It is known that photoassimilates translocated from leaves serve as the major source of carbon and energy to support fruit needs, but recent findings revealed that, at least in the green phase, grape berries show high photosynthetic activity especially in the exocarp. The contribution of fruit photosynthesis for fruit growth and production of organic compounds is far from...

  13. Optical characterization of topological insulator surface states: Berry curvature-dependent response

    OpenAIRE

    Hosur, Pavan

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the optical response of the surface states of a topological insulator, especially the generation of helicity-dependent direct current by circularly polarized light. Interestingly, the dominant current, due to an interband transition, is controlled by the Berry curvature of the surface bands. This extends the connection between photocurrents and Berry curvature beyond the quasiclassical approximation where it has been shown to hold. Explicit expressions are derived for t...

  14. Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Acosta, Monica L; Lenihan-Geels, Georgia N; Corpe, Christopher P; Hall, Wendy L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D. PMID:27170557

  15. The Role of Bee Pollinators in Improving Berry Weight and Coffee Cup Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca H.N. Karanja; Njoroge, Grace N; John M. Kihoro; Mary W. Gikungu; L.E. Newton

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted at Kiambu County in Kenya. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pollination improves the coffee yield and quality of processed coffee in terms of taste and aroma. Among the parameters evaluated when grading coffee for sale in world market are berry weight and cup quality. No previous work in Kenya describes the role of bee pollinators in enhancement of coffee yields and quality. Data on berry weights and the resulting processed coffee quality from different...

  16. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    OpenAIRE

    Šárka Nedomová; Vojtěch Kumbár; Pavel Pavloušek; Roman Pytel; Jaroslav Začal; Jaroslav Buchar

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, ...

  17. Impact of irrigation regime on berry development and flavonoids composition in Aragonez (Syn. Tempranillo) grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrouk, Olfa; Francisco, Rita; Pinto-Marijuan, Marta; Brossa, Ricardo; Santos, Raquen Raissa; Pinheiro, Carla; Costa, Joaquim M.; Lopes, Carlos M.; Chaves, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, field grown Aragonez (Syn. Tempranillo) grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were subjected to three irrigation regimes (conventional sustained deficit irrigation (DI), regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and non-irrigated (NI)) during two successive seasons (2007–2008). An integrative study was performed in grape berry skin tissues at four phenological stages of grape berry (pea size, véraison, mid-ripening and full maturation). The accumulation of flavonoid compou...

  18. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. PMID:26321727

  19. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was determinate using ORAC assay which measures the decrease of AAPH-radical level by the scavenging action of the antioxidant substance. In addition, the vitamin C content and total tannins of the berries extracts were determined using spetophomotmetric methods. The phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of analyzed berries did not varied considerably. The highest amounts of TPC and the strongest antioxidant activities were found in blueberry and blackberries (678 GAE mg/100 g FW, 442 mg/100g FW respectively. Vitamin C content was found in higher concentration in raspberries 21.7 mg/100 g FW while the lower concentration was found in blackberry.  All berries contain higher levels of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or tannins which are responsible for their antioxidant potential and bring their nutritional value, being highly recommended for daily consumption.

  20. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  1. Le Berry antique - De la carte au modèle-chorème Ancient berry – from map to chorematic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Batardy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available L’Atlas du Berry réalisé à l’aide d’un système d’information géographique (SIG a posé les bases d’une analyse géographique de la cité des Bituriges Cubes. La chorématique peut permettre d’aller au-delà.The Atlas du Berry achieved with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS lays the foundations for a geographical analysis of the town of Bituriges Cubes. Chorematic techniques can enable us to go further.

  2. Developmental and metabolic plasticity of white-skinned grape berries in response to botrytis cinerea during noble rot

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Ulate, B; Amrine, KCH; Collins, TS; Rivero, RM; Vicente, AR; Morales-Cruz, A; Doyle, CL; Ye, Z.; Allen, G.; Heymann, H; Ebeler, SE; Cantu, D.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for ...

  3. Effect of decoherence on the Berry phase of a spin-half in a rotating magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIN; Shi, Yu

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the decoherence effect of a bosonic bath on the Berry phase of a spin-1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, without making the Markovian approximation. A two-cycle process resulting in a pure Berry phase is considered. The low-frequency quantum noise significantly affects the Berry phase. In the adiabatic limit, the high-frequency quantum noise only has a small effect. The result is also valid in some more general situations.

  4. Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Ryan J.; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Clarke, Simon J.; Rogiers, Suzy Y.; Bobek, Gabriele; Price, William S

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry developmen...

  5. An in vivo Experimental System to Study Sugar Phloem Unloading in Ripening Grape Berries During Water Deficiency Stress

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, ZHEN‐PING; Deloire, Alain; CARBONNEAU, Alain; FEDERSPIEL, BRIGITTE; Lopez, François

    2003-01-01

    An in vivo experimental system—called the ‘berry‐cup’ technique—was developed to study sugar phloem unloading and the accumulation of sugar in ripening grape berries. The berry‐cup system consists of a single peeled grape berry immersed in a buffer solution in a cup prepared from a polypropylene syringe. A small cross‐incision (2 mm in length) is made on the stylar remnant of a berry during its ripening phase, the skin of the berry then being easily peeled off, exposing the dorsal vascular bu...

  6. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  7. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  8. On Berry's conjectures about the stable order in PCF

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    PCF is a sequential simply typed lambda calculus language. There is a unique order-extensional fully abstract cpo model of PCF, built up from equivalence classes of terms. In 1979, G\\'erard Berry defined the stable order in this model and proved that the extensional and the stable order together form a bicpo. He made the following two conjectures: 1) "Extensional and stable order form not only a bicpo, but a bidomain." We refute this conjecture by showing that the stable order is not bounded complete, already for finitary PCF of second-order types. 2) "The stable order of the model has the syntactic order as its image: If a is less than b in the stable order of the model, for finite a and b, then there are normal form terms A and B with the semantics a, resp. b, such that A is less than B in the syntactic order." We give counter-examples to this conjecture, again in finitary PCF of second-order types, and also refute an improved conjecture: There seems to be no simple syntactic characterization of the stable ...

  9. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  10. Ginseng Berry Extract Promotes Maturation of Mouse Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation.

  11. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  12. Partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during the whole berry growth maintain yield and berry quality in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo, Rafael; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Rosario Conesa Saura, M.°

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during post-veraison and the whole berry growth on water relations, yield and berry quality, one experiment was conducted in a commercial vineyard of 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Five irrigation treatments were imposed: (i) Control (CTL) irrigated to 110% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), (ii) regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated at 50% of CTL during the non- critical period of post-verasion, (iii) continuous deficit irrigation (DIc), irrigated at 50% of CTL throughout the whole berry growing season, (iv) partial root-zone drying (PRD), irrigated similar to RDI, but alternating the irrigation applied in the dry side every 10-14 days; and (v) continuous partial root-zone drying (PRDc), irrigated as DIc but alternating the irrigation in the dry side every 10-14 days. RDI and PRD received 24% and 28% less water than CTL, respectively. These reductions were higher in DIc and PRDc (65% and 53%, respectively). Total yield was not affected by any DI strategy. Only significantly lower values were observed in the weight and height's berries in respect to CTL. However, the colour parameters evaluated increased in all DI treatments, being slightly higher in DIc and PRDc compared with RDI and PRD. In addition, total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in DIc, compared to other irrigated counterparts. Our findings showed that the application of water deficit during the whole berry growth through the use of DIc and PRDc, can be considered for irrigation scheduling in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  13. Effect of Sugar Treatment on Stability of Anthocyanin Pigments in Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nikkhah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are natural pigments widely distributed in nature. Anthocyanin color molecules are a subclass of flavonoids. They are responsible for the reds, purples and blues in many flowers, fruits and vegetables. Fruits and berries are the most sample sources of anthocyanins in nature. Berries and fruits are an important part of the Finnish diet. In many researches the positive effect of fruit and berry intake on human health has been reported. Anthocyanins are considered to contribute to the healthiness of fruits and berries for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties for example. Anthocyanins can also improve the nutritional value of processed foods by preventing oxidation of lipids and proteins in the food products. However, the stability of anthocyanins becomes most significant also in this case, as in the case of color quality. In this study the anthocyanin pigment was extracted from the three different berries (Morus nigra L., Morus alba var. nigra and Fragaria L.. Using the soaking and wetting in ethanol (1% acidified. The extracted anthocyanin pigments then were exposed to three different concentration of sugar (sucrose (20, 40 and 60%. Three groups of anthocyanin solutions keeping in darkness and refrigerator for 63 days and per 3 week, the quantity of anthocyanin absorbance recorded in 520 nm. In this study, according to statistical analysis, primary concentration (20% of sugar (sucrose has protective effect on Anthocyanins, but in higher concentration this effect is decreased.

  14. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  15. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  16. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  17. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  18. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  19. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  20. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (map) on the quality of sea buckthorn berry fruits during postharvest storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of the berry fruits of sea buckthorn (SBT) during refrigerated storage was investigated. SBT berries were packaged in 160 and 525 oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films or in vented clamshell containers (air control) and stored at 10C fo...

  1. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Shen-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Liu, Jia; Chen, Zi-Yu

    2008-12-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the Δ-ɛ plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  2. Vacuum-induced Berry phases in single-mode Jaynes-Cummings models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wei, L. F.; Jia, W. Z.; Liang, J. Q.

    2010-10-01

    Motivated by work [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.89.220404 89, 220404 (2002)] for detecting the vacuum-induced Berry phases with two-mode Jaynes-Cummings models (JCMs), we show here that, for a parameter-dependent single-mode JCM, certain atom-field states also acquired photon-number-dependent Berry phases after the parameter slowly changed and eventually returned to its initial value. This geometric effect related to the field quantization still exists, even if the field is kept in its vacuum state. Specifically, a feasible Ramsey interference experiment with a cavity quantum electrodynamics system is designed to detect the vacuum-induced Berry phase.

  3. Potentials of small, lightweight and low cost Multi-Echo Laser Scanners for detecting Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuricic, A.; Weinmann, M.; Jutzi, B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile sensor devices offer great opportunities for automatic scene analysis and object recognition. Nowadays a new generation of ranging devices is available, like laser scanners which are small and light weighted. Concerning these improvements specific applications can be tackled. In this contribution we focus on vineyard monitoring for detecting and counting grape berries with a small, lightweight and low cost multi-echo laser scanner. Therefore a Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW laser range finder is utilized for capturing the data in close range up to 1m. In order to process the data the following methodology is proposed: after smoothing and morphological techniques are applied on the laserscanning intensity and range images the number of visible grape berries is determined from the resulting segments. The approach performs with a detection accuracy of above 84%. The results reveal the high potential of such close range ranging devices for locating and counting grape berries. Thus, the methodology provides practical support for viticulture applications.

  4. A new method to calculate Berry phase in one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Based on the residue theorem and degenerate perturbation theory, we derive a new, simple and general formula for Berry phase calculation in a two-level system for which the Hamiltonian is a real symmetric matrix. The special torus topology possessed by the first Brillouin zone (1 BZ) of this kind of systems ensures the existence of a nonzero Berry phase. We verify the correctness of our formula on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Then the Berry phase of one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator (1DQAHI) is calculated analytically by applying our method, the result being -π/2 -π/4 sgn (B) [ sgn (Δ - 4 B) + sgn (Δ) ]. Finally, illuminated by this idea, we investigate the Chern number in the two-dimensional case, and find a very simple way to determine the parameter range of the non-trivial Chern number in the phase diagram.

  5. Berry curvature and four-dimensional monopoles in the relativistic chiral kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Pu, Shi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2013-06-28

    We derive a relativistic chiral kinetic equation with manifest Lorentz covariance from Wigner functions of spin-1/2 massless fermions in a constant background electromagnetic field. It contains vorticity terms and a four-dimensional Euclidean Berry monopole which gives an axial anomaly. By integrating out the zeroth component of the 4-momentum p, we reproduce the previous three-dimensional results derived from the Hamiltonian approach, together with the newly derived vorticity terms. The phase space continuity equation has an anomalous source term proportional to the product of electric and magnetic fields (FσρF[over ˜]σρ∼EσBσ). This provides a unified interpretation of the chiral magnetic and vortical effects, chiral anomaly, Berry curvature, and the Berry monopole in the framework of Wigner functions. PMID:23848865

  6. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  7. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  8. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways-VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT-were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full maturity

  9. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes. PMID:10722101

  10. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Eunhui Seo; Sunmi Kim; Sang Jun Lee; Byung-Chul Oh; Hee-Sook Jun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old) were maintained on a regular diet (CON) or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD) for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016) and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.012), suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic isl...

  11. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  12. Hypoglycaemic activity of Embelia ribes berries (50% etoh) extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Ashok; Vyas, Keshav Bihari; Vyas, Surendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of Embelia ribes berries (50% EtoH) reduced blood sugar level significantly. In intact rats, blood sugar levels were decreased by 13.1% and 20.3% after 3 hrs. and 5 hrs. of treatment respectively. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats blood glucose levels were decreased after 3 hours and 5hours by 28.1% and 34.5% respectively. Hypoglycaemic action of Embelia ribes berries may be due to its direct action on tissue or due to increase in insulin secretion.

  13. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  14. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a topological Bloch band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitenberg, Christof; Flaeschner, Nick; Rem, Benno; Tarnowski, Matthias; Vogel, Dominik; Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Sengstock, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Employing fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineer the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and measure it with full momentum resolution. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  15. Observation of Berry's phase in a superconducting qubit embedded in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In quantum information science, the phase of a wavefunction plays an important role in encoding information. While most experiments in this field rely on dynamic effects to manipulate this information, an alternative approach is to use geometric phase, which has been argued to have potential fault tolerance. Here we demonstrate the controlled accumulation of a geometric phase, Berry's phase, in a superconducting qubit, manipulating the qubit geometrically using microwave radiation, and observing the accumulated phase in an interference experiment. This is achieved using the excellent phase coherence and qubit control possible in circuit QED. We find excellent agreement with Berry's predictions, and also observe a geometry dependent contribution to dephasing

  16. Acculturation and mental health--empirical verification of J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, M W; Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, C

    2004-01-01

    identity as Greenlander and how well the respondents speak Greenlandic and Danish. The statistical methods included binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no connection between Berry's definition of acculturation and mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark. On the other hand, our findings showed...... examine whether Berry's hypothesis about the connection between acculturation and mental health can be empirically verified for Greenlanders living in Denmark and to analyse whether acculturation plays a significant role for mental health among Greenlanders living in Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The...

  17. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  18. The influence of pinching on some technological characteristics of cluster and berry of Italia grape variety

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Božinović, Zvonimir; Beleski, Klime; Boskov, Krum

    2007-01-01

    The aim of investigation was to confirm the influence of pinching on some technological characteristics of Italia grape variety: dimension and shape of cluster and berry, mechanical characteristics of berry, and chemical content of must (sugar and total acids). Pinching was applied in two terms (before and after blooming) with two ways: by cutting 1/2 and 1/3 of bunch (P1, P2, P3, P4) and control (K). From the results we can concluded that the time and the way of pinching has the influe...

  19. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  20. Ampelographic description of cluster, berry and seed of merlot cultivar (Vitis vinifera L. and its selected clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Dragan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a four-year period, ampelographic experiments focusing on the berry cluster (average length of grape cluster, number of grape clusters per shoot, number of berries per grape cluster and length of peduncle, berry (length of berry and berry juice yield, length of pedicel and seed (length of berry seed of Merlot cultivar (used as a relevant standard and 11 clones (Nos. 022, 023, 025, 026, 027, 028, 029, 030, 031, 033 and 034 were performed in order to establish the differences among them. These experiments were actually conducted in the third phase of individual clonal selection of Merlot cultivar carried out in Serbia. The lengths of grape cluster and pedicel as well as berry must yields differed significantly among the examined clones. The cluster and principal component analyses classified 12 samples into three divergent clusters/groups, respectively. The clones belonging to the cluster II /the second group/ had significantly higher values of numbers of grape clusters per shoot and berries per grape cluster; lengths of peduncle and berry; berry must yield and length of pedicel, compared both to standard Merlot /the cluster I, the first group/ and the clones of the cluster III /the third group/. The phenological observations showed no significant differences in the beginnings and durations of phenological stages and vegetation period of the examined clones. The obtained results indicate the real need for further research work focused both on the agrobiological and technological properties of the grapes and wines aiming to better describe the selected clones. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 0719, br. 46009 i br. 172053

  1. Phenolics and antioxidant activity of Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) pomace extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiqi; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Rayaprolu, Srinivas; Eswaranandam, Satchithanandam; Howe, Bruce; Davis, Mike; Jha, Alok

    2014-03-01

    Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) have significantly higher levels of anthocyanins (ACY) among berries with potential health benefits. The pomace is a by-product of juice extracted from berries and is a potential source of inexpensive polyphenols. The objectives of this study were to extract the maximum amount of total phenolics from saskatoon pomace, to determine the antioxidant activity, and to identify individual phenolic components. Pomace extracts showed high content of total phenolics, total ACY, and total flavonoids of 43.3, 2.8, and 10.3 g/kg of dried weight (DW) of pomace. A high oxygen radical absorbing capacity value of 119.4 μmol Trolox equivalents/g DW and free radical scavenging activity of pomace extract (200 ppm, 86.8%) were observed. Five major ACY, two flavonols, and three chlorogenic acids were identified and quantified in pomace extracts. This study shows that saskatoon berries pomace rich in antioxidant phenolics could be extracted by "green" solvents (water and ethanol) and used as suitable food product applications. PMID:24476215

  2. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin; Liu, Jinyu; Graf, David; Radmanesh, Seyed; Adams, Daniel; Chuang, Alyssa; Wang, Yu; Chiorescu, Irinel; Wei, Jiang; Spinu, Leonard; Mao, Zhiqiang

    The recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear π Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. We report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state, including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich (LK) formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted. Supported by the DOE (DE-SC0012432) and the NSF (EPS- 1003897).

  3. Does the Berry phase in a quantum optical system originate from the rotating wave approximation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berry phase (BP) in a quantized light field demonstrated more than a decade ago (Fuentes-Guridi et al., 2002 [9]) has attracted considerable attention, since it plays an important role in the cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, it is argued in Larson (2012) [15] that such a BP is just due to the rotating wave approximation (RWA) and the relevant BP should vanish beyond this approximation. Based on a consistent analysis we conclude in this letter that the BP in a generic Rabi model actually exists, no matter whether the RWA is applied. The existence of BP is also generalized to a three-level atom in the quantized cavity field. - Highlights: • Non-zero Berry phases for the Rabi model (without rotating wave approximation) are verified. • A general formulation of Berry phases for both the JC model and the Rabi model is presented. • The claim of vanishing Berry phase in the Rabi model is a result of improper semiclassical approximation. • Analytic solutions for the Rabi model is presented in the semiclassical approximation

  4. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols are an important class of secondary metabolites with significant benefits to human nutrition and health. As a part of our effort to assess grape germplasm for its potential health and nutrition value, we evaluated the polyphenolic profiles in the ripe berry samples of 344 European grape ...

  5. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  6. Inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid grape cross population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation patterns and inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid table grape cross population were investigated in two successive years. The population segregated for three different ploidy levels: dipolids, triploids, and tetraploids. A total of 28 different a...

  7. 137Cs in Finnish wild berries, mushrooms and game meat in 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 137Cs in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat were measured in samples collected during 2000-2005 in areas with varying 137Cs deposition levels in Finland. Depending on the 137Cs deposition levels in the sampling areas, the areal-mean activity concentrations of 137Cs were 10-230 Bq kg-1 in wild berries, 20-240 Bq kg-1 in moose meat and 10-3000 Bq kg-1 in all mushroom species. Compared with the 137Cs level of samples collected in 1986 in the corresponding areas, the reduction in the 137Cs level was about one third for wild berries, equal to the rate of radioactive decay of 137Cs. More reduction was observed in the activity concentrations of 137Cs in moose meat, on average up to 50% since 1986. The aggregated transfer coefficients from soil to wild berries showed no change since 1986-1988, while there was about one third reduction in those from soil to game meat. (orig.)

  8. Berry phase effects in the dynamics of Dirac electrons in doubly special relativity framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) generalization of Dirac equation in an external potential in the Magueijo-Smolin base. The particles obey a modified energy-momentum dispersion relation. The semiclassical diagonalization of the Dirac Hamiltonian reveals the intrinsic Berry phase effects in the particle dynamics

  9. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  10. On the Developmental and Environmental Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Vaccinium spp. Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Katja; Zoratti, Laura; Nguyenquynh, Nga; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries, and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental, and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype × environment (G×E) interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes. PMID:27242856

  11. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  12. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  13. Application of Berry's phase to the effective mass of Bloch electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry's phase, although well known since 1984, has received little attention among textbook authors of solid state physics. We attempt to address this lack by showing how the presence of the Berry's phase significantly changes a standard concept (effective mass) found in most solid state texts. Specifically, we show that the presence of a non-zero Berry curvature in Bloch systems makes the traditional concept of an inverse effective mass tensor M-1 problematic, since a routine application of Newton's second law leads to a circular definition. As a consequence, the related concept of cyclotron effective mass m* also requires modification. It is shown that m* is magnetic-field dependent in non-inversion symmetric systems. This has important ramifications for cyclotron resonance experiments, since such experiments yield m* and thereby purportedly give the components of M-1. This work represents a 'case study' in how Berry's phase effects can modify 'standard' solid-state topics in ways that students and instructors may find surprising.

  14. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  15. The Martha Berry Digital Archive Project: A Case Study in Experimental pEDagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Schlitz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Martha Berry Digital Archive Project as an exploratory case study, this article discusses experimental methods in digital archive development, describing how and why a small project team is leveraging undergraduate student support, a participatory (crowdsourced editing model, and free and open source software to digitize and disseminate a large documentary collection.

  16. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  17. Classical geometric phase of gyro-motion is a coherent quantum Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongxuan

    2016-01-01

    We show that the geometric phase of the gyro-motion of a classical charged particle in a uniform time-dependent magnetic field described by Newton's equation is a coherent quantum Berry phase for the coherent states of the Schr\\"odinger equation or the Dirac equation. This equivalence is established by constructing coherent states for a particle using the energy eigenstates on the Landau levels and proving that the coherent states can maintain their status of coherent states during the slow varying of the magnetic field. It is discovered that orbital Berry phases of the eigenstates interfere coherently such that a coherent Berry phase for the coherent states can be naturally defined, which is exactly the geometric phase of the classical gyro-motion. This technique works for particles with and without spin. For particles with spin, on each of the eigenstates that makes up the coherent states, the Berry phase consists of two parts that can be identified as those due to the orbital and the spin motion. It is the...

  18. Polar Constituents and Biological Activity of the Berry-Like Fruits from Hypericum androsaemum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Alunno, Alessia; Beghelli, Daniela; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Bramucci, Massimo; Frezza, Claudio; Iannarelli, Romilde; Papa, Fabrizio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Tirillini, Bruno; Venditti, Alessandro; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum androsaemum, also known as Tutsan, is a small evergreen shrub common in the Mediterranean basin where it is traditionally used as diuretic and hepatoprotective herbal drug. This plant possesses the peculiarity to produce fleshy and berry-like fruits that ripen from red to shiny black. In the present work, the chemical constituents of methanolic extracts and infusions of red and black fruits were analyzed by HPLC, and correlated with their antioxidant properties which were evaluated by the DPPH, β-Carotene/linoleic acid, and hypochlorous acid tests. In addition, the red pigment of the fruit was isolated by column chromatography and structurally elucidated by NMR. Results showed that H. androsaemum fruits contain high amounts of shikimic and chlorogenic acids, while their color was given by a tetraoxygenated-type xanthone, reported for the first time in Hypericum species. The red berries infusion gave the highest content of total phenolic compounds, DPPH, and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching. Cytotoxicity of the berries extracts on three human tumor cell lines (malignant melanoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and colon carcinoma) was evaluated by MTT assay, and relevant inhibition on colon carcinoma cells (IC50 value of 8.4 μg/mL) was found. Finally, the effects of red berries extract on the immune system were evaluated by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay that revealed a strong stimulation on lymphocytes at low doses (0.4–6 μg/mL). PMID:26973675

  19. Optimisation of an HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A; Alexandersson, Erik O; Gouws, Liezel M; Young, Philip R; Vivier, Melané A

    2012-02-15

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to profile major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries. Sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries were extracted by chloroform/polyvinylpolypyrrolidone purification. The extracts were chromatographed on an Aminex HPX-87H ion-exchange HPLC column with 5mM sulphuric acid as mobile phase. Chromatography was visualised via a diode array detector combined with a refractive index detector. The analysis was calibrated using external standard calibration and a novel equation was used to calculate the concentrations of malic acid and fructose from unresolved separation. For the method to be utilised for analysing a large numbers of berry samples, each sample was directly injected after sample extraction and the extraction step was downscaled to allow the use of small amounts of sample material. The concentrations of sugars and organic acids in grapevine berry samples were normalised to the internal standard concentrations obtained after extraction of an internal standard mixture. The analysis method exhibits a good precision and a high analyte recovery from samples spiked with the standard mixture and is suitable for the profiling of major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berry samples at different stages of berry development. This is the first report on the combined profiling of the major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries using milligram amounts of plant material with direct injection after sample extraction. PMID:22265666

  20. Potential Benefits of Edible Berries in the Management of Aerodigestive and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishayee, Anupam; Haskell, Yennie; Do, Chau; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Mohandas, Nima; Sethi, Gautam; Stoner, Gary D

    2016-07-26

    Epidemiological reports as well as experimental studies have demonstrated the significant health benefits provided by regular berry consumption. Berries possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potential against several chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Berries owe their health benefits to phytoconstituents, such as polyphenolic anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and a diverse array of phytochemicals bestowed with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the ability to engage a multitude of signaling pathways. This review highlights the principal chemical constituents present in berries and their primary molecular targets. The article presents and critically analyzes the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of berry extracts, fractions, and bioactive components on various cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including esophageal, stomach, intestinal, and colorectal cancers as well as cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as oral cancer. The current status of clinical studies evaluating berry products in several aforementioned cancers is presented. Various emerging issues including dose-ranging and dosage forms, the role of synergy and the usage of combination therapy as well as other relevant areas essential for the development of berry phytoconstituents as mainstream chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against aerodigestive and GIT cancers are critically discussed. PMID:25781639

  1. Colonization of grapes berries by Alternaria sp. and their ability to produce mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research focused on identify the Alternaria species from grapes (surface sterilized berries and non-surface sterilized berries of Slovak origin and characterize their toxinogenic potential in in vitro conditions. We analyzed 47 samples of grapes, harvested in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species, the method of direct plating berries and surface-sterilized berries (using 1 % freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar was used. For each analysis was used 50 berries. Only undamaged berries have been used for analysis. The cultivation was carried at 25 ±1°C, for 5 to 7 days in dark. After incubation, the colonies of Alternaria were transferred on PCA - potato-carrot agar and CYA - Czapek-yeast extract agar and cultured for 7 days at room temperature and natural light. A total 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from grapes berries: Alternaria alternata (1369 isolates, Alternaria arborescens (734 isolates, Alternaria infectoria (143 isolates, and Alternaria tenuissima (3579 isolates. According to European Union legislation mycotoxins produced by species genus Alternaria are not monitored in foods and food commodities. Mycotoxins such as alternariol and alternariol monomethylether are mutagenic and genotoxic in various in vitro systems. Selected strains were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins in in vitro conditions by TLC method. The ability to produce altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol in in vitro conditions was detected in isolates of Alternaria alternata, Alternaria arborescens and Alternaria tenuissima species-groups. Isolates of Alternaria alternata species-group (44 tested isolates were able to produce altenuene (24 isolates, alternariol monomethyleter (42 isolates

  2. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Amrine, Katherine C H; Collins, Thomas S; Rivero, Rosa M; Vicente, Ariel R; Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Doyle, Carolyn L; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Cantu, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  3. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  4. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. Hossain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries. The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content.

  5. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2016-01-01

    The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries). The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content. PMID:27023503

  6. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, Malverina, Laurot, and Hibernal harvested during six consecutive weeks. Mechanical behaviour was measured using compression and puncture tests using of TIRATEST 27025 testing machine. Skin mechanical properties were evaluated using a puncture test carried out on the equatorial side. The dependence of these properties on the chemical composition has been evaluated. These parameters of force/time curves were studied by puncture test: the berry skin break force, the needle displacement at the skin break and the berry skin break energy. The crushing force, the plate displacement at the crushing strength and the berry crushing energy were studied from force/time curves by compression test. Results of the puncture test shows that there the skin break strength and the acidity content are monotonic functions of the time. A comparison of different varieties from the point of the value of the crushing force was obtained by vertical and transversal loading. The crushing force is monotonically decreasing function of the harvesting time like the break force evaluated at the puncture test. The correlation between the skin break strength and the sugar content is significant namely for the varieties: Hibernal, Riesling, Malverina, and Cerason. 

  7. NMR-based metabolomics for identification of α-amylase inhibitors in rowan berries (Sorbus spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Sofie L.; Gramsbergen, Simone; Nyberg, Nils;

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder estimated to affect millions of people all over the world.1 One way of reducing diabetes-related complications is to control postprandial glucose.2 Inhibition of the carbohydrate digestive enzyme α-amylase is a therapeutic target for maintaining low blood...... glucose levels. A study from 2011 shows that berries from Sorbus spp (rowan berries) effectively inhibit α-amylase activity and suggests that the active compounds are proanthocyanidins.3 The aim of this project is to identify the rowan berry species with highest α-amylase inhibitory activity - and to find...

  8. Pengaruh Promosi Produk Pesaing dan Ketersediaan Fitur BlackBerry Messenger (BBM) pada Platform Lain terhadap Keputusan untuk Berhenti Menggunakan SmartphoneBlackBerry (Studi Kasus Mahasiswa Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis USU)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliani

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis pengaruhpromosi produk pesaing dan ketersediaan fitur BlackBerry Messenger (BBM) pada platform lain terhadap keputusan untuk berhenti menggunakan smartphoneBlackBerry pada mahasiswa fakultas ekonomi dan bisnis USU. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian asosiatif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Sumatera Utara yang masih aktif kuliah yang pernah meng...

  9. Differential behavior within a grapevine cluster: decreased ethylene-related gene expression dependent on auxin transport is correlated with low abscission of first developed berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kühn

    Full Text Available In grapevine, fruit abscission is known to occur within the first two to three weeks after flowering, but the reason why some berries in a cluster persist and others abscise is not yet understood. Ethylene sensitivity modulates abscission in several fruit species, based on a mechanism where continuous polar auxin transport across the pedicel results in a decrease in ethylene perception, which prevents abscission. In grapevine, flowering takes about four to seven days in a single cluster, thus while some flowers are developing into berries, others are just starting to open. So, in this work it was assessed whether uneven flowering accounted for differences in berry abscission dependent on polar auxin transport and ethylene-related gene expression. For this, flowers that opened in a cluster were tagged daily, which allowed to separately analyze berries, regarding their ability to persist. It was found that berries derived from flowers that opened the day that flowering started--named as "first berries"--had lower abscission rate than berries derived from flowers that opened during the following days--named as "late berries". Use of radiolabeled auxin showed that "first berries" had higher polar auxin transport, correlated with lower ethylene content and lower ethylene-related transcript abundance than "late berries". When "first berries" were treated with a polar auxin transport inhibitor they showed higher ethylene-related transcript abundance and were more prone to abscise than control berries. This study provides new insights on fruit abscission control. Our results indicate that polar auxin transport sustains the ability of "first berries" to persist in the cluster during grapevine abscission and also suggest that this could be associated with changes in ethylene-related gene expression.

  10. Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract (GB0710) on penile erection: evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, KS; Park, CW; Kim, CK; Jeon, HY; Kim, WG; Lee, SJ; Kim, YM; Lee, JY; Choi, YD

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have promoted the root-derived Korean red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) as alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED), and ginsenosides are known to be the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Recent studies showed that ginseng berries produce more ginsenosides than KRG; thus, we investigated the ability of the Korean ginseng berry extract GB0710 to relax the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) in this study. As a comparative control, the results were com...

  11. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening. PMID:26218433

  12. Poor qubits make for rich physics: noise-induced quantum Zeno effects and noise-induced Berry phases

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    We briefly review three ways that environmental noise can slow-down (or speed-up) quantum transitions; (i) Lamb shifts, (ii) over-damping and (iii) orthogonality catastrophe. We compare them with the quantum Zeno effect induced by observing the system. These effects are relevant to poor qubits (those strongly coupled to noise). We discuss Berry phases generated by the orthogonality catastrophe, and argue that noise may make it easier to observe Berry phases.

  13. Influence of Bioregulator Gibberellic Acid on Some Technological Characteristics of Cluster and Berry from Some Seedless Grape Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Ivanova, Violeta; Ilieva, Fidanka; Sofijanova, Elenica

    2011-01-01

    Solutions of gibberellic acid prepared at threeconcentration levels including 5, 10 and 20 mg/L, were applied at two seedless grape varieties, Thompson and Belgrade, by spraying, during the three different periods of the vine growing: before blooming, after blooming and before veraison, in order to study their influence on some cultural technological characteristics. Dimension and shape of the cluster and berry, mechanical characteristics of the berries and chemical content of the must (sugar...

  14. iTRAQ-based protein profiling provides insights into the central metabolism changes driving grape berry development and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Esteso, María José; Vilella-Antón, María Teresa; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Valero, María Luz; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important fruit crop. Quality-determining grape components such as sugars, acids, flavors, anthocyanins, tannins, etc., accumulate in the different grape berry development stages. Thus, correlating the proteomic profiles with the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in grape is of paramount importance to advance in our understanding of berry development and ripening processes. Results: We report the developmental analysis...

  15. Impedance of the Grape Berry Cuticle as a Novel Phenotypic Trait to Estimate Resistance to Botrytis Cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Herzog; Rolf Wind; Reinhard Töpfer

    2015-01-01

    Warm and moist weather conditions during berry ripening provoke Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) causing notable bunch rot on susceptible grapevines with the effect of reduced yield and wine quality. Resistance donors of genetic loci to increase B. cinerea resistance are widely unknown. Promising traits of resistance are represented by physical features like the thickness and permeability of the grape berry cuticle. Sensor-based phenotyping methods or genetic markers are rare for such traits....

  16. Assessment of Shape Changes of Mistletoe Berries: A New Software Approach to Automatize the Parameterization of Path Curve Shaped Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Renatus Derbidge; Linus Feiten; Oliver Conradt; Peter Heusser; Stephan Baumgartner

    2013-01-01

    Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. ...

  17. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  18. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  19. Phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of a natural hybrid between bilberry and lingonberry (Vaccinium × intermedium Ruthe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Anja K; Riihinen, Kaisu R; Jaakola, Laura

    2011-06-01

    Hybridization between species plays an important role in the evolution of secondary metabolites and in the formation of combinations of existing secondary metabolites in plants. We have investigated the content of phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of Vaccinium×intermedium Ruthe, which is a rare natural hybrid between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). The berries and flowers of the hybrid showed characteristics inherited from both parent species in the distribution and contents of phenolic compounds. Bilberry is known as one of the richest sources of anthocyanins and to have a profile of 15 major forms combining cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin with galactose, glucose and arabinose. Lingonberry contains only cyanidin glycosides. Hybrid berries contained all bilberry anthocyanins with pronounced cyanidin content. With regard to proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides, the hybrid inherited diverse profiles combining those of both parental species. The distribution of hydroxycinnamic acids was quite uniform in all studied berries. Of the identified compounds, 30 were detected in lingonberry, 46 in bilberry, 53 in hybrid berries and 38 in hybrid flowers. Hence, compared with the parent species, hybrid berries possess a more diverse profile of phenolic compounds and, therefore, can offer interesting material for breeding purposes. PMID:21382629

  20. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-03-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  1. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  2. Improvement of the composition of Tunisian myrtle berries (Myrtus communis L.) alcohol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Ahmed; Hayet, Ben Haj Koubaier; Essaidi, Ismahen; Zgoulli, Slim; Moncef, Chaabouni Mohamed; Thonart, Phillipe; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2012-01-18

    Different extracts from myrtle berries were obtained using alcohol-water mixtures as an extraction medium in the range of 60-90% (v/v) to study the extraction efficiency in the preparation of myrtle liqueur. Flavonoids and anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry and quantified during the maceration period by HPLC coupled with ultraviolet/visible detection. The antioxidant activity was tested by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Dry matter, pH, and color parameters (L, a, b) were also analyzed. At the end of the maceration period, EE80 showed better anthocyanins stability and the highest total antioxidant activity (87.5%). These results suggest that the use of ethanol 80% provides the extract with the best characteristics for liqueur preparation. The present study contributes significantly to increase the marketing appeal of myrtle berries. PMID:22050534

  3. Observation of Berry's phase in a superconducting qubit embedded in a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leek, Peter; Fink, Johannes; Bianchetti, Romeo; Goeppl, Martin; Wallraff, Andreas [Department of Physics, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Blais, Alexandre [Departement de Physique, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Gambetta, Jay [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo (Canada); Departments of Applied Physics and Physics, Yale University (United States); Schuster, David; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert [Departments of Applied Physics and Physics, Yale University (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In quantum information science, the phase of a wavefunction plays an important role in encoding information. While most experiments in this field rely on dynamic effects to manipulate this information, an alternative approach is to use geometric phase, which has been argued to have potential fault tolerance. Here we demonstrate the controlled accumulation of a geometric phase, Berry's phase, in a superconducting qubit, manipulating the qubit geometrically using microwave radiation, and observing the accumulated phase in an interference experiment. This is achieved using the excellent phase coherence and qubit control possible in circuit QED. We find excellent agreement with Berry's predictions, and also observe a geometry dependent contribution to dephasing.

  4. Optical manipulation of Berry phase in a solid-state spin qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Christopher G; Zhou, Brian B; Auer, Adrian; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D

    2015-01-01

    The phase relation between quantum states represents an essential resource for the storage and processing of quantum information. While quantum phases are commonly controlled dynamically by tuning energetic interactions, utilizing geometric phases that accumulate during cyclic evolution may offer superior robustness to noise. To date, demonstrations of geometric phase control in solid-state systems rely on microwave fields that have limited spatial resolution. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical method based on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage to accumulate a geometric phase, the Berry phase, in an individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Using diffraction-limited laser light, we guide the NV center's spin along loops on the Bloch sphere to enclose arbitrary Berry phase and characterize these trajectories through time-resolved state tomography. We investigate the limits of this control due to loss of adiabiaticity and decoherence, as well as its robustness to noise intentionally introduced into t...

  5. Antioxidants and bioactivities of free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolics from berry seed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Maha; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-04-15

    Phenolic compounds present in the free, soluble ester and insoluble-bound forms of blackberry, black raspberry and blueberry were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry. The total phenolics, scavenging activity against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, the reducing power and chelating capacity were, in general, in the decreasing order of blackberry>black raspberry>blueberry. Amongst fractions, the order was insoluble-bound>esterified>free. These trends were the same as those found against copper-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation and supercoiled plasmid DNA strand breakage inhibition induced by both peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Extracts were found to contain various levels of phenolic compounds that were specific to each berry seed meal type. Berry seed meals should be considered as a good source of phenolics with potential health benefits. Their full exploitation may be helpful for the food industry and consumers. PMID:26616944

  6. Long Range Topological Order, the Chiral Condensate, and the Berry Connection in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, H B

    2014-01-01

    Topological insulators are substances which are bulk insulators but which carry current via special "topologically protected" edge states. The understanding of long range topological order in these systems is built around the idea of a Berry connection, which is a gauge connection obtained from the phase of the electron wave function transported over momentum space rather than coordinate space. The phase of a closed Wilson loop of the Berry connection around the Brillouin zone defines a topological order parameter which labels discrete flux vacua. The conducting states are surface modes on the domain walls between discrete vacua. Evidence from large-$N_c$ chiral dynamics, holographic QCD, and Monte Carlo observations has pointed to a picture of the QCD vacuum that is very similar to that of a topological insulator, with discrete quasivacua labelled by $\\theta$ angles that differ by mod $2\\pi$. In this picture, the domain walls are membranes of Chern-Simons charge, and the quark condensate consists of surface ...

  7. Topological insulators and the QCD vacuum: the theta parameter as a Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, H B

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence, based on large $N_c$ chiral dynamics, holographic QCD, and Monte Carlo studies, that the QCD vacuum is permeated by discrete quasivacua separated by domain walls across which the local value of the topological $\\theta$ parameter jumps by $\\pm2\\pi$. In the 2-dimensional $CP^{N-1}$ sigma model, a pointlike charge is a domain wall, and $\\theta$ describes the background electric flux and the polarization of charged pairs in the vacuum. We show that the screening process, and the role of $\\theta$ as an order parameter describing electric polarization, are naturally formulated in terms of Bloch wave eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian in the background gauge field. This formulation is similar to the Berry phase description of electric polarization and quantized charge transport in topological insulators. The Bloch waves are quasiperiodic superpositions of localized Dirac zero modes. They define a Berry connection around the Brillouin zone of the zero mode band which describes the lo...

  8. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang-Yun Cui; Chang-Qing Duan; Jian-Jun He; He-Qiong Bi; Zan-Min Jin

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат...

  9. Comment on "Higher Order Pancharatnam-Berry Phase and the Angular Momentum of Light"

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Masato; Oka, Kazuhiko; Toda, Yasunori; Morita, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    In a recent letter, Milione et al. reported the Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP) on a higher-order Poincar\\'e sphere (HOPS) [Phys. Rev. Lett, 108, 190401 (2012)]. They used two spin-orbit converters (SOCs) to make a trajectory along the HOPS. However, the SOCs actually do not make a path on the HOPS. We briefly discuss a way of acquiring a PBP made by SOCs.

  10. Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Ariane Renee

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation, Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography interrogates how pornography, from the 1930s to the present, functions as an essential site in the production of black female sexuality. Closely reading a diverse pool of primary pornographic visual materials, across print, moving image and the internet, such as photographs, magazines, trade magazines, videos, DVDs, and internet website viewings, I argue that pornograph...

  11. Berry Flesh and Skin Ripening Features in Vitis vinifera as Assessed by Transcriptional Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Lijavetzky, Diego; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Grimplet, Jérôme; Bravo, Gema; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Oliveros, Juan C.; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar ‘Muscat Hamburg’ to determine tissue-specific as well as common de...

  12. Biochemical changes throughout grape berry development and fruit and wine quality

    OpenAIRE

    CONDE,C; Silva, Paulo; Fontes, N.; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires; Tavares, R. M.; Sousa, Maria João; Agasse, A.; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, H.

    2007-01-01

    Wine is made up of more than one thousand compounds, the majority of which, such as vitamins and minerals, come from the grapes, while others, like ethanol and glycerol, are products of the winemaking process. Although sugars are either partially or completely transformed, sugar import and accumulation into the ripening berry is a major parameter of wine quality. Sugar status is directly related to the final alcoholic content of wine, and regulates several genes responsible for the developmen...

  13. Distinctive symptoms differentiate four common types of berry shrivel disorder in grape

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnow, Mark N.; Matthews, Mark A.; Smith, Rhonda J; Benz, Jason; Weber, Ed; Shackel, Ken A.

    2010-01-01

    There are several causes of shriveled fruit in vineyards, including sunburn, dehydration, bunchstem necrosis (BSN), and a recently described sugar accumulation disorder (SAD). Due to the similarities in fruit appearance these disorders are often confused with one another, but they can easily be distinguished by the location and/or composition of the shriveled fruit and by the condition of the rachis. Sunburn is typically exhibited only on berries that are exposed to direct sunlight, and BSN...

  14. Responses of Compact Coffee Clones Against Coffee Berry and Coffee Leaf Rust Diseases in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Deusdedit L. Kilambo; Shazia O. W. M. Reuben; Delphina P. Mamiro

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of resistant Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) varieties is considered as the most economical control for coffee berry disease (CBD) and coffee leaf rust (CLR) in Tanzania. The resistance levels of varieties at field and laboratory conditions were assessed through their phenotypic disease reaction response to CBD and CLR. In this study sixteen (16) compact hybrids of C. arabica plus four (4) standard cultivars were evaluated under a range of environmental conditions in on-statio...

  15. Antiaggregation potential of berry fractions against pairs of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii

    OpenAIRE

    Riihinen, Kaisu Ristiina; Ryynanen, Anu; Toivanen, Marko; Kononen, Eija; Torronen, Riitta; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Coaggregation is an interspecies adhesion process which is central to the development of dental plaque. Here we studied the antiaggregation effect and the composition of the soluble solids in the berry juice molecular size fractions [100 kDa fraction (FIII)] derived from apple, bilberry, blackcurrant, cloudberry, crowberry, and lingonberry. We investigated their ability to inhibit and reverse coaggregation of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces...

  16. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    OpenAIRE

    Michael James Considine; Christine Helen Foyer

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to th...

  17. A 2d in vivo approach to study photosynthesis in grape berry

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Vieira, S.; Silva, J. Marques da; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Is argued that fruit photosynthesis serves mainly as a respiratory CO2 refixation mechanism [1] but its contribution to growth and metabolism, localization and dynamics during fruit development are poorly known. Unlike the leaves, fruit volume imposes a constraint to photosynthesis by limiting light penetration. However, the patterns of chlorophyll distribution are apparently independent of a light intensity gradient. Microscopic observations of transversal slices of green stage grape berries...

  18. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  19. Polarization transport of transverse acoustic waves: Berry phase and spin Hall effect of phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, K. Yu.; Freilikher, V. D.

    2006-11-01

    We carry out a detailed analysis of the short-wave (semiclassical) approximation for the linear equations of the elasticity in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the polarization properties of the transverse waves are completely analogous to those of electromagnetic waves and can be considered as spin properties of optical phonons. In particular, the Hamiltonian of the transverse waves contains an additional term of the phonon spin-orbit interaction arising from the Berry gauge potential in the momentum space. This potential is diagonal in the basis of the circularly polarized waves and corresponds to the field of two “magnetic monopoles” of opposite signs for phonons of opposite helicities. This leads to the appearance of the Berry phase in the equation for the polarization evolution and an additional “anomalous velocity” term in the ray equations. The anomalous velocity has the form of the “Lorentz force” caused by the Berry gauge field in momentum space and gives rise to the transverse transport of waves of opposite helicities in opposite directions. This is a manifestation of the spin Hall effect of optical phonons. The effect directly relates to the conservation of total angular momentum of phonons and also influences reflection from a sharp boundary (acoustic analog of the transverse Ferdorov-Imbert shift).

  20. Ginseng berry extract supplementation improves age-related decline of insulin signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunhui; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sang Jun; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old) were maintained on a regular diet (CON) or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD) for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016) and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.012), suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007). Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (p = 0.047), and protein kinase B (AKT) (p = 0.037), were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) (p = 0.036) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) (p = 0.032), which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice. PMID:25912041

  1. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  2. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  3. The Role of Bee Pollinators in Improving Berry Weight and Coffee Cup Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca H.N. Karanja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Kiambu County in Kenya. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pollination improves the coffee yield and quality of processed coffee in terms of taste and aroma. Among the parameters evaluated when grading coffee for sale in world market are berry weight and cup quality. No previous work in Kenya describes the role of bee pollinators in enhancement of coffee yields and quality. Data on berry weights and the resulting processed coffee quality from different pollination levels in organically grown coffee were analyzed. Results from this study indicate that coffee benefits immensely from pollinators. The highest berry weight and coffee cup quality were recorded in open pollinated and cross pollinated coffee. There were significant differences in weight and cup quality (p<0.001 between open pollinated coffee and wind pollination, self pollination and autogamy. The study concludes that pollination not only improves the coffee yields but also enhance the coffee cup taste and aroma. High quality coffee fetches higher prices in the world coffee market.

  4. Modifications of 'Gold Finger' Grape Berry Quality as Affected by the Different Rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhongxin; Sun, Hong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Qingjie; Yao, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    Berry qualities of the grafted 'Gold Finger' grapevines were determined to evaluate the impacts of the resistant rootstocks on fruit quality. Compared to the own-rooted vines, berry and cluster weights and skin color were altered by the rootstocks to varying extents. The rootstock of 101-14M maintained TSS/TA and the contents of fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and SO4 decreased these parameters. 101-14M and 3309C increased and reduced the resveratrol content, respectively. SO4, 5BB, and 3309C decreased the total free amino acid content, along with the changes in amino acid composition. The amounts of aroma components were widely altered by the rootstocks. Additionally, a digital gene expression tag profiling revealed that the biological processes were largely altered by 3309C and 101-14M, including sugar, amino acid, and aroma metabolisms. In summary, the rootstock of 101-14M generally maintained berry quality, and SO4, 5BB, and 3309C imparted varying influences on different quality parameters. PMID:27088562

  5. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Brown

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents, the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  6. MIR – NEWEST HIGHT QUALITY BLACK BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Newest wine black berry with painted pulp and juice grape variety called Mir was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by Zamanidi P., Troshin L. and Radchevsky P. in 2006 by crossing the Ukrainian variety of Odessa black (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with new Greek black berry variety Iliad. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period - 146-155 days. Strong growth of arms (2,1-3,0 m. Percentage of productive shoots - over 90. Productivity is very high: 20-30 t / ha. The average mass of clusters is 260 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Lobes, the stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Bunch medium, often with tapered wing, the average density. Berry small, round, blue-black, with a thick waxy coating. The peel is medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice intensely colored. Sugar content is very high. Prolonged preservation of different crop on bushes. Variety intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines; and is suitable for the manufacture of high quality strong colored juices. When used in blends with other varieties, it enhances color, flavor and improves the bouquet of wine

  7. Solute accumulation differs in the vacuoles and apoplast of ripening grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Shrestha, Pradeep M

    2014-03-01

    Phloem unloading is thought to switch from a symplastic route to an apoplastic route at the beginning of ripening in grape berries and some other fleshy fruits. However, it is unclear whether different solutes accumulate in both the mesocarp vacuoles and the apoplast. We modified a method developed for tomato fruit to extract apoplastic sap from grape berries and measured the changes in apoplastic and vacuolar pH, soluble sugars, organic acids, and potassium in ripening berries of Vitis vinifera 'Merlot' and V. labruscana 'Concord'. Solute accumulation varied by genotype, compartment, and chemical species. The apoplast pH was substantially higher than the vacuolar pH, especially in Merlot (approximately two units). However, the vacuole-apoplast proton gradient declined during ripening and in Merlot, but not in Concord, collapsed entirely at maturity. Hexoses accumulated in both the vacuoles and apoplast but at different rates. Organic acids, especially malate, declined much more in the vacuoles than in the apoplast. Potassium accumulated in the vacuoles and apoplast of Merlot. In Concord, by contrast, potassium increased in the vacuoles but decreased in the apoplast. These results suggest that solutes in the fruit apoplast are tightly regulated and under developmental control. PMID:24310282

  8. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sweetman Crystal; Wong Darren CJ; Ford Christopher M; Drew Damian P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes...

  9. Long-term in vitro culture of grape berries and its application to assess the effects of sugar supply on anthocyanin accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Meddar, Messaoud; Renaud, Christel; Merlin, Isabelle; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Grape berry development and ripening are under complex regulation by the nutrients, hormones, and environment cues sensed by the berry. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these types of regulation are poorly understood. A simplified but realistic model system that enables fruit growth conditions to be modulated easily will facilitate the deciphering of these mechanisms. Here, an in vitro culture system of intact detached grape berries was developed by coupling the pr...

  10. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  11. Effects of ABA Content on the Development of Abscission Zone and Berry Falling After Harvesting of Grapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-lin; ZHANG Run-guang

    2009-01-01

    The commodity price of grape reduces as berry falling after harvest. It is crucial to prevent grape from berry falling during storage. In this article, the structure change of grape cells in the abscission zone was observed, the ABA content and the activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase (PG) were measured, and the relationship of ABA and berry falling was investigated. The results suggest that cells in the abscission zone grow into a separation layer soon after the grapes are cut off. According to the level of development, we designed 6 grades to sort the different development stages. The grade 3 plays an important role in berry falling. ABA enhances the activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase, and accelerates the decomposition of cellulose and pectin, which determines the level of development of abscission zone and berry falling. If ABA ratio is less than 20 ng g-1 fresh weight (FW), the abscission zone is not developed to the grade 3, and the berry falling is effectively stopped. We treated grape bunches with nine plant growth regulators and two chemicals. The results indicated that 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) can (a) inhibit the generation of ABA significantly, (b) inactivate the activities of cellulase and PG, (c) delay the development of the grade 3 of abscission zone, and (d) stop berry falling. Indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) caused similar results as TIBA. Chlorocholine chloride (CCC), dimethyl amino succinamic acid (B9), chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) and exogenous ABA showed opposite effects.

  12. 黑莓企业服务平台架设结构%The Frame Structure of BlackBerry Enterprises' Service Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨微微

    2012-01-01

      Black Berry English referred to as BlackBerry, it is the Canadian RIM Company launched a terminal of mobile E-mail system. 1, The first problem is guided into what's BlackBerry business and its business characteristics, let every-body understand it; 2, And then, expressed the internal division component and service independently accomplished of their respective functions of BES server, analyzes BES. Then through the BlackBerry enterprise service system structure diagram to present the frame structure of BlackBerry service.; 3, Expressed BlackBerry's cell phone types and the characteristics of the mobile phone used and more press closed to BlackBerry; 4, Through the BlackBerry's mobile E-mail and office solutions and banking system solutions to further BlackBerry, analyzing its use. 5, Finally, an overview to Blackberry advantages and current social development of domestic situation and future trends.%  黑莓英文简称 BlackBerry,它是加拿大 RIM 公司推出的一种移动电子邮件系统终端.一、首先问题导入什么是 BlackBerry业务与 BlackBerry 业务的特点,让大家对其有所了解.二、之后表述 BES 服务器的内部划分组件和服务独立完成各自的功能,剖析BES.随之通过 BlackBerry 的企业服务系统框架图来呈现 BlackBerry 的服务架设.三、表述 BlackBerry 的手机类型及其手机的特点与使用,更加贴近黑莓手机.四、通过 BlackBerry 移动邮件及办公解决方案与银行业金融系统解决方案来深入黑莓,解析其用途.五、最后总述黑莓的优点与当前社会发展国内现状及未来走向.

  13. Effects of different N fertilizers on the activity of Glomus mosseae and on grapevine nutrition and berry composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, N; Nikolaou, N; Ipsilantis, I; Zioziou, E

    2007-12-01

    Grapevine N fertilization may affect and be affected by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and change berry composition. We studied the effects of different N fertilizers on AM fungal grapevine root colonization and sporulation, and on grapevine growth, nutrition, and berry composition, by conducting a 3.5-year pot study supplying grapevine plants with either urea, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, or ammonium nitrate. We measured the percentage of AM fungal root colonization, AM fungal sporulation, grapevine shoot dry weight and number of leaves, nutrient composition (macro- and micronutrients), and grapevine berry soluble solids (total sugars or degrees Brix) and total acidity. Urea suppressed AM fungal root colonization and sporulation. Mycorrhizal grapevine plants had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaves than non-mycorrhizal and with a higher growth response with calcium nitrate as the N source. For the macronutrients P and K, and for the micronutrient B, leaf concentration was higher in mycorrhizal plants. Non-mycorrhizal plants had higher concentration of microelements Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu than mycorrhizal. There were no differences in soluble solids ( degrees Brix) in grapevine berries among mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. However, non-mycorrhizal grapevine berries had higher acid content with ammonium nitrate, although they did not have better N nutrition and vegetative growth. PMID:17987325

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE PEDICEL DETACHING AND CRUSHING FORCES OF GRAPE BERRIES TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMAL MECHANICAL HARVESTING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carrara

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical harvesting of grapes is an important operation in order to contain the operating costs of the viticultural farms. One of the limits of the mechanical harvesting of grapes is represented by the production of juice that is mostly due to the energetic action of the shakers that knocks against the grape clusters to allow the detachment of the berries. As a consequence, under the same structural conditions of the plants, the production of grape juice depends on the physical-mechanical characteristics of the berry and particularly on its breaking strength and on its detachment from the pedicel. In this paper the strength of the berry to the compression force is evaluated through the measurement of the crushing force and the strength of the berry linked to its pedicel measuring its detaching force. The study was performed on two variety of grapes very widespread in Sicily: Catarratto comune and Nero d’Avola. The research showed that the evaluation of the breaking strength of the berry and its pedicel detachment resistance, correlated with the sugar content, allows to find out the optimal mechanical harvesting time in order to obtain a low production of grape juice and, then, wines of quality from mechanically harvested grapes.

  15. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:18065095

  16. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  17. Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zheng Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  18. Influence of canopy-applied chitosan on the composition of organic cv. Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon berries and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarin, Paola; Chinnici, Fabio; Donnini, Silvia; Liquori, Enrico; Riponi, Claudio; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The effects of canopy-applied chitosan on grapes and derived wine were evaluated in an organically managed mature vineyard. The experiment was performed on Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon red grape cultivars, the application of a chitosan solution was compared to water spraying. Each treatment was applied 3 times (beginning and end of veraison, and pre-harvest) in a randomized block experimental design. Significant differences in (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 amounts in berries and wines were detected in Cabernet Sauvignon but not in Sangiovese. Chitosan did not influence the berry skin anthocyanin and flavonol amount or t-resveratrol concentration in both skins and wines. A considerable increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together with some other amino acids, ammonium and amines was observed in the berry flesh of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The increase in phenolic acids and nitrogenous compounds, especially GABA, in the pulp of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes suggests changes in stress response. PMID:27211677

  19. Inheritance of growth habit and berry colour in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L. Dunal – A medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Deore* and P.Manivel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetics studies were studied for the two qualitative character ivz., growth habit (Erect × Procumbent and for berry (fruit colour (Yellow × Red in ashwagandha. The inheritance of the growth habit was controlled by single gene and the procumbent was dominant over the erect type. The gene symbol P for procumbent and p for erect is proposed. Inheritance studies of yellow versus red berry colour indicated that the trait was in control of classical duplicate recessive epitasis and followed the ratio of 9:7 (yellow: red. The berry colour in this cross is controlled by two genes (Y1 and Y2 with complementary recessive epitasis and gene symbols are proposed.

  20. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berry skin, pulp, and seeds in 13 grapevine varieties grown in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Milica M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Davidović, Sonja M; Todić, Slavica R; Bešlić, Zoran S; Gašić, Uroš M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2016-11-15

    Phenolic profile of 13 grapevine varieties was determined, with respect to three different parts of berries: skin, seed and pulp. Identification and quantification of the phenols was done using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The most abundant phenols in grape seeds were found to be flavan-3-ols, most of which are gallocatechin gallate and catechin. The skins were characterized mostly by flavonols, i.e. quercetin and myricetin. Characterization of anthocyanins in the berry skin by UHPLC coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer revealed a total of twenty derivatives of malvidin, delphinidin, petunidin, cyanidin, and peonidin. To the extent of our knowledge this is the first work that shows the presence of malvidin 3,5-O-dihexoside in the berry skin of 'Merlot', 'Cabernet Franc', 'Shiraz' 'Sangiovese', 'Pinot Noir' and 'Prokupac', untypical for Vitis vinifera Linneo species. PMID:27283628

  1. Use of ionizing radiations to prolong the storage life of fruit and berries (review of work in the USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of fruit is considered as a factor influencing the microflora of fruits and the physiological and biochemical processes occurring during the storage of fruit. Accordingly, the survey presents the results of experiments studying the effect of irradiation on: (a) Microorganisms which cause fruit and berries to spoil; (b) The spoiling of fruits caused by repeated infection by microflora; (c) The biochemical processes occurring in fruit while stored; (d) The ripening of fruit during storage; (e) The periods for which fruits of varying degrees of ripeness can be stored; (f) Opportunities for the industrial processing of fruit. In conclusion, it gives the results of experiments on the storage of irradiated fruits and berries: strawberries, raspberries, blackcurrants, cherries, apricots, peaches, tomatoes, grapes, mandarines and subtropical persimmons and figs. Recommendations are made as to optimum irradiation doses for prolonging the periods during which these fruits and berries can be stored. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 5 tabs

  2. Experimental Realization of Tunable Photonic Spin Hall Effect by Tailoring the Pancharatnam-Berry Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Xiaohui; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2013-01-01

    Tunable photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) is experimentally realized in this work by tailoring the space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP). It is demonstrated that vector beams whose polarization with a tunable spatial inhomogeneity can contribute to steering the space-variant PBP, thereby realizing a tunable photonic SHE with any desired spin-dependent splitting. Our scheme provides a convenient degree of freedom to manipulate the photon spin states and can be extrapolated to other physical systems due to the similar topological origins.

  3. A new picrotoxane sesquiterpene from the berries of Baccaurea ramiflora with antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, Yun-Fei; Ding, Tao; Luo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Three picrotoxane sesquiterpenes including one new glycoside and two known constituents, sapidolide A (2) and picrotoximaesin (3), were isolated from the berries of Baccaurea ramiflora. The structure of the new sesquiterpene glycoside, ramifloside (1), was elucidated as 2-one-6α-hydroxy-13-nor-11-picrotoxen-3(15β)-olide 10-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with MICs of 12.5, 12.5 and 50 μg/mL. PMID:25583324

  4. The development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Blaž

    2014-01-01

    The diploma paper presents in detail the development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5, i. e. the path from idea to product. First, it examines the previously mentioned platform, the technologies used (HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript) and environments for development (NetBeans, GIMP). The central part is dedicated to the development of our product (Game Time Attacker), which includes a description of the program code, implementation and publication of the game. The usefulness of ou...

  5. The development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    The diploma paper presents in detail the development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5, i. e. the path from idea to product. First, it examines the previously mentioned platform, the technologies used (HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript) and environments for development (NetBeans, GIMP). The central part is dedicated to the development of our product (Game Time Attacker), which includes a description of the program code, implementation and publication of the game. The usefulness of ou...

  6. Preliminary Studies on the Antinociceptive Activity of Vaccinium ashei Berry in Experimental Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Maria Rosana; Guterres, Leandra; Dickel, Odila E.; de Castro, Micheli R.; Henriques, Amelia T.; Márcia M. de Souza; Barros, Daniela Martí

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out pharmacological screening in order to evaluate the potential effects of lyophilized fruits of different cultivars of Vaccinium ashei Reade (Family Ericaceae) berries, commonly known as rabbiteye blueberries, on nociception. This was achieved using the formalin, hot plate, tail-flick, and writhing tests in mice. During this experiment the mice consumed approximately 3.2–6.4 mg/kg/day (p.o.) of the anthocyanins. The extract was administered for 21 days or ...

  7. Berry phase of light Bragg-reflected by chiral liquid crystal media

    CERN Document Server

    Barboza, Raouf; Residori, Stefania; Clerc, Marcel G

    2016-01-01

    Berry phase is revealed for circularly polarized light when it is Bragg-reflected by a chiral liquid crystal medium of the same handedness. By using a chiral nematic layer we demonstrate that if the input plane of the layer is rotated with respect to a fixed reference frame, then, a geometric phase effect occurs for the circularly polarized light reflected by the periodic helical structure of the medium. Theory and numerical simulations are supported by an experimental observation, disclosing novel applications in the field of optical manipulation and fundamental optical phenomena.

  8. Berry's Phase Induced Bose-Einstein condensation into a Vortex State

    OpenAIRE

    Olshanii, M.; Naraschewski, M.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of a geometric phase in magnetic traps can be used to Bose condense a magnetically trapped atomic gas into a vortex state. We propose an experimental setup where a magnetic trap together with a blue detuned laser beam form a multiply connected trap geometry. The local variation of the magnetic quantization axis induces a geometric or Berry's phase that allows the atoms to acquire an effective gauge charge interacting with the analog of a magnetic solenoid. It is shown that the g...

  9. In vitro antiviral activity of a series of wild berry fruit extracts against representatives of Picorna-, Orthomyxo- and Paramyxoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva-Glomb, Lubomira; Mukova, Luchia; Nikolova, Nadya; Badjakov, Ilian; Dincheva, Ivayla; Kondakova, Violeta; Doumanova, Lyuba; Galabov, Angel S

    2014-01-01

    Wild berry species are known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. They have long been traditionally applied for their antiseptic, antimicrobial, cardioprotective and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study is to reveal the potential for selective antiviral activity of total methanol extracts, as well as that of the anthocyanins and the non-anthocyanins from the following wild berries picked in Bulgaria: strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) of the Rosaceae plant family, and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillis L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L) of the Ericaceae. The antiviral effect has been tested against viruses that are important human pathogens and for which chemotherapy and/or chemoprophylaxis is indicated, namely poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) and coxsackievirus B1 (CV-B1) from the Picornaviridae virus family, human respiratory syncytial virus A2 (HRSV-A2) from the Paramyxoviridae and influenza virus A/H3N2 of Orthomyxoviridae. Wild berry fruits are freeze-dried and ground, then total methanol extracts are prepared. Further the extracts are fractioned by solid phase extraction and the non-anthocyanin and anthocyanin fractions are eluted. The in vitro antiviral effect is examined by the virus cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition test. The results reveal that the total extracts of all tested berry fruits inhibit the replication of CV-B1 and influenza A virus. CV-B1 is inhibited to the highest degree by both bilberry and strawberry, as well as by lingonberry total extracts, and influenza A by bilberry and strawberry extracts. Anthocyanin fractions of all wild berries strongly inhibit the replication of influenza virus A/H3N2. Given the obtained results it is concluded that wild berry species are a valuable resource of antiviral substances and the present study should serve as a basis for further detailed research on the matter. PMID:24660461

  10. Brassinosteroids are involved in controlling sugar unloading in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' berries during véraison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Sugar unloading in grape berries is a crucial step in the long-distance transport of carbohydrates from grapevine leaves to berries. Brassinosteroids (BRs) mediate many physiological processes in plants including carbohydrate metabolism. Here, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries cultivated in clay loam fields were treated with an exogenous BR (24-epibrassinolide; EBR), a BR synthesis inhibitor (brassinazole; Brz), Brz + EBR (sprayed with EBR 24 h after a Brz treatment), and deionized water (control) at the onset of véraison. The EBR treatment sharply increased the soluble sugars content in the berries, but decreased it in the skins. The EBR and Brz + EBR treatments significantly promoted the activities of both invertases (acidic and neutral) and sucrose synthase (sucrolytic) at various stages of ripening. The mRNA levels of genes encoding sucrose metabolic invertase (VvcwINV), and monosaccharide (VvHT3, 4, 5 and 6) and disaccharide (VvSUC12 and 27) transporters were increased by the EBR and/or Brz + EBR treatments. Generally, the effects of the Brz treatment on the measured targets contrasted with the effects of the EBR treatments. The EBR and Brz treatments inhibited the biosynthesis of the endogenous BRs 6-deoxocastastarone and castasterone. Both EBR and Brz + EBR treatments increased the brassinolide contents, down-regulated the expression of genes encoding BRs biosynthetic enzymes BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1, (VvBR6OX1 and VvDWF1) and induced BR receptor gene BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (VvBRI1) expression in deseeded berries. Together, these results show that BRs are involved in controlling sugar unloading in grape berries during véraison. PMID:26113159

  11. Increase in Insulin Secretion Induced by Panax ginseng Berry Extracts Contributes to the Amelioration of Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocininduced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Ha-Jung; Kim, Yong-Kyoung; Park, Sang-Un; Choi, Jae-Eul; Cha, Ji-Young; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. More recently, it has received attention for its anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects in humans and in animal models of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we tested the hypoglycemic effects of ginseng berry extract in beta-cell-deficient mice and investigated the mechanisms involved. Red (ripe) and green (unripe) berry extracts were prepared and administered orally (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight) to streptozotocin-induced...

  12. On relation between Berry phase and one-dimensional models with long-range 1/r2-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown, that the effective action of Berry phase type is connected with some one-dimensional models with long-range 1/r2-interaction. In particular, the Caldeira-Leggett action for Josephson junction with dissipation and classical spin systems are related with local effective action of holomorphic Berry phase type through the Hilbert reduction. Some consequences of this relation are discussed, including conformal symmetry of Caldeira-Leggett action and a possibility of exact solution of these models. (author). 19 refs

  13. Antiaggregation potential of berry fractions against pairs of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihinen, Kaisu; Ryynänen, Anu; Toivanen, Marko; Könönen, Eija; Törrönen, Riitta; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Coaggregation is an interspecies adhesion process, which is essential to the development of dental plaque. This is an in vitro study of the composition of the soluble solids in the berry juice molecular size fractions (100 kDa, FIII) derived from apple, bilberry, blackcurrant, cloudberry, crowberry and lingonberry and their ability to inhibit and reverse coaggregation of the pairs of common species in dental plaque: Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii. Inhibitory and reversal activity was found in the molecular size fractions FII and FIII of bilberry, blackcurrant, crowberry and lingonberry. The active fractions contained higher amounts of polyphenols (5-12% of soluble solids) than those without activity (<2% of soluble solids). Proanthocyanidins dominated in the active lingonberry juice fractions FII and FIII and also small amounts of anthocyanins were detected. Anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides were prevalent in FII and FIII fractions of bilberry, blackcurrant and crowberry juices. Comparable amounts of sugars and titratable acids were present in the latter three berry juice fractions of different size. The results indicate that the high molecular size fractions of lingonberry, bilberry, blackcurrant and crowberry juices have antiaggregation potential on common oral bacteria, the potential being associated with their polyphenolic content. PMID:20623601

  14. COLONIZATION OF GRAPE BERRIES BY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS ALTERNARIA AND THEIR OCCURRENCE IN THE STUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Mašková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the mycobiota occurring on the grapes originating from Slovak wine-growing regions. The main focus was to discover the presence of the representatives of the genus Alternaria on/in grape berries and in the stum.Using the direct method of placing grape berries on the culture medium was analyzed their total and endogenous (after superficial sterilization mycobiota. Plate dilution method was used for stum mycobiota determination. Alternaria spp. colonized grapeson the surface and inside with anisolation frequency (Fr of 100%. Moreover, 100% of the stum samples were positive for the presence of this genus. Their relative density (RD was 44.9% (unsterilized grapes, 57.9% (sterilized grapes and 6.35% (stum. In all the areas analysed we recorded 4 species-groups: A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria and A. tenuissima. With the highest Fr and RD occurredA. tenuissima species-group, followed by A. alternata and A. arborescens species-groups. All of them are potential producers of mycotoxins as alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, tenuazonic acid, altertoxin I, II and III.

  15. Gate Tunable Relativistic Mass and Berry's phase in Topological Insulator Nanoribbon Field Effect Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Luis A.; Pettes, Michael T.; Rokhinson, Leonid P.; Shi, Li; Chen, Yong P.

    2015-02-01

    Transport due to spin-helical massless Dirac fermion surface state is of paramount importance to realize various new physical phenomena in topological insulators, ranging from quantum anomalous Hall effect to Majorana fermions. However, one of the most important hallmarks of topological surface states, the Dirac linear band dispersion, has been difficult to reveal directly in transport measurements. Here we report experiments on Bi2Te3 nanoribbon ambipolar field effect devices on high-κ SrTiO3 substrates, where we achieve a gate-tuned bulk metal-insulator transition and the topological transport regime with substantial surface state conduction. In this regime, we report two unambiguous transport evidences for gate-tunable Dirac fermions through π Berry's phase in Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and effective mass proportional to the Fermi momentum, indicating linear energy-momentum dispersion. We also measure a gate-tunable weak anti-localization (WAL) with 2 coherent conduction channels (indicating 2 decoupled surfaces) near the charge neutrality point, and a transition to weak localization (indicating a collapse of the Berry's phase) when the Fermi energy approaches the bulk conduction band. The gate-tunable Dirac fermion topological surface states pave the way towards a variety of topological electronic devices.

  16. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars. PMID:26471534

  17. Towards fruitful metabolomics: high throughput analyses of polyphenol composition in berries using direct infusion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon; Martinussen, Inger; Stewart, Derek

    2008-08-15

    Tannin-enriched extracts from raspberry, cloudberry and strawberry were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) techniques. The raspberry and cloudberry extracts contained a similar mixture of identifiable ellagitannin components and ellagic acid. However, the strawberry extract contained a complex mixture of ellagitannin and proanthocyanidin components that could not be adequately resolved to allow identification of individual peaks. Nevertheless, the negative ESI-MS spectra obtained by direct infusion mass spectrometric (DIMS) analysis described the diversity of these samples. For example, the predominance of signals associated with Lambertianin C in cloudberry and Sanguiin H6 in raspberry tannin extracts could be discerned and the diversity of signals from procyanidin and propelargonidin oligomers could be identified in the strawberry extract. The dose response for the main ellagitannin-derived signals in the raspberry tannin sample revealed a saturation effect probably due to ion suppression effects in the ion trap spectrometer. Nevertheless, DIMS spectra of whole berry extracts described qualitative differences in ellagitannin-derived peaks in raspberry, cloudberry and strawberry samples. In addition, positive mode DIMS spectra illustrated qualitative differences in the anthocyanin composition of berries of progeny from a raspberry breeding population that had been previously analysed by LC-MS. This suggests that DIMS could be applied to rapidly assess differences in polyphenol content, especially in large sample sets such as the progeny from breeding programmes. PMID:18650134

  18. Bioavailability of anthocyanins and colonic polyphenol metabolites following consumption of aronia berry extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liyang; Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Wang, Ying; Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Chun, Ock K; Bolling, Bradley W

    2016-11-15

    A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 6 adults to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins and colonic polyphenol metabolites after consumption of 500mg aronia berry extract. UHPLC-MS methods were developed to quantitate aronia berry polyphenols and their metabolites in plasma and urine. While anthocyanins were bioavailable, microbial phenolic catabolites increased ∼10-fold more than anthocyanins in plasma and urine. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside was rapidly metabolized to peonidin-3-O-galactoside. Aronia polyphenols were absorbed and extensively metabolized with tmax of anthocyanins and other polyphenol catabolites from 1.0h to 6.33h in plasma and urine. Despite significant inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetic parameters, concentrations of polyphenol metabolites in plasma and urine at 24h were positively correlated with total AUC in plasma and urine (r=0.93, and r=0.98, respectively). This suggests that fasting blood and urine collections could be used to estimate polyphenol bioavailability and metabolism after aronia polyphenol consumption. PMID:27283706

  19. Mondo Grass Berry Pigment for Visible to Near Infrared Absorption in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilva, L. A. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2013-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Synthesis of artificial dyes with broad response is important in developing an efficient DSSC. Artificial dyes can add up to the cost of the device; therefore, it is important to identify natural dyes with broad abortion and required energy levels. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 degree C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2 were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination and have a broad spectral response extending from 400 nm to 750 nm. This work is supported by COSM at UWG.

  20. Optical manipulation of the Berry phase in a solid-state spin qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale, Christopher G.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Zhou, Brian B.; Auer, Adrian; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.

    2016-03-01

    Phase relations between quantum states represent a resource for storing and processing quantum information. Although quantum phases are commonly controlled dynamically by tuning energetic interactions, the use of geometric phases that accumulate during cyclic evolution may offer superior robustness to noise. To date, demonstrations of geometric phase in solid-state systems employ microwave fields that have limited spatial resolution. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical method to accumulate a geometric phase, the Berry phase, in an individual nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. Using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage controlled by diffraction-limited laser light, we loop the nitrogen-vacancy centre's spin around the Bloch sphere to enclose an arbitrary Berry phase. We investigate the limits of this control due to the loss of adiabaticity and decoherence, as well as its robustness to noise introduced into the experimental control parameters. These techniques set the foundation for optical geometric manipulation in photonic networks of solid-state qubits linked and controlled by light.

  1. HARA – NEWEST WINE HIGH QUALITY AROMATIC GRAPE VERIETY WITH PINK BERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The newest high-tech pink berry aromatic grape variety Hara selected by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece researchers P.K. Zamanidi and L.P. Troshin in 2004 by crossing the Greek varieties Avgulato with Traminer pink. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics related to the eco-geographical group of Black Sea. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m. Degree of ripening vines is very high (over the entire length other than top of shoot. Length of production period from bud burst to harvest 146-155 days. Productivity is very high, 25-30 t/ha. Percentage of productive shoots - 90. The average mass of clusters within 350 g. Characterized by a high winter hardiness, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties Vitis vinifera. Hermaphrodite flower with stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Cluster medium, conical, medium density. Berry medium, spherical, pink color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice with pronounced varietal flavor of Gewurztraminer. Sugar content is very high, more than 24%. When overripening dry-curing and continuously stored on the clusters. Variety intended for the manufacture of dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality dessert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high quality juices, compotes

  2. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) Berries in Nordic Environment: Compositional Response to Latitude and Weather Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-06-22

    Flavonol glycosides (FGs) in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) berries of varieties 'Tytti' and 'Terhi', cultivated in northern Finland (68°02' N) for six years and southern Finland (60°23' N) for seven years, were investigated and compared by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The average total content of 23 identified glycosides of isorhamnetin and quercetin was 103 ± 23 and 110 ± 21 mg/100 g fresh berries in 'Terhi' and 'Tytti', respectively. The total contents of FGs, flavonol diglycosides, and triglycosides in both varieties were higher in the north than in the south, whereas total flavonol monoglycoside content behaved vice versa (p weather variables studied, the sum of the daily mean temperatures that are 5 °C or higher from the start of growth season until the day of harvest was the most important variable which associated negatively with the accumulation of FGs in berries. Such influence was much stronger in berries from the north than from the south. PMID:27215398

  3. From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

  4. Natural parasitism of Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...

  5. Foliar reflective film and water deficit increase anthocyanin to soluble solids ratio during berry ripening in Merlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated temperature can decrease the ratio of anthocyanins to soluble solids in red-skinned berries and warming trends in grape production regions have raised concern about color to alcohol balance in wines produced from fruit with altered ratios. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of a fol...

  6. Mummy Berry Fruit Rot and Shoot Blight Incidence in Blueberry: Prediction, Ranking, and Stability in a Long-term Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...

  7. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  8. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Botrytis cinerea BcDW1, Inoculum for Noble Rot of Grape Berries

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Allen, Greg; Powell, Ann L. T.; Cantu, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Botrytized wines are produced from grape berries infected by Botrytis cinerea under specific environmental conditions. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. cinerea BcDW1, a strain isolated from Sémillon grapes in Napa Valley in 1992 that is used with the intent to induce noble rot for botrytized wine production.

  10. Assessment of shape changes of mistletoe berries: a new software approach to automatize the parameterization of path curve shaped contours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renatus Derbidge

    Full Text Available Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L. berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. Here we present methods and software to capture and measure these changes of form over time. The present paper describes the software used to automatize a number of tasks including contour recognition, optimization of fitting the contour via hill-climbing, derivation of the path curves, computation of Lambda and blinding the pictures for the operator. The validity of the program is demonstrated by results from three independent measurements showing circadian rhythm in mistletoe berries. The program is available as open source and will be applied in a project to analyze the chronobiology of shape in mistletoe berries and the buds of their host trees.

  11. A Berry-Esseen Theorem and a Law of the Iterated Logarithm for Asymptotically Negatively Associated Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Feng WANG; Li Xin ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Negatively associated sequences have been studied extensively in recent years. Asymp-totically negative association is a generalization of negative association. In this paper a Berry-Esseen theorem and a law of the iterated logarithm are obtained for asymptotically negatively associated sequences.

  12. RNA sequencing reveals high resolution expression change of major plant hormone pathway genes after young seedless grape berries treated with gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lijuan; Li, Yanmei; Chen, Shangwu; Perl, Avihai; Zhao, Fengxia; Ma, Huiqin

    2014-12-01

    Seedless varieties are of particular importance to the table-grape and raisin industries. Gibberellin (GA) application is widely used in the early stages of seedless berry development to increase berry size and economic value. However, the underlying mechanism of GA induction of berry enlargement is not well understood. Here, RNA-sequencing analysis of 'Centennial Seedless' (Vitis vinifera L.) berries treated with GA3 12 days after flowering is reported. Pair-wise comparison of GA3-treated and control samples detected 165, 444, 463 genes with an over two-fold change in expression 1, 3, and 7 days after GA3 treatment, respectively. The number of differentially expressed genes increased with time after GA3 treatment, and the differential expression was dominated by downregulation. Significantly modulated expression included genes encoding synthesis and catabolism to manage plant hormone homeostasis, hormone transporters, receptors and key components in signaling pathways; exogenous GA3 induced multipoint cross talk with auxin, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, ABA and ethylene. The temporal gene-expression patterns of cell-wall-modification enzymes, cytoskeleton and membrane components and transporters revealed a pivotal role for cell-wall-relaxation genes in GA3-induced berry enlargement. Our results provide the first sequential transcriptomic atlas of exogenous GA3-induced berry enlargement and reveal the complexity of GA3's effect on berry sizing. PMID:25443848

  13. Metabolomics reveals simultaneous influences of plant defence system and fungal growth in Botrytis cinerea-infected Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Shick; Martinez, Agathe; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Jeandet, Philippe; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-10-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a fungal plant pathogen of grape berries, leading to economic and quality losses in wine production. The global metabolite changes induced by B. cinerea infection in grape have not been established to date, even though B. cinerea infection is known to cause significant changes in chemicals or metabolites. In order to better understand metabolic mechanisms linked to the infection process and to identify the metabolites associated with B. cinerea infection, (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used in global metabolite profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of berries from healthy and botrytized bunches. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis, revealed clear metabolic discriminations between healthy and botrytized berries of botrytized bunches and healthy berries of healthy bunches. Significantly high levels of proline, glutamate, arginine, and alanine, which are accumulated upon plant stress, were found in healthy and botrytized berries of botrytized bunches. Moreover, largely degraded phenylpropanoids, flavonoid compounds, and sucrose together with markedly produced glycerol, gluconic acid, and succinate, all being directly associated with B. cinerea growth, were only found in botrytized berries of botrytized bunches. This study reports that B. cinerea infection causes significant metabolic changes in grape berry and highlights that both the metabolic perturbations associated with the plant defence system and those directly derived from fungal pathogen growth should be considered to better understand the interaction between metabolic variation and biotic pathogen stress in plants. PMID:22945941

  14. Investigating wild berries as a dietary approach to reducing the formation of advanced glycation endproducts: chemical correlates of in vitro antiglycation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Cory S; Cuerrier, Alain; Lamont, Erin; Haddad, Pierre S; Arnason, John T; Bennett, Steffany A L; Johns, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Evidence supports the health promoting benefits of berries, particularly with regard to the prevention and management of chronic diseases such cardio- and cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Two related pathophysiological features common to many of these conditions are oxidative stress and the accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Whereas antioxidant properties are well-established in several species of berries and are believed central to their protective mechanisms, few studies have investigated the effects of berries on AGE formation. Here, employing a series of complementary in vitro assays, we evaluated a collection of wild berry extracts for 1) inhibitory effects on fluorescent-AGE and Nε- (carboxymethyl)lysine-albumin adduct formation, 2) radical scavenging activity and 3) total phenolic and anthocyanin content. All samples reduced AGE formation in a concentration-dependent manner that correlated positively with each extract's total phenolic content and, to a lesser degree, total anthocyanin content. Inhibition of AGE formation was similarly related to radical scavenging activities. Adding antiglycation activity to the list of established functional properties ascribed to berries and their phenolic metabolites, our data provide further insight into the active compounds and protective mechanisms through which berry consumption may aid in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with AGE accumulation and toxicity. As widely available, safe and nutritious foods, berries represent a promising dietary intervention worthy of further investigation. PMID:24448675

  15. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit (goji berry of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25% would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65% would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  16. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  17. Theory of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo and parity violating Berry-phases in atoms; Theorie des longitudinalen Atomstrahl-Spinechos und paritaetsverletzende Berry-Phasen in Atomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, T.F.

    2006-07-19

    We present a nonrelativistic theory for the quantum mechanical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments, where a beam of neutral atoms is subjected to static electric and magnetic fields. The atomic wave function is the solution of a matrix-valued Schroedinger equation and can be written as superposition of local (atomic) eigenstates of the potential matrix. The position- and time-dependent amplitude function of each eigenstate represents an atomic wave packet and can be calculated in a series expansion with a master formula that we derive. The zeroth order of this series expansion describes the adiabatic limit, whereas the higher order contributions contain the mixing of the eigenstates and the corresponding amplitude functions. We give a tutorial for the theoretical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments and for the so-called Fahrplan model, which is a visualisation tool for the propagation of wave packets of different atomic eigenstates. As an example for the application of our theory, we study parity violating geometric (Berry-)phases. In this context, we define geometric flux densities, which for certain field configurations can be used to illustrate geometric phases in a vector diagram. Considering an example with a specific field configuration, we prove the existence of a parity violating geometric phase. (orig.)

  18. Oviposition preference and larval performance of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) infected berries of Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Z M; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Wheatley, Warwick M; Cook, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we tested the behavior of gravid Epiphyas postvittana in selecting the most-appropriate site for oviposition thus benefitting offspring performance. Our hypothesis was built on Jaenike's preference-performance hypothesis (also referred to as the "mother-knows-the-best" hypothesis). To test this, we used the interacting Epiphyas postvittana, its host Vitis vinifera, and the pathogenic microbe Botrytis cinerea system. Populations of E. postvittana and B. cinerea often exist concurrently on V. vinifera in Australasia and their interaction and mutual influence are currently being explored, although the suggestion presently is that the relationship between E. postvittana and B. cinerea is mutualistic. We tested the effect of volatiles from B. cinerea-infected berries and uninfected (control) berries of V. vinifera on the oviposition behavior of E. postvittana. We also characterized the effects of B. cinerea infection on the berries of V. vinifera on the growth and development of E. postvittana. Contrary to the preference-performance hypothesis, oviposition choices made by gravid E. postvittana did not result in the best offspring survival, development, and performance. The preference for oviposition by E. postvittana was strongly influenced by the olfactory and tactile cues. She laid fewer eggs on B. cinerea-infected berries compared to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae of E. postvittana showed no preference to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae fed on B. cinerea-infected berries of V. vinifera showing greater survival rate, shorter time to pupation, greater pupal mass, and on becoming adults they laid more numbers of eggs than the larvae that were enabled to feed on uninfected berries. The larvae of E. postvittana transport the conidia of B. cinerea and transmit grey-mould disease to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. PMID:25420720

  19. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210Pb and 210Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of 210Po/210Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of 210Pb and especially 210Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of 210Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg-1 d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg-1 d.w.). The 210Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg-1 d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg-1 d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of 210Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of 210Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of 210Po were higher than those of 210Pb. 210Po and 210Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  20. Polyols in grape berry: transport and metabolic adjustments as a physiological strategy for water-deficit stress tolerance in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Regalado, Ana; Rodrigues, Diana; Costa, J Miguel; Blumwald, Eduardo; Chaves, M Manuela; Gerós, Hernâni

    2015-02-01

    Polyols are important metabolites that often function as carbon and energy sources and/or osmoprotective solutes in some plants. In grapevine, and in the grape berry in particular, the molecular aspects of polyol transport and metabolism and their physiological relevance are virtually unknown to date. Here, the biochemical function of a grapevine fruit mesocarp polyol transporter (VvPLT1) was characterized after its heterologous expression in yeast. This H(+)-dependent plasma membrane carrier transports mannitol (K m=5.4mM) and sorbitol (K m=9.5mM) over a broad range of polyols and monosaccharides. Water-deficit stress triggered an increase in the expression of VvPLT1 at the fully mature stage, allowing increased polyol uptake into pulp cells. Plant polyol dehydrogenases are oxireductases that reversibly oxidize polyols into monosaccharides. Mannitol catabolism in grape cells (K m=30.1mM mannitol) and mature berry mesocarps (K m=79mM) was, like sorbitol dehydrogenase activity, strongly inhibited (50-75%) by water-deficit stress. Simultaneously, fructose reduction into polyols via mannitol and sorbitol dehydrogenases was stimulated, contributing to their higher intracellular concentrations in water-deficit stress. Accordingly, the concentrations of mannitol, sorbitol, galactinol, myo-inositol, and dulcitol were significantly higher in berry mesocarps from water-deficit-stressed Tempranillo grapevines. Metabolomic profiling of the berry pulp by GC-TOF-MS also revealed many other changes in its composition induced by water deficit. The impact of polyols on grape berry composition and plant response to water deficit stress, via modifications in polyol transport and metabolism, was analysed by integrating metabolomics with transcriptional analysis and biochemical approaches. PMID:25433029

  1. Patterns of sequence polymorphism in the fleshless berry locus in cultivated and wild Vitis vinifera accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coriton Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike in tomato, little is known about the genetic and molecular control of fleshy fruit development of perennial fruit trees like grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.. Here we present the study of the sequence polymorphism in a 1 Mb grapevine genome region at the top of chromosome 18 carrying the fleshless berry mutation (flb in order, first to identify SNP markers closely linked to the gene and second to search for possible signatures of domestication. Results In total, 62 regions (17 SSR, 3 SNP, 1 CAPS and 41 re-sequenced gene fragments were scanned for polymorphism along a 3.4 Mb interval (85,127-3,506,060 bp at the top of the chromosome 18, in both V. vinifera cv. Chardonnay and a genotype carrying the flb mutation, V. vinifera cv. Ugni Blanc mutant. A nearly complete homozygosity in Ugni Blanc (wild and mutant forms and an expected high level of heterozygosity in Chardonnay were revealed. Experiments using qPCR and BAC FISH confirmed the observed homozygosity. Under the assumption that flb could be one of the genes involved into the domestication syndrome of grapevine, we sequenced 69 gene fragments, spread over the flb region, representing 48,874 bp in a highly diverse set of cultivated and wild V. vinifera genotypes, to identify possible signatures of domestication in the cultivated V. vinifera compartment. We identified eight gene fragments presenting a significant deviation from neutrality of the Tajima's D parameter in the cultivated pool. One of these also showed higher nucleotide diversity in the wild compartments than in the cultivated compartments. In addition, SNPs significantly associated to berry weight variation were identified in the flb region. Conclusions We observed the occurrence of a large homozygous region in a non-repetitive region of the grapevine otherwise highly-heterozygous genome and propose a hypothesis for its formation. We demonstrated the feasibility to apply BAC FISH on the very small grapevine

  2. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Vanja M; Dobrić, Silva; Marković, Goran M; Dordević, Sofija M; Arsić, Ivana A; Menković, Nebojsa R; Stević, Tanja

    2008-09-10

    Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal

  3. Characterisation by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of anthocyanins in extracts of Myrtus communis L. berries used for the preparation of myrtle liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Perrone, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; Cabras, Paolo; Pizza, Cosimo

    2006-04-21

    Anthocyanins in extracts of berries of Myrtus communis, prepared following a typical Sardinia myrtle liqueur recipe, were identified and quantified by HPLC coupled with electrospray/tandem mass spectrometry using, respectively, an ion trap and a triple quadrupole mass analyser. The fragmentation patterns of the anthocyanidins were dependent on the MS technique employed, and differed considerably from those previously reported. The anthocyanin profile of five anthocyanin glucosides and four anthocyanin arabinosides, the latter not previously identified in this specie, was specific for myrtle berry extracts. The quantitative compositions of extracts of myrtle berries derived from different geographical areas in Italy were compared. PMID:16376912

  4. A Berry-Esseen bound for the uniform multinomial occupancy model

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The inductive size bias coupling technique and Stein's method yield a Berry-Esseen theorem for the number of urns having occupancy $d \\ge 2$ when $n$ balls are uniformly distributed over $m$ urns. In particular, there exists a constant $C$ depending only on $d$ such that $$ \\sup_{z \\in \\mathbb{R}}|P(W_{n,m} \\le z) -P(Z \\le z)| \\le C \\frac{\\sigma_{n,m}}{1+(\\frac{n}{m})^3} \\quad {for all $n \\ge d$ and $m \\ge 2$,} $$ where $W_{n,m}$ and $\\sigma_{n,m}^2$ are the standardized count and variance, respectively, of the number of urns with $d$ balls, and $Z$ is a standard normal random variable. Asymptotically, the bound is optimal up to constants if $n$ and $m$ tend to infinity together in a way such that $n/m$ stays bounded.

  5. Jean de Berry à l’heure de l’Union

    OpenAIRE

    Lebigue, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Bourges est la cité où Jean de Berry logea Pol de Limbourg et ses frères, vrais « artistes de sérail » d’après la belle expression de François Avril, pour faire enluminer les si célèbres Très Riches Heures, conservées aujourd’hui à Chantilly. Malgré la coïncidence avec le lieu du présent colloque, je n’aurais jamais songé à évoquer ce manuscrit universellement connu, si son étude ne m’avait fait découvrir des prolongements inattendus avec l’histoire du Grand Schisme, domaine de prédilection d...

  6. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-05-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  7. Interplay between diffraction and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase in inhomogeneously twisted anisotropic media

    CERN Document Server

    Jisha, Chandroth Pannian; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the propagation of an electromagnetic field in a inhomogeneously rotated anisotropic material. Rotation is taken invariant along the propagation direction, the latter corresponding to the rotation axis as well. In such a configuration, electromagnetic evolution is dictated by the Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP), responsible for the appearance of an effective photonic potential. In the accompanying paper [A. Alberucci et al., "Electromagnetic confinement via spin-orbit interaction in anisotropic dielectrics"] we demonstrate that the effective potential support transverse confinement of light. Here we find the profile of the quasi-modes and we show that the photonic potential arises from the Kapitza effect. Theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations, with particular attention to the dependence on the medium birefringence. Finally, we investigate a configuration capable to support non-leaky guided modes.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF PONDS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN SMALL RIVERS OF BERRY (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid AZAROUAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ponds on dissolved oxygen in small rivers of Berry (France. Water temperature and oxygen saturation are two major indicators of water quality in surface hydrology. Geographical and cartographic studies about ponds of Central France did no exist until now. During two years, we measured dissolved oxygen using a hand oximeter upstream and downstream of three ponds in the headwaters of the Loire basin. Our results show that oxygen saturation depends on equipments located before and behind the dam, and upstream and downstream: spillways, outlets with a monk, diversion channel, artificial reoxygenation weirs and so on. In some cases (low water quality upstream, existence of weir, relative and absolute saturation of dissolved oxygen increases downstream of ponds.

  9. Berry-Esseen's central limit theorem for non-causal linear processes in Hilbert space

    CERN Document Server

    Machkouri, Mohamed EL

    2010-01-01

    Let $H$ be a real separable Hilbert space and $(a_k)_{k\\in\\mathbb{Z}}$ a sequence of bounded linear operators from $H$ to $H$. We consider the linear process $X$ defined for any $k$ in $\\mathbb{Z}$ by $X_k=\\sum_{j\\in\\mathbb{Z}}a_j(\\varepsilon_{k-j})$ where $(\\varepsilon_k)_{k\\in\\mathbb{Z}}$ is a sequence of i.i.d. centered $H$-valued random variables. We investigate the rate of convergence in the CLT for $X$ and in particular we obtain the usual Berry-Esseen's bound provided that $\\sum_{j\\in\\mathbb{Z}}\\vert j\\vert\\|a_j\\|_{\\mathcal{L}(H)}<+\\infty$ and $\\varepsilon_0$ belongs to $L_H^{\\infty}$.

  10. Berry phase and anomalous velocity of Weyl fermions and Maxwell photons

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We consider two systems of wave equations whose wave-packet solutions have trajectories that are altered by the "anomalous velocity" effect of a Berry curvature. The first is the matrix Weyl equation describing cyclotron motion of a charged massless fermion. The second is Maxwell equations for the whispering-gallery modes of light in a cylindrical waveguide. In the case of the massless fermion, the anomalous velocity is obscured by the contribution from the magnetic moment. In the whispering gallery modes the anomalous velocity causes the circumferential light ray to creep up the cylinder at the rate of one wavelength per orbit, and can be identified as a continuous version of the Imbert-Federov effect.

  11. Berry productivity estimation of biological(botanical) reservations 'Milevichsky' and 'Zalyuchitsky'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of creation of local status biological (botanical) reservations in Zhitkovichi district is scientifically substantiated on he basis of performed investigations and analysis of location nature conditions of declared reservations, their nature potential and on the estimation of productivity of wild berr plantation and radiation situation. Forest districts of these reservations have high productivity of wild bilberries and great bilberry and natural background radiation. The specific radiation activity of bilverries collected in the foregoing districts of Milevichi and Zalyutichi forestry does not exceed 60 Bk/kg, that is less than 30% of the permissible rate. Main recommendations were developed for protection and utilization of reservations, for conservation of the conditions required for growing forests with optimum characteristics, which promote vegetation and high productivity of wild berry reservations

  12. The use of the quality model of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry in health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileide Morais Pena

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an article about the theoretical model for assessing quality in health services proposed by Parasuraman, Zheitaml and Berry, in order to measure the degree of satisfaction of users. This model is based on the analysis of expectations and perceptions of users of health services, by means of five dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. From the difference between what is expected by the user and the service offered, gaps or shortcomings are derived that may be the main obstacle for users to perceive the provision of such services with quality. It was observed that the use of the psychometric scale called Service Quality (SERVQUAL in some studies about satisfaction, obtained very favorable results in the institutions in which it was employed. The analysis revealed the need to improve the existing models of evaluation, as well as the importance of measuring user satisfaction in health institutions.

  13. EFTIHIYA – THE NEWEST WINE AROMATIC VARIETY WITH PINK COLORED BERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The newest wine grape variety Eftihiya with aromatic pink colored skin (in Greek the name means “happi-ness” was breed with hybridization at the Athens In-stitute of Viticulture by P. Zamanidi, L. Troshin and P. Radchevskiy in 2005 by crossing the Greek varieties and Malaguzya with Eurasian Traminer pink. Dura-tion of production period from bud burst to harvest 146-155 days. Yields are very high: 25-30 t / ha. Modal mass of clusters is 250 g. Bunch is conical, me-dium density. Berry is medium, short elliptical, pink colored, with a thick wax coating. Pulp and juice with the expressed varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content of more than 24%. Vari-ety is designed for production for the dry white wines of excellent class and high-quality sparkling, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high quality aromatic juices

  14. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  15. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Ana Carolina H.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar V.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: acmachado@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  16. Berry and Citrus Phenolic Compounds Inhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV: Implications in Diabetes Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial health effects of fruits and vegetables in the diet have been attributed to their high flavonoid content. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a serine aminopeptidase that is a novel target for type 2 diabetes therapy due to its incretin hormone regulatory effects. In this study, well-characterized anthocyanins (ANC isolated from berry wine blends and twenty-seven other phenolic compounds commonly present in citrus, berry, grape, and soybean, were individually investigated for their inhibitory effects on DPP-IV by using a luminescence assay and computational modeling. ANC from blueberry-blackberry wine blends strongly inhibited DPP-IV activity (IC50, 0.07 ± 0.02 to >300 μM. Of the twenty-seven phenolics tested, the most potent DPP-IV inhibitors were resveratrol (IC50, 0.6 ± 0.4 nM, luteolin (0.12 ± 0.01 μM, apigenin (0.14 ± 0.02 μM, and flavone (0.17 ± 0.01 μM, with IC50 values lower than diprotin A (4.21 ± 2.01 μM, a reference standard inhibitory compound. Analyses of computational modeling showed that resveratrol and flavone were competitive inhibitors which could dock directly into all three active sites of DPP-IV, while luteolin and apigenin docked in a noncompetitive manner. Hydrogen bonding was the main binding mode of all tested phenolic compounds with DPP-IV. These results indicate that flavonoids, particularly luteolin, apigenin, and flavone, and the stilbenoid resveratrol can act as naturally occurring DPP-IV inhibitors.

  17. A candidate-gene association study for berry colour and anthocyanin content in Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cardoso

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST. Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, MYC(A, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHS(A. Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYC(B, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies.

  18. Long-term effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on the grape berry phenylpropanoid pathway: Gene expression and metabolite content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-González, Luis; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Ibáñez, Freddy; Pastenes, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    ABA has been proposed as the main signal triggering the onset of the ripening process in grapes, and modulating the secondary metabolism in grape berry skins. To determine the effect of ABA on secondary metabolism in berries, clusters of Carménère were sprayed with 0 μLL(-1) ABA; 50 μLL(-1) ABA and 100 μLL(-1) ABA during pre-véraison, and the gene expression of the transcription factors and enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were assessed from véraison to 70 days after véraison (DAV). Additionally, flavonols, tannins and anthocyanins were assessed from véraison until harvest (110 DAV). ABA accelerated sugar and anthocyanin accumulation at véraison. The grape transcript abundance of VvDFR, VvANS, VvUFGT and VvMybA1, all peaking around véraison mimicked the concentration of ABA throughout the season. The highest anthocyanin concentration occurred 35 DAV for all treatments, but higher pigment concentrations were observed in ABA-treated berries at véraison and from 60 to 70 DAV to harvest. VvPAL was also increased by treatment at the higher concentration of ABA from véraison to 40 DAV. Regarding flavanol synthesis, VvLAR2 and VvMyb4A decreased from véraison until 40 DAV and then increased again until 70 DAV. Compared to the control, both ABA treatments resulted in a less-than-proportional reduction of the expression of both genes compared to the control and, after 40 DAV, in a more-than-proportional increase compared to the control, suggesting a long-term effect of the pre-véraison ABA spray on the berries. A concomitant increase in flavanols was observed in berries after 40 DAV, and this occurred at a higher extent in berries treated with the highest ABA concentration. PMID:27116369

  19. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Berries are a perishable food which can be consumed as fresh or minimally-processed as well as a frozen ingredient added to many foods. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries are the most commonly consumed in the EU. Risk factors for berry contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens in berries were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in berry production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP, Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, should be primary objectives of berry producers. There is currently insufficient evidence to justify the establishment of microbiological criteria for Salmonella for fresh or frozen berries. Outbreaks associated with Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries are an emerging public health risk, although it is not known if in these outbreaks contamination occurred at minimal processing or during primary production. It is currently not possible to assess the suitability of an EU-wide Norovirus Hygiene Criterion at primary production for raspberries and strawberries. Microbiological criteria for Norovirus in berries are useful for validation and verification of food safety management systems, including HACCP-based processes and procedures, and can be used to communicate to food business operators and other stakeholders what is acceptable or unacceptable, however there is insufficient data to provide a risk base for establishing a Process Hygiene and Food Safety Criteria for Norovirus in berries. Collection of appropriate data and subsequent risk

  20. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Content and Profile, Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-inflammatory Bioactivity in Wild Alaskan and Commercial Vaccinium Berries

    OpenAIRE

    Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Dunlap, Kriya L.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Wild Alaskan Vaccinium berries, V. vitis-idaea (lowbush cranberry) and V. uliginosum (bog blueberry), were investigated in parallel to their commercial berry counterparts; V. macrocarpon (cranberry) and V. angustifolium (lowbush blueberry). Lowbush cranberry accumulated about twice the total phenolics (624.4 mg/100 g FW) and proanthocyanidins (278.8 mg/100 g) content as commercial cranberries, but A-type proanthocyanidins were more prevalent in the latter. Bog blueberry anthocyanin and total ...

  1. Analysis of the Pancharatnam-Berry phase of vector vortex states using the Hamiltonian based on the Maxwell-Schr\\"odinger equation

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Masato; Yamane, Keisaku; Oka, Kazuhiko; Toda, Yasunori; Morita, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    We derived the Berry connection of vector vortex states (VVSs) from the "true" Hamiltonian obtained through the Maxwell--Schr\\"odinger equation for an inhomogeneous anisotropic (IA) medium, and we experimentally demonstrated measurement of the corresponding Pancharatnam--Berry (PB) geometrical phase of VVSs. The PB phase (PBP) of VVSs can be divided into two phases: homogeneous and inhomogeneous PBPs. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous PBPs are related to the conventional PBP and the spatially-dep...

  2. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Zong-Lun; Tsai Ming-Tz; Lee Alan; Yang Hsin-Ling; Hseu You-Cheng; Hwang Chi-Ching; Chen Jeff; Chang Fang-Rong; Chiu Chien-Chih; Yen Ching-Yu; Cheng Yu-Shan; Liu Yin-Chang; Lan Yu-Hsuan; Chang Yu-Ching; Ko Ying-Chin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkalin...

  3. Extraction of phenolic compounds from elder berry and different grape marc varieties using organic solvents and/or supercritical carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Vatai, Tünde; Škerget, Mojca; KNEZ, ŽELJKO

    2012-01-01

    Optimal operating conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from grape marc and elder berry have been investigated. The aim was to obtain extracts with high anthocyanin content, which show stability during storage and would be potentially interesting for commercial applications as natural colorants. For this purpose three varieties of grape marc, native to Slovenia (Refošk, Merlot and Cabernet), were studied. The results were compared with the extraction of elder berry, which is kno...

  4. The grapevine VviPrx31 peroxidase as a candidate gene involved in anthocyanin degradation in ripening berries under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Nooshin; Pastore, Chiara; Cellini, Antonio; Allegro, Gianluca; Valentini, Gabriele; Zenoni, Sara; Cavallini, Erika; D'Incà, Erica; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Filippetti, Ilaria

    2016-05-01

    Anthocyanin levels decline in some red grape berry varieties ripened under high-temperature conditions, but the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. Here we studied the effects of two different temperature regimes, representing actual Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.) viticulture regions, on the accumulation of mRNAs and enzymes controlling berry skin anthocyanins. Potted uniform plants of Sangiovese were kept from veraison to harvest, in two plastic greenhouses with different temperature conditions. The low temperature (LT) conditions featured average and maximum daily air temperatures of 20 and 29 °C, respectively, whereas the corresponding high temperature (HT) conditions were 22 and 36 °C, respectively. The anthocyanin concentration at harvest was much lower in HT berries than LT berries although their profile was similar under both conditions. Under HT conditions, the biosynthesis of anthocyanins was suppressed at both the transcriptional and enzymatic levels, but peroxidase activity was higher. This suggests that the low anthocyanin content of HT berries reflects the combined impact of reduced biosynthesis and increased degradation, particularly the direct role of peroxidases in anthocyanin catabolism. Overexpression of VviPrx31 decreased anthocyanin contents in Petunia hybrida petals under heat stress condition. These data suggest that high temperature can stimulate peroxidase activity thus anthocyanin degradation in ripening grape berries. PMID:26825649

  5. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  6. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies. PMID:25251333

  7. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  8. Effect of picung (Pangium edule) plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei)

    OpenAIRE

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-01-01

    Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei) were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed...

  9. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. PMID:26593612

  10. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan R Morris; John Vandermeer; Ivette Perfecto

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the...

  11. New stable QTLs for berry weight do not colocalize with QTLs for seed traits in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Yves; Farnos, Marc; Grolier, Michel; Romieu, Charles; Esnault, Florence; Dias, Sonia; Berger, Gilles; Francois, Pierre; Pons, Thierry; Ortigosa, Patrick; Roux, Catherine; Houel, Cléa; Laucou, Valerie; Bacilieri, Roberto; PEROS, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In grapevine, as in other fruit crops, fruit size and seed content are key components of yield and quality; however, very few Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for berry weight and seed content (number, weight, and dry matter percentage) have been discovered so far. To identify new stable QTLs for marker-assisted selection and candidate gene identification, we performed simultaneous QTL detection in four mapping populations (seeded or seedless) with various genetic backgrounds. RES...

  12. The effect of inertia on the Dirac electron, the spin Hall current and the momentum space Berry curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Debashree; B. Basu

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the spin dependent force and the associated momentum space Berry curvature in an accelerating system. The results are derived by taking into consideration the non relativistic limit of a generally covariant Dirac equation under the presence of electromagnetic field where the methodology of Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is applied to achieve the non relativistic limit. Spin currents appear due to the combined action of the external electric field, crystal field and the induce...

  13. Influence of Fungal Strain, Temperature, and Wetness Duration on Infection of Grapevine Inflorescences and Young Berry Clusters by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Languasco, Luca; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature and wetness duration on infection of Vitis vinifera inflorescences (from "inflorescence clearly visible" to "end of flowering" stages) and young berry clusters (at "fruit swelling" and "berries groat-sized" stages) by Botrytis cinerea was investigated. Artificial inoculations were carried out using conidial suspensions of eight B. cinerea strains belonging to the transposon genotypes transposa and vacuma. Infection incidence was significantly affected by strain but not by transposon genotype (transposon genotype accounted for only 6.5% of the variance). Infection incidence was also affected by the interaction between strain and growth stage of the inflorescence or berry cluster (overall accounting for approximately 57% of the experimental variance). Thus, under our experimental conditions, the ability to cause infection was a strain rather than a transposon genotype attribute. Across all strains, infection incidence was lowest when inflorescences were clearly visible or fully developed, highest at flowering (from beginning to end of flowering), and intermediate at the postflowering fruit stages (fruit swelling and berries groat-sized). One transposa strain, however, was highly virulent on all grapevine growth stages tested. The effects of temperature and wetness duration on infection incidence were similar for all fungal strains and grapevine growth stages; infection incidence was highest at 20°C and lowest at 30°C, and was also low at 5°C. Similar results were obtained for mycelial growth and conidial germination. Based on the pooled data for all strains and grapevine growth stages, an equation was developed that accounted for the combined effects of temperature and wetness duration on relative infection incidence. This equation should be useful for developing decision-making systems concerning B. cinerea control at early grapevine growth stages. PMID:25354016

  14. Potential for Ethanol Vapours to Limit Table Grape Berry Shatter and to Limit Ethylene Evolution from Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Chervin, Christian; Bouzambou, N.; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Westercamp, Pascale

    2005-01-01

    We have shown previously that ethanol vapours (given by 2 ml per kg of grapes) can prevent Botrytis development and stem browning, two of the major problems in postharvest quality of table grapes. In the present paper, we will give emphasis to preliminary results about (i) the role of ethanol vapours in the inhibition of berry shatter and (ii) the control of ethylene evolution from grapes bunches by ethanol vapours and the link to the control of Botrytis

  15. Protein profiling of paraquat-exposed rat lungs following treatment with Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Jung, Hana; Zerin, Tamanna; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2013-03-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, PQ) is a non-selective herbicide, and PQ poisoning by accidental or intentional ingestion is a cause of numerous fatalities around the world every year. Although a great deal of research has been conducted into the development of an acceptable treatment for PQ poisoning, no effective guidelines for patients have been developed thus far. Acai berry extract and juice have been highlighted in this regard, due to their observed antioxidant effects in various diseases. Furthermore, the acai berry has been used in dietary supplements, as it contains a variety of nutrients, including proteins, lipids, vitamins A, C and E and polyphenols. In this study, we conducted proteomic analysis of PQ-poisoned rat lungs to evaluate the changes in protein expression induced by PQ and to identify any protective effects of acai berry on the PQ poisoning. Our data revealed that the expression of the calcium signaling-related proteins calcium binding protein 1 (CaBP1), FK506 binding protein 4 (FKBP4), S100A6 and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (Sparc, also known as osteonectin) were induced by PQ treatment and downregulated by acai berry treatment. However, the levels of protein kinase C substrate 80K-H were shown to be downregulated as the result of PQ treatment. Our results indicated that these proteins may function as biomarkers for acute poisoning by PQ exposure. Further studies may be necessary to understand their clinical relevance with regard to PQ poisoning. PMID:23291665

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE PEDICEL DETACHING AND CRUSHING FORCES OF GRAPE BERRIES TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMAL MECHANICAL HARVESTING TIME

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Carrara; Pietro Catania; Felice Pipitone; Mariangela Vallone; Marco Salvia

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical harvesting of grapes is an important operation in order to contain the operating costs of the viticultural farms. One of the limits of the mechanical harvesting of grapes is represented by the production of juice that is mostly due to the energetic action of the shakers that knocks against the grape clusters to allow the detachment of the berries. As a consequence, under the same structural conditions of the plants, the production of grape juice depends on the physical-mechanic...

  17. Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development ...

  18. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Giovana Bonat; Ghanem, Amyl; Brooks, Marianne Su-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) are a rich source of bioactive molecules. As such, the extraction of anthocyanins is important for the development of many value-added products and functional food ingredients. In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from haskap berries was investigated. Significant independent variables were screened and optimized using Plackett-Burman (PB) and Box-Behnken (BB) designs, respectively. The mathematical model showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.9396) and the optimum conditions for the extraction were as follows: liquid/solid ratio 25:1 (mL/g), solvent composition of 80% ethanol, addition of 0.5% formic acid, ultrasound bath temperature of 35°C for 20 min. Under these conditions, the total anthocyanin content of 22.73 mg cyaniding 3-glucoside equivalents (C3G)/g dry weight (DW) was consistent with the predicted response of 22.45 mg C3G/g DW from the model (mean error of 1.28%). Five anthocyanins were identified in the optimized extract, namely cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, and peonidin 3-glucoside. Thus, UAE is a suitable technique for the extraction of anthocyanins from haskap berries. PMID:26186866

  19. Kaolin exogenous application boosts antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in berries and leaves of grapevine under summer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, L-T; Bernardo, S; Conde, A; Pimentel, D; Ferreira, H; Félix, L; Gerós, H; Correia, C M; Moutinho-Pereira, J

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves, high light intensities and water deficit are becoming important threats in many important viticultural areas worldwide, so the implementation of efficient and cost-effective mitigation strategies is crucial for the production of premium wines while maintaining productivity. In this context, the foliar application of kaolin, a chemically inert mineral with excellent reflective properties, is being developed and experimented as a strategy to reduce the impact of heat and drought in Douro vineyards (Northern Portugal), already revealing promising results. In the present study we investigated if an improved antioxidant capacity is part of the beneficial effects of kaolin, by studying changes in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant system in leaves and berries (cv Touriga Nacional). Results showed that mature grape berries contained higher amounts of total phenols (40%), flavonoids (24%), anthocyanins (32%) and vitamin C (12%) than fruits from control vines, and important changes were also measured in leaves. In parallel, kaolin application improved the antioxidant capacity in berries, which was correlated with the observed increased content in secondary metabolites. Kaolin application also regulated secondary metabolism at the transcriptional level through the increase in the transcript abundance of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase. PMID:26717011

  20. The effect of inertia on the Dirac electron, the spin Hall current and the momentum space Berry curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the spin dependent force and the associated momentum space Berry curvature in an accelerating system. The results are derived by taking into consideration the non-relativistic limit of a generally covariant Dirac equation with an electromagnetic field present, where the methodology of the Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation is applied to achieve the non-relativistic limit. Spin currents appear due to the combined action of the external electric field, the crystal field and the induced inertial electric field via the total effective spin–orbit interaction. In an accelerating frame, the crucial role of momentum space Berry curvature in the spin dynamics has also been addressed from the perspective of spin Hall conductivity. For time dependent acceleration, the expression for the spin polarization has been derived. - Highlights: ► We study the effect of acceleration on the Dirac electron in the presence of an electromagnetic field, where the acceleration induces an electric field. ► Spin currents appear due to the total effective electric field via the total spin–orbit interaction. ► We derive the expression for the spin dependent force and the spin Hall current, which is zero for a particular acceleration. ► The role of the momentum space Berry curvature in an accelerating system is discussed. ► An expression for the spin polarization for time dependent acceleration is derived.

  1. Sampling and measuring operation for mushrooms and berries in a forested massif belonging to the National Park of Mercantour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling and measuring operation for mushrooms and berries in a forested massif belonging to the National Park of Mercantour. When the Chernobyl plume crossed France, most of the deposition acted in the eastern part of the country. Because of heavy precipitations, between the first and the fifth of May 1986, especially in the Mercantour, this region received significant deposition levels of cesium. In September 1997, in collaboration with the National Park of Mercantour, a sampling and measuring operation for mushrooms and berries was conducted in the Boreon forest, between 1500 and 1700 meters high. The maximal concentration of 137Cs in mushrooms was: 130.3±5.5 Bq kg-1 fresh weight, for Lactarius deliciosus and the minimum concentration in Macrolepiota procera: 1.0± kg-1 fresh weight and in berries: 1.8± 0.1 Bq kg-1 fresh weight for Vaccinium myrtillus. In soils, the surface concentrations found for the same radionuclide varied between 16 and 92 kBq m-2. This is in accordance with other results already identified by IPSN, in this site. On the average, 40 % of the measured concentrations of 137Cs can be attributed to the nuclear weapons test fallout and the rest to the Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  2. Dietary Polyphenols, Berries, and Age-Related Bone Loss: A Review Based on Human, Animal, and Cell Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice A. Hubert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly being resorbed by the body to maintain the calcium balance. Some causes of this bone loss can be attributed to dysregulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity mediated by increased oxidative stress through the aging process. Due to certain serious adverse effects of the currently available therapeutic agents that limit their efficacy, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has garnered interest as a natural means for the prevention of this debilitating disease. Natural antioxidant supplementation, a type of CAM, has been researched to aid in reducing bone loss caused by oxidative stress. Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as anthocyanins rich in berries, are known to have anti-oxidative properties. Several studies have been reviewed to determine the impact polyphenol intake—particularly that of berries—has on bone health. Studies reveal a positive association of high berry intake and higher bone mass, implicating berries as possible inexpensive alternatives in reducing the risk of age related bone loss.

  3. Comparative Studies on the Phytochemistry of Essential Oil from Needles and Berries of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study provides a comparison on the essential oil composition of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. Essential oil extracted separately from berries (yield 0.11%) and needles (yield 0.13%) were subjected to GC-MS and GC-FID techniques for the identification and quantification of the constituents. A total of 26 compounds; 21 from berries and 20 from needles were identified. Of these major constituents in berries were beta-pinene (43.4%), beta-pinene (32.3%), limonene (9.6%), and sabinene (2.7%) while in needles were beta-pinene (36.0%), beta-pinene (30.2%), limonene (12.6%), and beta-phellandrene (3.9%). 3 identified compounds (guaiol, beta-elemene and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) were not reported yet from any essential oil of J. excelsa, beta-guaiene is also reported for the first time from needles. A comparative discussion on the chemical composition of the essential oil from two different parts of plants in the current study with those available in literature is also included. The findings confirmed that the Pakistan origin plant belongs to alpha-pinene chemotype, alpha-pinene rich oils are used as local antiseptic. (author)

  4. Impedance of the Grape Berry Cuticle as a Novel Phenotypic Trait to Estimate Resistance to Botrytis Cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Herzog

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Warm and moist weather conditions during berry ripening provoke Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea causing notable bunch rot on susceptible grapevines with the effect of reduced yield and wine quality. Resistance donors of genetic loci to increase B. cinerea resistance are widely unknown. Promising traits of resistance are represented by physical features like the thickness and permeability of the grape berry cuticle. Sensor-based phenotyping methods or genetic markers are rare for such traits. In the present study, the simple-to-handle I-sensor was developed. The sensor enables the fast and reliable measurement of electrical impedance of the grape berry cuticles and its epicuticular waxes (CW. Statistical experiments revealed highly significant correlations between relative impedance of CW and the resistance of grapevines to B. cinerea. Thus, the relative impedance Zrel of CW was identified as the most important phenotypic factor with regard to the prediction of grapevine resistance to B. cinerea. An ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed a R2McFadden of 0.37 and confirmed the application of Zrel of CW for the prediction of bunch infection and in this way as novel phenotyping trait. Applying the I-sensor, a preliminary QTL region was identified indicating that the novel phenotypic trait is as well a valuable tool for genetic analyses.

  5. Polyphenols pattern and correlation with antioxidant activities of berries extracts from four different populations of Sicilian Sambucus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrone, Manuela; Lorenzi, Beatrice; Maggio, Antonella; La Mantia, Tommaso; Scordino, Monica; Bruno, Maurizio; Poli, Ferruccio

    2014-01-01

    Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae) is wide spread in temperate and sub-tropical zones. The consumption of its berries has been associated with health benefits especially for its high content of natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, in particular anthocyanins. In this work we investigated the polyphenolic composition and the in vitro antioxidant activities (ABTS, DPPH, BCB and FRAP-ferrozine (FRAP-FZ) assays) of S. nigra berries, collected in four different Sicilian areas (Italy). Elderberries are considered one of the fruits with highest anthocyanins content, the amount of phenolic compounds, other than anthocyanins, is approximately 1.5 times greater than the latter. The LC-MS analyses have revealed an opposite trend in the polyphenols pattern in Sicilian populations. Moreover, a statistical correlation was found between cyanidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside and antioxidant activity evaluated by FRAP-FZ and ABTS assays. In conclusion, Sicilian S. nigra berries are appealing for its antioxidant potential and for its particularly high content of anthocyanins. PMID:24666289

  6. Modified geometrical optics of a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium: The anisotropy, Berry phase, and the optical Magnus effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a modification of the geometrical optics method, which allows one to properly separate the complex amplitude and the phase of the wave solution. Applying this modification to a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium, we show that in the first geometrical optics approximation the medium is weakly anisotropic. The refractive index, being dependent on the direction of the wave vector, contains the correction, which is proportional to the Berry geometric phase. Two independent eigenmodes of right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations exist in the medium. Their group velocities and phase velocities differ. The difference in the group velocities results in the shift of the rays of different polarizations (the optical Magnus effect). The difference in the phase velocities causes an increase of the Berry phase along with the interference of two modes leading to the familiar Rytov law about the rotation of the polarization plane of a wave. The theory developed suggests that both the optical Magnus effect and the Berry phase are accompanying nonlocal topological effects. In this paper the Hamilton ray equations giving a unified description for both of these phenomena have been derived and also a novel splitting effect for a ray of noncircular polarization has been predicted. Specific examples are also discussed

  7. Impedance of the grape berry cuticle as a novel phenotypic trait to estimate resistance to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Katja; Wind, Rolf; Töpfer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Warm and moist weather conditions during berry ripening provoke Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) causing notable bunch rot on susceptible grapevines with the effect of reduced yield and wine quality. Resistance donors of genetic loci to increase B. cinerea resistance are widely unknown. Promising traits of resistance are represented by physical features like the thickness and permeability of the grape berry cuticle. Sensor-based phenotyping methods or genetic markers are rare for such traits. In the present study, the simple-to-handle I-sensor was developed. The sensor enables the fast and reliable measurement of electrical impedance of the grape berry cuticles and its epicuticular waxes (CW). Statistical experiments revealed highly significant correlations between relative impedance of CW and the resistance of grapevines to B. cinerea. Thus, the relative impedance Zrel of CW was identified as the most important phenotypic factor with regard to the prediction of grapevine resistance to B. cinerea. An ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed a R2McFadden of 0.37 and confirmed the application of Zrel of CW for the prediction of bunch infection and in this way as novel phenotyping trait. Applying the I-sensor, a preliminary QTL region was identified indicating that the novel phenotypic trait is as well a valuable tool for genetic analyses. PMID:26024417

  8. INTERRELATION BETWEEN TYPE AND CULTIVAR OF BERRY-LIKE CROP AND CUTTINGS CRYOPRESERVATION RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Gorbunov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal cryopreservation parameters were determined for the berry-like crop cuttings: blackcurrant (Dachnica, Yuviley, Sofiivska, Kitayskaya; redcurrant (Kitaivska, Djoker, Svyatkova; gooseberries (Krasen, Malachite, Kolobok; raspberries (Novost’ Kuz’mina, Struyka, Skromnica. This procedure allowed increasing viability of deconservation samples in 2–5 times compared to the existing methods of cryopreservation. Maximal values of cutting viability were obtained after their temperature adaptation at –10 °C during 14–60 days, stepwise cooling of the samples with 0.1–0.5 °C/hr rate down to –30 °C (exposure 3–7 days, direct plunging into liquid nitrogen, storage from 1 to 30 days and thawing rate of 70 °C/min. It was found that the in the region of allowable values for maximum viability of investigated birch (control cuttings humidity values correspond 32±40%, for blackcurrant are 40±50%, and raspberries 37±40 % in affirmative temperature span and 14±28 %, 30±40 %, 20±23 % in below zero. Using dispersion analysis it has been established that the development probability of frozenthawed plant cuttings significantly depends on the selected cultivar and cryopreservation method. It is noted that the force of influence η2А, due to the individual properties of the studied cultivars of berries, is comparable to that of the force of influence η2В of cryopreservation procedures. The differences of average indexes of viability of the studied cultivars were showed within a single species. It was found that these rates are different for black currant by 92%, redcurrant — 54%, gooseberries — 48%, raspberries — 70%. Using paired Student’s t-test has reduced to 3 times the error of representativeness of the sample that enabled to improve the reliability of the significance of differences compared to the values of the P ≥0,99. Selection of the cuttings’ cultivars and cryopreservation method significantly affect the

  9. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Douglas R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million. Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed

  10. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Geisson Marcos; Farias Januario, Adriana Graziele; Freire, Cassio Geremia; Megiolaro, Fernanda; Schneider, Kétlin; Perazzoli, Marlene Raimunda Andreola; Do Nascimento, Scheley Raap; Gon, Ana Cristina; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Wagner, Glauber; Niero, Rivaldo; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. Objective: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). Materials and Methods: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was determine by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reducing power, lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by paw edema followed by determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and TBARS. Results: High amount of phenolic compounds, including rutin, were identified in all berries extracts. However, quercetin was observed only in BLUE and CRAN. GOJI presents higher scavenging activity of DPPH radical and reducing power than BLUE and CRAN. The extracts improved antioxidant status in liver; BLUE showed the largest reduction (75.3%) in TBARS when compared to CRAN (70.7%) and GOJI (65.3%). Nonetheless, CAT activity was lower in BLUE group. However, hepatic concentrations of GSH were higher in animals treated with GOJI rather than CRAN and BLUE. Despite all fruits caused a remarkable reduction in paw edema and TBARS, only BLUE and CRAN were able to reduce MPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin, rutin, or other phenolic compound found in these berry fruits extracts could produce an anti-inflammatory response based on modulation of oxidative stress in paw edema model. SUMMARY Within fruits broadly consumed because of its nutraceuticals properties include, Lycium barbarum (Goji berry), Vaccinium myrtillus (Blueberry or Bilberry) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry)The objectives of this

  11. A rapid qualitative and quantitative evaluation of grape berries at various stages of development using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musingarabwi, Davirai M; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Young, Philip R; Eyéghè-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared (NIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) FT mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse Vitis vinifera L. cv Sauvignon blanc grape berries. FT-NIR and ATR FT-MIR spectroscopy, coupled with spectral preprocessing and multivariate data analysis (MVDA), provided reliable methods to qualitatively assess berry samples at five distinct developmental stages: green, pre-véraison, véraison, post-véraison and ripe (harvest), without any prior metabolite extraction. Compared to NIR spectra, MIR spectra provided more reliable discrimination between the berry samples from the different developmental stages. Interestingly, ATR FT-MIR spectra from fresh homogenized berry samples proved more discriminatory than spectra from frozen homogenized berry samples. Different developmental stages were discriminated by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). In order to generate partial least squares (PLS) models from the MIR/NIR spectral datasets; the major sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (malic acid, succinic acid and tartaric acid) were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the data used as a reference dataset. PLS regression was used to develop calibration models to predict the concentration of the major sugars and organic acids in the berry samples from different developmental stages. Our data show that infrared (IR) spectroscopy could provide a rapid, reproducible and cost-effective alternative to the chromatographic analysis of the sugar and organic acid composition of grape berries at various developmental stages, using small sample volumes and requiring limited sample preparation. This provides scope and support for the possible development of hand-held devices to assess quality parameters in field-settings in real-time and non-destructively using IR technologies. PMID:26212968

  12. Victor Hess Price: neutron experiments on Berry's geometric phase and its stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Berry's phase has the interesting property that it remains more stable than the dynamical phase. The latter depends on the evolution time and the energy distribution of the quantum system, whereas the geometric phase is determined only by the path traced out by the system's state in a curved Hilbert space. This is analogous to the aberration angle of the oscillation plane of Foucault's pendulum after twenty-four hours depending on the curvature of the earth, in particular on the circle of latitude where it is sited. On that account, fluctuations in the path are predicted to be innocuous as long as the evolution of the system is slow enough. This leads to the intriguing situation that the geometric phase can be determined the more precise the longer it takes the system to arrive at its final state. Neutron optics is particularly suited for investigations in the geometric phase using for instance neutron interferometry techniques, but also ultra-cold neutrons - cold enough to be stored in appropriate bottles - can be utilized to study the influence of noise perturbations experimentally. (author)

  13. Assessment of cationic dye biosorption characteristics of untreated and non-conventional biomass: Pyracantha coccinea berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the assessment of the dye methylene blue biosorption properties of Pyracantha coccinea berries under different experimental conditions. Equilibrium and kinetic studies were carried out to determine the biosorption capacity and rate constants. The highest biosorption yield was observed at about pH 6.0, while the biosorption capacity of the biomass decreased with decreasing initial pH values. Batch equilibrium data obtained at different temperatures (15, 25, 35 and 45 deg. C) were modeled by Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Langmuir isotherm model fitted the equilibrium data, at the all studied temperatures, better than the other isotherm models indicating monolayer dye biosorption process. The highest monolayer biosorption capacity was found to be 127.50 mg/g dry biomass at 45 deg. C. Kinetic studies indicate that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model, rather than the pseudo-first-order model. ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo parameters of biosorption show that the process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The biosorbent-dye interaction mechanisms were investigated using a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The biosorption procedure was applied to simulated wastewater including several pollutants. The results obtained indicated that the suggested inexpensive and readily available biomaterial has a good potential for the biosorptive removal of basic dye.

  14. Monte Carlo based investigation of Berry phase for depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S [ORNL; John, Dwayne O [ORNL; Koju, Vijay [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of light in turbid media is an active area of research with relevance to numerous investigational fields, e.g., biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics. The statistical random-walk nature of photon propagation through turbid media is ideal for computational based modeling and simulation. Ready access to super computing resources provide a means for attaining brute force solutions to stochastic light-matter interactions entailing scattering by facilitating timely propagation of sufficient (>10million) photons while tracking characteristic parameters based on the incorporated physics of the problem. One such model that works well for isotropic but fails for anisotropic scatter, which is the case for many biomedical sample scattering problems, is the diffusion approximation. In this report, we address this by utilizing Berry phase (BP) evolution as a means for capturing anisotropic scattering characteristics of samples in the preceding depth where the diffusion approximation fails. We extend the polarization sensitive Monte Carlo method of Ramella-Roman, et al.,1 to include the computationally intensive tracking of photon trajectory in addition to polarization state at every scattering event. To speed-up the computations, which entail the appropriate rotations of reference frames, the code was parallelized using OpenMP. The results presented reveal that BP is strongly correlated to the photon penetration depth, thus potentiating the possibility of polarimetric depth resolved characterization of highly scattering samples, e.g., biological tissues.

  15. Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Michael J.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T. Grant

    2012-01-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’) exhibiting a pre-harvest ‘shrivel’ disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (Da) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high Da. Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in Da. Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to Da-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined. PMID:22155631

  16. Processes of malate catabolism during the anaerobic metabolism of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to precise malate fate during the anaerobic metabolism of grape, malate-3-14C was injected into Carignan berries kept in darkness at 350C under carbon dioxide atmosphere. The injection of labelled malate was effected in presence or not of non-labelled oxalate which inhibits malic enzyme (EC I.I.I.40). The analyses of the samples fixed after 3 and 7 days anaerobiosis concerned the titration of various substrates, organic acids, amino-acids and glycolysis products, and the measuring of the NADP+-malic enzyme (EC I.I.I.40) and malate dehydrogenase (EC I.I.I.40). Radioactivity is mainly observed in ethanol, amino-butyrate the non-separated group glycerate-shikimate and succinate. Malic enzyme acts in the first sequence of a process leading from malate to ethanol. Alanin synthesis seems to be stimulated in presence of oxalate. The results obtained and some hypotheses presented in the literature induce to suggest a utilization scheme for malate in the anaerobic metabolism of grape

  17. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103(-)CD11c⁺ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103⁺CD11c⁺ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis. PMID:27058552

  18. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  19. Pancharatnam-Berry optical element sorter of full angular momentum eigenstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gary F

    2016-03-21

    We propose and numerically demonstrate a Pancharatnam-Berry optical element (PBOE) device that simultaneously sorts spin (SAM) and orbital (OAM) angular momentum. This device exploits the circular polarization selective properties of PBOEs to modulate independently the orthogonal SAM eigenstates within a geometric optical transformation that sorts OAM, enabling single measurement characterization of the full angular momentum eigenstate. This expands the available state space for OAM communication and enables characterization of the eigenmode composition of structured polarization beams. We define the two-dimensional orientation patterns of the transversely varying half-waveplate PBOEs that implement the angular momentum sorter. We show that the device discriminates the OAM and SAM eigenstates of optical beams including laser cavity modes such as Laguerre-Gaussian OAM eigenmodes, Hermite-Gaussian modes, and hybrid modes with complex structured polarization. We also demonstrate that it can determine the m parameter of higher order LGml Laguerre-Gaussian modes. The ability of this device to decode information from spatially structured optical phase has potential for applications in communication, encryption, modal characterization, and scientific measurements. PMID:27136857

  20. Chemical Composition of Golden Berry Leaves Against Hepato-renal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf-Allah, Abd El-Rahman M; El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2016-01-01

    The role of Physalis peruviana (golden berry) as functional food against hepato-renal fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was evaluated. The chemical composition of leaves referred the presence of withanolides and flavonoids. Two compounds, ursolic acid and lupeol, were isolated and their structures were elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control orally treated with plant extract (500 mg/kg body weight twice a week for six consecutive weeks), CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight diluted to 1:9 (v/v) in olive oil and injected intraperitoneally) group, CCl4 treated with plant extract and CCl4 treated with silymarin as a reference herbal drug. The evaluation was done through measuring oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO). Liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea and serum protein were also evaluated. The results revealed plant safety and decrease in NO, MDA, IgG, ALP, tissue protein, bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels. Increase in SOD, AST, ALT, GGT and serum protein levels were observed. Improvement in liver and kidney histopathological architectures were also seen. In conclusion, Physalis peruviana recorded a significant protective role in liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate its isolated compounds and its use in pharmacological applications and clinical uses. PMID:26634867

  1. Theory of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo and parity violating Berry-phases in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a nonrelativistic theory for the quantum mechanical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments, where a beam of neutral atoms is subjected to static electric and magnetic fields. The atomic wave function is the solution of a matrix-valued Schroedinger equation and can be written as superposition of local (atomic) eigenstates of the potential matrix. The position- and time-dependent amplitude function of each eigenstate represents an atomic wave packet and can be calculated in a series expansion with a master formula that we derive. The zeroth order of this series expansion describes the adiabatic limit, whereas the higher order contributions contain the mixing of the eigenstates and the corresponding amplitude functions. We give a tutorial for the theoretical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments and for the so-called Fahrplan model, which is a visualisation tool for the propagation of wave packets of different atomic eigenstates. As an example for the application of our theory, we study parity violating geometric (Berry-)phases. In this context, we define geometric flux densities, which for certain field configurations can be used to illustrate geometric phases in a vector diagram. Considering an example with a specific field configuration, we prove the existence of a parity violating geometric phase. (orig.)

  2. Detailed analyses of fresh and dried maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) berries and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, J E; Buchweitz, M; Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a detailed chemical characterization of nutritionally-relevant, quality-determining constituents in dried and fresh fruits as well as juices of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) is provided. A total of 8 glycosylated anthocyanins was characterized in maqui fruits, being composed of differently substituted cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. During processing into juice, a substantial loss in total anthocyanin contents (TAC) was observed. TAC values were also reduced after drying of maqui berries. Likewise, the browning index (BI) of fresh fruits increased during processing. Being composed of flavonol glycosides and ellagic acids, 17 non-anthocyanin phenolics were characterized in all maqui samples. Besides characterizing phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, total phenolics, major sugars, non-volatile organic acids, minerals and trace elements were quantitated. Moreover, total lipid contents and the fruits' mainly unsaturated fatty acid profiles are reported. The presented results indicate the high potential of maqui as so far under-utilized but extremely pigment-rich "superfruit". PMID:26212975

  3. Chemical cues from the coffee berry borer influence the locomotory behaviour of its bethylid parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu-Alvarado, P; Valle-Mora, J; Rojas, J C

    2010-12-01

    Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta are two bethylid wasps released into several Latin American countries for classical biological control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most serious insect pest of coffee worldwide. Recent studies on the host location behaviour of these parasitoids have shown that females of both species are attracted to volatile compounds released by immature stages and dust and frass of H. hampei. In this study, we investigated the role of the contact chemicals present in dust and frass of H. hampei on the behaviour of P. nasuta and C. stephanoderis females. Parasitoids remained longer on patches treated with methanol extracts than on acetone and hexane extracts. Females spent more time on the patch treated with the methanol extract of dust and frass than on the patches treated with the methanol extract of dry coffee and methanol control. The concentration of the methanol extracts from dust and frass influenced the locomotory activity of parasitoids of both species. The time that females spent in the patch tended to increase as the concentration of the methanol extracts increased. A further experiment aimed to identify other behavioural descriptors and gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response of parasitoids to methanol extracts was performed. Females of both species spent more time, covered more distance, turned more (per unit time and per unit distance), and decreased their speed when they contacted patches treated with methanol extracts in comparison to patches treated with methanol control. PMID:20307343

  4. Anthocyanin content in dried berry skins and wine produced from dried grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEÇULI ANISA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin, are the substances which are biosynthesized in the grape skin, extracted during the maceration and vinification and which contribute in wine color. During the aging of wines these substances are converted in their derivates, contributing in wine quality. For this reasons in nowadays there is a big attention of studies in these components. Wines from two grapes variety, a French variety, Cabernet Sauvignon and the other an autochthonous variety of Albania Kallmet were observed. The role of drying in concentration of anthocyanin in skins berry and if this technique is reflected in wine produced from this dried grape, was studied. The results shown that the quantity of anthocyanins from dried skins varied from 136 mg/100gr fresh product to 468 mg/100gr. The dried skins had the higher quantity, but this result was more significant for Cabernet Sauvignon wine than Kallmet wine. Measurement of phenolic content showed no significant changes between wines from dried and non-dried grapes.

  5. Topological order and Berry connection for the Maxwell Vacuum on a four-torus

    CERN Document Server

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    We study novel type of contributions to the partition function of the Maxwell system defined on a small compact manifold such as torus. These new terms can not be described in terms of the physical propagating photons with two transverse polarizations. Rather, these novel contributions emerge as a result of tunnelling events when transitions occur between topologically different but physically identical vacuum winding states. These new terms give an extra contribution to the Casimir pressure. The infrared physics in the system can be described in terms of the topological auxiliary non-propagating fields $a_i(\\mathbf{k})$ governed by Chern-Simons -like action. The system can be studied in terms of these auxiliary fields precisely in the same way as a topological insulator can be analyzed in terms of Berry's connection ${\\cal{A}}_i(\\mathbf{k})$. We also argue that the Maxwell vacuum defined on a small 4-torus behaves very much in the same way as a topological insulator with $\\theta\

  6. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.: photosynthetic tissues and berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Considine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the ‘ambient’ environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO¬2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  7. Fortified Extract of Red Berry, Ginkgo biloba, and White Willow Bark in Experimental Early Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bucolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS. Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats.

  8. 树莓采摘机械研制必要性分析%Analysis of the Necessity of Inventing Tree Berry Picking Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟艳; 高希君; 国委文

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing of tree berry's cultivation, the low efficiency, high labour intensity of manual picking and high cost are blocking the development of tree berry industry. This article investigates the development status of tree berry's picking mechanization domestic and international, market requirement and expecting benefits, analyzes the necessity of inventing tree berry picking machine, provides a reference for promoting the development of tree berry production mechanization in our country.%随着树莓推广种植面积的不断增加,树莓人工采摘劳动强度大且效率低、成本高的问题已经严重影响到树莓产业的发展。在调查研究国内外树莓采摘机械化发展现状、市场需求情况和预期效益的基础上,分析研制树莓采摘机械的必要性,为促进我国树莓生产机械化发展提供依据。

  9. Untargeted Metabolomics for Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. carpatica Berries and Leaves: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy as a Rapid Approach for Evaluation and Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca M. POP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolomics coupled with chemometric analysis was applied to evaluate and discriminate six Romanian sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. berries and leaves. Total carotenoids and total phenolics were determined quantitatively by UV-Vis spectrometry. The qualitative evaluation and discrimination was obtained using the FTIR fingerprints (by using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy of raw carotenoid and phenolic extracts. The average concentration of total carotenoids was 54 and 3.9 mg carotenoids/ 100g DW in berries and leaves, respectively. The average concentration of total phenolics was 746 mg GAE/100g DW in berries, approximately 1.8 times lower than total phenolics found in leaves. By PCA (Principal Component Analysis of fingerprints (900-1800 cm-1, the responsible bands for samples discrimination were identified. In case of total carotenoids extract the biomarker bands were: 1745, 1743, 1500 cm-1 for berries and 1458 cm-1 and 1735 cm-1 for leaves, while for total phenolic extract the key bands were 1731, 1033, 1622 cm-1 for berries and 1047 cm-1, 1616, 1512 and 1454 cm-1 for leaves. FTIR spectroscopy proved to be a simple and sensitive analytical technique that can be successfully used in sample discrimination and classification.

  10. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-01

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases. PMID:22642537

  11. Keefektifan insektisida cyantraniliprole terhadap hama penggerek buah kopi ( Hypothenemus hampei pada ko pi arabika ( Effectiveness cyantraniliprole against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampeion arabica coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A trial on cyantraniliprole 10% against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei has been conducted on arabica coffee at Kalibendo Estate, in Banyuwangi regency, East Java. The altitude of the estate is about 650 m above sea level (asl. and belongs to B type of climate classification according to Schmidt and Ferguson. Composite variety of arabica coffee at about four years old planted at the location was used as plant materials. Five levels of cyantranilprole dosage and two compared insecticides i.e: carbaryl 85% and lamda cyhalothrine 25 g/L have been applied as treatments and each treatment is replicated four times. Infestation of coffee berry borer (CBB has been observed on berries in the field as well as on harvested berries and green coffee. The results revealed that cyantraniliprole 10% was very effective in suppressing infestation and population of CBB on coffee berries in the field as well as on harvested parchment and green coffee. The dosage of 2,000 ml/ha was the most effective and the highest level of efficacy against CBB until the last observation during 14 weeks trial. Application of cyantraniliprole 10% also has increased the production of green coffee harvested. The highest increase occurred on the treatment of cyantraniliprole 10% with a dosage of 1000 ml/ha, which it reached 62.87% higher compared to untreated treatment. Carbaryl and lamda cyhalothrine have effectiveness and efficacy level lower than the highest dosage of cyantraniliprole 10%.

  12. Polyphenolic responses of grapevine berries to light, temperature, oxidative stress, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid show specific developmental-dependent degrees of metabolic resilience to perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degu, Asfaw; Ayenew, Biruk; Cramer, Grant R; Fait, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    Grape-berries are exposed to a plethora of abiotic and biotic stimuli during their development. The developmental and temporal regulation of grape berry polyphenol metabolism in response to various cues was investigated using LC-QTOF-MS based metabolite profiling. High light (2500μmolm(-2)s(-1)), high temperature (40°C), jasmonic acid (200μM), menadione (120μM) and abscisic acid (3.026mM) treatments were applied to detached berries. Greater magnitudes of metabolite fluctuations characterize the pre-veraison berries than the veraison stage in response to the treatments. Furthermore, a tighter co-response of metabolic processes was shown at veraison, likely supporting the resilience to change in response to stress. High temperature and ABA treatments led to greater magnitudes of change during the course of the experiment. The present study demonstrates the occurrence of differential patterns of metabolic responses specific to individual cues and berry developmental stage, which in the field are commonly associated and thus hardly discernable. PMID:27374601

  13. Expression and in situ localization of two major PR proteins of grapevine berries during development and after UV-C exposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Colas

    Full Text Available In grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir, the Pathogenesis-Related (PR proteins CHI4D and TL3 are among the most abundant extractable PR proteins of ripe berries and accumulate during berry ripening from véraison until full maturation. Evidence was supplied in favor of the involvement of these two protein families in plant defense mechanisms and plant development. In order to better understand CHI4D and TL3 function in grapevine, we analyzed their temporal and spatial pattern of expression during maturation and after an abiotic stress (UV-C by in situ hybridization (ISH and immunohistolocalization. In ripening berries, CHI4D and TL3 genes were mainly expressed in the exocarp and around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. In UV-C exposed berries, CHI4D and TL3 gene expression was strongly induced before véraison. Corresponding proteins localized in the exocarp and, to a lesser extent, around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. The spatial and temporal accumulation of the two PR proteins during berry maturation and after an abiotic stress is discussed in relation to their putative roles in plant defense.

  14. Metabolic analysis of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berries from extreme genotypes reveals hallmarks for fruit starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, Simona; Boldingh, Helen L; Osorio, Sonia; Höhne, Melanie; Wohlers, Mark; Gleave, Andrew P; MacRae, Elspeth A; Richardson, Annette C; Atkinson, Ross G; Sulpice, Ronan; Fernie, Alisdair R; Clearwater, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Tomato, melon, grape, peach, and strawberry primarily accumulate soluble sugars during fruit development. In contrast, kiwifruit (Actinidia Lindl. spp.) and banana store a large amount of starch that is released as soluble sugars only after the fruit has reached maturity. By integrating metabolites measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, enzyme activities measured by a robot-based platform, and transcript data sets during fruit development of Actinidia deliciosa genotypes contrasting in starch concentration and size, this study identified the metabolic changes occurring during kiwifruit development, including the metabolic hallmarks of starch accumulation and turnover. At cell division, a rise in glucose (Glc) concentration was associated with neutral invertase (NI) activity, and the decline of both Glc and NI activity defined the transition to the cell expansion and starch accumulation phase. The high transcript levels of β-amylase 9 (BAM9) during cell division, prior to net starch accumulation, and the correlation between sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity and sucrose suggest the occurrence of sucrose cycling and starch turnover. ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is identified as a key enzyme for starch accumulation in kiwifruit berries, as high-starch genotypes had 2- to 5-fold higher AGPase activity, which was maintained over a longer period of time and was also associated with enhanced and extended transcription of the AGPase large subunit 4 (APL4). The data also revealed that SPS and galactinol might affect kiwifruit starch accumulation, and suggest that phloem unloading into kiwifruit is symplastic. These results are relevant to the genetic improvement of quality traits such as sweetness and sugar/acid balance in a range of fruit species. PMID:24058160

  15. Risk of contamination of wild berries from upper Orava region by cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Zupka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper Orava region is located at the North Slovakia, near of potential sources of environmental contamination due by mining of coal, zinc and lead ores. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of consumption of wild forest fruit from Upper Orava region from the aspect of cadmium content. Ten sampling points were found by random search. From these points samples of soil, leaves and fruits of wild berries (9 samples of blueberries Vaccinium Myrtillus and 1 sample of strawberries Fragaria Vesca were collected. In soil samples the active soil reaction (pH/H2O ranged from 3.53 (strong acidity to 4.56 (extremly strong acidity, and the determined percentage of humus ranged from 1.66 (low humic soil to 4.90 (high humic soil.  In two soil samples the total content of cadmium determinated in soil extracts by aqua regia exceeded limit 0.70 mg.kg-1 given by the legislation in tne Slovak Republic. In three soil samples the determined content of cadmium mobile forms determined in soil extracts by NH4NO3 exceeded the limit 0.10 mg.kg-1. The content of Cd determined in leaves as well as in fruits was evaluated according to Food Codex of the Slovak Republic. Only in one sample of leaf samples the limit 1.00 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. The other leaf samples are safely when used as an ingredient in tea mixtures. On the other hand even in 7 fruit samples the limit 0.05 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. This fruit can pose a risk for the human organism when is directly consumed as well as may negatively affect the human health when is used as raw materials in the food industry. 

  16. Berry and phenology-related traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.: From Quantitative Trait Loci to underlying genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanizza Girolamo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of grape ripening initiation, length of maturation period, berry size and seed content are target traits in viticulture. The availability of early and late ripening varieties is desirable for staggering harvest along growing season, expanding production towards periods when the fruit gets a higher value in the market and ensuring an optimal plant adaptation to climatic and geographic conditions. Berry size determines grape productivity; seedlessness is especially demanded in the table grape market and is negatively correlated to fruit size. These traits result from complex developmental processes modified by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. In order to elucidate their genetic determinism we carried out a quantitative analysis in a 163 individuals-F1 segregating progeny obtained by crossing two table grape cultivars. Results Molecular linkage maps covering most of the genome (2n = 38 for Vitis vinifera were generated for each parent. Eighteen pairs of homologous groups were integrated into a consensus map spanning over 1426 cM with 341 markers (mainly microsatellite, AFLP and EST-derived markers and an average map distance between loci of 4.2 cM. Segregating traits were evaluated in three growing seasons by recording flowering, veraison and ripening dates and by measuring berry size, seed number and weight. QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci analysis was carried out based on single marker and interval mapping methods. QTLs were identified for all but one of the studied traits, a number of them steadily over more than one year. Clusters of QTLs for different characters were detected, suggesting linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci, as well as regions affecting specific traits. The most interesting QTLs were investigated at the gene level through a bioinformatic analysis of the underlying Pinot noir genomic sequence. Conclusion Our results revealed novel insights into the genetic control of relevant

  17. Pectins, Hemicelluloses and Celluloses Show Specific Dynamics in the Internal and External Surfaces of Grape Berry Skin During Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Marianna; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Dal Santo, Silvia; Balestrini, Raffaella; Sanson, Andrea; Pezzotti, Mario; Monti, Francesca; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Grapevine berry skin is a complex structure that contributes to the final size and shape of the fruit and affects its quality traits. The organization of cell wall polysaccharides in situ and their modification during ripening are largely uncharacterized. The polymer structure of Corvina berry skin, its evolution during ripening and related modifying genes were determined by combing mid-infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis with transcript profiling and immunohistochemistry. Spectra were acquired in situ using a surface-sensitive technique on internal and external sides of the skin without previous sample pre-treatment, allowing comparison of the related cell wall polymer dynamics. The external surface featured cuticle-related bands; the internal surface showed more adsorbed water. Application of surface-specific normalization revealed the major molecular changes related to hemicelluloses and pectins in the internal surface and to cellulose and pectins in the external surface and that they occur between mid-ripening and full ripening in both sides of the skin. Transcript profiling of cell wall-modifying genes indicated a general suppression of cell wall metabolism during ripening. Genes related to pectin metabolism-a β-galactosidase, a pectin(methyl)esterase and a pectate lyase-and a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, involved in hemicellulose modification, showed enhanced expression. In agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, patterns due to pectin methyl esterification provided new insights into the relationship between pectin modifications and the associated transcript profile during skin ripening. This study proposes an original description of polymer dynamics in grape berries during ripening, highlighting differences between the internal and external sides of the skin. PMID:27095736

  18. Determination of optimum harvesting time for vitamin C, oil and mineral elements in berries sea buckthorn (hippophae rhamnoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea buck thorn a magic plant from Northern areas of Pakistan has multiple uses against various ailments, soil enrichment and environmental purposes. The fruit berries are rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, essential oil, Phytosterol and minerals (Fe, Ca, P, Mn and K). The micro nutrient like vitamin C, oil, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium contents in fruit berries of cultivated sea buck thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides. L. spp. sinensis) harvested at three ripening times were determined using biochemical analysis techniques. Harvesting at different stages of fruit ripening was the primary factor determining maximum expression of these biochemical constituents. Biochemical contents were determined at three fruit developmental stages i.e., unripened stage, medium stage and at full-ripened stage. During this study a decline in vitamin C contents was observed along with the fruit ripening. The oil contents in both seed and pulp increased with fruit ripening. Similarly, the mineral contents like magnesium, calcium and phosphorus contents increases with the fruit ripening in sea buck thorn. The main idea was to identify the maximum expression of biochemical at different stages of fruit maturity. It is concluded that it is better to harvest fruit berries at medium stage of fruit ripening when maximum vitamin C is present. For maximum oil and mineral contents fruit must be harvested at ripening stage. The fruit mesocarp is the area where all genes related with micro nutrients are active at one time i.e., when fruit is maturing, hence the characterization of gene expression activities at this stage may help in the isolation of these genes for future commercial use. (author)

  19. Juice and phenolic fractions of the berry Aristotelia chilensis inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and protect human endothelial cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Rottmann, Soledad; Aspillaga, Augusto A; Pérez, Druso D; Vasquez, Luis; Martinez, Alvaro L F; Leighton, Federico

    2002-12-18

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL induces oxidative stress and modifies gene expression in endothelial cells. Berries constitute a rich dietary source of phenolic antioxidants. We found that the endemic Chilean berry Aristotelia chilensis (ach) has higher phenol content and scores better for total radical-trapping potential and total antioxidant reactivity in in vitro antioxidant capacity tests, when compared to different commercial berries. The juice of ach is also effective in inhibiting copper-induced LDL oxidation. In human endothelial cell cultures, the addition of ach juice significantly protects from hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidative stress and is dose-dependent. The aqueous, anthocyanin-rich fraction of ach juice accounts for most of ach's antioxidant properties. These results show that ach is a rich source of phenolics with high antioxidant capacity and suggest that it may have antiatherogenic properties. PMID:12475268

  20. Herzberg Circuit and Berry's Phase in Chirality-based Coded Qubit in a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Rene, Alexandre; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical proposal for the Herzberg circuit and controlled accumulation of Berry's phase in a chirality-based coded qubit in a triangular triple quantum dot molecule with one electron spin each. The qubit is encoded in the two degenerate states of a three spin complex with total spin $S=1/2$. Using a Hubbard and Heisenberg model the Herzberg circuit encircling the degeneracy point is realized by adiabatically tuning the successive on-site energies of quantum dots and tunnel cou...

  1. Switchable liquid-crystal phase-shift mask for super-resolution photolithography based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazar, Nikolaus; Culbreath, Christopher; Li, Yannian; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel liquid-crystal-based phase-shift mask that utilizes the Pancharatnam-Berry phase for super-resolution photolithography. Using an automated maskless photoalignment technique, we pattern an azobenzene alignment layer in a nematic liquid-crystal cell to fabricate the mask. Since the image is formed by phase cancellation, the minimum feature size is not restricted by the diffraction limit; here, we obtain submicron features. The liquid-crystal properties of the cell allow the mask to be switched on and off by applying a voltage. The cost effectiveness and flexibility of this technique make it a promising new technology for photolithography.

  2. Exogenous application of pectin-derived oligosaccharides to grape berries modifies anthocyanin accumulation, composition and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Daniel; Handford, Michael; Alcalde, José Antonio; Perez-Donoso, Alonso

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites synthesized in grape berry skins via the phenylpropanoid pathway, with functions ranging from skin coloration to protection against pathogens or UV light. Accumulation of these compounds is highly variable depending on genetics, environmental factors and viticultural practices. Besides their biological functions, anthocyanins improve wine quality, as a high anthocyanin content in berries has a positive impact on the color, total phenolic concentration and, ultimately, the price of wine. The present work studies the effect of the pre-veraison application of pectin derived oligosaccharides (PDO) on the synthesis and accumulation of these compounds, and associates the changes observed with the expression of key genes in the phenylpropanoid pathways. To this end, pre-veraison Cabernet Sauvignon bunches were treated with PDO to subsequently determine total anthocyanin content, the anthocyanin profile (by HPLC-DAD) and gene expression (by qRT-PCR), using Ethrel and water treatments for comparison. The results show that PDO were as efficient as Ethrel in generating a significant rise in total anthocyanin content at 30 days after treatment (dat), compared with water treatments (1.32, 1.48 and 1.02 mg e.Mv-3G/g FW respectively) without any undesirable effect on berry size, soluble solids, tartaric acid concentration or pH. In addition, a significant alteration in the anthocyanin profile was observed. Specifically, a significant increase in the relative concentration of malvidin was observed for both PDO and Ethrel treatments, compared with water controls (52.8; 55.0 and 48.3%, respectively), with a significant rise in tri-hydroxylated forms and a fall in di-hydroxylated anthocyanins. The results of gene expression analyses suggest that the increment in total anthocyanin content is related to a short term increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) expression, mediated by a decrease in MYB4A expression. A longer term increase in UDP

  3. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-tumorigenic Effects of Açai Berry in Helicobacter felis-infected mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju Yup; Kim, Nayoung; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Lee, Seonmin; Ham, Min Hee; Suh, Ji Hyung; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic effect of açai berry after chronic Helicobacter felis colonization in the stomachs of C57BL/6 mice. Methods: A total of 57 four-week-old female C57BL/6 mice (18 control mice and 39 experimental mice) were used. The mice were administered orogastrically with vehicle only or vehicle containing H. felis, 5 times every other day. After inoculation of H. felis, mice were fed either a standard or an açai-co...

  4. Cloning and expression of an endo-1,4-β-xylanase from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla-Hurtado Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was

  5. The effects of bud load and regulated deficit irrigation on sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Razakı table grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangolar Semih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the effects of increased bud load and irrigation applications on berry quality of the Razakı table grape. Two Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI having different irrigation levels (RDI-I and RDI-II based on the growth stages, in addition to a non-irrigated control treatment together with two different bud load practices (K-normal and 2K-two-fold buds of the normal were examined for their effects on quality attributes such as sugar and organic acids contents, phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant capacity of the berries. The non-irrigated vines had highest sugar level (198.86 g/kg in the first year (2013 of the experiment whilst the sugar content of the berries was increased with irrigation (RDI-II in 2014. However the highest organic acid (7.10 g/kg was recorded from the RDI-II treatment in 2013 whereas those of from non-irrigated vines were highest (7.81 g/kg in 2014. Considering the sugar and organic acid content of the berries, bud load effects were not significant. The total phenolic acids were higher under non-irrigated and 2K bud load conditions. Antioxidant activity of berries was increased with RDI-I irrigation and 2K practices in the first year (2013 although no significant effect was recorded in the second year of the experiment. In all applications, glucose among the sugars, tartaric acid among the organic acids, catechin and epicatechin among the phenolic compounds were detected to be higher compared to other components in berries.

  6. Distribution of major sugars, acids, and total phenols in juice of five grapevine (Vitis spp.) cultivars at different stages of berry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabir, A.; Kafkas, E.; Tangolar, S.

    2010-07-01

    The juices of five grapevine cultivars cultivated in a typical Mediterranean climate were analyzed for sugars, organic acids, and phenols at four distinct stages of berry development. When the unripe berries were almost in full size, the glucose and fructose contents, based on HPLC detection, ranged from 13.3 to 30.7 g L{sup -}1 and from 8.3 to 23.7 g L{sup -}1 for Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat of Hamburg, respectively. At this stage, tartaric acid concentration was between 10.3 (Italia) and 12.3 g L{sup -}1 (Muscat of Alexandria), while the level of total phenols was low. Up to veraison, there were slight reductions in organic acids, while sugar content increased slightly. However, dramatic changes in all genotypes were apparent after veraison. Slight reductions were determined in the glucose and fructose levels of Italia prior to final analysis, possibly indicating this cultivars sensitivity to late harvest. In the final analysis, glucose and fructose content varied from 86.4 (Italia) to 107.0 g L-1 (Muscat of Hamburg), and from 73.1 (Italia) to 94.1 g L{sup -}1 (Alphonse Lavallee), respectively. Tartaric acid content of ripe berries was between 3.8 (Alphonse Lavallee) and 5.2 g L{sup -}1 (Isabella) with a mean value of 4.6 g L{sup -}1, and phenol content of mature berries ranged from 2253 to 2847 mg L{sup -}1. This study provides valuable information for further understanding the sugar, acid and total phenol changes that occur in some grape cultivars during berry maturation. Therefore, these results will be useful for future research on the biochemistry of the grape berry. (Author) 22 refs.

  7. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    be primary objectives of berry producers. There is currently insufficient evidence to justify the establishment of microbiological criteria for Salmonella for fresh or frozen berries. Outbreaks associated with Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries are an emerging public health risk......Berries are a perishable food which can be consumed as fresh or minimally-processed as well as a frozen ingredient added to many foods. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries are the most commonly consumed in the EU. Risk factors for berry contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus...... were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens in berries were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment...

  8. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweetman Crystal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest. Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the

  9. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanol extracts from berries, leaves and stems of Hedera pastuchovii Woron. ex Grossh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharfar, Robabeh; Rahmani, Zahra; Mohseni, Mojtaba; Azimi, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, radical scavenging and antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts from leaves, berries and stems of Hedera pastuchovii Woron. ex Grossh. The berry extract, which contained the highest phenolic and flavonoid compounds, showed an appreciable DPPH(·) scavenging ability in comparison with leaf and stem extracts. The various extracts exhibited moderate to good activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and the effectiveness of leaf extract was higher for all tested bacteria. PMID:25564294

  10. Arbitrary mixture of two charged interacting particles in a magnetic Aharonov-Bohm ring: persistent currents and Berry's phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonov-Bohm physics at the two-particle level is investigated for distinguishable interacting charged particles through the exact solution of a toy model with confined states. The effect of the inaccessible magnetic flux is distributed between the center-of-mass and the internal pair level, and the nontrivial manner in which the two levels mutually affect each other demonstrates the interplay between interactions, the nontrivial topology, the Aharonov-Bohm flux and the characteristics of a charged quantal mixture. Analytical expressions for energy spectra, wavefunctions, (flux-dependent) critical interactions for binding and current densities are derived, and these offer the rare possibility of studying persistent currents from the point of view of an interacting nanoscopic system. Two cyclic adiabatic processes are identified, one coupled to the center-of-mass behavior and the other defined on the two-body interaction potential, with the associated Berry's phases also analytically determined; these are found to be directly linked to the electric and probability (persistent) currents in nontrivial ways that are shown to be universal (independent of the actual form of the interaction). The direct connection of the two-body Berry's phase to the electric current for a neutral system is found to disappear in the case of identical particles-hence revealing the character of a charged mixture as being crucial for exhibiting this universal behavior.

  11. Brix, pH and anthocyanin content determination in whole Port wine grape berries by hyperspectral imaging and neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Armando M.; Franco, Camilo; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana;

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of measuring pH, sugars, and anthocyanin content of whole grape berries. The spectrum of each sample, composed of six whole grape berries, was collected using hyperspectral imaging in reflectance mode from 380 to 1028 nm. The spectra were converted to enological...... parameters by multilayer perceptrons created using 240 samples that were split for 7-fold cross-validation and test. The test set with 30 samples revealed R2 values of 0.73, 0.92 and 0.95 and RMSE of 0.18, 0.95 °Brix and 14 mg/l for pH, sugars and anthocyanin content, respectively. This is the only work, up...... to the authors’ knowledge, that reports the simultaneous determination of pH, sugars and anthocyanin with a spatial resolution smaller than the bunch size, by spectroscopy measurements done in reflectance mode. The results presented show an improvement of the state-of-the-art, for both reflectance...

  12. Ultrasonication processed Panax ginseng berry extract induces apoptosis through an intrinsic apoptosis pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunwoo; Bae, Jinhyung; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-06-01

    Ginseng's major active components, ginsenosides, have been known to show anti-cancer, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory activities. Ultrasonication processed Panax ginseng berry extract (UGB) contains various ginsenosides. The components are different from Panax ginseng berry extract (GBE). This study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxic mechanism of UGB in HepG2 cells, human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. HepG2 cells were treated with UGB (0, 10, 20 μg/ml). Cell growth and cellular apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay and Annexin V/Pi staining, respectively. Intracellular Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were also determined by 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) staining. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3, the apoptotic markers, were evaluated by Western Blot. UGB dose-dependently inhibited cell growth and induced apoptotic cell death. Intracellular ROS levels were increased. UGB increased the expression of the cleaved form of caspase-3. Furthermore, UGB induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through Bax activation and Bcl-2 inhibition. In conclusion, UGB induced apoptosis through an intrinsic pathway in HepG2 cells suggesting that UGB might play a role as a novel substance for anti-cancer effect. PMID:27233905

  13. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Qing Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer” with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  14. Mediterranean Berries as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Porcine Burger Patties Subjected to Cooking and Chilled Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Ganho; Mario Estvez; Mnica Armenteros; David Morcuende

    2013-01-01

    The efifciency of extracts from Arbutus unedo L. (AU), Crataegus monogyna L. (CM), Rosa canina L. (RC), and Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (RU) to inhibit lipid oxidation in raw, cooked and cooked and chilled (2°C/12 d) porcine burger patties, was investigated. The modiifcation of the fatty acid proifle during processing treatments (cooking and chilling), the quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS), and lipid-derived volatiles, were used as indicators of lipid oxidation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) gradually decreased during cooking and the subsequent storage of cooked burger patties with this decrease being signiifcantly greater (P<0.05) in control patties than in those with added berry extracts. In accordance, the control patties showed signiifcantly higher TBA-RS numbers and counts of lipid-derived volatiles in all treatments when compared to the berry-added counterparts (P<0.05). Results from the present work show, for the ifrst time, that extracts from A. unedo, C. monogyna, R. canina, and R. ulmifolius are promising antioxidants which could enhance the nutritional, safety and sensory properties of porcine burger patties.

  15. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    KAUST Repository

    Vega, Fernando E.

    2015-07-31

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.

  16. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.

  17. Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2012-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

  18. Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Networks in the Grape Berry Illustrate That it Takes More Than Flavonoids to Fight Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental fluctuations. In response, they have developed a wide range of morphological and biochemical adaptations committed to ameliorate the effects of abiotic stress. When exposed to higher solar radiation levels, plants activate the synthesis of a large set of enzymes and secondary metabolites as part of a complex sunscreen and antioxidant defense mechanism. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has become a widely used system for studying adaptive responses to this type of stress since changes in berry composition, positively influenced by increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels, improve the quality of wines subsequently produced. Despite the fact that most of the attention has been directed toward the synthesis of flavonoids, recent transcriptomic and metabolomic studies have shown that stilbenoids and isoprenoids (e.g., terpenes and carotenoids) are also an important part of the grape UV-response machinery. This minireview focuses on the latest findings referring to the metabolic responses of grapes to UV radiation and proposes a model for its transcriptional control. Depending on the berry developmental stage and the type of radiation (i.e., irradiance level, exposure length), increased UV levels activate different metabolic pathways through the activity of master regulators belonging to the basic Leucine Zipper Domain (bZIP) and R2R3-MYB transcription factor families. This transcriptional control is influenced by the interaction of other environmental factors such as light, temperature or soil water availability. In grapevine, phenylpropanoids are part of, but are not the whole story, in the fight against radiation damage.

  19. Using RPAS Multi-Spectral Imagery to Characterise Vigour, Leaf Development, Yield Components and Berry Composition Variability within a Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rey-Caramés

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of precision viticulture techniques requires the use of emerging sensing technologies to assess the vineyard spatial variability. This work shows the capability of multispectral imagery acquired from a remotely piloted aerial system (RPAS, and the derived spectral indices to assess the vegetative, productive, and berry composition spatial variability within a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L.. Multi-spectral imagery of 17 cm spatial resolution was acquired using a RPAS. Classical vegetation spectral indices and two newly defined normalised indices, NVI1 = (R802 − R531/(R802 + R531 and NVI2 = (R802 − R570/(R802 + R570, were computed. Their spatial distribution and relationships with grapevine vegetative, yield, and berry composition parameters were studied. Most of the spectral indices and field data varied spatially within the vineyard, as showed through the variogram parameters. While the correlations were significant but moderate among the spectral indices and the field variables, the kappa index showed that the spatial pattern of the spectral indices agreed with that of the vegetative variables (0.38–0.70 and mean cluster weight (0.40. These results proved the utility of the multi-spectral imagery acquired from a RPAS to delineate homogeneous zones within the vineyard, allowing the grapegrower to carry out a specific management of each subarea.

  20. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Brown, Stuart M; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Brodie, Eoin L; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies. PMID:26228545

  1. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations. PMID:26925621

  2. The Impact of Harvesting, Storage and Processing Factors on Health-Promoting Phytochemicals in Berries and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kårlund

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing epidemiological and experimental data now emphasize that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits confers many health benefits. Functional products containing elevated levels of bioactive compounds are attracting considerable attention due to their potential to lower the risk of chronic diseases and their associated huge healthcare costs. On a global scale, there is an increasing demand for berries and fruits, since they are natural polyphenol-rich raw material to be incorporated into functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This is a major challenge for both industry and horticultural experts, because the content of health-promoting compounds in plants varies widely not only in different plant species, but also between cultivars. The content is also significantly affected by harvesting, storage and processing factors. This review summarizes the recent data and clarifies the main contributors of harvesting time, various storage conditions and post-harvest procedures, such as temperature management, controlled atmosphere, 1-MCP, calcium and plant activators, as ways to influence health-promoting compounds in fruits. Furthermore, the ways processing factors, e.g., enzymatic treatment, pressing, clarification, temperature, pressure and fermentation, can influence the levels of polyphenols and vitamins in berries and soft fruits will be discussed. Finally, strategies for preventing the decline of health-promoting compounds in fruits during long-term storage will be assessed in light of recent scientific progress and modern methods, which preserve the levels of polyphenols, will be highlighted.

  3. Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector Stegomyia aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Goutam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Although several plants have been reported for mosquitocidal activity, only a few botanicals have moved from the laboratory to field use, because they are poorly characterized, in most cases active principals are not determined and most of the works are restricted to preliminary screening. Solanum villosum is a common weed distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties, but the larvicidal activity of this plant has not been reported so far. Methods Aqueous and polar/non-polar solvent extract of fresh, mature, green berries of S. villosum was tested against Stegomyia aegypti, a common vector of dengue fever. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform:methanol extract was performed to search for the active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined (log probit analysis and compared with Malathion. The chemical nature of the active substance was also evaluated following ultraviolet-visual (UV-Vis and infrared (IR analysis. Results In a 72 hour bioassay experiment with the aqueous extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 0.5% extract. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (p p Y was positively correlated with the period of exposure (X and the log probit analysis (95% confidence level recorded lowest value (5.97 ppm at 72 hours of exposure. Phytochemical analysis of the chlororm:methanol extract reported the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals. Two toxic compounds were detected having Rf = 0.82 (70% and 73.33% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively and Rf = 0.95 (40% and 50% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively. IR analysis provided preliminary information about the steroidal nature of the active ingredient. Conclusion S. villosum offers promise as

  4. Frontón Euskal Jai Berri Huarte-Pamplona España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibert Tabar, Javier

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euskal Jai Berri sports pavilion in Huarte substitutes for the old Pamplona «pelota» court, and is located a few kilometers outside the city in ample grounds providing sufficient room for the building and car park area. The vast complex design plan includes from the regulationsized court, through the grandstand and boxes for the audience, to a number of facilities and services for payers, audience and staff, such as locker rooms, payers lounge, press room and book-makers hall, administration office, manager's living quarters, players lodging, a bar on each floor, cafeteria and restaurant with kitchen and a number of rest rooms. The building was designed based on three main points, namely: natural lighting, modular structure and clear visibility from all angles. Emphasis was placed on integration of the building into the surrounding landscape in an effort to avoid the contrast between the inevitable prismatic shape of the court and the rounded contour of the hails surrounding it.

    El pabellón deportivo de Euskal Jal Berrl, en Huarte, destinado a sustituir al antiguo frontón de Pamplona, se encuentra emplazado a pocos kilómetros de esta ciudad, en unos amplios terrenos que proporcionan suficiente espacio para la edificación y para una extensa zona de aparcamientos. Su complejo y vasto programa abarca desde la concha reglamentaria y las gradas y palcos para espectadores, fiesta una variada serie de instalaciones y servicios para jugadores, público y personal, tales como: vestuarios, salas para pelotaris, corredores y prensa; oficinas administrativas; vivienda para el gerente; residencias para jugadores; bares en cada planta; cafetería y restaurante con cocina; así como los correspondientes aseos. En su diseño, fundamentado en tres puntos principales —iluminación natural, modulación estructural y perfecta visibilidad—, se tuvo especial cuidado en armonizar la construcción con el paisaje circundante, con el fin de

  5. PENGARUH TINGKAT BRAND KNOWLEDGE TERHADAP BRAND IMAGE (Studi Eksplanatif Produk Smartphone BlackBerry dan Samsung pada Mahasiswa Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta)

    OpenAIRE

    WINOTO, MICHAELA TANTRI ATMADJA

    2014-01-01

    Seiring dengan kemajuan teknologi, konsumen menuntut suatu produk yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan mereka. Smartphone sebagai kebutuhan, hal inilah yang dilihat oleh perusahaan produsen telekomunikasi sehingga smartphone berbagai merek mulai bermunculan dan bersaing secara ketat, sebut saja BlackBerry dan Samsung. Program promosi dilakukan melalui iklan baik iklan media cetak, iklan outdoor ataupun iklan media elektronik untuk memasarkan produknya. Persaingan yang ketat menjadi tan...

  6. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature r...

  7. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  8. Cellular Stress and p53-Associated Apoptosis by Juniperus communis L. Berry Extract Treatment in the Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantto, Tiina A; Laakso, Into; Dorman, H J Damien; Mauriala, Timo; Hiltunen, Raimo; Kõks, Sulev; Raasmaja, Atso

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenolics have shown to activate apoptotic cell death in different tumourigenic cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of juniper berry extract (Juniperus communis L.) on p53 protein, gene expression and DNA fragmentation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we analyzed the phenolic composition of the extract. We found that juniper berry extract activated cellular relocalization of p53 and DNA fragmentation-dependent cell death. Differentially expressed genes between treated and non-treated cells were evaluated with the cDNA-RDA (representational difference analysis) method at the early time point of apoptotic process when p53 started to be activated and no caspase activity was detected. Twenty one overexpressed genes related to cellular stress, protein synthesis, cell survival and death were detected. Interestingly, they included endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer and sensor HSPA5 and other ER stress-related genes CALM2 and YKT6 indicating that ER stress response was involved in juniper berry extract mediated cell death. In composition analysis, we identified and quantified low concentrations of fifteen phenolic compounds. The main groups of them were flavones, flavonols, phenolic acids, flavanol and biflavonoid including glycosides of quercetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein and hypolaetin. It is suggested that juniper berry extract induced the p53-associated apoptosis through the potentiation and synergism by several phenolic compounds. PMID:27420050

  9. Cellular Stress and p53-Associated Apoptosis by Juniperus communis L. Berry Extract Treatment in the Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina A. Lantto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have shown to activate apoptotic cell death in different tumourigenic cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of juniper berry extract (Juniperus communis L. on p53 protein, gene expression and DNA fragmentation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we analyzed the phenolic composition of the extract. We found that juniper berry extract activated cellular relocalization of p53 and DNA fragmentation-dependent cell death. Differentially expressed genes between treated and non-treated cells were evaluated with the cDNA-RDA (representational difference analysis method at the early time point of apoptotic process when p53 started to be activated and no caspase activity was detected. Twenty one overexpressed genes related to cellular stress, protein synthesis, cell survival and death were detected. Interestingly, they included endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress inducer and sensor HSPA5 and other ER stress-related genes CALM2 and YKT6 indicating that ER stress response was involved in juniper berry extract mediated cell death. In composition analysis, we identified and quantified low concentrations of fifteen phenolic compounds. The main groups of them were flavones, flavonols, phenolic acids, flavanol and biflavonoid including glycosides of quercetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein and hypolaetin. It is suggested that juniper berry extract induced the p53-associated apoptosis through the potentiation and synergism by several phenolic compounds.

  10. Comparative analysis of phenolic content and profile, antioxidant capacity, and anti-inflammatory bioactivity in wild Alaskan and commercial Vaccinium berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Dunlap, Kriya L; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-05-01

    Wild Alaskan Vaccinium berries, V. vitis-idaea (lowbush cranberry) and V. uliginosum (bog blueberry), were investigated in parallel with their commercial berry counterparts, V. macrocarpon (cranberry) and V. angustifolium (lowbush blueberry). Lowbush cranberry accumulated about twice the total phenolics (624.4 mg/100 g FW) and proanthocyanidins (278.8 mg/100 g) content as commercial cranberries, but A-type proanthocyanidins were more prevalent in the latter. Bog blueberry anthocyanin and total phenolic contents of 220 and 504.5 mg/100 g, respectively, significantly exceeded those of the lowbush blueberry. Chlorogenic acid, however, was quite high in lowbush blueberry (83.1 mg/100 g), but undetected in bog blueberry, and the proanthocyanidins of lowbush blueberry had significantly higher levels of polymerization. Antioxidant capacity (DPPH, APTS, and FRAP) correlated with phenolic content for each berry. A polyphenol-rich fraction from lowbush cranberry exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of LPS-elicited induction of IL-1β in RAW 264.7 cells, indicative of strong anti-inflammatory activity. These results corroborate the historic use of wild Alaskan berries as medicinally important foods in Alaska Native communities. PMID:24219831

  11. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  12. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions. PMID:25771698

  13. Present practice, on-going research and future potential for non-chemical pest management in fruit and berry production in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Sigsgaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Workshop prensentation - Present practice, ongoing research and future potential for non-chemical pest management in fruit and berry production in Denmark. Chinese-Danish networking on systemic approaches to pest management without pesticides. Hand-out (Flowerstrips and beneficials in orchards)

  14. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  15. Changes in Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Following Exposure to 56Fe Particles and Protection by Berry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis; Carey, Amanda; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), such as 56 Fe, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals. Behaviors affected by radiation include deficits in motor performance, spatial learning and memory behavior, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, conditioned place preference, and operant conditioning. Berry fruit diets are high in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, and prevent the occurrence of the neurochemical and behavioral changes that occur in aging and by exposure to 56 Fe particles. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression in the hippocampus, an area of the brain important in memory, is affected by exposure to 56 Fe particles 36 hours post-irradiation. We also evaluated whether the blueberry (BB) and strawberry (SB) diets could ameliorate irradiation-induced deficits in gene expression by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to radiation. Therefore, to measure gene expression, 4 rats/group were euthanized 36 hours post whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy or 2.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles. Alterations in gene expression profile induced by radiation were analyzed by pathway-focused microarrays on the inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in NF-κB signal transduction pathways. For the diet studies, 3 rats/group were irradiated with 2.5 Gy of 56 Fe following 8 weeks supplementation with either the 2% BB or the 2% SB diet. We found that genes that directly or indirectly interact in the regulation of growth and differentiation of neurons were changed following irradiation. Genes that regulate apoptosis were up-regulated whereas genes that modulate cellular proliferation were down-regulated, possibly to eliminate damaged cells and to stop cell proliferation to prevent

  16. Age/Radiation Parallels in the Effects of 56Fe Particle Irradiation and Protection by Berry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James; Bielinski, Donna; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    Exposing young rats to particles of high-energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2% blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats, perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A subsequent study has shown that whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation; these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets. The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information, while the blueberry-supplemented animals showed enhanced learning that was dependent on striatal functioning. Additional experiments in cell models to examine possible mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects have shown that, in addition to the well known free radical scavenging effects of berries, it appears that berry fruit can directly reduce stress signaling and enhance protective signals, suggesting the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the beneficial effects observed. Enhancements of "protective" signals (e.g., extracellular signal regulated kinase, ERK) include those that are involved in neuronal communication, neurogenesis, and learning and memory. Reductions in stress signaling include inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytokines, among others, induced by oxidative and inflammatory stressors. We have found these changes in both BV2 mouse microglial and hippocampal cells. We believe that the possible addition of colorful fruits such as berry fruits to the diet can possibly

  17. Transport adiabatique et phases de Berry : application au contrôle quantique cohérent passif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennot, D.

    2004-11-01

    L'étude de l'interaction d'atomes ou de molécules avec des champs électromagnétiques intenses, nécéssite le développement de nouveaux outils de modélisation rendant compte de la dynamique quantique de ces systèmes. Une approche purement perturbative étant impossible en champs forts, on s'est tourné vers une approche “adiabatique”. Afin de traiter correctement le cas des croisements de valeurs propres, on a généralisé les formules de transport adiabatique en faisant intervenir une généralisation de la phase de Berry non-abélienne.

  18. Stability and antioxidant activity of polyphenols in extracts of Myrtus communis L. berries used for the preparation of myrtle liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Piacente, Sonia; Perrone, Angela; De Feo, Vincenzo; Cabras, Paolo; Pizza, Cosimo

    2006-08-28

    Flavonoids and anthocyanins in berry extracts from Myrtus communis, prepared by following a typical Sardinia myrtle liqueur recipe, were identified by HPLC coupled with Electrospray Mass Spectrometry and quantified by HPLC coupled with Ultraviolet/Visible Detection in order to evaluate the stability of the extracts during 1 year of storage. Antioxidant activity was measured by using TEAC assay, and the free-radical scavenging activity was monitored during time of the stability evaluation. Anthocyanins have found to be the most instable compounds, but a considerable instability was observed also for flavonoids, suggesting the use of extracts not over 3 months from their preparation. The myrtle extract showed interesting free-radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity was preserved in 3 months. PMID:16554139

  19. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. PMID:26572446

  20. Leadership and Innovation – the Catalyst of IT&C Industry. A Case Study of BlackBerry Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Cojocaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available IT&C companies need to adapt themselves to an environment featuring a high level of competition. Innovation stays as the main vector of the domain, while the renewal rate of new technologies grows in speed (there are cases where new technologies emerge and replace the older ones in months. With this series of research we aim to analyse several local or global companies within the IT&C field, as well as the importance of leadership for their development. This first article will focus on leadership within a company called Research In Motion – RIM (currently named BlackBerry and on the main problems that have arisen within the company after the organisation was left without support from the leaders that created its worldwide brand.

  1. Berry-Ess\\'een bounds and almost sure CLT for the quadratic variation of the bifractional Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Aazizi, Soufiane

    2012-01-01

    Let $B$ be a bifractional Brownian motion with parameters $H\\in (0, 1)$ and $K\\in(0,1]$. For any $n\\geq1$, set $Z_n =\\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\\big[n^{2HK}(B_{(i+1)/n}-B_{i/n})^2-\\E((B_{i+1}-B_{i})^2)\\big]$. We use the Malliavin calculus and the so-called Stein's method on Wiener chaos introduced by Nourdin and Peccati \\cite{NP09} to derive, in the case when $0Berry-Ess\\'een-type bounds for the Kolmogorov distance between the law of the correct renormalization $V_n$ of $Z_n$ and the standard normal law. Finally, we study almost sure central limit theorems for the sequence $V_n$.

  2. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen Zhu; He, Mao Long

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs), thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils) and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control), or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day), garlic oil (5 g/head per day), or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day). The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12) was higher (P milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows. PMID:27127411

  3. Nutraceutical and antioxidant effects of a delphinidin-rich maqui berry extract Delphinol®: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R R; Schönlau, F

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins represent water-soluble flavonoid species, commonly found in higher plants, the richest plant source representing berries. While all anthocyanins present with antioxidant activity, the delphinidins represent the most potent antioxidant anthocyanin species owed to largest number of hydroxyl groups in the B-ring. The richest known natural source of delphinidins is the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) from which an extract Delphinol®, standardized to 25% delphinidin, is commercially available. Delphinol® significantly reduces oxidative stress (oxidized LDL and F2-isoprostane) and blood glucose in controlled clinical trials. In human umbilical vein endothelium delphinidins concentration-dependently decrease intracellular oxygen radicals. Furthermore, delphinidins increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and decreases expression of vaso-constrictory endothelin-1. Delphinidins inhibit the expression of cell adhesion molecules ICAM and VCAM, thus counteracting vascular inflammatory situations. Furthermore, delphinidins decrease platelet activity and may contribute to thrombosis prevention. Research on delphinidins showed improved endothelial function with elevated endothelial NO generation, lowered platelet aggregability and anti-inflammatory vascular effects. Delphinidins dose-dependently inhibit NF-κB-, activator protein-1- as well as COX-2 expression in UV-exposed epidermis. Delphinidins are found to be internalized into keratinocytes and pre-clinical investigations show significant UV-photo-protective 1effects with topical application of 40 nM delphinidin, both when applied prior to UV exposure as well as after exposure. Delphinidins may counteract skin-aging due to inhibition of UV-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase in fibroblasts. In a rodent osteoporosis model delphinidin was found to inhibit differentiation of osteoclasts, resulting in an inhibited bone demineralization, while other anthocyanins were ineffective. Future

  4. Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Fixed Oils from Berries of Laurus nobilis L. by Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assunta Dessì

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of volatile and fixed oils from dried berries of Laurus nobilis L. from Tunisia have been obtained by supercritical fractioned extraction with carbon dioxide. Extraction experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40 °C and pressures of 90 and 250 bar. The extraction step performed at 90 bar produced a volatile fraction mainly composed of (E-β-ocimene (20.9%, 1,8-cineole (8.8%, α-pinene (8.0%, β-longipinene (7.1%, linalool acetate (4.5%, cadinene (4.7%, β-pinene (4.2%, α-terpinyl acetate (3.8% and α-bulnesene (3.5%. The oil yield in this step of the process was 0.9 % by weight charged. The last extraction step at 250 bar produced an odorless liquid fraction, in which a very small percentage of fragrance compounds was found, whereas triacylglycerols were dominant. The yield of this step was 15.0 % by weight. The most represented fatty acids of the whole berry fixed oil were 12:0 (27.6%, 18:1 n-9 (27.1%, 18:2 n-6 (21.4%, and 16:0 (17,1%, with the 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 unsaturated fatty acids in particular averaging 329 μg/mg of oil.

  5. Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Networks in the Grape Berry Illustrate That it Takes More Than Flavonoids to Fight Against Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental fluctuations. In response, they have developed a wide range of morphological and biochemical adaptations committed to ameliorate the effects of abiotic stress. When exposed to higher solar radiation levels, plants activate the synthesis of a large set of enzymes and secondary metabolites as part of a complex sunscreen and antioxidant defense mechanism. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has become a widely used system for studying adaptive responses to this type of stress since changes in berry composition, positively influenced by increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels, improve the quality of wines subsequently produced. Despite the fact that most of the attention has been directed toward the synthesis of flavonoids, recent transcriptomic and metabolomic studies have shown that stilbenoids and isoprenoids (e.g., terpenes and carotenoids) are also an important part of the grape UV-response machinery. This minireview focuses on the latest findings referring to the metabolic responses of grapes to UV radiation and proposes a model for its transcriptional control. Depending on the berry developmental stage and the type of radiation (i.e., irradiance level, exposure length), increased UV levels activate different metabolic pathways through the activity of master regulators belonging to the basic Leucine Zipper Domain (bZIP) and R2R3-MYB transcription factor families. This transcriptional control is influenced by the interaction of other environmental factors such as light, temperature or soil water availability. In grapevine, phenylpropanoids are part of, but are not the whole story, in the fight against radiation damage. PMID:27625679

  6. Classification of ginseng berry (Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER) extract using 1H NMR spectroscopy and its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3-L1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Seung Ok; Park, Hae Ran; Sohn, Eun Suk; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyung Don; Kim, Young Chang; Kim, Kee Hong; Na, Sae Won; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Young Ock

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng is a famous traditional medicine in Korea for its beneficial effect on obesity, cardiac and liver associated diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolite in Panax ginseng (P. ginseng, Aralicaceae) berries depending on the ripen stages and evaluate its potential inhibition on adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells. Methods Different ripening stage samples of P. ginseng berry were analyzed through global metabolite profiling by NMR spectroscopy....

  7. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Polish blue-berried honeysuckle genotypes by HPLC-DAD-MS, HPLC postcolumn derivatization with ABTS or FC, and TLC with DPPH visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Piekarska, Anna; Mrugalska, Barbara; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2012-02-22

    In this study, different Polish cultivars of blue-berried honeysuckles (Lonicera caerulea L.), wild and bog bilberry, were analyzed for bioactive compounds. The chemical properties verified included composition of anthocyanins and other polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and profiles of antioxidants by HPLC postcolumn derivatization or TLC. The antioxidant activities of different blue-berried honeysuckle cultivars were similar to that of wild-growing bilberries (ranging from 170 to 417 μmol TE/g dm in ABTS and from 93 to 166 μmol TE/g dm in DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu tests). The major anthocyanin in the blue-berried honeysuckle was cyanidin-3-glucoside, which constituted 84-92% of the total anthocyanins. The TLC and HPLC postcolumn antioxidant profiles indicated that anthocyanins are the major antioxidants in all berries studied. Wild berries and the cultivars of the blue-berried honeysuckles are also a similar source of such minerals as K, Mg, and Ca. PMID:22264130

  8. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment. PMID:27451171

  9. The impact of absorption coefficient on polarimetric determination of Berry phase based depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples: a polarized Monte Carlo investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S [ORNL; Koju, Vijay [ORNL; John, Dwayne O [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scattering sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.

  10. New isotonic drinks with antioxidant and biological capacities from berries (maqui, açaí and blackthorn) and lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Villaño, Débora; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to design new isotonic drinks with lemon juice and berries: maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz], açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), following on from previous research. Quality parameters - including colour (CIELab parameters), minerals, phytochemical identification and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector, total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+), DPPH• and [Formula: see text] assays) and biological activities (in vitro alpha-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory effects) - were tested in the samples and compared to commercially available isotonic drinks. The new isotonic blends with lemon and anthocyanins-rich berries showed an attractive colour, especially in maqui samples, which is essential for consumer acceptance. Significantly higher antioxidant and biological effects were determined in the new blends, in comparison with the commercial isotonic beverages. PMID:23815554

  11. Analysis of the Pancharatnam-Berry phase of vector vortex states using the Hamiltonian based on the Maxwell-Schr\\"odinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Masato; Oka, Kazuhiko; Toda, Yasunori; Morita, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    We derived the Berry connection of vector vortex states (VVSs) from the "true" Hamiltonian obtained through the Maxwell--Schr\\"odinger equation for an inhomogeneous anisotropic (IA) medium, and we experimentally demonstrated measurement of the corresponding Pancharatnam--Berry (PB) geometrical phase of VVSs. The PB phase (PBP) of VVSs can be divided into two phases: homogeneous and inhomogeneous PBPs. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous PBPs are related to the conventional PBP and the spatially-dependent geometric phase given by an IA medium such as a polarization converter, respectively. We theoretically detected that inhomogeneous PBP accumulation originates from the gauge dependence of the index of the hybrid-order Poincar\\'e sphere, which provides an alternate method for understanding optical spin--orbital angular momentum conversion. The homogeneous PBP, which is explicitly observed for the first time, has implications for quantum state manipulation and information processing.

  12. Comparison of Phenolics and Phenolic Acid Profiles in Conjunction with Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacity (ORAC) in Berries of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and V. myrtillus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Colak Nesrin; Torun Hülya; Gruz Jiri; Strnad Miroslav; Subrtova Michaela; Inceer Huseyin; Ayaz Faik Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) and bilberry (V. myrtillus L.), both native to Turkey, were evaluated for their total phenolics (TP) and anthocyanin (TAC) contents. Individual compositions of free phenolic acids and phenolic acids liberated from ester and glycoside forms were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Berry extracts of each species were separated into three different fractions (sugar/acid, polyphenolic and anthocyanin) by solid phase extraction (SPE). The anthocyanin fracti...

  13. PIST – IS THE NEWEST BLACK BERRY WINE GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED FLESH AND JUICE, FOR THE PRODUCTION GLOBAL BENEFIT RED WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Newest technical black berry variety named Piste (“Faith” in Greek) with colored flesh and juice breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece) by researchers Zamanidi P., L. Troshin and P. Radchevskii in 2007 by crossing the Greek varieties Afoos (Mavrodafni x Alicante Boucher) with Ukrainian variety Odessa black (Alicante Bouchet x Cabernet Sauvignon). Duration of production period is 146-155 days. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m). The percentage of productive shoots is more than...

  14. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Teng-Fei Xu; Jiang-Fei Meng; Peng-Fei Ning; Zhen-Wen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grap...

  15. A decision support system coupling fuzzy logic and probabilistic graphical approaches for the agri-food industry: prediction of grape berry maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, Nathalie; Brousset, Jean-Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Herve; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation re...

  16. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Perrot; Cédric Baudrit; Jean Marie Brousset; Philippe Abbal; Hervé Guillemin; Bruno Perret; Etienne Goulet; Laurence Guerin; Gérard Barbeau; Daniel Picque

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation re...

  17. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska-Krępa, E; Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks' consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement. PMID:26060341

  18. Metabolic profiling reveals coordinated switches in primary carbohydrate metabolism in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.), a non-climacteric fleshy fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Z.; Leon, C.; Feil, R.; Lunn, J.; Delrot, S.; Gomes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in carbohydrate metabolism during grape berry development play a central role in shaping the final composition of the fruit. The present work aimed to identify metabolic switches during grape development and to provide insights into the timing of developmental regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolites from central carbon metabolism were measured using high-pressure anion-exchange chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays during the development of...

  19. The Berry-Keating operator on $L^2(\\rz_>,\\ud x)$ and on compact quantum graphs with general self-adjoint realizations

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Berry-Keating operator $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}:= -\\ui\\hbar(x\\frac{\\ud\\phantom{x}}{\\ud x}+{1/2})$ [M. V. Berry and J. P. Keating, SIAM Rev. 41 (1999) 236] governing the Schr\\"odinger dynamics is discussed in the Hilbert space $L^2(\\rz_>,\\ud x)$ and on compact quantum graphs. It is proved that the spectrum of $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}$ defined on $L^2(\\rz_>,\\ud x)$ is purely continuous and thus this quantization of $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}$ cannot yield the hypothetical Hilbert-Polya operator possessing as eigenvalues the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. A complete classification of all self-adjoint extensions of $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}$ acting on compact quantum graphs is given together with the corresponding secular equation in form of a determinant whose zeros determine the discrete spectrum of $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}$. In addition, an exact trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics of the eigenvalue counting function are derived. Furthermore, we introduce the ``squared'' Berry-Keating operator $H_{\\mathrm{BK}}^2:= -x^2\\frac{\\ud^2...

  20. Use of response surface methodology for the assessment of changes in the volatile composition of Moscato bianco (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Vilanova, Mar; Río Segade, Susana; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Giordano, Manuela; Rolle, Luca

    2016-12-01

    The changes in the volatile composition of Moscato bianco grapes were evaluated during ripening. Grape berries were sampled for five weeks (16-20 °Brix) and sorted for each date in ten density classes (1.05-1.12g/cm(3)). The highest total concentration of free terpenes was found at 19.3 °Brix; however, total concentration of the bound fraction increased significantly throughout ripening. Response surface methodology was used to assess the simultaneous effect of sampling time and berry density on the volatile composition, which was satisfactorily fitted to regression models for some key terpene compounds. Total free and bound terpenes were more affected by grape density than by sampling date. The same behaviour was observed for free and bound linalool and bound nerol, whereas the stronger effect of sampling date was exhibited for bound t-rose oxide, c-rose oxide and geraniol. The results showed that the sampling strategy impacted strongly on the aroma quality of berries. PMID:27374570

  1. Identification of Iridoids in Edible Honeysuckle Berries (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast. by UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Z. Kucharska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Iridoid profiles of honeysuckle berry were studied. Compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS in positive and negative ions mode. The MS fragmentation pathways of detected iridoid glycosides were also studied in both modes. In the negative ESI mass spectra, iridoids with a methyl ester or lactone structure have preferentially produced adduct [M + HCOOH − H]− ions. However, protonated ions of molecular fragments, which were released by glycosidic bond cleavage and following fragmentation of aglycone rings, were more usable for iridoid structure analysis. In addition, the neutral losses of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, acetylene, ethenone and cyclopropynone have provided data confirming the presence of functional substituents in the aglycone. Among the 13 iridoids, 11 were identified in honeysuckle berries for the first time: pentosides of loganic acid (two isomers, pentosides of loganin (three isomers, pentosyl sweroside, and additionally 7-epi-loganic acid, 7-epi-loganin, sweroside, secologanin, and secoxyloganin. The five pentoside derivatives of loganic acid and loganin have not been previously detected in the analyzed species. Honeysuckle berries are a source of iridoids with different structures, compounds that are rarely present in fruits.

  2. One DOF mechanism for the mechanical harvest of vines in an arbor structure and the validation of the acceleration of grape berry harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penisi, Osvaldo; Bocca, José; Aguilar, Horacio; Bocca, Pedro

    2015-09-01

    In the mechanized harvest of vines, grape berries are detached through the vibration to the structure supporting the clusters. According to the kind of guide selected, the clusters require one or two vibration directions in the structure. For guiding in parral structures, vibration is necessary in two directions or planes: One perpendicular to the other. The guide branches producing the clusters develop in these planes, and the guiding is called H-guiding. Mechanism theory indicates that a mechanism has as many degrees of freedom as its actuators, and an actuator is needed to achieve a certain vibration. Having the smallest number of possible actuators is beneficial in reducing moving parts and achieving more compact and easily controllable mechanisms. In this case, a single degree-of-freedom mechanism is proposed. It is capable of generating vibrations on two planes: One perpendicular to the other. This mechanism is the sum of two link mechanisms on perpendicular planes with a common outlet located at the output rod of the mechanism where the actuator is found. As the distance between the soil and the elements containing the clusters is not constant, a system has been designed to measure the accelerations at the bars and the rocker to validate the acceleration values that detach the grape berries in a prototype in a lab experiment, to ensure that the acceleration needed for pulling the grape berries are produced at any contact point of the bar.

  3. Amperometric Enzyme Sensor to Check the Total Antioxidant Capacity of Several Mixed Berries. Comparison with Two Other Spectrophotometric and Fluorimetric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tomassetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to test the correctness of response of a superoxide dismutase amperometric biosensor used for the purpose of measuring and ranking the total antioxidant capacity of several systematically analysed mixed berries. Several methods are described in the literature for determining antioxidant capacity, each culminating in the construction of an antioxidant capacity scale and each using its own unit of measurement. It was therefore endeavoured to correlate and compare the results obtained using the present amperometric biosensor method with those resulting from two other different methods for determining the total antioxidant capacity selected from among those more frequently cited in the literature. The purpose was to establish a methodological approach consisting in the simultaneous application of different methods that it would be possible to use to obtain an accurate estimation of the total antioxidant capacity of different mixed berries and the food products containing them. Testing was therefore extended to also cover jams, yoghurts and juices containing mixed berries.

  4. Uptake of heavy metals in berries and edible fungi, and changes in the floral composition after treatment with ashes on forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of treatment with ash on fungi and vascular plants, and on metal contents in berries and edible fungi, were studied in pine, spruce and birch forest stands in southern Sweden. Different types of ashes were studied. The changes to the vascular flora and the fungal flora that are today taking place in southern Sweden, and probably influenced by soil acidification and nitrogen deposition, are characterised by an impoverishment of mycorrhiza-forming species and thus cannot be corrected by supply of wood ashes. Instead, supply of at least raw ashes appears to hasten the process towards a nitrogen-favoured flora. It is known that raw ashes can cause nitrate-formation whereas granulated ashes have hardly increased the pH or lead to the formation of nitrate in any field experiment. The study has now been completed and has thus largely provided answers to the questions posed: Spreading of ashes does not lead to a general increase in the uptake of heavy metals in fungi and berries. The risk that berries and fungi will contain increased contents of heavy metals during the first season after spreading is small. The studies do not suggest that raw ashes can offer a short-term answer to counteracting the changes that are taking place to the composition of the fungal flora, probably as a result of soil acidification, or as a means of recreating conditions suitable for species requiring more alkaline conditions. 7 refs, 32 tabs

  5. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L. Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Höferl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods, the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%, myrcene (8.3%, sabinene (5.8%, limonene (5.1% and β-pinene (5.0%. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН• scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical (•O2− scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx.

  6. Influence of age and diet on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.

  7. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim Report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Brunfeldt, Minna; Rasilainen, Tiina;

    is through wild gathered food. Some studies show that 210Po and also some other NORs accumulate from uranium-rich grounds in mushrooms. In ber-ries the levels are usually lower. In Finland, Sweden and Norway there are sites enriched in NORs. In these areas e.g. the 210Po levels in certain edi-ble mushroom...... and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups...... will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mush-rooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sam-pling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO...

  8. Analysis of the Molecular Dialogue Between Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) and Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Reveals a Clear Shift in Defense Mechanisms During Berry Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloniemi, Jani; Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Simon, Adeline; Dalmais, Bérengère; Frettinger, Patrick; Cimerman, Agnès; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Baulande, Sylvain; Bruel, Christophe; Choquer, Mathias; Couvelard, Linhdavanh; Duthieuw, Mathilde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Flors, Victor; Le Pêcheur, Pascal; Loisel, Elise; Morgant, Guillaume; Poussereau, Nathalie; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Rascle, Christine; Trdá, Lucie; Poinssot, Benoit; Viaud, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    Mature grapevine berries at the harvesting stage (MB) are very susceptible to the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, while veraison berries (VB) are not. We conducted simultaneous microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of the pathogen and the host to investigate the infection process developed by B. cinerea on MB versus VB, and the plant defense mechanisms deployed to stop the fungus spreading. On the pathogen side, our genome-wide transcriptomic data revealed that B. cinerea genes upregulated during infection of MB are enriched in functional categories related to necrotrophy, such as degradation of the plant cell wall, proteolysis, membrane transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and detoxification. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction on a set of representative genes related to virulence and microscopic observations further demonstrated that the infection is also initiated on VB but is stopped at the penetration stage. On the plant side, genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and metabolic data revealed a defense pathway switch during berry ripening. In response to B. cinerea inoculation, VB activated a burst of ROS, the salicylate-dependent defense pathway, the synthesis of the resveratrol phytoalexin, and cell-wall strengthening. On the contrary, in infected MB, the jasmonate-dependent pathway was activated, which did not stop the fungal necrotrophic process. PMID:26267356

  9. CLUSTERS AND BIOCHEMISTRY COMPOSITION OF BLACK BERRY VINE SORTS OF GRAPE FOR PRODUCING JUICES OF DIRECT PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chausov V. M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of the study of the texture of the grapes and biochemical characteristics of red wine grape varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sapeari, Tsimladar, Pinot Noir for the production of juice of direct extraction and blending. The studied varieties in terms of the structure of the cluster may be divided into three groups of blackpinene (21.1, Cabernet Franc and Tsimladar (18.7 - 17.5, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi (16.5 - 16.8 , and bunches of addition in terms of two groups - Tsimladar (17.6, Cabernet - Sauvignon and other (15.6 - 16.4. The structural component of grapes varieties ranged from 5.2 to 5.9, berry index - from 62.1 to 83.4, the output of the wort from 74.2 to 76.3%. The content of sugars and acids in the berries of all varieties is favorable for the production of beverages. The largest Tartaric acid content was found in the juice of the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Black, malic acid - in the juice of varieties Saperavi, Merlot, Tsimladar, citric acid - in the juice Tsimladar varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi. The ratio of tartaric acid to the content of the apple juice Cabernet Sauvignon was 2.9: 1, Cabernet Franc 2.6: 1, Pinot Black 2.5: 1, Merlot and Tsimladar 1.6: 1, 1.1 Sapevari: 1. According to the content of potassium cations, sodium, magnesium and calcium there were chosen three varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc. The lowest content of potassium and magnesium cations was in the variety of Tsimladar, Sodium – in the varieties Merlot and Saperavi, calcium – in Saperavi. Excellent tasting commended for juices was given to Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi, Tsimladar, good – to Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot black. Best blending juice obtained by mixing the juice of the grape of the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot black 70:30, Saperavi and Pinot black 50:50. From the grapes of produced varieties, we can produce juice and varietal by

  10. 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am in boreal forest soil and their transfer into wild mushrooms and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profiles of podzolic soil from boreal forests were sampled from eight sites in Finland and the distribution of 137Cs in the soil layers was determined. In addition, 239,240Pu and 241Am were determined from two soil profiles taken at one sampling site. Inventories of 137Cs in the soil profiles varied between 1.7 kBq/m2 and 42 kBq/m2, reflecting known variation in 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The highest proportions of the radionuclides were found in the organic layer at a depth of less than 5 cm, which on average contained 47% of 137Cs, 76% of 239,240Pu and 79% of 241Am. In the litter, clearly higher proportions of 137Cs were found compared to 239,240Pu and 241Am, probably indicating its more effective recycling from the organic layer back to the surface. Only very minor proportions of 137Cs were recorded below 20 cm. The concentration of 137Cs in the soil profiles could be approximated with a declining logarithmic trend. The activity concentrations of 137Cs were determined for six wild mushroom species and three wild berry species at two sites, as well as the aggregated transfer factors and the distribution of 137Cs between their various parts. In addition, 239,240Pu and 241Am were determined in one mushroom and three berry species at one site. Very high concentrations of 137Cs, up to 20 kBq/kg (d.w.), were found in mushrooms, and their transfer factors were between 0.1 m2/kg and 1.0 m2/kg. In berries, the transfer factors were an order of magnitude lower. 137Cs accumulated more in the caps of mushrooms and in the fruits of berries than in other parts. Transfer factors for 239,240Pu and 241Am were two to three orders of magnitude lower than those of 137Cs. - Highlights: ► 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am mainly concentrated in organic layer in podzolic soil. ► Distribution of 137Cs in the upper 20 cm soil follows exponential declining trend. ► 137Cs concentrates into mushrooms but varies considerably between species. ► 137Cs concentrates in mushroom

  11. Ginsenoside-free molecules from steam-dried ginseng berry promote ethanol metabolism: an alternative choice for an alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Ik; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Dong Hoon; Yu, Jung Min; Jang, Su Kil; Joo, Seong Soo

    2014-07-01

    Ethanol metabolism produces harmful compounds that contribute to liver damage and cause an alcohol hangover. The intermediate metabolite acetaldehyde is responsible for alcohol hangover and CYP2E1-induced reactive oxygen species damage liver tissues. In this study, we examined whether ginsenoside-free molecules (GFMs) from steam-dried ginseng berries promote ethanol metabolism and scavenge free radicals by stimulating primary enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, CYP2E1, and catalase) and antioxidant effects using in vitro and in vivo models. The results revealed that GFM effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Notably, GFM significantly enhanced the expression of primary enzymes within 2 h in HepG2 cells. GFM clearly removed the consumed ethanol and significantly reduced the level of acetaldehyde as well as enhancement of primary gene expression in BALB/c mice. Moreover, GFM successfully protected HepG2 cells from ethanol attack. Of the major components identified in GFM, it was believed that linoleic acid was the most active ingredient. Based on these findings, we conclude that GFM holds promise for use as a new candidate for ethanol metabolism and as an antihangover agent. PMID:24962619

  12. Mechanosensory Neuron Aging: Differential Trajectories with Lifespan-Extending Alaskan Berry and Fungal Treatments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerbak, Courtney; Vayndorf, Elena M; Hernandez, Alicia; McGill, Colin; Taylor, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Many nutritional interventions that increase lifespan are also proposed to postpone age-related declines in motor and cognitive function. Potential sources of anti-aging compounds are the plants and fungi that have adapted to extreme environments. We studied the effects of four commonly consumed and culturally relevant Interior Alaska berry and fungus species (bog blueberry, lowbush cranberry, crowberry, and chaga) on the decline in overall health and neuron function and changes in touch receptor neuron morphology associated with aging. We observed increased wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and improved markers of healthspan upon treatment with Alaskan blueberry, lowbush cranberry, and chaga extracts. Interestingly, although all three treatments increased lifespan, they differentially affected the development of aberrant morphologies in touch receptor neurons. Blueberry treatments decreased anterior mechanosensory neuron (ALM) aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths and abnormal cell bodies) while lowbush cranberry treatment increased posterior mechanosensory neuron (PLM) aberrations, namely process branching. Chaga treatment both decreased ALM aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths) and increased PLM aberrations (i.e., process branching and loops). These results support the large body of knowledge positing that there are multiple cellular strategies and mechanisms for promoting health with age. Importantly, these results also demonstrate that although an accumulation of abnormal neuron morphologies is associated with aging and decreased health, not all of these morphologies are detrimental to neuronal and organismal health. PMID:27486399

  13. 1-HEXYL N-CYANOACRYLATE COMPOUND (NEUCRYLATE™ AN, A NEW TREATMENT FOR BERRY ANEURYSM. III: INITIAL CLINICAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ghanaati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective:As part of an institutionally approved research protocol, patients with cerebral berry aneurysm were enrolled in a clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety of the new moldable liquid embolic agent Neucrylate AN.Materials and Methods:Twelve patients with aneurysms judged to be suboptimal for treatment by standard endovascular or surgical approaches were treated with Neucrylate AN. The agent was injected during temporary balloon occlusion at the neck of the aneurysm. The immediate angiographic percentage of aneurysm occlusion and periprocedural adverse events were assessed for each patient. Six-month follow-up angiographic studies were obtained for nine of the 12 patients.Results:Ten of the 12 aneurysms treated (83% were large to giant (>1.0 cm in diameter, nine (75% were wide-necked (dome/neck ratio <2.0 and three (25% were dissecting aneurysms. There were four (33% periprocedural neurological events. Immediate aneurysm occlusion of >90% was obtained in nine of the 12 cases (75%. There were five recurrences (55.5% at 6 months.Conclusion: This preliminary clinical series shows that it is feasible to achieve a high percentage of immediate aneurysm occlusion with limited patient morbidity and mortality in the setting of morphologically challenging aneurysms. These preliminary data support larger trials assessing the safety and efficacy of this agent.      

  14. Development of an electrochemical sensor for the determination of the total antioxidant capacity in berries based on boron doped diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNA PEKEC

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many antioxidants can be electrochemically oxidized using graphite-based electrodes; nevertheless problems arise due to the strong adsorption of redox species at the sensing area. We have demonstrated that boron doped diamond (BDD electrodes do not show this property, which can be exploited for the design of a new amperometric sensor for the quantification of antioxidants as “total antioxidant capacity” (AOC. As reference substances hydroquinone (HQ and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox were studied in more detail. The supporting electrolyte was a phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 0.1 mol/L, pH 7.0. The limits of detection (LOD were 1.5 mg/L and 2.5 mg/L for HQ and Trolox, respectively. The repeatability was 3 % RSD for concentration of 200 mg/L HQ. The method could be applied for the determination of AOC in different berry samples, such as strawberry, blueberry, grape and bramble. A comparison with a standard photometric assay showed good correlation between both methods. The BDD sensor features good reproducibility without fatiguing over at least two months of operation.

  15. Effect of Dry Goji Berry and Pumpkin Powder on Quality of Cooked and Smoked Beef with Reduced Nitrite Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira S. Serikkaisai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The colorant and antioxidant activity of dried fruits of Goji Berry (GB (Lycium chinense and/or butternut Pumpkin Powder (PP (Cucurbita moschata can be used for reduction of part of nitrites in cooked and smoked meat products. Since many of these natural biological active substances are consumed together and probably have the potential for synergistic interactions. The objective of this study was to establishe the potential of to concentrations 0.5 and 1.0% of GB and/or PP separately or in combinations, as additives for processing of cooked and smoked beef striploin with 1/2 reduced nitrite content. The separate use of GB or PP leads to certain abnormalities in sensory quality and technological properties but the addition to the pikle a combination containing 1.0% of GB and 0.5% PP guarantee good quality, nise sensory properties and colour characteristics and inhibite the oxidative changes in cooked and smoked beef striploin with a half reduced amounts of nitrites.

  16. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir. PMID:27610237

  17. Mechanosensory Neuron Aging: Differential Trajectories with Lifespan-Extending Alaskan Berry and Fungal Treatments in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerbak, Courtney; Vayndorf, Elena M.; Hernandez, Alicia; McGill, Colin; Taylor, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    Many nutritional interventions that increase lifespan are also proposed to postpone age-related declines in motor and cognitive function. Potential sources of anti-aging compounds are the plants and fungi that have adapted to extreme environments. We studied the effects of four commonly consumed and culturally relevant Interior Alaska berry and fungus species (bog blueberry, lowbush cranberry, crowberry, and chaga) on the decline in overall health and neuron function and changes in touch receptor neuron morphology associated with aging. We observed increased wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and improved markers of healthspan upon treatment with Alaskan blueberry, lowbush cranberry, and chaga extracts. Interestingly, although all three treatments increased lifespan, they differentially affected the development of aberrant morphologies in touch receptor neurons. Blueberry treatments decreased anterior mechanosensory neuron (ALM) aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths and abnormal cell bodies) while lowbush cranberry treatment increased posterior mechanosensory neuron (PLM) aberrations, namely process branching. Chaga treatment both decreased ALM aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths) and increased PLM aberrations (i.e., process branching and loops). These results support the large body of knowledge positing that there are multiple cellular strategies and mechanisms for promoting health with age. Importantly, these results also demonstrate that although an accumulation of abnormal neuron morphologies is associated with aging and decreased health, not all of these morphologies are detrimental to neuronal and organismal health. PMID:27486399

  18. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Selected Wild Berries (Rubus moluccanus L., R. fraxinifolius Poir., and R. alpestris Blume)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ismail, Nur Amalina; Isha, Azizul; Mei Ling, Angelina Lee

    2016-01-01

    Berries, from the genus Rubus, are among the vital components in a healthy diet. In this study, 80% methanol extracts from the three wild Rubus species (Rubus moluccanus L., Rubus fraxinifolius Poir., and Rubus alpestris Blume) were evaluated for their phytochemical contents (total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content), antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays), antiacetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial activities. GC-MS was used for quantification of naturally occurring phytochemicals. The results showed that R. alpestris contained the highest total phenolic [24.25 ± 0.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g] and carotenoid content [21.86 ± 0.63 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/g], as well as the highest DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities. The highest total flavonoid [18.17 ± 0.20 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g] and anthocyanin content [36.96 ± 0.39 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (c-3-gE)/g] have been shown by R. moluccanus. For antibacterial assays, R. moluccanus and R. alpestris extracts showed mild inhibition towards Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. Anticholinesterase activity for all extracts was in the range of 23–26%. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 12, 21, and 7 different organic compounds in 80% methanol extracts of R. alpestris, R. moluccanus, and R. fraxinifolius, respectively, which might contribute to the bioactivity. PMID:27437023

  19. Berry anthocyanins reduce proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by inducing caspase-3 activation and p21 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sirajudheen; Fratantonio, Deborah; Ferrari, Daniela; Saija, Antonella; Cimino, Francesco; Speciale, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide, and adenocarcinoma cells that form the majority of colorectal tumors are markedly resistant to antineoplastic agents. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of fruits and vegetables that are rich in polyphenols, is linked to reduced risk of colorectal cancer. In the present study, the effect of a standardized anthocyanin (ACN)‑rich extract on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in the Caco-2 human colorectal cancer cell line was evaluated by trypan blue and clonogenic assays and western blot analysis of cleaved caspase‑3 and p21Waf/Cif1. The results of the current study demonstrated that the ACN extract markedly decreased Caco‑2 cell proliferation, induced apoptosis by activating caspase‑3 cleavage, and upregulated cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21Waf/Cif1) expression in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, ACN extract was able to produce a dose‑dependent increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caco‑2 cells, together with a light increase of the cell total antioxidant status. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that a standardized berry anthocyanin rich extract inhibited proliferation of Caco‑2 cells by promoting ROS accumulation, inducing caspase‑3 activation, and upregulating the expression of p21Waf/Cif1. PMID:27314273

  20. Studies on antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa in blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, B; Wachowicz, B; Nowak, P; Kedzierska, M; Tomczak, A; Stochmal, A; Oleszek, W; Jeziorski, A; Piekarski, J

    2008-12-01

    The antioxidant properties of extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) containing: anthocyanidines, phenolic acids and quercetine glycosides on oxidative/nitrative stress induced by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-), a powerful physiological oxidant, nitrating species and inflammatory mediator) in human blood platelets were studied in vitro. The extract from A. melanocarpa (5 - 50 microg/mL) significantly inhibited platelet protein carbonylation (measured by ELISA method) and thiol oxidation estimated with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid) (DTNB) induced by peroxynitrite (0.1 mM) (IC(50)--35 microg/mL for protein carbonylation, and IC(50)--33 microg/mL for protein thiol oxidation). The tested extract only slightly reduced platelet protein nitration (measured by C- ELISA method). The extract also caused a distinct reduction of platelet lipid peroxidation induced by peroxynitrite. Moreover, in our preliminary experiments we observed that the extract (50 microg/mL) reduced oxidative/nitrative stress in blood platelets from patients with breast cancer. The obtained results indicate that in vitro the extract from A. melanocarpa has the protective effects against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative/nitrative damage to the human platelet proteins and lipids. The extract from A. melanocarpa seems to be also useful as an antioxidant in patients with breast cancer. PMID:19212014

  1. Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) and the constituent delphinidin glycoside inhibit photoreceptor cell death induced by visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Junji; Kadekaru, Takashi; Ogawa, Kenjirou; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2013-08-15

    The protective effects of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extract (MBE) and its major anthocyanins [delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside (D3G5G) and delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside-5-O-glucoside (D3S5G)] against light-induced murine photoreceptor cells (661W) death were evaluated. Viability of 661W after light treatment for 24 h, assessed by the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, was improved by addition of MBE, D3G5G, and D3S5G. Intracellular radical activation in 661W, evaluated using the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), was reduced by MBE and its anthocyanins. The anti-apoptosis mechanism of MBE was evaluated by light-induced phosphorylation of p38. MBE significantly suppressed the light-induced phosphorylation of p38. These findings indicate that MBE and its anthocyanidins suppress the light-induced photoreceptor cell death by inhibiting ROS production, suggesting that the inhibition of phosphorylated-p38 may be involved in the underlying mechanism. PMID:23561088

  2. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010, coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids, chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi, and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions.

  3. In-depth glycoproteomic characterisation of grape berry vacuolar invertase using a combination of mass spectrometry-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovasse, Agnès; Alayi, Tchilabalo Dilezitoko; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Marchal, Richard; Jégou, Sandrine; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sugar metabolism in grape berries. A full characterisation of this highly N-glycosylated protein is required to help understand its biological and biochemical significance in grapes. We have developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomic approach wherein deglycosylated peptides are analysed by LC-MS/MS, while intact glycopeptides are characterised using a dedicated MS method to determine the attachment sites and micro-heterogeneity. For grape invertase, in parallel with deglycosylated peptides analysis, different enzymatic digestions were performed and glycopeptide detection was improved by enrichment method, nanoLC-MS and oxonium glycan ions. This MS-based glycoproteomic approach demonstrates that vacuolar invertase is glycosylated at all twelve potential N-glycosylation sites. Glycosylation is heterogeneous, with twelve glycoforms identified at six of the sites. The identification of several types of N-glycans is a major result to correlate with the surface and foaming properties of wine, the solubility, allergenicity, and protease resistance of wine proteins. PMID:26830584

  4. Sulphur dioxide evokes a large scale reprogramming of the grape berry transcriptome associated with oxidative signalling and biotic defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Estelle; Ivanova, Aneta; Gordon, Colin S; Whelan, James; Considine, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    The grape and wine industries are heavily reliant on sulphite preservatives. However, the view that sulphites act directly on bacterial and fungal pathogens may be simplistic. Mechanisms of sulphur-enhanced defences are largely unknown; many sulphur-rich compounds enhance plant defences and sulphite can also have oxidative consequences via production of H(2)O(2) or sulphitolysis. To investigate the effects of sulphur dioxide (SO(2) ) on fresh table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. 'Crimson Seedless'), transcriptome analysis was carried out on berries treated with SO(2) under commercial conditions for 21 d. We found a broad perturbation of metabolic processes, consistent with a large-scale stress response. Transcripts encoding putative sulphur-metabolizing enzymes indicated that sulphite was directed towards chelation and conjugation, and away from oxidation to sulphate. The results indicated that redox poise was altered dramatically by SO(2) treatment, evidenced by alterations in plastid and mitochondrial alternative electron transfer pathways, up-regulation of fermentation transcripts and numerous glutathione S-transferases, along with a down-regulation of components involved in redox homeostasis. Features of biotic stress were up-regulated, notably signalling via auxin, ethylene and jasmonates. Taken together, this inventory of transcriptional responses is consistent with a long-term cellular response to oxidative stress, similar to the effects of reactive oxygen species. PMID:21689113

  5. Large anomalous Hall effect driven by a nonvanishing Berry curvature in the noncolinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajaya K; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan; Yan, Binghai; Karel, Julie; Komarek, Alexander C; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Kübler, Jürgen; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn3Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ~500 (ohm·cm)(-1) at 2 K and ~50 (ohm·cm)(-1) at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual in-plane magnetic moment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect in Mn3Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (ħ/e) (ohm·cm)(-1), comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effect-based data storage devices. PMID:27152355

  6. The Effect of the Berry Phase on the Quantum Critical Properties of the Bose-Fermi Kondo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Stefan; Si, Qimiao

    2006-03-01

    The theory of the quantum critical point of a T=0 transition is traditionally formulated in terms of a quantum-to-classical mapping, leading to a theory of its classical counterpart in elevated dimensions. Recently, it has been shown that this mapping breaks down in an SU(N)xSU(N/2) Bose-Fermi Kondo model (BFKM) [1], a BFKM with Ising anisotropy [2] and the spin-boson model [3]. Here we report the Quantum Monte Carlo results for the scaling properties of the quantum critical point of the BFKM with Ising anisotropy. In addition, using the Lagrangian formulation of the BFKM, we study the critical properties in the presence and absence of the spin Berry phase term. The results of the two cases are compared with the numerical results.[1] L. Zhu, S. Kirchner, Q. Si, and A. Georges, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,267201 (2004). [2] M. Glossop and K. Ingersent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067202 (2005). [3] M. Vojta, N-H Tong, and R. Bulla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 070604 (2005).

  7. Superradiance, Berry phase, photon phase diffusion, and number squeezed state in the U(1) Dicke (Tavis-Cummings) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, strong-coupling regimes of superconducting qubits or quantum dots inside a microwave circuit cavity and BEC atoms inside an optical cavity were achieved experimentally. The strong-coupling regimes in these systems were described by the Dicke model. Here, we solve the Dicke model by a 1/N expansion. In the normal state, we find a √(N) behavior of the collective Rabi splitting. In the superradiant phase, we identify an important Berry phase term that has dramatic effects on both the ground state and the excitation spectra of the strongly interacting system. The single photon excitation spectrum has a low-energy quantum phase diffusion mode in imaginary time with a large spectral weight and also a high-energy optical mode with a low spectral weight. The photons are in a number squeezed state that may have wide applications in high sensitive measurements and quantum-information processing. Comparisons with exact diagonalization studies are made. Possible experimental schemes to realize the superradiant phase are briefly discussed.

  8. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Selected Wild Berries (Rubus moluccanus L., R. fraxinifolius Poir., and R. alpestris Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berries, from the genus Rubus, are among the vital components in a healthy diet. In this study, 80% methanol extracts from the three wild Rubus species (Rubus moluccanus L., Rubus fraxinifolius Poir., and Rubus alpestris Blume were evaluated for their phytochemical contents (total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content, antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays, antiacetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial activities. GC-MS was used for quantification of naturally occurring phytochemicals. The results showed that R. alpestris contained the highest total phenolic [24.25±0.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g] and carotenoid content [21.86±0.63 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC/g], as well as the highest DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities. The highest total flavonoid [18.17±0.20 mg catechin equivalents (CE/g] and anthocyanin content [36.96±0.39 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (c-3-gE/g] have been shown by R. moluccanus. For antibacterial assays, R. moluccanus and R. alpestris extracts showed mild inhibition towards Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. Anticholinesterase activity for all extracts was in the range of 23–26%. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 12, 21, and 7 different organic compounds in 80% methanol extracts of R. alpestris, R. moluccanus, and R. fraxinifolius, respectively, which might contribute to the bioactivity.

  9. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Bustillo, Alex E.; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions. PMID:26848690

  10. Hippophae salicifolia D.Don berries attenuate cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santhrani Thakur; Pradeepthi Chilikuri; Bindu Pulugurtha; Lavanya Yaidikar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Hippophae salicifolia D.Don (H. salicifolia) berries extract against cerebral reperfusion injury induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Methods: Rats were pretreated with alcoholic extract of H. salicifolia (250 and 500 mg/kg) for 14 d and focal cerebral ischemia was induced by MCAO. After 60 min of MCAO, reperfused for 24 h, a battery of behavioral tests were assessed the extent of neurological deficits. Infarct volume and brain edema were measured in 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride stained brain sections. TNF-α, oxidative stress parameters like reduced glutathione, calcium, glutamate, malondialdehyde and apoptotic parameters like caspase-3, and caspase-9 were estimated in the brain homogenates. Results:Pretreatment with alcoholic extract of H. salicifolia at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly improved the neurobehavioral alterations and reduced the infarct volume, edema induced by ischemia reperfusion injury. H. salicifolia significantly prevented ischemia induced increase in malondialdehyde, glutamate, calcium, caspase-3, caspase-9 and TNF-αlevels as compared to ischemic animals. Conclusions: Our results indicate that H. salicifolia mitigated the ischemia reperfusion induced neuronal damage.

  11. Mechanical behavior of 'Niagara Rosada' grape berry detachment Comportamento mecânico do destacamento de bagos de uva 'Niagara Rosada'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 'Niagara Rosada' grape is the main Brazilian table grape belonging to the Labrusca family. It develops medium, cylindrical and compact bunches with berries presenting a pinkish skin and a foxy flavor that is valued in the Brazilian market. These berries are tender and have a pedicel-berry connection provided by the vascular bundles and surrounding skin. This cultivar is very susceptible to berry drop mainly caused by vibration and senescence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal mechanical behavior of the pedicel-berry detachment, using resistance indexes extracted from traction force-deformation curves. Test results showed two different detachment types. In the first one, which exhibited higher average resistance, a considerable portion of the vascular bundle came out attached to the pedicel and in the second type; the vascular bundle was retained inside the berry. The proposed indexes based on maximum detachment force, force at 0.2; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.2 mm, and maximum force to corresponding deformation ratio did not discriminate the senescence of the berry.A uva Niagara Rosada é a principal uva de mesa brasileira, da família das Labruscas, possui cachos médios cilíndricos e compactos, coloração rosada e sabor denominado Foxy muito apreciado pelo consumidor brasileiro. Os frutos são delicados, a junção do pedicelo com o bago é feita pela casca e por feixes vasculares. Essa cultivar é muito suscetível à degrana causada, principalmente, pela vibração e pelo envelhecimento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento mecânico da junção pedicelo-bago e sua variação temporal, utilizando-se de índices de resistência ao destacamento, extraídos das curvas força-deslocamento, obtidos em ensaios de tração de uvas. Os ensaios revelaram dois tipos de destacamento: um em que porção considerável do pincel (feixes vasculares saiu preso ao pedicelo, e outro, em que o pincel ficou no interior do bago

  12. Effect of picung (Pangium edule plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation and one negative control treatment (aquades. The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol. The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.

  13. Effects of nitrogen and irrigation on gluten protein composition and their relationship to yellow berry disorder in wheat (triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mexico and the rest of the world, the presence of yellow berry (YB) in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum) has been related with poor quality, this defect is associated with low protein content in the grains. However, the quality of the wheat depends not only on the protein content, but also on the composition of the gluten proteins. The effect of the various agronomic factors on the composition of wheat gluten has been a subject of study worldwide. However, in Mexico, wheat quality still remains an issue, as there is a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal agronomic conditions to produce wheat with good-quality gluten. For this reason, the effects of nitrogen (N) rates and irrigations on the amount of gliadin subclasses, glutenin subunits (two main groups) and grain protein content as well as the relation of these proteins to the YB content in wheat grains were investigated. The experiment was conducted on arable farmland in the Valley of Empalme, Sonora, Mexico (27 degree 58' N, 110 degree 49' W; 10 m altitude), during the fall-winter period of 2009-2010. Tarachi, the hard wheat cultivar studied, was selected for its relative susceptibility to the presence of elevated YB content in mature wheat kernels. Three levels of N (75, 150 or 250 kg ha-1) and three levels of irrigation (1, 2 or 3 auxiliary irrigations) were studied. Using a N rate of 150 kg ha-1 with 3 auxiliary irrigations, wheat with good-quality gluten was obtained. The results suggest that the YB disorder is primarily related to the amount of protein in the wheat grain. (author)

  14. Changes in vascular and transpiration flows affect the seasonal and daily growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Brunella; Manfrini, Luigi; Losciale, Pasquale; Zibordi, Marco; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The kiwifruit berry is characterized by an early stage of rapid growth, followed by a relatively long stage of slow increase in size. Vascular and transpiration flows are the main processes through which water and carbon enter/exit the fruit, determining the daily and seasonal changes in fruit size. This work investigates the biophysical mechanisms underpinning the change in fruit growth rate during the season. Methods The daily patterns of phloem, xylem and transpiration in/outflows have been determined at several stages of kiwifruit development, during two seasons. The different flows were quantified by comparing the diurnal patterns of diameter change of fruit, which were then girdled and subsequently detached while measurements continued. The diurnal courses of leaf and stem water potential and of fruit pressure potential were also monitored at different times during the season. Key Results Xylem and transpiration flows were high during the first period of rapid volume growth and sharply decreased with fruit development. Specific phloem import was lower and gradually decreased during the season, whereas it remained constant at whole-fruit level, in accordance with fruit dry matter gain. On a daily basis, transpiration always responded to vapour pressure deficit and contributed to the daily reduction of fruit hydrostatic pressure. Xylem flow was positively related to stem-to-fruit pressure potential gradient during the first but not the last part of the season, when xylem conductivity appeared to be reduced. Conclusions The fruit growth model adopted by this species changes during the season due to anatomical modifications in the fruit features. PMID:20382641

  15. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Morris

    Full Text Available Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82% than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  16. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  17. Non-invasive real-time monitoring of vineyard soils, berries and leaves with FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopo Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality wines requires a permanent monitoring during the entire winemaking process. A healthy production, ensured by tailor-made strategies that will lead to consumer's satisfaction is of the utmost importance. The influence of the terroir characteristics on the features of a wine has always been prone to much debate amongst the wine industry. The composition of grapes is the result of the characteristics of each individual terroir. Soil impact on growth of the vineyard, grape variety characteristics and ultimately wine quality is well known. Current strategy for analysing soils (pedology is based on wet chemistry methods, which are often laborious, expensive, time-consuming and may be of limited use. An efficient, high-throughput analytical method for estimating the impact of soil quality, tillage and thinning on the grapes quality is of paramount importance for the wine industry. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a rapid, non-destructive, inexpensive and accurate analysis technique and its use in soil evaluation for discriminating different types of soil as well as soil constituents is rapidly increasing. Results obtained from direct monitoring of four Portuguese vineyards in different locations (wine appellation regions “Alentejo”, “Dão”, “Douro” and “Vinhos Verdes” using two different portable near-infrared spectrometers are presented. In-situ measurements of soils (at different depths, plant leaves and berries were performed on different stages of the ripening period. Spectral analysis was performed with chemometric methods: PCA and PLS-DA. This monitoring approach revealed to be an excellent tool for the support of a vineyard's micro-zoning process.

  18. Safety evaluation of an acai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active®)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of an acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active®, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 μg/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active® juice is non-toxic.

  19. Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

  20. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei: predictions of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20-30 degrees C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32 degrees C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1-2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1 degrees C rise in thermal optimum (T(opt., the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (r(max will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2.

  1. The Berry-Keating operator on L{sup 2}(R{sub >},dx) and on compact quantum graphs with general self-adjoint realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Sebastian; Steiner, Frank, E-mail: sebastian.endres@uni-ulm.d, E-mail: frank.steiner@uni-ulm.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2010-03-05

    The Berry-Keating operator H{sub BK} := -i h-bar (x d/dx + 1/2) (Berry and Keating 1999 SIAM Rev. 41 236) governing the Schroedinger dynamics is discussed in the Hilbert space L{sup 2}(R{sub >},dx) and on compact quantum graphs. It has been proved that the spectrum of H{sub BK} defined on L{sup 2}(R{sub >},dx) is purely continuous and thus this quantization of H{sub BK} cannot yield the hypothetical Hilbert-Polya operator possessing as eigenvalues the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. A complete classification of all self-adjoint extensions of H{sub BK} acting on compact quantum graphs is given together with the corresponding secular equation in form of a determinant whose zeros determine the discrete spectrum of H{sub BK}. In addition, an exact trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics of the eigenvalue counting function are derived. Furthermore, we introduce the 'squared' Berry-Keating operator H{sub BK}{sup 2} := -x{sup 2} d{sup 2}/dx{sup 2} -2x d/dx - 1/4 which is a special case of the Black-Scholes operator used in financial theory of option pricing. Again, all self-adjoint extensions, the corresponding secular equation, the trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics are derived for H{sup 2}{sub BK} on compact quantum graphs. While the spectra of both H{sub BK} and H{sup 2}{sub BK} on any compact quantum graph are discrete, their Weyl asymptotics demonstrate that neither H{sub BK} nor H{sup 2}{sub BK} can yield as eigenvalues the nontrivial Riemann zeros. Some simple examples are worked out in detail.

  2. The Berry-Keating operator on L^2({\\mathbb R}_\\gt,dx) and on compact quantum graphs with general self-adjoint realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Sebastian; Steiner, Frank

    2010-03-01

    The Berry-Keating operator H_{BK}:= -i\\hbar \\big(x\\frac{d}{dx}+\\frac{1}{2}\\big) (Berry and Keating 1999 SIAM Rev. 41 236) governing the Schrödinger dynamics is discussed in the Hilbert space L^2({\\mathbb R}_\\gt,dx) and on compact quantum graphs. It has been proved that the spectrum of HBK defined on L^2({\\mathbb R}_\\gt,dx) is purely continuous and thus this quantization of HBK cannot yield the hypothetical Hilbert-Polya operator possessing as eigenvalues the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. A complete classification of all self-adjoint extensions of HBK acting on compact quantum graphs is given together with the corresponding secular equation in form of a determinant whose zeros determine the discrete spectrum of HBK. In addition, an exact trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics of the eigenvalue counting function are derived. Furthermore, we introduce the 'squared' Berry-Keating operator H_{BK}^2:= -x^2\\frac{d^2}{dx^2}-2x\\frac{d}{dx}-\\frac{1}{4} which is a special case of the Black-Scholes operator used in financial theory of option pricing. Again, all self-adjoint extensions, the corresponding secular equation, the trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics are derived for H2BK on compact quantum graphs. While the spectra of both HBK and H2BK on any compact quantum graph are discrete, their Weyl asymptotics demonstrate that neither HBK nor H2BK can yield as eigenvalues the nontrivial Riemann zeros. Some simple examples are worked out in detail.

  3. The Berry-Keating operator on L2(R>,dx) and on compact quantum graphs with general self-adjoint realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berry-Keating operator HBK := -i h-bar (x d/dx + 1/2) (Berry and Keating 1999 SIAM Rev. 41 236) governing the Schroedinger dynamics is discussed in the Hilbert space L2(R>,dx) and on compact quantum graphs. It has been proved that the spectrum of HBK defined on L2(R>,dx) is purely continuous and thus this quantization of HBK cannot yield the hypothetical Hilbert-Polya operator possessing as eigenvalues the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. A complete classification of all self-adjoint extensions of HBK acting on compact quantum graphs is given together with the corresponding secular equation in form of a determinant whose zeros determine the discrete spectrum of HBK. In addition, an exact trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics of the eigenvalue counting function are derived. Furthermore, we introduce the 'squared' Berry-Keating operator HBK2 := -x2 d2/dx2 -2x d/dx - 1/4 which is a special case of the Black-Scholes operator used in financial theory of option pricing. Again, all self-adjoint extensions, the corresponding secular equation, the trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics are derived for H2BK on compact quantum graphs. While the spectra of both HBK and H2BK on any compact quantum graph are discrete, their Weyl asymptotics demonstrate that neither HBK nor H2BK can yield as eigenvalues the nontrivial Riemann zeros. Some simple examples are worked out in detail.

  4. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) are the major contributors to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation of the population. Especially hazardous are the decay products of U: 210Pb, 210Po and 226Ra in soils, water and plants. The most important exposure route to 210Pb and 210Po is through wild gathered food. Some studies show that 210Po and also some other NORs accumulate from uranium-rich grounds in mushrooms. In berries the levels are usually lower. In Finland, Sweden and Norway there are sites enriched in NORs. In these areas e.g. the 210Po levels in certain edible mushroom species may be as high as a few hundred Bq/kg, leading to effective doses of several mSv/year among certain consumer groups. The intake of wild forest products varies greatly among the population, but the public should be informed of the exposure risk and ways to minimize it. In this study, NORs and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mushrooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sampling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO standards were used when applicable, to make all stages of the work harmonized between partners. For the analytical work, samples will be sent to partners with suitable analytical facilities. The analyses will be done during the year 2013 and the results reported in the final report and in scientific publications. (Author)

  5. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4βHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer

  6. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zong-Lun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry, demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299 using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. Results It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p p 50 of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.

  7. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Brunfeldt, M.; Rasilainen, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Skipperud, L.; Valle, L.; Popic, J.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Life Science, Aas (Norway); Roos, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Sundell-Bergman, S.; Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) are the major contributors to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation of the population. Especially hazardous are the decay products of U: {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and {sup 226}Ra in soils, water and plants. The most important exposure route to {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po is through wild gathered food. Some studies show that {sup 210}Po and also some other NORs accumulate from uranium-rich grounds in mushrooms. In berries the levels are usually lower. In Finland, Sweden and Norway there are sites enriched in NORs. In these areas e.g. the {sup 210}Po levels in certain edible mushroom species may be as high as a few hundred Bq/kg, leading to effective doses of several mSv/year among certain consumer groups. The intake of wild forest products varies greatly among the population, but the public should be informed of the exposure risk and ways to minimize it. In this study, NORs and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mushrooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sampling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO standards were used when applicable, to make all stages of the work harmonized between partners. For the analytical work, samples will be sent to partners with suitable analytical facilities. The analyses will be done during the year 2013 and the results reported in the final report and in scientific publications. (Author)

  8. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions. PMID:27228593

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF WAREHOUSE SERVICE FOR THE MARKET OF FRUIT AND BERRY PRODUCTS IN THE KRASNODAR REGION AS THE FACTOR OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BRANCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of warehouse service for the market of fruit and berry products in the Krasnodar region are analyzed in the article. It is established that one of the primary issues of further development in both general crop growing and gardening is providing with the qualitative modern warehouse capable to consider all features of products range. The lack of agricultural producers using own storages which meet high technical production requirements, is that region logistic centers set inflated prices which force producers to sell products at adverse price conditions. Warehousing costs and postharvest processing are so high that storage of production becomes uneconomic in the long-term period. Tendencies and prospects of regional production growth and sale of fruits and berries in interrelation with development of warehouse infrastructure are characterized. Considerable discrepancy of growth rates of the available and entered warehouse infrastructure to the growing regional needs for production of plant growing is observed. First of all the following is connected with reorientation of the region from market import-oriented strategy on import substitution. The measures of the state support of warehouse infrastructure aimed at providing effective development of the market of agri-food products are presented. Factors and the directions of development of warehouse infrastructure of the market of fruit and berry products in the Krasnodar region are revealed, the perspective directions of development of the studied branch are defined. It is necessary to consider growth of efficiency of the applied intensive technologies, activization of investment processes in the form of new methods of warehousing, and also growth of level of automation as a condition of warehouse infrastructure improvement in the Krasnodar region, that will promote decrease in warehouse costs and increase of competitiveness of the organizations

  10. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Bianca; Lange, B Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose and [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries. PMID:23954075

  11. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  12. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions ("traditional withering," TW or "accelerated withering," AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  13. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowska-Krępa, E; Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood sam...

  14. Beginning Smartphone Web Development Developing Applications for iPhone, Android, Palm Pre, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile and Nokia S60

    CERN Document Server

    Federick, G

    2010-01-01

    Today's Web 2.0 applications (think Facebook and Twitter) go far beyond the confines of the desktop and are widely used on mobile devices. The mobile Web has become incredibly popular given the success of the iPhone and BlackBerry, the importance of Windows Mobile, and the emergence of Palm Pre (and its webOS platform). At Apress, we are fortunate to have Gail Frederick of the well-known training site Learn the Mobile Web offer her expert advice in Beginning Smartphone Web Development. In this book, Gail teaches the web standards and fundamentals specific to smartphones and other feature-drive

  15. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry)

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Villacreses; Marcelo Rojas-Herrera; Carolina Sánchez; Nicole Hewstone; Undurraga, Soledad F.; Juan F Alzate; Patricio Manque; Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho; Victor Polanco

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino ac...

  16. Effect of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Berry EtOAc Fraction on Cognitive Impairment in C57BL/6 Mice under High-Fat Diet Inducement

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hyeon Park; Seon Kyeong Park; Tae Wan Seung; Dong Eun Jin; Tianjiao Guo; Ho Jin Heo

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity leads to type 2 diabetes. Recently, there has been growing apprehension about diabetes-associated cognitive impairment (DACM). The effect of ginseng (Panax ginseng) berry ethyl acetate fraction (GBEF) on mice with high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment was investigated to confirm its physiological function. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks and then a high-fat diet with GBEF (20 and 50 mg/kg of body weight) for 4 weeks. After three in vivo beh...

  17. Whole-metagenome-sequencing-based community profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina berries withered in two post-harvest conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eSalvetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (traditional withering, TW or accelerated withering, AW, and to unveil whether changes of environmental drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity.Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples.For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of an alpha-amylase cDNA highly expressed in major feeding stages of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, C. A.; Macedo, L. L. P.; Amorim, T. M. L.; Santos, V. O.; Fragoso, R. R.; Lucena, W. A.; Meneguim, A. M.; Valencia-Jimenez, A.; Engler, Gilbert; Silva, M.C.M.; Albuquerque, E. V. S.; Grossi-de-Sa, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    alpha-Amylases are common enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing starch. Insect-pests, whose larvae develop in seeds, rely obligatorily on alpha-amylase activity to digest starch, as their major food source. Considering the relevance of insect alpha-amylases and the natural alpha-amylase inhibitors present in seeds to protect from insect damage, we report here the molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the full-length AmyHha cDNA of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, a major inse...

  19. The effects of bud load and regulated deficit irrigation on sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Razakı table grape berries

    OpenAIRE

    Tangolar Semih; Tarım Güzin; Kelebek Haşim; Tangolar Serpil Gök; Topçu Sevilay

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at assessing the effects of increased bud load and irrigation applications on berry quality of the Razakı table grape. Two Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) having different irrigation levels (RDI-I and RDI-II) based on the growth stages, in addition to a non-irrigated control treatment together with two different bud load practices (K-normal and 2K-two-fold buds of the normal) were examined for their effects on quality attributes such as sugar and organic acids contents, phe...

  20. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiles of the Berry Skin of Two Red Grape Cultivars (Vitis vinifera) in Which Anthocyanin Synthesis Is Sunlight-Dependent or -Independent

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ben-Hong; Cao, Yue-Gang; Guan, Le; Xin, Hai-Ping; Li, Ji-Hu; Li, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Global gene expression was analyzed in the berry skin of two red grape cultivars, which can (‘Jingyan’) or cannot (‘Jingxiu’) synthesize anthocyanins after sunlight exclusion from fruit set until maturity. Gene transcripts responding to sunlight exclusion in ‘Jingyan’ were less complex than in ‘Jingxiu’; 528 genes were induced and 383 repressed in the former, whereas 2655 genes were induced and 205 suppressed in ‘Jingxiu’. They were regulated either in the same or opposing manner in the two c...