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Sample records for berries vitis vinifera

  1. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-01

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  2. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants.

  3. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  4. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenchang; Owens, Christopher L; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Cheng, Lailiang

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenolic profiles in the berry samples of 344 European grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars were evaluated for two consecutive years. These cultivars represent a diverse collection of V. vinifera germplasm maintained at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Vitis Clonal Repository in Davis of California, USA. A total of 36 polyphenolic compounds, including 16 anthocyanins, 6 flavonols, 6 flavanols, 6 hydroxycinnamic acids and 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified via HPLC-MS and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The mean contents for anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids were 0.946 (coloured cultivars), 0.147, 0.043, 0.195 and 0.016mgg(-1) FW, respectively. On average, wine grapes had higher concentrations than had table grapes for all of these compounds except hydroxycinnamic acids. Berry colours affected the total contents of anthocyanins, but not others. Positive correlations (0.151-0.535) were found among these groups of compounds. As expected, these groups of compounds were all negatively correlated with berry weight.

  5. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  6. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  7. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins. PMID:26687319

  8. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins.

  9. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  10. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  11. A candidate-gene association study for berry colour and anthocyanin content in Vitis vinifera L.

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    Silvana Cardoso

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST. Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, MYC(A, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHS(A. Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYC(B, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies.

  12. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sweetman Crystal; Wong Darren CJ; Ford Christopher M; Drew Damian P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes...

  13. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

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    Cook Douglas R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million. Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed

  14. Oviposition preference and larval performance of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) infected berries of Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae).

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    Rizvi, Syed Z M; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Wheatley, Warwick M; Cook, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we tested the behavior of gravid Epiphyas postvittana in selecting the most-appropriate site for oviposition thus benefitting offspring performance. Our hypothesis was built on Jaenike's preference-performance hypothesis (also referred to as the "mother-knows-the-best" hypothesis). To test this, we used the interacting Epiphyas postvittana, its host Vitis vinifera, and the pathogenic microbe Botrytis cinerea system. Populations of E. postvittana and B. cinerea often exist concurrently on V. vinifera in Australasia and their interaction and mutual influence are currently being explored, although the suggestion presently is that the relationship between E. postvittana and B. cinerea is mutualistic. We tested the effect of volatiles from B. cinerea-infected berries and uninfected (control) berries of V. vinifera on the oviposition behavior of E. postvittana. We also characterized the effects of B. cinerea infection on the berries of V. vinifera on the growth and development of E. postvittana. Contrary to the preference-performance hypothesis, oviposition choices made by gravid E. postvittana did not result in the best offspring survival, development, and performance. The preference for oviposition by E. postvittana was strongly influenced by the olfactory and tactile cues. She laid fewer eggs on B. cinerea-infected berries compared to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae of E. postvittana showed no preference to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae fed on B. cinerea-infected berries of V. vinifera showing greater survival rate, shorter time to pupation, greater pupal mass, and on becoming adults they laid more numbers of eggs than the larvae that were enabled to feed on uninfected berries. The larvae of E. postvittana transport the conidia of B. cinerea and transmit grey-mould disease to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. PMID:25420720

  15. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Teng-Fei Xu; Jiang-Fei Meng; Peng-Fei Ning; Zhen-Wen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grap...

  16. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweetman Crystal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest. Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the

  17. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

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    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  18. Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil

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    Chang-Zheng Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  19. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

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    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  20. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  1. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    OpenAIRE

    Michael James Considine; Christine Helen Foyer

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to th...

  2. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

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    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars. PMID:26471534

  3. Berry flesh and skin ripening features in Vitis vinifera as assessed by transcriptional profiling.

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    Diego Lijavetzky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar 'Muscat Hamburg' to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are

  4. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.: photosynthetic tissues and berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Considine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the ‘ambient’ environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO¬2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  5. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  6. Generation of ESTs in Vitis vinifera wine grape (Cabernet Sauvignon) and table grape (Muscat Hamburg) and discovery of new candidate genes with potential roles in berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Reid, Karen E; Liao, Nancy; Schlosser, James; Lijavetzky, Diego; Holt, Robert; Martínez Zapater, José M; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Bohlmann, Jörg; Lund, Steven T

    2007-11-01

    We report the generation and analysis of a total of 77,583 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon (wine grape) and Muscat Hamburg (table grape) with a focus on EST sequence quality and assembly optimization. The majority of the ESTs were derived from normalized cDNA libraries representing berry pericarp and seed developmental series, pooled non-berry tissues including root, flower, and leaf in Cabernet Sauvignon, and pooled tissues of berry, seed, and flower in Muscat Hamburg. EST and unigene sequence quality were determined by computational filtering coupled with small-scale contig reassembly, manual review, and BLAST analyses. EST assembly was optimized to better discriminate among closely related paralogs using two independent grape sequence sets, a previously published set of Vitis spp. gene families and our EST dataset derived from pooled leaf, flower, and root tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon. Sequence assembly within individual libraries indicated that those prepared from pooled tissues contributed the most to gene discovery. Annotations based upon searches against multiple databases including tomato and strawberry sequences helped to identify putative functions of ESTs and unigenes, particularly with respect to fleshy fruit development. Sequence comparison among the three wine grape libraries identified a number of genes preferentially expressed in the pericarp tissue, including transcription factors, receptor-like protein kinases, and hexose transporters. Gene ontology (GO) classification in the biological process aspect showed that GO categories corresponding to 'transport' and 'cell organization and biogenesis', which are associated with metabolite movement and cell wall structural changes during berry ripening, were higher in pericarp than in other tissues in the wine grape studied. The sequence data were used to characterize potential roles of new genes in berry development and composition. PMID

  7. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants.

  8. Identification and expression analysis of genes associated with the early berry development in the seedless grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar Sultanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenaro-da-Silva, Danielle; Passaia, Gisele; Henriques, João A P; Margis, Rogério; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís F

    2010-11-01

    Sultanine grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important commercial seedless table-grape varieties and the main source of seedlessness for breeding programs around the world. Despite its commercial relevance, little is known about the genetic control of seedlessness in grapes, remaining unknown the molecular identity of genes responsible for such phenotype. Actually, studies concerning berry development in seedless grapes are scarce at the molecular level. We therefore developed a representational difference analysis (RDA) modified method named Bulk Representational Analysis of Transcripts (BRAT) in the attempt to identify genes specifically associated with each of the main developmental stages of Sultanine grapevine berries. A total of 2400 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified and cloned by RDA according to three specific developmental berry stages. After sequencing and in silico analysis, 1554 (64.75%) TDFs were validated according to our sequence quality cut-off. The assembly of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) yielded 504 singletons and 77 clusters, with an overall EST redundancy of approximately 67%. Amongst all stage-specific cDNAs, nine candidate genes were selected and, along with two reference genes, submitted to a deeper analysis of their temporal expression profiles by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Seven out of nine genes proved to be in agreement with the stage-specific expression that allowed their isolation by RDA. PMID:21802609

  9. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  10. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  11. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions ("traditional withering," TW or "accelerated withering," AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  12. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  13. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  14. Whole-metagenome-sequencing-based community profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina berries withered in two post-harvest conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eSalvetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (traditional withering, TW or accelerated withering, AW, and to unveil whether changes of environmental drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity.Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples.For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the

  15. Ampelographic description of cluster, berry and seed of merlot cultivar (Vitis vinifera L. and its selected clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Dragan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a four-year period, ampelographic experiments focusing on the berry cluster (average length of grape cluster, number of grape clusters per shoot, number of berries per grape cluster and length of peduncle, berry (length of berry and berry juice yield, length of pedicel and seed (length of berry seed of Merlot cultivar (used as a relevant standard and 11 clones (Nos. 022, 023, 025, 026, 027, 028, 029, 030, 031, 033 and 034 were performed in order to establish the differences among them. These experiments were actually conducted in the third phase of individual clonal selection of Merlot cultivar carried out in Serbia. The lengths of grape cluster and pedicel as well as berry must yields differed significantly among the examined clones. The cluster and principal component analyses classified 12 samples into three divergent clusters/groups, respectively. The clones belonging to the cluster II /the second group/ had significantly higher values of numbers of grape clusters per shoot and berries per grape cluster; lengths of peduncle and berry; berry must yield and length of pedicel, compared both to standard Merlot /the cluster I, the first group/ and the clones of the cluster III /the third group/. The phenological observations showed no significant differences in the beginnings and durations of phenological stages and vegetation period of the examined clones. The obtained results indicate the real need for further research work focused both on the agrobiological and technological properties of the grapes and wines aiming to better describe the selected clones. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 0719, br. 46009 i br. 172053

  16. Berry density and size as factors related to the physicochemical characteristics of Muscat Hamburg table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luca; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Río Segade, Susana

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to determine the impact of using independently berry density and diameter as sorting methodologies on important physicochemical parameters affecting the grape quality, such as mechanical properties, phenolic composition and aromatic profile. Muscat Hamburg berries were classified according to the density by flotation in different salt solutions and to the diameter. The three most representative density (1081, 1088 and 1094 kg/m(3)) and diameter (16-17, 18-19 and 20-21 mm) classes were selected. The results showed that there were relationships of both density and diameter with the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the berries. Densimetric sorting is a more promising methodology to separate grape berries with different quality attributes, particularly skin hardness, berry cohesiveness and resilience, total hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins and rose oxide, than diameter sorting. This knowledge can be of great interest for the 'fresh-cut' industry in the production of 'ready-to-eat' fruits salad. PMID:25466001

  17. Anatomy of Vitis Berries During Their Coloring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yi-zhen; HE Pu-chao

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-1999, the course of the berry coloring and the development of the pigment cells from veraison to ripeness were studied by freeze sectioning 43 accessions of 12 Vitis species (including 10 Chinese wild species). External observation showed that the berries of most species began coloring on the fruit top surface or on the sun-lit surface, and the berry surface color was evenly distributed when the berry was ripe.Internal observation revealed that the pigment cells in a few layers between cuticle and sub-cuticle colored first, the cuticle colored from inner layers to outer layers while the sub-cuticle from outer to inner, and the cuticle cells began coloring a little earlier than the sub-cuticle ones in most species. The pigment cells developed unevenly during the berry ripening. In the beginning of berry coloring, the cell pigment density among the layers or among the cells in the same layer was different. Both the numbers of the pigmented cells and the cell pigment density increased during the berry coloring, while the former lasted a short time; however, the latter kept increasing from veraison to ripeness, and they reached the deepest color when the berry was ripe.

  18. Seasonal pattern of apoplastic solute accumulation and loss of cell turgor during ripening of Vitis vinifera fruit under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Hiroshi; MATTHEWS, MARK A.; Shackel, Ken A

    2009-01-01

    Using a novel pressure membrane (PM) apparatus for the extraction of apoplastic fluid from field-grown grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries, our hypothesis that significant apoplast solutes accumulate at the beginning of the ripening process (i.e. veraison), and that this accumulation might contribute to progressive berry softening due to a progressive loss of mesocarp cell turgor pressure (P) was tested. It was necessary to correct the solute potential (Ψs) of fluid collected with the PM for di...

  19. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  20. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment. PMID:27451171

  1. Use of response surface methodology for the assessment of changes in the volatile composition of Moscato bianco (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Vilanova, Mar; Río Segade, Susana; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Giordano, Manuela; Rolle, Luca

    2016-12-01

    The changes in the volatile composition of Moscato bianco grapes were evaluated during ripening. Grape berries were sampled for five weeks (16-20 °Brix) and sorted for each date in ten density classes (1.05-1.12g/cm(3)). The highest total concentration of free terpenes was found at 19.3 °Brix; however, total concentration of the bound fraction increased significantly throughout ripening. Response surface methodology was used to assess the simultaneous effect of sampling time and berry density on the volatile composition, which was satisfactorily fitted to regression models for some key terpene compounds. Total free and bound terpenes were more affected by grape density than by sampling date. The same behaviour was observed for free and bound linalool and bound nerol, whereas the stronger effect of sampling date was exhibited for bound t-rose oxide, c-rose oxide and geraniol. The results showed that the sampling strategy impacted strongly on the aroma quality of berries. PMID:27374570

  2. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Bianca; Lange, B Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose and [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries. PMID:23954075

  3. Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher; Nicholson, Emily L; Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Bastian, Susan E P; Harvey, Katie E; Huang, An-Cheng; Taylor, Dennis K; Boss, Paul K

    2015-03-01

    Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes.

  4. Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that

  5. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Vitis vinifera

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    Pezzotti Mario

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The AP2/ERF protein family contains transcription factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera is the only woody crop whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for grapevine. Results An exhaustive search for AP2/ERF genes was carried out on the Vitis vinifera genome and their expression profile was analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR in different vegetative and reproductive tissues and under two different ripening stages. One hundred and forty nine sequences, containing at least one ERF domain, were identified. Specific clusters within the AP2 and ERF families showed conserved expression patterns reminiscent of other species and grapevine specific trends related to berry ripening. Moreover, putative targets of group IX ERFs were identified by co-expression and protein similarity comparisons. Conclusions The grapevine genome contains an amount of AP2/ERF genes comparable to that of other dicot species analyzed so far. We observed an increase in the size of specific groups within the ERF family, probably due to recent duplication events. Expression analyses in different aerial tissues display common features previously described in other plant systems and introduce possible new roles for members of some ERF groups during fruit ripening. The presented analysis of AP2/ERF genes in grapevine provides the bases for studying the molecular regulation of berry development and the ripening process.

  6. Spliceosomal intron size expansion in domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera

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    Goertzen Leslie R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spliceosomal introns are important components of eukaryotic genes as their structure, sizes and contents reflect the architecture of gene and genomes. Intron size, determined by both neutral evolution, repetitive elements activities and potential functional constraints, varies significantly in eukaryotes, suggesting unique dynamics and evolution in different lineages of eukaryotic organisms. However, the evolution of intron size, is rarely studied. To investigate intron size dynamics in flowering plants, in particular domesticated grapevines, a survey of intron size and content in wine grape (Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir genes was conducted by assembling and mapping the transcriptome of V. vinifera genes from ESTs to characterize and analyze spliceosomal introns. Results Uncommonly large size of spliceosomal intron was observed in V. vinifera genome, otherwise inconsistent with overall genome size dynamics when comparing Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis. In domesticated grapevine, intron size is generally not related to gene function. The composition of enlarged introns in grapevines indicated extensive transposable element (TE activity within intronic regions. TEs comprise about 80% of the expanded intron space and in particular, recent LTR retrotransposon insertions are enriched in these intronic regions, suggesting an intron size expansion in the lineage leading to domesticated grapevine, instead of size contractions in Arabidopsis and Populus. Comparative analysis of selected intronic regions in V. vinifera cultivars and wild grapevine species revealed that accelerated TE activity was associated with grapevine domestication, and in some cases with the development of specific cultivars. Conclusions In this study, we showed intron size expansion driven by TE activities in domesticated grapevines, likely a result of long-term vegetative propagation and intensive human care, which simultaneously promote TE proliferation and

  7. Response of “Red Globe” (Vitis vinifera L. to cane girdling

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    Soltekin Oğuzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cane girdling on skin colour, harvest date, yield, and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Red Globe table grape variety, was measured over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticulture Research Station in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the spurs after first bud was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife at veraison period. Statistical analyses showed that total soluble solid content, berry width, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of the Red Globe was significantly affected by the girdling treatment in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, total phenolics, titrable acidity, pH and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value although they weren’t statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed on girdled vines 7 and 11 days earliness compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  8. Spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in semi-arid Vitis vinifera vineyards in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical an...

  9. Lesão renal aguda por glicerol: efeito antioxidante da Vitis vinifera L Acute kidney injury by glycerol: antioxidant effect of Vitis vinifera L

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    Elisabete Cristina de Oliveira Martim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A lesão renal aguda (LRA é a complicação mais grave da rabdomiólise. Nessa síndrome, a liberação do pigmento heme desencadeia uma lesão que se caracteriza por vasoconstrição glomerular e toxicidade celular direta com provável componente oxidante. A renoproteção com antioxidantes tem demonstrado efeito satisfatório. As proantocianidinas são antioxidantes naturais encontradas no extrato da semente da uva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antioxidante da Vitis vinifera sobre a função renal de ratos submetidos à lesão induzida por rabdomiólise. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, machos e adultos pesando entre 250 e 300 g. A LRA foi induzida pela administração de glicerol 50% por via muscular. Os animais foram distribuídos em 4 grupos: grupo Salina (6 mL/kg de NaCl a 0,9%, por via intraperitoneal (dose única, Glicerol (6 mL/kg por via muscular metade da dose em cada região femoral, em dose única, grupo Vitis vinifera (3 mg/kg/dia, por via oral durante cinco dias e grupo Glicerol + Vitis vinifera que recebeu Vitis vinifera por cinco dias antes do glicerol. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados a função renal (FR e o perfil oxidativo (peróxidos urinários FOX-2 e MDA-TBARS. O grupo glicerol de animais tratado com Vitis vinifera apresentou melhora da FR e redução dos níveis de peroxidação lipídica. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados deste estudo confirmaram a ação antioxidante da Vitis vinifera na LRA induzida por glicerol.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Acute Kidney Injury (AKI is the most serious complication of rhabdomyolysis. In this syndrome, the delivery of heme pigment induces an injury that distinguishes itself by glomerular vasoconstriction and direct cellular toxicity with oxidative component. The renoprotection with antioxidants has demonstrated satisfactory effect. The proanthocyanidins are natural antioxidants found in the grape seed extract. The aim of this study was to

  10. Differences in the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera Seeds Extracts

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    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power.

  11. [Genetic Diversity of Vitis vinifera L. in Azerbaijan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salayeva, S J; Ojaghi, J M; Pashayeva, A N; Izzatullayeva, V I; Akhundova, E M; Akperov, Z I

    2016-04-01

    To examine the genetic diversity of Vitis vinifera L., growing in the Republic of Azerbaijan in the region near the Caspian Sea, nuclear genomes of 31 cultivated and 34 wild grapevine accessions were studied at population and individual levels using five ISSR primers. In total, 51 fragments were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. A high level of polymorphism was revealed (the mean PPF and PIC values constituted 87.69% and 0.94, respectively). High values of the EMR, MI, and RP indices showed the effectiveness of the application of ISSR primers and the possibility of their use in further investigations in this direction. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance values showed that all genotypes could be grouped into seven main clusters. Furthermore, no differences between the wild and cultivated grape wine accessions were revealed. For instance, there was no distinct distribution of the accessions according to their geographical localization. On the basis of the PIC values, the group of cultivars from Absheron Peninsula--was distinguished by the highest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.36). Natural populations from the Guba and Shabran regions were characterized by a relatively low polymorphism level (PIC = 0.31 and PIC = 0.28, respectively); and a wild population from Nabran demonstrated the lowest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.25). The data obtained confirmed paleontological and historical data of different periods, provide the supposition that Azerbaijan is the center of diversity of V. vinifera L. In addition, our data indicate that Azerbaijan grape landraces originated from local wild forms. PMID:27529978

  12. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  13. Spasmolytic effect of Vitis vinifera leaf extract on rat colon

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    Gharib Naseri M.K.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera (grape leaf has been used traditionally to treat diarrhea and its extract induces relaxation in rat aorta and uterus. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of grape leaf hydroalcoholic extract (GLHE on rat colon contractions induced by some spasmogens. A piece of distal colon from male adult Wistar rats were dissected and mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution and colon contractions recorded by an isotonic transducer under 1g resting tension. The GLHE (0.5- 4 mg/ml reduced the contractions induced by KCl (60 mM, BaCl2 (4 mM, acetylcholine (1 μM dose-dependently (P<0.001. The spasmolytic effect of GLHE on ACh-induced contraction was unaffected by propranolol (1 μM, phentolamine (1 μM, L-NAME (300 μM, and naloxone (1μM. In Ca2+-free but rich in KCl (120 mM Tyrode solution, cumulative concentrations of CaCl2 induced colon contractions which, were inhibited by the extract. Glibenclamide (3 μM had no effect on the extract spasmolytic activity, but tetraethylammonium (5 mM contracted the pre-relaxed colon induced by the extract. Results suggest that the grape leaf hydroalcoholic extract spasmolytic effect is due to the blockade of the voltage dependent calcium channels and activation of Ca2+-operated potassium channels

  14. Stress reactions in Vitis vinifera L. following soil application of the herbicide flumioxazin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In order to evaluate the stress effects of flumioxazin (fmx) on grapevine, a non-target plant (Vitis vinifera L.), physiological parameters such as carbohydrate content, water status or nitrogenous metabolites were investigated on fruiting cuttings and plants grown in vineyard. In the leaves of cuttings, the soil-applied herbicide induced stress manifestations including a decrease of the dry weight percentage and the soluble carbohydrate content during the first week after treatment. Thereafter, a decrease of the osmotic potential was observed, as well as a decrease of total protein content and a parallel accumulation of free amino acids, including proline. Altogether, these results suggest that soil-applied fmx induced a stress in grapevines, leading to leaf proteolysis. However, this stress was partially recovered 3 weeks after herbicide application, suggesting that the cuttings were capable to adapt to the fmx exposure. In the vineyard, the flumioxazin effects were still significant 5 months after the treatment, particularly in the CH cv. They included a decrease of the leaf dry weight percentage and soluble carbohydrate content, as well as an increase of the osmotic potential. The decrease of leaf soluble carbohydrates may have dramatic consequences for the berry growth and the reserve constitution. Moreover, treated plants were characterized by a decrease of the free amino acid content and an accumulation of ammonium, while the protein level did not significantly increase, suggesting a degradation of amino acids. The alteration of carbon and nitrogen status after herbicide treatment may affect the grapevine vigour in a long term.

  15. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26800498

  16. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  17. EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF VITIS VINIFERA LINN. ON ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tikare V.P; Hadaginhal R V; Raghavendra M M A V

    2011-01-01

    In the present study fruits of Vitis vinifera Linn. (Vitacae) commonly known as Draksh were selected for preliminary phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of cognitive enhancing activity. The shade dried fruits were subjected to successive solvent extraction with 70 % ethanol. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids when subjected to chemical tests. TLC was run for their confirmation of flavonoids in Vitis...

  18. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the Vitis vinifera fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase

    OpenAIRE

    Quirk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Vitis vinifera dual-activity fucose and nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme l-fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase (FKP) has been purified to homogeneity and the 118.8 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized by vapor diffusion in Zeppezauer tubes at 277 K.

  20. Study of Aging and Hepatoprotective Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seeds in Albino Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa Khan; SH Ansari; ZABhat; Feroz ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Present study was conducted to investigate in liver of rats from 8-12 weeks old to 20 weeks old, the age dependent changes, carbon tetrachloride mediated changes, and the hepatoprotective effect shown by the seeds of Vitis vinifera L. Method: The hepatoprotective activity was studied by observing the effect of 100 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of grape seeds on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats and results were compared with those of the aged group results. Results: 100 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera seeds produced highly significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, albumin levels and significant decrease in the TSP levels compared to the toxic group levels. The levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and albumin in aged control rats were found to be significantly higher than the levels in young control animals. MDA levels were slightly higher while GSH levels were lower in aged control rats as compared to young control rats. MDA levels in the toxic group showed highly significant increase compared to the young control levels. Ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera significantly lowered the MDA levels. Histopathology results reveal that 100mg/kg/day dose of ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cured the hepatic damage to a great extent which was induced by CCl4. Conclusions: Aging leads to the changes in the hepatic structure which are comparable to the changes induced by low doses of a hepatotoxin and the ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera L. was effective in bringing about functional improvement of hepatocytes exposed to free radical attack, which was confirmed by biochemical and histological observations.

  1. Regulated deficit irrigation as a water management strategy in Vitis vinifera production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initial six-year study in a commercial vineyard located in the Columbia River Valley of Washington State, United States of America, examined the management practices and potential benefits of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on Vitis vinifera cv. Sauvignon blanc. The objective of the treatments was to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation prior to, compared with after, veraison. Each of four irrigation treatments was applied to 1.6 ha and replicated four times for a total 27.0 ha. Irrigation treatments were based on desired soil moisture levels in the top metre of the profile where most of the root system is found. Soil moisture was monitored using a neutron probe and the information was combined with calculations of evaporative demand to determine the irrigation required on a weekly basis. Vine growth, yield, fruit quality and cold hardiness were monitored throughout the study. The results indicated that RDI prior to veraison was effective in controlling shoot growth, as determined by shoot length and elongation rate, as well as pruning weights. Sixteen wine lots, each of approximately 12,000 litres, were prepared each season. Although there was some effect on berry weight, yield was not always significantly reduced. Full irrigation prior to veraison resulted in excessive shoot growth. RDI applied after veraison to vines with large canopies resulted in greater water deficit stress. Fruit quality was increased by pre-veraison RDI compared to postveraison RDI based on wines made. Regulated deficit irrigation applied at anytime resulted in better early-season lignification of canes and cold hardening of buds. There was a slight improvement in mid-winter cold hardiness of vines subjected to RDI. However, this effect was inconsistent. Studies on Cabernet Sauvignon and White Riesling are underway to confirm these results and to investigate the impact of RDI on fruit quality and winemaking practices. (author)

  2. Direct ingestion method for enhancing production and bioavailability of resveratrol and other phytoalexins in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ari; Barberio, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoalexins such as resveratrol and pterostilbene, produced de novo by many plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), play a role in plant defense against injury and pathogens. In human cell lines and in animal studies, phytoalexins have been shown to be highly beneficial, with protective effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, hyperglycemia, as well as potential effects on longevity. However, in clinical studies, there are multiple factors that restrict this plethora of health benefits attributed to phytoalexins. One of these barriers is rapid metabolism in the intestines and liver. As a means to overcome this barrier, there is evidence that retaining resveratrol in the mouth for extended periods allows for higher plasma levels of resveratrol. Processing, transport or storage may cause degradation due to light and air exposure. When the berries have been picked, they may not be at their peak phytoalexin production due to lack of elicitor induction. To overcome these barriers inherent in phytoalexin production and uptake, it is proposed that berries and possibly the edible leaves be directly ingested off of a grapevine, without harvesting. In addition to the benefit of removing these barriers to potential health benefits, this method introduces a variety of known phytoalexin elicitors, in the form of plant wounding and human saliva, which may enhance the levels of phytoalexins dramatically. The combined effect of multiple phytoalexins may also play a role in enhanced health benefits. To test this hypothesis, experiments with direct ingestion would be performed, followed by testing the participants' plasma levels of resveratrol and potentially other phytoalexins. Proposed variables to be tested include: different subjects, elicitors, cultivars of grapevine, ripeness of fruit, and a range of time for the ingestion process. The potential implications include a direct means of obtaining, in clinically beneficial

  3. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency. PMID:26948617

  4. Contributions to the study of Vitis vinifera defence mechanisms against esca

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Marta Raquel Martins

    2009-01-01

    Esca is a destructive disease of complex aetiology affecting grapevines worldwide and leading to great economic losses in viticulture. In the Vinho Verde Demarcated Region (North of Portugal), esca and young grapevine decline has been leading to important losses in wine production. The disease is widespread all over the region affecting all varieties of Vinho Verde grapevines, both old and young plants. To study the putative response of Vitis vinifera to esca-related fungi a la...

  5. Is there a future for wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris) in the Rhine Valley?

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Claire; Schnitzler, Annik; Douard, Anne; Peter, Richard; Gillet, François

    2011-01-01

    The wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, is considered to be an endangered taxon in Europe, mainly as a consequence of the introduction of pathogens from North America and of the destruction of its habitat. In the Rhine Valley, nearly all populations disappeared due to river management, the intensi.cation of forestry, and the introduction of phylloxera. After a growing awareness of the need to preserve endangered forest ecosystems, attempts to reintroduce wild grape...

  6. Characterization of Vitis vinifera L. subspecies sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi in the Ebro river Basin (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ocete Rubio, Rafael; Arroyo García, R.; Morales, M. L.; Cantos, Manuel; Gallardo Cano, A.; Pérez Izquierdo, Mª Á.; Gómez Parrales, Isidoro; López Martínez, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    A wild grapevine population of 76 vines of Vitis vinifera L. subspecies sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi was found along the Iregua river valley (Northeastern Spain), located in the Ibérica mountain-range. The characterization of this phytogenetic resource was based on an ampelographic description of the male and female individuals and an evaluation of their sanitary state. This shows that the imported North American downy and powdery mildews are the main pathogens, but no symptoms caused by phylloxe...

  7. Microsatellite characterization of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genetic diversity in Asturias (Northern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Sanz, Paula; Dolores, María; Suárez, Belén

    2013-01-01

    The genetic heritage of the Asturian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been declining over the past century due to the phylloxera attack and the further abandonment of this culture. In addition, efforts in recent years to restore the Asturian vineyard with the pulling-up of old vineyards and replanting with cultivars endorsed by Cangas Quality Wine regulations are contributing even more to this genetic erosion. The aim of this study was the evaluation and identification of the phytogenetic...

  8. Copper impacts in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): molecular, biochemical and biotechnological approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Viviana Maria Varajão

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Programa Doutoral em Biologia de Plantas Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800’s, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture. Although they initially seemed to improve plant growth in unproductive lands, their intensive use has raised concerns regarding toxicity to plants and soil contamination, and research has emerged to characterize coppe...

  9. EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF VITIS VINIFERA LINN. ON ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikare V P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study fruits of Vitis vinifera Linn. (Vitacae commonly known as Draksh were selected for preliminary phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of cognitive enhancing activity. The shade dried fruits were subjected to successive solvent extraction with 70 % ethanol. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids when subjected to chemical tests. TLC was run for their confirmation of flavonoids in Vitis vinifera and than subjected to isolation by preparative TLC method and analyzed by UV, FTIR and HPTLC. In the pharmacological screening, the alcoholic extract was used for the evaluation of cognitive enhancing activity using elevated plus maze & passive avoidance task method with Mentat as Standard by using parameters of step down and transfer latency. Induction was carried out by MES and scopolamine for 7 days. On 7th day the brain was isolated for evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity. The alcoholic extracts (200mg/kg.B.W showed significant effect when compare to control, there was significant increase in step down latency and decrease in the transfers latency and also decrease in acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity, which was as effective as that of standard drug. Hence it can by conclude that fruits of Vitis vinifera contain favonoid and hence possess significant cognitive enhancing activity.

  10. Isolation of Resveratrol from Vitis Viniferae Caulis and Its Potent Inhibition of Human Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaa Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase (TYR catalyzes rate-limiting reactions of cellular melanin synthesis, and its inhibitors are of commercial interest as potential skin whitening agents. However, the limited availability of human TYR makes the screening of TYR inhibitors difficult. To overcome this hurdle, we transformed nonmelanocytic human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells to express human TYR constitutively. Using these cells as a source of human TYR, the ethanolic extracts of 52 medicinal plants grown in Korea were tested for human TYR activity, and the extract of Vitis Viniferae Caulis (dried stems of the grape tree, Vitis vinifera L. was found to inhibit human TYR activity potently. An active compound was isolated from this extract by solvent fractionation followed by liquid column chromatography and identified as resveratrol by spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses. Resveratrol was determined to be a highly potent inhibitor of human TYR (IC50=0.39 μg mL−1 as compared with p-coumaric acid (IC50=0.66 μg mL−1 and arbutin (IC50>100 μg mL−1 and inhibited melanin synthesis by human epidermal melanocytes at subtoxic concentrations. This study suggests that resveratrol and resveratrol-containing extracts of Vitis Viniferae Caulis have a potential use as skin whitening agents.

  11. Clone lineages of grape phylloxera differ in their performance on Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, K S; Umina, P A; Mitrovski, P J; Powell, K S; Viduka, K; Hoffmann, A A

    2010-12-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, is an important pest of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) (Vitaceae). The distribution and frequency of phylloxera clone lineages vary within infested regions of Australia, suggesting the introduction of separate lineages of D. vitifoliae with host associations. Virulence levels of particular phylloxera clones may vary on V. vinifera, but much of this evidence is indirect. In this study, we directly tested the performance of phylloxera clones on V. vinifera using an established excised root assay and a new glasshouse vine assessment. In the root assay, grape phylloxera clones differed in egg production and egg to adult survivorship. In the vine assay, clones differed in the number of immature and adult life stages on roots. In addition vine characteristics, including mean stem weight, root weight, leaf chlorophyll and leaf area, were affected by different phylloxera clones. The two most widespread clones displayed high levels of virulence. These results point to only some phylloxera clones being highly virulent on V. vinifera, helping to explain patterns of field damage, phylloxera distributions and continued survival and production of V. vinifera vines in some infested areas. PMID:20482931

  12. RPB2 gene reveals a phylodemographic signal in wild and domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni ZECCA; Fabrizio GRASSI

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphism at the single copy RPB2 locus was investigated to define the relationship between wild and domesticated grapevines.Two different forms still coexist in Eurasia,the cultivated (Vitis vinifera L.ssp.vinifera) and the wild (Vitis vinifera L.ssp.sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi),referred to as separate subspecies.Using the observed number of mutations at the RPB2 locus,as well as archaeological data,to define an approximate age of domestication,we have estimated a high nucleotide substitution rate (4.25 × 10-7) in the domesticated group.Moreover,the dynamics of population size in the RPB2 gene were estimated using Bayesian coalescent inference.The Bayesian skyline plot offered interesting information on the past dynamics of RPB2 for both wild and domesticated groups.The signal of exponential growth observed in grapevine accessions can be viewed as a consequence of human breeding activity during the domestication of the species.However,a recent and drastic decline of population size has been observed in the Mediterranean wild lineages.This event mirrors the demographic decline of wild grape,probably explained by anthropogenic pressure on its natural habitats and by the introduction of pathogens from North America in recent centuries.

  13. Factors affecting distribution and mobility of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn) in a perennial grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Champagne region of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopin, E.I.B. [GEGENA EA 3795, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France)], E-mail: edithchopin@softhome.net; Marin, B.; Mkoungafoko, R.; Rigaux, A. [GEGENA EA 3795, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France); Hopgood, M.J. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Delannoy, E.; Cances, B.; Laurain, M. [GEGENA EA 3795, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France)

    2008-12-15

    Soil and Vitis vinifera L. (coarse and fine roots, leaves, berries) concentration and geochemical partitioning of Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in a contaminated calcareous Champagne plot to assess their mobility and transfer. Accumulation ratios in roots remained low (0.1-0.4 for Cu and Zn, <0.05 for Pb). Differences between elements resulted from vegetation uptake strategy and soil partitioning. Copper, significantly associated with the oxidisable fraction (27.8%), and Zn with the acid soluble fraction (33.3%), could be mobilised by rhizosphere acidification and oxidisation, unlike Pb, essentially contained in the reducible fraction (72.4%). Roots should not be considered as a whole since the more reactive fine roots showed higher accumulation ratios than coarse ones. More sensitive response of fine roots, lack of correlation between chemical extraction results and vegetation concentrations, and very limited translocation to aerial parts showed that fine root concentrations should be used when assessing bioavailability. - Soil Cu, Pb and Zn concentration and partitioning were combined to accumulation ratio to study the transfer of trace element from soil to Vitis vinifera L. roots and aerial parts in a contaminated vineyard plot.

  14. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Koppula Sushruta; Kolanukonda Rajabhanu; Nammi Srinivas; Sreemantula Satyanarayana; Boini Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress...

  15. Jasmonic acid-isoleucine formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by two enzymes with distinct transcription profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Böttcher; Crista A. Burbidge; Valentina di Rienzo; PauLK. Boss; Christopher Davies

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is essential for stress responses and the formation of reproductive organs, but its role in fruit development and ripening is unclear. Conjugation of JA to isoleucine is a crucial step in the JA signaling pathway since only JA-Ile is recognized by the jasmonate receptor. The conjugation reaction is catalyzed by JA-amido synthetases, belonging to the family of Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) proteins. Here, in vitro studies of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz) GH3 enzymes, VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9, demonstrated JA-conjugating activ-ities with an overlapping range of amino acid substrates, including isoleucine. Expression studies of the correspond-ing genes in grape berries combined with JA and JA-Ile measurements suggested a primary role for JA signaling in fruit set and cell division and did not support an involvement of JA in the ripening process. In response to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, and in wounded and unwounded (distal) leaves, VvGH3-9 transcripts accumulated, indicating a participation in the JA response. In contrast, VvGH3-7 was unresponsive to MeJA and local wounding, demonstrating a differential transcriptional regulation of VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9. The transient induction of VvGH3-7 in unwounded, distal leaves was suggestive of the involvement of an unknown mobile wound signal.

  16. Effect of Vitis Vinifera Leaf Extract on Ileum Mechanical Activity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Etemad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitis vinifera (grape is from Vitaceae family and many researches have performed on its seed but not on leaf. It has been reported that Vitis vinifera leaf extract induces relaxation in rat uterus, aorta, trachea and vas deferens precontracted by KCl. According to these reports, the inhibitory effects have been evoked through the voltage dependent calcium channels blockade. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of Vitis vinifera leaf hydroalcoholic extract (VHLE on rat ileum contractions induced by KCl, acetylcholine (ACh and barium chloride. Methods: Vitis vinifera leaf powder was extracted using manerated method by 70% alcohol for 72 h at ambient temperature and then solvent was evaporated. From Sprague Dawley rats (male and female pieces of ileum (2cm were isolated and placed in an organ bath (10ml containing Tyrode’s solution gassed with oxygen. An isotonic transducer recorded contractions under 0.5g initial tension. The mean±SEM of changes in length (mm or the percentages of length changes were calculated. Results: The results indicate that VHLE (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4mg/ml reduces the ileum contractions induced by KCl (60mM dose dependently (P<0.001. This inhibitory effect was unaffected by propranolol (1μM. VHLE (1mg/ml also inhibited the ileum contractions induced by ACh (0.05 and 0.5μg/ml P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively. Ileum contraction induced by BaCl2 (4mM was unaffected by VHLE (2mg/ml. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that VHLE inhibits ileum contractions via blocking the voltage dependent calcium channels. Ineffectiveness of propranolol on inhibitory effect of extract indicates that the adrenoceptors are not involved in this inhibitory effect. VHLE failed to relax ileum precontracted by BaCl2 probably because, BaCl2 increases intracellular calcium concentration via releasing calcium ions from intracellular pools that was not affected by VHLE.

  17. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  18. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  19. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. following cryopreservation by vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Lazo-Javalera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA, total protein and viability were assayed.

  20. Spatial distribution of root activity in Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial distribution of root activity was studied in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv., Thompson Seedless during vegetative and reproductive phases using the 32p soil injection technique. In 9-year old vines, a large proportion of the active roots amounting to 68 per cent was located deeper in the soil at 45 to 75 cm depth and as much as 80 per cent was concentrated within a radius of 120 cm. There was no change in the pattern of distribution of root activity during the two seasons although the intensity of activity during the vegetative phase was slightly more than that observed during the reproductive phase. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  1. Volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. Fernão-Pires variety from Bairrada appellation : 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Paula Raquel da Silva Jorge Coutinho

    2007-01-01

    A Bairrada é uma das regiões vitivinícolas mais antigas de Portugal, apesar de a Região Demarcada da Bairrada só ter sido oficialmente criada em 1979. A casta Fernão-Pires (FP) Vitis vinifera L. é a principal casta branca cultivada nesta região, onde é conhecida pelo nome de Maria-Gomes. As castas Bical (Bic), Arinto (Ari) e Cerceal (Cer), são outras castas brancas relevantes igualmente cultivadas na Região Demarcada da Bairrada. Estas quatro castas representam, respectivame...

  2. Tracing phenolic biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera via in situ C-13 labeling and liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassy, Alexander W.; Adams, Douglas O. [Department of Viticulture and Enology, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Laurie, V. Felipe [School of Agricultural Sciences, Universidad de Talca, Talca (Chile); Waterhouse, Andrew L., E-mail: alwaterhouse@ucdavis.edu [Department of Viticulture and Enology, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-10-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Phenyl-{sup 13}C{sub 6}-alanine was incorporated into grape berries, intact on the vine, at two stages of maturity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Labeled anthocyanins were synthesized by the berry and quantified by LC-UV/Vis-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extremely tight regulation of phenylpropanoid pathways was observed. - Abstract: Phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera contribute important flavor, functionality, and health qualities to both table and wine grapes. The plant phenolic metabolic pathway has been well characterized, however many important questions remain regarding the influence of environmental conditions on pathway regulation. As a diagnostic for this pathway's regulation, we present a technique to incorporate a stable-isotopic tracer, L-phenyl-{sup 13}C{sub 6}-alanine (Phe{sup 13}), into grape berries in situ and the accompanying high throughput analytical method based on LC-DAD-MS/MS to quantify and track the label into phenylalanine metabolites. Clusters of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, either near the onset of ripening or 4 weeks later, were exposed to Phe{sup 13} in the vineyard. Phe{sup 13} was present in berries 9 days afterwards as well as labeled flavonols and anthocyanins, all of which possessed a molecular ion shift of 6 amu. However, nearly all the label was found in anthocyanins, indicating tight regulation of phenolic biosynthesis at this stage of maturity. This method provides a framework for examining the regulation of phenolic metabolism at different stages of maturity or under different environmental conditions. Additionally, this technique could serve as a tool to further probe the metabolism/catabolism of grape phenolics.

  3. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W. R.; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation—via phloem—using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  4. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W R; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation-via phloem-using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  5. Oxidative stress homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can maintain growth and reproductive success by sensing changes in the environment and reacting through mechanisms at molecular, cellular, physiological and developmental levels. Each stress condition prompts a unique response although some overlap between the reactions to abiotic stress (drought, heat, cold, salt or high light and to biotic stress (pathogens does occur. A common feature in the response to all stresses is the onset of oxidative stress, through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. As hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are involved in stress signaling, a tight control in ROS homeostasis requires a delicate balance of systems involved in their generation and degradation. If the plant lacks the capacity to generate scavenging potential, this can ultimately lead to death. In grapevine, antioxidant homeostasis can be considered at whole plant levels and during the development cycle. The most striking example lies in berries and their derivatives, such as wine, with nutraceutical properties associated with their antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant homeostasis is tightly regulated in leaves, assuring a positive balance between photosynthesis and respiration, explaining the tolerance of many grapevine varieties to extreme environments.In this review we will focus on antioxidant metabolites, antioxidant enzymes, transcriptional regulation and cross-talk with hormones prompted by abiotic stress conditions. We will also discuss three situations that require specific homeostasis balance: biotic stress, the oxidative burst in berries at veraison and in vitro systems. The genetic plasticity of the antioxidant homeostasis response put in evidence by the different levels of tolerance to stress presented by grapevine varieties will be addressed. The gathered information is relevant to foster varietal adaptation to impending climate changes, to assist breeders in choosing the more adapted varieties and to suitable viticulture

  6. Integrating biotechnological advancements with induced mutagenesis: New opportunities for horticulture with special reference to Vitis vinifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation assisted breeding (MAB) is a highly effective way of enhancing natural genetic resources. Increasing mutation rates is important when natural variation is insufficient, when a single trait in a desirable variety needs improvement or when the species is apomictic or seedless. Development of cell and tissue culture-based regeneration techniques in many horticultural crops and increased knowledge of biochemical pathways provide ample opportunities to exploit MAB at an advanced level. Traditionally buds, bulbs, corms, cuttings or whole plants are treated in vegetatively propagated crops, but this results in chimeras. We have initiated a collaborative project to use embryogenic cell lines of Sicilian and international cultivars of Vitis vinifera to produce mutant populations for use in genetic studies as well as for selecting disease-resistant mutants in vitro. We have established embryogenic cell lines of Sicilian and New Zealand cultivars and established the LD 20 for ethylmethane sulphonate for several cultivars. The cell lines will be subjected to treatment with mutagenic agents, and mutants with tolerance to Botrytis toxins will be selected in vitro and regenerated. With the genome sequencing of Vitis vinifera being completed and the resistance to genetically modified crops in both Europe and New Zealand very high, our mutant collection will provide a valuable resource for genetic studies of this species. (author)

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the Vitis vinifera fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vitis vinifera dual-activity fucose and nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme l-fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase (FKP) has been purified to homogeneity and the 118.8 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized by vapor diffusion in Zeppezauer tubes at 277 K. The Vitis vinifera dual-activity fucose and nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme l-fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase (FKP) has been purified to homogeneity and the 118.8 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized by vapor diffusion in Zeppezauer tubes at 277 K. Crystals of the apoenzyme diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212. There is a single FKP monomer in the asymmetric unit, giving a Matthews coefficient of 3.22 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 61.8%. A complete native data set has been collected as a first step in determining the three-dimensional structure of this enzyme

  8. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis x labruscana and Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Poojari, S; Alabi, O J; Naidu, R A; Walsh, D B

    2013-12-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and European fruit lecanium scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché), are the predominant species of Coccoidea in Washington State vineyards. The grape mealybug has been established as a vector of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) between wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, elevating its pest status. The objective of this study was to determine if GLRaV-3 could be transmitted between Vitis x labruscana L. and V. vinifera by the grape mealybug and scale insects. Three transmission experiments were conducted with regard to direction; from V. vinifera to V. x labruscana L., from V. x labruscana L. to V. x labruscana L., and from V. x labruscana L. to V. vinifera. Each experiment was replicated 15 times for each vector species. Crawlers (first-instars) of each vector species were allowed 1-wk acquisition and inoculation access periods. The identities of viral and vector species were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of species-specific DNA fragments. GLRaV-3 was successfully transmitted by both species in all experiments, although Ps. maritimus was a more efficient vector under our experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first documented evidence of interspecific transmission of GLRaV-3 between two disparate Vitis species. It also highlights the potential role of V. x labruscana L. in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease as a symptomless source of GLRaV-3 inoculum.

  9. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca) oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, D. S.; Menezes, M.; G. Gonçalves; Mukai, H.; Lenzi, E. K.; N. C. PEREIRA; Fernandes, P. R. G.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet) and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo) are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry result...

  10. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  11. Elicitation Phenolic Compounds in Cell Culture of Vitis vinifera L. by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sák Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv. St. Laurent were treated with two elicitors - synthetic methyl jasmonate and natural, prepared from grapevine plant infected with the Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the agent causing the Esca disease of grapevine. Efficiency of phenolic compounds production after elicitation of cell culture was analysed immediately after treatment (15 min, 30 min, 60 min and later (after 24, 48, and 72 hours. The cell growth and content of phenolic compounds (+-catechin, (--epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, syringaldehyde, rutin, vanillic acid, and trans-resveratrol were analysed in cultivated cells as well as in cultivation medium. Pch-treatment increased production of total polyphenols the most significantly 15 min after the elicitation and in optimal time was 2.86 times higher than in nonelicited culture and 1.44 times higher than in MeJa induced cell culture.

  12. Ampelographic Characterization and Sanitary Status of Grapevine Cultivar ‘Prč bijeli’ (Vitis vinifera L.

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    Goran Zdunić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Prč bijeli’ is an old Croatian autochthonous grapevine cultivar (Vitis vinifera L., which has not been ampelographically characterized in detail until now. Ampelographic description was performed following 52 morphological, 22 phyllometric and seven bunches dimension characteristics. ‘Prč bijeli’ showed acceptable yield and a must composition suitable for oenological purposes, with low acidity value and medium sugar content. The following synonyms were established: ‘Ćimavica’, ‘Parč’ and ‘Muškat’. The results of sanitary analysis (ELISA test on four viruses on twenty-seven vines revealed that 92.6 % samples were GLRaV-3 positive, while ArMV was not detected. Only one vine was free of the tested viruses.

  13. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  14. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation.

  15. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valletta, Alessio [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Environmental Biology (Italy); Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe, E-mail: cleofe.palocci@uniroma1.it [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Baldan, Barbara [University of Padua, Department of Biology (Italy); Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Environmental Biology (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  16. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce's disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Iandolino, Alberto; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce's disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving 822 genes with a minimum twofold change (P related proteins, abscisic acid- and jasmonic acid-responsive biosynthesis, and downregulation of transcripts related to photosynthesis, growth, and nutrition. Although the transcriptional response of plants to Xylella infection was largely distinct from the response of healthy plants to water stress, we find that 138 of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit. This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity.

  17. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  18. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  19. Perbaikan Kualitas Buah Anggur Bali (Vitis Vinifera L. Var. Alphonso Lavallee melalui Aplikasi GA3 sebelum Bunga Mekar

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    I NYOMAN GEDE ASTAWA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of The Quality of Balinese Table grape (Vitis Vinifera L. Var. Alphonso Lavallee using GA3 Application Before Flowering. Research concerning of “Improvement of Balinese Tablegrape (Vitis Vinifera L. Var. Alphonso Lavallee using GA3 before flowering” had been done during May to August 2015 at the vineyard located at Kalianget Village, in Buleleng Regency, Bali. Theobjective of the research was to find out method in improving the quality of Balinese table grape using GA3 application. The experiment was designed as Randomized Block Designed, with GA3concentration as a treatment, i.e. 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 ppm. The results showed that, application of GA3 before flowering increased bunch length, improved oBrix, induced seedless, however decreasedberry weight.

  20. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture. PMID:24279372

  1. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are Golgi-localised GDP-sugar transporters in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Daniella; Handford, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Plant nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) are responsible for the import of nucleotide-sugar substrates into the Golgi lumen, for subsequent use in glycosylation reactions. NSTs are specific for either GDP- or UDP-sugars, and almost all transporters studied to date have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana L. In order to determine the conservation of the import mechanism in other higher plant species, here we report the identification and characterisation of VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless), which are the orthologues of the GDP-sugar transporters GONST3 and GONST4 in Arabidopsis. Both grapevine NSTs possess the molecular features characteristic of GDP-sugar transporters, including a GDP-binding domain (GXL/VNK) towards the C-terminal. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B expression is highest at berry setting and decreases throughout berry development and ripening. Moreover, we show using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged versions and brefeldin A treatments, that both are localised in the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, in vitro transport assays after expression of both NSTs in tobacco leaves indicate that VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are capable of transporting GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose, respectively, but not a range of other UDP- and GDP-sugars. The possible functions of these NSTs in glucomannan synthesis and/or glycosylation of sphingolipids are discussed.

  2. Irrigation and Leaf Removal Effects on Polyphenolic Content of Grapes and Wines Produced from cv. ‘Agiorgitiko’ (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia HORTI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Agiorgitiko’ is one of the most important red grape varieties of Greece, cultivated almost exclusively in the region of Nemea in north-eastern Peloponnese. This work aimed to study the influence of some commonly applied viticultural practices on the polyphenolic composition of ‘Agiorgitiko’. Leaf removal at veraison, irrigation, and a combination of both, were applied and the phenolic content of the grapes and of the produced wines was compared. The results showed that leaf removal decreased berry size, enhanced total anthocyanin, total phenol and malvidin 3-O-monoglucoside accumulation in skins and increased the amount of extractable anthocyanins in the juice. The combination of irrigation and leaf removal caused a significant increase in total phenols in the skin and in the amount of extractable anthocyanins in juice. As far as the produced wines were concerned, color intensity, tannin content and total polyphenols were increased due to leaf removal. Both irrigation and leaf removal resulted in wines with the highest concentration of malvidin 3-O-monoglucoside, although neither practice resulted in any significant difference in anthocyanin concentration of the wines. Vines where only irrigation was applied produced berries with reduced extractable anthocyanins, increased seed total phenols and lower wine total tannins. The study showed that increasing cluster sun exposure of ‘Agiorgitiko’ vines may be, overall, beneficial to the quality of the produced wine.

  3. Effect of Partial Grapevine Defoliation (Vitis vinifera on Wine Quality / Efecto de la Defoliación Parcial en Uva (Vitis vinifera sobre la Calidad del Vino

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    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine quality was determined for partially-defoliatedgrapevines grown in Villa de Leyva, Colombia at an elevation of2,143 masl. The experimental design was totally randomized,with two treatments (50% defoliation and 0% defoliation andthree repetitions per treatment. The planting material consistedof five-year-old vines of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay, trainedto trellises, with a spacing of 2.1 m x 1 m. Every fifteen days,the plants in the defoliation treatment underwent the removalof half of the newly-emerged leaves. Before undertaking themicro-vinification process, the total soluble solids (TSS weremeasured in the grape must, and after a fermentation of 100days, wine quality parameters were measured, namely: residual sugars (TSS of the wine, pH, total titratable acid (TTA, and potential alcohol content of the wine. In the plants undergoing partial defoliation, the total soluble solids in the grape must increased, as well as the wine pH and potential alcohol content. At the same time, total titratable acid decreased in the wine of partially-defoliated plants. These results demonstrate that the wine quality was greatly improved by the reduction of leaf area in Chardonnay variety grape plants. / Con el uso de un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con dos tratamientos (defoliación al 50% y sin defoliación parcial y tres repeticiones por tratamiento, se determinó la calidad del vino en plantas de uva sometidas a defoliación parcial temprana en Villa de Leyva – Colombia a una altitud de 2.143 msnm. Como material vegetal se utilizaron plantas de Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay de cinco años de edad, sembradas en un sistema de espalderas a 2,1 x 1 m. Quincenalmente, se realizó la defoliación parcial a las plantas, la cual consistió en retirar una de cada doshojas recién emergidas en cada una de las plantas sometidas al tratamiento de defoliación. Antes de iniciar el proceso de microvinificación se determinaron los sólidos solubles

  4. The transcription factor VvWRKY33 is involved in the regulation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) defense against the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Patrick R; Moser, Tina; Höll, Janine; Kortekamp, Andreas; Buchholz, Günther; Zyprian, Eva; Bogs, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) is one of the most important fruit species; however, it is highly susceptible to various pathogens, which can cause severe crop losses in viticulture. It has been shown that several WRKY class transcription factors (TFs) are part of the signal transduction cascade, which leads to the activation of plant defense reactions against various pathogens. In the present investigation, a full-length cDNA was isolated from V. vinifera leaf tissue encoding a predicted protein, designated VvWRKY33, which shows the characteristics of group I WRKY protein family. VvWRKY33 induction correlates with the expression of VvPR10.1 (pathogenesis-related 10.1) gene in the leaves of the resistant cultivar 'Regent' after infection with Plasmopara viticola, whereas in the susceptible cultivar 'Lemberger' VvWRKY33 and VvPR10.1 are not induced. Corresponding expression of the TF and VvPR10.1 was even obtained in uninfected ripening berries. In planta, analysis of VvWRKY33 has been performed by ectopic expression of VvWRKY33 in grapevine leaves of greenhouse plants mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. In consequence, VvWRKY33 strongly increases resistance to P. viticola in the susceptible cultivar 'Shiraz' and reduces pathogen sporulation of about 50-70%, indicating a functional role for resistance in grapevine. Complementation of the resistance-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) mutant line wrky33-1 by constitutive expression of VvWRKY33 restores resistance against Botrytis cinerea to wild-type level and in some complemented mutant lines even exceeds the resistance level of the parental line Col-0. Our results support the involvement of VvWRKY33 in the defense reaction of grapevine against different pathogens. PMID:25132131

  5. The transcription factor VvWRKY33 is involved in the regulation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) defense against the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Patrick R; Moser, Tina; Höll, Janine; Kortekamp, Andreas; Buchholz, Günther; Zyprian, Eva; Bogs, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) is one of the most important fruit species; however, it is highly susceptible to various pathogens, which can cause severe crop losses in viticulture. It has been shown that several WRKY class transcription factors (TFs) are part of the signal transduction cascade, which leads to the activation of plant defense reactions against various pathogens. In the present investigation, a full-length cDNA was isolated from V. vinifera leaf tissue encoding a predicted protein, designated VvWRKY33, which shows the characteristics of group I WRKY protein family. VvWRKY33 induction correlates with the expression of VvPR10.1 (pathogenesis-related 10.1) gene in the leaves of the resistant cultivar 'Regent' after infection with Plasmopara viticola, whereas in the susceptible cultivar 'Lemberger' VvWRKY33 and VvPR10.1 are not induced. Corresponding expression of the TF and VvPR10.1 was even obtained in uninfected ripening berries. In planta, analysis of VvWRKY33 has been performed by ectopic expression of VvWRKY33 in grapevine leaves of greenhouse plants mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. In consequence, VvWRKY33 strongly increases resistance to P. viticola in the susceptible cultivar 'Shiraz' and reduces pathogen sporulation of about 50-70%, indicating a functional role for resistance in grapevine. Complementation of the resistance-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) mutant line wrky33-1 by constitutive expression of VvWRKY33 restores resistance against Botrytis cinerea to wild-type level and in some complemented mutant lines even exceeds the resistance level of the parental line Col-0. Our results support the involvement of VvWRKY33 in the defense reaction of grapevine against different pathogens.

  6. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    OpenAIRE

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; Dinischiotu, Anca; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then anal...

  7. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Gao; Xiao-Xi Li; Mei-Mei Han; Xiao-Fan Yang; Zheng Li; Jun Wang; Qiu-Hong Pan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. ...

  8. The effect of lignin as a natural adhesive on the physico-mechanical properties of Vitis vinifera fiberboards

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Mancera; Nour-Eddine El Mansouri; Fabiola Vilaseca; Francesc Ferrando; Joan Salvado

    2011-01-01

    Lignin was used as a natural adhesive to manufacture Vitis vinifera fiberboards. The fiberboards were produced at laboratory scale by adding powdered lignin to material that had previously been steam-exploded under optimized pretreatment and pressing conditions. The kraft lignin used was washed several times with an acidic solution to eliminate any contaminants and low molecular weight compounds. This research studied the effects of amounts of lignin ranging from 5% to 20% on the properties o...

  9. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Liu; Jun Zhao; Long Ma; Yusong Ding; Deqi Su

    2012-01-01

    Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L) has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT) and total flavonoids (VTF) from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG-) plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg) of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree...

  10. Electronic Nose Analysis of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Volatile Differences during Cold Soak and Postfermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D. M.; Zoecklein, B. W.; Mallikarjunan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Cold soak is a prefermentation maceration process at cold temperatures, traditionally used to enhance red wine color. This study monitored changes in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon volatiles using a commercial conducting polymer electronic nose (ENose) during a five-day cold soak and postfermentation. Principal component analysis (PCA) of juice volatiles detected by the ENose during cold soak showed PCI accounted for 95.7% of the variation. Various volatile associations were made wi...

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves after exposure to ultraviolet C irradiation.

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    Huifen Xi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m-2 for 10 min using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape Genome Array (15,700 transcripts. A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58% probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87% probe sets and 1242 (23.55% probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold. CONCLUSIONS: UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have

  12. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes.

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    Zhenchang Liang

    Full Text Available Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g, cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts.The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.

  13. The herbicide flumioxazin stimulates pathogenesis-related gene expression and enzyme activities in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Antonio Jesús; Saladin, Gäelle; Bézier, Annie; Mazeyrat-Gourbeyre, Florence; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe

    2008-11-01

    In this work, the capacity of the soil-applied herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) to trigger defence mechanisms was assessed using 6-week-old in vitro grown Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. Time-course studies demonstrated that the herbicide induced the expression of basic beta-1,3-glucanase (Vvglu), basic chitinase (Vvchit1b) and PR10 (VvPR10.3) genes encoding three pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins involved in grapevine defence against pathogens. Thus, all transcripts accumulated in grapevine tissues to reach maximum values after 24-72 h of herbicide exposure, except for VvPR10.3 gene expression, which was induced in roots and stems but not in leaves. Induction of PR genes was observed to a greater extent in roots and leaves, and its intensity diminished in the stems although still remained noteworthy. The activities of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase enzymes significantly increased in the whole plant after herbicide exposure and were still stimulated 21 days after the beginning of treatments. Similarly, the most remarkable effect occurred in roots. However, all enzyme activities tested were stimulated in the upper aerial tissues as well, indicating that fmx or a derived product acts systemically, likely via root uptake.

  14. Somatic embryogenesis and histological analysis from zygotic embryos in Vitis vinifera L. 'Moldova'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We examined the somatic embryogenesis from and histological studies of zygotic embryos of seeds in European Grape 'Moldova' (Vitis vinifera L. 'Moldova'). Primary calli were initiated on Nitsch and Nitsch (NN) medium supplemented with 1.0mg'L-1 2,4-D and 0.5 mg'L-1 6-BA. Embryogenic calli were produced upon transfer to a NN medium with 0.5 mg-L-1 6-BA and 2 mg.L-1 NAA and somatic embryos were obtained on a half strength MS medium without plant growth regulators. During the somatic embryo germination, an addition of 1.0 mg.L-1 6-BA in the medium could accelerate somatic embryos to develop into normal plants and increase the conversion rate from 0 to 43.3%. Histological studies of embryogenic calli and somatic embryos demonstrated dy-namic changes of proteins and starch grains. The developmental processes of somatic embryos were similar to those of zygotic em-bryos, including typical epiderma, cotyledon primordium and vascular tissue.

  15. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide is involved in the chilling stress response in Vitis vinifera L.

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    Peining Fu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is an important signaling molecule involved in several stress-resistance processes in plants, such as drought and heavy metal stresses. However, little is known about the roles of H2S in responses to chilling stress. In this paper, we demonstrated that chilling stress enhance the H2S levels, the H2S synthetase (L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase, L/DCD activities, and the expression of L/DCD gene in Vitis vinifera L. ‘F-242’. Furthermore, the seedlings were treated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor and hypotaurine (HT, a H2S scavenger at 4°C to examine the effects of exogenous H2S on grape. The results revealed that the high activity of superoxide dismutase and enhanced expression of VvICE1 and VvCBF3 genes, but low level of super oxide anion radical, malondialdehyde content and cell membrane permeability were detected after addition of NaHS. In contrast, HT treatment displayed contrary effect under the chilling temperature. Taken together, these data suggested that H2S might be directly involved in the cold signal transduction pathway of grape.

  17. Fuel Characteristics of Vine Prunings (Vitis vinifera L. as a Potential Source for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan A. Nasser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven varieties of vine prunings (Vitis vinifera L. grown under Riyadh conditions were considered as renewable sources for fuelwood. Significant effects (P<0.01 were found for total extractives, benzene-ethanol extractives, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, cold water solubility, and hot water solubility among the seven vine varieties. Highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 were observed between the higher heating value (HHV and benzene-ethanol extractives (r=0.74 and lignin content (r=0.94. Additionally, elemental composition (C, H, N, O, and S exhibited a significant effect on HV (P<0.01 and ash content of the seven vine varieties. There were highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 between the HV and C (r=0.96 and H (r=0.93. Ash content showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 on HV with a negative coefficient (r=-0.93. The heating value of vine prunings ranged from 18.74 to 19.19 MJ/kg, i.e. higher than some well-known biomass fuels. The results suggested that the vine prunings could be suitable as a source for energy production in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10°C (GDD10), and Riou’s model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5°C.

  19. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing. PMID:26677006

  20. Expanding the chemical space of polyketides through structure-guided mutagenesis of Vitis vinifera stilbene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Namita; Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-08-01

    Several natural polyketides (PKs) have been associated with important pharmaceutical properties. Type III polyketide synthases (PKS) that generate aromatic PK polyketides have been studied extensively for their substrate promiscuity and product diversity. Stilbene synthase-like (STS) enzymes are unique in the type III PKS class as they possess a hydrogen bonding network, furnishing them with thioesterase-like properties, resulting in aldol condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. Chalcone synthases (CHS) in contrast, lack this hydrogen-bonding network, resulting primarily in the Claisen condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. We have attempted to expand the chemical space of this interesting class of compounds generated by creating structure-guided mutants of Vitis vinifera STS. Further, we have utilized a previously established workflow to quickly compare the wild-type reaction products to those generated by the mutants and identify novel PKs formed by using XCMS analysis of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS data. Based on this approach, we were able to generate 15 previously unreported PK molecules by exploring the substrate promiscuity of the wild-type enzyme and all mutants using unnatural substrates. These structures were specific to STSs and cannot be formed by their closely related CHS-like counterparts. PMID:26048582

  1. Regulation of cell wall remodeling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) callus under individual mineral stress deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, João C; Goulao, Luis F; Amâncio, Sara

    2016-01-15

    Cell wall (CW) is a dynamic structure that determines the plant form, growth and response to environmental conditions. Vitis vinifera callus grown under nitrogen (-N), phosphorous (-P) and sulfur (-S) deficiency were used as a model system to address the influence of mineral stress in CW remodeling. Callus cells morphology was altered, mostly under -N, resulting in changes in cell length and width compared with the control. CW composition ascertained with specific staining and immuno-detection showed a decrease in cellulose and altered pattern of pectin methylesterification. Under mineral stress genes expression from candidate families disclosed mainly a downregulation of a glycosyl hydrolase family 9C (GH9C), xyloglucan transglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) with predicted hydrolytic activity and pectin methylesterases (PMEs). Conversely, upregulation of PMEs inhibitors (PMEIs) was observed. While methylesterification patterns can be associated to PME/PMEI gene expression, the lower cellulose content cannot be attributed to altered cellulose synthase (CesA) gene expression suggesting the involvement of other gene families. Salt extracts from -N and -P callus tissues increased plastic deformation in cucumber hypocotyls while no effect was observed with -S extracts. The lower endo-acting glycosyl hydrolase activity of -N callus extracts pinpoints a more expressive impact of -N on CW-remodeling. PMID:26735749

  2. Study of Cytostatic and Cytotoxic Activity of Several Polyphenolic Extracts Obtained from Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta NECHITA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of polyphenolic extracts from skins, seeds, grape pomace and lees is justified by the huge amount of information from specialized literature, drawing attention to the many pharmacological effects of these biomolecules. The concentrated vegetal extracts obtained from seeds, skins, grape pomace and lees (yeast deposit after fermentation were characterized according to their content of total polyphenols, anthocyanins, dry matter, ash and pH. The biological material used in the in vitro testing experiments in order to study cytostatic and cytotoxic effects were stabilized cultures of HeLa cancer cells, uncontaminated with mycoplasma and derived from a human uterine cervix carcinoma. Another action of the cytostatic substances could be exerted upon the cell proliferation process. The cell division process of the HeLa cell cultures treated with seeds by-product showed remarkable quantitative changes. The study has also evidenced a great number of dead cells in the composition of the treated HeLa cell cultures, their existence pointing out that the bioactive agent induced a major decrease of the cells viability. The obtained results in the context of the complex evaluation of the in vitro antitumoral property of the extracts, obtained from seeds, skins, grape pomace and wine lees from the ‘Arcaş’ grape variety, on HeLa cells cultures, have demonstrated the significant cytostatic and cytotoxic potential of the seeds polyphenolic biopreparate. The results obtained show that polyphenolic extracts from Vitis vinifera seeds act as cytostatic and cytotoxic agents.

  3. Treatment strategies for high resveratrol induction in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu V. Vuong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioprocesses capable of producing large scales of resveratrol at nutraceutical grade are in demand. This study herein investigated treatment strategies to induce the production of resveratrol in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures. Among seven investigated elicitors, jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid, β-glucan (GLU, and chitosan enhanced the production of intracellular resveratrol manyfold. The combined treatment of JA and GLU increased extracellular resveratrol production by up to tenfold. The application of Amberlite XAD-7 resin for in situ removal and artificial storage of secreted resveratrol further increased resveratrol production by up to four orders of magnitude. The level of resveratrol produced in response to the combined treatment with 200 g/L XAD-7, 10 μM JA and 1 mg/mL GLU was approximately 2400 mg/L, allowing the production of resveratrol at an industrial scale. The high yield of resveratrol is due to the involvement of a number of mechanisms working in concert.

  4. Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Partially Defoliated Grape Plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay / Fluorescencia de la Clorofila en Plantas de Uva (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Defoliadas Parcialmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll content and fluorescence weredetermined in five-year-old grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv.Chardonnay that were subjected to early partial defoliation,in Villa de Leyva, Colombia. The experimental design wascompletely randomized, consisting of two treatments (50%defoliation and control, each with four replications of 35 plants. Every two weeks, one of every two recently-emerged leaves was removed from the non-control plants. The determination of total chlorophyll content was carried out on six leaves per plant using a CCM-200 Plus chlorophyll meter, while chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were taken with one darkadapted leaf per plant using a Junior-PAM fluorometer. Initial fluorescence (Fo, maximum fluorescence (Fm, terminal fluorescence (Ft, variable fluorescence (Fv, electron transport rate (ETR, maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/ Fm, effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (Y(II, photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (qP, two non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qN and NPQ,quantum yield of light-induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (Y(NPQ, and quantum yield of non-light-induced non-photochemical quenching (Y(NO were measured. The chlorophyll concentration index showed higher values in the defoliated plants. There were no significant differences for the values of Fm, Ft and Fv. Fo was higher in the defoliated plants, while ETR, Fv/Fm and Y(II showed higher values in the control plants. It is evident that a reduction in leaf area modifies thepartitioning of excitation energy destined for photochemicaland non-photochemical processes, thus directly influencing the photosynthetic process of the plants evaluated. / Utilizando un diseño completamente aleatorizado,con dos tratamientos (defoliación al 50% y control y cuatrorepeticiones de 35 plantas cada una, se determinó el contenido y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de uva, sometidas a defoliación parcial

  5. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed: an experimental study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppula Sushruta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6 were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic, antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. PMID:26160581

  7. Influence of vineyard location and vine water status on fruit maturation of nonirrigated cv. Agiorgitiko (Vitis vinifera L.). Effects on wine phenolic and aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundouras, Stefanos; Marinos, Vassilios; Gkoulioti, Anna; Kotseridis, Yorgos; van Leeuwen, Cornelis

    2006-07-12

    The influence of site on grape and wine composition was investigated for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Agiorgitiko in the Nemea appellation area in southern Greece. Three nonirrigated plots were studied during the 1997 and 1998 vintages, which were typically very hot and without summer rainfall. Vines were subjected to different water regimens as a result of the variation of soil water-holding capacity and evaporative demand. Vine water status was determined by means of predawn leaf water potential. Differences in vine water status between sites were highly correlated with the earliness of shoot growth cessation and veraison. Grape composition was monitored during fruit ripening. Water deficit accelerated sugar accumulation and malic acid breakdown in the juice. Early water deficit during the growth period was demonstrated to have beneficial effects on the concentration of anthocyanins and total phenolics in berry skins. A similar pattern was observed for the phenolic content of wines elaborated after vinification of grapes harvested on each plot, in both seasons. Limited water availability seemed to increase glycoconjugates of the main aromatic components of grapes as a quantitative increase in levels of bound volatile compounds of the experimental wines was observed under water deficit in both years. Wines produced from grapes of stressed vineyards were also preferred in tasting trials.

  8. Discriminated release of phenolic substances from red wine grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) by multicomponent enzymes treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Anthocyanins were released from skins during the early phases of the enzymatic treatments, but were then degraded during further enzymatic treatment; flavonols underwent transformation from glycosylated (rutin) to deglycosylated (quercetin) during....... The data moreover suggest that p-coumaric acid was also released during enzyme catalyzed degradation of acylated anthocyanins, probably as a result of cinnamate esterase activity. The data thus provided unexpected new clues as to how the enzymatic treatment with multicomponent pectinolytic enzymes may...

  9. A candidate gene association study on muscat flavor in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

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    Boursiquot Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sweet, floral flavor typical of Muscat varieties (Muscats, due to high levels of monoterpenoids (geraniol, linalool and nerol, is highly distinct and has been greatly appreciated both in table grapes and in wine since ancient times. Muscat flavor determination in grape (Vitis vinifera L. has up to now been studied by evaluating monoterpenoid levels through QTL analysis. These studies have revealed co-localization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS with the major QTL positioned on chromosome 5. Results We resequenced VvDXS in an ad hoc association population of 148 grape varieties, which included muscat-flavored, aromatic and neutral accessions as well as muscat-like aromatic mutants and non-aromatic offsprings of Muscats. Gene nucleotide diversity and intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD were evaluated. Structured association analysis revealed three SNPs in moderate LD to be significantly associated with muscat-flavored varieties. We identified a putative causal SNP responsible for a predicted non-neutral substitution and we discuss its possible implications for flavor metabolism. Network analysis revealed a major star-shaped cluster of reconstructed haplotypes unique to muscat-flavored varieties. Moreover, muscat-like aromatic mutants displayed unique non-synonymous mutations near the mutated site of Muscat genotypes. Conclusions This study is a crucial step forward in understanding the genetic regulation of muscat flavor in grapevine and it also sheds light on the domestication history of Muscats. VvDXS appears to be a possible human-selected locus in grapevine domestication and post-domestication. The putative causal SNP identified in Muscat varieties as well as the unique mutations identifying the muscat-like aromatic mutants under study may be immediately applied in marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at enhancing fragrance and aroma complexity respectively in table grape and wine cultivars.

  10. Genetic analysis and QTL mapping for fruit skin anthocyanidin in grape (vitis vinifera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an F1 population was created by the cross 87-1*9-22. The female parent 87-1 was a black purple cultivar and the male parent was an excellent breeding line with green pericarp. the skin color separation of population and distribution, and determined the content of each individual fruit peel pigment. On the basis of the genetic map of Vitis vinifera L. We carried out the grape skin pigment content quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. The results show that the fruit color performance for continuous variation and the inheritance of fruit skin anthocyanidin content was a quantitative inheritance. The color of offspring ranges from green and black-blue and existing distribution. Using SSR and SRAP molecular markers to construct 188 female parent maps,175 male parent maps and 251 consensus maps, and the total map distance is 1047.5 cM,1100.2 cM and 1264.2 cM respectively. The result of QTL showed that there were more QTLs exist in the linkage group of 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 13, 14, 16 and 19 and in the linkage group of 3, 4, 13 and 14, we detected QTLs in the similar position with the result of the study in the year of 2011 and 2012, and based on this we will conduct the fine QTL location in the future, this result will lay a good foundation for the grape in the department of molecular assistant breeding in the future. (author)

  11. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Grapevine ( Vitis vinifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of newly identified, small, non-coding RNAs that play vital roles in regulation. Based on miRNAs unique features of expression pattern, evolutionary conservation, secondary structure and genetic requirements for biogenesis, computational predication strategy is adopted to predicate the novel miRNAs. In this research, potential miRNAs and their targets in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) were predicted. We used previously known plant miRNAs against grapevine genome sequence databases to search for potential miRNAs. A total of 81 potential miRNAs were detected following a range of strict filtering criteria. Using these potential miRNA sequences, we could further blast the mRNA database to find the potential targets in this species. Comparative analysis of miRNAs in grapevine and other species reveals that miRNAs exhibit an evolutional conservation, the number and function of miRNAs must have significantly expanded during the evolution of land plants. Furthermore divergence made versatile functions of miRNAs feasible. Cluster of miRNAs likely represents an ancient expression mechanism. Predicted target genes include not only transcription factors but also genes implicated in floral development, signal transduction, diseases and stress response. Till now, little is known about experimental or computational identification of miRNA in grapevine species. Increased knowledge of the biological mechanisms of the grapevine will allow targeted approaches to increase the quality of fruit and reduce the impact of parasites together with stress, which could enable a sustainable, environmentally-sound, farming policy.

  12. Genomewide analysis of the lateral organ boundaries domain gene family in Vitis vinifera

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HUI CAO; CAI-YUN LIU; HUN-XIANG LIU; YUE-LING ZHAO; RUI-RUI XU

    2016-09-01

    In plants, the transcription factor families have been implicated in many important biological processes. These processes include morphogenesis, signal transduction and environmental stress responses. Proteins containing the lateral organ bound-aries domain (LBD), which encodes a zinc finger-like domain are only found in plants. This finding indicates that this unique gene family regulates only plant-specific biological processes. LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of plants such as Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays , poplar, apple and tomato. However, relatively little is known about the LBD genes in grape ( Vitis vinifera). In this study, we identified 40 LBD genes in the grape genome. A complete overview of the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, structures and expression profiles of this gene family during development in grape is presented here. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the LBD genes could be divided into classes I and II, together with LBDs from Arabidopsis. We mapped the 40 LBD genes on the grape chromosomes (chr1–chr19) and found that 37 of the predicted grape LBD genes were distributed in different densities across 12 chromosomes. Grape LBDs were found to share a similar intron/exon structure and gene length within the same class. The expression profiles of grape LBD genes at different developmental stages were analysed using microarray data. Results showed that 21 grape LBD genes may be involved in grape developmental processes, including preveraison, veraison and ripening. Finally, we analysed the expres-sion patterns of six LBD genes through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reation analysis. The six LBD genes showed differential expression patterns among the three representative grape tissues, and five of these genes were found to be involved in responses to mannitol, sodium chloride, heat stress and low temperature treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the LBD gene

  13. The combined effect of deuterium depleted water and magnetic nano particles on Vitis vinifera (L) organogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The combined effect of Deuterium Depleted Water (DDW) associated with Magnetic Nano Particles (MNPs) on organogenesis evolution of the Vitis vinifera (L) was investigated. A total of 10 cuttings of first year shoots belonging to three varieties were put into liquid medium (500 cm3 / jar) in three experimental groups and one control (C) each in four replications. The experiment was one year long being divided in two parts, laboratory and greenhouse conditions respectively. During the laboratory experiment, no nutrients were added in experimental solutions. The number of roots, sprouts and leafs were determined periodically. The capacity to perform organogenesis depended on genotype. Each of them pointed out a particular behaviour. In lab conditions the shoot number significantly differs in each variety/liquid composition (P≤0.001). In greenhouse condition on Burgund variety the shoot growth was very fast. In 90 pottings the shoots length varied from 7.36±1.88 to 14.39±4.53 cm in DDW and Negative Control (NC). The number of leafs after 3 months varied from 3.75±0.41 to 7.59±0.45 on Silvania NC and Socodor TW and MNPs respectively. The largest leaves area was 20.32±0.04 cm2 on Burgund variety in DDW conditions. The DDW and MNPs repressed the organogenesis on Silvania and Burgund varieties. The association DDW and MNPs enhanced the leaves area. Generally, the single action of DDW enhanced the plantlet traits and improved the chlorophyll content. The single action of DDW or in association with MNPs had a favourable influence in organogenesis, growth and synthesis of chlorophyll involved in metabolic activity. The deuterium amount decreased in leave juice if the plantlets grew in DDW presence. (authors)

  14. A framework map from grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') x rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea) to localize genetic determinants of phylloxera root resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junke; Hausmann, Ludger; Eibach, Rudolf; Welter, Leocir J; Töpfer, Reinhard; Zyprian, Eva M

    2009-10-01

    Grapevine rootstock cultivar 'Börner' is a hybrid of Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea Arnold that shows high resistance to phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). To localize the determinants of phylloxera root resistance, the susceptible grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') was crossed to 'Börner'. Genetic framework maps were built from the progeny. 235 microsatellite markers were placed on the integrated parental map. They cover 1,155.98 cM on 19 linkage groups with an average marker distance of 4.8 cM. Phylloxera resistance was scored by counting nodosities after inoculation of the root system. Progeny plants were triplicated and experimentally infected in 2 years. A scan of the genetic maps indicated a quantitative trait locus on linkage group 13. This region was targeted by six microsatellite-type markers newly developed from the V. vinifera model genome sequence. Two of these appear closely linked to the trait, and can be useful for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:19626311

  15. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

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    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

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    Liu Guo-Tian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts, followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. Results We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. Conclusion The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery

  17. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in organic and conventional systems

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    Bunea Claudiu-Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional. Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC. Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  18. MINERAIS DE VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVADAS NA FRONTEIRA DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Neidi Garcia Penna

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc foram analizadas durante oito (8 anos, com o objetivo de quantificar Nitrogênio(N, Fósforo(P, Potássio (K, Cálcio (Ca, Magnésio (Mg, Ferro (Fe, Cobre (Cu, Sódio (Na, Manganês (Mn, Boro (Bo e Zinco(Zn nos pecíolos. As amostras peciolares foram secas numa estufa com circulação de ar a aproximadamente 70°C e moídas. Nitrogênio foi determinado pelo método microkjeldahl, Fósforo por colorimetria, Potássio e Sódio por emissão de chama, Cálcio, Magnésio, Ferro, Cobre, Manganês e Zinco por espectrometria de absorção atômica e Boro por colorimetria usando curcumina como derivatizante. Valores médios dos oito (8 anos encontrados na matéria seca (MS foram para Cabernet Sauvignon (g/100g: 1,59N, 0,76P, 3,28K, 0,93Ca, 0,28Mg e em mg/100g: 11,52Fe, 4,18Cu, 85,08Na, 70,17Mn, 2.07B e 13,97Zn; para Pinot Chardonnay (g/100g: 1,26N, 0,47P, 3,20K, 0,82Ca, 0,31 Mg e em mg/100g: 15,25Fe, 3,25Cu, 63,73Na, 42,91Mn, 2,08B e 11,13Zn; para Sauvignon Blanc (g/100g: 1,51 N, 0,49P, 2.29K, 0,79Ca, 0,32Mg e em mg/100g: 16,01 Fe, 5,91 Cu, 76,02Na, 70,61 Mn, 1,91 B e 11,9Zn.

  19. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Mei-Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG, Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP, and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK, on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3′5′-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3′5′-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3′5′/3′-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of

  20. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Distrito Industrial do Sao Francisco; Nascimento, Antonio S., E-mail: antnasc@cnpmf.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P., E-mail: bjodao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Carvalho, Raimundo S. [Agencia de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  1. Effects of Maceration Duration on the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of ‘Teran’ (Vitis vinifera L. Wine

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    Kristijan Damijanić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of maceration duration on the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity in red grapevine variety ‘Teran’ (Vitis vinifera L. was investigated in this study. Total phenolics, flavonoids, nonflavonoids, individual and total anthocyanins, vanillin index and antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, ABST and FRAP methods were determined in ‘Teran’ wines during five different skin maceration periods (3, 7, 12, 17 and 21 days. Th e highest increase in the concentration of the most phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity was obtained between the 3rd and 7th day of maceration. Prolonging the maceration from 7 to 21 days did not lead to significantly higher concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids, nonflavonoids, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity measured with ABTS and FRAP methods. It is concluded that maceration duration of seven days is the most appropriate in order to obtain high concentrations of total phenolics and anthocyanins and high antioxidant capacity of ‘Teran’ wines.

  2. Evaluation of Protein Extraction Methods for Vitis vinifera Leaf and Root Proteome Analysis by Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neila Jellouli; Asma Ben Salem; Abdelwahed Ghorbel; Hatem Ben Jouira

    2010-01-01

    An efficient protein extraction method is crucial to ensure successful separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE)for recalcitrant plant species, in particular for grapevine(Vitis vinifera L.). Trichloroacetic acid-acetone(TCA-acetone)and phenol extraction methods were evaluated for proteome analysis of leaves and roots from the Tunisian cultivar 'Razegui'. The phenol-based protocol proved to give a higher protein yield,a greater spot resolution, and a minimal streaking on 2-DE gels for both leaf and root tissues compared with the TCA-based protocol. Furthermore, the highest numbers of detected proteins on 2-DE gels were observed using the phenol extraction from leaves and roots as compared with TCA-acetone extraction.

  3. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2008-07-01

    Plant extracts are extensively used against snakebites in Indian folk medicine. In this study, one such traditionally used plant, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) seed methanol extract has been studied for its ability to neutralize Indian Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) venom. The extract effectively inhibited toxic effects, such as oedema, haemorrhage, myonecrosis and coagulation of citrated human plasma. Further, the extract inhibited the caseinolytic, hyaluronolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of the venom. The extract caused dose dependent inhibition of the toxic activities studied, suggesting venom inhibition. Thus, the anti-snake venom property of the extract appears to be highly promising for further investigation in order to achieve better neutralization of Indian E. carinatus venom poisoning. PMID:18567054

  4. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  5. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R;

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression...... as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry...

  6. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  7. Relationships between stomatal behavior, xylem vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water relations in two cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea; Farinelli, Daniela; Palliotti, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Current understanding of physiological mechanisms governing stomatal behavior under water stress conditions is still incomplete and controversial. It has been proposed that coordination of stomatal kinetics with xylem vulnerability to cavitation [vulnerability curve (VC)] leads to different levels of isohydry/anisohydry in different plant species/cultivars. In this study, this hypothesis is tested in Vitis vinifera cultivars displaying contrasting stomatal behavior under drought stress. The cv Montepulciano (MP, near-isohydric) and Sangiovese (SG, anisohydric) were compared in terms of stomatal response to leaf and stem water potential, as possibly correlated to different petiole hydraulic conductivity (k(petiole)) and VC, as well as to leaf water relations parameters. MP leaves showed almost complete stomatal closure at higher leaf and stem water potentials than SG leaves. Moreover, MP petioles had higher maximum k(petiole) and were more vulnerable to cavitation than SG. Water potential at the turgor loss point was higher in MP than in SG. In SG, the percentage reduction of stomatal conductance (PLg(s)) under water stress was almost linearly correlated with corresponding percentage loss of k(petiole) (PLC), while in MP PLg(s) was less influenced by PLC. Our results suggest that V. vinifera near-isohydric and anisohydric genotypes differ in terms of xylem vulnerability to cavitation as well as in terms of k(petiole) and that the coordination of these traits leads to their different stomatal responses under water stress conditions.

  8. Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Edward William R Barlow

    2016-01-01

    The flavour of wine is derived, in part, from the flavour compounds present in the grape, which change as the grapes accumulate sugar and ripen. Grape berry terpene concentrations may vary at different stages of berry development. This study aimed to investigate terpene evolution in grape berries from four weeks post-flowering to maturity. Grape bunches were sampled at fortnightly intervals over two vintages (2012-13 and 2013-14). In total, five monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenes, and four nor...

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): volatile composition, phenolic content, and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Berta; Falco, Virgílio; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Bacelar, Eunice; Peixoto, Francisco; Correia, Carlos

    2009-01-14

    The impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on the quality of berries, must, and red wine (with special reference to volatile composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity) made from Touriga Franca, a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L. for Port and Douro wine manufacturing grown in the Demarcated Region of Douro, was investigated during 2005 and 2006. Grapevines were grown either in open-top chambers (OTC) with ambient (365 +/- 10 ppm) or elevated (500 +/-16 ppm) [CO2] or in an outside plot. In general, the increase of [CO2] did not affect berry characteristics, especially the total anthocyan and tannin concentrations. However, the total anthocyan and polyphenol concentrations of the red wine were inhibited under elevated [CO2]. The antioxidant capacity of the wines was determined by DPPH, ABTS, and TBARS assays and, despite the low concentrations of phenolics, the elevated [CO2] did not significantly change the total antioxidant capacity of the red wines. Thirty-five volatile compounds belonging to seven chemical groups were identified: C6 alcohols, higher alcohols, esters, terpenols, carbonyl compounds, acids, volatile phenols, and C13 norisoprenoids. Generally, the same volatile compounds were present in all of the wines, but the relative levels varied among the treatments. The effect of elevated [CO2] was significant because it was detected as an increase in ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid concentrations and a decrease in ethyl acetate concentration when compared to wines produced in ambient [CO2] in 2005. In elevated [CO2], wines from 2006 had lower methionol, 1-octanol, and 4-ethylguaiacol and higher ethyl lactate and linalool concentrations. The increase in [CO2] did not significantly affect C6 alcohols, citronellol, carbonyl compounds, and beta-damascenone concentrations. This study showed that the predicted rise in [CO2] did not produce negative

  10. Examination of Correlation between Histidine and Cadmium Absorption by Eleagnus angustifolia L., Vitis vinifera L. and Nerium oleander L. Using HPLC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Sukran Akkus; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    In this study, HPLC-MS and ICP-MS methods wereused for the determination of histidine and cadmium in Eleagnus angustifolia L., Vitis vinifera L. and Nerium oleander L. leaves taken from industrial area including Gaziantep and Bursa cities. To histidine determination by HPLC-MS, flow rate of mobile phase, fragmentor potential, injection volume and column temperature were optimized as 0.2 mL · min⁻¹, 70 V, 15 µL and 20 °C, respectively. For extraction of histidine from plants, distilled water was used by applying on 90 °C and 30 min. The concentrations (as mg · kg⁻¹) of histidine were found to be in range of 8~22 for Eleagnus angustifolia L., 10~33 for Vitis vinifera L. and 6~11 for Nerium oleander L. The concentrations of cadmium were found to be in ranges of 6~21 µg · kg⁻¹ for Vitis vinifera L. 15~110 µg · kg⁻¹ for Eleagnus angustifolia L. and 63~218 µg · kg⁻¹ for Nerium oleander L.

  11. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion. PMID:27303413

  12. Flame seedless grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) and different concentration of gibberellic acid (GA3)

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Ivanova, Violeta; Salamovska, Ana; Ilieva, Fidanka

    2014-01-01

    Solutions of gibberellic acid prepared at three concentration levels including 5, 10 and 20 mg/L, were applied on Flame seedless grape variety, by spraying, during the three different periods of the vine growing: before blooming, after blooming and before veraison, in order to study their influence on some cultural technological characteristics. The dimension and shape of the cluster and berry, mechanical characteristics of the berries, chemical content of the must (sugar and total acids) ...

  13. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Baránek

    Full Text Available There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5% corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2% were annotated as "hypothetical proteins" based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase.

  14. Effects of root restriction on nitrogen and gene expression levels in nitrogen metabolism in Jumeigui grapevines (Vitis viniferaL.×Vitis labruscaL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiu-ming; LI Jie-fa; ZHU Li-na; WANG Bo; WANG Lei; BAI Yang; ZHANG Cai-xi; XU Wen-ping; WANG Shi-ping

    2015-01-01

    To decipher the relationship between the inhibited shoot growth and expression pattern of key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism under root restriction, the effects of root restriction on diurnal variation of expression of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS1-1,GS1-2,GS2) and glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT,NADH-GOGAT) genes and nitrogen levels were evaluated in two-year-old Jumeigui grapevines (Vitis viniferaL.×Vitis labruscaL.) when signiifcant differences in shoot growth were observed between treatments at expansion stage (22 days after anthesis). Grapevines were planted in root-restricting pits as root restriction and in an unrestricted ifeld as the control. Results showed that root restriction signiifcantly reduced shoot growth, but promoted the growth of white roots and ifbrous brown roots and improved the fruit quality. (NO3–+NO2–)-N concentration in al plant parts, NH4+-N concentration in white roots and total N concentration in leaves and brown roots were signiifcantly reduced under root restriction. Gene expression analysis revealed that mRNA levels of genes related to the GS1/NADH-GOGAT pathway were lower in root-restricted than in control petioles, whereas genes involved in the GS2/Fd-GOGAT pathway were up-regulated under root restriction. Root restriction also resulted in down-regulation of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism in leaves, especialy at 10:00, while transcript levels of al these genes were enhanced in root-restricted white and brown roots at most time points. This organ-dependent response contributed to the alteration in NO3– reduction and NH4+ assimilation under root restriction, leading to less NO3– transported from roots and then assimilated in root-restricted leaves. Therefore, this study implied that shoot growth inhibition in grapevines under root restriction is closely associated with down-regulation of gene expression in nitrogen metabolism in leaves.

  15. EFFECT OF THE BROWN ALGA ASCOPHYLLUM NODOSUM AS BIOFERTILIZER ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH IN GRAPEVINE (VITIS VINIFERA L.

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    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental growing farm technology involves utilization of agricultural inputs which are friendly with the production and ecosystem. Seaweed extracts are used as biofertilizers in horticulture in special to increase plant growth and productivity. In this study, we investigated the effect of seaweed extracts made from Ascophyllum nodosum, on vegetative growth of Vitis vinifera cv. Feteasca Alba. We used three different concentrations of seaweed extracts to asset the effect on fertility coefficients, shoot length, shoot diameter and leaf area. All treatments with seaweed extract showed a stimulatory effect for studied parameters. The plants treated with the higher levels of seaweed concentrate produced the highest absolute fertility coefficient and relative fertility coefficient relative to the plants treated with lower concentration of or untreated control plants. Foliar spray application at different concentration of seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum influenced the vegetative growth expressed by leaf area of vine stock. The results indicate that the 170 ml-1hl concentration of seaweed extract showed the higher enhanced of growth parameters in grapevine.

  16. Phenological behavior of the grapevine (vitis vinifera l., cv cabernet sauvignon in Sutamarchán - Boyacá.

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    Diana Carolina Vargas Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical cold weather, the grapevine presents phenological disorders, difficult agronomic disfavoring vintage quality. With the purpose of establishing phenological cycles determined the duration of the different phases of the development cycle of the grapevine, cv "Cabernet Sauvignon" (Vitis vinifera L. in the vineyard Ain-Karim (5º39` N, 73º95' W, 2110 masl. We determined the average duration of sprouting (SP, flowering (FL, veraison (VE and vintage (VI periods from pruning, and the total cycle of growth, according to the phenological scale Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt Chemise (BBCH. To set the average of the process was considered when the plants reached 50% of each event. Determining growing degree days (GDD support the temperature record by a datalogger. Phenological data were subjected to a descriptive analysis as means and standard deviation. The duration of the period between pruning (PR and vintage (VI, with average temperature of 17.87 ° C, had a duration of 183 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating growing degree days 1458.1 (GDD. Flowering occurred at 50 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating 397.7 GDD. Veraison 122 was presented to the accumulation of 578.2 DAP with GDD. While from veraison to maturity 478.9 GDD accumulated in 62 days. Under Sutamarchán agro-climatic conditions, during the investigation, collects, on average, 7.98 degrees daily growth, which implies that for the Cabernet Sauvignon, the total duration of the phenological cycle is 184 days, accumulating 1458.1 GDD.

  17. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Fumagalli, Marco; Colombo, Elisa; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Peres de Sousa, Luis; Altindişli, Ahmet; Restani, Patrizia; Dell’Agli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:27447609

  18. Effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against Botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier). In the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigment and starch concentrations in the leaves, whereas soluble carbohydrates transiently accumulated, suggesting that plantlets mobilised starch in response to photosynthesis inhibition caused by fungicides. In the fruiting cuttings, the fungicides did not affect photosynthesis, although fludioxonil caused starch decrease in parallel with sucrose accumulation, suggesting that the fungicide effects were of lower intensity than in vitro. Conversely, in vineyard, the two fungicides stimulated photosynthesis and increased pigment concentrations in the three vine cultivars tested. In the meantime, glucose, fructose and starch levels of the leaves declined after fungicide exposure, whereas sucrose accumulated, indicating that sucrose synthesis increased in the leaves following the fungicide treatment. Among the three varieties, Chardonnay was the most sensitive to the fungicides as revealed by the intensity of the responses and the longer period for recovery. In vineyard, the results suggested that the two fungicides, in addition to inhibiting B cinerea development, had a beneficial effect on vine physiology through the stimulation of leaf carbon nutrition, which may further enable the plant to rapidly make use of its defence reactions.

  19. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Di Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases.

  20. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Fumagalli, Marco; Colombo, Elisa; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Peres de Sousa, Luis; Altindişli, Ahmet; Restani, Patrizia; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:27447609

  1. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice

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    Tao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT and total flavonoids (VTF from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG- plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced immunological liver injury (ILI in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO, and malondialdehyde (MDA content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2 in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10. Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant.

  2. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Ma, Long; Ding, Yusong; Su, Deqi

    2012-01-01

    Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L) has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT) and total flavonoids (VTF) from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG-) plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg) of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent) and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant.

  3. Characterization of Hg-phytochelatins complexes in vines (Vitis vinifera cv Malbec) as defense mechanism against metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisso, Adrian A; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo H; Martinez, Luis D

    2014-06-01

    An approach to understand vines (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanism against heavy metal stress by isolation and determination of Hg-phytochelatins (PCs) complexes was performed. PCs are important molecules involved in the control of metal concentration in plants. PCs complex toxic metals through -SH groups and stores them inside cells vacuole avoiding any toxic effect of free metals in the cytosol. The Hg-PCs identification was achieved by determination of Hg and S as hetero-tagged atoms. A method involving two-dimensional chromatographic analysis coupled to atomic spectrometry and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry is proposed. An approach involving size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on roots, stems, and leaves extracts describing Hg distribution according to molecular weight and sulfur associations is proposed for the first time. Medium-low molecular weight Hg-S associations of 29-100 kDa were found, suggesting PCs presence. A second approach employing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis allowed the determination of Hg-PCs complexes within the mentioned fractions. Chromatograms showed Hg-PC2, Hg-PC3 and Hg-PC4 presence only in roots. Hg-PCs presence in roots was confirmed by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

  4. Vine vigor and cluster uniformity on Vitis vinifera L. seed procyanidin composition in a warm Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Edo-Roca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed procyanidin composition of Vitis vinifera L. var. ˈCarignanˈ and ˈGrenacheˈ was analyzed to assess the impact of vintage climatology, plant vigor and bunch variability on the quality of grapes. This study was carried out over 2007 and 2008 vintages in Terra Alta denomination of origin (DO. This region is located in northeastern Spain and characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a continental tendency. Procyanidin composition of seeds from four vineyards was analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC-DAD-TOF/MS. Vintage, vigor and ripeness uniformity had an influence on the procyanidin concentration in seeds. Flavan-3-ol polymerization increased during the warm year, together with a notable dependence on the variety and vine vigor. In warmer years and low vigor, ˈGrenacheˈ seed composition is likely to be more vulnerable than ˈCarignanˈ. High levels of flavan-3-ol monomers and low polymerization characterized the seeds of the temperate year.

  5. Enhancement of phenolics, resveratrol and antioxidant activity by nitrogen enrichment in cell suspension culture of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Lee, Napaporn; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), an important nitrogen source (34% N), has been used as an elicitor to stimulate plant growth and development as well as induce secondary metabolites under controlled conditions. In the present paper, we investigated the enhancement of cell biomass, total phenolics, resveratrol levels, and antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera cv. Pok Dum by nitrogen enrichment (MS medium supplemented with NH4NO3 at 0, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/L). The highest accumulations of biomass, phenolics and resveratrol contents were observed at 8.8-fold (86.6 g DW/L), 15.9-fold (71.91 mg GAE/g DW) and 5.6-fold (277.89 µg/g DW) by the 14th day, in the medium supplemented with 500 mg/L NH4NO3. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of cultured grape cells estimated by the DPPH· and ABTS·+ assay were positively correlated with phenolics and resveratrol, and the maximum activity was also observed in cultured cells with 500 mg/L NH4NO3 at 176.11 and 267.79 mmol TE/100 g DW, respectively. PMID:24962393

  6. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

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    Giovanna Simonetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs, obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.

  7. Enhancement of Phenolics, Resveratrol and Antioxidant Activity by Nitrogen Enrichment in Cell Suspension Culture of Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napaporn Sae-Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3, an important nitrogen source (34% N, has been used as an elicitor to stimulate plant growth and development as well as induce secondary metabolites under controlled conditions. In the present paper, we investigated the enhancement of cell biomass, total phenolics, resveratrol levels, and antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera cv. Pok Dum by nitrogen enrichment (MS medium supplemented with NH4NO3 at 0, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/L. The highest accumulations of biomass, phenolics and resveratrol contents were observed at 8.8-fold (86.6 g DW/L, 15.9-fold (71.91 mg GAE/g DW and 5.6-fold (277.89 µg/g DW by the 14th day, in the medium supplemented with 500 mg/L NH4NO3. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of cultured grape cells estimated by the DPPH· and ABTS·+ assay were positively correlated with phenolics and resveratrol, and the maximum activity was also observed in cultured cells with 500 mg/L NH4NO3 at 176.11 and 267.79 mmol TE/100 g DW, respectively.

  8. Leaf blade and petiole nutritional diagnosis for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo by deviation from optimum percentage method

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    Izaskun Romero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deviation from optimum percentage (DOP is a diagnosis methodology for leaf analyses which expresses the deviation for each element with respect to its optimal concentration. This deviation is an individual index for each nutrient and allows the sorting of all the analyzed nutrients according to their limitations. A nutritional survey was undertaken over eleven years in La Rioja (Spain, to establish reference concentrations for the nutritional diagnosis of Vitis vinifera L., cv. ‘Tempranillo’ grafted on Richter-110. Reference concentrations for DOP methodology are proposed, and sensibility for the nutritional diagnosis was evaluated for blade and petiole analysis of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B at flowering and veraison phenological stages by comparison between DOP and sufficiency ranges (SR methods. Results suggest that petiole has lower sensibility than blade to detect deficiencies or excesses of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Mn at veraison. In addition, petiole is a better tissue than blade to detect Fe and B deficiencies or excesses. Therefore, our results make possible the right choice between tissues, leaf blade or petiole, for a general nutritional diagnosis of ‘Tempranillo’ grapevines. On the other hand, it is possible to evaluate the status of each nutrient in each phonological stage analyzing both tissues and comparing the nutrient status to its references, DOP or SR, in the most adequate tissue.

  9. Leaf blade and petiole nutritional evolution and variability throughout the crop season for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano

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    Natalia Dominguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An adequate nutritional state of a crop can be kept by means of a well-designed fertilization plan based on the assessment of the nutrient availability throughout the growing season. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of leaf blade and petiole diagnosis and the period of validity of their references at both flowering and veraison by means of systematic monitoring throughout the complete growing season. The study was carried out in two plots planted with Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano within the AOC Rioja (Spain. Blades and petioles were collected throughout a growing season (2006 and total N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B concentrations were analyzed in both tissues. Results suggest, in general, that petioles have higher variability and lower analysis reproducibility than blades. Therefore, blade could be a more appropriate tissue to evaluate N, P, K, Ca, and Mg at both flowering and veraison in this variety. Micronutrients in blade and petiole showed different variability behaviour in each of the vineyards studied, therefore, based on our results, it was difficult to determine which one could be the best tissue for the nutritional diagnosis of the ‘Graciano’ variety. Seasonal changes of nutrient concentration in both tissues also confirmed the need for reference values for each tissue and each phenological stage.

  10. Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Howell, Kate

    2016-08-01

    The flavour of wine is derived, in part, from the flavour compounds present in the grape, which change as the grapes accumulate sugar and ripen. Grape berry terpene concentrations may vary at different stages of berry development. This study aimed to investigate terpene evolution in grape berries from four weeks post-flowering to maturity. Grape bunches were sampled at fortnightly intervals over two vintages (2012-13 and 2013-14). In total, five monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenes, and four norisoprenoids were detected in grape samples. The highest concentrations of total monoterpenoids, total sesquiterpenes, and total norisoprenoids in grapes were all observed at pre-veraison. Terpenes derived from the same biosynthetic pathway had a similar production pattern during berry development. Terpenes in grapes at harvest might not necessarily be synthesised at post-veraison, since the compounds or their precursors may already exist in grapes at pre-veraison, with the veraison to harvest period functioning to convert these precursors into final products. PMID:26988525

  11. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

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    Pangzhen Zhang

    Full Text Available Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP. Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and

  12. Contribución al estudio de la nematofauna peri-radicular de la vid (Vitis vinifera L.) del Vallès Occidental (Barcelona)

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll, Francesc; Palomo González, Alejandro

    1985-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the knowledge of the free-living nematological fauna of Spanish vineyard soils and its seasonal fluctuations. Two Vitis vinifera fields were studied. One of them is under cultivation (V field) while the other was abandoned 10 years ago (CE field). Soils are alkaline, with sandy-loam (VI or sandyclay-loam (CE) textures. Ten soil samples were taken each season from each field, at a depth of 0-20 cm. Nematodes were extracted by the Baermann's method, stained with ...

  13. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported......, 7 mol % arabinan, 4.5-5.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan I, 3.5-4.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan II, 3 mol % arabinogalactan, and 0.5-1.0 mol % mannans; the ranges indicate minor variations in the skin composition of the three different cultivars. These cell wall polysaccharides made up similar to 43...

  14. EFECTO DE LAS AGUAS RESIDUALES TRATADAS SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO, FOTOSÍNTESIS Y RENDIMIENTO EN VIDES TEMPRANILLO (Vitis vinifera) EN BAJA CALIFORNIA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Dinora Acosta-Zamorano; Víctor Macías-Carranza; Leopoldo Mendoza-Espinosa; Alejandro Cabello-Pasini

    2013-01-01

    Baja California es una zona semidesértica donde la agricul - tura, incluyendo la viticultura, está limitada por la dispo - nibilidad de agua. Ensenada es una ciudad adyacente a la zona viticultural donde 100 % de las aguas de drenaje son tratadas, no son reutilizadas y se vierten al mar. Por tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de las aguas residuales tratadas (ART) sobre el crecimiento, la fotosínte - sis y el rendimiento de vid ( Vitis vinifera var. Tempranillo) en el Va...

  15. Composició fenòlica en varietats negres de Vitis vinifera. Estudi de la influència de diferents factors

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Fonayet, Josep

    2004-01-01

    La composició antociànica és un caràcter fenotípic fortament diferenciat i característic de cada varietat vinífera, de manera que pot utilitzar-se com a identificador varietal. En la present tesi s'han caracteritzat 8 varietats negres (Cabernet sauvignon, Carinyena, Garnatxa, Merlot, Monstrell, Pinot noir, Syrah i Ull de llebre) de Vitis vinifera a partir de la seva composició en antocians. Tanmateix, una sèrie de factors poden modificar aquesta composició. En condicions in vitro, en situacio...

  16. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.), Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eldina Castro Sousa; Ana Maria Athayde Uchôa-Thomaz; José Osvaldo Beserra Carioca; Selene Maia de Morais; Alessandro de Lima; Clécio Galvão Martins; Cristiane Duarte Alexandrino; Pablito Augusto Travassos Ferreira; Ana Livya Moreira Rodrigues; Suliane Praciano Rodrigues; Jurandy do Nascimento Silva; Larissa Lages Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.), Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82), moisture (3.33g/100g), acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g), and ash (4.65 g/100g). The amount of tota...

  17. Variabilidad morfológica, patogénica y susceptibilidad a fungicidas de Rhizoctonia solani aislado de rizósfera de Vitis vinifera var. perlette seedless

    OpenAIRE

    Amparo Meza-Moller; Martín Esqueda; Alfonso Gardea; Martín Tiznado; Gil Virgen-Calleros

    2007-01-01

    Se estudió la variabilidad morfológica, reacción de anastomosis, patogenicidad y susceptibilidad a fungicidas de Rhizoctonia solani aislado de la rizósfera de Vitis vinifera var. perlette seedless plantada a pie franco en Sonora, México. El hongo se aisló mediante el método de tamizado en húmedo y la siembra en agar-agua 2 %. Se obtuvieron 122 cepas, las cuales presentaron hifas con 3 a 9 núcleos por célula, de 3 a 8 µm de diámetro y de color blanco sucio a moreno oscuro. Los aislamientos cor...

  18. A study on total phenolics and vitamin c contents of kalecik karasi (vitis vinifera l.) clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study total phenolic and vitamin C contents of the fully ripe berries of 23 clones of Kalecik Karasi which is one of the leading Turkish local red-wine grape cultivar originally grown in Kizilirmak valley near Kalecik/Ankara region were examined under the clone selection project supported by TUBTAK (Project Nr: 107 O 731). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for vitamin C and spectrophotometer for total phenolics estimation. One way ANOVA was used to compare means of clone for their total phenolic and vitamin C contents. In addition to this univariate method, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify similarity levels among the clones by considering total phenolics and vitamin C content together. Differences among the clones were found statistically significant for both characteristics. Total phenolic contents of the clones varied from 3.310 mg (clone 21) to 3.389 mg (clone 6) as GAE g fw. Vitamin C content ranged from 14.010 mg (clone 6) to 16.500 mg (clone 19) in 100g fw. Furthermore, similarity level for all clones was 83.1% that means variation rate is about 17% among the clones. As a summary of whole data, the first three performing clones are 6 (3.389 mg), 10 (3.374 mg) and 1 (3.365 mg) for total phenolics, and 19 (16.500 mg), 9 (16.020 mg), and 21 (16.015 mg) for vitamin C contents of the berries. (author)

  19. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  20. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  1. Influence of constitutive phenolic compounds on the response of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves to infection by Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latouche, Gwendal; Bellow, Sébastien; Poutaraud, Anne; Meyer, Sylvie; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2013-01-01

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are known to contribute to plant resistance against pathogens, but there are few reports on the implication of flavonols in the resistance of grapevine against Plasmopara viticola, and none on the involvement of hydroxycinnamic acids. In order to analyze the effect of flavonols on P. viticola infection, variable amounts of flavonols were induced by different light conditions in otherwise phenologically identical leaves. Differences in content of leaf hydroxycinnamic acids were induced at the same time. A non-invasive monitoring of flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids was performed with Dualex leaf-clip optical sensors. Whatever the light condition, there were no significant changes in flavonol or in hydroxycinnamic acid contents for control and inoculated leaves during the development of P. viticola until 6 days after inoculation. The violet-blue autofluorescence of stilbenes, the main phytoalexins of grapevine that accumulate in inoculated leaves, was used as an indicator of infection by P. viticola. The implication of leaf constitutive flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids in the defence of Vitis vinifera against P. viticola could be investigated in vivo thanks to this indicator. The increase in stilbene violet-blue autofluorescence started earlier for leaves with low flavonol content than for leaves with higher content, suggesting that constitutive flavonols are able to slow down the infection by P. viticola. On the contrary, constitutive hydroxycinnamic acids did not seem to play a role in defence against P. viticola. The non-destructive nature of the methods used alleviates the major problem of destructive experiments: the large variability in leaf phenolic contents. PMID:23080015

  2. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases.

  3. [Impact of subculture cycles and inoculum sizes on suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Quan-Li; Jin, Mei-Fang

    2006-11-01

    The commercial application of plant cell cultures is often hindered by the instability of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, where the metabolite yield fluctuates and decline dramatically over subcultures. This study proposed that such instability is due to the fluctuations of culture variables. To validate this hypothesis, the effects of the fluctuations of two culture variables (subculture cycle and inoculum size) on the biomass, anthocyanin biosynthesig, intracellular carbon, nitrogen and phosphate during continuous 10 subculture cycles were investigated. The subculture cycle was fluctuated for 12h in a 7 day cycle (6.5, 7 and 7.5 d), and the inoculum size was fluctuated by 20% on basis of 2.00 g (1.60, 2.00 and 2.40 g). It was found that all the measured culture parameters fluctuated over the 10 subculture cycles. The fluctuation in terms of inoculum sizes had a greater effect on the stability of anthocyanin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of V. vinifera. Among all the subculture conditions investigated, 7d-subculture cycle and 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to hold the relatively stable anthocyanin production. The anthocyanin yield presented a negative correlation with intracellular sucrose content or intracellular total phosphate content.

  4. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  5. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  6. Genetic Variability in Rhizoctonia solani Isolated from Vitis vinifera Based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Meza-Moller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rhizoctonia solani is a potential grapevine pathogen. In order to develop effective methods of control, it is necessary to document its genetic diversity. Approach: The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of R. solani isolated from the rhizosphere of ungrafted V. vinifera var. perlette seedless planted in Sonora, Mexico using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP. Results: In the selective amplification using eight primer combinations we obtained a total of 446 AFLP markers with a 100% polymorphism. Out of 41 isolates, 36 different AFLP patterns were observed and five were replicates of the same pattern. The dendrogram shows inter- and intrapopulation similarity indexes of 0.26, 0.98 and 0.31, 0.98, respectively. Six groups emerged from the principal components analysis, five of which were clearly defined, while the other one was spread out. Conclusion: We conclude that R. solani growing in Sonoran vineyards shows a high degree of genetic variability, even under similar environmental conditions.

  7. Interactive effects of soil water deficit and air vapour pressure deficit on mesophyll conductance to CO2 in Vitis vinifera and Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martin, A; Flexas, J; Ribas-Carbó, M; Bota, J; Tomás, M; Infante, J M; Diaz-Espejo, A

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to study the interactive effect of drought stress and high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on leaf gas exchange, and especially on mesophyll conductance to CO(2) (g(m)), in two woody species of great agronomical importance in the Mediterranean basin: Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo and Olea europaea L. cv. Manzanilla. Plants were grown in specially designed outdoor chambers with ambient and below ambient VPD, under both well-irrigated and drought conditions. g(m) was estimated by the variable J method from simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and fluorescence. In both species, the response to soil water deficit was larger in g(s) than in g(m), and more important than the response to VPD. Olea europaea was apparently more sensitive to VPD, so that plants growing in more humid chambers showed higher g(s) and g(m). In V. vinifera, in contrast, soil water deficit dominated the response of g(s) and g(m). Consequently, changes in g(m)/g(s) were more related to VPD in O. europaea and to soil water deficit in V. vinifera. Most of the limitations of photosynthesis were diffusional and especially due to stomatal closure. No biochemical limitation was detected. The results showed that structural parameters played an important role in determining g(m) during the acclimation process. Although the relationship between leaf mass per unit area (M(A)) with g(m) was scattered, it imposed a limitation to the maximum g(m) achievable, with higher values of M(A) in O. europaea at lower g(m) values. M(A) decreased under water stress in O. europaea but it increased in V. vinifera. This resulted in a negative relationship between M(A) and the CO(2) draw-down between substomatal cavities and chloroplasts in O. europaea, while being positive in V. vinifera. PMID:19457982

  8. Determination of carotenoid profiles in grapes, musts, and fortified wines from Douro varieties of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes De Pinho, P; Silva Ferreira, A C; Mendes Pinto, M; Benitez, J G; Hogg, T A

    2001-11-01

    beta-Carotene and six xanthophylls (lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and echinenone) have been identified and semiquantitatively or quantitatively determined in musts and port wines for the first time. An HPLC method was developed and compared with that of one based on thin layer cromatography with scanning densitometry. The most abundant carotenoids present in red grape varieties are beta-carotene and lutein. In wines, significant quantities of violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, and neoxanthin were found. This study was done with berries (skin and pulp), musts, and fortified wines. Some experiments were performed to follow carotenoid content from grapes to wines. Although the levels of beta-carotene and lutein found in fortified wines were lower than those found in musts, other xanthophylls, such as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and luteoxanthin, exist in appreciable amounts in young ports. PMID:11714348

  9. A reliable protocol for the stable transformation of non-embryogenic cells cultures of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. and Taxus x media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Martínez-Márquez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major intent of metabolic engineering in cell culture systems is to increase yields of secondary metabolites. Efficient transformation methods are a priority to successfully apply metabolic engineering to cell cultures of plants that produce bioactive or therapeutic compounds, such as Vitis vinifera and Taxus x media. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method to transform non-embryogenic cell cultures of these species. The V. vinifera cv. Gamay/cv. Monastrell cell lines and Taxus x media were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the Gateway-compatible Agrobacterium sp. binary vector system for fast reliable DNA cloning. The Taxus x media and Vitis cell lines were maintained in culture for more than 4 and 15 months, respectively, with no loss of reporter gene expression or antibiotic resistance. The introduced genes had no discernible effect on cell growth, or led to extracellular accumulation of phytoalexin trans-Resveratrol (t-R in response to elicitation with methylated cyclodextrins (MBCD and methyl jasmonate (MeJA in the grapevine transgenic cell lines compared to the parental control. The method described herein provides an excellent tool to exploit exponentially growing genomic resources to enhance, optimize or diversify the production of bioactive compounds generated by grapevine and yew cell cultures, and offers a better understanding of many grapevine and yew biology areas.

  10. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eTavares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiollyase (OASTL and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS, the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT, which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC. In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT protein family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT gene family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labelled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine. Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription.

  11. Differences between sympatric populations of Eotetranychus carpini collected from Vitis vinifera and Carpinus betulus: insights from host-switch experiments and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnini, Valeria; Navajas, Maria; Migeon, Alain; Duso, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Eotetranychus carpini (Oudemans) is an important pest of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in southern Europe. This mite is also found on a number of different plants, including Carpinus betulus L., which commonly occurs in stands and hedgerows bordering vineyards, where it may serve as a potential mite reservoir. The economic importance of this pest has motivated a number of studies aimed at investigating whether the mites found on V. vinifera and C. betulus are conspecific. The results obtained to date have been inconclusive. In this study, we used biological and molecular approaches to investigate this issue. First, we conducted host-switch experiments to test the ability of E. carpini to develop on an alternative host plant, using mite populations originally collected on either C. betulus or V. vinifera plants from the same area. Second, we investigated DNA-based differentiation using nucleotide sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA of individual E. carpini from the populations examined in our host-plant experiments. We also analyzed sequences of individuals collected in other regions (Italy and Slovenia) to estimate species variation. The results from our host-switch experiments suggest the differentiation of mites collected on the two hosts. Mites collected from C. betulus did not survive and reproduce on V. vinifera and vice versa. Our molecular work revealed significant genetic differentiation between the mites collected from the two hosts, but no evidence of genetic variation among specimens collected from the same host species. Our results indicate the existence of host races of E. carpini. PMID:22270111

  12. Integration of stress produced reactive oxygen species in the stomatal regulation of micropropagated Vitis vinifera L. plantlets impaired in ABA signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, B Jorge; Carvalho, Luísa C; Amâncio, Sara

    2008-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been repeatedly implicated as cellular second messengers important in the modulation of almost every ontogenic phase of plant development, from seedling to cell death. In all of these processes, ROS production and detoxification are highly regulated and its levels are kept under tight control, in order to achieve the desired effect at the cellular or plant level. Micropropagated Vitis vinifera L. transferred to ex vitro growth under increased irradiance gave an additional insight into ROS signaling by integrating stress produced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) into normal signaling pathways with distinctive effects critical for the survival, growth and development of these plants. Here we discuss in further detail the relevance of these results and propose a model that may explain this phenomenon.

  13. Berry ripening: recently heard through the grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nathalie; Guan, Le; Dai, Zhan Wu; Wu, Ben-Hong; Lauvergeat, Virginie; Gomès, Eric; Li, Shao-Hua; Godoy, Francisca; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Delrot, Serge

    2014-08-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a non-climacteric fruit species used as table fruit, dried raisins, and for vinification (wines) and distillation (liquors). In recent years, our knowledge of the molecular basis of ripening regulation has improved. Water status, light conditions, and temperature may hasten, delay, or enhance ripening. Hormones seem to play a central role, as their concentrations change prior to and during ripening and in response to several environmental cues. The review summarizes recent data related to the molecular and hormonal control of grape berry development and ripening, with special emphasis on secondary metabolism and its response to the environment, and pinpoints some experimental limitations. PMID:24285825

  14. Phenolic compounds and properties of antioxidants in grapevine roots (Vitis vinifera L. under low-temperature stress followed by recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The research has been performed on roots of Vitis vinifera, cv. Himrod, obtained from seedlings grown under chill stress conditions (+10oC in the day and +7oC at night, under optimum conditions (+25oC in the day and +18oC at night and from seedling which underwent a recover period after the chill stress treatment. The purpose of the study has been to determine quantitative and qualitative changes in phenolic compounds as well as to demonstrate changes in antiradical properties of extracts from grapevine roots, which appeared as a result of chill stress and during recovery under the optimum conditions following the stress. Phenolic compounds from grapevine roots were extracted using 80% acetone. The total content of phenolics was determined by colorimetry. The content of tannins was tested by precipitation with bovine serum albumin. The reducing power as well as DPPH• free radical and ABTS+• cation radical scavenging activity of the extracts were also tested. In order to identify phenolic compounds present in the extracts the RP-HPLC technique was employed. The tested material was found to contain tannins and three identified phenolic acids: ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric ones. The latter occurred in the highest concentrations (from 4.46 to 6.28 µg/g fresh matter. Ferulic acid appeared in smaller amounts (from 1.68 to 2.65 µg/g fresh matter, followed by caffeic acid (from 0.87 to 1.55 µg/g fresh matter. Significantly less total phenolic compounds occurred in roots of seedlings subjected to chill stress. However, the total content of these compounds increased significantly in roots of plants which underwent recovery after chill stress. Concentration of tannins was determined by two methods. The content of condensed tannins was depressed in roots as a result of low temperature stress, whereas the content of condensed and hydrolysing tannins (determined via the BSA method rose under chill stress conditions. A significant increase in tannins

  15. The reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy as new tools for the study of water relations in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Medrano, Hipólito; Fariñas, María Dolores; Alvarez-Arenas, Tomás Gómez; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-08-01

    The large water requirements of Vitis vinifera L. together with an increase in temperature and drought events imply the need for irrigation in the driest areas of its distribution range. Generous watering may reduce grape quality so irrigation should be precisely regulated through the development of new methods of accurate irrigation scheduling based on plant 'stress sensing'. Two new methods, the reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy, can be used as non-invasive and reproducible techniques for the study of plant water relations in V. vinifera. On one hand, the measurement of reflectance at frequencies around 2.4 GHz gives an excellent accuracy when the changes in the existing area (S) between two reflectance curves are correlated with the relative water content (RWC). On the other hand, an improvement of the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy based on the enlargement of the analysis frequency window provides, apart from the determination of the turgor loss point (TLP), additional information about the leaves without additional computational cost or additional leaf information requirements. Before TLP, the frequency associated with the maximum transmittance (f/f(o)), the macroscopic elastic constant of the leaf in the Z direction (c(33)) and, specially, the variation of the attenuation coefficient with the frequency (n), were highly correlated with changes in RWC. Once turgor is lost, a shift in the parameters directly related to the attenuation of the signal was also observed. The use of both techniques allows for a more convincing knowledge of the water status in V. vinifera.

  16. General and species-specific transcriptional responses to downy mildew infection in a susceptible (Vitis vinifera and a resistant (V. riparia grapevine species

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    Lovato Arianna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt. Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood. Results Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways. Conclusions Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola.

  17. Caracterização fenológica e produtiva das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná Phenological and productive characterization out of season of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapevines in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Jubileu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR. As videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas'. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação para a produção fora de época, durante dois anos consecutivos, realizadas no fim de janeiro de 2007 e 2008, onde foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade. Avaliou-se a duração, em dias, das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação (SST/AT. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 128 dias, enquanto da 'Alicante' foi de 131 dias, sendo consideradas tardias ambas as variedades para a região norte do Paraná. As estimativas da produção por planta e produtividade foram de 12,4 kg e 22,3 t.ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 11,9 kg e 19,8 t.ha-1 para a 'Alicante'. Os teores médios de SST, AT e SST/AT foram de 19,2 °Brix, 1,8% de ácido tartárico e 11,6 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 19,1 °Brix, 1,3% de ácido tartárico e 14,1, para a 'Alicante'. Ambas as variedades apresentam elevadas produtividades e matéria-prima adequada para processamento quando produzidas fora de época no norte do Paraná.This study aimed to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced out of season in the north of Paraná State for red wine elaboration. The experimental area was located in a commercial property belonging to the

  18. The crucial role of Φ- and K-segments in the in vitro functionality of Vitis vinifera dehydrin DHN1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Raquel; Romero, Irene; Escribano, Ma Isabel; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, Ma Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs), group II LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) proteins, are among the most commonly observed proteins which accumulate in plants in response to cold and any other environmental factors, causing the dehydration of cells. In previous studies, we isolated a YSK2-type VvcDHN1a gene from table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal) which presented two spliced variants (the spliced, DHN1a_s and the unspliced, DHN1a_u). Their expression was induced by low temperature storage and CO2, although with different accumulation patterns. DHN1a_u codifies for a truncated YS protein lacking Ф- and K-segments, which might affect its functionality. In this work, we expressed both DHN1a_s and DHN1a_u recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We carried out a number of in vitro assays to analyze the implications that Ф- and K-segments have in the protective role of VvcDHN1 against different abiotic stresses and their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Our results showed that unlike DHN1a_u, DHN1a_s has a potent cryoprotective effect on lactate dehydrogenase activity, protects malate dehydrogenase against dehydration and partially inhibits B. cinerea growth. Moreover, the DHN1a promoter presented cis-regulatory elements related to cold and drought, as well as biotic stress-related elements. We also observed that both spliced variants interact weakly with DNA, suggesting that K-segments are not involved in DNA binding. Overall, this work highlights the crucial role of Ф- and K-segments in DHNs function in plant response to abiotic stress showing for the first time, the potential role of the V. vinifera DHN1a_s in the protection against freezing and dehydration as well as inhibiting B. cinerea growth. PMID:25457499

  19. Instability of anthocyanin composition under different subculture conditions during long-term suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Junge; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2011-11-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. In order to understand the instability in plant cell culture, we investigated anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, in our laboratory. Not only the anthocyanin contents but also its composition exhibited instability along with the long-term subculture. New methods were developed to indicate the instability of plant cell culture. Both the definition of instability coefficient (delta) and the application of factor scores were the first time in this field. To examine the effects of culture conditions on instability of anthocyanin biosynthesis, different subculture cycles and inoculum sizes had been investigated. Subculture cycle and inoculum size were both environmental cues driving the instability. Compared with subculture cycle, inoculum size was more effective in working on the instability of anthocyanin accumulation. Among all the conditions investigated in our study, (6.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 2.00 g), (7.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 1.60 g) and (7 d, 2.40 g), the condition of 7 d-subculture cycle together with 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to keep the stable production of anthocyanins. PMID:22393716

  20. Leaf blade and petiole nutritional diagnosis for Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Tempranillo' by deviation from optimum percentage method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, I.; Benito, A.; Dominguez, N.; Garcia-Escudero, E.

    2014-06-01

    Deviation from optimum percentage (DOP) is a diagnosis methodology for leaf analyses which expresses the deviation for each element with respect to its optimal concentration. This deviation is an individual index for each nutrient and allows the sorting of all the analyzed nutrients according to their limitations. A nutritional survey was undertaken over eleven years in La Rioja (Spain), to establish reference concentrations for the nutritional diagnosis of Vitis vinifera L., cv. 'Tempranillo' grafted on Richter-110. Reference concentrations for DOP methodology are proposed, and sensibility for the nutritional diagnosis was evaluated for blade and petiole analysis of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B at flowering and veraison phenological stages by comparison between DOP and sufficiency ranges (SR) methods. Results suggest that petiole has lower sensibility than blade to detect deficiencies or excesses of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Mn at veraison. In addition, petiole is a better tissue than blade to detect Fe and B deficiencies or excesses. Therefore, our results make possible the right choice between tissues, leaf blade or petiole, for a general nutritional diagnosis of 'Tempranillo' grapevines. On the other hand, it is possible to evaluate the status of each nutrient in each phonological stage analyzing both tissues and comparing the nutrient status to its references, DOP or SR, in the most adequate tissue. (Author)

  1. A novel green synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B. [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anitha, K. [Department of Chemistry, S.K. University, Anantapur-515003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Jyothi, N.V.V., E-mail: nvvjyothi01@gmail.com [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2015-01-15

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  2. Effects of exogenous growth regulators on cell suspension culture of yin-hong grape (vitis vinifera l.) and establishment of the optimum medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callus induced by stem of Yin-hong grape (Vitis vinifera L.) was used as materials and B5 medium as basic medium. The major growth parameters of cell suspension cultures with various levels of 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-Benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) were investigated to provide a basis for the optimum medium of suspension cell cultures of Yin-hong grape regarding cell number, packed cell volume (PCV), dry cell weight (DCW), cell viability, and morphology. All data were analysed by of two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the treatment of 6-BA and NAA would effect the cell growth dynamics, probably causing logarithmic phase in advance at higher levels of 6-BA. Different concentration of 6-BA and NAA had significant effects on cells number, PCV, DCW and viability (p<0.05), while no-significant effect was observed on the cells morphology. The optimum medium for suspension cell cultures of Yin-hong grape was identified as B5+1.5 mg/L6-BA+1.5 mg/LNAA+ 250 mg/L casein hydrolysate + 30 g/L sucrose. With the optimum medium, the maximum number of suspension cells after the logarithmic growth phase was 34.78 * 108 / mL, the highest cell viability reached 86.45%.; DCW reached 3.84 g/L and PCV reached 0.092 mL/mL after eight days cultivating. (author)

  3. Instability of anthocyanin composition under different subculture conditions during long-term suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Junge; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2011-11-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. In order to understand the instability in plant cell culture, we investigated anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, in our laboratory. Not only the anthocyanin contents but also its composition exhibited instability along with the long-term subculture. New methods were developed to indicate the instability of plant cell culture. Both the definition of instability coefficient (delta) and the application of factor scores were the first time in this field. To examine the effects of culture conditions on instability of anthocyanin biosynthesis, different subculture cycles and inoculum sizes had been investigated. Subculture cycle and inoculum size were both environmental cues driving the instability. Compared with subculture cycle, inoculum size was more effective in working on the instability of anthocyanin accumulation. Among all the conditions investigated in our study, (6.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 2.00 g), (7.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 1.60 g) and (7 d, 2.40 g), the condition of 7 d-subculture cycle together with 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to keep the stable production of anthocyanins.

  4. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617

  5. Analysis of the diastereoisomers of the cysteinylated aroma precursor of 3-sulfanylhexanol in Vitis vinifera grape must by gas chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibon, Cécile; Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Bennetau, Bernard; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2008-03-01

    The diastereoisomeric distribution of S-3-(hexan-1-ol)cysteine (P-3SH), the cysteinylated precursor of 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) in Vitis vinifera grape juice, was determined by a new method. This procedure is based on the purification of P-3SH in a small volume of must (500 microL) by affinity chromatography, followed by the separation of chiral molecules in derivative forms by gas chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The diastereoisomers were easily separated using heptafluorobutyric anhydride and heptafluorobutanol (HFBA and HFOH) as derivatization reagents. Method validation was conducted using samples of grape juice, synthetic must, fermenting must, and wine that were fortified with P-3SH at concentrations of 0.6 and 2.5 microM. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and limit of detection (LOD) of the GC-MS/MS method were 4.6% and 1.5 nM, respectively. P-3SH assays in Bordeaux white grape juice affected by Botrytis cinerea showed an unusually increased proportion of the RS form of the precursor (approximately RR:RS=30:70) as compared to a diastereoisomer ratio (in the vicinity of 50:50) in healthy grape juice. PMID:18249409

  6. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.

  7. Parámetros biológicos y poblacionales de Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae sobre dos cultivares de Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA. F. GONZALEZ LUNA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La cochinilla harinosa Planococcus ficus Signoret causa severos da- ños en viñedos argentinos. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar los parámetros biológicos y poblacionales de P. ficus sobre los cultivares de Vitis vinifera Chardon- nay y Malbec, así como evaluar el efecto de las temperatura sobre tales parámet- ros y obtener las respectivas curvas estimadas de crecimiento poblacional. Con temperaturas constantes de 15, 25 y 37 °C, 46 % de H.R. y fotoperíodo de 16:8 h (Luz: Oscuridad, diariamente se registraron el número de individuos de cada estadio, la ecdisis y la descendencia. A 25 °C, el período ninfal fue similar en am- bos cultivares. La fecundidad, la tasa intrínseca de incremento natural ( r m , la tasa finita de incremento ( λ y la tasa neta de reproducción ( R 0 sobre Malbec fueron superiores a Chardonnay. El tiempo generacional ( T y el tiempo de duplicación ( D fueron menores en Malbec. A 15 °C las cochinillas criadas sobre Malbec lograron reproducirse, no se obtuvieron diferencias significativas en los cultivares ensaya- dos. No se verificó el cumplimiento del ciclo completo a 37 °C. Se demostró que la capacidad reproductiva de P. ficus fue mayor sobre Malbec.

  8. Physiological parameters and protective energy dissipation mechanisms expressed in the leaves of two Vitis vinifera L. genotypes under multiple summer stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliotti, Alberto; Tombesi, Sergio; Frioni, Tommaso; Silvestroni, Oriana; Lanari, Vania; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Matarese, Fabiola; Bellincontro, Andrea; Poni, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic performances and energy dissipation mechanisms were evaluated on the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese and on the isohydric cv. Montepulciano (Vitis vinifera L.) under conditions of multiple summer stresses. Potted vines of both cultivars were maintained at 90% and 40% of maximum water availability from fruit-set to veraison. One week before veraison, at predawn and midday, main gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll content, xanthophyll pool and cycle and catalase activity were evaluated. Under water deficit and elevated irradiance and temperature, contrary to cv. Montepulciano and despite a significant leaf water potential decrease, Sangiovese's leaves kept their stomata more open and continued to assimilate CO2 while also showing higher water use efficiency. Under these environmental conditions, in comparison with the isohydric cv. Montepulciano, the protective mechanisms of energy dissipation exerted by the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese were: (i) higher stomatal conductance and thermoregulation linked to higher transpiration rate; (ii) greater ability at dissipating more efficiently the excess energy via the xanthophylls cycle activity (thermal dissipation) due to higher VAZ pool and greater increase of de-epoxidation activity. PMID:26310367

  9. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldina Castro Sousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82, moisture (3.33g/100g, acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g, and ash (4.65 g/100g. The amount of total dietary fiber (46.17g/100g stood out quantitatively compared to the content of carbohydrate (29.2g/100 g, protein (8.49g/100g, and lipids (8.16g/100g. The total energy was 224Kcal/100g. With regard to the compounds with functional properties, higher values of insoluble fiber 79% (36.4 g/100 g; vitamin C (26.25 mg of acid ascorbic/100g, and anthocyanins (131mg/100g were found. The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations. There were no significant copper values. The results showed that the grape residues are an important source of nutrients and compounds with functional properties suggesting that they can be incorporated as an ingredient in the diet and/or used as a dietary supplement aiming at health benefits. The residues did not show microbiological contamination and were considered nontoxic.

  10. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  11. Ancestral synteny shared between distantly-related plant species from the asterid (Coffea canephora and Solanum Sp. and rosid (Vitis vinifera clades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyot Romain

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee trees (Rubiaceae and tomato (Solanaceae belong to the Asterid clade, while grapevine (Vitaceae belongs to the Rosid clade. Coffee and tomato separated from grapevine 125 million years ago, while coffee and tomato diverged 83-89 million years ago. These long periods of divergent evolution should have permitted the genomes to reorganize significantly. So far, very few comparative mappings have been performed between very distantly related species belonging to different clades. We report the first multiple comparison between species from Asterid and Rosid clades, to examine both macro-and microsynteny relationships. Results Thanks to a set of 867 COSII markers, macrosynteny was detected between coffee, tomato and grapevine. While coffee and tomato genomes share 318 orthologous markers and 27 conserved syntenic segments (CSSs, coffee and grapevine also share a similar number of syntenic markers and CSSs: 299 and 29 respectively. Despite large genome macrostructure reorganization, several large chromosome segments showed outstanding macrosynteny shedding new insights into chromosome evolution between Asterids and Rosids. We also analyzed a sequence of 174 kb containing the ovate gene, conserved in a syntenic block between coffee, tomato and grapevine that showed a high-level of microstructure conservation. A higher level of conservation was observed between coffee and grapevine, both woody and long life-cycle plants, than between coffee and tomato. Out of 16 coffee genes of this syntenic segment, 7 and 14 showed complete synteny between coffee and tomato or grapevine, respectively. Conclusions These results show that significant conservation is found between distantly related species from the Asterid (Coffea canephora and Solanum sp. and Rosid (Vitis vinifera clades, at the genome macrostructure and microstructure levels. At the ovate locus, conservation did not decline in relation to increasing phylogenetic distance

  12. Comparative Transcriptomic Profiling of Vitis vinifera Under High Light Using a Custom-Made Array and the Affymetrix GeneChip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luisa C. Carvalho; Belmiro J. Vilela; Phil M. Mullineaux; Sara Am(a)ncio

    2011-01-01

    Understanding abiotic stress responses is one of the most important issues in plant research nowadays.Abiotic stress,including excess light,can promote the onset of oxidative stress through the accumulation of reactive oxygen species.Oxidative stress also arises when in vitro propagated plants are exposed to high light upon transfer to ex vitro.To determine whether the underlying pathways activated at the transfer of in vitro grapevine to ex vitro conditions reflect the processes occurring upon light stress,we used Vitis vinifera Affymetrix GeneChip (VvGA) and a custom array of genes responsive to light stress (LSCA) detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR).When gene-expression profiles were compared,‘protein metabolism and modification',‘signaling',and ‘anti-oxidative' genes were more represented in LSCA,while,in VvGA,‘cell wall metabolism' and ‘secondary metabolism' were the categories in which gene expression varied more significantly.The above functional categories confirm previous studies involving other types of abiotic stresses,enhancing the common attributes of abiotic stress defense pathways.The LSCA analysis of our experimental system detected strong response of heat shock genes,particularly the protein rescuing mechanism involving the cooperation of two ATP-dependent chaperone systems,Hsp100 and Hsp70,which showed an unusually late response during the recovery period,of extreme relevance to remove non-functional,potentially harmful polypeptides arising from misfolding,denaturation,or aggregation brought about by stress.The success of LSCA also proves the feasibility of a custommade qRT-PCR approach,particularly for species for which no GeneChip is available and for researchers dealing with a specific and focused problem.

  13. Rhizosphere associated bacteria trigger accumulation of terpenes in leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec that protect cells against reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, María Victoria; Purpora, Rebeca; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and development by inducing the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, like terpenes, which reduce stress incidence. Three bacteria previously isolated from grapevine roots and adjacent soil (Microbacterium imperiale Rz19M10, Kocuria erythromyxa Rt5M10 and Terribacillus saccharophilus Rt17M10) were tested as PGPR. After 30 days since root inoculation of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants, the monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene and 4-carene, and the sesquiterpene nerolidol were detected only in bacterized-plant leaves. Also, the concentrations of the diterpenes α and γ-tocopherol, and the sterols sitosterol and lupeol were significantly enhanced compared to controls. The leaf extracts of bacterized plants showed photoprotective properties since they decreased the oxygen consumption (that is photo-oxidation) of the amino acid tryptophan in a sensitized solution, thus indicating an increment of the antioxidant capacity of the tissues. In addition, experiments with α-pinene and nerolidol standards showed the capability to intercept reactive oxygen species in the sensitized solution. Moreover, bacterized plants infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea showed a reduction in the lesion diameter compared with non-bacterized plants. The results suggest that M. imperiale, K. erythromyxa and mainly T. saccharophilus are able to induce a systemic response that trigger increases on monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, tocopherols and membrane sterols. These compounds enhance the antioxidant capacity in leaf tissues that may help grapevine to cope with stresses. PMID:27231874

  14. Effects of chilling and ABA on [3H]gibberellin A4 metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with [3H]GA4 (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 1019 becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 260C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free [3H]GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 260C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble [3H] metabolites formed at 260C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA12 aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with [3H]GA4 treatment at 260C, reduced the uptake of [3H] GA4 but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 260C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs)

  15. Effect of power ultrasound application on aqueous extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.): experimental kinetics and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, M R; Comas-Serra, F; Femenia, A; Rosselló, C; Simal, S

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of both conventional (mechanical stirring, 200rpm) and acoustic (55±5kHz, 435±5W/L) aqueous extraction of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace by-products (Vitis vinifera L.) have been experimentally evaluated and modeled at different extraction temperatures (20, 35 and 50°C). A gradual and significant increase of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts was observed as the temperature increased, the highest values being obtained in the case of the extraction assisted acoustically. According to the results, the acoustic assistance of the extraction process led to aqueous extracts with phenolic and antioxidant characteristics similar to those obtained with mechanical stirring, working under lower temperature conditions and during less operating time. Specifically, the conventional extraction of total phenolics at 35 and 50°C did not differ significantly from extractions assisted with power ultrasound at 20 and 35°C, respectively; and the acoustic process required approximately 3, 4 and 8 times less time, at 20, 35 and 50°C, than the conventional extraction to obtain extracts with similar characteristics. The extraction curves obtained for total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, measured by the ABTS and FRAP methods, were properly represented by a modified Weibull model for both conventional and acoustic extractions within the temperature range 20-50°C, presenting an average percentage of explained variance⩾97.9%, and an average mean relative error⩽7.0%. A high correlation (r(2)⩾0.992) was observed between the experimental and simulated values for all the quality attributes in study.

  16. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG (*)) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG(*) protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG (*) transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG (*). This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG(*) cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well.

  17. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta eManela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG* of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as

  18. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M. Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of O2·- and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on ‘pure’ biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture. PMID:27313542

  19. Berry skin development in Norton grape: Distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis

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    Yu Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. Results A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet

  20. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless. PMID:26028743

  1. Production Performance of ‘Malvaisa Bianca’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. grown in Subtropical Regions / Comportamento da uva ‘Malvasia Bianca’ (Vitis vinifera L. cultivada em zona subtropical

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    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the phenotypic/phenology and production performance of ‘Malvasiva Bianca’ grape used to make white wine at North of Parana State. The experiment was done in one vineyard located in Maringa, PR, conducted pergola system accounting with an space of 4.0 X 1.5 m enxert about IAC 766 Campinas. Twenty plants were used previously identified and market during two consecutive harvest seasons (2004/2005 and 2005/2006. The phenotipic performance of grape vives was assessed considering duration of time in days of their principal phases. The chemical characteristics of the berries were assessed performing weekly analysis of pH measurements, Total Solutable Solid (TSS, titratable Acidity (AT and relationship TSS/TA, starting at the biggining of the maturing process until seven days after harvesting. The production characteristics were assessed considering the average diameter and average mass weight of the berry, number on average of clusters per plant, average mass weight of the cluster and estimates of production and productivity on each plant. The duration of production’s cicle (cutting to harvest in this region was on average 127 days. Due the harvest period, the pH’s average, SST, AT levels and the relationship SST/AT of the berries ranged were 3.6 ; 21.2 °Brix; 0.6% of Tartaric Acid and 36.0 respectively. The berry presented on average 15.5 mm and 2.2g. It was observed on average 62 clusters per plant, with mass weight of 0.3 Kg; production of 20.0 Kg per plant and productivity of 33.3 t/ha. The results showed that the ‘Malvasia Bianca’ grape presents a great potential to be cultivated for further make aromatic white wine at North of Parana State.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento fenológico e produtivo da uva ‘Malvasia Bianca’ destinada à elaboração de vinhos brancos aromáticos no norte do Paraná. O experimento foi realizado em um vinhedo localizado em Maring

  2. Efecto de la concentración de sacarosa en la producción de antocianinas a partir de cultivos celulares de Vitis vinifera L. var. red globe

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    Antonieta Miñano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de Vitis vinifera «vid» constituye una de las actividades agrícolas de mayor importancia en nuestra alimentación y en la medicina por presentar unos compuestos bioactivos llamados antocianinas conocidas por tener propiedades antioxidantes, anticancerígenas y cardiotónicas. Con la finalidad de aportar con una alternativa diferente a su extracción tradicional se estableció un sistema de cultivos celulares en suspensión con el propósito de determinar la concentración óptima de sacarosa para obtener mayor producción de antocianinas a partir de cultivos celulares de Vitis vinifera «vid» var. red globe. Se adicionaron diferentes concentraciones de sacarosa (0 mM, 58 mM, 132 mM y 175 mM al medio de cultivo basal (MB suplementado con concentraciones separadas de ácido naftalenacético y kinetina como medio inductor (MI. El contenido de antocianinas aumentó a medida que se incrementó la concentración de sacarosa (132 mM en el medio de cultivo, encontrándose diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos.

  3. Pre-harvest application of polyamines enhances antioxidants and table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) quality during postharvest period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdehghan, S H; Rahimi, S

    2016-04-01

    Pre-harvest foliar spraying of grapevines with putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) (0, 1, 2mM) was evaluated for determining the fruit quality at harvest and improving postharvest characteristics of table grapes during cold storage. Fruit parameters in terms of firmness, fungal infection, weight loss, total phenol concentration, antioxidant activity, skin color, total anthocyanin concentration, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA) were evaluated after 0, 25 and 55 days of storage at 1.5 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% R.H. Softening, fungal infection and weight loss increased during cold storage but the rate of changes significantly was delayed in Put- and Spd-treated fruits. Besides these, the application of Put and Spd maintained higher values of phenolics content, antioxidant activity and anthocyanins at the end of storage in compare to control. Furthermore, after 55 days of storage all treated fruits with Put and Spd showed lower changes in L(∗), TSS and TA and also higher value of chroma in berries. PMID:26593587

  4. Distinctive Anthocyanin Accumulation Responses to Temperature and Natural UV Radiation of Two Field-Grown Vitis vinifera L. Cultivars

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    Ana Fernandes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The responses of two red grape varieties, Bovale Grande (syn. Carignan and Cannonau (syn. Grenache, to temperature and natural UV radiation were studied in a three-years field experiment conducted in Sardinia (Italy, under Mediterranean climate conditions. Vines were covered with plastic films with different transmittances to UV radiation and compared to uncovered controls. Light intensity and spectral composition at the fruit zone were monitored and berry skin temperature was recorded from veraison. Total skin anthocyanin content (TSA and composition indicated positive but inconsistent effects of natural UV light. Elevated temperatures induced alterations to a greater extent, decreasing TSA and increasing the degree of derivatives acylation. In Cannonau total soluble solids increases were not followed by increasing TSA as in Bovale Grande, due to both lower phenolic potential and higher sensitivity to permanence of high temperatures. Multi linear regression analysis tested the effects of different ranges of temperature as source of variation on anthocyanin accumulation patterns. To estimate the thermal time for anthocyanin accumulation, the use of normal heat hours model had benefit from the addition of predictor variables that take into account the permanence of high (>35 °C and low (<15 °C and <17 °C temperatures during ripening.

  5. Effects of Temperature Acclimation Pretreatment on the Ultrastructure of Mesophyll Cells in Young Grape Plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Jingxiu) Under Cross-Temperature Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Huan ZHANG; Wei-Dong HUANG; Yue-Ping LIU; Qiu-Hong PAN

    2005-01-01

    Leaves from annual young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Jingxiu) were used as experimentalmaterials. The ultrastructural characteristics of mesophyll cells in chilling-treated plants after heat acclima-tion (HA) and in heat-treated plants after cold acclimation (CA) were observed and compared using trans-mission electron microscopy. The results showed that slight injury appeared in the ultrastructure of meso-phyll cells after either HA (38℃ for 10 h) or CA (8℃ for 2.5 d), but the tolerance to subsequent extremetemperature stress was remarkably improved by HA or CA pretreatment. The increases in membrane perme-ability and malondialdehyde concentration under chilling (0℃) or heat (45℃) stress were markedly inhib-ited by HA or CA pretreatment. The mesophyll cells of plants not pretreated with HA were markedly dam-aged following chilling stress. The chloroplasts appeared irregular in shape, the arrangement of the stromalamellae was disordered, and no starch granules were present. The cristae of the mitochondria were dis-rupted and became empty. The nucleus became irregular in shape and the nuclear membrane was digested.In contrast, the mesophyll cells of HA-pretreated plants maintained an intact ultrastructure under chillingstress. The mesophyll cells of control plants were also severely damaged under heat stress. The chloroplastbecame round in shape, the stroma lamellae became swollen, and the contents of vacuoles formed clumps.In the case of mitochondria of control plants subjected to heat stress, the outer envelope was digested andthe cristae were disrupted and became many small vesicles. Compared with cellular organelles in controlplants, those in CA plant cells always maintained an integrated state during whole heat stress, except for thechloroplasts, which became round in shape after 10 h heat stress. From these data, we suggest that thestability of mesophyll cells under chilling stress can be increased by HA pretreatment. Similarly, CA pretreat

  6. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  7. Phenology, canopy aging and seasonal carbon balance as related to delayed winter pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eGatti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER was followed throughout the season.Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs 34 in SWP, highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly

  8. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  9. Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)-Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae)-Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae) Interaction: The Role of B. cinerea on the Development of E. postvittana in Synthetic Nutritional Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S Z M; Raman, A

    2015-08-01

    Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light-brown apple moth) is a polyphagous herbivore of economic significance, which also feeds on Vitis vinifera L. The E. postvittana-V. vinifera interacting system also involves the participation of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries. We have been exploring the relationship among E. postvittana-V. vinifera-B. cinerea over the past two years. In this article, we report the preference and performance of the larvae of E. postvittana raised solely on a synthetic diet incorporated with the mycelial material of B. cinerea (Diet B). To characterize the effect of fungus on the development of E. postvittana, another synthetic diet was prepared that included the lyophilized leaf material of V. vinifera (Diet C). When raised on Diets B and C, a decrease in the duration of larval development and an increase in the survival and fecundity rate of E. postvittana occurred. Diet B influenced the pupal mass, but a significant increase occurred when the larvae were fed on Diet C. The larval emergence rate was the greatest in E. postvittana raised on Diet B, followed by those on Diet C. The F(2) generation of the larvae reared on Diet B showed similar effects as F(1) on the life-history performance of the larvae. Diet B enhanced the life-history performance of E. postvittana, although the larvae of E. postvittana showed little preference to Diet B. The greater fertility rate of E. postvittana reared on Diet B suggests the importance of sterols as shown in Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and in a few Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which serve as precursors to different ecdysteroids that regulate many critical processes through embryonic development. PMID:26470305

  10. Commercial Digital Camera to Estimate Postharvest Leaf Area Index in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon on a Vertical Trellis Uso de una Cámara Digital Comercial para Estimar el Índice de Área Foliar en Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon en Poscosecha Conducida en Espaldera Vertical

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    Miguel Espinosa L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI of a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in the commune of Cauquenes, Maule Region in Chile, was estimated from digital images obtained with a commercial camera using two indirect methods: Leaf Area Gap and Brightness (LAGB and -Photogrammetric Leaf Area Quantification System (PLAQS. The latter requires deleafing of the grapevine. In a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI map, three points of vine vigor were selected: high, medium, and low for which horizontal and vertical images were obtained. Images were filtered with the Arc View GIS 3.1 program to provide only leaf images and corresponding pixel numbers. Image area and square meters per linear meter were calculated. The best models were selected from  three linear regression adjustments: i LAI of LAGB vertical images of with LAI of PLAQS, ii LAI of PLAQS horizontal images with and, iii LAI of both types of images with PLAQS. The parameters in all models were significant. Adjustment between the LAGB and PLAQS vertical images provides greater simplicity and easy calculation since it requires only a vertical image to estimate LAI. Images thus obtained can accurately estimate LAI in this type of cultivar.En un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon ubicado en la comuna de Cauquenes, Región del Maule, se estimó el índice de área foliar (LAI mediante imagen digital obtenida de una cámara fotográfica comercial, a partir de dos métodos indirectos: Espacio y Brillo Área Foliar (LAGB y Sistema Cuantificador de Área Foliar por Fotogrametría (PLAQS. Este último, requiere el deshoje de la parra. En un mapa de índice vegetativo diferencial normalizado (NDVI, se seleccionaron tres puntos de vigor de las vides: alto, medio y bajo, en cada uno de los cuales se obtuvo una imagen horizontal y vertical. Las imágenes se filtraron con el programa Arc View GIS 3.1, dejando sólo las hojas y el número de píxeles correspondientes. Se

  11. Concentrações de cloreto de cálcio e tempos de armazenamento nos teores de açúcares redutores de uvas cv red globe (Vitis vinifera L Calcium chloride concentrations and storage time on reducing sugar contents of grape cv red globe (Vitis vinifera L

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    Geny Lopes de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a ação do cloreto de cálcio na doçura pós-colheita de uvas 'Red Globe' (Vitis vinifera L cultivadas em Jales, noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, foram adotados os procedimentos: os cachos foram tratados por imersão durante 10 minutos em soluções CaCl2 0, 1, 2 e 3% e deixados por 30, 60 e 90 dias a uma temperatura de 0ºC a 3ºC, 90+ 3% de UR e 0,2 0,3 m/s de velocidade do ar, após os quais foram deixados em temperatura ambiente (20 a 25ºC, para avaliações aos 0, 3 e 6 dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 x 3 (concentrações de CaCl2 x tempo de armazenamento refrigerado x tempo de armazenamento em temperatura ambiente com três repetições. Foram feitas avaliações de açúcares redutores totais (g 100g -1, frutose (g 100g -1 e glicose (g 100g -1. Os teores de açúcares redutores totais, frutose e glicose dos frutos variaram com a aplicação de CaCl2, tempos de armazenamento a frio e em temperatura ambiente. Destaca-se a frutose cujos teores em todas as concentrações de CaCl2 (1, 2 e 3%, aos 30 e 60 dias de armazenamento refrigerado e 3 e 6 dias em temperatura ambiente, foram superiores aos teores dos frutos controle. Conclui-se que tratamentos com CaCl2 propicia às uvas melhor sabor, sendo indicada a concentração de CaCl2 2% e o armazenamento a frio por 60 dias e em temperatura ambiente até seis dias.This work was carried out with the aim of evaluating the calcium chloride influence on both post harvest sweetness of grapes 'Red Globe' (Vitis vinifera L grown in Jales, in the northwest of São Paulo State. The procedures adopted were as follows: banches were treated in a CaCla2 1%, 2%, and 3% immersion for 10 minutes and then left at na 0º C tempereture, 90 + 3% relative humidity, and 0,2-0,3 m/s air speed for 30, 60, and 90 days after which they were left at room temperature (20 to 25º C for evaluation. A ramdomized block design with a 4 x 3 x 3 (Ca

  12. Regeneration of Grape ' Manicure Finger' (Vitis vinifera) from Its Isolated Explants%美人指葡萄再生体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余智莹; 张平; 任俊鹏; 章镇; 袁红燕; 陶建敏

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different explant types, different hormones and their concentration combinations as well as dark culture time on the regeneration of grape ' Manicure Finger' ( Vitis vinifera) were studied.The results showed that adventitious buds could regenerate from the isolated leaves, petioles and stem segnents; among them the regenerated rate of adventitious buds from the isolated petioles was maximum.TDZ enhanced the regeneration of adventitious buds from petioles better than 6 - BA.IBA was better than NAA and 2,4 - D in inducing the regeneration of adventitious buds from petioles.Petiole explants displayed the highest regenerated rate after 3 weeks' dark culture.Among all the media prepared, the optimum media for the regeneration of adventitious buds from leaves, petioles and stem segments were MS + 1.0 mg/L TDZ + 0.1 mg/L IBA, MS + 1.0 mg/L TDZ +0.1 mg/L IBA, MS + 1.0 mg/L TDZ + 0.2 mg/L IBA, respectively; their regenerated rates were 60.71%, 93.10% and 47.37%, respectively; their propagation coefficients were 5.65, 5.91 and 5.00 separately.The regenerated adventitious buds were induced to take roots on 3/4 MS +0.35 mg/L IBA medium, then the full plantlets were cultivated for 35 ~ 50 d, and their survival rate reached 90% after being trained and transplanted to the greenhouse.%以关人指葡萄为试材,研究了不同外植体类型、激素浓度配比以及暗培养时间等对器官再生的影响.结果表明:叶片、叶柄、茎段外植体均可再生出不定芽,其中叶柄的再生率最高;TDZ对美人指葡萄叶柄再生效果比6-BA好IBA诱导美人指葡萄叶柄不定芽再生率高于NAA和2,4-D;暗培养3周时,美人指葡萄叶柄的再生率最高.叶片再生的最适培养基为:MS+1.0 ng/L TDZ+0.1 mg/L IBA,再生率为60.71%,增殖系数为5.65;叶柄再生的最适培养基为:MS+1.0mg/LTDZ+0.1 mg/L IBA,再生率为93.10%,增殖系数为5.91;茎段再生的最适培养基为:MS+1.0 mg/L TDZ+0.2 mg/L IBA,再生率为47

  13. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berry skin, pulp, and seeds in 13 grapevine varieties grown in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Milica M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Davidović, Sonja M; Todić, Slavica R; Bešlić, Zoran S; Gašić, Uroš M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2016-11-15

    Phenolic profile of 13 grapevine varieties was determined, with respect to three different parts of berries: skin, seed and pulp. Identification and quantification of the phenols was done using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The most abundant phenols in grape seeds were found to be flavan-3-ols, most of which are gallocatechin gallate and catechin. The skins were characterized mostly by flavonols, i.e. quercetin and myricetin. Characterization of anthocyanins in the berry skin by UHPLC coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer revealed a total of twenty derivatives of malvidin, delphinidin, petunidin, cyanidin, and peonidin. To the extent of our knowledge this is the first work that shows the presence of malvidin 3,5-O-dihexoside in the berry skin of 'Merlot', 'Cabernet Franc', 'Shiraz' 'Sangiovese', 'Pinot Noir' and 'Prokupac', untypical for Vitis vinifera Linneo species. PMID:27283628

  14. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  15. Effect of Light Soil Drought on the Qualities of Grape Berry%轻度土壤干旱对赤霞珠果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 袁晨茜; 杨刘燕; 杨运良; 邢延富; 牛兴艳; 冀铮春

    2013-01-01

    通过避雨棚和断根沟措施,人为控制灌溉模拟土壤干旱,以5年生赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L.cv.Cabernet Sauvignon)果实为试材,研究了轻度土壤干旱对赤霞珠葡萄果实品质的影响.结果表明,土壤干旱并不改变赤霞珠葡萄果实生长曲线,但对果实生长和品质具有明显作用;轻度土壤干旱下,赤霞珠葡萄果实单粒质量降低10.10%,有机酸含量降低12.50%,可溶性总糖增加10.64%,总酚增加21.01%,花色苷增加9.55%,从而有利于果实品质的形成.%In this paper, 5 years old grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) was used as materials, and the effect of light soil drought on the growth and fruit quality formation was studied by controlling irrigation through the prevent-rain shelter and root-cutting groove. The results showed that the growth pattern of berry was not changed by light soil drought, while the fruit quality was changed significantly. Compared to CK II, the single berry weight and organic acid content were decreased by 10.10% and 12.50%; meanwhile, the total sugar, total phenol, and anthocyanins concentration in treated berry were increased by 10.64%, 21.01%, and 9.55%, respectively. All the results indicated that the light soil drought could promote the quality formation of grape Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berry.

  16. Diagnóstico da área cultivada com uva fina de mesa (Vitis vinifera L sob cobertura plástica e do manejo de pragas Area grown with table grape (Vitis vinifera L under protected cultivation and pest management practices used by growers in Caxias do Sul, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Formolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi realizado o censo das áreas cultivadas com uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido e a identificação das principais espécies de pragas e estratégias de controle empregadas pelos produtores, no município de Caxias do Sul-RS. Na safra de 2007/2008, foram identificados os produtores envolvidos com a atividade no município e através de entrevista presencial e semiestruturada ao estabelecimento produtivo, registrou-se a área cultivada e variedades. Para produtores com cultivo de áreas superiores a 2.000m² da cultivar Itália, com dois anos ou mais de produção, foi aplicado outro questionário na safra de 2008/2009 com o objetivo de levantar as informações referentes: a espécies de insetos e ácaros-praga que danificam as uvas finas de mesa na propriedade, segundo o viticultor; b conhecer a realidade do manejo de insetos e ácaros-praga na cultura; c verificar os parâmetros que o produtor utiliza para a aplicação de inseticidas; d conhecer os produtos aplicados, e e identificar o tipo de assistência técnica recebida pelo viticultor. Foram identificados 43 produtores de uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido com área total cultivada de 30,36 ha, sendo 70,31% desta área da cultivar Itália. As pragas mais importantes mencionadas pelos produtores foram tripes - Frankliniella rodeos Moulton e a mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. O manejo realizado para controle destas pragas é através da aplicação de inseticidas com os ingredientes ativos acefato e fentiona, respectivamente, com base em calendário. Os principais problemas enfrentados para implementar estratégias de manejo de pragas no cultivo são a falta de assistência técnica, a ausência de metodologias confiáveis para o monitoramento e o reduzido número de inseticidas autorizados para a cultura.The area grown with table grapes (Vitis vinifera under protected cultivation, pests associated with the crop and control

  17. 葡萄苯丙氨酸解氨酶基因家族的全基因组鉴定及表达分析%Genome-wide characterization and expression analysis of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙润泽; 张雪; 成果; 李强; 朱燕溶; 陈武; 潘秋红; 段长青; 王军

    2016-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the first enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway, plays critical roles in plant growth, development and resistance to biotic/abiotic stresses. In this research, a total of 17 PAL genes were identified from the Vitis vinifera reference genome by the bioinformatics methods. Thirteen of the VviPAL genes are arranged in tandem in two duplication blocks located on chromosomes 11 and 16, the rests are randomly distributed on other chromosomes. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that most of the VviPAL members have a closer relationship with PALs from other dicots species, whereas the four VviPALs arranged in tandem on chromosome 11, which classified into neither the dicot nor monocot group, may serve as ancestral PALs in plants. The full-length cDNA of five VviPAL genes were isolated from ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ according to the reference transcriptome of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ grape berries. Sequence analysis of the deduced VviPAL proteins showed that all of them contain conserved functional domains, confirming that these VviPALs may have similar functions with PALs from other plant species. Expression profiling reveals that VviPAL2 and VviPAL15 were strongly expressed in all test organs/tissues, and their expression throughout berry development was positively correlated with the accumulation of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the transcripts of VviPAL2, VviPAL4 and VviPAL7 in grape berries were induced by cluster sunlight exposure and suppressed by cluster shading, which might contribute to changes in metabolites accumulation.%苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)作为苯丙烷途径的入口酶,与植物生长发育以及生物和非生物胁迫响应等生物过程密切相关。本研究通过生物信息学方法,在已测序的葡萄基因组中预测得到17个PAL基因,其中13个串联分布在第11和16号染色体的2个重复基因群中,4个随机分布于其他染色体。系统发育树分析表明,葡萄大部分PAL基因与

  18. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables.

  19. Berry composition and climate: responses and empirical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    Climate is a strong modulator of berry composition. Accordingly, the projected change in climate is expected to impact on the composition of berries and of the resultant wines. However, the direction and extent of climate change impact on fruit composition of winegrape cultivars are not fully known. This study utilised a climate gradient along a 700 km transect, covering all wine regions of Western Australia, to explore and empirically describe influences of climate on anthocyanins, pH and titratable acidity (TA) levels in two or three cultivars of Vitis vinifera (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Shiraz). The results showed that, at a common maturity of 22° Brix total soluble solids, berries from the warmer regions had low levels of anthocyanins and TA as well as high pH compared to berries from the cooler regions. Most of these regional variations in berry composition reflected the prevailing climatic conditions of the regions. Thus, depending on cultivar, 82-87 % of TA, 83 % of anthocyanins and about half of the pH variations across the gradient were explained by climate-variable-based empirical models. Some of the variables that were relevant in describing the variations in berry attributes included: diurnal ranges and ripening period temperature (TA), vapour pressure deficit in October and growing degree days (pH), and ripening period temperatures (anthocyanins). Further, the rates of change in these berry attributes in response to climate variables were cultivar dependent. Based on the observed patterns along the climate gradient, it is concluded that: (1) in a warming climate, all other things being equal, berry anthocyanins and TA levels will decline whereas pH levels will rise; and (2) despite variations in non-climatic factors (e.g. soil type and management) along the sampling transect, variations in TA and anthocyanins were satisfactorily described using climate-variable-based empirical models, indicating the overriding impact of climate on berry

  20. The Effects of Bud Load and Applied Water Amounts on the Biochemical Composition of the ‘Narince’ Grape Variety (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil GOK TANGOLAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of various bud load and water amounts (WA on the berry composition of the ‘Narince’ white wine grape variety. Two water amounts (WA-I and WA-II administered during growth stages or a non-irrigated (rain-fed control treatment were paired with two different bud loads (K (normal and 2K (two-fold buds to assess their effects on sugar, organic acid and  phenolic compound contents, as well as antioxidant capacity of the berries for a white wine grape variety ‘Narince’. Despite a slight decrease observed only in sugars in the second year, increases in all phenolic compounds examined (especially in catechin and epicatechin were detected in the WA-I application. The total phenolic compound values obtained for 2K in the same application was also high. The antioxidant capacity values were not significantly affected by the irrigation or bud load applications. Therefore, a 2K bud load with WA-I treatments in which 50% and 75% of the cumulative evaporation from the Class A pan during berry set to veraison and veraison to ripening, respectively, are recommended for irrigation in high plateau viticulture. By maintaining or increasing the fruit composition of ‘Narince’ grapes, these treatments can optimize grape yield and the earnings of growers. In all applications, glucose (among the sugars, tartaric acid (among the organic acids, and catechin and epicatechin (among the phenolic compounds were higher than their counterparts.

  1. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of...

  2. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  3. PLASTICITY OF THE BERRY RIPENING PROGRAM IN A WHITE GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dal Santo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices, defined as terroir, which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture and composition. These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation

  4. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  5. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  6. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  7. ACROPOLIS - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest aromatic wine white berry grape variety Acropolis was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi and L.Troshinym in 2006 by crossing the Greek variety Kidonitsa with European Riesling. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics it is related to the eco-geographical group of Black Sea. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Degree of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length, except for the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. High yield 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster is 360 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with common varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, spherical, greenish-yellow color with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal type taste of Riesling. Sugar content is very high: up to 24% more. Bunches of variety Acropolis continuously stored in the bushes. Variety is intended for manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines, suitable for production of high quality aromatic juices

  8. AGAPI - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Newest aromatic white berry wine grape variety Agapi was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskiy in 2006 by crossing the Greek varieties Afiri white with central European variety Traminer pink. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Level of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length except the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. Productivity is very high: 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster 300 g. Characterized by a high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases compared to varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, short elliptical or spherical, greenish-yellow in color, with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, and durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. The sugar content is very high, more than 24%. Clusters of Agapi variety regardless of autumn weather conditions persist for a long time in the bushes. Variety intended for the manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high quality fragrant juices

  9. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  10. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  11. Expression and in situ localization of two major PR proteins of grapevine berries during development and after UV-C exposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Colas

    Full Text Available In grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir, the Pathogenesis-Related (PR proteins CHI4D and TL3 are among the most abundant extractable PR proteins of ripe berries and accumulate during berry ripening from véraison until full maturation. Evidence was supplied in favor of the involvement of these two protein families in plant defense mechanisms and plant development. In order to better understand CHI4D and TL3 function in grapevine, we analyzed their temporal and spatial pattern of expression during maturation and after an abiotic stress (UV-C by in situ hybridization (ISH and immunohistolocalization. In ripening berries, CHI4D and TL3 genes were mainly expressed in the exocarp and around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. In UV-C exposed berries, CHI4D and TL3 gene expression was strongly induced before véraison. Corresponding proteins localized in the exocarp and, to a lesser extent, around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. The spatial and temporal accumulation of the two PR proteins during berry maturation and after an abiotic stress is discussed in relation to their putative roles in plant defense.

  12. 利用EST序列鉴定葡萄应答外源赤霉素的基因%Identification of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Genes from EST Sequences Responding to Exogenous Gibberellins Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官凌飞; 韩键; 房经贵; 王西成; 冷翔鹏

    2012-01-01

    To identify grape (Vitis vinifera L.) genes in response to exogenous gibberellins (GA) treatment, a large number of grape EST sequences collected at NCBI were analyzed. Forty-five non-redundant EST sequences that only expressed after GA treatment were obtained by using local Blast, Blast2go and other programs. Blastx annotation results indicated that twenty-five sequences (55.6%) were of hypothetical or unknown protein, fourteen sequences (31.1%) did not have available information, and six sequences (13.1%) had predict functions. The six sequences with annotated functions carried genes encoding integrase (EE077049), SPX domain (EE085000), serine carboxypeptidase-like 44(EE091188), CHY1 (EE092187), pseudouridine synthase/ transporter (EE106096) and K+ channel protein (EE108944). Blast2go analysis showed that only twenty-nine sequences (64.4%) had available Gene Ontology (GO) annotations, belonging to categories of molecular function, cellular component or biological process. Taken together, the GA-responsive gene products mainly had binding activities (46.34%) or catalytic activities (39.02%), distributed in the whole cell (44.68%) or in specific organelles (40.43%), participatedl in cellular processes (28.57%) or metabolic processes (25.71%) in responding to the exogenous GA treatment. This study provides basic information for further analysis of gene expression in response to exogenous GA treatment.%为了利用NCBI上大量的葡萄(Vitis vinifera L.) EST序列进行葡萄应答外源赤霉素基因的信息挖掘,通过本地化Blast、Blast2go等工具以及其他生物信息学工具和数据库,对NCBI上经过赤霉素(gibberellins,GA)诱导后的葡萄EST序列进行处理,获得了45条仅在赤霉素处理后表达的无冗余EST序列.Blastx注释结果显示,45条序列中有25条序列注释为假定蛋白或未知蛋白(约占55.6%),14条序列无注释信息(约占31.1%),6条序列(13.1%)注释有推定功能,其中包括整合酶蛋

  13. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Light quantity and quality modulate grapevine development and influence berry metabolic processes. Here we studied light as an information signal for developing and ripening grape berries. A Vitis vinifera Sauvignon Blanc field experiment was used to identify the impacts of UVB on core metabolic processes in the berries under both high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates. The primary objective was therefore to identify UVB-specific responses on berry processes and metabolites and distinguish them from those responses elicited by variations in light incidence. Canopy manipulation at the bunch zone via early leaf removal, combined with UVB-excluding acrylic sheets installed over the bunch zones resulted in four bunch microclimates: (1) HL (control); (2) LL (control); (3) HL with UVB attenuation and (4) LL with UVB attenuation. Metabolite profiles of three berry developmental stages showed predictable changes to known UV-responsive compound classes in a typical UV acclimation (versus UV damage) response. Interestingly, the berries employed carotenoids and the associated xanthophyll cycles to acclimate to UV exposure and the berry responses differed between HL and LL conditions, particularly in the developmental stages where berries are still photosynthetically active. The developmental stage of the berries was an important factor to consider in interpreting the data. The green berries responded to the different exposure and/or UVB attenuation signals with metabolites that indicate that the berries actively managed its metabolism in relation to the exposure levels, displaying metabolic plasticity in the photosynthesis-related metabolites. Core processes such as photosynthesis, photo-inhibition and acclimation were maintained by differentially modulating metabolites under the four treatments. Ripe berries also responded metabolically to the light quality and quantity, but mostly formed compounds (volatiles and polyphenols) that have direct antioxidant and

  14. MIR – NEWEST HIGHT QUALITY BLACK BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUSE

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    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Newest wine black berry with painted pulp and juice grape variety called Mir was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by Zamanidi P., Troshin L. and Radchevsky P. in 2006 by crossing the Ukrainian variety of Odessa black (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with new Greek black berry variety Iliad. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period - 146-155 days. Strong growth of arms (2,1-3,0 m. Percentage of productive shoots - over 90. Productivity is very high: 20-30 t / ha. The average mass of clusters is 260 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Lobes, the stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Bunch medium, often with tapered wing, the average density. Berry small, round, blue-black, with a thick waxy coating. The peel is medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice intensely colored. Sugar content is very high. Prolonged preservation of different crop on bushes. Variety intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines; and is suitable for the manufacture of high quality strong colored juices. When used in blends with other varieties, it enhances color, flavor and improves the bouquet of wine

  15. Solute accumulation differs in the vacuoles and apoplast of ripening grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Shrestha, Pradeep M

    2014-03-01

    Phloem unloading is thought to switch from a symplastic route to an apoplastic route at the beginning of ripening in grape berries and some other fleshy fruits. However, it is unclear whether different solutes accumulate in both the mesocarp vacuoles and the apoplast. We modified a method developed for tomato fruit to extract apoplastic sap from grape berries and measured the changes in apoplastic and vacuolar pH, soluble sugars, organic acids, and potassium in ripening berries of Vitis vinifera 'Merlot' and V. labruscana 'Concord'. Solute accumulation varied by genotype, compartment, and chemical species. The apoplast pH was substantially higher than the vacuolar pH, especially in Merlot (approximately two units). However, the vacuole-apoplast proton gradient declined during ripening and in Merlot, but not in Concord, collapsed entirely at maturity. Hexoses accumulated in both the vacuoles and apoplast but at different rates. Organic acids, especially malate, declined much more in the vacuoles than in the apoplast. Potassium accumulated in the vacuoles and apoplast of Merlot. In Concord, by contrast, potassium increased in the vacuoles but decreased in the apoplast. These results suggest that solutes in the fruit apoplast are tightly regulated and under developmental control. PMID:24310282

  16. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

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    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 680) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    . The claimed effect is “ocular system: OPCs play an important role in the structure and physiological functions of cornea, OPCs protect the cornea and improve visual adaptation to low luminances”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings...... claims in relation to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA......, clarifications from Member States and the references provided, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to the improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The Panel considers that improvement of visual adaptation to the dark is a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which...

  18. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

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    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  19. 葡萄WRKY18基因的克隆及表达特性分析%Gene Cloning and Expression Analysis of WRKY18 in Vitis vinifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖培连; 冯睿杰; 侯丽霞; 吕晓彤; 朱丹; 刘新

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress severely restrict the development of grape industry, so it will provide theoretical basis for grape breeding through gene cloning and studying its molecular mechanisms. We cloned the full-length cDNA of VvWRKY18 from leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivar‘Zuoyouhong’ tissue culture seedling. The results showed that VvWRKY18 ampliifed fragment size of 954 bp, encoding a protein of 317 amino acids. Bioinfor-matic analysis indicated that VvWRKY18 with molecular weight 35.2416 kDa, isoelectric point 8.22 and insta-bility coefifcient 48.61, speculating it was unstable protein. Besides it shared high homology with WRKY18 in Oryza sativa Japonica Group, in Sorghum bicolor, in Populus trichocarpa and in Arabidopsis thaliana. Subcel-lular localization result indicated that it was located in nucleus. And it belonged to type II WRKY transcription factor. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that VvWRKY18 expressed in different tissues, especially in lfower. In addition, VvWRKY18 was induced by low temperature (4℃), salt stress, osmotic stress, salicylic acid (SA), ab-scisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, the expression of VvWRKY18 was highly induced at 6 h by low temperature and the expression pattern of VvWRKY18 under NO were similar to those of low temperature induction, which indicated that NO participated in the signal transduction process of grape response to low temperature stress.%以抗性品种‘左优红’组培苗为材料,克隆得到WRKY18基因,测序结果显示:VvWRKY18基因片段大小为954 bp,编码317个氨基酸序列。生物信息学分析结果显示VvWRKY18蛋白分子量约为35.2416 kDa,等电点为8.22,不稳定系数为48.61,推测为不稳定蛋白;与已知的粳稻、高粱、毛果杨及拟南芥WRKY家族蛋白高度同源;亚细胞定位预测结果显示主要存在于细胞核中,属于第二类WRKY转录因子家族成员。实时荧光定量PCR分析显示, VvWRKY18在葡萄不

  20. Medna bijela (Vitis vinifera L. - Ampelographic properties

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    Ivan Pezo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Medna bijela is an autochthonous cultivar of the third Adriatic vine-growing subregion. Its synonyms in use are: Buboj, Bumba, Medna, Rizavac, Zložder etc. No detailed ampelographic study has been made to date; based on our research this cultivar is classified in the ecological-geographical group of Convarietas Pontica, Negr. Subconvarietas Balcanica, Provarietas Mesocarpa, Nem., Subprovarietas Dalmatica Nem. It is a medium lush wine cultivar with some 16-17 % of sugar and 6.0-7.0 g/l of total acidity, with a yield of 2.5-3.5 kg of grapes per grapevine and a load of 16 buds per grapevine. The wines are light, acidulous, with a specific fine aroma of honey, which is implied in the very name of the cultivar. It is recommended that the research should be continued, particularly on clonal selection.

  1. Effects of Root Restriction on Nitrogen Levels and Expression of Genes In-volved in Nitrogen Metabolism in ‘Jumeigui’ Grapevines (Vitis vinifera×V. labrusca) at Veraison%根域限制对转色期‘巨玫瑰’葡萄氮水平和氮代谢关键酶基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞秀明; 李节法; 王博; 王磊; 王世平

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of nitrogen metabolism in grape-vines (Vitis vinifera×V. labrusca) in response to root restriction. The two-year-old‘Jumeigui’ grape cultivars were used to study changes of nitrogen levels and the transcription of nitrogen metabolism enzyme genes in different organs under root restriction at veraison. The results showed that the shoot growth was signiifcantly inhibited, whereas the berry growth and berry quality were enhanced under root restriction at veraison. The root restriction decreased the (NO2-+NO3-)-N, NH4+-N and total N contents in leaves, petioles and brown roots, while a signiifcant increase was observed in root-restricted white roots. Moreover, soluble protein contents in petioles, white and brown roots were markedly enhanced under root restriction. The root restriction signiifcantly reduced the GS activities in leaves and petioles, whereas GS activities were higher in root-restricted white and brown roots than the control. The root restriction also induced down regulation of expression of nitrogen metabolism rele-vant genes (NR, NiR, GS1-1, GS1-2, GS2, Fd-GOGAT, NADH-GOGAT) in leaves and petioles (photosynthetic tissues). However, the transcription levels of all these genes were enhanced in white roots in response to root restriction, especially GS gene in root-restricted white and brown roots. In summary, grapevines might enter-prise their NO3-reduction and NH4+assimilation in white roots, in prejudice of the leaves and petioles, in re-sponse to root restriction at veraison, leading to less NO3-transported from roots and then assimilated in root-re-stricted leaves. The inhibition of vegetative growth in‘Jumeigui’ grapevines under root restriction at veraison is closely associated with the down regulation of gene expression in nitrogen metabolism in leaves and petioles.%为探讨根域限制影响葡萄树氮代谢的分子机制,以二年生‘巨玫瑰‘葡萄为试材,

  2. Produção antecipada de mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ (Vitis vinifera através de enxertia verde Anticipation of ‘Rubi’ grapevine nursery trees production through green grafting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ruffo Roberto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a viabilidade da produção de mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ (Vitis vinifera através de enxertia verde nos porta-enxertos ‘Campinas’ (IAC 766 e ‘Jales’ (IAC 572 propagados por estaquia herbácea. O preparo das estacas livre de vírus dos porta-enxertos consistiu em deixar apenas uma folha na parte superior da estaca e um nó na base, ficando as mesmas com 20cm de comprimento e 0,5cm de diâmetro. Para o enraizamento, as estacas foram então dispostas em caixas plásticas perfuradas contendo o substrato casca de arroz carbonizada em câmara de nebulização. Após quatro semanas, os porta-enxertos foram transplantados para sacos de polietileno com substrato a base de terra e mantidos em casa de vegetação. Avaliou-se a enxertia da videira ‘Rubi’ livre de vírus realizada em três épocas após o transplantio dos porta-enxertos (30, 60 e 90 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com 6 tratamentos e 5 repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por 10 mudas, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3. Aos 80 dias após cada época de enxertia, foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: porcentagem de enxertos brotados, comprimento e diâmetro dos brotos, matérias seca e fresca das raízes por muda e quantificação do sistema radicular (área de raízes e comprimento total de raízes por estaca através da análise de imagem no programa SIARCS®. Com base nos principais resultados, pôde-se concluir que: a a obtenção antecipada de mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ é possível realizando-se a enxertia verde em estacas herbáceas dos porta-enxertos ‘Campinas’ e ‘Jales’ 90 dias após o seu enraizamento e b o emprego da enxertia verde sobre a produção antecipada de mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ reduz em 5-6 meses o tempo necessário para a produção de mudas em casa de vegetação e c mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ produzidas por enxertia verde em estacas herbáceas dos porta

  3. Preparation and identification of water-soluble calcium-binding protein from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds%葡萄籽中水溶性钙结合蛋白的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晨艳; 赵广华

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient required for critical biological functions such as nerve conduction, muscle contraction, mitosis, blood coagulation, and structural support of the skeleton.Dietary calcium intake is of general interest for human beings, particularly for infants and young children, when growth is accelerated. Milk and milk products as effective calcium supplements are generally accepted by human race with their high bioavailability. However, less consumption of milk in industrialized countries leads to inadequate calcium intake. Therefore, it is important to explore an alternate source for calcium supplement. On the other hand, dried grape seeds are likewise rich in lipids (22.07%), carbohydrates (12.51%) and proteins (11.94%) (w/w) and grape seeds as by-product during juice production can be an alternative source of protein. Meanwhile, this study demonstrates that grape seeds are rich in calcium ((5.62±0.01) g/kg for embryonic cells and (6.32± 0.01) g/kg for intact grape seeds), which was identified by ICP-AES. The calcium was mainly distributed in the stroma of the amyloplasts and around the starch granules, which was observed under TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope). Further study indicates that water-soluble protein from grape (Vitis viniferaL.) seeds (WSPG) contained two major components, one of which was 11S globulin-like protein mainly responsible for the binding of calcium in WSPG and the other was a novel protein (Protein A). The calcium contents of protein isolate from each step were identified by ICP-AES as well. When a traditional alkali extraction and acid precipitation method was used for isolation of WSPG, many binding calcium ions were lost. It is worth noting that the protein composition of grape seed protein obtained by both 30%-50% (NH4)2SO4 sediment and the alkali extraction and acid precipitation method was nearly identical, which consisted of protein A and protein B at a ratio of 2 to 3, but the content of calcium in the

  4. Gene Cloning and Expression Analysis of VvMSA in Vitis vinifera%葡萄 VvMSA 基因的克隆及表达特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岁芳; 朱丹; 马倩; 侯丽霞; 尹鹏飞; 刘新

    2016-01-01

    为了解 VvMSA 基因的功能,以抗性葡萄品种 Vidal Blanc 组培苗为试材,克隆得到 VvMSA 基因,对其序列进行了生物信息学分析,并利用实时定量 PCR 分析了其组织表达特性和多种非生物胁迫和信号应答表达特性。结果表明,VvMSA 基因片段大小为450 bp,编码149个氨基酸序列。生物信息学分析结果显示,VvMSA 蛋白分子量约为16.703 kDa,等电点为5.68,不稳定系数为41.71,推测为不稳定蛋白。VvMSA 含有65个氨基酸组成的 ABA /WDS 保守结构域。在进化上属于单独一个分支,它和已报道过的番茄 LeASR1分别属于同一个祖先进化出的2个分支。实时荧光定量 PCR 分析显示,VvMSA 在葡萄不同组织中均有表达,花中表达量最高。多种逆境胁迫因子如盐、干旱和低温等能诱导 VvMSA 不同程度的上调表达,盐胁迫3 h 时诱导表达量最高。同时,VvMSA 受逆境胁迫信号分子 NO 和H2 S 不同程度诱导表达上调,而 SA 则抑制 VvMSA 表达。激素 ABA、GA3、IAA 和 ET 均能不同程度诱导 VvMSA 表达上调,并且 VvMSA 盐处理下的表达模式与 ABA 诱导的类似。综合以上结果推断 VvMSA 可能通过调控 ABA 信号途径来调节葡萄对盐胁迫应答。%To investigate the function of VvMSA,the full-length cDNA of VvMSA was cloned from Vitis vinifera cultivar Vidal Blanc tissue culture seedlings.Bioinformatic analysis and quantitative Real-time PCR was used to an-alyze its characteristics.The results showed that VvMSA amplified fragment size of 450 bp encoding 149 amino acids with molecular weight 16.703 kDa,isoelectric point 5.68.VvMSA was an unstable hydrophilic protein and con-tained a conserved domain ABA /WDS encoding by 65 amino acids.VvMSA and the known homolog LeASR1 in to-mato belongs to different sub-families.Real-time PCR analysis showed that the VvMSA was expressed in all tested tissues with the highest expression in flower

  5. HARA – NEWEST WINE HIGH QUALITY AROMATIC GRAPE VERIETY WITH PINK BERRY

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    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The newest high-tech pink berry aromatic grape variety Hara selected by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece researchers P.K. Zamanidi and L.P. Troshin in 2004 by crossing the Greek varieties Avgulato with Traminer pink. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics related to the eco-geographical group of Black Sea. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m. Degree of ripening vines is very high (over the entire length other than top of shoot. Length of production period from bud burst to harvest 146-155 days. Productivity is very high, 25-30 t/ha. Percentage of productive shoots - 90. The average mass of clusters within 350 g. Characterized by a high winter hardiness, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties Vitis vinifera. Hermaphrodite flower with stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Cluster medium, conical, medium density. Berry medium, spherical, pink color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice with pronounced varietal flavor of Gewurztraminer. Sugar content is very high, more than 24%. When overripening dry-curing and continuously stored on the clusters. Variety intended for the manufacture of dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality dessert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high quality juices, compotes

  6. Determination of anthocyanidins in berries and red wine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, N A; Kumpulainen, J T

    2001-09-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of anthocyanidins from berries and red wine is described. Delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin contents of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa cv. Jonsok), and a Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) red wine were determined. The aglycon forms of the anthocyanins present in the samples were revealed by acid hydrolysis. A reversed phase analytical column was employed to separate the anthocyanidins before identification by diode array detection. The suitability of the method was tested by determining the recovery (95-102% as aglycons and 69-104% from glycosides) for each anthocyanidin. Method repeatability was tested by charting the total aglycon content of two samples over a period of 14 analyses and determining the coefficients of variation (1.41% for bilberry and 2.56% for in-house reference material). The method developed proved thus to be effective for reliable determination of anthocyanidins from freeze-dried berry samples and red wine. The total anthocyanidin content of the tested samples was as follows: in-house reference material, 447 +/- 8 mg/100 g; strawberry, 23.8 +/- 0.4 mg/100 g; black currant, 135 +/- 3 mg/100 g; bilberry, 360 +/- 3 mg/100 g; and Cabernet sauvignon red wine, 26.1 +/- 0.1 mg/100 mL. PMID:11559107

  7. Evolution of flavonoids in Mouratón berries taken from both bunch halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Boso, S; Santiago, J L; Martínez, M C; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-06-01

    Galicia (N.W. Spain) is a Spanish region with several old-traditional winegrowing areas. There are autochthonous grapevine varieties, such as Vitis vinifera L. cv. Mouratón, considered a biodiversity resource in viticulture and an opportunity for Galician sustainable wine production. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the potential of traditional cultivars to produce quality red wines. In this work, anthocyanin and flavonol evolution was followed in red berries from V. vinifera L. cv. Mouratón. The novelty of this study is that grapes were separately collected from two different positions (tips and shoulders) within the cluster, over ripening to examine the effects of berry position within the fruit cluster on the flavonoid compounds. Derivatives of five anthocyanins (malvidin, peonidin, petunidin, delphinidin and cyanidin) and derivatives of six flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempherol, laricitrin isorhamnetin and syringetin) were detected in both positions within the cluster. Dynamic of anthocyanins (from 819 mg/kg to 1206 mg/kg in tips; and from 786 mg/kg to 1077 mg/kg in shoulders) and dynamic of flavonols (from 25mg/kg to 41 mg/kg in tips; and from 18 mg/kg to 21 mg/kg in shoulders) confirmed their upward trends over ripening. Grapes located inside the shoulder bunch receive less sunlight radiation than those located inside the tip bunch and this fact could explain the different accumulation observed for both positions. These results can be useful for winemakers in order to obtain different final red wine quality.

  8. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (vitis amurensis Rupr. by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics

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    Wang Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species. Results A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism. Conclusions Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72

  9. Dicty_cDB: VSE562 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available one BB160009B20H06 5', mRNA sequence. 38 6e-06 3 CB922684 |CB922684.1 VVD086F10_356001 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic...ed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA c... An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed berries of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vin...equence tag database for abiotic stressed berries of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonn... expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifer

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to decrease swollen legs” pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

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    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to decrease swollen legs”. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. Upon EFSA’s request for clarification, the applicant stated that the claimed effect was “helps to decrease swollen legs”, and that the beneficial physiological effect could be related to “helps to refine legs”. In the context of the references provided for the scientific substantiation of the claim, and in particular of the human intervention study which was conducted with the food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, the Panel notes that the claim refers to the reduction of peripheral oedema in the context of chronic clinical conditions (e.g. chronic venous insufficiency where the reduction of peripheral oedema is a therapeutic target for the treatment of the condition. The Panel considers that the reduction of peripheral oedema in the context of chronic clinical conditions is a therapeutic target for the treatment of the condition and does not comply with the criteria laid down in Regulation (EC No 1924/2006.

  11. Competitive replacement of the native Vitis and Hedera taxa by invasive aliens: morphological, cytological and molecular evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Maria HOHN; Bodor, Péter; Márta BENYEI-HIMMER; Ferenczi, Júlia; Bisztray, György Dénes

    2012-01-01

    We describe here case studies of two woody climber species native to the broadleaf forests of the Carpathian basin. Wild grape (Vitis sylvestris C.C.Gmel.), considered to be one of the ancestors of the domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) became a highly threatened species since the introduction of the American grape species as rootstocks for grapevine. Among these, especially, Riparian grape (Vitis riparia Minchx.) escaped from the wine yards and by invading the natural habitats replac...

  12. Influence of Fungal Strain, Temperature, and Wetness Duration on Infection of Grapevine Inflorescences and Young Berry Clusters by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Languasco, Luca; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature and wetness duration on infection of Vitis vinifera inflorescences (from "inflorescence clearly visible" to "end of flowering" stages) and young berry clusters (at "fruit swelling" and "berries groat-sized" stages) by Botrytis cinerea was investigated. Artificial inoculations were carried out using conidial suspensions of eight B. cinerea strains belonging to the transposon genotypes transposa and vacuma. Infection incidence was significantly affected by strain but not by transposon genotype (transposon genotype accounted for only 6.5% of the variance). Infection incidence was also affected by the interaction between strain and growth stage of the inflorescence or berry cluster (overall accounting for approximately 57% of the experimental variance). Thus, under our experimental conditions, the ability to cause infection was a strain rather than a transposon genotype attribute. Across all strains, infection incidence was lowest when inflorescences were clearly visible or fully developed, highest at flowering (from beginning to end of flowering), and intermediate at the postflowering fruit stages (fruit swelling and berries groat-sized). One transposa strain, however, was highly virulent on all grapevine growth stages tested. The effects of temperature and wetness duration on infection incidence were similar for all fungal strains and grapevine growth stages; infection incidence was highest at 20°C and lowest at 30°C, and was also low at 5°C. Similar results were obtained for mycelial growth and conidial germination. Based on the pooled data for all strains and grapevine growth stages, an equation was developed that accounted for the combined effects of temperature and wetness duration on relative infection incidence. This equation should be useful for developing decision-making systems concerning B. cinerea control at early grapevine growth stages. PMID:25354016

  13. Identification of a plastid-localized bifunctional nerolidol/linalool synthase in relation to linalool biosynthesis in young grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Cai, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS) synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars ("Riesling", "Cabernet Sauvignon", "Gewurztraminer") with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  14. Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Networks in the Grape Berry Illustrate That it Takes More Than Flavonoids to Fight Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental fluctuations. In response, they have developed a wide range of morphological and biochemical adaptations committed to ameliorate the effects of abiotic stress. When exposed to higher solar radiation levels, plants activate the synthesis of a large set of enzymes and secondary metabolites as part of a complex sunscreen and antioxidant defense mechanism. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has become a widely used system for studying adaptive responses to this type of stress since changes in berry composition, positively influenced by increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels, improve the quality of wines subsequently produced. Despite the fact that most of the attention has been directed toward the synthesis of flavonoids, recent transcriptomic and metabolomic studies have shown that stilbenoids and isoprenoids (e.g., terpenes and carotenoids) are also an important part of the grape UV-response machinery. This minireview focuses on the latest findings referring to the metabolic responses of grapes to UV radiation and proposes a model for its transcriptional control. Depending on the berry developmental stage and the type of radiation (i.e., irradiance level, exposure length), increased UV levels activate different metabolic pathways through the activity of master regulators belonging to the basic Leucine Zipper Domain (bZIP) and R2R3-MYB transcription factor families. This transcriptional control is influenced by the interaction of other environmental factors such as light, temperature or soil water availability. In grapevine, phenylpropanoids are part of, but are not the whole story, in the fight against radiation damage.

  15. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Qing Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer” with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  16. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of grapevine berry ripening reveals a set of genes similarly modulated during three seasons and the occurrence of an oxidative burst at vèraison

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    Dal Ri Antonio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine (Vitis species is among the most important fruit crops in terms of cultivated area and economic impact. Despite this relevance, little is known about the transcriptional changes and the regulatory circuits underlying the biochemical and physical changes occurring during berry development. Results Fruit ripening in the non-climacteric crop species Vitis vinifera L. has been investigated at the transcriptional level by the use of the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip® which contains approximately 14,500 unigenes. Gene expression data obtained from berries sampled before and after véraison in three growing years, were analyzed to identify genes specifically involved in fruit ripening and to investigate seasonal influences on the process. From these analyses a core set of 1477 genes was found which was similarly modulated in all seasons. We were able to separate ripening specific isoforms within gene families and to identify ripening related genes which appeared strongly regulated also by the seasonal weather conditions. Transcripts annotation by Gene Ontology vocabulary revealed five overrepresented functional categories of which cell wall organization and biogenesis, carbohydrate and secondary metabolisms and stress response were specifically induced during the ripening phase, while photosynthesis was strongly repressed. About 19% of the core gene set was characterized by genes involved in regulatory processes, such as transcription factors and transcripts related to hormonal metabolism and signal transduction. Auxin, ethylene and light emerged as the main stimuli influencing berry development. In addition, an oxidative burst, previously not detected in grapevine, characterized by rapid accumulation of H2O2 starting from véraison and by the modulation of many ROS scavenging enzymes, was observed. Conclusion The time-course gene expression analysis of grapevine berry development has identified the occurrence of two well

  17. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

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    Xiang-Yun Cui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый. Yan 73 and Pinot Noir had abundant anthocyanins, but only a few nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds. Gamay, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый contained only a few anthocyanins and flavonols. For a grape cultivar, the ratio of one anthocyanin content to total anthocyanin content did not change greatly from one year to the next, unlike for non-anthocyanins. Cluster analysis showed that except for Syrah and Yan 73, the phenolic profiles in the tested grape cultivars had no significant year-to-year variations.

  18. Crescimento de bagas de cultivares de uvas apirênicas tratadas com CPPU e GA3 Increase of the cultivars berry apirenic growth of seedless grapes treated with CPPU and GA3

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    Valtemir Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de uvas apirênicas (Vitis vinifera L., via de regra, possuem bagas de tamanhos reduzidos, necessitando de ajustes no manejo para a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos, sendo a aplicação de reguladores de crescimento um dos tratamentos mais eficazes. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar os efeitos do forchlorfenuron (CPPU: 0 e 10 mgL-1 combinado ao ácido giberélico (GA3: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgL-1 durante o primeiro ciclo de produção das cultivares Centennial Seedless, Flame Seedless e Thompson Seedless. As características avaliadas foram o comprimento, diâmetro e peso de bagas. Para a 'Centennial Seedless', maiores comprimentos, diâmetro e peso de bagas foram obtidos com 100 mgL-1 de GA3; e a concentração de 100 mgL-1 de GA3 adicionada a 10 mgL-1 de CPPU foi a mais responsiva para a 'Flame Seedless' e 'Thompson Seedless', observando-se atrasos na maturação, em termos de sólidos solúveis totais, para todas as cultivares.The Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L., have always decrease in berry size, requiring managements to increase cluster quality. The spray with growth regulators is one of most effective the treatment to enlarge berry size. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of Forchlorfenuron (CPPU: 0 e 10mgL-1 associated with Giberelic acid (GA3: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgL-1 during the first cycle of production of the cultivars Centennial Seedless, Flame Seedless and Thompson Seedless. The appraised characteristics were length, diameter and weight of berries. For Centennial Seedless, larger lengths, diameter and weight of berries were obtained with 100 mL-1 of GA3; and the concentration of 100 mL-1 of GA3 added to 10 mL-1 of CPPU was the most responsive for Flame and Thompson Seedless, being observed delays in maturation, in terms of total soluble solids, for all cultivars.

  19. PIST – IS THE NEWEST BLACK BERRY WINE GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED FLESH AND JUICE, FOR THE PRODUCTION GLOBAL BENEFIT RED WINES

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    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Newest technical black berry variety named Piste (“Faith” in Greek with colored flesh and juice breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by researchers Zamanidi P., L. Troshin and P. Radchevskii in 2007 by crossing the Greek varieties Afoos (Mavrodafni x Alicante Boucher with Ukrainian variety Odessa black (Alicante Bouchet x Cabernet Sauvignon. Duration of production period is 146-155 days. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m. The percentage of productive shoots is more than 90. The yield is very high: 25-30 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 250 g. It can be characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite. Cluster is medium, conical, sometimes with wings, medium density. Berry is small, round, blue-black color with a thick waxy coating. The skin is medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice are intensely colored. Very high sugar content. Variety is intended for the production of intensely colored dry red wines of excellent class, as well as high-quality sparkling wines, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines; suitable for the manufacture of high-quality strong colored juices. When used in blends with other varieties enhances color, full flavor and enhances the bouquet of the wine

  20. Desfolha em videiras americanas e viníferas na fase de pré-maturação dos frutos Defoliation of american and vinifera grapevines in the pre ripening of fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas possíveis interferências que a localização da folha removida mediante desfolha em videira apresenta sobre o rendimento e qualidade dos frutos. As cultivares 'Niagara Branca' e 'Concord', ambas Vitis labrusca, e 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Merlot', ambas Vitis vinifera, foram utilizadas em sistema de condução em espaldeira, na safra 2006/2007. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e quatro plantas por parcela, sendo testados 4 tratamentos: T1 (testemunha - sem desfolha, T2 (retirada das folhas localizadas opostas aos cachos, T3 (retirada das folhas do sarmento localizadas abaixo dos cachos e T4 (retirada das folhas do sarmento localizadas abaixo e opostas aos cachos. As cultivares da espécie Vitis labrusca receberam um tratamento adicional T5, constando na retirada das folhas acima dos cachos. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada na fase de mudança de cor das bagas para as cultivares 'Concord', 'Merlot' e 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e início do amolecimento das bagas para a cultivar 'Niagara Branca'. Avaliaram-se, após a colheita, a produção por planta, a massa dos cachos, os teores de sólidos solúveis (SS, a acidez titulável, (AT e o pH dos frutos. Observou-se que a desfolha até a altura do cacho não influenciou na quantidade e na qualidade dos frutos. Porém, quando a desfolha foi realizada acima dos cachos, ocorreu um atraso na maturação das uvas americanas. Essa condição implica não ser necessária a desfolha seletiva até a altura dos cachos nas videiras estudadas, quando realizada na fase início de amadurecimento dos frutos.This study aimed to evaluate the interference that the location of the leaf removed by defolation in grapevine has on fruits quality and yield. Such experiment was performed using Niagara Branca and Concord, both Vitis labrusca, and Cabernet Sauvignon e Merlot, both Vitis vinifera, trained in a unilateral cordon system during the

  1. The relationship between root hydraulics and scion vigour across Vitis rootstocks: what role do root aquaporins play?

    OpenAIRE

    GAMBETTA, G. A.; Manuck, C. M.; Drucker, S. T.; Shaghasi, T.; Fort, K.; Matthews, M A; Walker, M. A.; McElrone, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera scions are commonly grafted onto rootstocks of other grape species to influence scion vigour and provide resistance to soil-borne pests and abiotic stress; however, the mechanisms by which rootstocks affect scion physiology remain unknown. This study characterized the hydraulic physiology of Vitis rootstocks that vary in vigour classification by investigating aquaporin (VvPIP) gene expression, fine-root hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ), % aquaporin contribution to Lp r , scion tr...

  2. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir. PMID:27610237

  3. Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Networks in the Grape Berry Illustrate That it Takes More Than Flavonoids to Fight Against Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental fluctuations. In response, they have developed a wide range of morphological and biochemical adaptations committed to ameliorate the effects of abiotic stress. When exposed to higher solar radiation levels, plants activate the synthesis of a large set of enzymes and secondary metabolites as part of a complex sunscreen and antioxidant defense mechanism. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has become a widely used system for studying adaptive responses to this type of stress since changes in berry composition, positively influenced by increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels, improve the quality of wines subsequently produced. Despite the fact that most of the attention has been directed toward the synthesis of flavonoids, recent transcriptomic and metabolomic studies have shown that stilbenoids and isoprenoids (e.g., terpenes and carotenoids) are also an important part of the grape UV-response machinery. This minireview focuses on the latest findings referring to the metabolic responses of grapes to UV radiation and proposes a model for its transcriptional control. Depending on the berry developmental stage and the type of radiation (i.e., irradiance level, exposure length), increased UV levels activate different metabolic pathways through the activity of master regulators belonging to the basic Leucine Zipper Domain (bZIP) and R2R3-MYB transcription factor families. This transcriptional control is influenced by the interaction of other environmental factors such as light, temperature or soil water availability. In grapevine, phenylpropanoids are part of, but are not the whole story, in the fight against radiation damage. PMID:27625679

  4. Rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for determination and quantitation of polyphenols in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Gubbiotti, Riccardo; Sacchetti, Paolo; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2008-10-01

    A rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (RRLC/MS) method for detection and quantitation of polyphenols in grape berry skins and seeds has been developed. Pulp-free berry skins were treated with liquid nitrogen and ground; seeds were also ground. Then, 3 g of samples were extracted with 30 mL of a mixture of methanol/water/formic acid 70:30:1 (v/v/v) under sonication and 1 microL of the final extract was injected into two 100 x 2.1 mm i.d., 1.8 microm Zorbax Eclipse plus C18 columns connected in series. Compounds were fractionated using a gradient elution of acidified acetonitrile/methanol 50:50 (v/v)/water. Columns were thermostatted at 70 degrees C. MS was carried out on an Agilent 6410 QqQ instrument equipped with an electrospray ionization source. Positive and negative MS/MS product ion scans were used for compound identification, whereas positive full scan MS in the m/z range 200-1400 was used for quantitation. By means of mass spectra comparison, various flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins and stilbenes were identified. Quantitation was performed by external calibration, and concentration values were corrected for matrix effect that was evaluated in separate experiments. Semi-quantitative estimation was performed for compounds for which standards were not commercially available. Recoveries ranged from 90-102% with relative standard deviation (RSD) quality control. The developed method was applied to analyze the polyphenol content of three Vitis vinifera table cultivars at physiological maturity and after proper preservation for 6 weeks. Results demonstrated that during preservation about half of the polyphenol content was lost. PMID:18819110

  5. Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Networks in the Grape Berry Illustrate That it Takes More Than Flavonoids to Fight Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental fluctuations. In response, they have developed a wide range of morphological and biochemical adaptations committed to ameliorate the effects of abiotic stress. When exposed to higher solar radiation levels, plants activate the synthesis of a large set of enzymes and secondary metabolites as part of a complex sunscreen and antioxidant defense mechanism. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has become a widely used system for studying adaptive responses to this type of stress since changes in berry composition, positively influenced by increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels, improve the quality of wines subsequently produced. Despite the fact that most of the attention has been directed toward the synthesis of flavonoids, recent transcriptomic and metabolomic studies have shown that stilbenoids and isoprenoids (e.g., terpenes and carotenoids) are also an important part of the grape UV-response machinery. This minireview focuses on the latest findings referring to the metabolic responses of grapes to UV radiation and proposes a model for its transcriptional control. Depending on the berry developmental stage and the type of radiation (i.e., irradiance level, exposure length), increased UV levels activate different metabolic pathways through the activity of master regulators belonging to the basic Leucine Zipper Domain (bZIP) and R2R3-MYB transcription factor families. This transcriptional control is influenced by the interaction of other environmental factors such as light, temperature or soil water availability. In grapevine, phenylpropanoids are part of, but are not the whole story, in the fight against radiation damage. PMID:27625679

  6. Competitive replacement of the native Vitis and Hedera taxa by invasive aliens: morphological, cytological and molecular evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria HOHN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe here case studies of two woody climber species native to the broadleaf forests of the Carpathian basin. Wild grape (Vitis sylvestris C.C.Gmel., considered to be one of the ancestors of the domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. became a highly threatened species since the introduction of the American grape species as rootstocks for grapevine. Among these, especially, Riparian grape (Vitis riparia Minchx. escaped from the wine yards and by invading the natural habitats replaced the autochthonous wild grape. In consequence of the competitive exclusion Vitis sylvestris suffered a strong withdrawal along its native habitats. 20 morphological traits, including leaf shape and trichome structure were studied to tackle evidence of the introgressive hybridization among the alien and native taxa. Most of the studied Hungarian habitats were already dominated by hybrid specimens of Vitis taxa. Molecular analysis based on 8 nuclear microsatellites markers supported the morphological results. 

  7. Aminoacids Profile of cv. Kraljevina (Vitis vinifera L. Clones Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Puhelek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Different clones from a single grape variety can differ in their productive characteristics and their ability to produce wines with different organoleptic characteristics. The ammonium ions and free amino acids are the main sources of nitrogen for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and thus the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the must can significantly affect the wine quality. ‘Kraljevina’ is well known Croatian autochthonous variety traditionally grown in Northwest Croatia. The clonal selection was started in 2003, and in the period 2011-2012 the evaluation of nine clones of ‘Kraljevina’ grape variety (VV-360,VV-482,VV-486, VV- 438, VV-434, VV-479, VV-423, VV-406, VV-483 was conducted. The grapes of the clones tested were harvested on the same day and the obtained juices were filtered and stored for further amino acids analysis. The obtained results pointed to significant diverseness and strong clonal influence on amino acid composition between tested clones. The most abundant amino acid in all clones was arginine ranging from 197.07 to 438.36 mg/L, while the smallest differences were noticed in isoleucine, cysteine, valine and phenylalanine concentrations. The total amino acids concentration ranged from 492.7 mg/L in VV-406 clone to 952.04 mg/L in VV-360 ‘Kraljevina’ clone.

  8. Sugar transport in vitis vinifera and olea europaea

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Plants are essential for energy input into the living world. As photoautotrophic multicellular organisms, higher plants represent complex mosaics of highly differentiated tissues that fulfil specific functions. These specializations are accompanied by a loss of tissue autonomy making it indispensable for different cell types to collaborate even over long distances. Plants produce carbohydrates by the fixation of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis that tak...

  9. Untargeted metabolic profiling of Vitis vinifera during fungal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Avinash V; Beale, David J; Morrison, Paul D; Harding, Ian H; Palombo, Enzo A

    2015-05-01

    This paper illustrates the application of an untargeted metabolic profiling analysis of winery-derived biomass degraded using four filamentous fungi (Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and P. citrinum) and a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Analysis of the metabolome resulted in the identification of 233 significant peak features [P 2 and signal-to-noise ratio >50] using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by statistical chemometric analysis. Furthermore, A. niger and P. chrysogenum produced higher biomass degradation due to considerable β-glucosidase and xylanase activities. The major metabolites generated during fungal degradation which differentiated the metabolic profiles of fungi included sugars, sugar acids, organic acids and fatty acids. Although, P. chrysogenum could degrade hemicelluloses due to its high β-glucosidase and xylanase activities, it could not utilize the resultant pentoses, which A. niger and P. citrinum could do efficiently, thus indicating a need of mixed fungal culture to improve the biomass degradation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a non-cellulose degrader, exhibited sugar accumulation during the fermentation. Penicillium chrysogenum was observed to degrade about 2% lignin, a property not observed in other fungi. This study emphasized the differential fungal metabolic behavior and demonstrated the potential of metabolomics in optimizing degradation or manipulating pathways to increase yields of products of interest. PMID:25868913

  10. Development Correlations of the Buds of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana ROTARU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development characteristics of different buds of the grapevine are mainly related by stimulation and/or inhibition effects, the action of which is still inexplicable. The present study examines the development dynamics of the buds of a one-year old branch after excision of different buds and the application of ?-naphtyl acetic acid (ANA, as well as the growth capacity of each bud individually. We verified the effects of acrotony cited previously by various researchers. These effects are due to different developmental characteristics of which could to lay the groundwork for the improvement of different productions methods.

  11. Identification and expression analysis of heat shock transcription factors in the wild Chinese grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are known to play pivotal roles in the adaptation of plants to heat stress and other stress stimuli. While grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, little is known about the Hsf family in Vitis spp. Here, we identified nineteen putative Hsf genes (VviHsfs) in Vitis spp based on the 12 × grape genome (V. vinifera L.). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three classes of grape Hsf genes (classes A, B, and C). Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several VviHsfs genes occurred in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of the homologs of the VviHsfs genes (VpHsfs) in the wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which is tolerant to various environmental stresses. Among the nineteen VpHsfs, ten VpHsfs displayed lower transcript levels under non-stress conditions and marked up-regulation during heat stress treatment; several VpHsfs also displayed altered expression levels in response to cold, salt, and hormone treatments, suggesting their versatile roles in response to stress stimuli. In addition, eight VpHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in V. pseudoreticulata mesophyll protoplasts. Taken together, our data may provide an important reference for further studies of Hsf genes in Vitis spp.

  12. Identification and expression analysis of heat shock transcription factors in the wild Chinese grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are known to play pivotal roles in the adaptation of plants to heat stress and other stress stimuli. While grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, little is known about the Hsf family in Vitis spp. Here, we identified nineteen putative Hsf genes (VviHsfs) in Vitis spp based on the 12 × grape genome (V. vinifera L.). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three classes of grape Hsf genes (classes A, B, and C). Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several VviHsfs genes occurred in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of the homologs of the VviHsfs genes (VpHsfs) in the wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which is tolerant to various environmental stresses. Among the nineteen VpHsfs, ten VpHsfs displayed lower transcript levels under non-stress conditions and marked up-regulation during heat stress treatment; several VpHsfs also displayed altered expression levels in response to cold, salt, and hormone treatments, suggesting their versatile roles in response to stress stimuli. In addition, eight VpHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in V. pseudoreticulata mesophyll protoplasts. Taken together, our data may provide an important reference for further studies of Hsf genes in Vitis spp. PMID:26689772

  13. Quantitative anatomy of grapevine (Vitis L. leaf blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine S. Codreanu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current investigations were conducted to clarify the features of grapevine which are adaptive to drought and can be used in selection and introduction of VitisL. There are determined biometric values of 21 morpho-anatomic characters of leaf blade for 10 species of grapevine, 10 cultivars of V. viniferaL. and 10 distant hybrids V. vinifera× Muscadinia rotundifoliaMichx. As a result of this study 6 leaf blade quantitative characters which determine relative grapevine drought resistance were described. The most drought resistant species, sorts and hybrids of grapevine are that which have: a greater average thickness of leaf blade; b smaller surface (average area of leaf blade; c less ratio between average area and average volume of dried leaf blade; d greater mass of dried leaf blade; e higher degrees of the leaf succulence and sclerophylly.

  14. Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula

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    Ke-Gang Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs are fundamental nutritional metabolites in different types of grape products consumed by human beings. Although the biosynthesis of PAs in berry of Vitis vinifera has gained intensive investigations, the understanding of PAs in other Vitis species is limited. In this study, we report PA formation and characterization of gene expression involved in PA biosynthesis in leaves of V. bellula, a wild edible grape species native to south and south-west China. Leaves are collected at five developmental stages defined by sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 cm in length. Analyses of thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD show the formation of (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, (+-gallocatechin and (−-epigallocatechin during the entire development of leaves. Analyses of butanol-HCl boiling cleavage coupled with spectrometry measurement at 550 nm show a temporal trend of extractable PA levels, which is characterized by an increase from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm long leaves followed by a decrease in late stages. TLC and HPLC-PAD analyses identify cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin produced from the cleavage of PAs in the butanol-HCl boiling, showing that the foliage PAs of V. bellula include three different types of extension units. Four cDNAs, which encode VbANR, VbDFR, VbLAR1 and VbLAR2, respectively, are cloned from young leaves. The expression patterns of VbANR and VbLAR2 but not VbLAR1 and VbDFR follow a similar trend as the accumulation patterns of PAs. Two cDNAs encoding VbMYBPA1 and VbMYB5a, the homologs of which have been demonstrated to regulate the expression of both ANR and LAR in V. vinifera, are also cloned and their expression profiles are similar to those of VbANR and VbLAR2. In contrast, the expression profiles of MYBA1 and 2 homologs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis are different from those of VbANR and VbLAR2. Our data show that both ANR and LAR branches are

  15. Antimicrobial properties of berries

    OpenAIRE

    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta

    2007-01-01

    Berries, especially their antimicrobial properties, have been studied intensively at VTT over the past ten years in several research projects. In these in vitro studies phenolic berry extracts of common Nordic berries selectively inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria and human intestinal pathogens, without affecting the growth of beneficial lactic acid bacteria.

  16. APOLLON – THE NEW WINE HIGH QUALITY GRAPE VARIETY WITH BLACK BERRY Aполлон – новый высококачественный универсальный черноягодный сорт винограда

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    Zamanidi P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal black-berry Apollo grape has been launched in Greece by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and A.Isachkin in 2003 with combinative selection - crossing of the Fi-lery Greek variety with the French Cabernet-Sauvignon. The duration of the production period 136-145 days. The strength of growth of arms is strong (2,1-3,0 m, the degree of maturation of the vines is high. Crop yields are very high - 35-40 t/ha. The aver-age mass of clusters is 430 g. It is characterized by high winter hardiness, drought-resistance and high resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varie-ties of Vitis vinifera. The flower is bisexual. Cluster is big or very big, conical with the wing, loose. Berries are medium or large, oval, blue-black in color, with a thick wax coating. The skin is thick. The pulp and juice - with varietal flavor. Sugar content is high. Notable for long saving the harvest in the bushes, well-kept in the cooler cells. The variety is meant for the fresh consumption and for manufacture of red dry, desert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high-quality juices

  17. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed

  18. Supersymmetric Berry index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilinskii, K N; Melezhik, V S; Ilinski, K N; Kalinin, G V; Melezhik, V V

    1994-01-01

    We revise the sequences of SUSY for a cyclic adiabatic evolution governed by the supersymmetric quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. The condition (supersymmetric adiabatic evolution) under which the supersymmetric reductions of Berry (nondegenerated case) or Wilczek-Zee (degenerated case) phases of superpartners are taking place is pointed out. The analogue of Witten index (supersymmetric Berry index) is determined. As the examples of suggested concept of supersymmetric adiabatic evolution the Holomorphic quantum mechanics on complex plane and Meromorphic quantum mechanics on Riemann surface are considered. The supersymmetric Berry indexes for the models are calculated.

  19. 巨峰葡萄成熟过程中挥发性香气物质的变化%Changes of Aroma Volatiles during Berry Ripening of Kyoho Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁园园; 马盼; 门洪文; 黄翊鹏; 郭守鹏; 姚玉新

    2015-01-01

    香气是葡萄果实的重要品质性状之一。本文以8年生巨峰(Vitis vinifera-V. Labrusca. cv, Kyoho)葡萄为试材,利用顶空固相微萃取技术提取挥发性香气物质,利用 GC/MS QP2010 Plus 气质联用仪分析葡萄成熟过程中可挥发性香气的种类和含量变化。巨峰葡萄的香气主要由酯、萜、醛、醇和其它杂环类物质组成,转色后可挥发性香气成分总的种类和含量明显增加;酯和萜是成熟的巨峰葡萄最主要的香气物质;邻苯二甲酸二乙酯、角鲨烯、己-2-烯醛和(E)-2-己烯-1-醇分别是最主要的酯、萜烯、醛和醇类物质,并且它们随着果实成熟含量逐渐升高,在成熟果实中邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和角鲨烯分别占总香气含量的28.8%和26.2%。邻苯二甲酸二乙酯、角鲨烯、己-2-烯醛和(E)-2-己烯-1-醇是成熟的巨峰葡萄最主要的香气物质,并且随着果实成熟含量逐渐升高。%Aroma is one of the most important berry qualities. The eight-year Kyoho grape vines were selected to determine berry aroma. Aroma volatiles of Kyoho grape were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction. Aroma variety and amount were detected by GC/MS QP2010 Plus. The results showed that aroma volatiles of Kyoho berries consisted of esters, terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols and other volatiles. The total variety and amount were clearly enhanced after veraison. Esters and terpenes consisted of the two most important aroma volatiles in the ripened berries. Diethyl Phthalate, Squalane, 2-Hexenal and 2-Hexen-1-ol, (E)- exhibited the highest amount for esters, terpenes, aldehydes and alcohols, respectively; in addition, the above four volatiles kept increasing along with the berry ripening. In the ripened berries, Diethyl Phthalate and Squalane accounted for 28.8% and 26.2% of the total volatiles, respectively. Diethyl Phthalate, Squalane, 2-Hexenal and 2-Hexen-1-ol, (E)- were the most important aroma volatiles

  20. 葡萄果实分支酸变位酶基因的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and expression of gene encoding chorismate mutase in grape berries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨; 陈灵婧; 李小溪; 王军

    2014-01-01

    莽草酸途径是连接糖代谢和次生代谢的主要桥梁,分支酸变位酶(Chorismate Mutase,CM)是控制碳同化物由莽草酸途径进入苯丙烷代谢途径的入口酶,在葡萄果实酚类物质积累中起着重要作用。本研究以赤霞珠葡萄(Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon)果实为试材,采用电子克隆和分子克隆相结合技术,获得两个编码分支酸变位酶同源基因,分别命名为VvCM1和VvCM2。这两个基因分别定位于4号和14号染色体上,其编码区全长分别为741 bp和963 bp,编码蛋白含246和320个氨基酸。VvCM1和VvCM2与其他植物中的同类酶在氨基酸水平上具有广泛的同源性。Real-time PCR分析显示,VvCM1和VvCM2基因在葡萄的各器官和组织中均有表达,VvCM1在果实中表达丰度最高,而VvCM2在茎中表达丰度最高。%Shikimate pathway connects primary carbohydrate metabolism with the biosynthesis of most secondary metabolites in plants. Chorismate Mutase (CM) is an entry enzyme from shikimate pathway into phenylpropanoid metabolism, which plays an important role in the accumulation of phenolic compounds in grape berries. In the present study, two CM cDNAs were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) and designated as VvCM1 and VvCM2. The cDNAs of VvCM1 and VvCM2 contained open reading frames of 741 bp and 963 bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 246 and 320 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 27.06 kDa and 35.2 kDa, respectively. The DNA sequences corresponding to the two isogenes both contain four introns and located on the chromosome 4 and 14, respectively. The sequence homology comparison showed that VvCM1 and VvCM2 had high homology of the amino acid sequences with other plant CM from the GenBank. Analysis by Real time-PCR showed that VvCM1 and VvCM2 were expressed in all the tested tissues. The transcript abundance of VvCM1 was the highest in grape berries and VvCM2 had the highest

  1. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence. PMID:23667822

  2. Efeitos do thidiazuron e do ácido giberélico nas características dos cachos e bagos da uva de mesa 'Vênus' na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo Effects of thidiazuron and gibberellic acid on cluster and berry characteristics of 'Vênus' table grape in the Northwestern São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento está amplamente difundido no cultivo da videira para a melhoria da qualidade das uvas (Vitis vinifera L., visando principalmente ao aumento em tamanho e ao pegamento dos bagos, à descompactação dos cachos e à eliminação de sementes. Nesse contexto, um experimento foi conduzido em vinhedo do cultivar Vênus localizado em Urânia-SP, região noroeste de São Paulo, por dois ciclos consecutivos. Para os tratamentos, utilizam-se thidiazuron a 5 ou 10 mg.L-1 e ácido giberélico a 30 mg.L-1, combinados ou não. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: comprimento, largura e massa dos cachos e bagos; massa dos engaços; número de bagos; número de sementes-traço; e teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e relação SST/ATT do mosto. As aplicações de ácido giberélico aumentaram a massa, o comprimento, a largura e o número dos bagos, e reduziram o número de sementes-traço de uvas 'Vênus'. A associação de thidiazuron com ácido giberélico potencializou o efeito desse regulador de crescimento no aumento do pegamento dos frutos e na redução do número de sementes-traço. Aplicações de thidiazuron a 10 mg.L-1, associado ou não ao ácido giberélico, atrasaram a maturação da uva, diminuindo o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e a relação SST/ATT e reduziram a acidez total titulável do mosto. Aplicações de reguladores de crescimento também aumentaram a massa dos cachos e dos engaços.The use of growth regulators is widely diffused in vine crops to improve grapes quality (Vitis vinifera L., aiming mainly the increase of fruit size and set, loosening clusters, and elimination of seeds. In this context, a trial was carried out in a vineyard located at Urânia-SP, Northwestern São Paulo State, during two seasons. It was used thidiazuron at 5 or 10mg.L-1 and gibberellic acid at 30mg.L-1, combined or not. The following variables were evaluated: weight, length and width of

  3. The phytoalexin resveratrol regulates the initiation of hypersensitive cell death in Vitis cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chang

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR, while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir' does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines derived from the two Vitis species, the bacterial effector Harpin induced a rapid and sensitive accumulation of stilbene synthase (StSy transcripts, followed by massive cell death in V. rupestris. In the present work, we analysed the function of the phytoalexin resveratrol, the product of StSy. We found that cv. 'Pinot Noir' accumulated low resveratrol and its glycoside trans-piceid, whereas V. rupestris produced massive trans-resveratrol and the toxic oxidative δ-viniferin, indicating that the preferred metabolitism of resveratrol plays role in Vitis resistance. Cellular responses to resveratrol included rapid alkalinisation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR5 transcripts, oxidative burst, actin bundling, and cell death. Microtubule disruption and induction of StSy were triggered by Harpin, but not by resveratrol. Whereas most responses proceeded with different amplitude for the two cell lines, the accumulation of resveratrol, and the competence for resveratrol-induced oxidative burst differed in quality. The data lead to a model, where resveratrol, in addition to its classical role as antimicrobial phytoalexin, represents an important regulator for initiation of HR-related cell death.

  4. Dicty_cDB: VHE264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-04 2 BQ793980 |BQ793980.1 EST 2918 Veraison Grape berries Lambda Zap II Library Vitis vinifera cDNA clone ...878.1 EST 2816 Veraison Grape berries Lambda Zap II Library Vitis vinifera cDNA clone TT251B04 3', mRNA sequ...HU(LMS) puzzle sunflower Helianthus paradoxus cDNA clone CHUL1765, mRNA sequence. 44 0.049 2 BQ793878 |BQ793

  5. Dicty_cDB: AFJ178 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available strain AX4, complete sequence. 32 0.56 9 BQ798539 |BQ798539.1 EST 708 Green Grape berries Lambda Zap II Lib...799355.1 EST 1524 Green Grape berries Lambda Zap II Library Vitis vinifera cDNA clone GT181G07 3', mRNA sequ...rary Vitis vinifera cDNA clone GB005C04 3', mRNA sequence. 38 0.73 2 BQ799355 |BQ

  6. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  7. The Effect of UV-C Irradiation on Spatial and Temporal Accumulation of Flavanols and the Activity, Tissue Localization of LAR in Grape Berry%UV-C对葡萄黄烷醇类多酚时空积累、LAR活性和组织定位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 牛兴艳; 邢延富; 牛铁泉; 高美英; 冀铮春; 李昌亨; 杜丽娟

    2013-01-01

    以酿酒葡萄‘赤霞珠’(Vitis viniferaL.‘Cabernet Sauvignon’)为试材,在果实发育过程中定期对植株进行UV-C照射,分别采用分光光度计法、免疫组织定位等方法,对黄烷醇类多酚时空积累及其合成关键酶LAR (leucoanthocyanidin reductase,LAR)活性和定位进行初步研究.结果表明:UV-C诱导果皮和果肉中总酚、黄烷醇类多酚、总黄烷-3-醇的积累,LAR酶活性增强,且这一诱导作用有明显的照射剂量、器官/组织和发育阶段依赖性.UV-C照射并不改变LAR1、LAR2酶蛋白在葡萄果实中的分布,但诱导酶蛋白积累,特别在果皮及果肉维管束中,UV-C照射导致LAR1、LAR2酶蛋白信号明显增强.所有结果表明,UV-C照射诱导果皮和果肉维管束中LAR1、LAR2酶蛋白增加,诱导LAR酶活性增强,最终导致总黄烷-3-醇和黄烷醇类多酚特异性积累.%The 5-year old grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.‘Cabemet Sauvignon’) was subjected to the periodical UV-C irradiation during berry development.The spatial and temporal accumulation of flavanols and the enzyme activity of LAR in the berry were analyzed by spectrophotometer method,and the tissue localization of LAR1 and LAR2 were detected by the immunohistochemical localization.The results indicated that the accumulation of total phenol,flavanols,flavan-3-ols,as well as the LAR enzyme activity in the skin and flesh were induced by UV-C irradiation,which was irradiation dose-,organ/tissue-,and development stage-depend.There were no obvious changes in the tissue localization of LAR1 and LAR2 induced by UV-C,whereas an significant increasing signal was found,especially in the skin and vascular bundle.All the results suggest that UV-C irradiation could induce the accumulation of LAR1 and LAR2 enzyme protein in the skin and vascular bundle,an increasing in LAR activity in the skin during grape berry development,which resulted in the accumulation of total flavan-3-ols and flavanols.

  8. MARIA CALLAS – THE NEW WINE HIGH-GRADE FRAGRANT PINK-BERRY GRAPE BREED Мария Каллас — новый винный высококачественный ароматный розовоягодный сорт винограда

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Callas is the new wine high-grade fragrant pink-berry breed, bred in Greece by Panteley Zamanidi, Leonid Troshin and Alexander Isachkin in 2003 by mating of Greek breed of Roditis with Traminer pink. Under morpho-physiological characteristics, it is included in ecological and geographical group of breeds of the Western Europe. Duration of productive phase is 146-155 days. A breed is strong grown; a degree of ripening of a vine is very high. Productivity is high. The medial mass of racemations is 180 gr. Differs with high winter-hardiness, drought resistance and raised sustainability to fungous diseases in comparison with breeds of Vitis vinifera. The flower is bisexual. A racemation is medial, conic with medial denseness. Bacca is medial, oval, pink color, with a dense wax coating. Peel is tight. Pulp is juicy with strongly expressed high quality flavour. Sugar content is high. Baccas become dry and raisin-like when overrippen and are duratingly maintained on scrubs: sugar content thus attains more than 30 %. The breed is designed for production of dry white wines of excellent quality, and also high-grade dessert and sweet wines; it is applicable for production of high-grade juice, compotes and jam as well; at drying of baccas the raisin of high quality with fragrant tender tang is gained

  9. KORMILITSA LISA - NEW GREEK-RUSSIAN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE WHITE BERRY MOSCHATUS GRAPE VARIETY Кормилица Лиза – новый Греко-Российский комплексноустойчивый белоягодный мускатный сорт винограда

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Kormilitsa Lisa grape was created in Greece by P. Zamanidi and L.Troshin in 2003 with crossing the varieties of the Pervenets Maharach with varieties of Muscat white. The duration of the production period is 146-155 days. The yield is high. The average mass of clusters of 250 g. It has winter hardiness, drought-resistance and high resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera; it is also tolerant to phylloxeras. The flower is ambisexual. The bunch is average, cylinder-conic, medium density. The berry is average, oval, green-yellow colour, with a thick wax coating. The skin is thin, thick, and strong. The pulp and juice with a strong Muscat flavor. Sugar content is high with acidity constant. When overripen, it dries long and is stored on the bushes. The variety is meant for manufacture of dry white wine of superior class and high-quality dessert and sweet wines; It is also suitable for the development of high-quality juices and compotes

  10. Bioactive constituents in aronia berries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate some of the potential health benefits of aronia berries with main focus on the phenolic substances. Extractions and fractionations of aronia berries were performed to obtain several crude extracts and subfractions. In addition, well known constituents of aronia berries (anthocyanins, procyanidins and phenolic acids) were isolated. The different samples obtained were then tested in various in vitro bioassays to determine their biological activities as ...

  11. 1-MCP结合冰温贮藏对葡萄采后品质及相关生理代谢的调控%Effects of 1-MCP Treatment in Combination with Controlled Freezing-point Storage on Postharvest Qualities and Physiological Metabolism of Grape(Vitis vinifera L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志文; 张平; 刘翔; 李江阔; 集贤; 王罡

    2011-01-01

    Table grape(Vitis vinifera) "ZaNa" was used to investigate the effect of 0.5 or 1.0 μL/L 1-MCP treatment combined with controlled freezing-point temperature(-0.3℃ ± 0.3℃) storage on the postharvest quality and physiology indexes.The results showed that controlled freezing-point temperature storage combined with 1-MCP of both concentrations not only increased the good fruit rate,but also decreased the weight loss rate and stem browning index of grape.The combined treatment inhibited the increase of respiratory intensity and ethylene generation rate of grape cluster and MDA,O2-·and H2O2 contents,and LOX activity in grape fruit,and maintained or increased SOD and POD activities of grape fruit.Controlled freezing-point temperature storage combined with 1.0μL/L 1-MCP treatment prolonged the storage life by 20 days compared to general cold storage.In conclusion,proper 1-MCP treatment in combination with controlled freezing-point temperature storage can increase storage postharvest fruit quality and resistance to deterioration and delay fruit senescence.%以"乍娜"葡萄为试材,研究0.5μL/L和1.5μL/L 2个用量的1-MCP处理结合冰温贮藏(温度-0.3℃±0.3℃)对葡萄采后主要品质及相关生理指标的作用效果。结果表明:冰温贮藏结合2个浓度的1-MCP处理均可在不同程度上提高葡萄贮藏好果率并降低质量损失率和果梗褐变指数,抑制葡萄果穗呼吸强度和乙烯生成速率的增加,并能够有效抑制果实丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)、超氧阴离子自由基(O-2.)、过氧化氢(H2O2)含量和脂氧合酶(lipoxygenase,LOX)活性的增加,保持或增大超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)和过氧化物酶(peroxidase,POD)的活性;1μL/L 1-MCP处理结合冰温贮藏作用效果较好,使葡萄贮期较普通冷库对照延长20d。综上所述,适宜浓度的1-MCP处理结合冰温贮藏有利于提高葡萄采后贮藏品质和果实抗

  12. Zitterbewegung and gravitational Berry phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, Giorgio, E-mail: papini@uregina.ca [Department of Physics and Prairie Particle Physics Institute, University of Regina, Regina, Sask S4S 0A2 (Canada); International Institute for Advanced Scientific Studies, 89019 Vietri sul Mare (Italy)

    2012-03-12

    Berry phases mix states of positive and negative energy in the propagation of fermions and bosons in external gravitational and electromagnetic fields and generate Zitterbewegung oscillations. The results are valid in any reference frame and to any order of approximation in the metric deviation. -- Highlights: ► Berry phases generate Zitterbewegung oscillations in the propagation of particles. ► The covariant approach applies to gravitational and electromagnetic fields. ► The curvature of space–time affects Hilbert space via Berry phases. ► Berry phases mix the positive and negative energy states of relativistic particles.

  13. Lesão renal aguda por glicerol: efeito antioxidante da Vitis vinifera L Acute kidney injury by glycerol: antioxidant effect of Vitis vinifera L

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabete Cristina de Oliveira Martim; Carolina Ferreira Pinto; Mirian Watanabe; Maria de Fátima Fernandes Vattimo

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A lesão renal aguda (LRA) é a complicação mais grave da rabdomiólise. Nessa síndrome, a liberação do pigmento heme desencadeia uma lesão que se caracteriza por vasoconstrição glomerular e toxicidade celular direta com provável componente oxidante. A renoproteção com antioxidantes tem demonstrado efeito satisfatório. As proantocianidinas são antioxidantes naturais encontradas no extrato da semente da uva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antioxidante da V...

  14. Compostos fenólicos e capacidade antioxidante de cultivares de uvas Vitis labrusca L. e Vitis vinifera L. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca and Vitis vinifera cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tiemi Abe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O conteúdo de compostos fenólicos, incluindo resveratrol, antocianinas e outros flavonóides, e a capacidade antioxidante de cinco cultivares de uvas produzidas em Minas Gerais foram determinados. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais, determinado através do método de Folin-Ciocalteau variou significativamente, entre 65 ± 1 e 390 ± 30 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico.100 g -1 de amostra base úmida (b.u.. O conteúdo de antocianinas totais quantificado por CLAE variou entre 6,7 ± 0,2 e 154 ± 4 mg equivalentes de cianidina.100 g -1 (b.u.. Outros flavonóides encontrados foram catequina, epicatequina, quercetina, caempferol além dos ácidos hidroxicinâmicos. O resveratrol foi encontrado em três cultivares, variando entre 0,022 ± 0,001 e 0,60 ± 0,03 mg.100 g -1 (b.u.. A capacidade antioxidante foi analisada usando o método de seqüestro de radicais livres do DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila, que variou entre 2,7 ± 0,1 e 19 ± 2 µmoles equivalentes de Trolox.g -1 de amostra (b.u., mostrando boa correlação com o conteúdo de fenólicos totais. As uvas tintas de coloração mais escura apresentaram maior conteúdo de antocianinas, e conseqüentemente maior teor de fenólicos totais e capacidade antioxidante.Phenolic compounds including resveratrol, anthocyanins and other flavonoids and antioxidant capacity were evaluated for five grape cultivars cultivated in Minas Gerais (Brazil. The content of total phenolic determined by the Folin Ciocalteau method varied significantly, from 65 ± 1 to 390 ± 30 mg gallic acid equivalents.100 g -1 of FW (Fresh Weight. The content of total anthocyanins quantified by HPLC varied from 6.7 ± 0.2 to 154 ± 4 mg of cyanidin equivalents.100 g -1 FW. Resveratrol was found in three cultivars, in contents from 0.022 ± 0.001 to 0.60 ± 0.03 mg.100 g¹ of FW. In addition to hydroxicynnamic acids, other flavonoids such as catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and kaempferol were also present. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method and varied from 2.7 ± 0.1 to 19 ± 2 µmol trolox equivalents.g -1 FW, showing good correlation with the content of total phenolics. The darker red grapes presented higher anthocyanin contents and consequently higher total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity.

  15. Multiplicação in vitro do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia Multiplication in vitro of grapevine rootstock 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação é uma técnica que possibilita a propagação massal de plantas de interesse econômico. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP e cinetina (CIN na multiplicação do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43'. O isolamento foi realizado em meio de cultura QL, suplementado com BAP ou CIN, nas concentrações de 0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10,0µM. Os subcultivos foram realizados a cada 45 dias. O número de brotações por explante aumentou ao longo dos subcultivos com BAP. Esse efeito não foi observado com a CIN, que obteve resultado semelhante ao da testemunha (1,0 brotação/explante. As concentrações de 5,0 e 10,0 µM de BAP promoveram o maior número de brotações, porém com redução da altura. A concentração mais elevada de CIN (10,0 µM, também teve efeito negativo na altura das brotações, assim como no número de folhas por brotação. A formação de calo (100% foi observada com BAP e CIN em todas as concentrações, e na ausência de citocinina não houve a formação de calo. A citocinina BAP reduziu a formação de raízes, que foi de 100% com a CIN e a testemunha.The micropropagation is one technique that makes possible the massal propagation of plants of economic interest. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP and kinetin (KIN in the multiplication in vitro of the grapevine rootstock 'VR043-43'. The isolation was carried through in culture medium QL, supplemented with BAP or KIN, in the concentrations of 0; 2,5; 5,0 and 10,0µM. The subcultures had been carried out each 45 days. The number of shoots per explant increased along with the subcultures with BAP. However this effect was not observed with the KIN that it got resulted similar to the one of the cytokin-free (1,0 shoot/explant. The concentrations of 5,0 nd 10,0 µM of BAP had promoted the biggest number of shoots with reduction of the height. The highest concentration of KIN (10,0 µM also had negative effect in the height of the shoots, as well as, in the number of leaves per shoot. The callus formation (100% was observed with BAP and KIN in all the concentrations, and in the cytokinin absence it did not have the callus formation. Cytokinin BAP reduced the formation of roots that was of 100% with the KIN and cytokinin-free.

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSE805 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inifera cDNA clone VVA029A07 3, mRNA sequence. 38 0.025 2 BQ798604 |BQ798604.1 EST 773 Green Grape berries L...ambda Zap II Library Vitis vinifera cDNA clone GB006A10 3', mRNA sequence. 38 0.026 2 BQ798639 |BQ798639.1 EST 808 Green Grape...06 3', mRNA sequence. 38 0.026 2 BQ798629 |BQ798629.1 EST 798 Green Grape berries Lambda Zap II Library Viti...s vinifera cDNA clone GB006D07 3', mRNA sequence. 38 0.026 2 BQ799996 |BQ799996.1 EST 2165 Green Grape berri... 0.026 2 BQ799789 |BQ799789.1 EST 1958 Green Grape berries Lambda Zap II Library Vitis vinifera cDNA clone G

  17. Historical introgression of the downy mildew resistance gene Rpv12 from the Asian species Vitis amurensis into grapevine varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Venuti

    Full Text Available The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.. A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance-a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola-was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12(+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12(+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old 'Zarja severa' and 'Michurinets'. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12(+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3 only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12(+ has an additive effect with Rpv3(+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3(+ plants.

  18. Historical Introgression of the Downy Mildew Resistance Gene Rpv12 from the Asian Species Vitis amurensis into Grapevine Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, Silvia; Copetti, Dario; Foria, Serena; Falginella, Luigi; Hoffmann, Sarolta; Bellin, Diana; Cindrić, Petar; Kozma, Pál; Scalabrin, Simone; Morgante, Michele; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance–a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola–was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old ‘Zarja severa’ and ‘Michurinets’. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3) only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12+ has an additive effect with Rpv3+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3+ plants. PMID:23593440

  19. Nonspecific lipid-transfer protein genes expression in grape (vitis sp.) Cells in response to fungal elicitor treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Gomès, Eric; Sagot, Emeric; Gaillard, Cécile; Laquitaine, Laurent; Poinssot, Benoît; Sanejouand, Yves-Henri; Delrot, Serge; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic cystein-rich proteins believed to be involved in plant defense mechanisms. Three cDNAs coding nsLTPs from grape (Vitis vinifera sp.) were cloned by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR. The expression of nsLTP genes was investigated in 41B-rootstock grape cell suspension, in response to various defense-related signal molecules. Ergosterol (a fungi-specific sterol) and a proteinaceous elicitor puri...

  20. Identification of Agrobacterium vitis as a causal agent of grapevine crown gall in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, a serious outbreak of crown gall disease was observed on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in several commercial vineyards located in the Vojvodina province, Serbia. Bacteria were isolated from the young tumor tissue on nonselective YMA medium and five representative strains were selected for further identification. Tumorigenic (Ti plasmid was detected in all strains by PCR using primers designed to amplify the virC pathogenicity gene, producing a 414-bp PCR product. The strains were identified as Agrobacterium vitis using differential physiological and biochemical tests, and a multiplex PCR assay targeting 23S rRNA gene sequences. In the pathogenicity assay, all strains induced characteristic symptoms on inoculated tomato and grapevine plants. They were less virulent on tomato plants in comparison to the reference strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis. [Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46008: Development of integrated management of harmful organisms in plant production in order to overcome resistance and to improve food quality and safety

  1. Berry development in relation to Gibberellin(GA_3) treatment and VvSEP3expression of 'Fenghou' grapevine%‘峰后’葡萄果实发育与赤霉素(GA_3)处理以及VvSEP3基因表达的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉艳; 王建楼; 鲁井云; 秦旭冬; 李天忠; 胡建芳

    2012-01-01

    为了探明‘峰后’葡萄赤霉素(GA3)处理后促使果粒变长的原因和VvSEP3基因在果实早期发育中的作用,在开花前利用0.1mg/g GA3处理花序并通过原位杂交分析了VvSEP3基因的表达。结果显示:GA3处理提高了峰后葡萄的坐果,增加了果形指数,从开花后14d开始到开花后56d,GA3处理后的果实纵径始终大于同时期的对照果实,解剖学结构研究表明,中果皮的细胞膨大从开花后7d开始明显大于同时期发育的对照果粒。VvSEP3基因在开花期的柱头、花柱、横膈膜以及胚珠的珠心组织中有表达,开花后主要在子房壁中表达,当幼胚发育时在维管束组织和胚乳组织中有所表达。本研究显示GA3处理后明显增加峰后葡萄的果形指数,同时促进了果肉细胞的纵向生长从而使果粒变长;VvSEP3基因在子房壁细胞分裂与膨大过程中可能发挥重要作用,同时也可能参与了种子的形成和发育过程。%This paper is concerned with The effects of gibberellins(GA3) on berry growth and the possible role of VvSEP3 gene in early berry development of 'Fenghou' grapevine(Vitis vinifera L.).The inflorescences before flowering were treated with 0.1mg/L GA3.The VvSEP3 gene expression pattern during early berry development was studied by in situ hybridization.Our results showed that GA3 treatment increased the fruit setting rate and the fruit form index.The longitudinal diameter of GA3 treatment berry was larger than the control from 14 days after full bloom(DAFB) to 56 DAFB.Anatomical structure of the berry showed that the cell longitudinal diameter of the mesocarp was significantly larger than control berry from 7 DAFB,indicating that berry elongation due to GA3 treatment might be the stimulation of cell vertical growth.The VvSEP3 gene was expressed in the stigma,style,diaphragm and the nucellar tissue of ovules during flowering,in the ovary wall after flowering,and in vascular

  2. Dicty_cDB: CFJ215 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available xpressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera ...cDNA clone VVB066D06 5, mRNA sequence. 64 4e-07 2 CD719214 |CD719214.1 VVB158G03_410335 An expressed sequence tag database for abioti....1 VVD157G07_379711 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed berries of Vitis vinifera var. C...quence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone ...decarboxylase isozyme 3 mRNA, complete cds. 58 2e-07 2 CD008053 |CD008053.1 VVB082D05_335234 An expressed se

  3. «PROFESSOR DAVIDIS» – THE NEW BLACK BERRY HIGH-QUALITY WINE GRAPE WITH COLORED PULP AND JUICE «Профессор Давидис» – новый черноягодный высококачественный винный сорт винограда с окрашенной мякотью и соком

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The grape variety with colored pulp and juice named “Professor Davids” was selected in Greece by P.Zamanidy, L.Troshin and A.Isachkin in 2003 with crossing of the Greek varieties of “Mandilaria” with the French introducent of “Alicant Bushe”. The duration of the production period is 156-165 days. Variety is full-grown. The degree of maturation of the vines is high. Crop yields are very high. The average mass of clusters is 300 gr. Has a high winter hardiness, drought-resistance and high resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with industrial varieties of Vitis vinifera. The female flower, with the stamens. The bunch of average size, cylindroconical, medium density. Berries are medium, round, blue-black in color, with a thick wax coating. The skin is thick, dense. The pulp and juice are intensively painted, with varietal flavour. Sugar content is very high. Notable for long preservation of the harvest in the bushes. The variety is suitable for making intensively painted dry red wines of superior class and high-quality dessert wines and unique juices. Due to its morpho- physiological characteristics it has been included in the eco-geographic group of varieties of the Black sea basin

  4. Phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of a natural hybrid between bilberry and lingonberry (Vaccinium × intermedium Ruthe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Anja K; Riihinen, Kaisu R; Jaakola, Laura

    2011-06-01

    Hybridization between species plays an important role in the evolution of secondary metabolites and in the formation of combinations of existing secondary metabolites in plants. We have investigated the content of phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of Vaccinium×intermedium Ruthe, which is a rare natural hybrid between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). The berries and flowers of the hybrid showed characteristics inherited from both parent species in the distribution and contents of phenolic compounds. Bilberry is known as one of the richest sources of anthocyanins and to have a profile of 15 major forms combining cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin with galactose, glucose and arabinose. Lingonberry contains only cyanidin glycosides. Hybrid berries contained all bilberry anthocyanins with pronounced cyanidin content. With regard to proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides, the hybrid inherited diverse profiles combining those of both parental species. The distribution of hydroxycinnamic acids was quite uniform in all studied berries. Of the identified compounds, 30 were detected in lingonberry, 46 in bilberry, 53 in hybrid berries and 38 in hybrid flowers. Hence, compared with the parent species, hybrid berries possess a more diverse profile of phenolic compounds and, therefore, can offer interesting material for breeding purposes. PMID:21382629

  5. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1017 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A sequence. 50 2e-04 2 CD802153 |CD802153.1 EST 10028 Ripe Grape Berry Skins Lambda Triplex2 Library Vitis v...ifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone VVB157C10 5, mRNA sequence. 50 2e-04 2 BQ798071 |BQ798071.1 EST 7009 Ripening Grape...0 |BQ796440.1 EST 5378 Ripening Grape berries Lambda Zap II Library Vitis vinifera cDNA clone RT041C07 3', m

  6. Berry's Phase in Noncommutative Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. Alavi

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the perturbative aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Then we study Berry's phase within the framework of noncommutative quantum mechanics. The results show deviations from the usual quantum mechanics, which depend on the parameter of space/space noncommutativity.

  7. Roy Fuentes: Fuentes Berry Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As president of Fuentes Berry Farms, Rogelio (Roy) Fuentes is one of many independent growers producing organic berries for Driscoll’s—a company that was initiated more than a century ago by two strawberry farmers on California’s Central Coast, and has since evolved into an international concern devoted to research, breeding, production, sales and distribution of conventionally and organically farmed strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. Driscoll’s CEO Miles Reiter and his ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: VFG846 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Q798071 |BQ798071.1 EST 7009 Ripening Grape berries Lambda Zap II Library Vitis v...inifera cDNA clone RT094C10 3', mRNA sequence. 50 0.015 1 BQ796440 |BQ796440.1 EST 5378 Ripening Grape berri...es Lambda Zap II Library Vitis vinifera cDNA clone RT041C07 3', mRNA sequence. 50 0.015 1 BQ794649 |BQ794649.1 EST 3587 Veraison Grap...e. 50 0.015 1 CF608073 |CF608073.1 GEMMA01_001608 Grape Bud pSPORT1 Library Vitis... vinifera cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 50 0.015 1 CD802153 |CD802153.1 EST 10028 Ripe Grape Berry Skins Lambda Tr

  9. Determination of piceid and resveratrol in Spanish wines deriving from Monastrell (Vitis vinifera L.) grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Labanda, Juan F; Mallavia, Ricardo; Pérez-Fons, Laura; Lizama, Victoria; Saura, Domingo; Micol, Vicente

    2004-08-25

    The presence of stilbenes in wine is becoming an important issue due to their claimed relation to a low incidence in coronary diseases and their increasing implication as cancer chemopreventive and neuroprotective agents. Total resveratrol content, quantified as glucoside and aglycone forms of resveratrol, has been determined in a survey of 45 Monastrell monovarietal Spanish red wine types (around 135 wine samples), belonging to Alicante and Bullas appellations. The average between ratio glucoside/aglycone forms of resveratrol in these wines was considerably high, ranging from 82 to 91% of resveratrol in its glycosidic form. This characteristic was observed in a high percentage of the studied wines, which were made under different winemaking procedures, and from different vintages (1995-2002). In addition, wines made using macerative fermentations with double amount of solid parts ("doble pasta") reached the highest levels of total stilbene content expressed as resveratrol equivalent, i.e., 30 mg/L (average of 18.8 mg/L). It can be concluded that high resveratrol glucoside concentration and low free isomer content can be considered characteristics of the Monastrell variety, as it happens to red wines deriving from other varieties grown at warm climates. This fact, also observed for other French and Portuguese red varieties, might play an important role in food habits involving these types of wines.

  10. Cultivation of Vitis vinifera L. in the light of former publications and today in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pudelska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the countries of the Mediterranean Basin viticulture has been dealt with for centuries. It was known to the ancient civilizations of the Middle East and grapevines were widely planted in Greece and Rome. The vineyard was part of the utility garden, usually occupying large areas and at the same time being a connection with the landscape. Creeper vine was also used in decorative gardens as an ornamental plant for various types of buildings and garden structures. The Polish tradition of planting vineyards dates back to the Middle Ages and is mainly associated with the activities of monks, although it was not as common as in the countries of southern Europe. However, in Polish gardening literature and in the literature that describes the development of the art of gardening, you can find lots of tips on how to grow grapevines, their varieties and the descriptions of the vineyards.

  11. Influence of gamma rays irradiation to chlorphyriphos insecticides residues in grapes (vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation methods to determination of chlorphyriphos insecticides residue in grapes cause effect gamma rays, was done. Fruits of grapes soaked with chlorpyriphos insecticide solution high level concentrated (100 ppm; 200 ppm; and 300 ppm) for 3 (three minutes). The treatment of the sample was direct of extraction after soaks; extract after storage for one week after soak, and extract after soak after storage for one week after irradiation at 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy; and 1.5 kGy dose. Extraction methods using ethyl acetate solvent, and using sodium sulphate as to dryed water level in grapes, and then extractan was injected to chromatography gas use electron capture detector. The result indicated that occur of descent of chlorpyrifos residues from eachs soaked consequence at storage for one week was amount 7,55; 8,42; and 18,88% respectively, while of consequence irradiation of gamma ray at 0,5 kGy doses, will be descent of chlorpyrifos residues in amount 13,90; 19,16; and 52,79% respectively, and at 1,0 kGy doses irradiation will be descent in amount 34,45; 36,15 and 49,79%, respectively. (author)

  12. Drying of Vitis vinifera L. cv “Sultanina” in tunnel solar drier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İs̨çi Burçak

    2015-01-01

    The main factor in the drying process is to obtain minimum energy consumption of the product with the desired quality and reach a maximum speed of drying. The results obtained from this research are used in practice compliance.

  13. Effects of flumioxazin herbicide on carbon nutrition of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of the herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) on nontarget grapevines, its effects were assessed on fruiting cuttings and field-grown plants. The stress caused by the herbicide differed according to the grapevine model. In cuttings, leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment levels as well as hexose contents decreased, whereas sucrose and starch accumulated, suggesting an inhibition of photosynthesis and an increase of carbohydrate reserves as a response to the fmx-induced stress. Paradoxically, in the field-grown grapevine leaves, fmx caused a stimulation of photosynthesis, an accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and monosaccharides, in parallel with a mobilization of sucrose and starch. These results suggest that fmx reaches grapevine leaves via root uptake and has prolonged effects. In cuttings, fmx generated a toxic effect related to its target, whereas in field-grown plants, fmx had rather positive physiological effects and acts as a signal further stimulating photosynthesis and related parameters.

  14. Xylem vessel relays contribute to radial connectivity in grapevine stems (Vitis vinifera and V. arizonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connectivity within xylem networks plays an important role in the movement of water and nutrients through plants, but also facilitates the spread of pathogens and embolisms that increase hydraulic resistance. This study describes a unique anatomical feature found in grapevine xylem that forms radial...

  15. Effects of Pratylenchus vulnus and Xiphinema index singly and combined on vine growth of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Raski, D J; Goheen, A C

    1976-10-01

    Inoculation of 'Thompson Seedless' grapevines with 500 Xiphinerna index or 1,000 Pratylenchus vulnus alone or in combination suppressed vine shoot and root growth under greenhouse conditions. Pratytenchus vulnus caused greater stunting of roots than X. index. Each nematode species inhibited top growth about equally. Concomitant inoculations caused greater stunting of tops and roots than did inoculations of either nematode species alone. Differences in growth between inoculated and control plants increased with exposure time. Pratylenchus vulnus competed with and gradually superseded in numbers an established population of X. index. Both species reproduced on 'Thompson Seedless' roots, but P. vulnus increased to a much higher level than did X. index. The increase of P. vulnus, together with extensive damage, proves its pathogenicity to grapevines.

  16. Influence of Soil Reaction on Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium Dynamics in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepomir Čoga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of soil reaction on phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium dynamics in grapevine was studied on the variety Sauvignon Blanc in 2007, in the Plešivica wine-growing region. Investigations were conducted on three vitisol subtypes: dystric cambisol (pHKCl 3.73-3.76, pseudogley (pHKCl 4.67-4.69 and rendzina on marl (pHKCl 7.21-7.27. To establish the amount and dynamics of P, K, Ca and Mg in plant material, leaf samples were taken three times during the growing period: at the flowering and veraison stages and at the end of the growing period. At all sampling times, significantly higher leaf contents of P, Ca and Mg were found on alkaline soil compared to acid soils, while differences in K levels were not statistically significant. Differences in P contents may be explained by better solubility and thereby better availability of P from Ca-phosphates compared to Al, Mn and Fe-phosphates in acid soils. In addition, the cation ratio K/(Ca+Mg that has a significant influence on grape quality, was also determined in leaves. Compared to optimal values (0.30–0.40, the least favourable ratio K/ (Ca+Mg was recorded at flowering on acid soils (0.38–0.77 and at harvest on calcareous soil (0.12–0.27. Differences in the content of sugar and total acids in must indicate a positive correlation between leaf contents of P, Ca and Mg and sugar content of must, and a negative correlation between leaf contents of P, Ca and Mg and the total acid content of must.

  17. High-throughput-sequencing-based identification of a grapevine fanleaf virus satellite RNA in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, Michela; Mohorianu, Irina; Roseti, Vincenzo; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Dalmay, Tamas; Minafra, Angelantonio

    2016-05-01

    A new satellite RNA (satRNA) of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) was identified by high-throughput sequencing of high-definition (HD) adapter libraries from grapevine plants of the cultivar Panse precoce (PPE) affected by enation disease. The complete nucleotide sequence was obtained by automatic sequencing using primers designed based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The full-length sequence, named satGFLV-PPE, consisted of 1119 nucleotides with a single open reading frame from position 15 to 1034. This satRNA showed maximum nucleotide sequence identity of 87 % to satArMV-86 and satGFLV-R6. Symptomatic grapevines were surveyed for the presence of the satRNA, and no correlation was found between detection of the satRNA and enation symptom expression. PMID:26873812

  18. Kinetic Modelling for Flavonoid Recovery from Red Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace with Aqueous Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Tzima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the aim of establishing a correlation between the extraction yield in total flavonoids from red grape pomace and the extraction temperature, using 0.5% (w/v aqueous lactic acid as the solvent system. Extraction of flavonoids was found to obey second-order kinetics, and on such a basis, the yield in total flavonoids at saturation could be very effectively determined and correlated with temperature using non-linear regression. The results indicated that the extraction yield at saturation is highly correlated with temperature, following a quadratic function. The extract obtained at 40 °C had an optimal predicted total flavonoid yield of 13.27 mg rutin equivalents per gram of dry weight, and it was further analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize its major constituents. The polyphenols detected were flavanols, flavonols and an anthocyanin. The outcome of this study outlined that temperatures above 40 °C are rather unfavorable for flavonoid extraction from red grape pomace, as suggested by the model established through kinetics.

  19. Relative quantification of phosphoproteomic changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves in response to abscisic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanakan, Supakan; George, Iniga; Haynes, Paul A; Cramer, Grant R

    2016-01-01

    In a previous transcriptomic analysis, abscisic acid (ABA) was found to affect the abundance of a number of transcripts in leaves of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines with roots that had been exposed to 10 μm ABA for 2 h. Other work has indicated that ABA affects protein abundance and protein phosphorylation as well. In this study we investigated changes in protein abundance and phosphorylation of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine leaves. Protein abundance was assessed by both label-free and isobaric-label quantitive proteomic methods. Each identified common proteins, but also additional proteins not found with the other method. Overall, several thousand proteins were identified and several hundred were quantified. In addition, hundreds of phosphoproteins were identified. Tens of proteins were found to be affected in the leaf after the roots had been exposed to ABA for 2 h, more than half of them were phosphorylated proteins. Many phosphosites were confirmed and several new ones were identified. ABA increased the abundance of some proteins, but the majority of the proteins had their protein abundance decreased. Many of these proteins were involved in growth and plant organ development, including proteins involved in protein synthesis, photosynthesis, sugar and amino-acid metabolism. This study provides new insights into how ABA regulates plant responses and acclimation to water deficits. PMID:27366326

  20. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  1. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Underutilized Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Pomace Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Faisal; Sultana, Mosammad Shahin; Kurnianta, Heri

    2015-01-01

    Grape pomace is an abundant source of underutilized winery by-products. Polyphenols were extracted from grape pomace using cellulase and gluco-amylase enzymes. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu’s assays were used to measure antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. Both cellulase, and gluco-amylase digested grape pomace showed efficient radical scavenging activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic contents of cellulase digested grape pomace showed lower c...

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two cultivars of Syrian grapes (Vitis Vinifera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two local table grape varieties: Baladi and Helwani. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996, when both varieties were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy in the first year. In the second year two additional doses were used 0.1 and 0.25 kGy for Helwani and 2.0 and 2.5 kGy for Baladi. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored in a refrigerated room (temperature, 1-2 Centigrade). Weight loss, spoilage and total loss were evaluated every 2 and 4 weeks of storage for Baladi and Helwani, respectively. The results have shown that gamma irradiation improved the storability of both varieties. in addition, irradiation prevented molding and prolonged the storage time. The optimum doses for improving the storability were 0.5-1.0 kGy for Halwani and 1.5-2.0 kGy for the storage periods can be extended by 50% using these optimal doses for both varieties. (author)

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two cultivars of Syrian grapes Vitis vinifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two local table grape varieties: Baladi and Helwani. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996, when both varieties were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy in the first year. In the second year two additional doses were used 0.1 and 0.25 kGy for Helwani and 2.0 and 2.5 kGy for Baladi. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored in a refrigerated room (temperature, 1–2°C). Weight loss, spoilage and total loss were evaluated every 2 and 4 weeks of storage for Baladi and Helwani, respectively. The results have shown that gamma irradiation improved the storability of both varieties. In addition, irradiation prevented molding and prolonged the storage time. The optimum doses for improving the storability were 0.5–1.0 kGy for Helwani and 1.5–2.0 kGy for Baladi, and the storage periods can be extended by 50% using these optimal doses for both varieties

  4. Synonyms and homonyms of 'Malvasía' cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) existing in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Torres, I.; Ibáñez Marcos, Javier; de Andrés, M. Teresa; C. Rubio; Borrego, J.; Cabello, Félix; Zerolo, J.; Muñoz-Organero, G.

    2009-01-01

    [EN] >Malvasia> is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, isoenzymatic, and ...

  5. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and insulinotropic effect of extracts prepared from grape (Vitis vinifera L) byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Doshi, Pooja; Adsule, Pandurang; Banerjee, Kaushik; Oulkar, Dasharath

    2013-01-01

    Grape byproducts are a rich source of phenolics having immense medicinal properties, but usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the phenolic antioxidants and the insulinotropic effect of extracts prepared from seed, skin and stems of two red wine grape cultivars: Pusa Navarang and Merlot. Pusa Navarang cultivar has shown high amounts of total phenolics (95.8 mg/ml), flavonoids (30.5 mg/ml) and flavan-3-ols (21.8 mg/ml) in seed extract and total an...

  6. Ampelographic Description and Sanitary Analysis of Four Istrian Grapevine Varieties (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordano Persuric

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian Peninsula, one of the five districts within viticultural region of Coastal Croatia, provides great geological-reliefal and climatic diversity and various production conditions. This research studied the autochthonous varieties and their sanitary status in old vineyards. Considering the age of vineyard, ten locations were chosen where four autochthonous varieties ‘Malvasia istarska’, ‘Teran’, ‘Borgonja’, and ‘Pergola velika’ were identified using ampelographic description according to OIV descriptors. Morphological characteristics of chosen varieties were described using OIV parameters and must was chemically analysed (pH value, sugar content, titratable acidity. High intra cultivar variability was found for weight of a single bunch especially for ‘Teran’. There were also differences in sugar content of must particularly for ‘Pergola velika’. Must pH was low for all varieties with predominantly low acidity value. Sanitary status of vines was determined by testing the plant samples for the presence of three grapevine viruses (GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3 and GFLV using DAS-ELISA. The percentage of infection for GFLV was 55.6% while for GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 it was 61.1%. Results showed that some morphological characteristics differ from characteristics described in literature. With purpose of preserving the biodiversity of autochthonous varieties and for future researches, healthy propagation material will be collected and planted in collection field of autochthonous varieties at the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Poreč.

  7. Structure of haze forming proteins in white wines: Vitis vinifera thaumatin-like proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Marangon

    Full Text Available Grape thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs play roles in plant-pathogen interactions and can cause protein haze in white wine unless removed prior to bottling. Different isoforms of TLPs have different hazing potential and aggregation behavior. Here we present the elucidation of the molecular structures of three grape TLPs that display different hazing potential. The three TLPs have very similar structures despite belonging to two different classes (F2/4JRU is a thaumatin-like protein while I/4L5H and H2/4MBT are VVTL1, and having different unfolding temperatures (56 vs. 62°C, with protein F2/4JRU being heat unstable and forming haze, while I/4L5H does not. These differences in properties are attributable to the conformation of a single loop and the amino acid composition of its flanking regions.

  8. Effect of soil type on wines produced from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Grenache in commercial vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés-de Prado, Ruth; Yuste-Rojas, María; Sort, Xavier; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Torres, Mireia; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2007-02-01

    In recent years, the wine industry has become increasingly interested in the influence of the terroir characteristics on the features of a wine and, in particular, the mechanisms by which a soil influences wine quality. Among published papers on this topic, most merely describe the effect of the soil; few explain it. In this study were conducted a sensory evaluation and phenolic composition and stilbene concentration tests in order to analyze the effects of soil on wine. Significant differences were found in the results of the tests conducted on two vineyards during two consecutive harvests in 2004 and 2005. The results, in line with previous reports, show that the more fertile of the two vineyards, which was also the one with the greatest water-holding capacity, produced wines that presented significantly lower color intensity and shade, as well as lower total phenolic composition and a smaller quantity of hydroxycinnamic compounds. In 2004, these wines presented significantly higher trans-resveratrol content, due to a fungal attack that was favored by the vineyard's soil characteristics. Extreme drought conditions in 2005 had a marked impact on the characteristics of the wines, increasing wavelength measurements significantly and reducing stilbene concentrations. Finally, sensory evaluations revealed significant differences between the wines produced on the two vineyards in both years for five of the seven attributes evaluated. No significant differences were found from one year to the next between the wines produced from the same vineyard, indicating that the attributes of these wines were maintained despite markedly different vintage conditions.

  9. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Soural; Naděžda Vrchotová; Jan Tříska; Josef Balík; Štěpán Horník; Petra Cuřínová; Jan Sýkora

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. ...

  10. Stereoselective dissipation of epoxiconazole in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Kyoho) and soil under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongwu; Qiu, Jing; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fengmao; Qiu, Lihong

    2012-05-01

    Stereoselective dissipation of epoxiconazole had been studied in grape and soil during plant growing under field conditions in this paper. A sensitive and rapid chiral method was developed and validated for the determination of epoxiconazole stereoisomers in grape and soil based on liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Phenomenex Lux Cellulose-1 column was used for enantioseparation with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (90/10, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). Fortified recoveries in grape and soil samples ranged from 76.0% to 91.9% and relative standard deviations were less than 11.4% with fortified levels of 0.025-1.0 mg kg(-1). The limits of detection and quantification were 0.005 mg kg(-1) and 0.025 mg kg(-1), respectively, with linear calibration curves extending up to 5.0 mg kg(-1). The field experimental results showed that dissipations of epoxiconazole stereoisomers in grape followed first-order kinetics (R(2)>0.92) and stereoselectivity occurred in 2 h after spraying. The (-)-stereoisomer with half-life of 9.3 d degraded faster than (+)-stereoisomer with that of 13.2 d, and resulted in relative enrichment of (+)-stereoisomer. However, the stereoisomeric dissipations in soil were triphasic ("increase-decrease-steady") with lower dissipation rates, and also occurred with preferential degradation of (-)-stereoisomer under field condition. The results for stereoselective dissipations can be applied for food and environmental assessments of chiral pesticides. PMID:22414382

  11. Characteristics of Sangiovese grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) grown in Tikveš vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Ivanova, Violeta; Durakova, S; Neceva, Z; Ilieva, Fidanka; Delic, M

    2014-01-01

    Studies were carried out to the variety Sangiovese of manufacturing plants located in the site Lepovo-Tikveš vineyards and all of this in property of the Bovin Winery. During the period of study (2011-2012 year) the following items were included: realized yields (kg/vine), chemical composition of grape must (sugar content, total acids, pH) and chemical analysis of wine. The results show considerable variation in yield (coefficient of variation was 18.45) which is due to the age of the crop ...

  12. Characteristics of tempranillo grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.), grown in Tikveš's vineyard

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Ilieva, Fidanka; Ivanova, Violeta; Sofijanova, Elenica; Naceva, Zaneta

    2015-01-01

    The studies were conducted on the grape variety of Tempranillo on the production plantations located on the site of Lepovo in the Tikveš vineyards, owned by "Bovin" winery. The plantations were planted in 2006 with certified planting material at the distance of 2.4 m between the rows and 1 m between the vines in a row. The applied farming system is the two legged Guyot system by leaving 7 buds per vine. Optimal agro-technical and ampelo-technical measures were applied. The plantations are und...

  13. Synonyms and homonyms of Malvasia cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) existing in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Torres, I.; Ibanez, J.; Andres, M. T. de; Rubio, C.; Borrego, J.; Cabello, F.; Zerolo, J.; Munoz Organero, G.

    2009-07-01

    Malvasia is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, iso enzymatic, and micro satellite analysis as well as a large bibliographic search of the studied cultivars. Despite their Malvasia denomination, some cultivars have been identified as synonyms of Macabeo, Alarije, Dona Blanca, Chasselas, or Planta Nova, all included on the official Spanish list of commercial grape cultivars. Malvasia de Sitges and Malvasia de Lanzarote have the characteristic flavour of Malvasia grapes and no synonyms were found among the cultivars grown in Spain, whereas Malvasia Rosada resulted from a colour mutation in Malvasia de Sitges. (Author) 26 refs.

  14. Dicty_cDB: CFJ467 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available equence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone... VVB082D05 5, mRNA sequence. 64 3e-07 2 CD006712 |CD006712.1 VVB066D06_332552 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic...B910900 |CB910900.1 VVD157G07_379711 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed berries of Viti... cDNA clone VVB066D06 5, mRNA sequence. 64 3e-07 2 CD719214 |CD719214.1 VVB158G03_410335 An expressed sequence tag database for abiot...ic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone VVB1

  15. Dicty_cDB: VHD256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QGG23F15, mRNA sequence. 44 2e-04 2 BQ793980 |BQ793980.1 EST 2918 Veraison Grape berries Lambda Zap II Libra...e. 44 0.035 2 BQ793878 |BQ793878.1 EST 2816 Veraison Grape berries Lambda Zap II Library Vitis vinifera cDNA

  16. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Zuzana Mašková; Soňa Felšöciová; Miroslava Císarová

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine) on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar). The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal ...

  17. Accumulation of Flavanols, Expression of Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase Induced by UV-C Irradiation During Grape Berry Development%UV-C对葡萄果实发育过程中黄烷醇类多酚积累及隐色花色素还原酶表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 邢延富; 牛铁泉; 高美英; 牛兴艳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The effect of ultraviolet C on the accumulation of flavanols in grape berry during its development was studied. [Method] The 5-year old grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) was subjected to the regular UV-C irradiation during berry development, and the accumulation of flavanols, the enzyme activity of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), the transcriptional level and translation level of Vv larl and larl were determined by spectrophotometer, real time PCR, and Western Blot. [Result] The accumulation pattern of flavanols in grape berry during its development was not changed, whereas the accumulation of flavanols was promoted by UV-C irradiation, especially in the young berry. In addition, the activity of LAR, the key enzyme in the flavanols biosynthetic pathway, was induced by the UV-C irradiation. The synthesis of LAR1 and LAR2 new protein and the accumulation of Vv larl and larl mRNA induced by UV-C irradiation were also observed. [Conclusion] Results of the study indicated that the UV-C irradiation could induce the transcription of Vv larl and Vv larl, the synthesis of LAR1 and LAR2 new protein, the increase of LAR activity, and resulted in the accumulation of flavanols in berry.%[目的]阐明葡萄果实发育过程中,植株接受UV-C照射对果实中黄烷醇类多酚积累的作用.[方法]以5年生赤霞珠葡萄为试材,定期对植株进行UV-C照射,分别采用分光光度计法、Western Blot和Real time PCR法对黄烷醇类多酚积累及其生物合成关键酶bAR表达进行分析,从底物、酶活性、蛋白质含量及基因转录水平阐明UV-C对Vv lar1、lar2基因表达的影响.[结果]葡萄果实发育过程中,UV-C照射并未改变果实中黄烷醇类多酚的积累规律,但诱导黄烷醇类多酚积累,特别是在幼果期,UV-C照射明显诱导果实中黄烷醇类多酚的积累.UV-C照射诱导葡萄果实LAR酶活性升高,LAR1、LAR2蛋白含量增加,Vv lar1、Vv lar2转录增强

  18. Zitterbewegung and gravitational Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Papini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Berry phases mix states of positive and negative energy in the propagation of fermions and bosons in external gravitational and electromagnetic fields and generate Zitterbewegung oscillations. The results are valid in any reference frame and to any order of approximation in the metric deviation.

  19. Berry's phase in noncommutative spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Alavi, S A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the perturbative aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Then we study the Berry's phase in the framework of noncommutative quantum mechanics. The results show deviations from the usual quantum mechanics which depend on the parameter of space/space noncommtativity.

  20. Effect of Soil Drought on Accumulation of Total Phenol in Different Parts of Grape Berry during Development%土壤干旱对葡萄果实发育过程中酚类物质时空积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 高瑞娟; 杨运良; 牛兴艳; 郜志栋; 冀铮春

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.‘Cabernet Sauvignon') berry was used as materials,and the effect of soil drought on the spatial and temporal accumulation of total phenol in different parts of beery during development was studied.The high content of total phenol was found in the seed of young berry and stem of mature berry,respectively,indicating that no obvious effect of soil drought on the spatial accumulation pattern of total phenol.During development of grape berry,the content of total phenol in skin,flesh,and seed decreased,but an increased accumulation induced by soil drought was observed.Compared to CK Ⅰ,the content of total phenol in stem,skin,flesh,and seed respectively increased by 8.1 %,7.1%,8.9 %,and 8.1% in the young fruit stage (30 days after full bloom),and the parameters respectively increased by 6.3 %,8.0 %,19.0 %,and 7.0 % compared to CK Ⅱ.Meanwhile,the content of total phenol respectively increased by 6.8%,14.4%,46.1%,and -10.0 % compared to CK Ⅰ in stem,skin,flesh,and seed of mature berry,and respectively increased by 10.5%,33.8%,86.6%,and 28.7% compared to CKⅡ.The results suggested that soil drought could not change the temporal and spatial accumulation of total phenol,but could promote the accumulation of total phenol in different development stages,especially in mature stage.%以酿酒葡萄品种赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L.‘Cabernet Sauvignon’)果实为试材,研究了葡萄果实发育过程中土壤干旱对果肉、果皮、种子和果梗中总酚时空积累的影响.结果表明,幼果期(花后30 d)种子中总酚含量最高,而成熟期(花后110 d)则果梗中含量最高,且土壤干旱(土壤相对含水量为田间最大持水量的60%±5%)对总酚的空间积累无明显影响.果实发育过程中,果皮、果肉和种子中总酚含量呈持续下降趋势,但土壤干旱导致幼果期果梗、果皮、果肉和种子中总酚含量分别比CKⅠ(不控制灌

  1. Dicty_cDB: AFA805 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.0 3 CB005315 |CB005315.1 VVC011E10_126660 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed berries ...|CB008288.1 VVC055H06_148036 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed berries of Vitis vinife...sed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Char... Capsicum annuum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 68 1e-08 2 CD716621 |CD716621.1 VVB129E11_405541 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic...ed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA c

  2. Study of Leaf Metabolome Modifications Induced by UV-C Radiations in Representative Vitis, Cissus and Cannabis Species by LC-MS Based Metabolomics and Antioxidant Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available UV-C radiation is known to induce metabolic modifications in plants, particularly to secondary metabolite biosynthesis. To assess these modifications from a global and untargeted perspective, the effects of the UV-C radiation of the leaves of three different model plant species, Cissus antarctica Vent. (Vitaceae, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae and Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae, were evaluated by an LC-HRMS-based metabolomic approach. The approach enabled the detection of significant metabolite modifications in the three species studied. For all species, clear modifications of phenylpropanoid metabolism were detected that led to an increased level of stilbene derivatives. Interestingly, resveratrol and piceid levels were strongly induced by the UV-C treatment of C. antarctica leaves. In contrast, both flavonoids and stilbene polymers were upregulated in UV-C-treated Vitis leaves. In Cannabis, important changes in cinnamic acid amides and stilbene-related compounds were also detected. Overall, our results highlighted phytoalexin induction upon UV-C radiation. To evaluate whether UV-C stress radiation could enhance the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant activity of extracts from control and UV-C-treated leaves was measured. The results showed increased antioxidant activity in UV-C-treated V. vinifera extracts.

  3. Study of leaf metabolome modifications induced by UV-C radiations in representative Vitis, Cissus and Cannabis species by LC-MS based metabolomics and antioxidant assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Guillaume; Schnee, Sylvain; Andrey, Yannis; Simoes-Pires, Claudia; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Gindro, Katia

    2014-01-01

    UV-C radiation is known to induce metabolic modifications in plants, particularly to secondary metabolite biosynthesis. To assess these modifications from a global and untargeted perspective, the effects of the UV-C radiation of the leaves of three different model plant species, Cissus antarctica Vent. (Vitaceae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) and Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), were evaluated by an LC-HRMS-based metabolomic approach. The approach enabled the detection of significant metabolite modifications in the three species studied. For all species, clear modifications of phenylpropanoid metabolism were detected that led to an increased level of stilbene derivatives. Interestingly, resveratrol and piceid levels were strongly induced by the UV-C treatment of C. antarctica leaves. In contrast, both flavonoids and stilbene polymers were upregulated in UV-C-treated Vitis leaves. In Cannabis, important changes in cinnamic acid amides and stilbene-related compounds were also detected. Overall, our results highlighted phytoalexin induction upon UV-C radiation. To evaluate whether UV-C stress radiation could enhance the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant activity of extracts from control and UV-C-treated leaves was measured. The results showed increased antioxidant activity in UV-C-treated V. vinifera extracts. PMID:25197936

  4. Ants defend coffee from berry borer colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, DJ; Ennis, KK; Philpott, SM; Vandermeer, J; Perfecto, I.

    2013-01-01

    Ants frequently prevent herbivores from damaging plants. In agroecosystems they may provide pest control services, although their contributions are not always appreciated. Here we compared the ability of eight ant species to prevent the coffee berry borer from colonizing coffee berries with a field exclusion experiment. We removed ants from one branch (exclusion) and left ants to forage on a second branch (control) before releasing 20 berry borers on each branch. After 24 h, six of eight spec...

  5. Anatomy of pneumatophore of Mauritia vinifera mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alfredo Rodrigues Pereira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatophores of Mauritia vinifera Mart. were collected from six month-old plants maintained submerged in fresh water to induce pneumatophore formation. Twenty day-old pneumatophores had a quite prominent root cap. The epidermis was composed of hexagonal cells, tangentially distributed along the cylindric surface of the organ. In transverse section these pneumatophores had a simple epidermis over several layers of sclerified parenchyma, which covered an aerenchyma with large intercellular spaces. The endodermal cells had Casparian strips. The vascular cylinder was polyarch, with a pith and surrounded by a unisseriate pericycle. Anatomically the 4 month-old pneumatophores were similar to the younger ones, except for the absence of the epidermis. The epidermis is replaced by a protective tissue, whose lignified and suberized cells projected themselves outwards, giving it a filamentous aspect. There was no accumulation of starch or tannins in the pneumatophores, except for the presence of statoliths in the root cap. No lenticels were observed in pneumatophores of M. vinifera. The main function of the pneumatophores of M. vinifera is to allow gas exchange, facilitating the supply of oxygen to the submerged root portions.Pneumatóforos de Mauritia vinifera Mart. foram coletados de plantas com seis meses de idade mantidas submersas em água com o objetivo de induzir a formação de pneumatóforos. Peumatóforos com 20 dias de idade possuem uma coifa bastante proeminente na raiz. A epiderme é composta de células hexagonais, tangencialmente distribuídas ao longo da superfície cilíndrica do orgão. Em seção transversal os pneumatóforos possuem epiderme simples. O córtex é formado por um parênquima esclerificado, um aerênquima com espaços grandes intercelulares e uma endoderme cujas células possuem estrias de Caspary. O cilindro vascular é poliarco, com medula e cercado por um periciclo unisseriado. Anatomicamente os pneumatóforos com 4

  6. Accumulation Characteristics of Volatile Compounds in Wine Grape Berries Grown in High Altitude Regions of Yunnan%云南高原区酿酒葡萄果实香气物质的积累规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓帆; 高媛; 韩梅梅; 彭振雪; 潘秋红

    2014-01-01

    herbaceous character of these grapes.%【目的】香气是衡量酿酒葡萄及葡萄酒品质的重要因子,地域条件显著地影响果实香气物质的种类和含量,开展云南高原区酿酒葡萄果实香气物质积累规律研究,有助于揭示高原气候区酿酒葡萄香气品质的形成机理,为云南高原区优质酿酒葡萄生产提供指导。【方法】以2010和2011年采自云南省德钦县梅里石(海拔约为2300 m)和说日(海拔约为2900 m)葡萄园的赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon)果实为试材,采用顶空固相微萃取直接提取葡萄汁中游离态香气物质,依次采用Cleanert PEP-SPE柱分离、糖苷酶AR2000水解和顶空固相微萃取方法提取糖苷结合态香气物质,运用气相色谱与质谱联用技术,分析游离态和糖苷结合态香气物质的种类和含量,根据合成途径,将其分为脂肪酸来源、氨基酸来源和异戊二烯来源的香气物质,探究果实成熟过程中这3种来源的香气物质在年份及产地之间积累规律的异同。【结果】无论是梅里石还是说日,来自同一产地的果实 pH 值变化和可溶性固形物积累受年份影响较小,但香气物质受年份的影响较大。2011年的果实中,脂肪酸来源的游离态直链脂肪醇、酸和酯类,以及异戊二烯代谢产生的游离态、结合态降异戊二烯类和游离态萜烯类物质含量均显著高于2010年;对于氨基酸来源的香气物质,2010年果实中结合态芳香族类香气物质含量显著高于2011年,而游离态芳香族类香气物质则明显低于2011年。年份也影响果实中直链脂肪醛、直链脂肪醇、芳香族类和支链脂肪族类以及萜烯类物质的种类,结合2个年份气象参数的分析,认为较少的降雨量和较长的日照时数有利于降低直链脂肪醛含量、增加萜烯类物质水平。就产地而言,海拔较高的说日葡萄园的果实在

  7. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska's environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Hupp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality. Objective: To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions. Design: We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities. Results: Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum, cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable. Conclusions: Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how

  8. Lattice QCD simulation of the Berry curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-01-01

    The Berry curvature is a fundamental concept describing topological order of quantum systems. While it can be analytically tractable in non-interacting systems, numerical simulations are necessary in interacting systems. We present a formulation to calculate the Berry curvature in lattice QCD.

  9. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.120 Canned berries. (a... section are prepared from stemmed fruit of the following optional varietal types of berry...

  10. Densitometric thin-layer chromatographic determination of aescin in a herbal medicinal product containing Aesculus and Vitis dry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, Sandra; Naessens, Tania; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold

    2006-04-21

    A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method is developed to analyze the total saponin content, also referred to as the aescin content, in a herbal medicinal product (HMP) containing two dry extracts in capsules. The capsules contain 250 mg of Aesculus hippocastanum dry extract, 120 mg of Vitis vinifera dry extract and 50mg of excipients. After a purification step using C(18) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the samples are analyzed on a silica-gel HPTLC plate with the upper layer of a mixture of acetic acid/water/butanol (10/40/50 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Spots are visualized by spraying with anisaldehyde reagent and heating the plate for 5-10 min (100-105 degrees C) and measured at a wavelength of 535 nm. This method, applicable for the quality control and stability investigation of both the Aesculus dry extract and HMP capsules thereof containing Vitis dry extract in combination with the Aesculus dry extract, is validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The proposed assay method is specific for aescin in the presence of Vitis dry extract and formulation excipients. Analysis of stressed samples in forced degradation tests proves the method to be applicable for stability evaluation. The standard aescin curve is linear (r > 0.99) over a concentration range of 0.16-0.80 microg/spot. Recovery from the HMP capsules is statistically equal to 100%. The precision of the method with respect to time and concentration is acceptable, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.28 and 1.49%, respectively. PMID:16364347

  11. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis Cv. Monastrell suspension-cultured cells: Determination of critical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mingyu; Quiñonero, Carmen; Akdemir, Hülya; Alburquerque, Nuria; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    Although some works have explored the transformation of differentiated, embryogenic suspension-cultured cells (SCC) to produce transgenic grapevine plants, to our knowledge this is one of the first reports on the efficient transformation of dedifferentiated Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell SCC. This protocol has been developed using the sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) method. A construct harboring the selectable nptII and the eyfp/IV2 marker genes was used in the study and transformation efficiencies reached over 50 independent transformed SCC per gram of infected cells. Best results were obtained when cells were infected at the exponential phase. A high density plating (500 mg/dish) gave significantly better results. As selective agent, kanamycin was inefficient for the selection of Monastrell transformed SCC since wild type cells were almost insensitive to this antibiotic whereas application of paromomycin resulted in very effective selection. Selected eyfp-expressing microcalli were grown until enough tissue was available to scale up a new transgenic SCC. These transgenic SCC lines were evaluated molecularly and phenotypically demonstrating the presence and integration of both transgenes, the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and the ability of the transformed SCC to grow in highly selective liquid medium. The methodology described here opens the possibility of improving the production of valuable metabolites. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:725-734, 2016.

  13. 黑加仑等浆果资源开发(四)%Development of Resource of Black Currant and Qther Berries (IV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白超

    2015-01-01

    相当详细的介绍了黑加仑等浆果浓缩果汁生产的工艺流程、设备选型、操作规程、生产效果;越桔红豆、蓝莓浓缩果汁及系列产品开发;果汁加工的新技术及发展趋势和对浆果开发现状的看法。%Process, equipment selection, operating procedure, production effects of concentrated juice of black currant and other berries were introduced in detail. The development of concentrated juice of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), blueberry and a series of products, the novel technology and trends in fruit juice process, and the view of the current development in berries were also described.

  14. Fox grape cv. Bordô (Vitis labrusca L. and grapevine cv. Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in vitro under different carbohydrates, amino acids and 6-Benzylaminopurine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of sucrose and glucose, amino acids and BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine levels on in vitro shoot regeneration of fox grape cv. Bordô and grapevine cv. Chardonnay. The nodal segments from micropropagated material were used as explants and half-strength MS medium as the basal medium. Sucrose and glucose at 15, 30 and 45 g.L-1 were tested as a carbon source and the supplementation of adenine, asparagine, alanine, glycine, cysteine, glutamine, arginine was tested at 40 g.L-1. The BAP levels (1 and 5 μM in solid and double-phase media were evaluated and compared with a control medium without BAP. Bordô had best in vitro growth than Chardonnay. Sucrose was a better carbohydrate source than glucose for both the cultivars. Bordô and Chardonnay had different amino acid preferences for some parameters. In conclusion, for in vitro shoot regeneration from the nodal segments, culture on solid medium with 5 μM BAP, 15 g.L-1 sucrose for Bordô and 45 g.L-1 sucrose for Chardonnay showed better results. Similarly, the supplementation of 40 g.L-1 arginine for Bordô and 40 g.L-1 arginine or glycine for Chardonnay showed better results.

  15. Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: wine grape [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _S.png Vitis_vinifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vitis+vinifera&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Vitis+vinifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=V...itis+vinifera&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vitis+vinifera&t=NS ...

  17. Dicty_cDB: AFI793 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N CF604135 |CF604135.1 BACCA01_001462 Grape Berry pSPORT1 Lib...RNA sequence. 58 7e-13 3 CF608926 |CF608926.1 GERMO01_000641 Grape Shoot pSPORT1 Library Vitis vinifera cDNA

  18. Expression of structural genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis of Vitis amurensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Zhao; Fei He; Malcolm J Reeves; Qiu-Hong Pan; Chang-Qing Duan; Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to assess the changes in anthocyanin content in grape skins of Vitis amurensis and to explore mRNA transcriptions of 11 structural genes (PAL, CHS3, CHI1, F3H2, F30H, F3050H, DFR, LDOX, UFGT, OMT and GST) related to anthocyanin biosynthesis during grape berry development, by the use of HPLC-MS/MS and real-time Q-PCR analysis. Accumulation of anthocyanins began at veraison, continued throughout the later berry development and reached a peak at maturity. Veraison is the time when the berries turn from green to purple. Expression of PAL, CHI1, and LDOX were up-regulated from 2 to 4 weeks after flowering (WAF), down-regulated from 6 WAF to veraison, whereas DFR was up-regulated at 8 WAF, and then up-regulated from veraison to maturity. CHS3, F3050H, UFGT, GST, and OMT were down-regulated from 2 WAF to veraison, and then up-regulated from veraison to maturity. The transcriptional expressions of the 11 structural genes also showed positive correlations with the anthocyanin content from veraison to maturity. Positive correlations were also observed between OMT transcrip-tional level and the content of methoxyl-anthocyanins, and between F3050H transcriptional level and the content of delphinidin anthocyanins. F3H2 and F30H expression was up-regulated at 2 WAF. F3H2 expression was down-regu-lated from 4 WAF to veraison and then up-regulated again from veraison to maturity. F30H expression was down-reg-ulated at 4 WAF and then up-regulated again from 6 WAF to maturity. F30H transcriptional level was correlated posi-tively with the cyanidin anthocyanin concentration from veraison to maturity. These results indicate that the onset of anthocyanin synthesis during berry development coincides with a coordinated increase in the expression of a number of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

  19. ABA and GA3 increase carbon allocation in different organs of grapevine plants by inducing accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, enhancement of phloem area and expression of sugar transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Germán; Pontin, Mariela; Reinoso, Herminda; Baraldi, Rita; Bertazza, Gianpaolo; Gómez-Talquenca, Sebastián; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2016-03-01

    Grape quality for winemaking depends on sugar accumulation and metabolism in berries. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) have been reported to control sugar allocation in economically important crops, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The present study tested if ABA and gibberellin A3 (GA3) enhance carbon allocation in fruits of grapevines by modifying phloem loading, phloem area and expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries. Pot-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants were sprayed with ABA and GA3 solutions. The amount of soluble sugars in leaves and berries related to photosynthesis were examined at three points of berry growth: pre-veraison, full veraison and post-veraison. Starch levels and amylase activity in leaves, gene expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries and phloem anatomy were examined at full veraison. Accumulation of glucose and fructose in berries was hastened in ABA-treated plants at the stage of full veraison, which was correlated with enhancement of Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 2 (VvHT2) and Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 6 (VvHT6) gene expression, increases of phloem area and sucrose content in leaves. On the other hand, GA3 increased the quantity of photoassimilates delivered to the stem thus increasing xylem growth. In conclusion, stimulation of sugar transport by ABA and GA3 to berries and stems, respectively, was due to build-up of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, modifications in phloem tissue and modulation in gene expression of sugar transporters.

  20. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  1. BlackBerry All-in-One for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sarigumba, Dante; Petz, William

    2010-01-01

    Go beyond BlackBerry basics and get everything your BlackBerry can deliver. BlackBerry is the leading smartphone for business users, and its popularity continues to explode. When you discover the amazing array of BlackBerry possibilities in this fun and friendly guide, you'll be even happier with your choice of smartphones. BlackBerry All-in-One For Dummies explores every feature and application common to all BlackBerry devices. It explains the topics in depth, with tips, tricks, workarounds, and includes detailed information about cool new third-party applications, accessories, and downloads

  2. Efeitos do cycocel na fertilidade de gemas e no crescimento dos ramos de videiras cv Itália (Vitis vinifera L. Effects of cycocel on bud fertility and shoot growth of Italia grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A baixa fertilidade de gemas tem sido um dos fatores limitantes da produção em vinhedos do Estado de São Paulo, estando este problema relacionado, em muitos casos, ao excesso de vigor das plantas. Neste contexto, um experimento foi conduzido em vinhedo comercial da cultivar de uva de mesa Itália, localizado no município de São Miguel Arcanjo (SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os ramos foram pulverizados com soluções de cycocel, nas doses de 0; 500; 1.000; 1.500; 2.000 e 2.500 mg.L-1, 60 dias após a poda. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de gemas férteis, distribuição das gemas férteis por setor do ramo, porcentagem de gemas mortas, peso, comprimento e diâmetro de entrenós. Aplicações de cycocel aumentaram linearmente a porcentagem de gemas férteis e a proporção de gemas férteis entre a 1ª e a 5ª gema basal. Além disso, este retardador de crescimento reduziu a porcentagem de gemas mortas e o peso dos entrenós, apresentando efeito quadrático para estas variáveis.The low bud fertility has been one of the most limiting factors in vineyards at São Paulo State, and this problem has been correlated, in many cases, to the excess of plant vigor. In this context, a trial was carried out in a commercial vineyard of 'Italia' table grape, located at São Miguel Arcanjo (SP, Brazil. The experimental design was in complete randomized blocks with six treatments and four replications. The vine shoots were sprayed with cycocel at 0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500mg.L-1, 60 days after pruning. The variables evaluated were: percentage of fertile buds; distribution of fertile buds per shoot sector; percentage of bud necrosis; weight, length and diameter of internodes. Applications of cycocel linearly increased the percentage of bud fertility and the proportion of fertile buds between first and fifth basal buds. Furthermore, this growth regulator reduced the incidence of bud necrosis and the weight of internodes, presenting quadratic effect for these variables.

  3. Persistent history of the bird-dispersed arctic-alpine plant Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hajime; Yoneta, Yusuke; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Barkalov, Viachenslav; Yakubov, Valentin; Brochmann, Christian; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-05-01

    Arctic-alpine plants have expanded and contracted their ranges in response to the Pleistocene climate oscillations. Today, many arctic-alpine plants have vast distributions in the circumarctic region as well as marginal, isolated occurrences in high mountains at lower latitudes. These marginal populations may represent relict, long-standing populations that have persisted for several cycles of cold and warm climate during the Pleistocene, or recent occurrences that either result from southward step-wise migration during the last glacial period or from recent long-distance dispersal. In light of these hypotheses, we investigated the biogeographic history of the marginal Japanese populations of the widespread arctic-alpine plant Vaccinium vitis-idaea (Ericaceae), which is bird-dispersed, potentially over long distances. We sequenced three nuclear loci and one plastid DNA region in 130 individuals from 65 localities covering its entire geographic range, with a focus on its marginal populations in Japan. We found a homogenous genetic pattern across its enormous range based on the loci analysed, in contrast to the geographically structured variation found in a previous study of amplified fragment length polymorphisms in this species. However, we found several unique haplotypes in the Japanese populations, excluding the possibility that these marginal populations result from recent southward migration. Thus, even though V. vitis-idaea is efficiently dispersed via berries, our study suggests that its isolated populations in Japan have persisted during several cycles of cold and warm climate during the Pleistocene.

  4. Changes in free and bound fractions of aroma compounds of four Vitis vinifera cultivars at the last ripening stages

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanova, Mar; Genisheva, Zlatina Asenova; Bescansa, Lorenzo; Masa, Antón; Oliveira, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The volatile composition of white Agudelo, Blanco lexitimo, Godello and red Serradelo cultivars (NW Spain) harvested at two different stages of ripening have been evaluated. C6-compounds, alcohols, volatile fatty acids, monoterpenes, C13-norisoprenoids, volatile phenols and carbonyl compounds were identified and quantified in free and glycosidically bound forms by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The total volatile concentration showed a significant increase between the two ri...

  5. Phenology, canopy aging and seasonal carbon balance as related to delayed winter pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese grapevines

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo eGatti; Facundo Jose ePirez; Giorgio eChiari; Sergio eTombesi; Alberto ePalliotti; Maria Clara eMerli; Stefano ePoni

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripen...

  6. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J.; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C.; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that...

  7. Ampelographic evaluation of wild grapevine characters VitisVinifera G. ssp Sylvestris in Vlora’s river valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARDHOSH FERRAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wild grapevine (Vitisvitifera G. ssp Sylvestris has been growing spontaneously for thousands of years in Vlora’s river valley. It has been growing in the forests and the villages located along this river, starting from the low hills and ending with villages, located at approximately 600 - 700 m above the sea level such as Mesaplik, Brataj, Tërbaç, Vranisht, Kuç, Sevaster, ect. Observing the flower’s characteristics we concluded that 13% of the flowers are hermaphrodites, 41% of the individuals have a functioning male flower and 46 % of the individuals have a functional female flower. The leaf has different dimensions starting from small to medium, it has 5 lobes, a pentagon form and a smaller petiole than the length of the grown leaf. Above the main venations there are no signs of anthocyanin pigmentation. The average length of the blade above the venation N2 is 10.1\\ 9.6=1.05. The grains contain 2-4 seeds with an average length of 4.85 mm and an average width of 4.5mm, the ratio length\\width of the seed is 4.5\\4.85 = 0.92. The pulp of the grain contains 44.5% must, 21% sugar and 13.1% acidity in total. In the forests and the villages of Vlora’s river valley, the wild grapevine is usually accompanied with other plants like, A.unedo L., C.siliquastrum L., C. mas L., E. arboreaL., I.aquifolium L., Q.cerris L., P.alba L., Q.frainetto Ten., P.spina-christi M., O. vulgare L., W. pear, J. oxycedrus L., W.plum, Blackberries, W. rose, etc, and some herbaceous plants that typically grow in this area such as: M.camomila, strawberry, trefoil, rosemary , lavender, B. perennis L., ect.

  8. Nové metody výroby sazenic révy vinné (Vitis vinifera)

    OpenAIRE

    ZUKAL, Radim

    2011-01-01

    My bachelor work deals with the description methods of the propagation of grapevine. Vine can be reproduce vegetatively and generatively. In a generative propagation is described tree breeding maintenance and tree breeding of new varieties. Vegetative propagations deals with the propagation of direct, indirect propagation and propagation in vitro. Described is also a technology of producing grapevine plants.

  9. Expressão e localização subcelular de aquaporinas SIP de Vitis vinifera e Olea europaea

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Dulceneia Maria Eugénia

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Genética Molecular A existência de uma membrana biológica permeável à água foi proposta há mais de 100 anos antes de ser descoberta a sua estrutura básica. Contudo, a velocidade reduzida da difusão simples da água através da bicamada lipídica sugeriu a existência de uma via adicional mediada, um factor proteico cuja expressão pode variar nos diferentes tipos de células. A descoberta das aquaporinas como canais que aumentam 10 a 100 vezes a permeabilid...

  10. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y......) correlated positively and linearly to p-coumaric acid consumption (X): Y = 0.5 X + 9.5; R 2 = 0.96, P skin concentrations, indicated that the grape skins harboured an o......-hydroxylation activity, proposedly a monophenol- or a flavonoid 3′-monooxygenase activity (EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.14.13.21). The K m of this crude o-hydroxylation activity in the red grape skin was 0.5 mM with p-coumaric acid....

  11. Isolation of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus sinensis (L) Osb. And Vitis vinifera and study of genetic diversity in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in different crops. Symptoms similar to those caused by citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) were observed in sweet orange trees which served as shade and fences in coffee plantations in Costa Rica, in 2002. A total of 35 citrus trees and 24 vines from eight different districts and 3 respectively were evaluated by 'double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay' (DASELISA), resulting in 21 citrus and 19 positive vid. From four citrus trees and six of vines, were obtained six isolates and seven isolates respectively in solid medium, whose morphological and biochemical characteristics coincided with those reported in the literature as characteristic of X. fastidiosa. The identity of the isolates is confirmed by the chain polymerase reaction (PCR) using primers 272-1/272-2int and RST31/RST33. Three isolates from Grecia (Alajuela Province) amplified a band of 500pb using specific primers 272-2int/CVC-1 for strains of X. fastidiosa that cause CVC. The genetic variability of isolates from each other in comparison with isolates of coffee in Costa Rica, U.S. grapes and citrus in Brazil have been studied using techniques of random amplification polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and length polymorphisms of restriction fragments (RFLPs) of the products obtained with primers int/272-2int JB-1/JB-2 and 272-1. The results showed a clear separation between citrus isolates of Costa Rica; and, an association of three of them with the strains of citrus in Brasil. Also, an association between strains of coffee of Costa Rica with grape vines in the U.S. An association of molecular analysis confirmed the data variance. (author)

  12. Unsupervised principal component analysis of NMR metabolic profiles for the assessment of substantial equivalence of transgenic grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Gianfranco; Mezzetti, Bruno; Babini, Elena; Capocasa, Franco; Placucci, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Francesco

    2011-09-14

    Substantial equivalence is a key concept in the evaluation of unintended and potentially harmful metabolic impact consequent to a genetic modification of food. The application of unsupervised multivariate data analysis to the metabolic profiles is expected to improve the effectiveness of such evaluation. The present study uses NMR spectra of hydroalcoholic extracts, as holistic representations of the metabolic profiles of grapes, to evaluate the effect of the insertion of one or three copies of the DefH9-iaaM construct in plants of Silcora and Thompson Seedless cultivars. The comparison of the metabolic profiles of transgenic derivatives with respect to their corresponding natural lines pointed out that the overall metabolic changes occur in the same direction, independent of the host genotype, although the two cultivars are modified to different extents. A higher number of copies not only produces a larger effect but also modifies the whole pattern of perturbed metabolites. PMID:21806070

  13. Identification of genomic sites for CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing in the Vitis vinifera genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRISPR/Cas9 has been recently demonstrated as an effective and popular genome editing tool for modifying genomes of human, animals, microorganisms, and plants. Success of such genome editing is highly dependent on the availability of suitable target sites in the genomes to be edited. Many specific t...

  14. Influence of kaolin particle film and deficit irrigation on varietal aroma components in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect on grape-derived volatile composition of a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) and differing severities of vine water deficit was investigated in this study over two growing seasons on Merlot grapevines grown in a semi-arid region of southwestern Idaho. Vines were provided ...

  15. Characterization of Cold Soak on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Grape and Wine Volatiles Using an Electronic Nose System

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the electronic nose in the wine industry is an emerging technology. Although electronic nose systems have been used in other industries as tools to monitor fruit maturity or quality control, the use of these systems for wine analysis has been debated. Many electronic nose sensor types exist, but have often been accused of primarily discriminating varying ethanol concentrations of wines as opposed to aroma and flavor volatiles. This study evaluated the use of a commercial conduc...

  16. Determination of some volatile compounds in fruit spirits produced from grapes (Vitis Vinifera L.) and plums (Prunus domestica L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Gjorgjeska, Biljana; Angelovska, Bistra; Kovacevska, Ivona

    2014-01-01

    Fruit spirits contain a large array of volatile compounds among which the important role from toxicological aspect besides ethanol has methanol, aliphatic esters and fusel alcohols. This study evaluates the content of ethanol, ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol), n-propyl alcohol (propan-l-ol), isobutyl alcohol (2-methylpropan-1-ol), n-butyl alcohol (1-butanol), isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) and n-amyl alcohol (pentan-1-ol) in different grapes and plum brandies i...

  17. Effects of Partial Rootzone Drying on the Growth of Vitis vinifera cv. Malvasia Grafted on Different Rootstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; GUAN Xue-qiang; LI En-mao; ZHAI Heng; WANG Xiao-fang; DU Yuan-peng

    2007-01-01

    To lay a biological foundation for rootstocks and alternate irrigation (AI) popularization, the effects of partial rootzone drying (PRD) on the growth of the grapevine Malvasia grafted on different rootstocks were investigated. Biological effects of 1/2 divided root irrigation on three combinations, i.e., Malvasia/420A, Malvasia/3309C, and Malvasia/110R,were studied by wood-boxed plants. All the plants were separated into three groups for different irrigation strategies.Mass growth of new root in alternate-irrigated plants was remarkably promoted by about 7.8-22.2% higher than the wellwatered ones. However, new shoot growth, especially the internode was reduced by alternate irrigation. The average root-shoot ratio of all the three combinations was increased from 1.1 to 1.46. New root growth and internode length were decreased by fixed partial rootzone irrigation (FI) at different amount, M/3309C at 37.9 and 36.9%, M/110R at 18.4 and 22.5%, respectively. Total biomass of all the three combinations under FI decreased at the rate of 19.2-34.3% compared with well-watered ones. Water stress adaptation of grapevine mainly depends on rootstock. 110R is more efficient than3309C and 420A in water stress adaptation. PRD-AI benefited root growth, thus improved the drought-resistant ability of grapevine.

  18. Berry fruits for cancer prevention: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that edible small and soft-fleshed berry fruits may have beneficial effects against several types of human cancers. The anticancer potential of berries has been related, at least in part, to a multitude of bioactive phytochemicals that these colorful fruits contain, including polyphenols (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins, gallotannins, phenolic acids), stilbenoids, lignans, and triterpenoids. Studies show that the anticancer effects of berry bioactives are partially mediated through their abilities to counteract, reduce, and also repair damage resulting from oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, berry bioactives also regulate carcinogen and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various transcription and growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and subcellular signaling pathways of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. Berry phytochemicals may also potentially sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting pathways that lead to treatment resistance, and berry fruit consumption may provide protection from therapy-associated toxicities. Although a wide variety of berry fruits are consumed worldwide, this paper focuses on those commonly consumed in North America, namely, blackberries, black raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, red raspberries, and strawberries. In addition, a large body of studies on singly purified berry bioactives is available, but this paper focuses on studies of "whole berries" per se, that is, as berry extracts and purified fractions, juices, and freeze-dried powders. Potential mechanisms of anticancer action and bioavailability of berry phenolics, as well as gaps in knowledge and recommendations for future berry research, are also briefly discussed. PMID:18211019

  19. Photon Drag Effect due to Berry Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kei; Ohno, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    A theoretical investigation reveals that the photon drag effect (PDE) is induced in a grating slab with deformation by the Berry curvature in phase space. It drifts the momentum of light, and gives asymmetric PDE signals in momentum space. Large PDE signals are observed even near the Γ point. This characteristic agrees well with our theoretical results.

  20. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  1. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  2. BlackBerry's Long March Into China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAYET SELLAMI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Some time in the coming weeks, Research In Motion Ltd (RIM) will launch its wireless BlackBerry e-mail service on the Chinese mainland in a partnership with China Mobile Ltd, which has two-thirds of the Chinese market and is the world's biggest mobile carrier by number of subscribers. The exact date of the launch has yet to be set.

  3. Stem Xylem Characterization for Vitis Drought Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; Ciacciulli, Angelo; Grossi, Daniele; Brancadoro, Lucio; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-07-01

    Together with stomatal conductance and root conductivity, the stem water reserve and transport systems could be regulatory mechanisms able to participate in the regulation of the plant water status. Lianas, such as Vitis spp., minimize the trunk support role, and stems have evolved to improve their ability in water transport. In this work, stems of 10 different Vitis species were studied in relation to their expected drought tolerance using reflectance spectroscopy. Spectra were measured before (T0) and after coloration with Sudan IV dye. The T0 spectral signature showed characteristic species features. The partial least squares (PLS) regression and the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network analysis were able to predict the expected drought tolerance score; thus, reflectance spectroscopy was demonstrated to be a useful technique for drought tolerance phenotyping. These methods could be applied for the preliminary selection of new rootstocks/cultivars. Wood composition variation appeared to be correlated with the water stress susceptibility. To clarify this relationship, the attention was focused on the wood hydrophobicity. Sudan IV is a microscopy dye traditionally used to underline suberin, waxes, and, in general, hydrophobic substances. Differences between rough and colored spectra evidenced the absorption band of Sudan IV with a maximum at 539 nm. The coloration intensity was used to develop a hydrophobicity index. The obtained values were correlated with the expected drought tolerance score. Therefore, hydrophobic compounds seem to play an important role in water use efficiency, and an hydrophobic barrier in the xylem tissue appears to be a protective mechanism against water stress. PMID:27281116

  4. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  5. Protein (Viridiplantae): 225433261 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 PREDICTED: mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM22 homolog 2 Vitis vinifera MAGGSSDSKSNSGLVSRISNSISGSGIMFHGKRAASDAAYVTKKLLRSTGKAAWIAGTTFVILVVPLIIEMDREQQLNDLDLQQATLLGTTPLPARN ...

  6. Protein (Viridiplantae): 359475453 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PREDICTED: uncharacterized protein LOC100252521 Vitis vinifera MDCKSLLVLGLVCIVFAGVGGQAPAGGPTATPAPPTPTTPAASPPTAVTSPPASSPPPVSAPPPATPP...PATPPPATPPPATPPPATPPPATPPPATPPPATPPPATPPPATPPPATPPPATPPPATPPPATPPPATPP

  7. Protein (Viridiplantae): 359474475 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uncharacterized protein LOC100262584 Vitis vinifera MATHRAVSAVFFVLLSIGICSATRALLTFEGEAGYGTGHGIGGGGGGGSGSGGGFPGGYGGGGGSGGGGGYGAVGGYGSGG...GGGGGGGSGGGYGAGGIHGGGYGSGGGSGGGIGYGAGGEHGGGGGSGGGAGGGVGYGSGGGGSGG...AGGGYPAGPEHGGGYGSGGGQGGGAGYGGGGEHGGGYGGGSGGGGGVGYGAGGEHGGGYGTGEGAGGGGGGGSGGGTGYGAGGEHGGGYGSGGGSGGGTGYGAGGEHGGGYGGGGGSGG...GTGYGDGGDHGAGYGSGGGSGGGIGYGAGGEHGGGYGGGNGGGGGVGYGAGGEHGGGYGRGGGSGGGAGAGSGGGGGGGYGGGYGGGVHGGYIP ...

  8. Protein (Viridiplantae): 359474473 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uncharacterized protein LOC100245427 Vitis vinifera MATHKIYSIVFFVILGIGISSATRALLTYEGSYGAGHGAGSGSGSGYGGRGGGGGSGGGEGYAAVGDHGAAGYGSGG...GSGSGGGEGYEGGRGGGSGGGGGGGSGGGGGSAYGAGGAGYGSGGGEGSGAGFGGANGGGSGGGGGGGSGG...GGGASYGAGGAHGGGSGSGQGSGSGGGYGAGEGKGGGGGGGSGGGGGGGSGSGGGYGAGEGGGAGGGSGGGGGGGGGGAAYGAGGHGAGSGSGQGSGSGGGYGAGGGKGGGGGGGSGGGGGSGGGAASGAGGEHGVGYGGGSGSGEGGGHGGGYAP ...

  9. Gene : CBRC-FCAT-01-0446 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal protein [Vitis vinifera] 2e-29 31% MPFRPRLFPVPMPFRPRSLPVPMPFTPRSLPVPMPFTPRSLPVPIPFRPRSLPIPMPFTPRSLPVPMPFTPRSLPVPMPFTPRS...FPVPMPFRPRSFPVPMPFTPRSFPIPVPFRPRSFPVLMPFTPRSFPVLMPFRPRSFPVPMPFTPRSFPIPVPFRPRSFPVPMPFTPRSFPVPMPFRPRSFPVPMPA ...

  10. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during this study. The product presented qood quality criteria and it was highly appreciated by consumers who tasted it. This study presents a valuable method to preserve fresh widberries in honey over a long period of time. The economical value of this experiment resides in making these fruits available outside the harvesting season.

  11. Dicty_cDB: CFD838 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 005315 |CB005315.1 VVC011E10_126660 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed berries of Vitis...8.1 VVB078G11_334604 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leav...21 |CD716621.1 VVB129E11_405541 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vini...08 2 CD008871 |CD008871.1 VVB097G11_339261 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of...D719494.1 VVB161G09_410895 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera

  12. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Subash; Musthafa Mohamed Essa; Samir Al-Adawi; Mushtaq A.Memon; hTamilarasan Manivasagam; Mohammed Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegen-erative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kae-mpferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneifcial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents.

  14. Gradient Nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Lee, Jongwon; Nookala, Nishant; Belkin, Mikhail A; Alù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach to plasmonic metasurfaces loaded by highly nonlinear multi-quantum well substrates, establishing a platform to control the nonlinear wavefront at will based on giant localized nonlinear effects. We apply this approach to design flat nonlinear metasurfaces for efficient second-harmonic radiation, including beam steering, focusing, and polarization manipulation. Our findings open a new direction for nonlinear optics, in which phase matching issues are relaxed, and an unprecedented level of local wavefront control is achieved over thin devices with giant nonlinear responses.

  15. Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.

  16. Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

  17. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  18. Atividade antimicrobiana dos frutos de Syagrus oleracea e Mauritia vinifera Antimicrobial activity of Syagrus oleracea and Mauritia vinifera fruits

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. SILVEIRA; C.M. Pessanha; M.C.S. Lourenço; I. Neves Junior; F.S. Menezes; M.A.C. Kaplan

    2005-01-01

    As espécies pertencentes à família Palmae são muito interessantes do ponto de vista químico e farmacológico. Neste trabalho, foram estudados os frutos de duas espécies da família Palmae, Syagrus oleracea e Mauritia vinifera. Essas palmeiras foram escolhidas por serem espécies brasileiras, abundantes em nosso país, utilizadas popularmente no tratamento de algumas doenças e ainda pouco estudadas. Foram realizados ensaios farmacológicos para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos dos...

  19. Characterization of polyphenolic metabolites in the seeds of Vitis germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the seeds of 91 grape accessions from 17 Vitis species were characterized for two consecutive years. A total of 28 polyphenolic compounds including 2 gallic derivatives, 3 monomer flava-3-ols, 15 dimer flava-3-ols, 4 trimer flava-3-ols, resver...

  20. Berry Phase Physics in Free and Interacting Fermionic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Berry phase plays an important role in many non-trivial phenomena over a broad range of many-body systems. In this thesis we focus on the Berry phase due to the change of the particles' momenta, and study its effects in free and interacting fermionic systems. We start with reviewing the semi-classical kinetic theory with Berry phase for a non-interacting ensemble of fermions -- a Berry Fermi gas -- which might be far-from-equilibrium. We particularly review the famous Berry phase contribution to the anomalous Hall current. We then provide a concrete and general path integral derivation for the semi-classical theory. Then we turn to the specific example of Weyl fermion, which exhibits the profound quantum phenomenon of chiral anomaly; we review how this quantum effect, and its closely related chiral magnetic effect and chiral vortical effect, arise from Berry phase in the semi-classical kinetic theory. We also discuss how Lorentz symmetry in the kinetic theory of Weyl fermion, seemly violated by the Berry phas...

  1. Vääna-Viti hoolekandeküla = Vääna-Viti community setting group home / Tõnu Laigu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laigu, Tõnu, 1956-

    2015-01-01

    Vääna-Viti hoolekandeküla Harku vallas Aiba tee 8/7, valminud 2013. Hoonete arhitektid Tõnu Laigu, Koit Ojaliiv, Mari Rass (QP Arhitektid OÜ), sisearhitektid Andres Labi, Janno Roos (Ruumilabor OÜ). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  2. Berry Phase in an Entangled Spin Cluster with Five Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiao-Bo

    2007-01-01

    @@ The geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, in an entangled state of five spin-1/2 particles is studied.A time-dependent magnetic field is applied to control the time evolution of the cluster. Using the method of algebraic dynamics, we calculate the non-adiabatic geometric phase or Berry phase and the degeneracy energy levels when the magnetic rotates around Z axis. Based on the exact analytical solutions, we show how the Berry phase of the entangled state of this cluster depends on the external magnetic field parameters ω (the angular velocity of the rotating magnetic field) and θ (the angle between the magnetic field and Z axis).

  3. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Matus

    Full Text Available The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22 gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses

  4. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Dal Santo, Silvia; Cañón, Paola; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine. PMID

  5. Expressão transiente do gene gus, sob regulação de quatro promotores, em diferentes tecidos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e videira (Vitis sp. Transient expression of the gus gene, under the regulation of four promoters, on different tissues of papaya (Carica papaya l. and grape (Vitis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelar Almeida Pinto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e a videira (Vitis vinifera L. destacam-se entre as fruteiras produzidas no Brasil por serem plantadas em quase todo o território nacional e apresentarem importância econômica e social. A tecnologia de produção de organismos geneticamente modificados, também conhecidos como "transgênicos", tem grande potencial de uso no desenvolvimento de fruteiras melhoradas. Porém, questões de propriedade intelectual limitam o uso da engenharia genética por países em desenvolvimento, que normalmente não detêm direitos sobre processos ou produtos necessários ao uso desta. Neste contexto, o presente estudo buscou avaliar promotores de expressão gênica alternativos ao CaMV 35S, que é o mais utilizado no desenvolvimento de transgênicos, mas é patenteado. Para tanto, construções gênicas com o gene gus sob a regulação de diferentes promotores foram testadas para expressão transiente em diversos tecidos de mamoeiro e videira. Expressão transiente foi avaliada em embriões somáticos, folhas, caules, raízes e frutos. O promotor do gene UBQ3, que é constitutivo e se encontra em domínio publico, mostrou ser uma alternativa promissora para futuros trabalhos de transformação genética de mamoeiro, mas não de videira.Papaya (Carica papaya L. and grapes (Vitis vinifera L. are among the most important fruit crops produced in Brazil, and are cultivated in several regions around the country being of economical and social importance. Genetic engineering has great potential on the development of genetically improved fruit crops. However, intellectual property issues constantly limit the commercial use of this technology in developing countries. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate gene promoters as alternatives to the 35S CaMV, which is the most used so far in the development of transgenic plants, but it is patented. In order to do that, the expression of the gus gene under the regulation of distinct promoters was

  6. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-04-13

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  7. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  8. Bioactive compounds in berries relevant to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Denoyes-Rothan, B.; Laimer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Berries contain powerful antioxidants, potential allergens, and other bioactive compounds. Genetic and environmental factors affect production and storage of such compounds. For this reason breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to control or to increase the content of specific

  9. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rawani, Anjali; Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals are widely used as biocontrol agent against vector mosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of various extracts of berries of S. nigrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts of fresh, mature, green berries of S. nigrum were tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration was determined and the chemical nature of the active substance was evaluated. A qualitative phyt...

  10. Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra, topological parameter and Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengcheng; Xue, Kang; Gou, Lidan; Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Hu, Taotao

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a 3 × 3-matrix representation of Birman-Wenzl-Murakami (BWM) algebra has been presented. Based on which, unitary matrices A( θ, φ 1, φ 2) and B( θ, φ 1, φ 2) are generated via Yang-Baxterization approach. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary B( θ, φ) matrix. Then we study Berry phase of the Yang-Baxter system, and obtain the relationship between topological parameter and Berry phase.

  11. Dicty_cDB: CFD226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA ...2 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vin...equence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonna...ence. 64 3e-06 1 CB910900 |CB910900.1 VVD157G07_379711 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stress

  12. Dicty_cDB: AFO558 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 CD008053 |CD008053.1 VVB082D05_335234 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of V...06712.1 VVB066D06_332552 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed ...719214 |CD719214.1 VVB158G03_410335 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis ...uence tag database for abiotic stressed berries of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone ...tum cDNA clone cLEX14P1 5', mRNA sequence. 66 6e-07 1 CB910900 |CB910900.1 VVD157G07_379711 An expressed seq

  13. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG ...

  14. Dicty_cDB: SFE561 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 CK273593 |CK273593.1 EST719671 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Solanum tuber... sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clo...n expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinife...ra cDNA clone VVB066D06 5, mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CD719214 |CD719214.1 VVB158G03_410335 An expressed sequence tag database for abi...otic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone VV

  15. 干旱对葡萄果实发育过程中黄烷醇类多酚积累及LAR表达的影响%The Effect of Drought on Flavanols Accumulation and LAR Expression During the Development of Grape Berry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 杨运良; 高美英; 牛铁泉; 邢延富; 牛兴艳

    2012-01-01

    以酿酒葡萄‘赤霞珠’(Vtis vinifera L.‘Cabemet Sauvignon’)为试材,采用避雨棚和断根沟措施,模拟土壤干旱,探讨了葡萄果实发育过程中干旱对果实中黄烷醇类多酚积累及其合成关键酶隐色花色素还原酶(1eucoanthocyanidin reductase,LAR)基因表达的影响。结果表明:土壤干旱导致葡萄单粒质量降低,纵、横径减小,促进黄烷醇类多酚积累,特别是在幼果期,土壤干旱明显促进黄烷醇类多酚的积累。Real.timePCR、Westernblot结果证实,土壤干旱促进VvLARl和VvLAR2转录,诱导果实中LARl、LAR2新蛋白合成,进而导致LAR酶活性增强,黄烷醇类多酚积累。%In order to understand the effects of soil drought on the accumulation of flavanols and the expression of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), the key enzyme of the flavanols biosynthesis in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, 5 years old grapevines ( Htis vinifera L.‘Cabemet Sauvignon' )were used as materials, and the soil drought was simulated during grape berry development by the controlling irrigation through the prevent-rain shelter and root-cutting groove. The results showed that the single berry weight, longitudinal and horizontal diameter were decrease, and the growth of grape berry was significantly inhibited by soil drought, which indicated that the prevent-rain shelter and root cutting groove were the effective measures to simulate soil drought. In addition, the accumulation of flavanols in grape berry during its development was induced by soil drought was also observed, especially in the young berry. Real-time PCR and Western blot results showed that the soil drought could induce the expression of VvLAR1, VvLAR2, the synthesis of LAR new protein, and increased the LAR enzyme activity, which resulted in the accumulation of flavanols in grape berry.

  16. Experimental Measurement of the Berry Curvature from Anomalous Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, Martin; Carusotto, Iacopo; Peschel, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical properties of energy bands underlie fascinating phenomena in a wide-range of systems, including solid-state materials, ultracold gases and photonics. Most famously, local geometrical characteristics like the Berry curvature can be related to global topological invariants such as those classifying quantum Hall states or topological insulators. Regardless of the band topology, however, any non-zero Berry curvature can have important consequences, such as in the semi-classical evolution of a wave packet. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time that wave packet dynamics can be used to directly map out the Berry curvature. To this end, we use optical pulses in two coupled fibre loops to study the discrete time-evolution of a wave packet in a 1D geometrical "charge" pump, where the Berry curvature leads to an anomalous displacement of the wave packet under pumping. This is both the first direct observation of Berry curvature effects in an optical system, and, more generally, the proof-of-...

  17. Dicty_cDB: AFB732 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RNA sequence. 64 3e-06 1 CD719214 |CD719214.1 VVB158G03_410335 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic... 3e-06 1 CD008053 |CD008053.1 VVB082D05_335234 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leave...equence. 64 3e-06 1 CD006712 |CD006712.1 VVB066D06_332552 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic str...9711 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed berries of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis

  18. BlackBerry PlayBook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Use your BlackBerry PlayBook for work and for play—this book shows you how For all you business road warriors who don't go anywhere without your BlackBerrys, the road just got a little more comfortable. The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet is your go-to-gadget for working on the go. Learn how to take full advantage of this powerful newcomer to the tablet market with this full-color For Dummies guide. You'll discover how to use your PlayBook to connect to corporate systems, manage your finances, keep track of your travel and other schedules—even how to use the PlayBook as an e-reade

  19. Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-02-01

    The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

  20. Berry phases for interacting spins in composite environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Da-Bao; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Due to the potential application in quantum information process, geometric phase of interacting system arouse many interests. Some physicists concentrate on the system in pure classical envi- ronment, while others study the system in pure quantized environment. So a natural question is asked: how about an interacting system in composite environments made up of both classical and quantized field. In this letter, we analyze a quantum system composed of two interacting spins, of which one is in classical magnetic field and the other is in quantized field. First, classical magnetic field driven Berry phases for the whole system and subsystem are studied. The effect of couplings between particles and photon on these phases are analyzed. In comparison with the dynamical quantized field, We find that even a static quantized field in its vacuum state can also have an effect on Berry phase. Second, quantized field driven Berry phases for the whole system and sub- system are formulated, including both one and two mode ...

  1. Effect of Noise on Berry's Phase for Quantum Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景辉; 葛墨林

    2003-01-01

    Based on a new type of two-level-system reservoir, we investigate the impact of dissipation on Berry's phase of a spin trapped in a periodical external field. It is found that the existence of environmental noise could lead to a decaying term in the matrix of Berry's phase as the sign of a decoherence process, which is in agreement with the result of Nazir et al. (Phys. Rev. A 65 (2002) 042303). Particularly, in comparison with a specialized case of the traditional Leggett dissipation model, we only shows the dependence of time but not temperature in decaying term. A concrete case is exhibited by using the one-dimensional Ohmic function.

  2. Berry syndrome in association with familial limb malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    We describe a newborn boy diagnosed with Berry syndrome consisting of a distal aortopulmonary septal defect, aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery, and interruption of the aorta. The child was noted to have reduplication of the right thumb. The child\\'s mother had a claw malformation of her left hand but a normal cardiovascular status. Genetic analysis for TBX5 and SALL4 mutations were negative in both the patient and his mother. This case describes the first ever report of Berry syndrome in an infant with reduplication of the right thumb and familial limb malformation.

  3. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  4. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

  5. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1983-07-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG 1,' ' 110 R,' '1202,' and '1616,' which are used commercially for phylloxera resistance were susceptible. PMID:19295825

  6. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1983-07-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG 1,' ' 110 R,' '1202,' and '1616,' which are used commercially for phylloxera resistance were susceptible.

  7. Autofluorescence of grape berries following Botrytis cinerea infection

    OpenAIRE

    Belanger, M.C.; Roger, J.M.; Cartolaro, P.; Fermaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    Gray mold is caused by Botrytis cinerea (anamorph of an ascomycete fungus) infecting over 200 plant species worldwide and causing tremendous harvest losses in vineyards. Even though all grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinfera L.) are susceptible to the disease, defense mechanisms are induced to counteract or slow down infection and colonization by the pathogen. One of the key inducible defense molecule is resveratrol, a blue fluorescent stilbenic compound. Considering early fungal detection as a c...

  8. Effects of leaf removal and cluster thinning on yield and quality of grapes (vitis vinifera l., riesling × silvaner) in corrales, boyaca (colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Balaguera López, Helber Enrique; Almanza Merchán, Pedro José; Fischer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The vineyards that are located in the Colombian cool tropicalzone of Corrales (Boyaca department) offer grapes for the production of quality wines; to improve the crop we must know the adequate balance between the quantity of clusters and the leaf area of the plants. In order to determine the effect of leaf removal and cluster thinning on yield and quality of the clonal selection Riesling × Silvaner wine grape, it was used a completely randomized bifactorial design of 2x3. The first factor wa...

  9. Tratamiento enzimático en la extracción de aceite de pipa de uva, Vitis vinifera, por prensado en frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga, M. E.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of enzyme incorporation is analyzed over the yield of grapeseed oil extraction by cold pressing. By this type of process the objective is to preserve grapeseed active compounds and to diminish the environmental impact in comparison to oil extraction conventional methods which use higher temperatures. The enzymatic hydrolysis takes place with a commercial enzyme previous to pressing stage. Its effectiveness is compared to a control without the biocatalyst. An oil extraction yield of 72 % d.b. is obtained with an enzymatic pre-treatment for 4 hours at 50 ºC, and 60 % of moisture, increasing in 26 % the control result. It is concluded that the incorporation of an enzymatic processing would be a feasible alternative to extract grapeseed oil under softener process conditions improving the yield of extraction in comparison to the same type of methodology without an enzyme.Se analiza el efecto de la incorporación de enzimas sobre el rendimiento de extracción de aceite por prensado en frío. Con el prensado en frío se busca preservar los compuestos activos de la pipa de uva y minimizar el impacto medioambiental en comparación con los métodos convencionales de extracción de aceite que utilizan altas temperaturas. El tratamiento enzimático se efectúa previo al prensado con una enzima comercial y su efectividad se compara con un control sin catalizador. Un rendimiento de extracción de aceite del 72 % b.s. se logra con un pre-tratamiento enzimático durante 4 horas a 50 ºC, y 60 % de humedad, superando en un 26 % al control. Se concluye que la incorporación de un tratamiento enzimático sería una alternativa factible para extraer el aceite de pipa de uva bajo condiciones suaves de proceso mejorando el rendimiento de extracción en comparación con el mismo tipo de proceso sin enzima.

  10. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon)

    OpenAIRE

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation leve...

  11. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions. PMID:23630325

  12. Deciphering the Niches of Colonisation of Vitis vinifera L. by the Esca-Associated Fungus Phaeoacremonium aleophilum Using a gfp Marked Strain and Cutting Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Pierron

    Full Text Available Esca disease has become a major threat for viticulture. Phaeoacremonium aleophilum is considered a pioneer of the esca complex pathosystem, but its colonisation behaviour inside plants remains poorly investigated.In this study, P. aleophilum::gfp7 colonisation was assessed six and twelve weeks post-inoculation in two different types of tissues: in the node and the internode of one year-old rooted cuttings of Cabernet Sauvignon. These processes of colonisation were compared with the colonisation by the wild-type strain using a non-specific lectin probe Alexa Fluor 488-WGA.Data showed that six weeks post-inoculation of the internode, the fungus had colonised the inoculation point, the bark and xylem fibres. Bark, pith and xylem fibres were strongly colonised by the fungus twelve weeks post-inoculation and it can progress up to 8 mm from the point of inoculation using pith, bark and fibres. P. aleophilum was additionally detected in the lumen of xylem vessels in which tyloses blocked its progression. Different plant responses in specific tissues were additionally visualised. Inoculation of nodes led to restricted colonisation of P. aleophilum and this colonisation was associated with a plant response six weeks post-inoculation. The fungus was however detected in xylem vessels, bark and inside the pith twelve weeks post-inoculation.These results demonstrate that P. aleophilum colonisation can vary according to the type of tissues and the type of spread using pith, bark and fibres. Woody tissues can respond to the injury and to the presence of this fungus, and xylem fibres play a key role in the early colonisation of the internode by P. aleophilum before the fungus can colonise xylem vessels.

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea. PMID:25521116

  14. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera) Pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Cotoras; Herman Vivanco; Ricardo Melo; María Aguirre; Evelyn Silva; Leonora Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts ...

  15. Minidisk against ring infiltrometer measurements to assess the saturated hydraulic conductivity in Mediterranean vineyards (Vitis vinifera L.) under Tillage and No-Tillage managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Vineyard is one of the main crops in the Mediterranean region and it forms, along with wheat and olive, what it is known as the 'Mediterranean triad'. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2010), the European Union has 4.5 million hectares of land occupied by vineyards. Out of all, the Mediterranean region has the largest total area of vineyards. France, Italy and Spain together are responsible for 48% of global wine production. In Spain, the total surface occupied by vineyards is 1.048.104 ha (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 2009), which is translated in a 13% of world total (Wine Institute, 2014). In terms of environmental factors, vineyards are a source of sediments and water due to the tillage and the soil compaction, the lack of vegetation cover and the soil organic matter depletion (Novara et al., 2011; Lieskovsky' et al., 2014; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015). The infiltration capacity of soils is a key component of the hydrological cycle that can control the non-sustainable rates of runoff and erosion (Cerdà, 1997,1999). In this way research focused on the soil hydrological properties will bring knowledge on how to control the high erosion rates (Cammeraat et al., 2010). Saturated hydraulic conductivity, ks, is the most determining physical parameter in terms of quantifying the components of the global water balance as it interferes in all those processes which are related with water and solute movement and transport through the soil. ks values are required for an adequate modelling of the infiltration and runoff generation processes. However, it is a variable with high variability when it comes to agricultural soils due to different soil managements and the fact that the soil is not a continuous media (Polo et al., 2003). For instance, Leonard and Andrieux (1998) reported in a study done in untilled vineyards in France high differences in infiltration rates through the use of rainfall simulations, which is also found in forest and degraded soils. The aim of our work was to test two different ks measuring methodologies -the ring infiltrometer and the mini-disc infiltrometer (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA.2005), in order to check how the differences in measuring affects to the ks calculations. This would give an idea of which methodology would be more appropriate to use regarding the time-consume, effort and costs of the measuring material. The measurements were carried out during November 2015 at El Celler del Roure, a 25-years old vineyard located in Les Alcusses (Moixent, Spain). The soil managements selected for the study were Conventional Tillage (CT) and No Tillage (NT). A total of 18 infiltration measurements were performed (9 for CT and 9 for NT). In order to homogenize the measuring times, the measuring time for each methodology lasted 1 hour. ks values were calculated derived from Green and Ampt's (1911) and Horton's (1941) equations in order to discuss the impact of the methodologies applied. Statistically significant differences (p=.000) were found when applying both methodologies between CT and NT at both time and measures. However, there is still a need to understand how both methodologies influence in the variation of the parameters used for the Green and Ampt's (1911) and Horton's (1941) models. Acknowledgements: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References: Cammeraat, E., Cerdà, A. and Imeson, A.C. 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semiarid environment. Ecohydrology, 3: 421-430. doi:10.1002/eco.161 Cerdà, A. 1997. Seasonal changes of the infiltration rates in a mediterranean scrubland on limestone. Journal of Hydrology, 198: 209-225. doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(96)03295-7 Cerdà, A. 1999. Seasonal and spatial variations in infiltration rates in badland surfaces under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Water Resources Research, 35 (1): 319-328. doi: 10.1029/98WR01659 Decagon Devices, Inc. 2005. Minidisk Infiltrometer, User's Manual. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2010. Green, W.H. and G. Ampt. 1911. Studies of soil physics, part I - the flow of air and water through soils. J. Ag. Sci. 4:1-24. Horton, R. 1941. An approach toward a physical interpretation of infiltration-capacity. Soil science society of America journal. Leonard, J., Andrieux, P. 1998. Infiltration characteristics of soils in Mediterranean vineyards in Southern France. Catena, 32: 209-223. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(98)00049-6 Lieskovský, J., Kenderessy, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of vegetation cover and different tillage practices on soil erosion in vineyards: A case study in vráble (Slovakia) using WATEM/SEDEM. Land Degradation and Development, 25 (3): 288-296. doi: 10.1002/ldr.2162 Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 2015. http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/ Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S.S., Santoro, A., Cerdà, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil & Tillage Research, 117: 140-147. doi:10.1016/j.still.2011.09.007 Polo, M.J., Lafuente, P., Giráldez, J.V. 2003. Variabilidad espacial de la conductividad hidráulica saturada en suelos de olivar y su influencia en el balance hidrológico global. Estudios de la Zona No Saturada del Suelo, Vol. VI, 209. Rodrigo Comino, J., Brings, C., Lassu, T., Iserloh, T., Senciales, J. M., Martínez Murillo, J.F., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B. 2015. Rainfall and human activity impacts on soil losses and rill erosion in vineyards (Ruwer Valley, Germany). Solid Earth 6: 823-837. doi:10.5194/se-6-823-2015 Wine Institute. 2014. http://www.wineinstitute.org/

  16. A review of research and literature related to the origin and identity of the cultivars Plavac mali, Zinfandel and Primitivo (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Mirošević

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Zinfandel, the important California wine cultivar, has been a question for several decades. Although Zinfandel has been linked to both Primitivo, grown in southern Italy, and to Plavac mali in Croatia, the puzzle of its origin has never been solved. Many scientists and writers have applied themselves to this question. Many hypotheses have been proposed and some erroneous ideas have been widely accepted. Much of the controversy will now be ended as a result of recent scientific research (Pejić and co-workers, 2000. Here we review the research and written documentation about Plavac mali, Zinfandel and Primitivo and their relationships and we present the results of recent research.

  17. Determination of callusing performance and vine sapling characteristics on different rootstocks of ‘Merzifon Karası’ grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent KÖSE; ÇELIK, Hüseyin; Karabulut, Besim

    2015-01-01

    Grafted vines are the only option while establishing vineyards over the sites contaminated with phylloxera. Furthermore, grafted vines used to establish new vineyards should be well-developed, healthy and compatible with the scions. In this research, we aimed to find out the most suitable rootstock for ‘Merzifon Karası’ using ten rootstocks (140 Ruggeri, 110 R, 99 R, 41B, 5C, 5BB, SO4, 1103 Paulsen 140 Ruggeri and Rupestris du Lot) in 2010 and 2011. The effects on the callusing performance, g...

  18. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  19. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  20. Accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in fruit, leaves and shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following foliar applications of guaiacol or oak extract to grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke, and their subsequent release during winemaking. This study investigated the accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in the fruit, shoots and leaves of Monastrell grapevines following foliar applications (at veraison) of either an aqueous solution of guaiacol or an aqueous oak extract. Fruit, shoot and leaf samples were then collected at 3 time points between veraison and maturity, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, to quantify guaiacol and its glycoconjugates, respectively. Guaiacol glycoconjugates were observed in fruit and leaves in particular, demonstrating glycosylation occurred after grapevine treatment; however, different glycoconjugate profiles were apparent. PMID:27664698

  1. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Grape Seed (Vitis vinifera on Sugar and Lipids in Serum of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Ganjali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, no-drug treatments (medicinal plants are novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Grape Seed extract on the blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. Thirty male adult rats were randomly selected and divided into three groups as nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of grape seed. In diabetic groups, alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally to develop diabetes. Then the Test group received intraperitoneal injection of hydro-alcoholic extract of grape seed (100 mg/kg. At last, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, VLDL, LDL and insulin contents of the rats' serum sample were determined. Diabetic rats treated with extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level (p<0.05. Furthermore, compared diabetic group, in the extract-treated rats, there was a significant decrease in serum contents of total cholesterol (TC ,LDL,VLDL and TG, but a significant increase in insulin level and HDL (p<0.05. These results show that the hydroalcoholic extract of Grape Seed may be effective in the treatment of diabetes. This effect can be due to the presence of flavonoides and their antioxidant features.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of the Resveratrol Biosynthesis Pathway in an Endophytic Fungus (Alternaria sp. MG1) Isolated from Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jinxin; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria sp. MG1, an endophytic fungus previously isolated from Merlot grape, produces resveratrol from glucose, showing similar metabolic flux to the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, currently found solely in plants. In order to identify the resveratrol biosynthesis pathway in this strain at the gene level, de novo transcriptome sequencing was conducted using Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 22,954,434 high-quality reads were assembled into contigs and 18,570 unigenes were identified. Among these unigenes, 14,153 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 5341 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. After KEGG mapping, 2701 unigenes were mapped onto 115 pathways. Eighty-four unigenes were annotated in major pathways from glucose to resveratrol, coding 20 enzymes for glycolysis, 10 for phenylalanine biosynthesis, 4 for phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and 4 for stilbenoid biosynthesis. Chalcone synthase was identified for resveratrol biosynthesis in this strain, due to the absence of stilbene synthase. All the identified enzymes indicated a reasonable biosynthesis pathway from glucose to resveratrol via glycolysis, phenylalanine biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and stilbenoid pathways. These results provide essential evidence for the occurrence of resveratrol biosynthesis in Alternaria sp. MG1 at the gene level, facilitating further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in this strain's secondary metabolism. PMID:27588016

  3. The role of soil biogeochemistry in wine taste: Soil factors influencing grape elemental composition, photosynthetic biomarkers and Cu/Zn isotopic signature of Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Simon; Oliva, Priscia; Darrozes, José; Viers, Jérôme; Audry, Stéphane; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Orgogozo, Laurent; Le Guedard, Marina; Schreck, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the influence of soil composition in wine taste is of great economic and environmental interest in France and around the world. Nevertheless the impact of soil composition on wine taste is still controversially discussed. Since inorganic soil components do not have a proper taste and do not enter the plant anyway, their influence needs to be induced by nutrient absorption and its impact on plant functioning and grape composition. Indeed recent development of geological tracers of origin proof the existence of soil chemical and isotopic signatures in wine. However, type and scale of the impact of soil composition on wine taste are not well understood yet, and little experimental evidence exists due to the complexity of mechanisms involved. Thus, to provide evidence for the impact of soil composition on grape composition and potentially wine taste, we studied soil and plant material from two relevant vineyards (Soave, Italia). On those two directly adjacent vineyards, two different wines are produced with the same plant material and cultivation techniques. The vineyards only differ by their underlying bedrock - limestone versus basaltic rock - and thus present suitable conditions for investigating the impact of soil composition on grapes and wine. Pedological and mineralogical parameters were analyzed for the two vineyards whereas chemical extractions (citrate, CaCl2) were performed to determine nutrient bioavailability in both soils. Elemental compositions were determined by ICP-MS analyses in different compartments (soils, vine leaves and grapes). Isotopic fractionation of Cu and Zn was investigated in various samples as source tracers and in order to better understand fractionation mechanisms involved. Finally, plant health was studied using the Omega-3 biomarker which determines the fatty acid composition in vine leaves, directly involved in photosynthetic processes. Results show that the vineyards are characterized by two different soil types due to the geological difference. These soils differ in elemental compositions and bioavailability of mineral nutrients, preconditions for a potential influence on plants and wine. Elemental ratios of soils are partly transmitted to leaves and grapes of correspondent plants, including nutrients such as Ca. Plant photosynthetic functioning is significantly better on the limestone vineyard due to lower Cu bioavailability: Omega-3 values are negatively linked to Cu bioavailability in corresponding soils. These observations suggest a difference in organic molecule synthesis depending on the vineyard soil, which might include components relevant for taste and fermentation. Cu and Zn isotopic ratios do not differ between both soils. The main fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes occurs at the soil-plant interface making those isotopes suitable tracers for uptake mechanisms. As a result Zn isotope ratios reveal a strong recycling of Zn in the soil-plant continuum. Our results show a significant influence of soil composition on grape composition, plant biochemistry and potentially wine taste. Determination of organic and sensorial composition of grapes and wine is ongoing and will be discussed in further communications.

  4. The application of chitosan and benzothiadiazole in vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv Groppello Gentile) changes the aromatic profile and sensory attributes of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalini, Sara; Ruggiero, Antonietta; Rapparini, Francesca; Neri, Luisa; Tonni, Marco; Iriti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the effects of resistance inducers on wine aroma compounds and sensory attributes. Resistance inducers are a class of products able to elicit the plant defence mechanisms against pathogens, incurring lower toxicological risks than conventional agrochemicals. Among them, chitosan (CHT) and benzothiadiazole (BTH) are particularly effective in stimulating the biosynthesis of bioactive phytochemicals. They were used in a two-year survey conducted to assess experimental wines obtained from elicitor-treated grapes. Compared with conventional fungicides (penconazole and methyldinocap), in 2009, BTH increased total acetals and esters, while CHT raised the levels of total acetals and alcohols. Sensory analysis revealed that overall acceptance was higher in CHT than in BTH. In 2010, differences were not significant. Therefore, plant activators deserve attention beyond their efficacy in crop protection. In particular, in our experimental conditions, CHT improved the volatile profile, flavour and taste of Groppello wine.

  5. 葡萄EST-SNP位点的信息与特征%Information and characteristics of EST-SNP loci in grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李猛; 郭大龙; 刘崇怀; 张国海; 侯小改

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to mine candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci by aligning homologous expressed sequence tags (EST) using bioinformatics software, 42 493 EST sequences were retrieved from different tissues of nine different grape genotypes in NCBI dbEST database and assembled into 6 126 contigs by CAP3 software, then candidate SNP loci of the contigs were screened by QualitySNP software. Meanwhile, in order to improve the reliability of mined candidate SNP and reduce false positive in small contig sires and false negative in large contig sizes, the minor allele frequency was set at least 30% in a candidate SNP locus, and the SNP flanking sequences were perfect matching at least in 5 bp. The results showed that only 1 195 contigs contained candidate SNP loci. A total of 5 032 candidate SNPs were identified, and the amount of trans versions, transitions and one base indel were 1 800, 2 896 and 336 respectively, and the average frequency of SNP occurrence was at 4. 2 SNP.contig-1. CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences) molecular markers and re-sequencing methods were used to validate the selected candidate SNP loci. The validation results indicated that they were corresponded with the manual filtration principle, and those from small contig sizes showed better validation results with highest reliability.%为了从不同基因型葡萄组织的表达序列标签(EST)中得到候选单核苷酸多态性(SNP)位点,从NCBI的dbEST数据库中下载来源于9个不同葡萄基因型的不同组织EST序列42493条,利用CAP3软件拼接得到6126个重叠群(contig),将拼接结果导入QualitySNP进行SNP筛选;同时,为提高候选SNP位点的可靠度,降低小规格contig开发SNP的假阳性率和大规格contig开发SNP的假阴性率,设置候选SNP位点的次要等位基因频率至少为30%,SNP侧翼序列保守度至少为5 bp.结果表明:仅在1195个contig中存在候选SNP位点,共5032个,其中包括1800个颠换类型,2896个转换类型,336个单碱基的插入与缺失(indel),SNP的平均出现频率为4.2 SNP·contig-1.利用CAPS(酶切扩增多态序列)分子标记和重测序方法对其中几个候选SNP位点进行验证表明,符合人工筛选原则且来自于小规格contig的候选SNP位点检测结果较好,可靠度最高.

  6. Role of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) (VITIS VINIFERA) in the modulation of radiation-induced structural and oxidative damage in spleen and lung tissues of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) against oxidative organ damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats were treated daily, by gavage, with 100 mg/kg GSPE for 8 days before whole body exposure at 7 Gy and for 6 consecutive days after gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 7 days after gamma irradiation. Histological examination of sections of the spleen and lung tissues through light microscope showed that exposure to ionizing irradiation has provoked severe architectural damage in both tissues as necrotic lesions and atrophied follicles in spleen and inflammation and disruption of bronchioles, destruction of respiratory portion in lung and dilating, widening of blood vessels in both spleen and lung. Histological damage was associated with significant alteration in the antioxidant status of both tissues, which was reflected by a significant increase in the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. GSPE treated-irradiated rats showed significant regeneration in lymphatic nodules and significant amelioration in inflammation, regeneration of bronchioles shape, alveolar sacs and improved pattern of blood vessels. Tissue regeneration was associated with significant improvement in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT and significant reduction in lipid peroxidation by products. It could be concluded that GSPE might be capable to attenuate radiation-induced oxidative and structural organ injury

  7. Metabolic consequences of infection of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Modra frankinja’ with flavescence dorée phytoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina ePrezelj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp–grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. ‘Modra frankinja’ under natural conditions in the vineyard. In FDp-infected leaf vein-enriched tissues, the seasonal transcriptional profiles of 14 genes selected from various metabolic pathways showed an FDp-specific plant response compared to other grapevine yellows and uncovered a new association of the SWEET17a vacuolar transporter of fructose with pathogens. Non-targeted metabolome analysis from leaf vein-enriched tissues identified 22 significantly changed compounds with increased levels during infection. Several metabolites corroborated the gene expression study. Detailed investigation of the dynamics of carbohydrate metabolism revealed significant accumulation of sucrose and starch in the mesophyll of FDp-infected leaves, as well as significant up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. In addition, infected leaves had high activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and, more significantly, sucrose synthase. The data support the conclusion that FDp infection inhibits phloem transport, resulting in accumulation of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites that provoke a source-sink transition and defence response status.

  8. Diagnóstico da área cultivada com uva fina de mesa (Vitis vinifera L sob cobertura plástica e do manejo de pragas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Formolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi realizado o censo das áreas cultivadas com uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido e a identificação das principais espécies de pragas e estratégias de controle empregadas pelos produtores, no município de Caxias do Sul-RS. Na safra de 2007/2008, foram identificados os produtores envolvidos com a atividade no município e através de entrevista presencial e semiestruturada ao estabelecimento produtivo, registrou-se a área cultivada e variedades. Para produtores com cultivo de áreas superiores a 2.000m² da cultivar Itália, com dois anos ou mais de produção, foi aplicado outro questionário na safra de 2008/2009 com o objetivo de levantar as informações referentes: a espécies de insetos e ácaros-praga que danificam as uvas finas de mesa na propriedade, segundo o viticultor; b conhecer a realidade do manejo de insetos e ácaros-praga na cultura; c verificar os parâmetros que o produtor utiliza para a aplicação de inseticidas; d conhecer os produtos aplicados, e e identificar o tipo de assistência técnica recebida pelo viticultor. Foram identificados 43 produtores de uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido com área total cultivada de 30,36 ha, sendo 70,31% desta área da cultivar Itália. As pragas mais importantes mencionadas pelos produtores foram tripes - Frankliniella rodeos Moulton e a mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. O manejo realizado para controle destas pragas é através da aplicação de inseticidas com os ingredientes ativos acefato e fentiona, respectivamente, com base em calendário. Os principais problemas enfrentados para implementar estratégias de manejo de pragas no cultivo são a falta de assistência técnica, a ausência de metodologias confiáveis para o monitoramento e o reduzido número de inseticidas autorizados para a cultura.

  9. Efectos de las diferentes estrategias de riego en la composición del vino y su perfil sensorial (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Cabernet sauvignon)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Olga; Baeza Trujillo, Pilar; Junquera González, Pedro; Lissarrague Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Ramon

    2013-01-01

    La preocupación por las consecuencias que puede ocasionar a la viticultura el cambio climático, se ven reflejadas en muchos de los estudios que existen en los últimos años. En las actuales zonas de producción, estos cambios podrían tener importantes consecuencias, tanto en la calidad de la uva como en su potencial productivo. El objetivo marcado en este ensayo, consistió en evaluar como el déficit hídrico en climas secos afectó a la calidad y composición de sus vinos. El diseño experimental s...

  10. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  11. Flowering as the Most Highly Sensitive Period of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Mourvèdre to the Botryosphaeria Dieback Agents Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Spagnolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Botryosphaeria dieback is a fungal grapevine trunk disease that currently represents a threat for viticulture worldwide because of the important economical losses due to reduced yield of affected plants and their premature death. Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata are among the causal agents. Vine green stems were artificially infected with N. parvum or D. seriata at the onset of three different phenological stages (G stage (separated clusters, flowering and veraison. Highest mean lesion lengths were recorded at flowering. Major proteome changes associated to artificial infections during the three different phenological stages were also reported using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-based analysis. Twenty (G stage, 15 (flowering and 13 (veraison differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS and a total of 247, 54 and 25 proteins were respectively identified. At flowering, a weaker response to the infection was likely activated as compared to the other stages, and some defense-related proteins were even down regulated (e.g., superoxide dismutase, major latex-like protein, and pathogenesis related protein 10. Globally, the flowering period seemed to represent the period of highest sensitivity of grapevine to Botryosphaeria dieback agent infection, possibly being related to the high metabolic activity in the inflorescences.

  12. Results of two consecutive years on mould prevention in viticulture by means of UV C application of vines (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkelmann-Löhnertz Beate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, impacts of climate change on cool climate viticulture were most obvious concerning cluster infections caused by Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould. The control of primary and secondary fungal pathogens is economically most important since bunch rot may severely affect the annual harvest with regard to quality and quantity. Trials with UV C applications, a new approach to control bunch rot, were conducted in 2013 and 2014, representing years with intensive bunch rot epidemics. UV C irradiation was applied by a prototype at an experimental site of Hochschule Geisenheim University. At both canopy sides, leaves and cluster zones were irradiated repeatedly at a dose of ≤160 mWs/cm2 alone or in combination with chemical control. The results of our experiments indicated that irradiation with UV C, in addition to fungicide treatments at reduced number of applications, was able to significantly decrease infection with grey mould to a degree of efficiency of 82% compared to standard chemical treatment that achieved 51% efficiency in 2014. Accordingly, the new technology is suitable for reducing cluster infection with mould fungi allowing a prolonged grape ripening time, which leads to a better harvest quality and a decreased yield loss.

  13. Impact of Leaf Removal, Applied Before and After Flowering, on Anthocyanin, Tannin, and Methoxypyrazine Concentrations in 'Merlot' (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivilotti, Paolo; Herrera, Jose Carlos; Lisjak, Klemen; Baša Česnik, Helena; Sabbatini, Paolo; Peterlunger, Enrico; Castellarin, Simone Diego

    2016-06-01

    The development and accumulation of secondary metabolites in grapes determine wine color, taste, and aroma. This study aimed to investigate the effect of leaf removal before flowering, a practice recently introduced to reduce cluster compactness and Botrytis rot, on anthocyanin, tannin, and methoxypyrazine concentrations in 'Merlot' grapes and wines. Leaf removal before flowering was compared with leaf removal after flowering and an untreated control. No effects on tannin and anthocyanin concentrations in grapes were observed. Both treatments reduced levels of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in the grapes and the derived wines, although the after-flowering treatment did so to a greater degree in the fruit specifically. Leaf removal before flowering can be used to reduce cluster compactness, Botrytis rot, and grape and wine IBMP concentration and to improve wine color intensity but at the expense of cluster weight and vine yield. Leaf removal after flowering accomplishes essentially the same results without loss of yield. PMID:27180819

  14. Puesta a punto del método de PCR en tiempo real para la cuantificación de Aspergillus carbonarius en uvas Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garmendia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La ocratoxina A (OTA es una micotoxina que ha sido detectada en uvas y vinos. Es producida por Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus carbonarius y especies pertenecientes al agregado Aspergillus niger. En los últimos años se ha descrito la presencia de Aspergillus aculeatus y Aspergillus japonicus en la superficie de uvas y su capacidad de producir OTA. A pesar de que la concentración detectada de cepas pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri fue < 100/g de uva, se han aislado, identificado y caracterizado 56 cepas de Aspergillus pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri. El 51 % fue identificado como A. niger, el 39 % como A. japonicus, 5 % como A. tubingensis -like y 5 % como A. foetidus. Ninguna cepa de A. carbonarius fue aislada. Debido a que esta especie ha sido descrita como la principal responsable de la presencia de OTA en uvas y vinos por su capacidad de producir altas concentraciones de OTA, se requiere un método más sensible que los métodos convencionales para detectar y cuantificar la presencia de A. carbonarius en uva. En este trabajo se optimizó la técnica de PCR en tiempo real para la detección y cuantificación de esta especie en uvas d e la variedad Tannat.

  15. Supersymmetric manipulation of quasienergy states. Application to the Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Samsonov, B F; Nieto, L M

    2003-01-01

    Time-dependent supersymmetry allows one to delete quasienergy levels for time-periodic Hamiltonians and to create new ones. We illustrate this by examining an exactly solvable model related to the simple harmonic oscillator with a time-varying frequency. For an interesting nonharmonic example we present the change of the Berry phase due to a supersymmetry transformation.

  16. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    On field-grown vines, temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied, and resulting ...

  17. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  18. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  19. Jos Berry and Her New Avant-garde Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As the lingerie’s top trend spotter,Ms Jos Berry directs an international team of designers based in Paris-Concepts Paris-and provides the latest trends for worldwide lingerie professionals. This Paris consultancy company is devoted to a unique mix of services,such as trend book,online trend & news updates,color cards and design projects.

  20. Better-bred berries for the retail market

    Science.gov (United States)

    While there are many exciting new choices for berry cultivars for the Northwest commercial industry, very few of them are available in the retail nursery market. It’s an odd thing where the top-selling cultivars in the region haven’t seen the light of day in the retail nursery market. For many other...

  1. Antithrombotic activity of Vitis labrusca extract on rat platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Se-Uk; Lee, Hoon-Yeon; Xin, Mingjie; Ji, Su-Jeong; Cho, Hyoung-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Sung; Kim, Dae-Ki; Lee, Young-Mi

    2016-03-01

    Vitis labrusca is a grapevine that has antioxidant, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic activity. However, the antithrombotic effect of Vitis labrusca leaves on platelets is yet to be ascertained. We investigated the inhibitory effect of V. labrusca leaf extract (VLE) on platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. The thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and serotonin concentrations were measured by ELISA. The flavonoids content was measured by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The antithrombotic activity of VLE was evaluated using various agonists in vitro. VLE strongly inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. In rats, VLE treatment (100 mg/kg) reduced ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation, without affecting tail bleeding and coagulation time. Moreover, VLE significantly suppressed TXB2 and serotonin secretion. UPLC analysis indicated that VLE contains quercetin, isorhamnetin, and rutin. Our results indicate that VLE possesses antiplatelet activity via the suppression of TXB2 and serotonin, without affecting bleeding. Further, we identified the flavonoids present in VLE. Thus, VLE may be a potential agent for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26340455

  2. Dicty_cDB: SFJ682 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 CK273593 |CK273593.1 EST719671 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Solanum tube...d sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA cl...An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinif...uence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone V...era cDNA clone VVB066D06 5, mRNA sequence. 64 4e-07 2 CD719214 |CD719214.1 VVB158G03_410335 An expressed seq

  3. Dicty_cDB: SFB448 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , complete cds. 58 2e-07 2 CK273593 |CK273593.1 EST719671 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Solanum tuberos...equence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonna...expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera..._410335 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vit

  4. Dicty_cDB: SFF649 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , complete cds. 58 2e-07 2 CK273593 |CK273593.1 EST719671 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Solanum tuberos...equence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonna...expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera..._410335 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vit

  5. Social licence for the utilization of wild berries in the context of local traditional rights and the interests of the berry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Peltola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Everyman’s right, as applied in Finland and other Nordic countries, allows the picking of natural products (wild berries, mushrooms, etc. regardless of land ownership. Harvesting and selling natural products has been an important source of income in rural areas of northern Finland. As household berry picking has more or less replaced small-scale commercial berry picking, foreign seasonal pickers are now supplying raw material for the berry industry. This has aroused vivid discussions about the limits of everyman’s right and inhabitants’ rights to local natural resources. Critics claim that commercially organized berry picking makes it difficult for inhabitants to fully use natural resources. In this article, we present the results of a survey aimed at nature-oriented, mainly northern residents of Finland and a telephone and e-mail service to which residents of northern Finland sent feedback regarding foreign berry pickers. The results of the survey and the feedback show that, in general, organized berry picking by foreign labourers is accepted if some basic guidelines or rules are respected. These guidelines may stem from local customary laws or traditions which have regulated berry picking. Another factor which would improve local acceptance and promote social licence for organized berry picking by foreign and non–local labourers is the distribution of benefits. At present, the advantages of organized berry picking are seen as benefiting stakeholders outside the local community, whereas local communities have to bear the costs: for example, increased berry picking activity in areas which they have utilized for a prolonged time, sometimes through generations.

  6. Teores de Elementos Minerais e Caracterização Física da Uva Isabel (Vitis labrusca L. Produzida em Boa Vista/RR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Márcia Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Roraima viticulture began in 2003 with the creation of the Vale do Rio Branco project, in which the cultivation of grapes was enlarged for a commercial production. However, no information has been found in literature  about the mineral content of grapes produced. Considering the essentiality and importance of this information for human nutrition, quantification of species K by flame photometry and Ca, Fe and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in pulps of grapes of the Isabel, Vitis labrusca L. variety, cultivated in Boa Vista/RR has been realized, as well as determination of the physical characteristics of the grape bunches and berries. The determinations´ results indicate that K had the highest concentration, followed by Ca, Fe and Zn, being similar to the data, described in other literature sources, except for Ca, which showed smaller, indicating an intervention demand of culture methods employed to optimize the absorption of this species by vines. The consumption of Isabel grape can contribute to the achievement of the adequate intake recommendations of mineral elements. The results of the physical characterization let us classify Isabel grape bunches to very small, loose and green stalks. Overall, this study reveals new data about the physical characteristics and mineral composition present in Isabel grape grown in Boa Vista/RR.

  7. Fisiologia pós-colheita de frutos da palmeira Mauritia vinifera Mart. (Arecaceae Postharvest physiology of Mauritia vinifera Mart. (Arecaceae palm fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Santelli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alterações pós-colheita no amadurecimento dos frutos de Mauritia vinifera (buriti, colhidos com coloração marrom clara, foram estudadas acompanhando-se: massa, volumes gasosos intercelulares, concentração de CO2 e O2 na atmosfera interna, firmeza e as evoluções de CO2 e etileno, tanto a 25 ºC quanto sob baixa temperatura (8 ºC. Os frutos apresentaram injúria de resfriamento quando armazenados a 8 ºC e não amadureceram ao serem retornados para 25 ºC. Sob umidade elevada, baixa transpiração, a conservação do buriti triplicou em comparação com os frutos armazenados em ambiente menos úmido (65 a 85%. A casca resistente destes frutos perde a firmeza e o arranjo compacto das escamas e torna-se mais frágil e mais permeável a gases durante o amadurecimento ou quando armazenados sob temperatura que causa injuria de resfriamento. Os frutos de buriti contém apenas cerca de 1% volume gasoso intercelular, o que é indicativo de susceptibilidade à injúria de impacto, mediante descolamento de escamas. No amadurecimento a polpa torna-se macia, conforme leitura de penetrômetro, diminuindo a resistência ao transporte dos frutos, que passam a ser facilmente amassados. Estes frutos apresentaram comportamento climatérico típico e o pico de evolução de CO2 ocorreu dois dias após o pico do etileno. As curvas de concentração interna de CO2 e de O2 no buriti foram diferentes de outros frutos previamente estudados pelo fato de sofrerem uma grande redução da resistência difusiva da casca, causada pela formação das aberturas entre as escamas durante o amadurecimento.We studied postharvest ripening changes in Mauritia vinifera Mart. fruits, known as "buriti", harvested at a mature light-brown color stage, from palms on the Brazilian Central Plateau, as follows: weight loss, internal gaseous volume, internal CO2 and O2 concentration, firmness and CO2 and ethylene evolution, at room temperature (25ºC and at low temperature (8 ºC. M

  8. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  9. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva N. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire spectrum of yeast. The grown colonies after preliminary microscoping were separated into the cultures and subjected to testing according to the culturalmorphological signs, being guided by determinants and benefits. It was established the specific variety of microflora on the surface of the berries of grapes of all investigated types, without dependence on the place of their growth. Obtained data showed that the group of yeast, which constantly is present in the complex of the epiphytic microorganisms of grapes of Saccharomyces, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora was characteristic for all types of grapes in all investigated regions. The heterogeneity of the taxonometric composition of microflora is shown. Prevailed yeasts were of family Saccharomycetaceae, form Saccharomyces vini. A quantity of yeast of Saccharomyces vini decreases in a number of Myskhako-Caucasus-Fanagoriya, that as a whole will be coordinated with the climatic conditions. Only the type of Pinot nuar grapes had yeasts of Brettanomyces Dekkera. On the berries of Cabernets and Karaburnu we have discovered yeasts of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus, causing acid-reduction. On the berries of the grapes, which grew in joint stock company APF “Fanagoriya” we haven’t revealed the presence of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts of the form of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus. In the same farm the smallest quantity of yeastswreckers is noted, which we the forms of Pichia and

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHK244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CK273593 |CK273593.1 EST719671 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone POADC22 5' en...5234 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis ...VB066D06_332552 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardo...An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinif

  11. Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics--a Finnish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2007-06-01

    In Finland, berries are part of the traditional diet significantly contributing to the intake of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and included in the national food composition database. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health. A great amount of in vitro evidence exists showing that berry phenolics are powerful antioxidants. However, the antioxidant effect of berry phenolics is strongly dependent on the choice of berry raw material, as the antioxidant activity differs between the different phenolic constituents, including anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. In foods, the antioxidant effect is also influenced by the structure of food. Tannin-containing berries exhibit antimicrobial properties against pathogenic bacteria, thus offering many new applications for food industry. Much of the interest in berry phenolics has focused on cranberries and both cultivated and wild blueberries, although also other berries including black currants, cloudberries, lingonberries, and red raspberries possess promising bioactivities that may have relevance to human health. Antioxidant activity of berry phenolics, in addition to other mechanisms, may contribute to human health, but the possible relationship remains yet to be scientifically substantiated. PMID:17492800

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ningning; Wang, Mengxin; Cui, Lin; Chen, Xuexin; Han, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Empoasca vitis was sequenced. The length of the mitogenome is 15,154 bp with 78.35% AT content (GenBank accession No. KJ815009). The genome encode 37 typical mitochondrial genes including 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an A+T-rich region. The gene arrangement is similar to that of Drosophila yakuba, the presumed ancestral insect mitochondrial gene arrangement. Except for cox2 using GTG as start codon, other protein-coding genes (PCGs) share the start codons ATN. Usual termination codon TAA and incomplete stop codon T are using by 13 protein-coding genes. The A+T-rich region has a length of 977 bp with the AT content high to 88.95%.

  13. Measurement of topological Berry phase in highly disordered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaceur, K.; Guillemette, J.; Lévesque, P. L.; Cottenye, N.; Mahvash, F.; Hemsworth, N.; Kumar, Abhishek; Murata, Y.; Heun, S.; Goerbig, M. O.; Proust, C.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.

    2015-09-01

    We have observed the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in highly disordered graphene at magnetic fields up to 65 T. Disorder was introduced by hydrogenation of graphene up to a ratio H/C ≈0.1 %. The analysis of SdH oscillations and QHE indicates that the topological part of the Berry phase, proportional to the pseudospin winding number, is robust against introduction of disorder by hydrogenation in large-scale graphene.

  14. Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Sampath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your high sugar levels.It has anti cancer and anti viral properties. Jamun juice has carminative and mild astringent properties. The extracts of the bark, seeds and leaves are used for the treatment of diabetes. The leaves have antibacterial properties and used for strenghthening teeths and gums.Oral administration of dried alcohalic extracts of the seeds to diabetic patients was found to reduce the level of blood sugar and glycosuria in trials conducted at CDRI, Lucknow.The bark of black berry tree is astringent, digestive, diuretic, anthelmintic and is considered useful for throat problems.A decoction of the bark and powdered seeds is believed to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and dyspepsia.The antibiotic activity of black berry extract has been widely studied and found useful against a number of microbial agents. The fruit is also considered to be stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic.Vinegar made from black berry fruit is administered in cases of enlargement of spleen, chronic diarrhoea and urine retention for ringworm treatment, water diluted juice is used as lotion.

  15. Berry Phases, Quantum Phase Transitions and Chern Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, H. A.; Reyes-Lega, A. F.

    2007-01-01

    We study the relation between Chern numbers and Quantum Phase Transitions (QPT) in the XY spin-chain model. By coupling the spin chain to a single spin, it is possible to study topological invariants associated to the coupling Hamiltonian. These invariants contain global information, in addition to the usual one (obtained by integrating the Berry connection around a closed loop). We compute these invariants (Chern numbers) and discuss their relation to QPT. In particular we show that Chern nu...

  16. An analogue of the Berry phase for simple harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluate a variant of Berry's phase for a ‘missing’ family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables (in a natural way). Instead, it is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. A simple closed formula for the phase (in terms of elementary functions) is found here by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.

  17. Proposal for a Mesoscopic Optical Berry-Phase Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelykh, I. A.; Pavlovic, G.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel spin-optronic device based on the interference of polaritonic waves traveling in opposite directions and gaining topological Berry phase. It is governed by the ratio of the TE-TM and Zeeman splittings, which can be used to control the output intensity. Because of the peculiar orientation of the TE-TM effective magnetic field for polaritons, there is no analogue of the Aharonov-Casher phase shift existing for electrons.

  18. Proposal for a Mesoscopic Optical Berry-Phase Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Shelykh, I. A.; Pavlovic, G.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel spin-optronic device based on the interference of polaritonic waves traveling in opposite directions and gaining topological Berry phase. It is governed by the ratio of the TE-TM and Zeeman splittings, which can be used to control the output intensity. Because of the peculiar orientation of the TE-TM effective magnetic field for polaritons, there is no analogue of the Aharonov- Casher phase shift existing for electrons.

  19. Jos Berry and Her New Avant-garde Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Peng

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the Iinge rie's top t rend spotte r,Ms JOS Berry directs an irite rnational team of designers based in Paris-Concepts Paris-and provides the latest trends for worldwide lingerie professionals.This Paris consultancy company iS devoted to a unique mix of services,such as trend book,online trend&news updates,color cards and design projects.

  20. Lipoxygenase distribution in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patui, Sonia; Peresson, Carlo; Braidot, Enrico; Tubaro, Franco; Colussi, Alessio; Bonnländer, Bernd; Macrì, Francesco; Vianello, Angelo

    2007-10-01

    In this paper lipoxygenase (LOX) presence was investigated in coffee berries to determine its involvement in lipid degradative metabolism of plants grown in organic and conventional cultivations. An immunochemical analysis has evidenced a ca. 80 kDa protein, cross-reacting with an anti-LOX antibody, only in the pulp fraction of berries obtained from plants of both cultivations. LOX activity in this fraction could be monitored either as conjugated diene formation or reaction products (determined by HPLC) and was mainly associated with a heavy membrane fraction (HMF, enriched in tonoplast, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, and mitochondria) and a light membrane fraction (LMF, enriched in plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum, with low levels of tonoplast and mitochondria). The LOX activity of LMF from berries of both cultivations showed an optimum at pH 8.0. The HMF exhibited a different activity peak in samples from conventional (pH 8.0) and organic (pH 5.5) cultures, suggesting the presence of different isoenzymes. These findings were also confirmed by variation of the ratio of 9- and 13-hydroperoxides in organic (1:1) and conventional cultivations (1:10), indicating that the organic one was subjected to an oxidative stress in the coffee pulp fraction leading to the expression of an acidic LOX. Such de novo synthesized LOX activity could be responsible for the production of secondary metabolites, which may interfere with the organoleptic profile of coffee.