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Sample records for bermudagrass golf greens

  1. The genetic and phenotypic variability of interspecific hybrid bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) used on golf course putting greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasor, Eric H; Brosnan, James T; Trigiano, Robert N; Elsner, J Earl; Henry, Gerald M; Schwartz, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Some interspecific hybrid bermudagrass cultivars used on golf course putting greens are genetically unstable, which has caused phenotypically different off-type grasses to occur in production nurseries and putting surfaces. Management practices to reduce the occurrence of off-type grasses in putting green surfaces and the effect they can have on putting quality and performance need to be researched until genetically stable cultivars are developed. Golf course putting green surfaces in subtropical and tropical climates are typically planted with an interspecific hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), because of the superior putting quality and performance of these cultivars. 'Tifgreen' was one of the first interspecific hybrids developed for putting green use in lieu of common bermudagrass. However, off-type grasses began appearing in established Tifgreen stands soon after commercial release. Off-type grasses are those with different morphology and performance when compared to the surrounding, desirable cultivar. Off-types have the potential to decrease surface uniformity, which negatively affects putting surface quality. However, several unique off-types from Tifgreen have been selected as commercial cultivars, the first being 'Tifdwarf'; then 'Floradwarf', 'MS-Supreme', 'Pee Dee-102', and 'TL-2', identified later. The cultivars 'Champion Dwarf', 'P-18', 'RJT', and 'Emerald Dwarf' were subsequently selected as off-types in Tifdwarf. The naturally occurring off-types and cultivars that have been identified within the Tifgreen family have widely differing phenotypes; however, they are reported to be genetically similar, supporting the hypothesis that their occurrence is a result of somatic mutations. Genetic instability in currently available commercial cultivars is likely to lead to the continued presence of off-types in production nurseries and putting greens. Additional research is needed to understand the nature of

  2. Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation of off-type grasses in hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis burtt-Davy) putting greens using genotyping-by-sequencing and morphological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) is one of the most widely used grasses on golf courses, with cultivars derived from ‘Tifgreen’ or ‘Tifdwarf’ particularly used for putting greens in the southern agronomic region. Many bermudagrass cultiv...

  3. The green game: investigating golf management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Klerk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, golf is the largest sports-related travel market segment showing tremendous economic growth. Unfortunately, tourism and the so-called ‘green game’ contribute to environmental damage. Golf tourism is a rapidly expanding special interest activity linked to tourism. With a degraded physical environment, a destination may be in danger of losing its original appeal, which may force ‘naturebased’ tourists to move on to other destinations. The private sector, governments and the environment will benefit from responsible and sustainable practices including the management of golf courses. This will ensure that destinations continue to attract tourists for future generations. Therefore, green golf tourism is the only logical option placing the responsibility on golf course management to take a second look at the nature of this game. The study focused on the effects that golf course management might have on the environment and the adaptation methods implemented to reduce environmental damage. The management of George Golf Club and Pinnacle Point, located along the Garden Route, one of South Africa’s prime attractions were included in the study. Results indicated that management did not specifically monitor the impact of the golf course on the environment and did not educate golf tourists about environmental friendly practices on golf courses. Little was also done to motivate golf tourists to demand environmental friendly golf courses.

  4. Evaluation of off-type grasses in hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) putting greens using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of hybrid ultradwarf bermudagrasses (UDBG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) on golf course putting greens is increasing in the southern United States. However, off-type grasses within many putting surfaces have been observed. To explore the genetic variation among UD...

  5. Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation of off-type grasses in hybrid Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] putting greens using genotyping-by-sequencing and morphological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasor, Eric H; Brosnan, James T; Staton, Margaret E; Lane, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N; Wadl, Phillip A; Conner, Joann A; Schwartz, Brian M

    2018-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] is one of the most widely used grasses on golf courses, with cultivars derived from 'Tifgreen' or 'Tifdwarf' particularly used for putting greens. Many bermudagrass cultivars established for putting greens can be genetically unstable and lead to the occurrence of undesirable off-type grasses that vary in phenotype. The objective of this research was to genetically and phenotypically differentiate off-type grasses and hybrid cultivars. Beginning in 2013, off-type and desirable hybrid bermudagrass samples were collected from golf course putting greens in the southeastern United States and genetically and phenotypically characterized using genotyping-by-sequencing and morphology. Genotyping-by-sequencing determined that 11% (5) of off-type and desirable samples from putting greens were genetically divergent from standard cultivars such as Champion, MiniVerde, Tifdwarf, TifEagle, and Tifgreen. In addition, genotyping-by-sequencing was unable to genetically distinguish all standard cultivars from one another due to their similar origin and clonal propagation; however, over 90,000 potentially informative nucleotide variants were identified among the triploid hybrid cultivars. Although few genetic differences were found in this research, samples harvested from golf course putting greens had variable morphology and were clustered into three distinct phenotypic groups. The majority of off-type grasses in hybrid bermudagrass putting greens were genetically similar with variable morphological traits. Off-type grasses within golf course putting greens have the potential to compromise putting surface functionality and aesthetics.

  6. Mapping soil water content on golf course greens with GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be an effective and efficient method for high-resolution mapping of volumetric water content in the sand layer directly beneath the ground surface at a golf course green. This information could potentially be very useful to golf course superintendents for determi...

  7. Ground penetrating radar water content mapping of golf course green sand layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the spatial distribution of water content across the sand layer component of a golf course green can be important to golf course superintendents for evaluating drainage effectiveness and scheduling irrigation. To estimate the bulk water content of the sand layer at point locations ac...

  8. Root-knot nematodes in golf course greens of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of 238 golf courses in ten of the Western U.S. found root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in 60 % of the putting greens sampled. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA, D2-D3 of 28S rRNA, ITS-rRNA and mtDNA gene sequences were used to identify specimens from 110 golf courses. The...

  9. High resolution electrical resistivity tomography of golf course greens irrigated with reclaimed wastewater: Hydrological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapias, Josefina C.; Lovera, Raúl; Himi, Mahjoub; Gallardo, Helena; Sendrós, Alexandre; Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Casas, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Actually, there are over 300 golf courses and more than three thousand licensed players in Spain. For this reason golf cannot be considered simply a hobby or a sport, but a very significant economic activity. Considered as one of the most rapidly expanding land-use and water demanding business in the Mediterranean, golf course development generates controversy. In the recent years there has been a considerable demand for golf courses to adopt environmentally sustainable strategies and particularly water authorities are forcing by law golf managers to irrigate with alternative water resources, mainly reclaimed wastewater. Watering practices must be based on soil properties that are characterized by samples removed from the different zones of the golf course and submitted to an accredited physical soil testing laboratory. Watering schedules are critical on greens with poor drainage or on greens with excessively high infiltration rates. The geophysical survey was conducted over the greens of the Girona Golf Club. Eighteen electrical resistivity tomographies were acquired using a mixed Wenner-Schlumberger configuration with electrodes placed 0.5 meter apart. Small stainless-steel nails were used as electrodes to avoid any damage in the fine turfgrass of greens The resistivity meter was set for systematically and automatically selects current electrodes and measurement electrodes to sample apparent resistivity values. Particle size analysis (PSA) has been performed on soil materials of any putting green. The PSA analysis has been composed of two distinct phases. The first has been the textural analysis of the soils for determining the content of sand, silt, and clay fraction via the use of a stack of sieves with decreasing sized openings from the top sieve to the bottom. Subsequently, the hydraulic conductivity of the substrates has been evaluated by means of Bredding and Hazen empirical relationships. The results of this research show that the electrical resistivity

  10. Biochar-compost mixtures added to simulated golf greens increase creeping bentgrass growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixtures of 85% sand and 15% mixtures of peat (control), a commercial biochar, a commercial biochar-compost product (CarbonizPN), and seven biochar-commercial compost mixtures were tested on the growth of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. "007") in simulated golf greens. Physical properti...

  11. Addition of biochar to simulated golf greens promotes creeping bentgrass growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic amendments such as peat moss and various composts are typically added to sand-based root zones such as golf greens to increase water and nutrient retention. However, these attributes are generally lost as these amendments decompose in a few years. Biochar is a high carbon, extremely porous ...

  12. Fertilizer source effects on phosphate and nitrate leaching through simulated golf greens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In general, more P than N leached from both field and greenhouse lysimeters. - Phosphorus and nitrogen leached from high-porosity golf greens can adversely affect surface water and groundwater quality. Greenhouse and field lysimeter experiments were carried out to determine the effects of eight fertilizer sources on P and N leaching from simulated golf greens. Phosphorus appeared in the leachate later than nitrate-N, and the highest concentrations were for the soluble 20-20-20 and the 16-25-12 starter fertilizers. The other six sources resulted in lower P concentrations. The soluble 20-20-20 and the 16-25-12 sources each resulted in 43% of the added P eluting in the leachate, whereas the others varied from 15 to 25%. For nitrate-N the lowest cumulative mass was for the controlled-release 13-13-13 and sulfur-coated urea. A higher percentage of applied P than applied N leached from both field and greenhouse lysimeters. However, the amounts of P leached for the field lysimeters were lower than for the greenhouse columns

  13. Biochar-organic amendment mixtures added to simulated golf greens under reduced chemical fertilization increase creeping bentgrass growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulated golf greens were used to test the growth of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. "007") receiving suboptimal chemical fertilization in sand based substrates amended with 15% peat (control), a commercial biochar, a commercial biochar-compost (CarbonizPN), or seven formulated biochar...

  14. Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Bermudagrass is an important warm-season forage and turf species widely grown in the southern United States. This chapter describes a rapid and efficient protocol that allows for the generation of a large number of transgenic bermudagrass plants, bypassing the callus formation phase. Stolon nodes are infected and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA binary vectors. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) is used as the selectable marker and hygromycin is used as the selection agent. Green shoots are directly produced from infected stolon nodes 4 to 5 wk after hygromycin selection. Without callus formation and with minimum tissue culture, this procedure allowed us to obtain well-rooted transgenic plantlets in only 7 wk and greenhouse-grown plants in only 9 wk.

  15. Occurrence of Meloidogyne fallax in North America, and molecular characterization of M. fallax and M. minor from U.S. golf course greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are known to have significant presence on turf grass in golf course greens, particularly in the western United States. Nematodes isolated from a golf course in King Co., Washington were identified as Meloidogyne minor based on analysis of the...

  16. Golf Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Golf Injuries Golf looks like an easy game to ... WHAT TYPES OF INJURIES ARE MOST COMMON IN GOLF? Acute injuries are usually the result of a ...

  17. Golf Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Golf Club

    2011-01-01

    Golf Initiation CERN Golf Club invites you to a golf initiation session in collaboration with the Albatross Golf Academy. Where: Les Serves Golf, St Genis (situated behind the CERN football and rugby pitches) When: 30-July 2011 at 16:00 On offer: An experienced golf professional will take you through the basics of hitting golf balls on the practice area. As part of a group of 3 players and accompanied by an experienced CERN golf club member you will play a round of golf on the small 5 hole practice course enabling you to get a true experience of the sport. You will finish with the a drink in the 19th hole and share your day’s experience with other participants and CERN golf club members. Inscriptions by email are now open and should be sent to Mats.Wilhelmsson@cern.ch. There are a limited number of places and participants will be welcomed on a first come first served basis. The cost of the session will be Euro15 and equipment and golf balls will be provided. Training or jogging shoes...

  18. Golf Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Golf Club

    2017-01-01

    Would you like to learn a new sport and meet new people? The CERN Golf Club organises golf lessons for beginners starting in August or September. The lesson series consist of 6 lessons of 1h30 each week, in a group of 6 people and given by the instructor Cedric Steinmetz at the Jiva Hill golf course in Crozet: http://www.jivahillgolf.com The cost for the golf lessons is 40 euros for CERN employees or family members plus the golf club membership fee of 30 CHF. If you are interested in participating in these lessons or need more details, please contact us by email at: club-golf-committee@cern.ch

  19. Video Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    George Nauck of ENCORE!!! invented and markets the Advanced Range Performance (ARPM) Video Golf System for measuring the result of a golf swing. After Nauck requested their assistance, Marshall Space Flight Center scientists suggested video and image processing/computing technology, and provided leads on commercial companies that dealt with the pertinent technologies. Nauck contracted with Applied Research Inc. to develop a prototype. The system employs an elevated camera, which sits behind the tee and follows the flight of the ball down range, catching the point of impact and subsequent roll. Instant replay of the video on a PC monitor at the tee allows measurement of the carry and roll. The unit measures distance and deviation from the target line, as well as distance from the target when one is selected. The information serves as an immediate basis for making adjustments or as a record of skill level progress for golfers.

  20. Akademi Golf di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, Indra Purnama

    2013-01-01

    Golf adalah salah satu olahraga yang mulaipopular pada tahun-tahun ini. Popularitasnya makinmeningkat yang berdampak pada meningkatnya jumlahpemain golf padahal fasilitas yang mewadahinya sangatminim. Dalam Perancangan Akademi Golf di Surabaya,diharapkan dapat menambah fasilitas khususnya dalambidang pendidikan mengingat penggunanya mulaibanyak pada kaum muda. Fasilitas-fasilitas yangdirencanakan secara keseluruhan berhubungan denganpendidikan golf dimana juga mempertahankan kondisieksisting ...

  1. Physiological and Molecular Mechanism of Nitric Oxide (NO Involved in Bermudagrass Response to Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibiao Fan

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass is widely utilized in parks, lawns, and golf courses. However, cold is a key factor limiting resource use in bermudagrass. Therefore, it is meaningful to study the mechanism of bermudagrass response to cold. Nitric oxide (NO is a crucial signal molecule with multiple biological functions. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether NO play roles in bermudagrass response to cold. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP was used as NO donor, while 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramentylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-xide (PTIO plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME were applied as NO inhibitor. Wild bermudagrass was subjected to 4 °C in a growth chamber under different treatments (Control, SNP, PTIO + L-NAME. The results indicated lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage (EL, higher value for chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities after SNP treatment than that of PTIO plus L-NAME treatments under cold stress. Analysis of Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence transient displayed that the OJIP transient curve was higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. The values of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters were higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. Expression of cold-responsive genes was altered under cold stress after treated with SNP or PTIO plus L-NAME. In summary, our findings indicated that, as an important strategy to protect bermudagrass against cold stress, NO could maintain the stability of cell membrane, up-regulate the antioxidant enzymes activities, recover process of photosystem II (PSII and induce the expression of cold-responsive genes.

  2. A synoptic view of golf course management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katula, Robert L.

    1996-03-01

    The maintenance, construction, and redesign of private, public, and municipal golf courses in the United States is a multi-billion dollar industry. The entire golf course maintenance market, according to the National Golf Foundation, was 6.2 billion per year in 1991. The average maintenance cost in the United States was approximately 40,000 per hole per year for the over 15,000 golf courses in the United States in 1991. Golf course maintenance costs have risen 500 percent from 1971 to 1991. These costs are projected to continue to increase at a rate of 8 percent per year due to the demand for quality playing surfaces, increased use of non-potable water, and taxes on water and chemicals required to maintain turfgrass. The golf course construction and redesign market continues to maintain a rate of over 300 new golf courses and redesigned courses completed each year. The average construction costs run from 4 to 6 million and the average redesign costs 2 to 3 million per course. In order to create a perfectly maintained golf course, golf course managers may use as many as 25 different pesticides, fertilizers, and herbicides to control insects and turf disease. Further, turfgrass is often stressed to its limits when kept at the unnatural heights required to obtain firm and fast greens and fairways. The daily practice of living on the edge is often done with limited knowledge of changes taking place on the golf course, of the location of soil types and fertility, of surface and subsurface drainage, and of previous maintenance practices. There is a growing concern in the golf course industry that the concentration of chemicals and water required to maintain today's golf course may endanger ground water supplies for the surrounding ecosystem. This paper will describe the general methodology PTS used to develop a new management system for the maintenance, construction, and redesign of golf courses. The management system integrates remote sensing technology, geographic

  3. Golf Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Ultra 500 Series golf balls, introduced in 1995 by Wilson Sporting Goods Company, has 500 dimples arranged in a pattern of 60 spherical triangles. The design employs NASA's aerodynamics technology analysis of air loads of the tank and Shuttle orbiter that was performed under the Space Shuttle External Tank program. According to Wilson, this technology provides 'the most symmetrical ball surface available, sustaining initial velocity longer and producing the most stable ball flight for unmatched accuracy and distance.' The dimples are in three sizes, shapes and depths mathematically positioned for the best effect. The selection of dimples and their placement optimizes the interaction of opposing forces of lift and drag. Large dimples reduce air drag, enhance lift, and maintain spin for distance. Small dimples prevent excessive lift that destabilizes the ball flight and the medium size dimples blend the other two.

  4. Golf club

    CERN Document Server

    Golf club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Golf Club Members are herewith invited to the: Annual General Meeting Which takes place Wednesday evening the 10th February 2016 at 18 h 00 in the Conference room in building 13-2-005. A committee member will be at CERN gate B, 17 h 50 and accompany “external” CGC members to the conference room. Agenda: President’s report Treasurer’s report Election of the Committee for 2016 Election of  Auditors Draft schedule for 2016 CGC-competitions and other events “Corpo” report Report from lessons organized by CGC    Proposals and any other business Please forward any proposals (to any of the committee members) you have, including candidature for the 2016 committee minimum three days in advance before the meeting. Welcome !

  5. Play Golf with the CERN Golf Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Golf Club

    2014-01-01

    The snow has gone, the grass is getting greener and the golf courses open up to hibernating golfers; The CERN golf club committee has been busy organising the program for the coming golf season, with many attractive outings to nearby courses. Are you new to CERN? And you play golf? or would like to learn ? then join us, playing golf and having fun. You can find all you need to know on our web-page; don’t hesitate to contact any of the committee members who will answer your questions.  Take a look at the provisional schedule below, sign-up and take part!  Besides these regular outings, as a CERN Golf Club member, you have also the opportunity to play in our “Corpo” team, in the competitions organised by the Golf Entreprise Rhone-Alpes. You can also play in our match play-tournament, and for new to the game, we organise some group–lessons with a local Pro. See:  http://club-golf.web.cern.ch/club-golf/index.php

  6. Golf Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Golf Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Golf Club Members are herewith invited to the Annual General Meeting which takes place Wednesday evening the 8th February at 18 h 00 in the Conference room in bldg 13-2-005. A committee member will be at CERN gate B, 17h50 and accompany “external” CGC members to the conference room. Agenda 1. President’s report 2. Treasurer’s report 3. Election of the Committee for 2012 4. Election of  Auditors 5. Draft schedule for 2012 CGC  competitions and other events 6. “Corpo” report     7. Proposals and any other business Please forward any proposals (to any of the committee members) you have, including candidature for the 2012 committee minimum three days in advance before the meeting. After the meeting we will book a table at the restaurant "Red Café", St-Genis. Please confirm to Alasdair Ross (Alasdair.Ross@cern.ch) if you would like to eat so th...

  7. Golf Club

    CERN Document Server

    Golf Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Golf Club Members are herewith invited to the: Annual General Meeting Which takes place Wednesday evening the 6th February 2013 at 18h00 in the Conference room in building 13-2-005. A committee member will be at CERN gate B, 17h50 and accompany “external” CGC members to the conference room. Agenda: President’s report Treasurer’s report Election of the Committee for 2013 Election of  Auditors Draft schedule for 2013 CGC-competitions and other events “Corpo” report     Proposals and any other business Please forward any proposals (to any of the committee members) you have, including candidature for the 2013 committee minimum three days in advance before the meeting. After the meeting we will book a table at the restaurant "Red Café", St. Genis. Please confirm to Alasdair Ross (Alasdair.Ross@cern.ch) if you would like to eat so that he can make the res...

  8. Identification and Pathogenicity of Bacteria Associated with Etiolation and Decline of Creeping Bentgrass Golf Course Putting Greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph A; Ma, Bangya; Tredway, Lane P; Ritchie, David F; Kerns, James P

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial etiolation and decline has developed into a widespread issue with creeping bentgrass (CBG) (Agrostis stolonifera) putting green turf. The condition is characterized by an abnormal elongation of turfgrass stems and leaves that in rare cases progresses into a rapid and widespread necrosis and decline. Recent reports have cited bacteria, Acidovorax avenae and Xanthomonas translucens, as causal agents; however, few cases exist where either bacterium were isolated in conjunction with turf exhibiting bacterial disease symptoms. From 2010 to 2014, turfgrass from 62 locations submitted to the NC State Turf Diagnostic Clinic exhibiting bacterial etiolation and/or decline symptoms were sampled for the presence of bacterial pathogens. Isolated bacteria were identified using rRNA sequencing of the 16S subunit and internal transcribed spacer region (16S-23S or ITS). Results showed diverse bacteria isolated from symptomatic turf and A. avenae and X. translucens were only isolated in 26% of samples. Frequently isolated bacterial species were examined for pathogenicity to 4-week-old 'G2' CBG seedlings and 8-week-old 'A-1' CBG turfgrass stands in the greenhouse. While results confirmed pathogenicity of A. avenae and X. translucens, Pantoea ananatis was also shown to infect CBG turf; although pathogenicity varied among isolated strains. These results illustrate that multiple bacteria are associated with bacterial disease and shed new light on culturable bacteria living in CBG turfgrass putting greens. Future research to evaluate additional microorganisms (i.e., bacteria and fungi) could provide new information on host-microbe interactions and possibly develop ideas for management tactics to reduce turfgrass pests.

  9. [Shoulder injuries in golf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, D; Gosheger, G; Schmidt, C

    2014-03-01

    Due to its growing popularity golf has now come into the focus of orthopedic sports medicine. With a wide range of age groups and playing levels, orthopedic surgeons will encounter a wide range of musculoskeletal problems which are usually the result of overuse rather than trauma. The shoulder joint plays an important role in the golf swing whereby not only the muscles around the glenohumeral joint but also the scapula stabilizing muscles are extremely important for an effective golf swing. Golf is strictly not considered to be an overhead sport; however, the extreme peak positions of the golf swing involve placing the shoulder joint in maximum abduction and adduction positions which can provoke impingement, lesions of the pulley system or even a special form of posterior shoulder instability. Even after complex shoulder operations, such as rotator cuff repair or shoulder arthroplasty, a return to the golf course at nearly the same level of play can be expected.

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsani, Tayebeh Mohammadi; Etemadi, Nematollah; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Talebi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is a major turfgrass for home lawns, public parks, golf courses and sport fields and is known to have originated in the Middle East. Morphological and physiological characteristics are not sufficient to differentiate some bermudagrass genotypes because the differences between them are often subtle and subjected to environmental influences. In this study, twenty seven bermudagrass accessions and introductions, mostly from different parts of Iran, were assayed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. Fourteen ISSR primers amplified 389 fragments of which 313 (80.5%) were polymorphic. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.328, which shows that the majority of primers are informative. Cluster analysis using the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) method and Jaccard's similarity coefficient (r = 0.828) grouped the accessions into six main clusters according to some degree to geographical origin, their chromosome number and some morphological characteristics. It can be concluded that there exists a wide genetic base of bermudograss in Iran and that ISSR markers are effective in determining genetic diversity and relationships among them.

  11. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  12. Playing Golf Is Elementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jill S.; Pfluge, Kevin F.

    2010-01-01

    Golf is a lifelong activity that people of all ages can enjoy if they experience success and have fun. Early involvement in the sport facilitates the development of the ability to strike an object with an implement. Striking with implements can be challenging for young children and teachers, but golf can be taught in all elementary school settings…

  13. The Optimal Golf Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchinger, Mikael; Durigen, Susan; Dahl, Johan Rambech

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a preliminary investigation into aspects of the game of golf. A series of models is proposed for the golf stroke, the momentum transfer between club and ball and the flight of the ball.Numerical and asymptotic solutions are presented reproducing many of the features observed in...

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese natural bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] germplasm based on SRAP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiqi; Xu, Shaojun; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jianxiu

    2017-01-01

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], an important turfgrass used in public parks, home lawns, golf courses and sports fields, is widely distributed in China. In the present study, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure among 157 indigenous bermudagrass genotypes from 20 provinces in China. The application of 26 SRAP primer pairs produced 340 bands, of which 328 (96.58%) were polymorphic. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.36 to 0.49 with a mean of 0.44. Genetic distance coefficients among accessions ranged from 0.04 to 0.61, with an average of 0.32. The results of STRUCTURE analysis suggested that 157 bermudagrass accessions can be grouped into three subpopulations. Moreover, according to clustering based on the unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA), accessions were divided into three major clusters. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that accessions from identical or adjacent areas were generally, but not entirely, clustered into the same cluster. Comparison of the UPGMA dendrogram and the Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed general agreement between the population subdivisions and the genetic relationships among accessions. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with SRAP markers revealed a similar grouping of accessions to the UPGMA dendrogram and STRUCTUE analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 18% of total molecular variance was attributed to diversity among subpopulations, while 82% of variance was associated with differences within subpopulations. Our study represents the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity and population structure of bermudagrass in China to date, and provides valuable information for the germplasm collection, genetic improvement, and systematic utilization of bermudagrass.

  15. Integrated management of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass is a difficult perennial weed to manage in Louisiana sugarcane. Research was conducted to compare interrow tillage practice, postharvest residue management, and herbicide placement on bermudagrass proliferation and sugarcane yield. Tillage frequencies included conventional (four tillage...

  16. Acetyl-CoA Carbuxylase herbicide tolerance in bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of newly planted bermudagrass (Cynodon spp. L.) varieties by undesirable offtype bermudagrass genotypes is an ever increasing concern for turf managers because selective control options are limited. In 2009, a sethoxydim tolerant bermudagrass genotype (93-175) was identified during her...

  17. The physics of golf

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Theodore P

    1999-01-01

    Improve your golf game by learning the underlying fundamentals of the golf swing in this acclaimed, unique contribution to the sport Finally, you’ll understand why shortening your backswing doesn’t substantially decrease clubhead velocity what components contribute to the optimal swing and what variations are acceptable how and why properly shifting your weight adds to distance why a golf ball behaves and spins as it does and much more Written by a physicist after some twenty years of research, Physics of Golf is the only book devoted exclusively to explaining the science behind a successful golf game Technical appendices offer details for the so inclined The revised and expanded second now offers you -new material on high-tech club designs -a complete new chapter on short putts -additional applications of physics to the problems every player faces "Jorgensen tells golfers what they ought to be doing and why, the correct technique according to the principles of physics" -Golf Weekly "…gives new insights...

  18. KARAKTERISTIK KOMUNITAS NEMATODA DI PADANG GOLF SUKARAME (PGS BANDAR LAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Swibawa dan Titik Nur Aeny .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Characteristic of  Nematodes Community at PGS Golf Course Bandar Lampung. Golf course is a unique ecosystem where plant parasitic nematodes inhabit and become  important pest because they reduce the quality of the grass.  The pest problems on golf course can be indicated by its characteristics of nematode community.  Survey on nematodes community at PGS Golf Course Bandar Lampung was conducted from March to December 2004.  The objective was to study the characteristics of nematode community in the part of golf courses hole (green, collar, apron, and fairway.  Soil samples were taken from five holes each of it consists of green, collar, apron, and fairway, respectiveley.  Nematodes extraction was done in Laboratory of Arthropod Pest, Department of Plant Protection University of Lampung.   The result showed that at least 50 nematodes genera of 28 families inhabit PGS. The number of plant parasitic nematode genera was higher than the free-living one.  The characteristic of nematodes community on green and collar was different than on faiway. Nematode abundance and diversity on green and collar were higher than on fairway.  Based on abundance of nematode feeding group, maturity index of free-living nematodes (MI and that of plant parasitic nematodes (PPI, green and collar part seemed to be more favorable to plant parasitic nematodes than free-living nematodes. The contrary happened for fairway.  Four most dominant genera of plant parasitic nematodes on PGS golf course were Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Criconemella, and Xiphinema.

  19. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  20. Marketing of cocrete golf course

    OpenAIRE

    Krausová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the marketing of golf services. The main goal is to propose a marketing strategy for concrete golf course. Prior to its implementation were needed to work out individual analysis - SWOT analysis, competitor analysis and survey of customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the identified individual operating costs and revenues of golf course. When creating marketing strategy was put stress on the Internet. It proposes a new form and structure of the website, Facebook profile an...

  1. Cern Golf Club

    CERN Document Server

    Cern Golf Club

    2014-01-01

      The Cern Golf Club   Members are here with invited to the: Annual General Meeting which takes place Wednesday evening the 5th February 2014 at 18h00 in the Conference room in bldg 13-2-005. A committee member will be at CERN gate B, 17h50 and accompany “external” CGC members to the conference room. Agenda: 1. President’s report 2. Treasurer’s report 3. Election of the Committee for 2014 4. Election of  Auditors 5. Draft schedule for 2014 CGC-competitions and other events 6. “Corpo” report    7. Proposals and any other business Please forward any proposals (to any of the committee members) you have, including candidature for the 2014 committee minimum three days in advance before the meeting.      Cern Golf Club   Les membres de club de golf de CERN sont invités à l’Assemblée Géné...

  2. 76 FR 41691 - Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port.... This zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie during the BGSU Football Gridiron... Purpose On July 25, 2011, Bowling Green State University will hold its BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf...

  3. Cost management of golf courses

    OpenAIRE

    Černický, Marek

    2010-01-01

    The thesis focuses on costs incurred during the golf course construction and also on operating costs. Types of these costs and options of cost cutting are described. The final part of the thesis analyzes and models usage yield and capacity of golf courses.

  4. Golf: A Game of Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Golf has become a popular sport for kids throughout the world; however, many do not realize that it is also a sport that offers benefits to children with physical challenges. Golf can be used for recreational purposes and as a motivational tool for rehabilitation. These two principles serve as the foundation upon which Texas Scottish Rite Hospital…

  5. Effects of Terrestrial Buffer Zones on Amphibians on Golf Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglis, Holly J.; Boone, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of amphibian declines worldwide is habitat destruction or alteration. Public green spaces, such as golf courses and parks, could serve as safe havens to curb the effects of habitat loss if managed in ways to bolster local amphibian communities. We reared larval Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) in golf course ponds with and without 1 m terrestrial buffer zones, and released marked cricket frog metamorphs at the golf course ponds they were reared in. Larval survival of both species was affected by the presence of a buffer zone, with increased survival for cricket frogs and decreased survival for green frogs when reared in ponds with buffer zones. No marked cricket frog juveniles were recovered at any golf course pond in the following year, suggesting that most animals died or migrated. In a separate study, we released cricket frogs in a terrestrial pen and allowed them to choose between mown and unmown grass. Cricket frogs had a greater probability of using unmown versus mown grass. Our results suggest that incorporating buffer zones around ponds can offer suitable habitat for some amphibian species and can improve the quality of the aquatic environment for some sensitive local amphibians. PMID:22761833

  6. The science of golf

    CERN Document Server

    Wesson, John

    2009-01-01

    This book gives a scientific account of all aspects of the game of golf and answers the questions which occur to all who play the game. The mechanics of the swing and the impact of the club on the ball are explained. Together these decide the range of the ball - which is shown to be the most important factor for success. The aerodynamics of the ball's flight has several surprises, including the effects of dimples and spin. Understanding these effects allows a calculation of the ball's flight and explains how the range depends on the clubhead speed and the characteristics of the club. Putting is analyzed to find the optimum strategy and to understand how winds, slopes, and mud affect the run of the ball. Handicaps are perhaps the most discussed topic in golf and the book examines the handicaps system to identify their consequences in matches and competitions, with results which will surprise many players. The famous question - "what is the probability of a hole-in-one?" is discussed and a neat way of answering...

  7. Development of highly regenerable callus lines and biolistic transformation of turf-type common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Qu, R

    2004-01-01

    Common bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, is a widely used warm-season turf and forage species in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Improvement of bermudagrass via biotechnology depends on improved tissue culture responses, especially in plant regeneration, and a successful scheme to introduce useful transgenes. When the concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine was adjusted in the culture medium, yellowish, compact calluses were observed from young inflorescence tissue culture of var. J1224. Nine long-term, highly regenerable callus lines (including a suspension-cultured line) were subsequently established, of which six were used for biolistic transformation. Five independent transgenic events, with four producing green plants, were obtained following hygromycin B selection from one callus line. Three transgenic events displayed resistance to the herbicide glufosinate, and one of these showed beta-glucuronidase activity since the co-transformation vector used in the experiments contained both the gusA and bar genes.

  8. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Serensits; Matthew Cutulle; Jeffrey F. Derr

    2011-01-01

    Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual) ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass di...

  9. Analysis of Golf Swing Motion and Applied Loads on the Human Body Using Soft-Golf TM Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ki Young; So, Ha Ju; Kim, Sung Hyeon; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Nam Gyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf TM instrument on the human body structure. To analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf TM instrument, Golf swing using Soft-golf TM instrument and regular golf instrument was captured. And then Upper limbs and lumbar joint torques was calculated via computer simulation. Five man participated this study. Subjects performed golf swing using a regular golf and Soft-golf TM instrument. Golf swing motion was captured using three position sensor, active infrared LED maker and force plate. Golf swing model was generated and simulated using ADAMS/LifeMOD program. As a results, joint torque during Soft-golf swing were lower than regular golf swing. Thus soft-golf swing have joint load lower than regular golf swing and contribute to reduce joint injury

  10. An induced mutant of Coastcross 1 Bermudagrass with improved winter hardiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Constantin, M.J.; Dobson, J.W. Jr.; Hanna, W.W.; Powell, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Coastcross 1 bermudagrass, a sterile F 1 hybrid, (Coastal x PI 255445) establishes faster, yields as much dry matter, is 12% more digestible, and gives 30-35% better daily gains and liveweight gains per ha when fed to cattle than does the Coastal clone but fails to develop rhizomes and lacks the winter hardiness of Coastal. To create a winter hardy mutant, 500,000 green stems were exposed to 7000 rad of 60 -Co rays at Oak Ridge, TN June 21, 1971 and were immediately planted at Blairsville, GA where relatively severe winters occur frequently. One of 4 plants surviving the 1971-72 winter was like Coastcross 1 in yield, in vitro dry matter digestibility and appearance in a 3-yr test during mild winters at Tifton, GA. Following the moderate winter of 1976-77, Coastcross 1-M3 yielded more than Coastcross 1 but only about half as much as Coastal. The severe winter of 1977-78 destroyed about 98% of the plants of Coastcross 1 and Coastcross 1-M3 but reduced the stand of Coastal very little. The small gain in winter hardiness by Coastcross 1-M3 suggests that several genes control the winter hardiness of well-established Coastal bermudagrass. (author)

  11. Experience mapping and multifunctional golf course development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Ole H.; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Jensen, Anne Mette Dahl

    This report describes the development of a method for mapping and describing recreational experiences on golf courses. The objective is to provide a planning tool that can facilitate development of a broader multifunctional use of the golf course landscape. The project has produced several results....... The main output is this report, which provides a detailed description of the mapping procedure. This process is illustrated using examples from five test golf courses. In addition to this mapping report, a catalogue has been developed providing hands-on guidance for adapting the method in a golf club...... without the use of a specialist. During the project period, the research team has participated in a number of workshops that included representatives from golf courses, STERF, the Norwegian Golf Federation and the Danish Golf Union. At these workshops, the method was presented and discussed. This has been...

  12. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Mark D.; James, Iain T.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km 2 ), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant-soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland). Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links 0.4 ± 0.1 Mg CO 2 e ha -1 y -1 ; Parkland 0.7 ± 0.2 Mg CO 2 e ha -1 y -1 ). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of -4.3 ± 0.9 Mg CO 2e ha -1 y -1 . On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of 0.0 ± 0.2 Mg CO 2e ha -1 y -1 . Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of urban parks and gardens, which range

  13. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Mark D., E-mail: m.d.bartlett@cranfield.ac.uk; James, Iain T., E-mail: i.t.james@cranfield.ac.uk

    2011-03-15

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km{sup 2}), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant-soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland). Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links 0.4 {+-} 0.1 Mg CO{sub 2}e ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}; Parkland 0.7 {+-} 0.2 Mg CO{sub 2}e ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of -4.3 {+-} 0.9 Mg CO{sub 2e} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of 0.0 {+-} 0.2 Mg CO{sub 2e} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the

  14. Golf Injuries to the Hand, Wrist, or Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Golf Injuries to the Hand, Wrist or Elbow Email ... enjoyment of the game injury free. Types of Golf Injuries Golf injuries can include tendonitis, sprains or ...

  15. Effect of Caffeine on Golf Performance and Fatigue during a Competitive Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Petey W; Tribby, Aaron C; Poole, Christopher N; Dalbo, Vincent J; Scanlan, Aaron T; Moon, Jordan R; Roberts, Michael D; Young, Kaelin C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of a caffeine-containing supplement on golf-specific performance and fatigue during a 36-hole competitive golf tournament. Twelve male golfers (34.8 ± 13.9 yr, 175.9 ± 9.3 cm, 81.23 ± 13.14 kg) with a United States Golf Association handicap of 3-10 participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design in which they played an 18-hole round of golf on two consecutive days (36-hole tournament) and were randomly assigned to consume a caffeine-containing supplement (CAF) or placebo (PLA). CAF/PLA was consumed before and after nine holes during each 18-hole round. Total score, drive distance, fairways and greens in regulation, first putt distance, HR, breathing rate, peak trunk acceleration, and trunk posture while putting were recorded. Self-perceived ratings of energy, fatigue, alertness and concentration were also recorded. Total score (76.9 ± 8.1 vs 79.4 ± 9.1, P = 0.039), greens in regulation (8.6 ± 3.3 vs 6.9 ± 4.6, P = 0.035), and drive distance (239.9 ± 33.8 vs 233.2 ± 32.4, P = 0.047) were statistically better during the CAF condition compared with those during PLA. Statistically significant main effects for condition (P golf. There were no substantial differences in HR or breathing rates, peak trunk acceleration, or putting posture between conditions or over the round (P > 0.05). A moderate dose (1.9 ± 0.3 mg · kg(-1)) of caffeine consumed before and during a round of golf improves golf-specific measures of performance and reduces fatigue in skilled golfers.

  16. Russian Golf Profile with the Perspective of Golf Tourism in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforova, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to formulate Russian golf profile and evaluate it from the perspective of golf tourism in South East Asian countries concentrating on five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines and Singapore. The research discovered and analyzed the factors that accelerate and prevent Russian golf players from traveling to South East Asia region with golf and tourism purposes. In the theoretical part of the study the main issue was to describe the current situation...

  17. Managing phosphorus export from golf courses using industrial byproducts as filter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golf courses, and in particular the tees, fairways, and putting greens, are vulnerable to loss of phosphorus (P) as dissolved reactive P (DRP) through sandy, porous grass rooting media and subsurface tile drainage. Excess levels of phosphorus (P) in surface waters promotes eutrophication, which in t...

  18. Growth of bermudagrass with white clover or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White clover (Trifolium repens) var ‘Durana’ was oversown into established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in 2009. Soil analysis indicated potassium (K) was low and potash at 112 and 336 kg/ha was added as main plots. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate or an ammonium sulfate/urea blend was added as 0, 34...

  19. Amounts of mercury in soil of some golf course sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, A J; Stone, B; Cordukes, W E

    1973-01-01

    Mercurial compounds are widely used for controlling diseases of turfgrass of golf courses, but the fungicides are usually confined to the greens. Composite soil samples were obtained from three golf courses in the Ottawa and Ontario region of Canada. Samples from the turf and surface layer of soil were analyzed and high amounts of mercury were found. The soil of No.I course was a sand; No.II was a sandy loam in the surface and a loam below; and No. III was a loam in the surface layer and a clay loam below. The pH of the surface layer was 6.4 in No. I, 7.5 in No. II, and 6.0 in No. III. The amounts of Hg in the turf were high near the green but they decreased with distance. Fairway III contained the highest amounts of Hg and there was evidence of it leaching to a depth of 90 cm at the edge of the green. The particularly high amounts of Hg in no III were in accord with the liberal use of mercurial fungicides on this course in the period 1912-64. The leaching of Hg depends on amounts of organic matter and the clay in the soil.

  20. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

    2011-11-01

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km2), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant–soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland).Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links −2.2 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1); Parkland − 2.0 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from turfgrass, and trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of −5.4 ± 0.9 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of −1.6 ± 0.3 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of

  1. Learning Technology and Engineering Principles through Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Emily; Bartholomew, Scott R.

    2018-01-01

    While the physical exercise of playing golf and the sheer enjoyment of the sport are both positive benefits, there are subtler opportunities for golf to be used in conjunction with other ideas for learning in K-12 education; the mechanics and details behind the sport, as well as the variety of clubs, courses, and swings are all potential…

  2. Return to golf after spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abla, Adib A; Maroon, Joseph C; Lochhead, Richard; Sonntag, Volker K H; Maroon, Adara; Field, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    no published evidence indicates when patients can resume golfing after spine surgery. The objective of this study is to provide data from surveys sent to spine surgeons. a survey of North American Spine Society members was undertaken querying the suggested timing of return to golf. Of 1000 spine surgeons surveyed, 523 responded (52.3%). The timing of recommended return to golf and the reasons were questioned for college/professional athletes and avid and recreational golfers of both sexes. Responses were tallied for lumbar laminectomy, lumbar microdiscectomy, lumbar fusion, and anterior cervical discectomy with fusion. the most common recommended time for return to golf was 4-8 weeks after lumbar laminectomy and lumbar microdiscectomy, 2-3 months after anterior cervical fusion, and 6 months after lumbar fusion. The results showed a statistically significant increase in the recommended time to resume golf after lumbar fusion than after cervical fusion in all patients (p golf after spine surgery depends on many variables, including the general well-being of patients in terms of pain control and comfort when golfing. This survey serves as a guide that can assist medical practitioners in telling patients the average times recommended by surgeons across North America regarding return to golf after spine surgery.

  3. Implementace marketingového mixu Prague City Golf Club

    OpenAIRE

    Čmakal, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Title: Marketing mix implementation of Prague City Golf Club Objective: Analysis of marketing mix of the golf resort Prague City Golf Club and addresses proposals for its further improvement Methods: PEST analysis SWOT analysis Porter five forces analysis In-depth interview Results: The results of assessment of the marketing mix instruments of the Prague City Golf Club have shown that it is a high-quality golf resort with elaborate and numerous components of the marketing mix. In terms of com...

  4. Using gamma irradiation to improve sterile turf and forage bermudagrasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Georgia Univ., Tifton

    1976-01-01

    The widely-used Tif-series of turf bermudagrasses - Tifgreen, Tifway, and Tifdwarf - are vegetatively propagated sterile triploids that cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Dormant stolons, washed free of soil and cut into one-or two-node sections were treated with varying dosages of EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate) and gamma irradiation ranging from 7 to 12 kR. EMS failed to produce noticeable variants but gamma irradiation from a Cobalt 60 source created 158 mutants. These mutants differed in many characters such as leaf size, hairiness, stem diameter, internode length, basic plant color, herbicide tolerance, spreading rate, and nematode resistance. Attempts to improve the winterhardiness of tetraploid sterile Coastcross-1 forage bermudagrass by exposing over 1,400,000 sprigs (vegetative stems) to 7 kR of gamma rays gave chlorophyll deficient mutants but progress in increasing winterhardiness has not been established. (author)

  5. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasqualotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM. The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm. In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt. The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, internal CO2 concentration (Ci, transpiration (T, water use efficiency (WUE, and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi. In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment, baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were

  6. Water deficit and nitrogen fertility effects on NDVI of 'Tifton 85' bermudagrass during regrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of how bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) regrowth is influenced by production inputs will aid in advancing precision management in the southeast US. The objective of this two-yr study was to evaluate how irrigation and nitrogen influence bermudagrass regrowth. Normalized difference ...

  7. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study...... was to investigate the prevalence and anatomic distribution of injuries acquired through disc-golf participation in Danish disc golf players. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted on Danish disc-golf players. In May 2015, invitations to complete a web-based questionnaire were spread online via...... social media, and around disc-golf courses in Denmark. The questionnaire included questions regarding disc-golf participation and the characteristics of injuries acquired through disc golf participation. The data was analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: An injury prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.7% to 19...

  8. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  9. Tourism Areas - MDC_GolfCourse

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of all known Golf Courses within Miami-Dade County. Data was extracted from U.S. GDT Large Area Landmarks dataset, which represents common...

  10. Effects of golf courses on local biodiversity.

    OpenAIRE

    Gange, A.C.; Tanner, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    There are approximately 2600 golf courses in the UK, occupying 0.7% of the total land cover. However, it is unknown whether these represent a significant resource, in terms of biodiversity conservation, or if they are significantly less diverse than the surrounding habitats. The diversity of vegetation (tree and herbaceous species) and three indicator taxa (birds, ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and bumblebees (Hymenoptera, Apidae)) was studied on nine golf courses and nine adja...

  11. BIOMEHANICAL MODEL OF THE GOLF SWING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Čoh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Golf is an extremely complex game which depends on a number of interconnected factors. One of the most important elements is undoubtedly the golf swing technique. High performance of the golf swing technique is generated by: the level of motor abilities, high degree of movement control, the level of movement structure stabilisation, morphological characteristics, inter- and intro-muscular coordination, motivation, and concentration. The golf swing technique was investigated using the biomechanical analysis method. Kinematic parameters were registered using two synchronised high-speed cameras at a frequency of 2,000 Hz. The sample of subjects consisted of three professional golf players. The study results showed a relatively high variability of the swing technique. The maximum velocity of the ball after a wood swing ranged from 233 to 227 km/h. The velocity of the ball after an iron swing was lower by 10 km/h on average. The elevation angle of the ball ranged from 11.7 to 15.3 degrees. In the final phase of the golf swing, i.e. downswing, the trunk rotators play the key role.

  12. Golf hand prosthesis performance of transradial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Stephanie L; Wernke, Matthew M; Lura, Derek J; Kahle, Jason T; Dubey, Rajiv V; Highsmith, M Jason

    2015-06-01

    Typical upper limb prostheses may limit sports participation; therefore, specialized terminal devices are often needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of transradial amputees to play golf using a specialized terminal device. Club head speed, X-factor, and elbow motion of two individuals with transradial amputations using an Eagle Golf terminal device were compared to a non-amputee during a golf swing. Measurements were collected pre/post training with various stances and grips. Both prosthesis users preferred a right-handed stance initially; however, after training, one preferred a left-handed stance. The amputees had slower club head speeds and a lower X-factor compared to the non-amputee golfer, but increased their individual elbow motion on the prosthetic side after training. Amputees enjoyed using the device, and it may provide kinematic benefits indicated by the increase in elbow flexion on the prosthetic side. The transradial amputees were able to swing a golf club with sufficient repetition, form, and velocity to play golf recreationally. Increased elbow flexion on the prosthetic side suggests a potential benefit from using the Eagle Golf terminal device. Participating in recreational sports can increase amputees' health and quality of life. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  13. Archery - Golf Guide with Official Rules. June 1972 - June 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Margaret L., Ed.; Michalson, Doddy, Ed.

    This guide for women's archery and golf dated June 1972 - June 1974 details rules and standards as well as the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Articles on archery nomenclature, archery interest builders, and archery golf are included in the section on archery. Articles dealing with golf take up such topics as…

  14. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Serensits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass did not establish well, resulting in unacceptable cover. Perennial ryegrass generally persisted the most one year after seeding, either because of summer survival of plants or because of new germination the following fall. Plant counts one year after seeding were greater in the higher seeding rate treatment compared to the lower seeding treatment rate of perennial ryegrass, suggesting new germination had occurred. Plant counts one year after seeding plots with intermediate ryegrass or Italian ryegrass were attributed primarily to latent germination and not summer survival. Applications of foramsulfuron generally did not prevent overseeded species stand one year after seeding, supporting the conclusion of new germination. Although quality is less with intermediate ryegrass compared to perennial ryegrass, it transitions out easier than perennial ryegrass, resulting in fewer surviving plants one year later.

  15. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  16. Performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs grazing Alicia bermudagrass and common bermudagrass-dallisgrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, W E; Gates, R N; Blouin, D C; Saxton, A M; Nelson, B D

    1997-07-01

    This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained relatively pure stands of Alicia bermudagrass (AP) or a mixed stand of common bermudagrass and dallisgrass (CDP). Forage allowance was equalized, using "put-and-take" cow-calf pairs, among forage and breed types at the initiation of each 14-d grazing interval. Forage samples were obtained in each paddock at the initiation of each grazing interval. Forage CP concentration was greater (P < .05; 13.5 vs 11.6%) and NDF concentration was less (P < .05; 63.8 vs 70.6%) for CDP than for AP. Daily weight loss was similar for Angus and Brangus cows, but it was greater (P < .05) for cows grazing AP than for cows grazing CDP. Calf ADG during the grazing season was 35% greater (P < .05) for CDP than for AP pastures and was 23% greater (P < .01) for Brangus than for Angus calves. Relative performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs was consistent between forages; no breed x forage interactions were observed.

  17. Pärnu Bay Golf Club = Pärnu Bay Golf Club / Arhitekt11

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Pärnu Bay Golf Club, arhitektid Jürgen Lepper, Anto Savi, Margus Soonets, Janar Toomesso (Arhitekt11), sisearhitektid Liina Vaino, Kaari Metslang, Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11). Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali aastapreemia nominent 2016

  18. The most important "factor" in producing clubhead speed in golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Substantial experiential research into x-factor, and to a lesser extent crunch-factor has been undertaken with the aim of increasing clubhead speed. However, a direct comparison of the golf swing kinematics associated with each 'factor' has not, and possible differences when using a driver compared to an iron. Fifteen low handicap male golfers who displayed a modern swing had their golf swing kinematic data measured when hitting their own driver and five-iron, using a 10-camera motion analysis system operating at 250Hz. Clubhead speed was collected using a validated launch monitor. No between-club differences in x-factor and crunch-factor existed. Correlation analyses revealed within-club segment (trunk and lower trunk) interaction was different for the driver, compared to the five-iron, and that a greater number of kinematic variables associated with x-factor, compared to crunch-factor were shown to be correlated with faster clubhead speeds. This was further explained in the five-iron regression model, where a significant amount of variance in clubhead speed was associated with increased lower trunk x-factor stretch, and reduced trunk lateral bending. Given that greens in regulation was shown to be the strongest correlated variable with PGA Tour earnings (1990-2004), the findings suggests a link to player performance for approach shots. These findings support other empiric research into the importance of x-factor as well as anecdotal evidence on how crunch-factor can negatively affect clubhead speed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EcoTurf - a case study: genetic variation and agronomic potential of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) germplasm collected from Australian biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Cynodon germplasm has not been comprehensively exploited for bermudagrass improvement. In this paper we will describe ‘EcoTurf’ a four year (2007-2011) project to develop water and nutrient use efficient bermudagrasses from Australian biodiversity. We describe the sampling strategies of A...

  20. Imaging the Sport of Golf – Envisioning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungary also has seen a tremendous increase in quality golf facilities in the last decade. The sport of golf – including golf tourism – in Hungary also makes it first moves to be officially (reunified with its historical partners in Western Europe and in the USA. This paper looks at developments in Hungarian Golf community in the last decades. While focusing on the ongoing economic, financial, and political changes surrounding the Hungarian National Golf Federation, this study also poses some questions. To what extent mushrooming of golf communities could be seen as a result of Europeanization of the country? Is it just a new achievement in PGA America’s global explosion? Can we see it as the benefit of the European Team’s astronomical success at the Ryder Cup tournaments?

  1. Golf in the Wind: Exploring the Effect of Wind on the Accuracy of Golf Shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobian, Neda; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Golf play is highly dependent on the weather conditions with wind being the most significant factor in the unpredictability of the ball landing position. The direction and strength of the wind alters the aerodynamic forces on a ball in flight, and consequently its speed, distance and direction of travel. The fact that local wind conditions on any particular hole change over times-scales ranging all the way from a few seconds to minutes, hours and days introduces an element of variability in the ball trajectory that is not understood. Any such analysis is complicated by the effect of the local terrestrial and vegetation topology, as well as the inherent complexity of golf-ball aerodynamics. In the current study, we use computational modeling to examine the unpredictability of the shots under different wind conditions over Hole-12 at the Augusta National Golf Club, where the Masters Golf Tournament takes place every year. Despite this being the shortest hole on the course, the presence of complex vegetation canopy around this hole introduces a spatial and temporal variability in wind conditions that evokes uncertainty and even fear among professional golfers. We use our model to examine the effect of wind direction and wind-speed on the accuracy of the golf shots at this hole and use the simulations to determine the key aerodynamic factors that affect the accuracy of the shot.

  2. Evaluation of a Hypocrea jecorina Enzyme Preparation for Hydrolysis of Tifton 85 Bermudagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, E. A.; Brandon, S. K.; Doran-Peterson, J.

    Tifton 85 bermudagrass, developed at the ARS-USDA in Tifton, GA, is grown on over ten million acres in the USA for hay and forage. Of the bermudagrass cultivars, Tifton 85 exhibits improved digestibility because the ratio of ether- to ester-linked phenolic acids has been lowered using traditional plant breeding techniques. A previously developed pressurized batch hot water (PBHW) method was used to treat Tifton 85 bermudagrass for enzymatic hydrolysis. Native grass (untreated) and PBHW-pretreated material were compared as substrates for fungal cultivation to produce enzymes. Cellulase activity, measured via the filter paper assay, was higher for fungi cultivated on PBHW-pretreated grass, whereas the other nine enzyme assays produced higher activities for the untreated grass. Ferulic acid and vanillin levels increased significantly for the enzyme preparations produced using PBHW-pretreated grass and the release of these phenolic compounds may have contributed to the observed reduction in enzyme activities. Culture supernatant from Tifton 85 bermudagrass-grown fungi were combined with two commercial enzyme preparations and the enzyme activity profiles are reported. The amount of reducing sugar liberated by the enzyme mixture from Hypocrea jecorina (after 192 h incubation with untreated bermudagrass) individually or in combination with feruloyl esterase was 72.1 and 84.8%, respectively, of the commercial cellulase preparation analyzed under the same conditions.

  3. Sensorimotor Rhythm Neurofeedback Enhances Golf Putting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Yang; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity has been related to automaticity during skilled action execution. However, few studies have bridged the causal link between SMR activity and sports performance. This study investigated the effect of SMR neurofeedback training (SMR NFT) on golf putting performance. We hypothesized that preelite golfers would exhibit enhanced putting performance after SMR NFT. Sixteen preelite golfers were recruited and randomly assigned into either an SMR or a control group. Participants were asked to perform putting while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, both before and after intervention. Our results showed that the SMR group performed more accurately when putting and exhibited greater SMR power than the control group after 8 intervention sessions. This study concludes that SMR NFT is effective for increasing SMR during action preparation and for enhancing golf putting performance. Moreover, greater SMR activity might be an EEG signature of improved attention processing, which induces superior putting performance.

  4. Effects of physical randomness training on virtual and laboratory golf putting performance in novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, T C; Lamb, P F

    2018-06-01

    External randomness exists in all sports but is perhaps most obvious in golf putting where robotic putters sink only 80% of 5 m putts due to unpredictable ball-green dynamics. The purpose of this study was to test whether physical randomness training can improve putting performance in novices. A virtual random-physics golf-putting game was developed based on controlled ball-roll data. Thirty-two subjects were assigned a unique randomness gain (RG) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0-times real-world randomness. Putter face kinematics were measured in 5 m laboratory putts before and after five days of virtual training. Performance was quantified using putt success rate and "miss-adjustment correlation" (MAC), the correlation between left-right miss magnitude and subsequent right-left kinematic adjustments. Results showed no RG-success correlation (r = -0.066, p = 0.719) but mildly stronger correlations with MAC for face angle (r = -0.168, p = 0.358) and clubhead path (r = -0.302, p = 0.093). The strongest RG-MAC correlation was observed during virtual training (r = -0.692, p golf putting kinematics. Adaptation to external physical randomness during virtual training may therefore help golfers adapt to external randomness in real-world environments.

  5. An operation management system for golf tournament

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Yijun; Luo Hanwen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper,an operation management system for golf tournament is designed to calculate the beginning and finishing dates of the preparation automatically.The efficiency of management work during preparatory period,such as meetings before match and task announcement,is raised by nearly 40% after using our system than using traditional management tools or other software systems.And the probability of occurrence of delay and omission of work are controlled within 5%.It is proved to be helpful...

  6. Going golfing in Norway: consumer motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhamodeev, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Golf development has been quite rapid in the past years all over the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze the validity and reliability of Motivation Sport Consumer scale proposed by McDonald et al. and its applicability to Holt‘s typology of consumption metaphors. The results of reliability tests and factor analysis confirm that the present instrumentation has demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties overall t...

  7. Return to Golf After Lumbar Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Grant D; Hellman, Michael D; Louie, Philip K; Mikhail, Christopher; Park, Kevin U; Phillips, Frank M

    Spinal fusion surgery is being increasingly performed, yet few studies have focused on return to recreational sports after lumbar fusion and none have specifically analyzed return to golf. Most golfers successfully return to sport after lumbar fusion surgery. Case series. Level 4. All patients who underwent 1- or 2-level primary lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative pathologies performed by a single surgeon between January 2008 and October 2012 and had at least 1-year follow-up were included. Patients completed a specifically designed golf survey. Surveys were mailed, given during follow-up clinic, or answered during telephone contact. A total of 353 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, with 200 responses (57%) to the questionnaire producing 34 golfers. The average age of golfers was 57 years (range, 32-79 years). In 79% of golfers, preoperative back and/or leg pain significantly affected their ability to play golf. Within 1 year from surgery, 65% of patients returned to practice and 52% returned to course play. Only 29% of patients stated that continued back/leg pain limited their play. Twenty-five patients (77%) were able to play the same amount of golf or more than before fusion surgery. Of those providing handicaps, 12 (80%) reported the same or an improved handicap. More than 50% of golfers return to on-course play within 1 year of lumbar fusion surgery. The majority of golfers can return to preoperative levels in terms of performance (handicap) and frequency of play. This investigation offers insight into when golfers return to sport after lumbar fusion surgery and provides surgeons with information to set realistic expectations postoperatively.

  8. 2012 Problem 15: Frustrating Golf Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Zhu, Zheyuan; Gao, Wenli; Wang, Sihui

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies the condition for a golf ball to escape from a hole. The two determining factors are the ball's initial velocity v0 and its deviation from the center of the hole d. There is a critical escaping velocity vc for every deviation d. The ball's motion is analyzed by calculating the change of velocity whenever the ball collides with the hole. The critical conditions predicted by our theory are verified through experiment.

  9. Commercial golf glove effects on golf performance and forearm muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Darroch, Paul; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike C

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether or not commercial golf gloves influence performance variables and forearm muscle activity during golf play. Fifteen golfers participated in the laboratory based study, each performing 8 golf swings with a Driver and 7-iron whilst wearing a glove and 8 without wearing the glove. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance performance variables were calculated. Surface electromyography was recorded from the flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor carpi radialis brevis on both forearm muscles. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance was significantly higher when using the Driver with the glove in comparison to the Driver without the glove (p < 0.05). No significant differences were evident when using the 7-iron and no significant differences were displayed in muscle activity in either of the conditions. Findings from this study suggest that driving performance is improved when wearing a glove.

  10. Golf Plus - more space and more functionality; Golf Plus: Raumangebot auf Kundenwunsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Jaeschke, J.; Repmann, C.; Tinschert, T. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    A decisive factor in the design of cars in the Golf class, which have a relatively small floor area, is to make the best possible use of the interior space. The objective behind the development of the Golf Plus was to offer even more space than the Golf V. The length and width of the car remained unchanged, but the height was raised by 95 mm to 1580 mm, which allowed the head and shoulder room to be increased significantly. The improve all-round visibility, the front seats were raised by 75 mm and the rear seats by 85 mm. The result is a more comfortable sitting position, in particular for passengers in the back of the car, and easier access to the interior of the car. In order to obtain detailed information about the aerodynamic properties of the Golf Plus at an early stage of development, a numerical simulation was carried out at the beginning of the project to evaluate the flows around the outer skin of the design model using CAD descriptions. Later in the project, wind tunnel tests gradually replaced the calculations. For these tests, a 1:1 scale wind tunnel model with all the component groups was built on the original platform. This allowed the flow of cool air to the radiator and the front brakes to be optimised at an early stage. As the Golf Plus is based on the same platform as the Golf V, it benefits form the aerodynamic development work already carried out on the underside of the car. In order to reduce drag, the position and size of the front spoiler were improved. The rear spoiler lip has an effect both on drag and on the lift on the rear axle, which is decisive for the car's handling. Taking these factors into account, the spoiler lip was designed to produce a rear lift coefficient of c{sub AH}<0.1. (orig.)

  11. Freeze Tolerance of Seed-Producing Turf Bermudagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2002-01-01

    Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., suffers periodic severe winter-kill throughout much of its area of use in the contiguous USA. A research goal is to increase freeze tolerance in cultivars to lessen the risk of such damage. An identified research need is for Cynodon germplasm resources to be characterized for freeze tolerance and hybridization potential. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to characterize the relative freeze tolerance of selected fertile bermudagrass plants. Nine tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) C. dactylon and two triploid (2n = 3x = 27) hybrid (C. dactylon x C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy) clonal plants (standards) were evaluated in two experiments. Plants were propagated clonally and established in Cone-tainers (Ray Leach Cone-tainer Nursery, Canby, OR) for about 10 wk. Acclimation took place for 4 wk in controlled environment chambers at 8/2 degrees C (day/night) temperatures with a 10-h photoperiod. Following acclimation, Cone-tainers were placed into a freeze chamber and cooled rapidly to -2 degrees C, induced to freeze with ice chips, then held overnight at -2 degrees C. The freeze chamber was then programmed to cool linearly at 1 degrees C per hour. For each cultivar, three Cone-tainers were removed at each test temperature. Following thawing, Cone-tainers were transferred to a greenhouse and regrowth was evaluated visually. Nonlinear regression was used to estimate T(mid), which corresponded to the midpoint of the sigmoidal response curve of survival vs temperature. Within experiment one, Tifgreen (T(mid) = -7.2 degrees C) was significantly less cold hardy than Quickstand (-9.0 degrees C), A-12204 (-9.2 degrees C), Midiron (-9.9 degrees C), and A-12195 (-10.5 degrees C). A-12195 was significantly hardier than all genotypes except Midiron. In the second experiment, Arizona Common (-6.6 degrees C), Tifgreen (-7.1 degrees C), and A-12205 (-7.1 degrees C) were less hardy than A-9959 (-8.7 degrees C), A-12156 (-8.9 degrees C), A

  12. Leidos Reclaims Defelice Cup at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Leidos Biomedical Research reclaimed the Defelice Cup trophy from NCI at the eighth annual Ronald H. Defelice golf tournament, held October 14. The final score was 15–7, with Leidos Biomed tying the series 4 to 4. Fourteen players on each team battled it out at Rattlewood golf course in Mount Airy, Md.

  13. Using Sport Education to Teach the Lifetime Sport of Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarboro, Shot; Pritchard, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Golf is a lifetime sport activity that can be taught in physical education classes. How one teaches golf in physical education could influence whether students will want to continue to participate outside of physical education. The sport education model (SEM) is an instructional model that promotes student learning in all three domains by ensuring…

  14. 75 FR 52360 - Upper Truckee River Restoration and Golf Course Reconfiguration Project, El Dorado County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Upper Truckee River Restoration and Golf Course... and comment the draft EIR/EIS for the Upper Truckee River Restoration and Golf Course Reconfiguration... include continuing existing golf course use, removal of the entire Lake Tahoe Golf Course, or...

  15. Movement Variability in the Golf Swing: Theoretical, Methodological, and Practical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Movement variability in the golf swing has recently been identified as a priority for future research in golf science. Although this ubiquitous aspect of golf performance has featured in previous empirical investigations of the golf swing, it has tended to be subordinate and studied as an adjunct to other more conventional research questions.…

  16. 76 FR 58108 - Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard... the Chicago River during a golfing event that will involve hitting golf balls from land onto a... vessels from the hazards associated with golf balls being hit from land onto a stationary barge in the...

  17. PHOSPHATE AND NITRATE MOVEMENT THROUGH SIMULATED GOLF GREENS. (R828007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. An operation management system for golf tournament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yijun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,an operation management system for golf tournament is designed to calculate the beginning and finishing dates of the preparation automatically.The efficiency of management work during preparatory period,such as meetings before match and task announcement,is raised by nearly 40% after using our system than using traditional management tools or other software systems.And the probability of occurrence of delay and omission of work are controlled within 5%.It is proved to be helpful for reducing management costs and improving efficiency of tournament management company.

  19. Effects of cadmium exposure on growth and metabolic profile of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xie

    Full Text Available Metabolic responses to cadmium (Cd may be associated with variations in Cd tolerance in plants. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in metabolic profiles in bermudagrass in response to Cd stress and to identify predominant metabolites associated with differential Cd tolerance using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two genotypes of bermudagrass with contrasting Cd tolerance were exposed to 0 and 1.5 mM CdSO4 for 14 days in hydroponics. Physiological responses to Cd were evaluated by determining turf quality, growth rate, chlorophyll content and normalized relative transpiration. All these parameters exhibited higher tolerance in WB242 than in WB144. Cd treated WB144 transported more Cd to the shoot than in WB242. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 39 Cd responsive metabolites in both genotypes, mainly consisting of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, fatty acids and others. A difference in the metabolic profiles was observed between the two bermudagrass genotypes exposed to Cd stress. Seven amino acids (norvaline, glycine, proline, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and gulonic acid, four organic acids (glyceric acid, oxoglutaric acid, citric acid and malic acid, and three sugars (xylulose, galactose and talose accumulated more in WB242 than WB144. However, compared to the control, WB144 accumulated higher quantities of sugars than WB242 in the Cd regime. The differential accumulation of these metabolites could be associated with the differential Cd tolerance in bermudagrass.

  20. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  1. Assessment of Bermudagrass and Bunch Grasses as Feedstock for Conversion to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William F.; Dien, Bruce S.; Brandon, Sarah K.; Peterson, Joy Doran

    Research is needed to allow more efficient processing of lignocellulose from abundant plant biomass resources for production to fuel ethanol at lower costs. Potential dedicated feedstock species vary in degrees of recalcitrance to ethanol processing. The standard dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by simultaneous sacharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed on leaf and stem material from three grasses: giant reed (Arundo donax L.), napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.), and bermudagrass (Cynodon spp). In a separate study, napiergrass, and bermudagrass whole samples were pretreated with esterase and cellulose before fermentation. Conversion via SSF was greatest with two bermudagrass cultivars (140 and 122 mg g-1 of biomass) followed by leaves of two napiergrass genotypes (107 and 97 mg g-1) and two giant reed clones (109 and 85 mg g-1). Variability existed among bermudagrass cultivars for conversion to ethanol after esterase and cellulase treatments, with Tifton 85 (289 mg g) and Coastcross II (284 mg g-1) being superior to Coastal (247 mg g-1) and Tifton 44 (245 mg g-1). Results suggest that ethanol yields vary significantly for feedstocks by species and within species and that genetic breeding for improved feedstocks should be possible.

  2. Effects of cadmium exposure on growth and metabolic profile of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Hu, Longxing; Du, Zhimin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Amombo, Erick; Fan, Jibiao; Fu, Jinmin

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic responses to cadmium (Cd) may be associated with variations in Cd tolerance in plants. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in metabolic profiles in bermudagrass in response to Cd stress and to identify predominant metabolites associated with differential Cd tolerance using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two genotypes of bermudagrass with contrasting Cd tolerance were exposed to 0 and 1.5 mM CdSO4 for 14 days in hydroponics. Physiological responses to Cd were evaluated by determining turf quality, growth rate, chlorophyll content and normalized relative transpiration. All these parameters exhibited higher tolerance in WB242 than in WB144. Cd treated WB144 transported more Cd to the shoot than in WB242. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 39 Cd responsive metabolites in both genotypes, mainly consisting of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, fatty acids and others. A difference in the metabolic profiles was observed between the two bermudagrass genotypes exposed to Cd stress. Seven amino acids (norvaline, glycine, proline, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and gulonic acid), four organic acids (glyceric acid, oxoglutaric acid, citric acid and malic acid,) and three sugars (xylulose, galactose and talose) accumulated more in WB242 than WB144. However, compared to the control, WB144 accumulated higher quantities of sugars than WB242 in the Cd regime. The differential accumulation of these metabolites could be associated with the differential Cd tolerance in bermudagrass.

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis provides new insights into erect and prostrate growth in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Xiaolin; Zong, Junqin; Chen, Jingbo; Li, Jianjian; Guo, Hailin; Liu, Jianxiu

    2017-12-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) is a prominent warm-season turf and forage grass species with multiple applications. In most C. dactylon cultivars and accessions, erect-growing stems (shoot) and prostrate-growing stems (stolon) often coexist. These two types of stems are both formed through tillering but grow in two directions with different tiller angles. Elucidating the mechanism of tiller angle regulation in bermudagrass could provide important clues to breed cultivars with different plant architectural features for diverse usage. In this study, we compared the stem internode transcriptome of two bermudagrass wild accessions with extremely different tiller angles and stem growth directions. A total of 2088 and 12,141 unigenes were preferentially expressed in prostrate-growing wild accession C792 and erect-growing wild accession C793, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology-based Annotation System (KOBAS) analyses further indicated that light- and gravity-responsive genes were enriched in accession C792, whereas lignin synthesis-related genes were enriched in accession C793, which well explains the difference in lignification of vascular bundles and mechanical tissues in the two accessions. These results not only expand our understanding of the genetic control of tiller angle and stem growth direction in bermudagrass but also provide insight for future molecular breeding of C. dactylon and other turfgrass species with different plant architectures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of FGD gypsum on a bermudagrass pasture in the Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of industrial by-products from coal fired power plants (FGD gypsum and FGD gypsum + fly ash) are thought to increase plant production. Thus, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of industrial by-products as a soil amendment on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) yield. The study was...

  5. Some applications of mathematics in golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, S R

    2017-08-01

    At its core, like many other sports, golf is a game of integers. The minimization of the number of strokes played is generally what determines the winner, whether each of these are associated with the shortest of putts or the longest of drives. The outcomes of these shots are influenced by very slight changes, but hopefully in a deterministic sense. Understanding the mechanics of golf necessitates the development of models and this is coupled more often than not to the use of statistics. In essence, the individual aspects of the sport can be modelled adequately via fairly simplistic models, but the presence of a human at one end of the kinematic chain has a significant impact on the variability of the entire process. In this paper, we will review some of the ways that mathematics has been used to develop the understanding of the physical processes involved in the sport, including some of the analysis which is exploited within the Equipment Rules. We will also discuss some of the future challenges.

  6. Golf-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brittany A; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Friedenberg, Laura; Smith, Gary A

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates unintentional non-fatal golf-related injuries in the US using a nationally representative database. This study analyzed golf-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments from 1990 through 2011 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Injury rates were calculated using golf participation data. During 1990 through 2011, an estimated 663,471 (95% CI: 496,370-830,573) individuals ≥7years old were treated in US emergency departments for golf-related injuries, averaging 30,158 annually or 12.3 individuals per 10,000 golf participants. Patients 18-54years old accounted for 42.2% of injuries, but injury rates per 10,000 golf participants were highest among individuals 7-17years old (22.1) and ≥55years old (21.8) compared with 18-54years old (7.6). Patients ≥55years old had a hospital admission rate that was 5.01 (95% CI: 4.12-6.09) times higher than that of younger patients. Injured by a golf club (23.4%) or struck by a golf ball (16.0%) were the most common specified mechanisms of injury. The head/neck was the most frequently injured body region (36.2%), and sprain/strain (30.6%) was the most common type of injury. Most patients were treated and released (93.7%) and 5.9% required hospitalization. Although golf is a source of injury among all age groups, the frequency and rate of injury were higher at the two ends of the age spectrum. Given the higher injury and hospital admission rates of patients ≥55years, this age group merits the special attention of additional research and injury prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp) dose-response relationships with clethodim, glufosinate and glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Theodore M; Hanna, Wayne W; Mullinix, Benjamin G

    2004-12-01

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of three commercial cultivars, eight experimental cultivars and common bermudagrass to clethodim, glufosinate and glyphosate. Each herbicide was applied at eight doses. Data were regressed on herbicide dose using a log-logistic curve (R2 = 0.56-0.95 for clethodim, R2 = 0.60-0.94 for glufosinate, and R2 = 0.70-0.96 for glyphosate). The herbicide rate that elicited a 50% plant response (I50) in the bermudagrass cultivars ranged from 0.04 to 0.19 kg ha(-1) clethodim, 0.19 to 1.33 kg ha(-1) glufosinate and 0.34 to 1.14 kg ha(-1) glyphosate. Relative to other cultivars, common bermudagrass was intermediate in its response to clethodim and among the most tolerant cultivars to glufosinate and glyphosate. TifSport was relatively tolerant to clethodim and glufosinate compared with other cultivars, but relatively sensitive to glyphosate. One cultivar, 94-437, was consistently among the most sensitive cultivars to each of the herbicides. While there were differential herbicide tolerances among the tested bermudagrass cultivars, there did not appear to be any naturally occurring herbicide resistance that could be commercially utilized. However, research indicated that breeding efforts should target herbicide resistance that is at least four times the registered use rate. Also, TifSport and Tifway have been identified as suitable representatives of triploid hybrid bermudagrass cultivars to be used to evaluate the success of turfgrass renovation programs. 2004 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Alleviation of cold damage to photosystem II and metabolisms by melatonin in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibiao eFan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a typical warm-season grass, Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.Pers.] is widely applied in turf systems and animal husbandry. However, cold temperature is a key factor limiting resource utilization for Bermudagrass. Therefore, it is relevant to study the mechanisms by which Burmudagrass responds to cold. Melatonin is a crucial animal and plant hormone that is responsible for plant abiotic stress responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of melatonin in cold stress response of Bermudagrass. Wild Bermudagrass pre-treated with 100 μM melatonin was subjected to different cold stress treatments (-5 °C for 8 h with or without cold acclimation. The results showed lower malondialdehyde (MDA and electrolyte leakage (EL values, higher levels of chlorophyll, and greater superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities after melatonin treatment than those in non-melatonin treatment under cold stress. Analysis of chlorophyll a revealed that the chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP curves were higher after treatment with melatonin than that of non-melatonin treated plants under cold stress. The values of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters increased after treatment with melatonin under cold stress. The analysis of metabolism showed alterations in 46 metabolites in cold-stressed plants after melatonin treatment. Among the measured metabolites, five sugars (arabinose, mannose, glucopyranose, maltose, turanose and one organic acid (propanoic acid were significantly increased. However, valine and threonic acid contents were reduced in melatonin-treated plants. In summary, melatonin maintained cell membrane stability, increased antioxidant enzymes activities, improved the process of photosystem II, and induced alterations in Bermudagrass metabolism under cold stress.

  9. El impacto ambiental de campos de golf. Un caso real en Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobrini, I. M.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We expose the environmental impact statement (EIS of a future golf course in Toledo city (Spain. This golf course is included in an ambitious scientific-medical research project concerning new therapies through the practice of golf for medullary handicapped persons, in addition with a cultural approach between the three big monotheistic religions that have historically lived together in Toledo. The methodology used to carry out the EIS was very particular and easy to be extrapolated to similar cases, but not to be generalized. It was based in comparing the future project. with the actual intensive irrigation farming of the land, and with the future urban consequences due lo its position next to Toledo city. The comparison between the different environmental impacts of this project and a the actual use of the land, suffering a very intensive irrigation farming, and b the future without the project, was favourable to the golf course, because it was concerned as less aggressive. An appropriate water managing will allow reducing the consumption from the actual 99 l/s authorised for agricultural use, until 54 l/s required for the golf course, improving the environment of this section of the Tajo river: The turf management will be less harmful than the irrigation farming, this one being held nowadays with a high pesticide consumption. Later on, environmental management practice will allow to reduce costs and will help to increase golf-players environmental consciousness. This new golf course will provide the integration o/ this section of Tajo River in the future urban development of Toledo city, creating a green island in its west side, profitable for all city dwellers. This change will be a great improvement, not only for Toledo’s environment, but also for the development of different economical sectors. due to the golf course implantation.Se expone el estudio realizado sobre la incidencia ambiental de un futuro campo de golf en Toledo

  10. Ranking prediction model using the competition record of Ladies Professional Golf Association players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jin Seok; Park, Jin; So, Wi-Young

    2017-07-28

    The purpose of this study was to suggest a ranking prediction model using the competition record of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) players. The top 100 players on the tour money list from the 2013-2016 US Open were analyzed in this model. Stepwise regression analysis was conducted to examine the effect of performance and independent variables (i.e., driving accuracy, green in regulation, putts per round, driving distance, percentage of sand saves, par-3 average, par-4 average, par-5 average, birdies average, and eagle average) on dependent variables (i.e., scoring average, official money, top-10 finishes, winning percentage, and 60-strokes average). The following prediction model was suggested:Y (Scoring average) = 55.871 - 0.947 (Birdies average) + 4.576 (Par-4 average) - 0.028 (Green in regulation) - 0.012 (Percentage of sand saves) + 2.088 (Par-3 average) - 0.026 (Driving accuracy) - 0.017 (Driving distance) + 0.085 (Putts per round)Y (Official money) = 6628736.723 + 528557.907 (Birdies average) - 1831800.821 (Par-4 average) + 11681.739 (Green in regulation) + 6476.344 (Percentage of sand saves) - 688115.074 (Par-3 average) + 7375.971 (Driving accuracy)Y (Top-10 finish%) = 204.462 + 12.562 (Birdies average) - 47.745 (Par-4 average) + 1.633 (Green in regulation) - 5.151 (Putts per round) + 0.132 (Percentage of sand saves)Y (Winning percentage) = 49.949 + 3.191 (Birdies average) - 15.023 (Par-4 average) + 0.043 (Percentage of sand saves)Y (60-strokes average) = 217.649 + 13.978 (Birdies average) - 44.855 (Par-4 average) - 22.433 (Par-3 average) + 0.16 (Green in regulation)Scoring of the above five prediction models and the prediction of golf ranking in the 2016 Women's Golf Olympic competition in Rio revealed a significant correlation between the predicted and real ranking (r = 0.689, p ranking prediction model using LPGA data may help coaches and players to identify which players are likely to participate in Olympic and World competitions, based

  11. A transcriptomic analysis of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) provides novel insights into the basis of low temperature tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Fan, Jibiao; Hu, Longxing; Hu, Zhengrong; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Yingzi; Lou, Yanhong; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-09-11

    Cold stress is regarded as a key factor limiting widespread use for bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Therefore, to improve cold tolerance for bermudagrass, it is urgent to understand molecular mechanisms of bermudagrass response to cold stress. However, our knowledge about the molecular responses of this species to cold stress is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptomic response to low temperature in bermudagrass by using RNA-Seq platform. Ten cDNA libraries were generated from RNA samples of leaves from five different treatments in the cold-resistant (R) and the cold-sensitive (S) genotypes, including 4 °C cold acclimation (CA) for 24 h and 48 h, freezing (-5 °C) treatments for 4 h with or without prior CA, and controls. When subjected to cold acclimation, global gene expressions were initiated more quickly in the R genotype than those in the S genotype. The R genotype activated gene expression more effectively in response to freezing temperature after 48 h CA than the S genotype. The differentially expressed genes were identified as low temperature sensing and signaling-related genes, functional proteins and transcription factors, many of which were specifically or predominantly expressed in the R genotype under cold treatments, implying that these genes play important roles in the enhanced cold hardiness of bermudagrass. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis for DEGs revealed that photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation pathways play key roles in bermudagrass response to cold stress. The results of this study may contribute to our understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the responses of bermudagrass to cold stress, and also provide important clues for further study and in-depth characterization of cold-resistance breeding candidate genes in bermudagrass.

  12. THE SOCIAL LEGITIMACY OF GOLF TOURISM: AN APPLICATION TO THE GOLF COURSES OF ANDALUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Riquel-Ligero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, respect for the natural environmental is a variable that plays animportant role when it comes to configuring a tourist destination orproduct, particularly since this is an industry for which the location isirrevocably fixed. Andalusia, in particular, has become well-establishedas a major golf tourism destination. It has more golf courses than anyother of the 17 Spanish Autonomous Regions. This has stimulated adebate on the environmental impacts of sporting facilities of this type,with attention consequently focused on the need of these tourismcompanies to achieve and maintain social legitimacy. In the workdescribed here, the Partial Least Squares (PLS technique is applied to analyse the impact of the institutional context on the implementation of environmental practices and the achievement of social legitimacy by these organisations.

  13. Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrally, M R; Cochran, A J; Crews, D J; Hurdzan, M J; Price, R J; Snow, J T; Thomas, P R

    2003-09-01

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are 30,000 golf courses and 55 million people who play golf worldwide. In the USA alone, the value of golf club memberships sold in the 1990s was US dollar 3.2 billion. Underpinning this significant human activity is a wide variety of people researching and applying science to sustain and develop the game. The 11 golf science disciplines recognized by the World Scientific Congress of Golf have reported 311 papers at four world congresses since 1990. Additionally, scientific papers have been published in discipline-specific peer-reviewed journals, research has been sponsored by the two governing bodies of golf, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association, and confidential research is undertaken by commercial companies, especially equipment manufacturers. This paper reviews much of this human endeavour and points the way forward for future research into golf.

  14. Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling attendees at a major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling attendees at a major championship event. ... from the less developed and developing context from an impact perspective. ... participated in various tourism activities that contributed to the local economy.

  15. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Golf in the United States: an evolution of accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parziale, John R

    2014-09-01

    Golf affords physical and psychological benefits to persons who are physically challenged. Advances in adaptive technology, changes in golf course design, and rules modifications have enabled persons with neurological, musculoskeletal, and other impairments to play golf at a recreational, elite amateur, or professional level. The Americans with Disabilities Act has been cited in both federal and US Supreme Court rulings that have improved access for physically challenged golfers. Medical specialties, including physiatry, have played an important role in this process. This article reviews the history of golf's improvements in accessibility, and provides clinicians and physically challenged golfers with information that will facilitate participation in the sport. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increasing Minority Golf Participation Through PGA Education Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Fjelstul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a report on the successful acquisition of the Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA golf management university program by the University of Maryland, Eastern Shore (UMES. The PGA’s accredited program is housed at 20 universities with UMES being the first predominantly Black college to offer the coveted program. The article provides interview excerpts on the process undertaken by UMES. The article also identifies initiatives by programs and associations to increase minority golf participation.

  18. Melatonin Is Involved in Regulation of Bermudagrass Growth and Development and Response to Low K+ Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine plays critical roles in plant growth and development and during the response to multiple abiotic stresses. However, the roles of melatonin in plant response to K+ deficiency remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed that the endogenous melatonin contents in bermudagrass were remarkably increased by low K+ (LK treatment, suggesting that melatonin was involved in bermudagrass response to LK stress. Further phenotype analysis revealed that exogenous melatonin application conferred Bermudagrass enhanced tolerance to LK stress. Interestingly, exogenous melatonin application also promoted bermudagrass growth and development at normal condition. Furthermore, the K+ contents measurement revealed that melatonin-treated plants accumulated more K+ in both shoot (under both control and LK condition and root tissues (under LK condition compared with those of melatonin non-treated plants. Expression analysis indicated that the transcripts of K+ transport genes were significantly induced by exogenous melatonin treatment in bermudagrass under both control and LK stress conditions, especially under a combined treatment of LK stress and melatonin, which may increase accumulation of K+ content profoundly under LK stress and thereby contributed to the LK-tolerant phenotype. In addition, we investigated the role of melatonin in the regulation of photosystem II (PSII activities under LK stress. The chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP curves were obviously higher in plants grown in LK with melatonin (LK+Mel than those of plants grown in LK medium without melatonin application for 1 or 2 weeks, suggesting that melatonin plays important roles in PSII against LK stress. After a combined treatment of LK stress and melatonin, the values for performance indexes (PIABS, PITotal, and PICS, flux ratios (φP0, ΨE0, and φE0 and specific energy fluxes (ETO/RC were significantly improved compared with those of LK

  19. The role of physiology in the development of golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark F

    2010-08-01

    The attainment of consistent high performance in golf requires effective physical conditioning that is carefully designed and monitored in accordance with the on-course demands the player will encounter. Appreciating the role that physiology plays in the attainment of consistent performance, and how a player's physicality can inhibit performance progression, supports the notion that the application of physiology is fundamental for any player wishing to excel in golf. With cardiorespiratory, metabolic, hormonal, musculoskeletal and nutritional demands acting on the golfer within and between rounds, effective physical screening of a player will ensure physiological and anatomical deficiencies that may influence performance are highlighted. The application of appropriate golf-specific assessment methods will ensure that physical attributes that have a direct effect on golf performance can be measured reliably and accurately. With the physical development of golf performance being achieved through a process of conditioning with the purpose of inducing changes in structural and metabolic functions, training must focus on foundation whole-body fitness and golf-specific functional strength and flexibility activities. For long-term player improvement to be effective, comprehensive monitoring will ensure the player reaches an optimal physical state at predetermined times in the competitive season. Through continual assessment of a player's physical attributes, training effectiveness and suitability, and the associated adaptive responses, key physical factors that may impact most on performance success can be determined.

  20. The Use of Plant Growth Regulators to Improve the Traffic Tolerance and Repair of Overseeded Bermudagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Christopher Scott

    2007-01-01

    An active football season during the fall acclimation period tests the traffic tolerance of bermudagrass. Exogenous applications of synthetic cytokinins or cytokinin-enhancing plant growth regulators (PGRs), such as trinexapac-ethyl, may improve the traffic tolerance of "Patriot" and "Tifsport" hybrid berudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis). This study was designed to mimic the agronomic practices and traffic stresses experienced at Virginia Tech's Worsham Fiel...

  1. Estimated Colorado Golf Course Irrigation Water Use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Golf course irrigation water-use data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Program's 2005 compilation to provide baseline information, as no golf course irrigation water-use data (separate from crop irrigation) have been reported in previous compilations. A Web-based survey, designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Golf Course Superintendents Association (RMGCSA), was electronically distributed by the association to the 237 members in Colorado. Forty-three percent of the members returned the survey, and additional source water information was collected by telephone for all but 20 of the 245 association member and non-member Colorado golf courses. For golf courses where no data were collected at all, an average 'per hole' coefficient, based on returned surveys from that same county, were applied. In counties where no data were collected at all, a State average 'per hole' value of 13.2 acre-feet was used as the coefficient. In 2005, Colorado had 243 turf golf courses (there are 2 sand courses in the State) that had an estimated 2.27 acre-feet per irrigated course acre, and 65 percent of the source water for these courses was surface water. Ground water, potable water (public supply), and reclaimed wastewater, either partially or wholly, were source waters for the remaining courses. Fifty-three of the 64 counties in Colorado have at least one golf course, with the greatest number of courses in Jefferson (23 courses), Arapahoe (22 courses), and El Paso Counties (20 courses). In 2005, an estimated 5,647.8 acre-feet in Jefferson County, 5,402 acre-feet in Arapahoe County, and 4,473.3 acre-feet in El Paso County were used to irrigate the turf grass.

  2. Analysis of Natural Variation in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Reveals Physiological Responses Underlying Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H2O2 content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system. PMID:23285294

  3. Dilute acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Sun; Jay J Cheng [North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials provides an alternative energy production system. Rye and bermudagrass that are used in hog farms for nutrient uptake from swine wastewater have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they have a relative high cellulose and hemicellulose content. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in this study. The biomass at a solid loading rate of 10% was pretreated at 121 deg C with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%, w/w) and residence times (30, 60, and 90 min). Total reducing sugars, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and xylose in the prehydrolyzate were analyzed. In addition, the solid residues were hydrolyzed by cellulases to investigate the enzymatic digestibility. With the increasing acid concentration and residence time, the amount of arabinose and galactose in the filtrates increased. The glucose concentration in the prehydrolyzate of rye straw was not significantly influenced by the sulfuric acid concentration and residence time, but it increased in the prehydrolyzate of bermudagrass with the increase of pretreatment severity. The xylose concentration in the filtrates increased with the increase of sulfuric acid concentration and residence time. Most of the arabinan, galactan and xylan in the biomass were hydrolyzed during the acid pretreatment. Cellulose remaining in the pretreated feedstock was highly digestible by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei. (Author)

  4. Analysis of natural variation in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) reveals physiological responses underlying drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H₂O₂ content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system.

  5. Comparative proteomic responses of two bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-09-01

    Drought (water-deficit) stress is a serious environmental problem in plant growth and cultivation. As one of widely cultivated warm-season turfgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) exhibits drastic natural variation in the drought stress resistance in leaves and stems of different varieties. In this study, proteomic analysis was performed to identify drought-responsive proteins in both leaves and stems of two bermudagrass varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance, including drought sensitive variety (Yukon) and drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen). Through comparative proteomic analysis, 39 proteins with significantly changed abundance were identified, including 3 commonly increased and 2 decreased proteins by drought stress in leaves and stems of Yukon and Tifgreen varieties, 2 differentially regulated proteins in leaves and stems of two varieties after drought treatment, 23 proteins increased by drought stress in Yukon variety and constitutively expressed in Tifgreen variety, and other 3 differentially expressed proteins under control and drought stress conditions. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis (PS), glycolysis, N-metabolism, tricarboxylicacid (TCA) and redox pathways were largely enriched, which might be contributed to the natural variation of drought resistance between Yukon and Tifgreen varieties. These studies provide new insights to understand the molecular mechanism underlying bermudagrass response to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Contrasting Changes Caused by Drought and Submergence Stresses in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tiantian; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which bermudagrass withstands the drought and submergence stresses through physiological, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. The results showed that significant physiological changes were observed after drought treatment, while only slight changes after submergence treatment, including compatible solute contents, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. Proteomics results showed that 81 proteins regulated by drought or submergence treatment were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Among them, 76 proteins were modulated by drought stress with 46 increased abundance and 30 decreased abundance. Forty-five showed abundance changes after submergence treatment with 10 increased and 35 decreased. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that pathways of amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial electron transport/ATP synthesis were only enriched by drought treatment, while other pathways including photosynthesis, biodegradation of xenobiotics, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis and redox were commonly over-represented after both drought and submergence treatments. Metabolomic analysis indicated that most of the metabolites were up-regulated by drought stress, while 34 of 40 metabolites contents exhibited down-regulation or no significant changes when exposed to submergence stress, including sugars and sugar alcohols. These data indicated that drought stress extensively promoted photosynthesis and redox metabolisms while submergence stress caused declined metabolisms and dormancy in Cynodon dactylon. Taken together, the quiescence strategy with retarded growth might allow bermudagrass to be adaptive to long-term submerged environment, while activation of photosynthesis and redox, and accumulation of compatible solutes and molecular chaperones increased bermudagrass tolerance to drought stress. PMID:26617615

  7. Burrowing owl nesting productivity: A comparison between artificial and natural burrows on and off golf courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.; Ellis, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations are declining in many portions of their range, and lack of suitable nesting burrows is thought to be one reason for observed declines. Burrowing owls are attracted to golf courses because the birds generally nest and forage in short-grass, open areas, yet golf courses seldom have suitable nesting burrows. We examined the efficacy of installing artificial nesting burrows on golf courses as a way to help restore local burrowing owl populations. From 2001-2004 we monitored over 175 natural burrows off golf courses, 14 natural burrows on golf courses, 86 artificial burrows off golf courses, and 130 artificial burrows on golf courses. Owls located and used 8 of the 130 artificial burrows installed on golf courses (4 were used as nests). Owls selected burrows that were closer to existing natural burrows, farther from maintained areas (areas receiving turf maintenance by golf course staff), and farther from sprinkler heads. All 4 of the artificial burrows used as nests successfully fledged young, and annual site fidelity for owls nesting on golf courses was higher than for owls nesting off golf courses. However, annual fecundity of owls nesting on golf courses was lower than that of owls nesting off golf courses. If golf courses have sufficiently large nonmaintained areas and there are nesting owls nearby, course managers potentially can help in restoring local burrowing owl populations by installing artificial nesting burrows on the periphery of the course. However, the low fecundity on golf courses reported here should be more thoroughly examined before artificial burrows are used to attract owls to golf courses.

  8. Korean Golf Tourism in China: Place, Perception and Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinah Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a critical, cross-cultural social behavior in contemporary society and provides diverse experiences based on different regional resources in destinations. This research identified the attributes associated with Korean golf tourists’ images of seven destination regions in Mainland China. A content analysis of 328 golf tourists’ blogs indicated that each region had different combinations of destination attributes, but these were partially hidden in vivid descriptions of playing experiences. The narratives were coded with 15 golf destination attributes with 136 headwords and they reflected both place-centred images and interactions through perceptual experiences with different social groups. The golfers greatly appreciated congestion control at courses and social interaction during their tours, including the services of local human resources and play partners. The seven Chinese golf destinations had different perceived characteristics and relationships with South Korean society. Thus, they had dissimilar destination images for Korean golf tourists. Historical ties and geographical proximity played important roles, including, for example, the significant presence of ethnic Koreans in northeast China.

  9. WORK AND POWER ANALYSIS OF THE GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A work and power (energy analysis of the golf swing is presented as a method for evaluating the mechanics of the golf swing. Two computer models were used to estimate the energy production, transfers, and conversions within the body and the golf club by employing standard methods of mechanics to calculate work of forces and torques, kinetic energies, strain energies, and power during the golf swing. A detailed model of the golf club determined the energy transfers and conversions within the club during the downswing. A full-body computer model of the golfer determined the internal work produced at the body joints during the downswing. Four diverse amateur subjects were analyzed and compared using these two models. The energy approach yielded new information on swing mechanics, determined the force and torque components that accelerated the club, illustrated which segments of the body produced work, determined the timing of internal work generation, measured swing efficiencies, calculated shaft energy storage and release, and proved that forces and range of motion were equally important in developing club head velocity. A more comprehensive description of the downswing emerged from information derived from an energy based analysis

  10. Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, A; Basset, C; Oueslati, F; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    In Tunisia, golf courses are irrigated with secondary treated effluent stored in landscape impoundments. The impact of the conveyance and storage steps on the physical-chemical and biological quality of irrigation water was evaluated on three golf courses over two years. It was found that the water quality varies all along the water route, from the wastewater treatment plant up to the irrigation site: nutrient and bacteria contents decreased along the route in the three cases. This variation depends on the wastewater quality, the length of the pipes conveying water, the number of regulation reservoirs and ponds, the water residence time in pipes, reservoirs and ponds, and the operation of the ponds. The bacteriological quality of irrigation water deteriorates during the irrigation period in the three golf courses as the ponds are operated as continuous flow reactors. The results obtained in this study indicate the inability of golf water supplies, as currently managed, to properly sanitize reclaimed wastewater and meet target quality criteria recommended by WHO (1989) for water intended for recreational use. For a safe reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation, changes in the design and operation of the ponds should be planned or additional treatment steps provided.

  11. Integrated geophysical survey in defining subsidence features on a golf course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Subsidence was observed at several places on the Salina Municipal Golf Course in areas known to be built over a landfill in Salina, Kansas. High-resolution magnetic survey (???5400 m2), multi-channel electrical resistivity profiling (three 154 m lines) and microgravity profiling (23 gravity-station values) were performed on a subsidence site (Green 16) to aid in determining boundaries and density deficiency of the landfill in the vicinity of the subsidence. Horizontal boundaries of the landfill were confidently defined by both magnetic anomalies and the pseudo-vertical gradient of total field magnetic anomalies. Furthermore, the pseudo-vertical gradient of magnetic anomalies presented a unique anomaly at Green 16, which provided a criterion for predicting other spots with subsidence potential using the same gradient property. Results of multi-channel electrical resistivity profiling (ERP) suggested the bottom limit of the landfill at Green 16 was around 21 m below the ground surface based on the vertical gradient of electric resistivity and a priori information on the depth of the landfill. ERP results also outlined several possible landfill bodies based on their low resistivity values. Microgravity results suggested a -0.14 g cm-3 density deficiency at Green 16 that could equate to future surface subsidence of as much as 1.5 m due to gradual compaction. ?? 2007 Nanjing Institute of Geophysical Prospecting.

  12. Golf Blue-e-Motion. The electric Volkswagen; Golf Blue-e-Motion. Der elektrische Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadler, Jens; Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Jelden, Hanno; Lueck, Peter; Tousen, Jonas [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The particular challenges of our time require a consistent focus on the development activities of powertrain technologies with continuously reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The past years have seen many technological milestones by Volkswagen's Powertrain Development as illustrated by the exceptional success of the TSI and TDI engines as well as the double clutch transmissions. As a part of this comprehensive list of powertrain strategy, the development of drivetrains for alternative fuels, such as CNG, has also been included. With particular emphasis Volkswagen is pressing forward the electrification of the drivetrain with the goal of appealing to more customers through these new technologies. A milestone of the electrification activity is the Golf Blue-e-Motion, in which the comfort and especially the city driving performance are improved compared with the conventional vehicle. This driving performance is achieved by an electric drivetrain which consists of a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor together with associated power electronics and a Li-Ion battery. This presentation will pay particular attention to the characteristics of the drivetrain system and its components. The efficient powertrain including the recovering of braking energy (recuperation) as well as the attention paid on optimising all system components, has increased the driving range of the vehicle. Environmental awareness and driving pleasure - the electric drivetrain of the Golf Blue-e-Motion shows that these both requirements are possible to be realised by an electric drivetrain. (orig.)

  13. Export of nutrients from golf courses on the Precambrian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jennifer G.; Dillon, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Annual export rates, or fluxes, of total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, total phosphorus (TP) and potassium from four streams on two golf courses on the Precambrian Shield were compared with those from forested reference locations. Overall, the mean annual fluxes of K, TN, NO 3 and TP from golf courses were greater than from forested areas by 10, 2, 6 and 2 times, respectively. The overall mean export coefficients (kg/ha/yr) were 16 for K, 5.2 for TN, 2.1 for NO 3 and 0.14 for TP. For TN and TP, these are similar to those reported from cropland in Canada by Chambers and Dale (1997. Contribution of industrial, municipal, agricultural and groundwater sources to nutrient export, Athabasca, Wapiti and Smoky Rivers, 1980 to 1993. Northern River Basins Study Project Report No. 110. Northern River Basins Study, Edmonton, Alberta). -- Golf courses increase nutrient loads in receiving streams

  14. Energy expenditure and sex differences of golf playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzer, Stefan C; von Duvillard, Serge P; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mangus, Brent; Hofmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the average physical intensity and energy expenditure during a single round of golf on hilly and flat courses in a heterogeneous group of healthy men and women of varying age and golf handicap. Forty-two males and 24 females completed an incremental cycle-ergometer exercise test to determine exercise performance markers. The heart rate (HR), duration, distance, walking speed, ascent and descent were measured via a global positioning system (GPS)/HR monitor during the game and energy expenditure was calculated. Playing 9 or 18-holes of golf, independent of the golf course design, the average HR was not significantly different between sexes or the subgroups. The intensities were light with respect to the percentage of maximal HR and metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Total energy expenditure of all participants was not significantly different for hilly (834 ± 344 kcal) vs. flat courses (833 ± 295 kcal) whereas male players expended significantly greater energy than female players (926 ± 292 vs. 556 ± 180 kcal), but did not have significantly greater relative energy expenditure (2.8 ± 0.8 vs. 2.2 ± 0.7 METs). As a high volume physical activity, playing golf is suggested to yield health benefits. Since the intensity was well below recommended limits, golf may have health related benefits unrelated to the intensity level of the activity.

  15. A comparative study of golf industry between Yangtze River Delta, China and Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yangfan; Jin, Pingbin; Gong, Huiwen

    2018-03-01

    As a competition event of the 2016 Olympic Game, golf sport has aroused great attention around the world. And the Yangtze River Delta(YRD) in China, has already got certain basis and qualifications of developing golf industry, but somehow far from meeting the great potential demand of the market. This research selects the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Central Japan (CJ), which are indifferent golf developing stages, as the objectives. Comparative studies are being carried out with an aim of revealing the discrepancies of golf industry in selected regions. The correlations between golf industry and regional economic developing level have been explored as well. Mainly based on a geographical perspective, this research presents an initial effort to combine approaches of setting comparative indexes and spatial analysis, so that golf industry of selected regions will be compared in all directions. The results reveal that great gaps exist in YRD and CJ in terms of golf construction, service, and golf consumption. Problems in developing golf industry in YRD are identified based on the empirical results. A long-term golf development in YRD that deviating from the realistic demand is attributed to both government policies and the operational principles that the market subjects hold. Based on a comparative empirical study, suggestions relating to the government as well as the market players are put forward, with an aim of guiding the golf industry to develop in a sustainable way.

  16. Assessment of head injury of children due to golf ball impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heow Pueh; Wang, Fang

    2010-10-01

    Head trauma injury due to impact by a flying golf ball is one of the most severe possible injury accidents on the golf course. Numerical simulations based on the finite element method are presented to investigate head injury in children due to impact by a flying golf ball. The stress and energy flow patterns in a head model during the golf ball impact are computed for various combinations of striking speed, falling angle of the golf ball before impact, and impact location. It is found that a child is more prone to head injury due to golf ball impact on the frontal and side/temporal areas. The simulated results are found to conform to the clinical reports on children's head injuries from flying golf balls.

  17. Evaluation of Econem™, a Formulated Pasteuria sp. Bionematicide, for Management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Golf Course Turf1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, John E.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, a turfgrass bionematicide containing in vitro produced Pasteuria sp. for management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus was launched under the tradename Econem™. Greenhouse pot studies and field trials on golf course fairways and tee boxes evaluated Econem at varied rates and application frequencies. Trials on putting greens compared efficacy of three applications of Econem at 98 kg/ha to untreated controls and 1,3-dichloropropene at 53 kg a.i/ha. Further putting green trials evaluated the ability of three applications of Econem at 98 kg/ha to prevent resurgence of population densities of B. longicaudatus following treatment with 1,3-dichloropropene at 53 kg a.i./ha. None of the Econem treatments in pot studies were effective at reducing B. longicaudatus numbers (P ≤ 0.05). Econem was associated with reduction in population densities of B. longicaudatus (P ≤ 0.1) on only a single sampling date in one of the eight field trials and did not improve turf health in any of the trials (P > 0.1). These results did not indicate that Econem is an effective treatment for management of B. longicaudatus on golf course turf. PMID:22791919

  18. Evaluation of Econem™, a formulated Pasteuria sp. Bionematicide, for management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on golf course turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, William T; Luc, John E; Giblin-Davis, Robin M

    2011-06-01

    In 2010, a turfgrass bionematicide containing in vitro produced Pasteuria sp. for management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus was launched under the tradename Econem(™). Greenhouse pot studies and field trials on golf course fairways and tee boxes evaluated Econem at varied rates and application frequencies. Trials on putting greens compared efficacy of three applications of Econem at 98 kg/ha to untreated controls and 1,3-dichloropropene at 53 kg a.i/ha. Further putting green trials evaluated the ability of three applications of Econem at 98 kg/ha to prevent resurgence of population densities of B. longicaudatus following treatment with 1,3-dichloropropene at 53 kg a.i./ha. None of the Econem treatments in pot studies were effective at reducing B. longicaudatus numbers (P ≤ 0.05). Econem was associated with reduction in population densities of B. longicaudatus (P ≤ 0.1) on only a single sampling date in one of the eight field trials and did not improve turf health in any of the trials (P > 0.1). These results did not indicate that Econem is an effective treatment for management of B. longicaudatus on golf course turf.

  19. Cost Benefit Analysis of the Monterey Pines Golf Course

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zielinski, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    ..., the government-operated course in the Monterey area. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine the costs and benefits of having a government-operated course in Monterey, where the golf market is extremely competitive, and to examine alternatives...

  20. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Estonian Golf & Country Club'i etnomodernistlik golfikeskus ja klubihoone Jõelähtmel. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuristuudio Siim & Kreis. Autor Andres Siim. Konstruktor: Resand. Sisekujundaja Juta Lember (SAB Lember & Padar). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 3 värv. välis ja 3 sisevaadet

  1. Estonian Golf & Country Clubi klubihoone / Andres Siim, Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siim, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Harjumaal Jõelähtme vallas rajab Estonian Golf & Country Club uut Jägala-Jõesuu spordi- ja puhkekeskust, mille südameks saab puidust golgiklubi hoone, mida tutvustavad klubihoone arhitekt ja üks inseneridest. Ill.: vaade ehitusele, projekti kaks vaadet, lõige

  2. Acrchery-Golf Guide. June 1974-June 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shick, Jacqueline, Ed.; Hague, Andrea, Ed.

    This guide is a collection of essays by various authors on archery and golf. There is a separate section for each sport. In the archery section, the topics covered include archery coaching, aiming, the spine of the arrow, do-it-yourself ideas for archery instruction, archery visual aids, and official rules for various archery activities. The…

  3. The variable and chaotic nature of professional golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Michael; Lamb, Peter F

    2018-05-01

    In golf, unlike most other sports, individual performance is not the result of direct interactions between players. Instead decision-making and performance is influenced by numerous constraining factors affecting each shot. This study looked at the performance of PGA TOUR golfers in 2011 in terms of stability and variability on a shot-by-shot basis. Stability and variability were assessed using Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) and standard deviation, respectively. About 10% of all shots comprised short stable phases of performance (3.7 ± 1.1 shots per stable phase). Stable phases tended to consist of shots of typical performance, rather than poor or exceptional shots; this finding was consistent for all shot categories. Overall, stability measures were not correlated with tournament performance. Variability across all shots was not related to tournament performance; however, variability in tee shots and short approach shots was higher than for other shot categories. Furthermore, tee shot variability was related to tournament standing: decreased variability was associated with better tournament ranking. The findings in this study showed that PGA TOUR golf performance is chaotic. Further research on amateur golf performance is required to determine whether the structure of amateur golf performance is universal.

  4. Electromyography variables during the golf swing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Cabri, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to review systematically the literature available on electromyographic (EMG) variables of the golf swing. From the 19 studies found, a high variety of EMG methodologies were reported. With respect to EMG intensity, the right erector spinae seems to be highly activated, especially during the acceleration phase, whereas the oblique abdominal muscles showed moderate to low levels of activation. The pectoralis major, subscapularis and latissimus dorsi muscles of both sides showed their peak activity during the acceleration phase. High muscle activity was found in the forearm muscles, especially in the wrist flexor muscles demonstrating activity levels above the maximal voluntary contraction. In the lower limb higher muscle activity of the trail side was found. There is no consensus on the influence of the golf club used on the neuromuscular patterns described. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies on average golf players, since most studies were executed on professional or low handicap golfers. Further EMG studies are needed, especially on lower limb muscles, to describe golf swing muscle activation patterns and to evaluate timing parameters to characterize neuromuscular patterns responsible for an efficient movement with lowest risk for injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Age, psychological skills, and golf performance: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games.

  6. [Application of near-infrared spectroscopy in golf turfgrass management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Ying; Han, Jian-Guo

    2008-07-01

    The management of golf course is different from other turfs. Its particularity lies in its higher and more precise requirement during maintenance compare with other turfs. In case something happened to turf of golf course, more effective and higher speed detecting and resolution are required. Only the data about turf growth and environment were mastered precisely in time, the friendly environmental and scientific management goal could be completed effectively and economically. The near infrared spectroscopy is a new kind of effective, convenient and non-destructive analytical method in the turfgrass management of golf course in recent years. Many factors of turf-soil system in golf course could be determined by near infrared spectroscopy at the same time. In this paper, the existing literature that use of near infrared spectroscopy to study turfgrass and soil nutrient content, soil hygroscopic moisture, feasible fertilizer application time and rate, to fix the time and volume of irrigation, turfgrass visual quality evaluation, turfgrass disease prediction and prevention were reviewed. Most researchers considered the nutrition condition of turf impacted the visual and playing quality of golf course directly and then indirectly influenced most of assistant cultivation such as fertilization, mowing and irrigation and so on. The using of NIRS can detect the nutrient content of turfgrass effectively and estimate the nutrient is excessive or deficient quickly. And then the feasible time and rate of fertilizers can be decided. Comparing with the common judgment ways based on the season fertilization and visual estimation, the using of NIRS can reduce the application of fertilizers on the base of keeping the same turf quality simultaneously. NIRS can analysis many items of soil such as moisture, elements concentration, textures on the spot by the thousands. This method can get lots of cover-all data non-destructively. What's more, NIRS can analysis soil betimes quickly

  7. Effects of special composite stretching on the swing of amateur golf players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong-Chul; Lee, Sung-Wan; Yeo, Yun-Ghi; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated stretching for safer a golf swing compared to present stretching methods for proper swings in order to examine the effects of stretching exercises on golf swings. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 amateur golf club members who were divided into two groups: an experimental group which performed stretching, and a control group which did not. The subjects had no bone deformity, muscle weakness, muscle soreness, or neurological problems. [Methods] A swing analyzer and a ROM measuring instrument were used as the measuring tools. The swing analyzer was a GS400-golf hit ball analyzer (Korea) and the ROM measuring instrument was a goniometer (Korea). [Results] The experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in driving distance. After the special stretching training for golf, a statistically significant difference in hit-ball direction deviation after swings were found between the groups. The experimental group showed statistically significant decreases in hit ball direction deviation. After the special stretching training for golf, statistically significant differences in hit-ball speed were found between the groups. The experimental group showed significant increases in hit-ball speed. [Conclusion] To examine the effects of a special stretching program for golf on golf swing-related factors, 20 male amateur golf club members performed a 12-week stretching training program. After the golf stretching training, statistically significant differences were found between the groups in hit-ball driving distance, direction deviation, deflection distance, and speed.

  8. Hazardous materials on golf courses: Experience and knowledge of golf course superintendents and grounds maintenance workers from seven states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury-Quandt, Alice E.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Marín, Antonio J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The golf course industry has a growing Latino work force. Little occupational health research has addressed this work force. This paper examines golf course superintendents’ and Latino grounds maintenance workers’ pesticide knowledge, beliefs, and safety training. In particular, it focuses on knowledge of and adherence to OSHA Right-to-Know regulations. Methods In person, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten golf course superintendents in five states and with sixteen Latino grounds maintenance workers in four states. Results Few superintendents were in compliance with Right-to-Know regulations or did pesticide safety training with all of their workers. Few workers had any pesticide safety knowledge. Most safety training on golf courses was rudimentary and focused on machine safety, and was usually conducted in the off-season or on rainy days, not before workers were assigned tasks. Conclusions More Right-to-Know training is necessary for superintendents and grounds maintenance workers. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Spanish language materials need to be developed or made more widely available to train workers. Better enforcement of safety and training regulations is necessary. PMID:21360723

  9. Exogenous application of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide enhanced multiple abiotic stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2013-10-01

    As a gaseous molecule, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently found to be involved in plant responses to multiple abiotic stress. In this study, salt (150 and 300 mM NaCl), osmotic (15% and 30% PEG6000) and cold (4 °C) stress treatments induced accumulation of endogenous H2S level, indicating that H2S might play a role in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and cold stresses. Exogenous application of H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) conferred improved salt, osmotic and freezing stress tolerances in bermudagrass, which were evidenced by decreased electrolyte leakage and increased survival rate under stress conditions. Additionally, NaHS treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress, via modulating metabolisms of several antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and GR (glutathione reductase)] and non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool and redox state. Moreover, exogenous NaHS treatment led to accumulation of osmolytes (proline, sucrose and soluble total sugars) in stressed bermudagrass plants. Taken together, all these data indicated the protective roles of H2S in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and freezing stresses, via activation of the antioxidant response and osmolyte accumulation. These findings might be applicable to grass and crop engineering to improve abiotic stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of alfalfa (medicago sativa) on fermentation profile and nutritive value of switchgrass (panicum virgatum) and bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silages. ...

  11. Mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in urban green spaces: implications for urban wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Travis; Fidino, Mason; Lehrer, Elizabeth W; Magle, Seth B

    2017-12-01

    As urban growth expands and natural environments fragment, it is essential to understand the ecological roles fulfilled by urban green spaces. To evaluate how urban green spaces function as wildlife habitat, we estimated mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in city parks, cemeteries, golf courses, and natural areas throughout the greater Chicago, Illinois, USA region. We found similar α-diversity (with the exception of city parks), but remarkably dissimilar communities in different urban green spaces. Additionally, the type of urban green space greatly influenced species colonization and persistence rates. For example, coyotes (Canis latrans) had the highest, but white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) the lowest probability of persistence in golf courses compared to other green space types. Further, most species had a difficult time colonizing city parks even when sites were seemingly available. Our results indicate that urban green spaces contribute different, but collectively important, habitats for maintaining and conserving biodiversity in cities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Genetic diversity among Korean bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) ecotypes characterized by morphological, cytological and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Si-Yong; Lee, Geung-Joo; Lim, Ki Byung; Lee, Hye Jung; Park, In Sook; Chung, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin-Baek; Kim, Dong Sub; Rhee, Hye Kyung

    2008-04-30

    The genus Cynodon comprises ten species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Korean bermudagrasses at the morphological, cytological and molecular levels. Morphological parameters, the nuclear DNA content and ploidy levels were observed in 43 bermudagrass ecotypes. AFLP markers were evaluated to define the genetic diversity, and chromosome counts were made to confirm the inferred cytotypes. Nuclear DNA contents were in the ranges 1.42-1.56, 1.94-2.19, 2.54, and 2.77-2.85 pg/2C for the triploid, tetraploid, pentaploid, and hexaploid accessions, respectively. The inferred cytotypes were triploid (2n = 3x = 27), tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36), pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), and hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54), but the majority of the collections were tetraploid (81%). Mitotic chromosome counts verified the corresponding ploidy levels. The fast growing fine-textured ecotypes had lower ploidy levels, while the pentaploids and hexaploids were coarse types. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.42 to 0.94 with an average of 0.64. UPGMA cluster analysis and principle coordinate analysis separated the ecotypes into 6 distinct groups. The genetic similarity suggests natural hybridization between the different cytotypes, which could be useful resources for future breeding and genetic studies.

  13. Golf cart prototype development and navigation simulation using ROS and Gazebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimchik Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our approach to development of an autonomous golf cart, which will navigate in inaccessible by regular vehicles private areas. For this purpose, we have built a virtual golf course terrain and golf cart model in Gazebo, selected and modernized ROS-based packages in order to use them with Ackermann steering vehicle simulation. To verify our simulation and algorithms, we navigated the golf cart model from one golf hole to another within a virtual 3D golf course. For the real world algorithms’ verification, we developed a small-size vehicle prototype based on Traxxas radio-controlled car model, which is equipped with an on-board controller and sensors. The autonomous navigation of Traxxas-based vehicle prototype has been tested in indoor environment, where it utilized sensory data about environment and vehicle states, and performed localization, optimal trajectory computation and dynamic obstacles’ recognition with adjusting the route in real time.

  14. Morbidity associated with golf-related injuries among children: findings from a pediatric trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Melissa A; Mertz, Kristen J; Gaines, Barbara; Zuckerbraun, Noel S

    2011-01-01

    To describe injuries due to golf-related activities among pediatric patients requiring hospital admission. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all sports-related injuries from 2000 to 2006 using a level 1 trauma center database. Of 1005 children admitted with sports-related injuries, 60 (6%) had golf-related injuries. The mean injury severity score was significantly higher for golf-related injuries (11.0) than that for all other sports-related injuries (6.8). Most golf-related injuries occurred in children younger than 12 years (80%), at home (48%), and by a strike from a club (57%) and resulted in trauma to the head or neck (68%). Golf-related injuries, although an infrequent cause of sports-related injuries, have the potential to result in severe injuries, especially in younger children. Preventive efforts should target use of golf clubs by younger children in the home setting.

  15. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1997-04-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P < .01), but maternal effects were small on each forage. Maternal heterosis for birth weight differed between common bermudagrass and tall fescue (P < .10) and grandmaternal effects were evident on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not tall fescue. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (P < .01), and maternal heterosis for these traits was larger on tall fescue than on common bermudagrass (P < .01). Grandmaternal effects were in favor of Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue. Heterosis for 205-d weight per cow exposed was substantial on both forages (P < .01) and was numerically larger on tall fescue than on bermudagrass, but maternal effects were not significant. These results suggest more advantage for Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue.

  16. Golf and upper limb injuries: a summary and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry P

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Golf is a popular past time that provides exercise with social interaction. However, as with all sports and activities, injury may occur. Many golf-related injuries occur in the upper limb, yet little research on the potential mechanisms of these injuries has been conducted. Objective To review the current literature on golf-related upper limb injuries and report on potential causes of injury as it relates to the golf swing. Discussion An overview of the golf swing is described in terms of its potential to cause the frequently noted injuries. Most injuries occur at impact when the golf club hits the ball. This paper concludes that more research into golf-related upper limb injuries is required to develop a thorough understanding of how injuries occur. Types of research include epidemiology studies, kinematic swing analysis and electromyographic studies of the upper limb during golf. By conducting such research, preventative measures maybe developed to reduce golf related injury.

  17. Simulation and Test of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Golf Cart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the simulation model of fuel cell hybrid golf cart (FCHGC, which applies the non-GUI mode of the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR and the genetic algorithm (GA to optimize it. Simulation of the objective function is composed of fuel consumption and vehicle dynamic performance; the variables are the fuel cell stack power sizes and the battery numbers. By means of simulation, the optimal parameters of vehicle power unit, fuel cell stack, and battery pack are worked out. On this basis, GUI mode of ADVISOR is used to select the rated power of vehicle motor. In line with simulation parameters, an electrical golf cart is refitted by adding a 2 kW hydrogen air proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack system and test the FCHGC. The result shows that the simulation data is effective but it needs improving compared with that of the real cart test.

  18. The role of anxiety in golf putting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Ian; MacNamara, Aine; Shafat, Amir; Dunphy, Orla; Murphy, Sinead; O'Connor, Kenneth; Ryan, Tara; Waldron, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed INTRODUCTION: Anxiety???s influence on performance continues to be one of the main research interests for sport psychologists (Hanin, 2000). It is apparent, though, that there is a lack of empirical research characterising the multi-disciplinary effect of anxiety on sports performance. The current study aimed to ascertain biomechanical (accuracy, movement variability) and psychological (anxiety) markers to determine how anxiety affects golf putting. METHOD: 22 healthy s...

  19. LUMBAR CORSETS CAN DECREASE LUMBAR MOTION IN GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hashimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K., full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC, with a soft corset (SC, and with a hard corset (HC, with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38° or HC (28° than under WOC (44° conditions (p < 0.05. The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec than under SC (177°/sec and WOC (191° /sec conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC

  20. Epidemiology of golf related musculo-skeletal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhillon Mandeep

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Golfing has become an increasingly popular sport enjoyed by both men and women. Although the game is not viewed as hazardous, golfers do sustain injuries connected with the game. However, golf injuries have received little attention in the literature and there is no study from Asia. Methods : A prospective study was undertaken to analyze the incidence, cause and type of injury among amateur golfers. Open ended questionnaires were sent to 1000 golfers; 240 responded (Av age 51 years, 200 males and 40 females. The respondents played an average of 2 rounds per week. Results : One hundered and ten (46% responders had sustained one or more orthopaedic injuries. Both among men and women, the lower back was the most common site of injury followed by shoulder and dorsal spine. There was a difference in the injury pattern in skilled and relatively unskilled players. Lack of warm up, excessive practice and improper swing mechanics were the most common causes. Conclusion : Golf injuries perhaps could be prevented or reduced by proper technique, controlled practice routines, physical conditioning and pre-play stretching exercises. The most important factor in this playing population seems to be prevention.

  1. Distance and slope constraints: adaptation and variability in golf putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Gonçalo; Couceiro, Micael S; Barreiros, João; Clemente, Filipe M; Mendes, Rui; Martins, Fernando M

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to understand the adaptation to external constraints and the effects of variability in a golf putting task. We describe the adaptation of relevant variables of golf putting to the distance to the hole and to the addition of a slope. The sample consisted of 10 adult male (33.80 ± 11.89 years), volunteers, right handed and highly skilled golfers with an average handicap of 10.82. Each player performed 30 putts at distances of 2, 3 and 4 meters (90 trials in Condition 1). The participants also performed 90 trials, at the same distances, with a constraint imposed by a slope (Condition 2). The results indicate that the players change some parameters to adjust to the task constraints, namely the duration of the backswing phase, the speed of the club head and the acceleration at the moment of impact with the ball. The effects of different golf putting distances in the no-slope condition on different kinematic variables suggest a linear adjustment to distance variation that was not observed when in the slope condition.

  2. Brain networks governing the golf swing in professional golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Han, Joung Kyue; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Golf, as with most complex motor skills, requires multiple different brain functions, including attention, motor planning, coordination, calculation of timing, and emotional control. In this study we assessed the correlation between swing components and brain connectivity from the cerebellum to the cerebrum. Ten female golf players and 10 age-matched female controls were recruited. In order to determine swing consistency among participants, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean swing speed time and the SD of the mean swing angle were assessed over 30 swings. Functional brain connectivity was assessed by resting state functional MRI. Pro-golfers showed greater positive left cerebellum connectivity to the occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and both frontal lobes compared to controls. The SD of play scores was positively correlated with the SD of the impact angle. Constant swing speed and back swing angle in professional golfers were associated with functional connectivity (FC) between the cerebellum and parietal and frontal lobes. In addition, the constant impact angle in professional golfers was associated with improved golf scores and additional FC of the thalamus.

  3. Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A; McGrath, D; Wallace, E S

    2016-04-01

    Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. This study investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of high and intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The variance parallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and location of the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher values of VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy was found in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variables but not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has been previously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skill levels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with more control exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggest that to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but may lie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Flight trajectory of a rotating golf ball with grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Moonheum; Kim, Jooha; Choi, Haecheon

    2014-11-01

    Dimples are known to reduce drag on a sphere by the amount of 50% as compared to a smooth surface. Despite the advantage of reducing drag, dimples deteriorate the putting accuracy owing to their sharp edges. To minimize this putting error but maintain the same flight distance, we have devised a grooved golf ball (called G ball hereafter) for several years. In this study, we modify the shape and pattern of grooves, and investigate the flow characteristics of the G ball by performing wind-tunnel experiments at the Reynolds numbers of 0 . 5 ×105 - 2 . 5 ×105 and the spin ratios (ratio of surface velocity to the free-stream velocity) of 0 - 0.6 that include the real golf-ball velocity and rotational speed. We measure the drag and lift forces on the rotating G ball and compare them with those of a smooth ball and two well-known dimpled balls. The lift-to-drag ratio of the G ball is much higher than that of a smooth ball and is in between those of the two dimpled balls. The trajectories of flying golf balls are computed. The flight distance of G ball is almost the same as that of one dimpled ball but slightly shorter than that of the other dimpled ball. The fluid-dynamic aspects of these differences will be discussed at the talk. Supported by 2011-0028032, 2014M3C1B1033980.

  5. Remote sensing technologies applied to the irrigation water management on a golf course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, Celestina; Lança, Rui; Martins, Fernando; Soares, Cristina; Guerrero, Carlos; Paixão, Helena

    2015-04-01

    An adequate irrigation water management in a golf course is a complex task that depends upon climate (multiple microclimates) and land cover (where crops differ in morphology, physiology, plant density, sensitivity to water stress, etc.). These factors change both in time and space on a landscape. A direct measurement provides localized values of the evapotranspiration and climate conditions. Therefore this is not a practical or economical methodology for large-scale use due to spatial and temporal variability of vegetation, soils, and irrigation management strategies. Remote sensing technology combines large scale with ground measurement of vegetation indexes. These indexes are mathematical combinations of different spectral bands mostly in the visible and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. They represent the measures of vegetation activity that vary not only with the seasonal variability of green foliage, but also across space, thus they are suitable for detecting spatial landscape variability. The spectral vegetation indexes may enhance irrigation management through the information contained in spectral reflectance data. This study was carried out on the 18th fairway of the Royal Golf Course, Vale do Lobo, Portugal, and it aims to establish the relationship between direct measurements and vegetation indexes. For that it is required (1) to characterize the soil and climatic conditions, (2) to assessment of the irrigation system, (3) to estimate the evapotranspiration (4) and to calculate the vegetation indices. The vegetation indices were determined with basis on spectral bands red, green and blue, RGB, and near Infrared, NIR, obtained from the analysis of images acquired from a unpiloted aerial vehicle, UAV, platform. The measurements of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) were obtained from two meteorological stations located in the study area. The landscape evapotranspiration, ETL, was determined in the fairway with multiple microclimates

  6. 76 FR 66328 - Callaway Golf Ball Operations, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reliable Temp Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-80,110] Callaway Golf Ball... Golf Ball Operations, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Reliable Temp Services, Inc., and... production of golf balls. The notice was published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2011 (76 FR 40401). At...

  7. Characterization of Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with different layers of polyethylene film and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Caroline Daiane; Neres, Marcela Abbado; Scheidt, Kácia Carine; Bersot, Luciano Dos Santos; Sunahara, Samantha Mariana Monteiro; Sarto, Jaqueline Rocha Wobeto; Stangarlin, José Renato; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Sereno, Mallu Jagnow; Perin, Ana Paula

    2018-03-02

    The objective was to characterize the fermentative and microbiological profile of Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with different layers of polyethylene film and storage time. The experimental design consisted of a randomized block design with four and six wrapping layers (100 and 150 microns in total. respectively) allocated in the main plots, through repeated measures analysis (30, 60, and 90 days of storage) with four replicates. The storage time and number of wrapping layers did not show changes in the population of Clostridium and lactic acid bacteria. A decrease was observed in the enterobacteria population with an increase in the storage period in the two wrapping layers studied. Upon opening of the haylage at 30 days, the population of Bacillus was lower in haylages made with six layers of wrapping (3.63 log colony forming units (CFU) g-1). No growth of Listeria sp. or Salmonella sp. was observed during the experimental period. The fungal genera with greater occurrence were Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp. The following mycotoxins were not detected: ochratoxin A, fumonisins, and zearalenone. Relative to the organic butyric, propionic, and acetic acids, the haylages presented a low concentration of lactic acid; this may have prevented a drop in the pH, which was high when the silos were opened (5.4). The levels of ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble carbohydrates presented no variation among the number of wrapping layers, with an overall average of 35.55 and 38.04 g kg-1. Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage wrapped with four and six layers presented adequate fermentation and microbiological characteristics in the evaluated periods.

  8. ABA Is Involved in Regulation of Cold Stress Response in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As a representative warm-season grass, Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.] is widely used in turf systems. However, low temperature remarkably limits its growth and distribution. ABA is a crucial phytohormone that has been reported to regulate much important physiological and biochemical processes in plants under abiotic stress. Therefore, the objective of this study was to figure out the effects of ABA on the cold-sensitive (S and cold-resistant (R Bermudagrass genotypes response to cold stress. In this study, the plants were treated with 100 μM ABA solution and exposed to 4°C temperature. After 7 days of cold treatment, the electrolyte leakage (EL, malonaldehyde (MDA and H2O2 content were significantly increased in both genotypes compared with control condition, and these values were higher in R genotype than those of S genotype, respectively. By contrast, exogenous ABA application decreased the electrolyte leakage (EL, MDA and H2O2 content in both genotypes compared with those plants without ABA treatment under cold treatment condition. In addition, exogenous ABA application increased the levels of chlorophyll a fluorescence transient curve for both genotypes, and it was higher in R genotype than that of S genotype. Analysis of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters revealed that ABA treatment improved the performance of photosystem II under cold condition, particularly for the R genotype. Moreover, cold stress significantly increased δ13C values for both genotypes, while it was alleviated by exogenous ABA. Additionally, exogenous ABA application altered the expression of ABA- or cold related genes, including ABF1, CBF1, and LEA. In summary, exogenous ABA application enhanced cold resistance of both genotypes by maintaining cell membrane stability, improving the process of photosystem II, increasing carbon isotopic fractionation under cold stress, and more prominently in R genotype compared with S genotype.

  9. Reflectance, absorbance and transmittance spectra of bermudagrass and manilagrass turfgrass canopies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Volterrani

    Full Text Available Leaves act as a primary organ for the interception of solar radiation and their spatial arrangement determines how the plant canopy interacts with light. Many studies have been carried out on the penetration of radiation into crops however to date, few results are available on turfgrasses, mainly due to the difficulties of introducing sensors into the turf without disturbing the natural position of the leaves. In the present research two warm season turfgrasses, hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis 'Patriot' and manilagrass (Zoysia matrella 'Zeon', were studied. The aim was to describe their canopy architecture grown with minimal disturbance to the natural arrangement of the leaves and stems, and to determine the potential effects of canopy architecture on light penetration and reflectance. Radiometric measurements were carried out at eight different profile levels of turfgrasses that were up to 12 cm tall. A LI-COR 1800 spectroradiometer with an optical fiber cable and a 7 mm diameter sensor was used. Measurements were carried out in the 390-1100 nm region at 5 nm intervals. The LAI value was higher for the manilagrass (9.0 than for the hybrid bermudagrass (5.6. The transmitted radiation was found to be closely dependent on downward cumulative LAI. Despite a more upright habit (mean insertion angle of 22.4° ±3.4, Zoysia matrella showed a higher NIR reflectance compared to Cdxt, which has a horizontal leaf arrangement (mean insertion angle 62.1° ± 9.6. The species studied showed substantial differences both in terms of phytometric characteristics and in the capacity to attenuate solar radiation.

  10. Reflectance, absorbance and transmittance spectra of bermudagrass and manilagrass turfgrass canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterrani, Marco; Minelli, Alberto; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Caturegli, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Leaves act as a primary organ for the interception of solar radiation and their spatial arrangement determines how the plant canopy interacts with light. Many studies have been carried out on the penetration of radiation into crops however to date, few results are available on turfgrasses, mainly due to the difficulties of introducing sensors into the turf without disturbing the natural position of the leaves. In the present research two warm season turfgrasses, hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis) 'Patriot' and manilagrass (Zoysia matrella) 'Zeon', were studied. The aim was to describe their canopy architecture grown with minimal disturbance to the natural arrangement of the leaves and stems, and to determine the potential effects of canopy architecture on light penetration and reflectance. Radiometric measurements were carried out at eight different profile levels of turfgrasses that were up to 12 cm tall. A LI-COR 1800 spectroradiometer with an optical fiber cable and a 7 mm diameter sensor was used. Measurements were carried out in the 390-1100 nm region at 5 nm intervals. The LAI value was higher for the manilagrass (9.0) than for the hybrid bermudagrass (5.6). The transmitted radiation was found to be closely dependent on downward cumulative LAI. Despite a more upright habit (mean insertion angle of 22.4° ±3.4), Zoysia matrella showed a higher NIR reflectance compared to Cdxt, which has a horizontal leaf arrangement (mean insertion angle 62.1° ± 9.6). The species studied showed substantial differences both in terms of phytometric characteristics and in the capacity to attenuate solar radiation.

  11. Metabolic Pathways Involved in Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Heat Tolerance in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes involve elevated temperature and CO2 concentration, imposing significant impact on plant growth of various plant species. Elevated temperature exacerbates heat damages, but elevated CO2 has positive effects on promoting plant growth and heat tolerance. The objective of this study was to identify metabolic pathways affected by elevated CO2 conferring the improvement of heat tolerance in a C4 perennial grass species, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.. Plants were planted under either ambient CO2 concentration (400 μmol⋅mol-1 or elevated CO2 concentration (800 μmol⋅mol-1 and subjected to ambient temperature (30/25°C, day/night or heat stress (45/40°C, day/night. Elevated CO2 concentration suppressed heat-induced damages and improved heat tolerance in bermudagrass. The enhanced heat tolerance under elevated CO2 was attributed to some important metabolic pathways during which proteins and metabolites were up-regulated, including light reaction (ATP synthase subunit and photosystem I reaction center subunit and carbon fixation [(glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, phosphoglycerate kinase, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase and sugars of photosynthesis, glycolysis (GAPDH, glucose, fructose, and galactose and TCA cycle (pyruvic acid, malic acid and malate dehydrogenase of respiration, amino acid metabolism (aspartic acid, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, lysine, valine, alanine, and isoleucine as well as the GABA shunt (GABA, glutamic acid, alanine, proline and 5-oxoproline. The up-regulation of those metabolic processes by elevated CO2 could at least partially contribute to the improvement of heat tolerance in perennial grass species.

  12. Effects of Infection by Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Rooting Dynamics among St. Augustinegrass and Bermudagrass Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Sudarshan K; Crow, William T; McSorley, Robert; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Rowland, Diane L; Poudel, Bishow; Kenworthy, Kevin E

    2015-12-01

    Understanding rooting dynamics using the minirhizotron technique is useful for cultivar selection and to quantify nematode damage to roots. A 2-yr microplot study including five bermudagrass ('Tifway', Belonolaimus longicaudatus susceptible; two commercial cultivars [TifSport and Celebration] and two genotypes ['BA132' and 'PI 291590'], which have been reported to be tolerant to B. longicaudatus) and two St. Augustinegrass ('FX 313', susceptible, and 'Floratam' that was reported as tolerant to B. longicaudatus) genotypes in a 5 x 2 and 2 x 2 factorial design with four replications, respectively, was initiated in 2012. Two treatments included were uninoculated and B. longicaudatus inoculated. In situ root images were captured each month using a minirhizotron camera system from April to September of 2013 and 2014. Mixed models analysis and comparison of least squares means indicated significant differences in root parameters studied across the genotypes and soil depths of both grass species. 'Celebration', 'TifSport' and 'PI 291590' bermudagrass, and 'Floratam' St. Augustinegrass had significantly different root parameters compared to the corresponding susceptible genotypes (P ≤ 0.05). Only 'TifSport' had no significant root loss when infested with B. longicaudatus compared to non-infested. 'Celebration' and 'PI 291590' had significant root loss but retained significantly greater root densities than 'Tifway' in B. longicaudatus-infested conditions (P ≤ 0.05). Root lengths were greater at the 0 to 5 cm depth followed by 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 cm of vertical soil depth for both grass species (P ≤ 0.05). 'Celebration', 'TifSport', and 'PI 291590' had better root vigor against B. longicaudatus compared to Tifway.

  13. Bermudagrass sod growth and metal uptake in coal combustion by-product-amended media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlossberg, M.J.; Vanags, C.P.; Miller, W.P. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (USA). Dept. of Crop & Soil Science

    2004-04-01

    Coal combustion by-products (CCB) include fly ash and bottom ash and are generated nationally at rates of 10{sup 8} Mg yr{sup -1}. Land applications of CCB have improved physicochemical properties of soil, yet inherent bulkiness and trace metal content of CCB often limit their use. Likewise, utilization of biosolids and manure as fertilizer can be problematic due to unfavorable nutrient ratios. A 2-yr field study evaluated environmental and technical parameters associated with CCB-organic waste utilization as growth media in turfgrass sod production. Experimental growth media formulated with CCB and organic waste and a sand-compost control mixture were uniformly spread at rates from 200 to 400 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} and sprigged with hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy). Leaf clippings were collected and analyzed for total elemental content each year. In Year 2, growth media samples were collected during establishment 47 and 84 days after planting (DAP) and viable Escherichia coli organisms were quantified. At harvest (99 or 114 DAP), sod biomass and physicochemical properties of the growth media were measured. During sod propagation, micronutrient and metal content in leaf clippings varied by growth media and time. After 47 d of typical sod field management, viable E. coli pathogens were detected in only one biosolids-amended plot. No viable E. coli were measured at 84 DAP. In both years, sod biomass was greatest in media containing biosolids and fly ash. Following installation of sod, evaluations did not reveal differences by media type or application volume. Using CCB-organic waste mixes at the rates described herein is a rapid and environmentally safe method of bermudagrass sod production.

  14. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on postponing bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) turf dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaili, Somayeh; Salehi, Hassan

    2012-06-15

    Growth chamber and field experiments were carried out to determine the effects of extended photoperiod under low and freezing temperatures on bermudagrass turf dormancy at Bajgah, in the southern part of Iran. The experiment in the growth chamber was conducted with four temperature regimes (15, 7.5, 0 and -7.5°C) and three light durations (8, 12 and 16h) in a completely randomized design with four replications. The field study was conducted in two consecutive years (2008-2009) with three light durations (8, 12 and 16h) in months with natural short day length and arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Results in both experiments showed that decreasing temperature and photoperiod decreased verdure fresh and dry weight, shoot height, tiller density, leaf area and chlorophyll and relative water contents (RWC). However, rooting depth and fresh weight of roots increased in the growth chamber. Decreasing the temperature and light duration increased electrolyte leakage and proline content. Reducing sugars increased with decreasing temperature and declined with lowering light duration in both shoots and roots. Starch content of both shoots and roots showed an adverse trend compared to reducing sugars; starch content increased in both shoots and roots in all treatments by shortening the photoperiod. Practically, the problem of bermudagrass turf's dormancy could be solved via increasing the photoperiod in months with short day lengths. This treatment would be efficient and useful for turfgrass managers to apply in landscapes and stadiums. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Physiological responses of somaclonal variants of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x Cynodon dactylon) to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyun; Chen, Chuanhao; Wang, Zhongcheng; Guo, Zhenfei; Li, Haihang

    2009-03-01

    Eight somaclonal variants with enhanced drought tolerance were isolated from regenerated plants of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis cv., TifEagle). Three of them (10-17, 89-02, 117-08) with strong drought tolerance were selected for investigations of physiological responses to drought stress. Compared to the parent control, TifEagle, the somaclonal variants had higher relative water contents and relative growth, and lower ion leakages in the greenhouse tests, while no difference in evapotranspirational water losses and soil water contents was observed between the variants and TifEagle. The variants also had less leaf firing in the field tests under drought stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities decreased gradually in responses to drought stress in all plants and exhibited negative correlations with ion leakage, indicating that the declined activities of these antioxidant enzymes were associated with drought injury in the triploid bermudagrass. However, CAT activities were significantly higher in all three variants than in TifEagle during drought stress. Two variants, 10-17 and 89-02, also had significantly higher APX activities than TifEagle before and during the first 4 days of drought treatments. These two lines also showed higher SOD activities after prolonged drought stress. Proline, total soluble sugars and sucrose were accumulated under drought stress in all plants and exhibited positive correlations with ion leakage. More proline and sugars were accumulated in TifEagle than in the variants. The results indicated that higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes in the variants during drought stress are associated with their increased drought tolerance.

  16. Evaluation of solar-assisted, electric and gas golf carts, Bathurst Glen golf course, Richmond Hill, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    Municipalities try to limit air pollution resulting from the use of small gasoline engines. Indeed, these engines participate in the smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and they present operating costs more important than electric equivalents. The potential positive impacts of the use of electric or solar electric golf carts instead of gasoline carts are analyzed through a study that compares two solar-assisted electric golf carts, two standard electric golf carts and two gas-powered golf carts. The energy use and related Co2 emissions, the dependability, and the relative costs were evaluated and Golfer preference was also considered thanks to a feedback survey. The comparison between the solar-assisted and the standard electric carts was made on the basis of electricity measures at three points: alternating current (AC) electricity taken from the grid, direct current (DC) electricity flowing into and out of the batteries, and DC electricity generated by the solar panels. The data collected during this study suggested that other factors associated with cart condition or driver behaviours can be more important than the solar panels in determining overall energy consumption. Choosing an area with full sun exposure to install the solar panel and connecting directly to the grid would also maximize generation potential. The comparison of performance between electric carts and gas carts showed the most considerable positive findings. Indeed, fuel costs and emissions are significantly lower in the case of the electric carts, which also present a better fuel efficiency. Switching the 20 percent of gas-powered carts counted within a 100 km radius of Toronto with electric carts could be comparable to removing 155 mid-sized gasoline cars of the road. The electric golf carts present many important financial and environmental benefits when compared to gas carts. The performance is marginally enhanced with the use of solar panels on electric carts and the date collected from

  17. IMPROVED MOTOR-TIMING: EFFECTS OF SYNCHRONIZED METRO-NOME TRAINING ON GOLF SHOT ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Rönnqvist

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of synchronized metronome training (SMT on motor timing and how this training might affect golf shot accuracy. Twenty-six experienced male golfers participated (mean age 27 years; mean golf handicap 12.6 in this study. Pre- and post-test investigations of golf shots made by three different clubs were conducted by use of a golf simulator. The golfers were randomized into two groups: a SMT group and a Control group. After the pre-test, the golfers in the SMT group completed a 4-week SMT program designed to improve their motor timing, the golfers in the Control group were merely training their golf-swings during the same time period. No differences between the two groups were found from the pre-test outcomes, either for motor timing scores or for golf shot accuracy. However, the post-test results after the 4-weeks SMT showed evident motor timing improvements. Additionally, significant improvements for golf shot accuracy were found for the SMT group and with less variability in their performance. No such improvements were found for the golfers in the Control group. As with previous studies that used a SMT program, this study's results provide further evidence that motor timing can be improved by SMT and that such timing improvement also improves golf accuracy

  18. Nitrous oxide emissions from a golf course fairway and rough following application of different nitrogen fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that destroys stratospheric ozone. There is limited research of golf course N2O emission and the effects of frequent fertilization and irrigation. Three enhanced efficiency nitrogen fertilizers (EENFs) were applied to a Colorado golf course fairway and ...

  19. Promoting Golf as a Lifetime Physical Activity for Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Dawn D.; Flynn, Erin; Turner, Tiffany A.

    2014-01-01

    Golf is one of the most accessible and versatile physical activities and is a viable choice for young adults with disabilities to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Teaching golf to youth with disabilities requires more than making accommodations regarding equipment, technique, and rules in the physical education setting. For…

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF A GOLF COMPLEX ON COASTAL WETLANDS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal wetlands and other near-shore areas. The chemical and biological magnitude of the problem is almost unknown. To provide perspective on this issue, the effects of golf complex r...

  1. A Scoping Review of the Associations of Golf with Eye Injuries in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Sport presents a risk of ocular trauma and accounts for a significant number of eye injuries that require hospital admission. The sport of golf presents a risk to eyesight from fast moving objects such as golf clubs and balls. This study aims to investigate the associations of golf with eye injuries and the reasons that these injuries occur. Material/Methods. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Grey literature was searched using the WHO international clinical trials registry platform, Google Scholar, and ProQuest. Data was extracted using a standardised form and summarised into a report. Results and Discussion. Twenty-three studies were found relating to eye injuries in golf. Injuries appear to be rare, but more frequent in men and children. Injuries resulted in high rates of enucleation and visual impairment. Children sustained more injury from golf clubs whereas adults sustained more injuries from golf balls. Conclusion. Efforts are needed to encourage golf participants to understand the risks of ocular and indeed other head injuries. Initiatives to provide appropriate supervision and education on this topic are merited. Further research is needed to investigate the circumstances of eye injury in golf and assess the effects of interventions aimed at reducing risk of injury. PMID:27504485

  2. Golf Tournament Drives in a Win for the Children’s Inn | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On September 23, golfers took to the Clustered Spires golf course in Frederick, Md., for a cause. The R&W Club Frederick hosted its inaugural golf tournament, with proceeds benefiting the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Children’s Inn.

  3. Bridging the Generation Gap: "Growing Golf" through an Action Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Norb; Cumiskey, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an action learning simulation designed for a Professional Golf Management (PGM) program housed in a College of Business of a public university. The PGA Golf Management University Program, a 4.5- to 5-year college curriculum for aspiring PGA Professionals is offered at 19 PGA accredited universities nationwide. The program…

  4. Omanikud lõpetavad skandaalse firma Kuressaare Golf tegevuse / Andres Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Andres, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    AS Kuressaare Golf likvideeritakse, sest Põduste jõe äärde kavandatud golfiväljaku ehitamise plaanid sumbusid, kuna firma aktsionäride vahel tekitas tüli rahakantimise kahtlus. Kommenteerib AS-i Kuressaare Golf juhatuse liige Meelis Põlda

  5. Shufflegolf: Teaching Golf Strategies and Etiquette to Young Children and Learners with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share a unique curricular idea with physical educators interested about adding golf concepts to their curriculum. The focus is on a modified golf game that helps teach tactics, strategies, rules, and etiquette to young learners and those with intellectual disabilities. The specific content for this unit focuses on…

  6. Evaluating poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) for golf courses in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    Poverty grass (Danthonia spicata (L.) P. beauv. Ex Roem & Schult. ) results presented here are part of ongoing studies to evaluate its adaptation for golf courses as part of low maintenance natural communities at Lincoln University of Missouri. Because its natural adaptation to shade and poor soils, poverty grass could be established in golf...

  7. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) and comparative analysis within the family Poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Cho, Shu-Ting; Haryono, Mindia; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) belongs to the subfamily Chloridoideae of the Poaceae family, one of the most important plant families ecologically and economically. This grass has a long connection with human culture but its systematics is relatively understudied. In this study, we sequenced and investigated the chloroplast genome of common bermudagrass, which is 134,297 bp in length with two single copy regions (LSC: 79,732 bp; SSC: 12,521 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (21,022 bp). The annotation contains a total of 128 predicted genes, including 82 protein-coding, 38 tRNA, and 8 rRNA genes. Additionally, our in silico analyses identified 10 sets of repeats longer than 20 bp and predicted the presence of 36 RNA editing sites. Overall, the chloroplast genome of common bermudagrass resembles those from other Poaceae lineages. Compared to most angiosperms, the accD gene and the introns of both clpP and rpoC1 genes are missing. Additionally, the ycf1, ycf2, ycf15, and ycf68 genes are pseudogenized and two genome rearrangements exist. Our phylogenetic analysis based on 47 chloroplast protein-coding genes supported the placement of common bermudagrass within Chloridoideae. Our phylogenetic character mapping based on the parsimony principle further indicated that the loss of the accD gene and clpP introns, the pseudogenization of four ycf genes, and the two rearrangements occurred only once after the most recent common ancestor of the Poaceae diverged from other monocots, which could explain the unusual long branch leading to the Poaceae when phylogeny is inferred based on chloroplast sequences.

  8. A big win for the CERN Golf Club at the ASCERI tournament

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Golf Club returned victorious from the autumn ASCERI (Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes) tournament which was held from 17 to 20 September.   The CERN Golf Team (left to right: Peter Jones, Alasdair Ross, Claes Frisk and Per Werner) celebrates its victories at ASCERI. Competitions took place on the Dreihof Golf Club at Essingen in southern Germany, starting with the singles Stableford competition on the first day and a 4 ball, better ball Stableford group competition the next day. CERN’s four-man team – Peter Jones, Per Werner, Claes Frisk and Alasdair Ross – came first in the group competition, with Peter Jones, CERN’s star golfer from the IT Department, winning the individual competition. The autumn ASCERI tournament included competitions in football, tennis and cart racing as well as golf. Over 230 representatives of research institutes across Europe took part. “The CERN Golf Club only began p...

  9. A good walk spoiled: on the disappearance of golf as an active sport in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterbaugh, James S

    2011-07-01

    During the past 60 years, there has been a major transition in the way golf is played in America. Its potential as exercise largely has been negated by the increase in motorized golf cart usage to approximately two of every three rounds played in this country. Accidents in golf carts have increased rapidly, which, by making the sport more dangerous, will likely bring future regulations. Consequently, playing golf has gradually become more of a public health threat than a benefit. The motorized cart also has resulted in an almost doubling of the size of golf courses, which now occupy a large amount of the built environment designated for activity. These changes are a major loss to society, portend future problems, and call for the sport to reevaluate its current model.

  10. Chemical composition, intake by sheep, and in situ disappearance in cannulated cows of bermudagrass hayed at two moisture concentrations and treated with a non-viable lactobacillus-lactic acid preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] is commonly used for grazing and haying in the southern USA, but hay curing can be challenging due to frequent rainfall events during spring and early summer. An existing stand of ‘Greenfield’ bermudagrass was divided into 12 plots using a randomized comple...

  11. Características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-tifton 85 sob doses de nitrogênio e alturas de corte Morphogenic and structural characteristics of tifton 85 bermudagrass under different nitrogen doses and harvesting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2011-09-01

    increased with nitrogen fertilization. On the other hand, leaf senescence rates and total leaf number per tiller increased according to the plant height at harvesting time. Contrarily, the number of green leaf per tiller was not influenced by N dose or plant height at harvesting time. For the same height of 'tifton 85' bermudagrass at harvesting time, nitrogen fertilization increases tissues flux and defoliation frequency. Under intermittent defoliation conditions, 'tifton 85' bermudagrass should be harvested at 30 cm of height.

  12. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giridhar Babu, A.; Sudhakara Reddy, M.

    2011-01-01

    A nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in encouraging the vegetation cover on bauxite residue (red mud) sites. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions were grown in red mud with different amendments with and without AM fungi to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition, metal uptake and neutralization of bauxite residue. Inoculation of AM fungi significantly increased the plant growth, nutrient uptake and reduced Fe, Al accumulation in plant tissue and also improved the soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties. Gypsum and sludge amended treatments inoculated with AM fungi had maximum biomass, nutrient uptake and reduced accumulation of metals. The neutralization of red mud was significant in presence of AM fungi than control. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of bermudagrass in combination with AM fungi for ecological restoration of bauxite residue sites. - Inoculation of red mud tolerant AM fungi enhanced the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass and the physico-chemical properties of the bauxite residues amended with gypsum or sewage sludge.

  13. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giridhar Babu, A., E-mail: anamgiri@gmail.co [Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India); Sudhakara Reddy, M., E-mail: msreddy@thapar.ed [Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India)

    2011-01-15

    A nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in encouraging the vegetation cover on bauxite residue (red mud) sites. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions were grown in red mud with different amendments with and without AM fungi to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition, metal uptake and neutralization of bauxite residue. Inoculation of AM fungi significantly increased the plant growth, nutrient uptake and reduced Fe, Al accumulation in plant tissue and also improved the soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties. Gypsum and sludge amended treatments inoculated with AM fungi had maximum biomass, nutrient uptake and reduced accumulation of metals. The neutralization of red mud was significant in presence of AM fungi than control. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of bermudagrass in combination with AM fungi for ecological restoration of bauxite residue sites. - Inoculation of red mud tolerant AM fungi enhanced the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass and the physico-chemical properties of the bauxite residues amended with gypsum or sewage sludge.

  14. Nitric oxide-activated hydrogen sulfide is essential for cadmium stress response in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are important gaseous molecules, serving as important secondary messengers in plant response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the interaction between NO and H2S in plant stress response was largely unclear. In this study, endogenous NO and H2S were evidently induced by cadmium stress treatment in bermudagrass, and exogenous applications of NO donor (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) or H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) conferred improved cadmium stress tolerance. Additionally, SNP and NaHS treatments alleviated cadmium stress-triggered plant growth inhibition, cell damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, partly via modulating enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Moreover, SNP and NaHS treatments also induced the productions of both NO and H2S in the presence of Cd. Interestingly, combined treatments with inhibitors and scavengers of NO and H2S under cadmium stress condition showed that NO signal could be blocked by both NO and H2S inhibitors and scavengers, while H2S signal was specifically blocked by H2S inhibitors and scavengers, indicating that NO-activated H2S was essential for cadmium stress response. Taken together, we assigned the protective roles of endogenous and exogenous NO and H2S in bermudagrass response to cadmium stress, and speculated that NO-activated H2S might be essential for cadmium stress response in bermudagrass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The "swing-ding": a golf-related head injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Arthur; Cohen, Alan R; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased incidence of golf-associated head injuries in children and adolescents. At the authors' institution, they have identified a unique pattern of head injury associated with a swinging golf club. In this study, the authors highlight the mechanism of this injury and report their experience treating it. The authors reviewed the database of Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital Trauma Center and performed a retrospective analysis of golf injuries recorded over a 10-year period (January 2000-April 2010). They identified 13 children (9 boys and 4 girls) who sustained head injuries in golfing accidents. All patients were 10 years of age or younger. The medical charts were reviewed and follow-up interviews were conducted to better delineate the details of the injuries. Injuries included 13 depressed skull fractures, 7 epidural hematomas, and 1 cerebral contusion. All 13 patients sustained their injuries after being struck in the head by a golf club. Seven sustained injuries on the follow-through of the initial swing and 3 sustained injuries on the backswing. All but one patient required neurosurgical intervention. Five patients developed neurological sequelae. None of the children had prior experience with golf equipment. All but one injury occurred in the child's own backyard. There was no direct supervision by an adult in any of the cases. Golfing can lead to serious head injuries in children. The authors noticed a unique pattern of golf-related head injuries, previously not described, that they have termed the "swing-ding." This golf club-inflicted injury occurs when a child stands too close to a swinging golfer and is struck in the head, subsequently sustaining a comminuted depressed skull fracture in the frontal or temporal region, with or without further intracranial injury. The study suggests that a lack of adult supervision, minimal previous golf experience, and proximity of the child to the swinging golfer are all

  16. Peer pressure and thai amateur golfers' gambling on their games: the mediating effect of golf self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai; Promsakha Na Sakolnakorn, Chomnad

    2014-09-01

    Our study hypothesizes that Thai amateur golfers gamble on their game because of peer pressure and their golf self-efficacy. To support our hypothesis, we conducted a study to examine the mediating effect of golf self-efficacy on the peer pressure-golf gambling relationship among 387 amateur golfers in Thailand. Peer pressure was operationally defined as fellow players' influence on the individual golfer to gamble; golf self-efficacy as the judgment of the golfer's skills to play golf; and golf gambling as the frequency and amounts of gambling. Regression analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the mediation effect of golf self-efficacy on the peer pressure-golf gambling relationship. The results support our hypothesis; peer pressure predicted golf gambling, and the indirect effect of peer pressure to golf gambling through the mediation of golf self-efficacy was significant. The results support the influence of peer pressure on gambling, and the social cognitive theory reciprocal relationship model.

  17. Effect of adding cofactors to exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on preingestive hydrolysis, in vitro digestibility, and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Ma, Z X; Gonzalez, C F; Adesogan, A T

    2015-07-01

    Our objectives were to examine if adding metal ion cofactors (COF) to exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) would increase the beneficial effects of the EFE on the preingestive hydrolysis and in vitro digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage. In experiment 1, 5 COF (Mn(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) were screened to select the best candidates for synergistically enhancing release of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) from bermudagrass haylage by 5 EFE. The 5 EFE (1A, 2A, 11C, 13D, and 15D) were sourced from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae and they were the most effective of 12 EFE at increasing the neutral detergent fiber digestibility of bermudagrass haylage in a previous trial. Adding 1mM of each of the COF to EFE 2A or 11C synergistically increased release of WSC from bermudagrass haylage, as did adding (1mM) Fe(2+) to 1A, Mn(2+), Co(2+), or Fe(2+) to 13D, or Co(2+)or Fe(2+) to 15D. The greatest release of WSC responses were obtained by adding Mn(2+) to 11C (38%) or by adding Fe(2+) to 2A or 13D (10 and 21.9%, respectively). In experiment 2, the effect of increasing the COF dose on in vitro digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage was examined using the best EFE-COF combinations from experiment 1. Effects of adding increasing doses of these COF on EFE-mediated changes in vitro digestibility depended on the COF-EFE combination. Adding 10mM Mn(2+) alone to bermudagrass haylage increased DMD and NDFD by 2.7 and 6.3% and adding 11C alone increased these measures by 6.6 and 15.5%, respectively. However, adding 10mM Mn(2+) with 11C resulted in 3.5 and 8.1% increases in DMD and NDFD, respectively, beyond the increases caused by adding 11C alone. Adding Fe(2+) to 2A had no effects on EFE-mediated digestibility responses, but 2A prevented adverse effects of adding Fe(2+) alone on DMD and NDFD. In contrast, adding Fe(2+) to 13D reduced the increases in DMD and NDFD caused by adding the EFE alone. This study shows that adding COF

  18. On the origin of the drag force on golf balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaras, Elias; Beratlis, Nikolaos; Squires, Kyle

    2017-11-01

    It is well establised that dimples accelerate the drag-crisis on a sphere. The result of the early drag-crisis is a reduction of the drag coefficient by more than a factor of two when compared to a smooth sphere at the same Reynolds number. However, when the drag coefficients for smooth and dimpled spheres in the supercritical regime are compared, the latter is higher by a factor of two to three. To understand the origin of this behavior we conducted direct numerical simulations of the flow around a dimpled sphere, which is similar to commercially available golf balls, in the supercritical regime. By comparing the results to those for a smooth sphere it is found that dimples, although effective in accelerating the drag crisis, impose a local drag-penalty, which contributes significantly to the overall drag force. This finding challenges the broadly accepted view, that the dimples only indirectly affect the drag force on a golf ball by manipulating the structure of the turbulent boundary layer near the wall and consequently affect global separation. Within this view, typically the penalty on the drag force imposed by the dimples is assumed to be small and coming primarily from skin friction. The direct numerical simulations we will report reveal a very different picture.

  19. Trunk muscle activation during golf swing: Baseline and threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Marta, Sérgio; Vaz, João; Fernandes, Orlando; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of studies regarding EMG temporal analysis during dynamic and complex motor tasks, such as golf swing. The aim of this study is to analyze the EMG onset during the golf swing, by comparing two different threshold methods. Method A threshold was determined using the baseline activity recorded between two maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Method B threshold was calculated using the mean EMG activity for 1000ms before the 500ms prior to the start of the Backswing. Two different clubs were also studied. Three-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare methods, muscles and clubs. Two-way mixed Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) with absolute agreement was used to determine the methods reliability. Club type usage showed no influence in onset detection. Rectus abdominis (RA) showed the higher agreement between methods. Erector spinae (ES), on the other hand, showed a very low agreement, that might be related to postural activity before the swing. External oblique (EO) is the first being activated, at 1295ms prior impact. There is a similar activation time between right and left muscles sides, although the right EO showed better agreement between methods than left side. Therefore, the algorithms usage is task- and muscle-dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybrid markerless tracking of complex articulated motion in golf swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Sim Kwoh; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Kiang, Lam Chee; Nadarajah, Sivadev; Sahayadhas, Arun; Ali, Md Asraf; Islam, Md Anamul; Palaniappan, Rajkumar

    2014-04-01

    Sports video tracking is a research topic that has attained increasing attention due to its high commercial potential. A number of sports, including tennis, soccer, gymnastics, running, golf, badminton and cricket have been utilised to display the novel ideas in sports motion tracking. The main challenge associated with this research concerns the extraction of a highly complex articulated motion from a video scene. Our research focuses on the development of a markerless human motion tracking system that tracks the major body parts of an athlete straight from a sports broadcast video. We proposed a hybrid tracking method, which consists of a combination of three algorithms (pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow (LK), normalised correlation-based template matching and background subtraction), to track the golfer's head, body, hands, shoulders, knees and feet during a full swing. We then match, track and map the results onto a 2D articulated human stick model to represent the pose of the golfer over time. Our work was tested using two video broadcasts of a golfer, and we obtained satisfactory results. The current outcomes of this research can play an important role in enhancing the performance of a golfer, provide vital information to sports medicine practitioners by providing technically sound guidance on movements and should assist to diminish the risk of golfing injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation of Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screens and golf swing faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgin, Heather R; Schulte, Brian C; Crawley, Amy A

    2014-02-01

    Although some research in the past has examined how physical limitations in strength or flexibility affect a golfer's performance, the performance outcome most measured was driving distance. Currently, there are no data that have examined the relationship between selected strength and flexibility variables and golf swing faults. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screen variables and 14 common golf swing faults. Thirty-six male and female golfers (mean age, 25.4 ± 9.9 years; height, 175.9 ± 16.2 cm; mass, 76.2 ± 14.6 kg; handicap, 14.2 ± 10.4) participated. Twelve physical tests of strength, flexibility, and balance were assessed using the TPI level 1 golf fitness screening tool. Golfers then hit 4 golf shots (with a 5-iron) while being videoed, and those were then analyzed for 14 different golf swing faults (using V1Pro software). Three significant associations between a physical limitation and a particular golf swing fault were found: toe touch and early hip extension (p = 0.015), bridge on right side with both early hip extension (p = 0.050), and loss of posture (p = 0.028). In addition, an odds ratio showed that when a golfer could not overhead deep squat or single leg balance on left side, they were 2-3 times more likely to exhibit a early hip extension, loss of posture, or slide during the golf swing, as compared with those who could perform a correct overhead deep squat. Based on our findings, it is important for the golf fitness professional to particularly address a golfer's core strength, balance, and hamstring flexibility to help avoid common golf swing faults, which affect a golfer's ball striking ability and ultimately their performance.

  2. Suitability of Strain Gage Sensors for Integration into Smart Sport Equipment: A Golf Club Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Anton; Zhang, Yuan; Tomažič, Sašo; Kos, Anton

    2017-04-21

    Wearable devices and smart sport equipment are being increasingly used in amateur and professional sports. Smart sport equipment employs various sensors for detecting its state and actions. The correct choice of the most appropriate sensor(s) is of paramount importance for efficient and successful operation of sport equipment. When integrated into the sport equipment, ideal sensors are unobstructive, and do not change the functionality of the equipment. The article focuses on experiments for identification and selection of sensors that are suitable for the integration into a golf club with the final goal of their use in real time biofeedback applications. We tested two orthogonally affixed strain gage (SG) sensors, a 3-axis accelerometer, and a 3-axis gyroscope. The strain gage sensors are calibrated and validated in the laboratory environment by a highly accurate Qualisys Track Manager (QTM) optical tracking system. Field test results show that different types of golf swing and improper movement in early phases of golf swing can be detected with strain gage sensors attached to the shaft of the golf club. Thus they are suitable for biofeedback applications to help golfers to learn repetitive golf swings. It is suggested that the use of strain gage sensors can improve the golf swing technical error detection accuracy and that strain gage sensors alone are enough for basic golf swing analysis. Our final goal is to be able to acquire and analyze as many parameters of a smart golf club in real time during the entire duration of the swing. This would give us the ability to design mobile and cloud biofeedback applications with terminal or concurrent feedback that will enable us to speed-up motor skill learning in golf.

  3. Effect of microbial inoculants on the quality and aerobic stability of bermudagrass round-bale haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, K G; Queiroz, O C M; Romero, J J; Casper, D; Muniz, E; Hamie, J; Adesogan, A T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using 4 commercially available microbial inoculants to improve the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass haylage. We hypothesized that the microbial inoculants would increase the fermentation and aerobic stability of the haylages. Bermudagrass (4-wk regrowth) was harvested and treated with (1) deionized water (control); (2) Buchneri 500 (B500; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Milwaukee, WI) containing 1×10(5) of Pediococcus pentosaceus and 4×10(5) of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788; (3) Biotal Plus II (BPII; Lallemand Animal Nutrition) containing 1.2×10(5) of P. pentosaceus and Propionibacteria freudenreichii; (4) Silage Inoculant II (SI; AgriKing Inc., Fulton, IL) containing 1×10(5) of Lactobacillus plantarum and P. pentosaceus; and (5) Silo King (SK; AgriKing Inc.), containing 1×10(5) of L. plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, and P. pentosaceus, respectively. Forty round bales (8 per treatment; 441±26kg; 1.2×1.2 m diameter) were made and each was wrapped with 7 layers of plastic. Twenty bales were stored for 112 d and the remaining 20 were stored for 30 d and sampled by coring after intermediary storage periods of 0, 3, 7, and 30 d. The pH of control and inoculated haylages sampled on d 3 did not differ. However, B500 and BPII had lower pH (5.77±0.04 vs. 6.16±0.04; 5.06±0.13 vs. 5.52±0.13) than other treatments by d 7 and 30, respectively. At final bale opening on d 112, all treatments had lower pH than the control haylage (4.77±0.07 vs. 5.37±0.07). The B500, BPII, and SI haylages had greater lactic acid and lactic-to-acetic acid ratios than SK and control haylages. No differences were detected in neutral detergent fiber digestibility, dry matter losses, dry matter, lactic and acetic acid concentrations, and yeast and coliform counts. The SK haylage had lower clostridia counts compared with the control (1.19±0.23 vs. 1.99±0.23 cfu/g). Treatments B500, BPII, SI, and SK tended to reduce

  4. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  5. [Golf handicap score is a suitable scale for monitoring rehabilitation after apoplexia cerebri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per; Meden, Per; Knudsen, Lars V; Knudsen, G M; Thomsen, Carsten; Feng, Ling; Pinborg, Lars H

    2015-12-21

    A 67-year-old male was examined nine, 35 and 135 days after stroke using conventional stroke scales, 18 holes of golf, functional MRI (fist closures) and translocator protein imaging of microglial function in the brain using single photon emission computed tomography. The data showed that the over 100-year-old golf handicap scale is better suited for quantifying recovery after stroke than conventional stroke assessment scales, which are prone to ceiling effect. We suggest that rating with golf handicap should be used more widely in stroke research, and we find it tremendously important that these new findings are published before Christmas.

  6. Reliability of P mode event classification using contemporaneous BiSON and GOLF observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoniello, R; Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y P; Garcia, R A

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a comparison of the signals seen in contemporaneous BiSON and GOLF data sets. Both instruments perform Doppler shift velocity measurements in integrated sunlight, although BiSON perform measurements from the two wings of potassium absorption line and GOLF from one wing of the NaD1 line. Discrepancies between the two datasets have been observed. We show,in fact, that the relative power depends on the wing in which GOLF data observes. During the blue wing period, the relative power is mugh higher than in BiSON datasets, while a good agreement has been observed during the red period.

  7. ANALISA INVESTASI DALAM PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN INVESTASI PADA PENGEMBANGAN LAPANGAN GOLF DAN PERUMAHAN CITRARAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njo Anastasia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment in the real estate sector has a great risk, therefore a developer needs to do investment analysis before making a decision. The decision is made by considering the returns from two investment alternatives. The first alternative examined is a 9-hole golf course and housing in proximity to the golf. The second alternative is residential property. Given the above conditions, the purpose of this research is to help the developer to make the proper investment decision, based on which alternative has the higher return. Two data collection methods are used in this research, including interviews and a survey which was done by distributing questionnaires to develop a profile of golfers and purchasers as well as potential residential purchasers. Forecasting analysis using the Holt-Winters model was used for forecasting the number of golfers. The Box-Jenkins model was utilized to forecast residential sales. The forecasting results were used for cash flow analysis. The results show that the first alternative produces a higher IRR (25,16% per year and NPV of Rp.25.056.800.000 , relative to the the second alternative with an IRR of 16,72% per year and NPV of Rp.4.794.945.000. Thus, the first alternative, a 9-hole golf course and housing in proximity to the golf, was selected. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Investasi di bidang real estat mengandung risiko besar, sehingga pengembang perlu melakukan analisa investasi sebelum mengambil keputusan. Pengambilan keputusan adalah dengan mempertimbangkan tingkat pengembalian dua alternatif investasi. Alternatif pertama adalah properti 9-hole lapangan golf dan perumahan dalam bentuk kavling golf. Alternatif kedua adalah properti perumahan saja. Dengan kondisi di atas, maka tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membantu pengembang untuk memutuskan menginvestasikan dananya di alternatif pertama jika tingkat pengembalian investasinya lebih tinggi dibanding alternatif kedua. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah

  8. The science of golf putting a complete guide for researchers, players and coaches

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the motor performance and biomechanics of golf putting, providing methodologies, studies and approaches to this concept. Presenting outcomes of research published over the past six years, it offers guidelines from a scientifically oriented perspective, and employs new technologies and mathematical methods to assess golf putting. The chapters cover aspects such as pendulum-like motion in sports, setting up the experimental design, and performance metrics for putting variables. Paving the way for an improved understanding of what leads to failure and success in golf putting, this book offers an invaluable reference source for sports scientists, engineers and mathematicians, as well as golfers.

  9. Golf Balls, Boomerangs and Asteroids The Impact of Missiles on Society

    CERN Document Server

    Kaye, Brian H

    1996-01-01

    Exciting reading for anyone with a curious mind!. 'Walking one day by a golf course in Wisconsin, I was startled to hear a sharp bang as a golf ball narrowly missed my head and hit a tree. My companion cheerfully remarked, 'That could have killed you, you know.' I picked up the innocent looking little white ball and looked at it with new respect.'. Prompted by this perilous experience, Brian Kaye has written a delightful and informative book on the design and behavior of different kinds of missiles from golf balls, arrows, and slingshots to comets and rockets to outer space. You'll learn about

  10. Tiller size/density compensation in grazed Tifton 85 bermudagrass swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbrissia André Fischer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the tiller size/density compensation mechanism in Tifton 85 bermudagrass swards grazed by sheep under continuous stocking. Treatments corresponded to four sward steady state conditions (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm of sward surface height, maintained by sheep grazing. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Pasture responses evaluated include: tiller population density, tiller mass, leaf mass and leaf area per tiller, and herbage mass. Tiller volume, leaf area index, tiller leaf/stem ratio, and tiller leaf area/volume ratio were calculated and simple regression analyses between tiller population density and tiller mass were performed. Measurements were made in December, 1998, and January, April, and July, 1999. The swards showed a tiller size/density compensation mechanism in which high tiller population densities were associated with small tillers and vice-versa, except in July, 1999. Regression analyses revealed that linear coefficients were steeper than the theoretical expectation of -3/2. Increments in herbage mass were attributable to increases in tiller mass in December and January. Leaf area/volume ratio values of Tifton 85 tillers were much lower than those commonly found for temperate grass species.

  11. Elucidating polyploidization of bermudagrasses as assessed by organelle and nuclear DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsen, Osman; Ceylan, Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    Clarification of relationships among ploidy series of Cynodon accessions could be beneficial to bermudagrass breeding programs, and would enhance our understanding of the evolutionary biology of this warm season grass species. This study was initiated to elucidate polyploidization among Cynodon accessions with different ploidy series collected from Turkey based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA. Forty Cynodon accessions including 7 diploids, 3 triploids, 10 tetraploids, 11 pentaploids, and 9 hexaploids were analyzed using chloroplast DNA restriction fragment-length polymorphism (cpDNA RFLP), chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat (cpDNA SSR), and nuclear DNA markers based on neighbor-joining (NJ) and principle component analyses (PCA). All three-marker systems with two statistical algorithms clustered the diploids apart from the other ploidy levels. Assuming autopolyploidy, spontaneous polyploidization followed by rapid diversification among the higher ploidy levels than the diploids is likely in Cynodon's evolution. Few tetraploid and hexaploid accessions were clustered with or closely to the group of diploids, supporting the hypothesis above. Eleven haplotypes as estimated by cpDNA RFLP and SSR markers were detected. This study indicated that the diploids had different organelle genome from the rest of the ploidy series and provided valuable insight into relationships among ploidy series of Cynodon accessions based on cp and nuclear DNAs.

  12. Switchgrass, Bermudagrass, Flaccidgrass, and Lovegrass biomass yield response to nitrogen for single and double harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindhakshan, Sijesh C.; Epplin, Francis M.; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been identified as a model dedicated energy crop species. After a perennial grass is established, the major variable costs are for nitrogen (N) fertilizer and harvest. Prior to establishing switchgrass on millions of ha in a particular agro-climatic region, it would be useful to determine switchgrass yield response to N and its response to harvest frequency relative to alternative grass species. The objective of this research is to determine biomass yield response to N for four perennial grass species and to determine the species, N level, and harvest frequency that will maximize expected net returns, given the climate and soils of the U.S.A. Southern Plains. Yield data were produced in an experiment that includes four species (switchgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), and carostan flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum)), four N levels, and two harvest levels. Linear response plateau (LRP), linear response stochastic plateau (LRSP), and quadratic response (QR) functions are estimated. For all combinations of biomass and N prices considered, the optimal species is switchgrass. For most price situations, it is economically optimal to fertilize established stands of switchgrass with 69 kg N ha -1 yr -1 and to harvest once yr -1 after senescence.

  13. Switchgrass, Bermudagrass, Flaccidgrass, and Lovegrass biomass yield response to nitrogen for single and double harvest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravindhakshan, Sijesh C.; Epplin, Francis M. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-6026 (United States); Taliaferro, Charles M. [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been identified as a model dedicated energy crop species. After a perennial grass is established, the major variable costs are for nitrogen (N) fertilizer and harvest. Prior to establishing switchgrass on millions of ha in a particular agro-climatic region, it would be useful to determine switchgrass yield response to N and its response to harvest frequency relative to alternative grass species. The objective of this research is to determine biomass yield response to N for four perennial grass species and to determine the species, N level, and harvest frequency that will maximize expected net returns, given the climate and soils of the U.S.A. Southern Plains. Yield data were produced in an experiment that includes four species (switchgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), and carostan flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum)), four N levels, and two harvest levels. Linear response plateau (LRP), linear response stochastic plateau (LRSP), and quadratic response (QR) functions are estimated. For all combinations of biomass and N prices considered, the optimal species is switchgrass. For most price situations, it is economically optimal to fertilize established stands of switchgrass with 69 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and to harvest once yr{sup -1} after senescence. (author)

  14. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  15. Water quality, pesticide occurrence, and effects of irrigation with reclaimed water at golf courses in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Reuse of treated wastewater for golf course irrigation is an increasingly popular water management option in Florida, where growth has put stress on potable water supplies. Surface water, ground water, and irrigation water were sampled at three pairs of golf courses quarterly for one year to determine if pesticides were present, and the effect of irrigation with treated effluent on ground-water quality, with an emphasis on interactions of effluent with pesticides. In addition to the six paired golf courses, which were in central Florida, ground water was sampled for pesticides and other constituents at three more golf courses in other parts of the State. This study was the first to analyze water samples from Florida golf courses for a broad range of pesticides. Statistical methods based on the percentage of data above detection limits were used to determine the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water on ground-water quality. Shallow ground water at golf courses irrigated with treated effluent has higher concentrations of chloride, lower concentrations of bicarbonate, and lower pH than ground water at golf courses irrigated with water from carbonate aquifers. There were no statistically significant differences in nutrient concentrations in ground water between paired golf courses grouped by irrigation water type at a 95 percent confidence level. The number of wells where pesticides occurred was significantly higher at the paired golf courses using ground water for irrigation than at ones using reclaimed water. However, the limited occurrences of individual pesticides in ground water make it difficult to correlate differences in irrigation- water quality with pesticide migration to the water table. At some of the golf courses, increased pesticide occurrences may be associated with higher irrigation rates, the presence of well-drained soils, and shallow depths to the surficial aquifer. Pesticides used by golf courses for turf grass maintenance were detected in

  16. Off site transport of fungicides with snowmelt and rainfall runoff from golf course fairway turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides associated with the turfgrass industry have been detected in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds; inferring contaminant contributions from residential, urban, and recreational sources. Golf course turf often requires multiple applications of pesticides at rates that exceed...

  17. Improving performance in golf: current research and implications from a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kerrie; Tuttle, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Golf, a global sport enjoyed by people of all ages and abilities, involves relatively long periods of low intensity exercise interspersed with short bursts of high intensity activity. To meet the physical demands of full swing shots and the mental and physical demands of putting and walking the course, it is frequently recommended that golfers undertake golf-specific exercise programs. Biomechanics, motor learning, and motor control research has increased the understanding of the physical requirements of the game, and using this knowledge, exercise programs aimed at improving golf performance have been developed. However, while it is generally accepted that an exercise program can improve a golfer's physical measurements and some golf performance variables, translating the findings from research into clinical practice to optimise an individual golfer's performance remains challenging. This paper discusses how biomechanical and motor control research has informed current practice and discusses how emerging sophisticated tools and research designs may better assist golfers improve their performance.

  18. Golf Tourism: A Research Profile and Security Perceptions in Belek, Antalya, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın Aksu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aim to determine the current profile of sampled golf tourists visiting Belek, Antalya in high season and their perceptions of security using questionnaires to survey golf tourists in the sample were evaluated separately. The sample consisted of a survey profile of 280 golf tourists and their responses regarding security perceptions for Belek, Antalya. Chi-square testing and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Despite some negative developments in Turkey (such as terrorist attacks, the majority of golf tourists still remain satisfied and motivated to recommend the destination to others. The results of the study would be of help for tourism professionals, academicians and decision makers especially in developing future marketing strategies for Belek.

  19. Effects of golf course management on subsurface soil properties in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Matthew T.; Schilling, Keith E.

    2018-05-01

    Currently, in the USA and especially in the Midwest region, urban expansion is developing turfgrass landscapes surrounding commercial sites, homes, and recreational areas on soils that have been agriculturally managed for decades. Often, golf courses are at the forefront of conversations concerning anthropogenic environmental impacts as they account for some of the most intensively managed soils in the world. Iowa golf courses provide an ideal location to evaluate whether golf course management is affecting the quality of soils at depth. Our study evaluated how soil properties relating to soil health and resiliency varied with depth at golf courses across Iowa and interpreted relationships of these properties to current golf course management, previous land use, and inherent soil properties. Systematic variation in soil properties including sand content, NO3, and soil organic matter (SOM) were observed with depth at six Iowa golf courses among three landform regions. Variability in sand content was identified between the 20 and 50 cm depth classes at all courses, where sand content decreased by as much as 37 %. Highest concentrations of SOM and NO3 were found in the shallowest soils, whereas total C and P variability was not related to golf course management. Sand content and NO3 were found to be directly related to golf course management, particularly at shallow depths. The effects of golf course management dissipated with depth and deeper soil variations were primarily due to natural geologic conditions. The two abovementioned soil properties were very noticeably altered by golf course management and may directly impact crop productivity, soil health, and water quality, and while NO3 may be altered relatively quickly in soil through natural processes, particle size of the soil may not be altered without extensive mitigation. Iowa golf courses continue to be developed in areas of land use change from historically native prairies and more recently agriculture to

  20. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum on Reducing Soluble Phosphorus in Successive Runoff Events from a Coastal Plain Bermudagrass Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Torbert, H Allen

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the threat that pastures intensively managed with poultry litter (PL) pose to accelerating eutrophication is a major issue in the southeastern United States. Gypsum (CaSO) has been identified as a promising management tool for ameliorating litter P losses to runoff. Thus, research was conducted to elucidate gypsum's residual effects on P losses from a bermudagrass ( L.) pasture. Runoff events (60 min) were created using rainfall simulations. Treatments consisted of applying four flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum rates (0, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.9 Mg ha) to bermudagrass fertilized with 13.4 Mg ha PL plus a nonfertilized check (no litter or gypsum) and 8.9 Mg ha FGD gypsum only as controls. Rainfall simulations (∼ 85 mm h) were conducted immediately, 5 wk, and 6 mo (i.e., at the end of growing season) after PL application to determine gypsum's effectiveness at controlling P loss over successive runoff events. The greatest dissolved P (DP) in runoff occurred immediately after PL application. Gypsum effectively reduced cumulative DP concentration losses (54%) compared with PL alone in initial runoff events. Gypsum reduced DP concentrations in succeeding runoff events also regardless of timing, suggesting that its effect is persistent and will not diminish over a growing season. Generally, maximum DP reductions were achieved with 8.9 Mg ha. However, it was surmised from this study that optimal P reduction in a bermudagrass pasture can be achieved with 4.4 Mg ha. Information ascertained from this study may be useful in aiding land managers making prescriptions for management practices that reduce DP losses from agricultural fields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Classification of genetic variation for cadmium tolerance in Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] using physiological traits and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Luo, Hongji; Hu, Longxing; Sun, Xiaoyan; Lou, Yanhong; Fu, Jinmin

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic pollutants that caused severe threats to animal and human health. Bermudagrass is a dominant species in Cd contaminated soils, which can prevent Cd flow and spread. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variations in major physiological traits related to Cd tolerance in six populations of Bermudagrass collected from China, and to examine the genetic diversity and relationships among these accessions that vary in Cd tolerance using molecular markers. Plants of 120 accessions (116 natural accessions and 4 commercial cultivars) were exposed to 0 (i.e. control) or 1.5 mM CdSO4·8/3H2O for 3 weeks in hydroponic culture. Turf quality, transpiration rate, chlorophyll content, leaf water content and growth rate showed wide phenotypic variation. The membership function method was used to comprehensively evaluate Cd-tolerance. According to the average subordinate function value, four accessions were classified as the most tolerant genotypes and four accessions as Cd-sensitive genotypes. The trend of Cd tolerance among the six studied populations was as follows: Hunan > South China > North China > Central China > West South China and Xinjiang population. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of accessions from the same or adjacent regions were clustered into the same groups or subgroups, and the accessions with similar cadmium tolerance displayed a close phylogenetic relationship. Screening genetically diverse germplasm by combining the physiological traits and molecular markers could prove useful in developing Cd-tolerant Bermudagrass for the remediation of mill tailings and heavy metal polluted soils.

  2. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory to Implement a Golf Scramble

    OpenAIRE

    Glenna G. Bower

    2013-01-01

    This study introduced how Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory was used across the four-mode learning cycle of abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, concrete experience and reflective observation as a pedagogical tool for implementing a golf scramble. The primary research question was to see whether Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory four-mode learning cycle was an effective means for implementing a the golf scramble. The participants of the experiential learning experience wer...

  3. Differential accumulation of dehydrins in response to water stress for hybrid and common bermudagrass genotypes differing in drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Wang, Zhaolong; Du, Hongmei; Huang, Bingru

    2010-01-15

    Expression of dehydrin proteins may be induced or enhanced by environmental stresses that lead to cell dehydration. The objective of the this study was to investigate genetic variation in dehydrin protein accumulation in response to drought stress of whole-plants or dehydration of detached leaves and to identify dehydrins differentially expressed in bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) genotypes differing in drought tolerance. Plants of four hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodondactylon L. xCynodontransvaalensis L.) ('Tifway', 'Tifdwarf', 'Tifeagle', 'Kan1') and four common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) ('C299', 'Sportbermuda', 'H10', and 'H19') genotypes were subjected to 14d of drought stress and detached leaves of two genotypes were exposed to dehydration in growth chambers. Turf quality and leaf relative water content (RWC) decreased while electrolyte leakage (EL) increased during whole-plant drought stress for all genotypes, with more pronounced changes in each parameter for 'C299' and 'Tifeagle' than those for other genotypes ('Tifway', 'Kan 1', 'Sportbermuda', 'H10', and H19'), suggesting that the former two genotypes were more sensitive to drought stress than the other genotypes. During dehydration of detached leaves, relative water loss rate (RWL) was significantly lower in drought-tolerant 'Tifway' than in drought-sensitive 'C299'. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that no dehydrin polypeptides were detected in all genotypes under well-watered conditions. A 24-kDa polypeptide was detected in 'C299' at 6 d of drought, but not in the other genotypes. The dehydrin polypeptides of about 14-74kDa accumulated at 10d of drought stress and in a range of RWL for detached leaves, and two dehydrins (31 and 40kDa) exhibited differential accumulation in the drought-sensitive 'C299' and tolerant 'Tifway', as demonstrated by the whole-plant drought responses. The 31-kDa dehydrin polypeptide was present only in 'Tifway' and 'H19' at 10d of drought stress, and accumulated with the

  4. O golfe e os rumos do Cabo Verde independente = Golfing and the independent Cape Verde directions = El golf y los caminos del Cabo Verde independiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo, Victor Andrade de

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Em função de uma série de peculiaridades, o golfe tem desempenhado um importante papel na história de Cabo Verde. A prática, que tem uma longa trajetória no arquipélago, em diversas ocasiões foi mobilizada a fim de materializar a ideia de que o cabo-verdiano era portador de um alto padrão civilizacional. No período colonial, essa foi uma das estratégias pelos nativos usada para lidar com o jugo da metrópole, argumento utilizado para requisitar maior respeito às especificidades e atenção às necessidades locais. O que terá mudado nas considerações sobre esse esporte quando chegou a independência (1975? Que diferenças podem ser sentidas nas décadas seguintes? Neste artigo, argumentamos que os discursos sobre a modalidade nos ajudam a lançar um olhar sobre os debates acerca dos rumos do país insular nos últimos 40 anos

  5. Kinetic constrained optimization of the golf swing hub path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Steven M; McGinnis, Ryan S

    2014-12-01

    This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power) of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study. Key PointsThe hand path trajectory is an important characteristic of the golf swing and greatly affects club head velocity and golfer/club energy transfer.It is possible to increase the energy transfer from the golfer to the club by modifying the hand path and swing trajectories without increasing the kinetic output demands on the golfer.It is possible to identify relative kinetic output strengths and weakness of a golfer through assessment of the hand path and swing trajectories.Increasing any one of the kinetic outputs of the golfer can potentially increase the club head velocity at impact.The hand path trajectory has important influences over the club swing trajectory.

  6. The Biomechanics of the Modern Golf Swing: Implications for Lower Back Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael H; Grimshaw, Paul N

    2016-03-01

    The modern golf swing is a complex and asymmetrical movement that places an emphasis on restricting pelvic turn while increasing thorax rotation during the backswing to generate higher clubhead speeds at impact. Increasing thorax rotation relative to pelvic rotation preloads the trunk muscles by accentuating their length and allowing them to use the energy stored in their elastic elements to produce more power. As the thorax and pelvis turn back towards the ball during the downswing, more skilled golfers are known to laterally slide their pelvis toward the target, which further contributes to final clubhead speed. However, despite the apparent performance benefits associated with these sequences, it has been argued that the lumbar spine is incapable of safely accommodating the forces they produce. This notion supports a link between the repeated performance of the golf swing and the development of golf-related low back injuries. Of the complaints reported by golfers, low back injuries continue to be the most prevalent, but the mechanism of these injuries is still poorly understood. This review highlights that there is a paucity of research directly evaluating the apparent link between the modern golf swing and golf-related low back pain. Furthermore, there has been a general lack of consensus within the literature with respect to the methods used to objectively assess the golf swing and the methods used to derived common outcome measures. Future research would benefit from a clear set of guidelines to help reduce the variability between studies.

  7. Where do golf driver swings go wrong? Factors influencing driver swing consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Shan, G

    2014-10-01

    One of the challenging skills in golfing is the driver swing. There have been a large number of studies characterizing golf swings, yielding insightful instructions on how to swing well. As a result, achieving a sub-18 handicap is no longer the top problem for golfers. Instead, players are now most troubled by a lack of consistency during swing execution. The goal of this study was to determine how to consistently execute good golf swings. Using 3D motion capture and full-body biomechanical modeling, 22 experienced golfers were analysed. For characterizing both successful and failed swings, 19 selected parameters (13 angles, 4 time parameters, and 2 distances) were used. The results showed that 14 parameters are highly sensitive and/or prone to motor control variations. These parameters sensitized five distinct areas of swing to variation: (a) ball positioning, (b) transverse club angle, (c) transition, (d) wrist control, and (e) posture migration between takeaway and impact. Suggestions were provided for how to address these five distinct problem areas. We hope our findings on how to achieve consistency in golf swings will benefit all levels of golf pedagogy and help maintain/develop interests to involve more golf/physical activity for a healthy lifestyle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Orbital fracture and eyeball rupture caused by golf-club injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of an orbital fracture and an eyeball rupture caused by a golf-club injury. A 75-year-old man was struck in his right eye by a golf club while watching behind his son swinging a hybrid-type golf club at his home. A 70-mm muscle-depth laceration was present in the infraorbital area with active bleeding. Computed tomographic imaging of the face revealed a rupture of the right eyeball; fractures in the superior, medial, lateral, and inferior wall of the right orbit; a fracture in the right zygomaticofrontal junction; and a small amount of pneumocephalus in the parafalx region. Under general anesthesia, evisceration of the right eyeball was performed. Not only golfers but also people just watching or passing by can be injured by an errantly struck golf ball or swung golf club. Elderly people as well as children should be instructed in technique and safety and also be supervised when playing golf. Also, the public should be educated about the risk of eye injuries and the benefits of wearing a protective eyewear.

  9. Golf-Related Low Back Pain: A Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David M.; Vandervoort, Anthony A.

    2014-01-01

    Golf is a popular sport with both perceived and real health benefits. However, certain injury risks are also prevalent, particularly to the lower back. Epidemiological studies have shown that lower back pain (LBP) from golf account for between 18% and 54% of all documented ailments, leading many researchers to regard the condition as the most common golf injury. The purpose of this review was to examine the scientific literature to ascertain the risk factors associated with the development of LBP from playing golf and suggest methods to modify or limit these factors. Results of the review indicate that the high frequency of LBP appears multi-factorial although the asymmetrical and forceful nature of the swing along with excessive play and practice, particularly amongst elite players, appear to be common factors. Other factors include swing flaws leading to excessive side-bend and over-rotation of the spine, abnormal muscle recruitment, poor trunk endurance, restricted lead hip internal rotation and the use of unnecessarily stressful club transportation methods. Methods to help control or eliminate excessive stress on the lower back would include reducing the amount spent playing or practicing, seeking professional assistance to assess and adjust swing mechanics, improve trunk and hip flexibility, increase the strength and endurance of the trunk musculature, consider different footwear options and avoid carrying the golf bag. Adopting some or all of these recommendations should allow players to continue to enjoy the sport of golf well into their senior years. PMID:25741420

  10. R&W Club Frederick Hosts Second Annual Golf Tourney for The Children’s Inn | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On Sept. 8, more than 40 NCI at Frederick and Leidos Biomedical Research employees, along with family and friends, swapped work clothes for golf gear at Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown. The golfers didn’t just play for fun; they participated in the second annual R&W Club Frederick Golf Tournament to support The Children’s Inn

  11. R&W Club Frederick Raises $1,500 for The Children’s Inn at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four government and contractor employees, along with their friends and family members, took to the Maryland National Golf Club course this fall for a cause. The R&W Club Frederick held its third annual golf tournament at the Middletown, Md., golf course on Sept. 14 to raise funds for The Children’s Inn at NIH, which celebrated its 25th anniversary this year. The Inn

  12. Effect of monensin withdrawal on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin withdrawal and cattle subspecies on the utilization of bermudagrass hay (14.3% CP, 72.3% NDF, and 36.9% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos Taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatme...

  13. Effect of monensin inclusion on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-t...

  14. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the protective effect of exogenous polyamines in the bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) response to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2013-11-01

    Polyamines conferred enhanced abiotic stress tolerance in multiple plant species. However, the effect of polyamines on abiotic stress and physiological change in bermudagrass, the most widely used warm-season turfgrasses, are unknown. In this study, pretreatment of exogenous polyamine conferred increased salt and drought tolerances in bermudagrass. Comparative proteomic analysis was performed to further investigate polyamines mediated responses, and 36 commonly regulated proteins by at least two types of polyamines in bermudagrass were successfully identified, including 12 proteins with increased level, 20 proteins with decreased level and other 4 specifically expressed proteins. Among them, proteins involved in electron transport and energy pathways were largely enriched, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and three antioxidant enzymes were extensively regulated by polyamines. Dissection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels indicated that polyamine-derived H2O2 production might play dual roles under abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, accumulation of osmolytes was also observed after application of exogenous polyamines, which is consistent with proteomics results that several proteins involved in carbon fixation pathway were mediated commonly by polyamines pretreatment. Taken together, we proposed that polyamines could activate multiple pathways that enhance bermudagrass adaption to salt and drought stresses. These findings might be applicable for genetically engineering of grasses and crops to improve stress tolerance.

  15. Screening exogenous fibrolytic enzyme preparations for improved in vitro digestibility of bermudagrass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Arriola, K G; Gonzalez, C F; Silva-Sanchez, C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2015-04-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of 12 exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products (EFE) on ruminal in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) and preingestive hydrolysis of a 4-wk regrowth of bermudagrass haylage (BH), to examine the accuracy of predicting NDFD with EFE activity measures, and to examine the protein composition of the most and least effective EFE at increasing NDFD. In experiment 1, effects of 12 EFE on NDFD of BH were tested. Enzymes were applied in quadruplicate to culture tubes containing ground BH. The suspension was incubated for 24 h at 25 °C before addition of rumen fluid media and further incubation for 24 h at 39 °C. The experiment was repeated twice. In addition, regression relationships between EFE activity measures and NDFD were examined. Compared with the values for the control, 9 EFE-treated substrates had greater NDFD (37.8 to 40.4 vs. 35.6%), 6 had greater total VFA concentration (59.1 to 61.2 vs. 55.4 mM), and 4 had lower acetate-to-propionate ratios (3.03 to 3.16 vs. 3.24). In experiment 2, EFE effects on preingestive fiber hydrolysis were evaluated by incubating enzyme-treated and untreated bermudagrass suspensions in quadruplicate for 24 h at 25 °C and examining fiber hydrolysis measures. Compared with values for the control, 3 EFE reduced neutral detergent fiber concentration (62.8 to 63.7 vs. 67.3%), 10 increased release of water-soluble carbohydrates (26.8 to 58.5 vs. 22.8 mg/g), and 8 increased release of ferulic acid (210 to 391 vs. 198 μg/g). Regression analyses revealed that enzyme activities accurately [coefficient of determination (R(2)) = 0.98] predicted preingestive hydrolysis measures (water-soluble carbohydrates, ferulic acid), moderately (R(2) = 0.47) predicted neutral detergent fiber hydrolysis, but poorly (R(2) ≤ 0.1) predicted dry matter and NDFD. In experiment 3, proteomic tools were used to examine the protein composition of the most and least effective EFE at improving NDFD. Relative to

  16. Tiller size/population density compensation in grazed Coastcross bermudagrass swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbrissia André Fischer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several compensatory mechanisms in pastures do not allow optimisation of responses from the processes of herbage production and utilisation. Compensation due to tiller size/density relationships is one of these mechanisms. This experiment evaluated this process for Coastcross bermudagrass and compared the responses to those reported for temperate forages. Treatments were "steady state" sward surface heights of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm that were maintained from August, 1998, through July, 1999 by sheep grazing. The experimental design was a randomised complete block, replicated four times. Pasture responses were evaluated on four separate dates (15/12/1998, 25/01/1999, 07/04/1999 and 04/07/1999 with respect to: tiller population density, tiller weight, leaf mass and leaf area per tiller and herbage mass (biomass. Tiller volume, leaf area index (LAI, tiller leaf:stem ratio and tiller leaf area:volume ratio (R were calculated. Simple regression analyses between tiller population density and tiller weight were also performed. Coastcross swards showed a tiller size/density compensation mechanism where high tiller population densities were associated with small tillers and vice-versa; except on the last evaluation. However, regression analysis revealed linear coefficients of -3.83 to -2.05, which are lower than the theoretical expectation of -3/2. The lower R values observed, when compared to those reported for perennial ryegrass, suggest that Coastcross swards optimised their LAI via clonal integration among tillers in contrast with tillers of cool-season grasses that respond more as individuals. However, this hypothesis has yet to be experimentally verified.

  17. Bermudagrass Management in the Southern Piedmont U.S. IV. Soil Surface Nitrogen Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of nitrogen (N applied in forage-based agricultural systems is important for understanding the long-term production and environmental impacts of a particular management strategy. We evaluated the factorial combination of three types of N fertilization (inorganic, crimson clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.] cover crop plus inorganic, and chicken [Gallus gallus] broiler litter pressure and four types of harvest strategy (unharvested forage, low and high cattle [Bos Taurus] grazing pressure, and monthly haying in summer on surface residue and soil N pools during the first 5 years of ̒Coastal̓ bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers. management. The type of N fertilization used resulted in small changes in soil N pools, except at a depth of 0 to 2 cm, where total soil N was sequestered at a rate 0.2 g ‧ kg–1‧ year–11 greater with inorganic fertilization than with other fertilization strategies. We could account for more of the applied N under grazed systems (76–82% than under ungrazed systems (35–71%. As a percentage of applied N, 32 and 48% were sequestered as total soil N at a depth of 0 to 6 cm when averaged across fertilization strategies under low and high grazing pressures, respectively, which was equivalent to 6.8 and 10.3 g ‧ m–2 ‧ year–1. Sequestration rates of total soil N under the unharvested-forage and haying strategies were negligible. Most of the increase in total soil N was at a depth of 0 to 2 cm and was due to changes in the particulate organic N (PON pool. The greater cycling of applied N into the soil organic N pool with grazed compared with ungrazed systems suggests an increase in the long-term fertility of soil.

  18. Fiber digestion kinetics and protein degradability characteristics of stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechler, S R; Mullenix, M K; Holland, C M; Muntifering, R B

    2017-09-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine effects of N fertilization level on fiber digestion kinetics and protein degradability characteristics of stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass (T85). Six 0.76-ha pastures of stockpiled T85 were cut to a 10-cm stubble height on August 1 of each yr and fertilized with 56 (56N), 112 (112N), or 168 (168N) kg N/ha (2 pastures/treatment). Fiber digestion kinetics included the 72-hr potential extent of NDF digestion (PED), rate of NDF digestion, and lag time. In yr 1 and 2, PED decreased over the stockpile season. Rates of NDF digestion did not differ ( > 0.05) among N fertilization treatments in either yr. In yr 1, rate of NDF digestion was greatest ( digestion decreased ( digestion rates were similar for November and January 21 sampling dates. Lag time was greater ( digestion ( = -0.60 and -0.25 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) was observed. There was a trend ( = 0.06) for lignin concentration to be positively correlated with lag time ( = 0.39) in yr 1, and a strong relationship was observed in yr 2 ( = 0.91; digestion in stockpiled T85 were influenced more by temporal changes over the stockpile season than by N fertilization level. Supplement formulations based on kinetic parameters of fiber digestion may require periodic adjustment to insure that energy-yielding components of NDF are sufficient to meet animal requirements throughout the stockpile season. The CP fraction in stockpiled T85 contains sufficient RDP to support fibrolytic activity and growth of ruminal microorganisms throughout the stockpile season. Toward the latter end of the season, supplementation with sources of digestible fiber and RDP could be expected to increase MP supply to the host animal.

  19. RNA-seq for gene identification and transcript profiling in relation to root growth of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Li, Huiying; Chen, Liang; Lou, Yanhong; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-08-04

    Soil salinity is one of the most significant abiotic stresses affecting plant shoots and roots growth. The adjustment of root architecture to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in salinity is particularly critical for plant growth and survival. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used turf and forage perennial grass with a high degree of salinity tolerance. Salinity appears to stimulate the growth of roots and decrease their mortality in tolerant bermudagrass. To estimate a broad spectrum of genes related to root elongation affected by salt stress and the molecular mechanisms that control the positive response of root architecture to salinity, we analyzed the transcriptome of bermudagrass root tips in response to salinity. RNA-sequencing was performed in root tips of two bermudagrass genotypes contrasting in salt tolerance. A total of 237,850,130 high quality clean reads were generated and 250,359 transcripts were assembled with an average length of 1115 bp. Totally, 103,324 unigenes obtained with 53,765 unigenes (52 %) successfully annotated in databases. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that major transcription factor (TF) families linked to stress responses and growth regulation (MYB, bHLH, WRKY) were differentially expressed in root tips of bermudagrass under salinity. In addition, genes related to cell wall loosening and stiffening (xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases, peroxidases) were identified. RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes encoding TFs involved in the regulation of lignin synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis controlled by peroxidases, and the regulation of phytohormone signaling that promote cell wall loosening and therefore root growth under salinity.

  20. Difference in peak weight transfer and timing based on golf handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Robin M; Butler, Robert J; Dai, Boyi; Barnes, C Lowry

    2013-09-01

    Weight shift during the golf swing has been a topic of discussion among golf professionals; however, it is still unclear how weight shift varies in golfers of different performance levels. The main purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the changes in the peak ground reaction forces (GRF) and the timing of these events between high (HHCP) and low handicap (LHCP) golfers and (b) the differences between the leading and trailing legs. Twenty-eight male golfers were recruited and divided based on having an LHCP 9. Three-dimensional GRF peaks and the timing of the peaks were recorded bilaterally during a golf swing. The golf swing was divided into different phases: (a) address to the top of the backswing, (b) top of the backswing to ball contact, and (c) ball contact to the end of follow through. Repeated measures analyses of variance (α = 0.05) were completed for each study variable: the magnitude and the timing of peak vertical GRF, peak lateral GRF, and peak medial GRF (α = 0.05). The LHCP group had a greater transfer of vertical force from the trailing foot to the leading foot in phase 2 than the HHCP group. The LHCP group also demonstrated earlier timing of peak vertical force throughout the golf swing than the HHCP group. The LHCP and HHCP groups demonstrated different magnitudes of peak lateral force. The LHCP group had an earlier timing of peak lateral GRF in phase 2 and earlier timing of peak medial GRF in phases 1 and 2 than the HHCP group. In general, LHCP golfers demonstrated greater and earlier force generation than HHCP golfers. It may be relevant to consider both the magnitude of the forces and the timing of these events during golf-specific training to improve performance. These data reveal weight shifting differences that can be addressed by teaching professionals to help their students better understand weight transfer during the golf swing to optimize performance.

  1. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  2. Design and fabrication hazard stakes golf course polymeric foam material empty bunch (EFB) fiber reinforced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfahmi; Syam, B.; Wirjosentono, B.

    2018-02-01

    A golf course with obstacles in the forms of water obstacle and lateral water obstacle marked with the stakes which are called golf course obstacle stake in this study. This study focused on the design and fabrication of the golf course obstacle stake with a solid cylindrical geometry using EFB fiber-reinforced polimeric foam composite materials. To obtain the EFB fiber which is free from fat content and other elements, EFB is soaked in the water with 1% (of the watre total volume) NaOH. The model of the mould designed is permanent mould that can be used for the further refabrication process. The mould was designed based on resin-compound paste materials with talc powder plus E-glass fiber to make the mould strong. The composition of polimeric foam materials comprised unsaturated resin Bqtn-Ex 157 (70%), blowing agent (10%), fiber (10%), and catalyst (10%). The process of casting the polimeric foam composit materials into the mould cavity should be at vertical casting position, accurate interval time of material stirring, and periodical casting. To find out the strength value of the golf course obstacle stake product, a model was made and simulated by using the software of Ansys workbench 14.0, an impact loading was given at the height of 400 mm and 460 mm with the variation of golf ball speed (USGA standard) v = 18 m/s, v = 35 m/s, v = 66.2 m/s, v = 70 m/s, and v = 78.2 m/s. The clarification showed that the biggest dynamic explicit loading impact of Fmax = 142.5 N at the height of 460 mm with the maximum golf ball speed of 78.2 m/s did not experience the hysteresis effect and inertia effect. The largest deformation area occurred at the golf ball speed v = 66.2 mm/s, that is 18.029 mm (time: 2.5514e-004) was only concentrated around the sectional area of contact point of impact, meaning that the golf course obstacle stakes made of EFB fiber-reinforced polymeric foam materials have the geometric functional strength that are able to absorb the energy of golf ball

  3. Pesticide-free management of weed on golf courses: Current situation and future challenges, European Journal of Turfgrass Science 45(2/14)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Mette Dahl; Norman Petersen, Karin; Aamlid, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    Restrictions on use of pesticides on recreational areas including golf courses are encouraged by EU legislation. Denmark has introduced legislation in 2013 and set an upper limit on how much pesticide can be used on golf courses. Weeds can impair on golf course quality and must be controlled, esp...

  4. Preferential location for arterial dissection presenting as golf-related stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M H; Hong, J M; Lee, J S; Shin, D H; Choi, H A; Lee, K

    2014-02-01

    Golf-related stroke has not been systematically reviewed. The purpose of our study was to describe in detail this particular stroke syndrome. Seven patients were analyzed at a university hospital and 7 patients were reviewed from MEDLINE literature. General demographics, symptom onset, neurologic signs, radiologic findings, and outcome were investigated. A total of 14 patients including 7 patients from the MEDLINE search were analyzed; all were men, with a mean age of 46.9 ± 12.8 years. Symptom onset was classified as during the golf swing (n = 9), unknown (n = 3), and after playing golf (n = 2). Most patients (n = 12) showed involvement of the vertebral artery and 2 patients showed involvement of the internal carotid artery (P = .008). Nine dissections were found on the right side, 3 on the left side, and 2 were bilateral (P = .046). Twelve patients had extracranial involvement and 2 patients had intracranial involvement (P = .008). Seven patients returned to normal, 5 returned to independence, 1 had unknown status, and 1 died. The anatomic preference of golf-related craniocervical arterial dissection is associated with the extracranial and vertebrobasilar system with a right-sided tendency as the result of stereotypical rotational movement during a golf swing.

  5. Synchronized metronome training induces changes in the kinematic properties of the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marius; Häger, Charlotte; Rönnqvist, Louise

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on movement dynamics during golf-swing performance, as captured by kinematic analysis. A one-group, between-test design was applied on 13 male golfers (27.5 +/- 4.6 years old, 12.7 +/- 4.9 handicap) who completed 12 sessions of SMT over a four-week period. Pre- and post-assessments of golf swings with three different clubs (4-iron, 7-iron, and pitching wedge) were performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Club velocity at three different swing phases (backswing, downswing, and follow-through) was measured and cross-correlation analysis of time-series signals were made on joint couplings (wrist-elbow-shoulder) of both arms, and between joints and the club, during the full golf swing. There were significantly higher cross-correlations between joint-couplings and concomitant changes of the associated phase-shift differences, as well as reduced phase-shift variability at post-test. No significant effect of SMT was found for the club velocities. We suggest that domain-general influences of SMT on the underlying brain-based motor control strategies lead to a more coordinated movement pattern of the golf-swing performance, which may explain previous observations of significantly improved golf-shot accuracy and decreased variability after SMT.

  6. FERTILIZER SOURCE EFFECTS ON PHOSPHORUS AND NITRATE-N LEACHING FROM SIMULATED GOLF GREENS. (R828007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. The Effect of Biological Movement Variability on the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J.; Keogh, Justin W. L.; Hume, Patria A.; Maulder, Peter S.; Nortje, Jacques; Marnewick, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of neuromotor noise on golf swing performance in high- and low-handicap players. Selected two-dimensional kinematic measures of 20 male golfers (n = 10 per high- or low-handicap group) performing 10 golf swings with a 5-iron club was obtained through video analysis. Neuromotor noise was calculated…

  8. Effect of Cyber-Golfing on Balance Amongst the Elderly in Hong Kong: A Pilot Randomised Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H.K. Chow

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that cyber-golfing might be an alternative to golfing, which is capable of enhancing balance ability amongst community-dwelling elderly. The potential of exergaming as a clinical tool for geriatric rehabilitation was discussed.

  9. Penelitian mutu kulit sarung tangan golf samak krom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Untari

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The Study aimed at improving the quality of chrome-tanned leather for golf floves producted by Indonesian tanners. Samples used in this study were 32. They were visually inspected and tested on their chemical and physical properties. The results of the chemical and physical tests were analyzed using deviation standard in descriptive statistics. It was obtained from the visual inspection of the samples taken that the leather was soft enough, the colour was even, their hair was not loose, and it was flexible but not elastic. While from the Chemical Tests, the results obtained were : water content (13,78 – 16,94 %; Fat Content (6,04 – 11,38 % and pH Valueness (4,43 – 5,19. It was obtained from the physical tests that Thickness (0,32 – 0,64 mm; well tanned; Tensile Strength resistence (106,07 – 109,73 kg/cm2; Flexibility (53,11 – 103,07 %; Slit Tear Resistance (13,48 – 39,22 kgf/cm; Stitch Tear Strength (74,51 – 137,79 kgf/cm, wet rub fastness tst shown a little discolourisation while dry rub fastness test shown no discolourisation.

  10. Think aloud: acute stress and coping strategies during golf performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J

    2008-07-01

    A limitation of the sport psychology coping literature is the amount of time between a stressful episode and the recall of the coping strategies used in the stressful event (Nicholls & Polman, 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a technique to measure acute stress and coping during performance. Five high-performance adolescent golfers took part in Level 2 verbalization think aloud trials (Ericsson & Simon, 1993), which involved participants verbalizing their thoughts, over six holes of golf. Verbal reports were audio-recorded during each performance, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). Stressors and coping strategies varied throughout the six holes, which support the proposition that stress and coping is a dynamic process that changes across phases of the same performance (Lazarus, 1999). The results also revealed information regarding the sequential patterning of stress and coping, suggesting that the golfers experienced up to five stressors before reporting a coping strategy. Think aloud appears a suitable method to collect concurrent stress and coping data.

  11. Kinetic Constrained Optimization of the Golf Swing Hub Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study.

  12. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P < 0.01) for mature body weight (BW) but not for rate of maturing. Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.01) mean mature BW than Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than all genotype x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the

  13. Hip joint torques during the golf swing of young and senior healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Judy L; Millar, Audrey L; Long, Benjamin L; Way, Michael; Vellucci, Matthew W; Vogler, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    Descriptive, laboratory study. To compare the 3-D hip torques during a golf swing between young and senior healthy male amateur golfers. The secondary purpose was to compare the 3-D hip joint torques between the trail leg and lead leg. The generation of hip torques from the hip musculature is an important aspect of the golf swing. Golf is a very popular activity, and estimates of hip torques during the golf swing have not been reported. Twenty healthy male golfers were divided into a young group (mean ± SD age, 25.1 ± 3.1 years) and a senior group (age, 56.9 ± 4.7 years). All subjects completed 10 golf swings using their personal driver. A motion capture system and force plates were used to obtain kinematic and kinetic data. Inverse dynamic analyses were used to calculate 3-D hip joint torques of the trail and lead limbs. Two-way analyses of covariance (group by leg), with club-head velocity as a covariate, were used to compare peak hip torques between groups and limbs. Trail-limb hip external rotator torque was significantly greater in the younger group compared to the senior group, and greater in the trail leg versus the lead leg. When adjusting for club-head velocity, young and senior healthy male amateur golfers generated comparable hip torques during a golf swing, with the exception of the trail-limb hip external rotator torque. The largest hip torque found was the trail-limb hip extensor torque.

  14. Evaluation of golf courses water demand in southern of Portugal for the last three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago Pedras, Celestina M.; Lança, Rui M.; Martins, Fernando; Fernandez, Helena; Vieira, Cristina; Monteiro, José Paulo; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Golf is an economic activity with a prominent position in the tourist-sport offer in the region of Algarve. Located in southern of Portugal, this region is the most suitable region for the growth of the golf industry. The climate is characterized by mild winters with slight rainfall and hot and dry summers. The region has an annual average temperature of 14oC and annual precipitation that rarely exceeds 500 mm year-1. Since most of the rainfall occurs concentrated in the winter, irrigation is needed during the remaining months of the year to meet the water demand from plants. A proper irrigation management will allow to optimize the use water, thus it constitutes a key issue for the sustainability of this activity in areas subjected to water scarcity. Currently, remote sensing provides the tools to assess the evolution of the greenish quality of the area in the golf courses. In this study, based on Landsat images, vegetation indices were calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), for the spring and summer seasons during the last 30 years. For the same period, according the data collected from weather stations distributed in the region, maps of precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind were produced. According the current maintenance practices and irrigation cycles, maps of potential and real evapotranspiration and with basis on the water balance were calculated, and water deficit maps estimated. Upon crossing this information with the NDVI maps, trends were identified in the consumption of water for irrigation due to the growth of the occupied area by golf courses in the region of Algarve. Since drought problems tend to increase due to climate changes, it becomes relevant the need to conduct this study aiming the research of strategies to ensure the beneficial use of water on golf courses and other turfgrass areas. Keywords: evapotranspiration, golf, irrigation, NDVI, water deficit

  15. The role of biomechanics in maximising distance and accuracy of golf shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Patria A; Keogh, Justin; Reid, Duncan

    2005-01-01

    Golf biomechanics applies the principles and technique of mechanics to the structure and function of the golfer in an effort to improve golf technique and performance. A common recommendation for technical correction is maintaining a single fixed centre hub of rotation with a two-lever one-hinge moment arm to impart force on the ball. The primary and secondary spinal angles are important for conservation of angular momentum using the kinetic link principle to generate high club-head velocity. When the golfer wants to maximise the distance of their drives, relatively large ground reaction forces (GRF) need to be produced. However, during the backswing, a greater proportion of the GRF will be observed on the back foot, with transfer of the GRF on to the front foot during the downswing/acceleration phase. Rapidly stretching hip, trunk and upper limb muscles during the backswing, maximising the X-factor early in the downswing, and uncocking the wrists when the lead arm is about 30 degrees below the horizontal will take advantage of the summation of force principle. This will help generate large angular velocity of the club head, and ultimately ball displacement. Physical conditioning will help to recruit the muscles in the correct sequence and to optimum effect. To maximise the accuracy of chipping and putting shots, the golfer should produce a lower grip on the club and a slower/shorter backswing. Consistent patterns of shoulder and wrist movements and temporal patterning result in successful chip shots. Qualitative and quantitative methods are used to biomechanically assess golf techniques. Two- and three-dimensional videography, force plate analysis and electromyography techniques have been employed. The common golf biomechanics principles necessary to understand golf technique are stability, Newton's laws of motion (inertia, acceleration, action reaction), lever arms, conservation of angular momentum, projectiles, the kinetic link principle and the stretch

  16. Scintigraphic diagnosis of sport injuries: Multiple fractures of ribs by golf-players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohle, W.; Schuemichen, C.; Hoffmann, G.; Keul, J.; Kluemper, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three untrained golf-players suffered from pain in the dorsal region of the left thorax after some training hours. Three to four weeks after the pains had begun serial fractures of ribs were diagnosed by sup(99m)Tc-MDP bonescan-examinations. All fractures were localized near the costal angulus (paravertebral) of these ribs. The fractures are caused by manual tensions. The difficulties in timing the bone-scan and in identifying the morphologic substrate are demonstrated. It is recommended, that golf-players suffering from thoracic pain ought to be examined by bone scan. (orig.) [de

  17. Manufacturing of golf club using wood-plastic combination produced by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Masayuki; Tsujii, Yukio; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Miyoshi, Hirofumi; Chubachi, Mitsuo; Takada, Hisatoshi.

    1992-01-01

    Wood-plastic combination (WPC) was produced by γ-irradiation of persimmon impregnated with acrylonitrile and styrene. The hardness and strength of WPC obtained were higher than those of an unmodified wood. Thus, it was found that the WPC is suited for a head of golf club, because the Shore hardness value of WPC is 36% greater than that of unmodified wood. An impregnation method of monomers with some pigments could produce colored WPC without diminishing natural grain. Head of golf club could be manufactured from colored WPC in practice. (auhtor)

  18. Scintigraphic diagnosis of sport injuries: Multiple fractures of ribs by golf-players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, W; Schuemichen, C; Hoffmann, G; Keul, J; Kluemper, A

    1981-02-01

    Three untrained golf-players suffered from pain in the dorsal region of the left thorax after some training hours. Three to four weeks after the pains had begun serial fractures of ribs were diagnosed by sup(99m)Tc-MDP bonescan-examinations. All fractures were localized near the costal angulus (paravertebral) of these ribs. The fractures are caused by manual tensions. The difficulties in timing the bone-scan and in identifying the morphologic substrate are demonstrated. It is recommended, that golf-players suffering from thoracic pain ought to be examined by bone scan.

  19. Transformation of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis cv. TifEagle) by means of biolistic bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Lu, S; Chen, T A; Funk, C R; Meyer, W A

    2003-06-01

    A transformation system for triploid bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis cv. TifEagle) was established with a biolistic bombardment delivery system. Embryogenic callus was induced from stolons and maintained on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 30 microM dicamba, 20 microM benzylaminopurine, and 100 mg/l myo-inositol. Using the hygromycin phosphotransferase ( hpt) gene as the selectable marker gene, we obtained 75 transgenic lines from 18 petri dishes bombarded. Integration of the hpt gene into genomic DNA and transcription of hpt was confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analyses, respectively. Through suspension culture screening, we obtained homogeneously transformed plants showing stable transcription of the hpt gene.

  20. Factors Influencing Dislodgeable 2, 4-D Plant Residues from Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) Athletic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Matthew D; Gannon, Travis W; Brosnan, James T; Ahmed, Khalied A; Breeden, Gregory K

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has confirmed 2,4-D residues may dislodge from turfgrass; however, experiments have not been conducted on hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis), the most common athletic field turfgrass in subtropical climates. More specifically, previous research has not investigated the effect of post-application irrigation on dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from hybrid bermudagrass and across turfgrass species, research has been nondescript regarding sample time within a d (TWD) or conducted in the afternoon when the turfgrass canopy is dry, possibly underestimating potential for dislodgement. The effect of irrigation and TWD on 2,4-D dislodgeability was investigated. Dislodgeable 2,4-D amine was reduced > 300% following irrigation. From 2 to 7 d after treatment (DAT), ≤ 0.5% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged from irrigated turfgrass, while ≤ 2.3% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged when not irrigated. 2,4-D dislodgeability decreased as TWD increased. Dislodgeable 2,4-D residues declined to < 0.1% of the applied at 1 DAT- 13:00, and increased to 1 to 3% of the applied 2 DAT- 5:00, suggesting 2,4-D re-suspended on treated turfgrass vegetation overnight. In conclusion, irrigating treated turfgrass reduced dislodgeable 2,4-D. 2,4-D dislodgeability increased as TWD decreased, which was attributed to non-precipitation climatic conditions favoring turfgrass canopy wetness. This research will improve turfgrass management practices and research designed to minimize human 2,4-D exposure.

  1. Triazole Fungicides Sensitivity of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa in Korean Golf Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical management of dollar spot in turf may lead to the development of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa populations with reduced fungicide sensitivity. The objective of this study was to investigate resistance of S. homoeocarpa isolates to triazole fungicides and to test cross-resistance among three triazole fungicides. A total of 66 isolates of S. homoeocarpa were collected from 15 golf courses across Korea, and tested via in vitro sensitivity assay against hexaconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole. EC₅₀ values of the isolates to these fungicides were distributed in the range of 0.001–1.1 a. i. μg ml−1. Based on the EC₅₀ values, twelve representative strains were selected as sensitive isolates including control and insensitive isolates with respect to each fungicide. At a concentration of 0.1 a. i. μg ml−1 for all fungicides, the selected strains were distinguished as sensitive or resistant isolates with the mycelial growth inhibition rate of 50% as the criterion. The EC₅₀ values of resistant strains exposed to hexaconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole were 20–50 times, 50–70 times, and 77 times greater, respectively, than that of the control strains. Two isolates of S. homoeocarpa S0–41 and Sh14-2-1 showed sensitivity toward all the fungicides used, while two other isolates Sh7-5-1 and Sh2-1-1 showed resistance to all fungicides. Each isolate showed similar resistance to the three types of triazole fungicides, whereby cross-resistance of isolates was confirmed in the present study; all three triazole fungicide combinations displayed significant correlation coefficients equivalent to or greater than 0.8.

  2. Launch Velocities in Successful Golf Putting: An Analytical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Mahoney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study is concerned with the special case of a putted ball intersecting a standard golf hole at its diameter. The velocity of the ball at the initial rim of the hole is termed the launch velocity and depending upon its value the ball may either be captured or it may escape capture by jumping over the hole. The critical value of the launch velocity (V is such that lesser values result in capture while greater values produce escape. Purpose: Since the value of the V entered prominently in some theoretical studies of putting, the aim of the current study is to provide an original re-evaluation of V and to contrast our results with existing results. Method: This analytical analysis relies on trigonometry in conjunction with Newtonian mechanics and the mathematics of projectiles. The results of a recent study into the mathematics of a bouncing ball which included the notions of restitution and friction were also employed in the analysis. Results: If bouncing and slipping do not occur when the ball hits the far rim of the hole our analysis produces a value of V of 1.356 m/s. When bouncing and slipping are present we find that V is at least 1.609 m/s but increases beyond this value as slipping and friction become greater. Useful relations which relate the dynamics and geometry of the ball to V are provided. Conclusion: Since ambient conditions may influence the extent of bounce and slippage we conjecture that the value of V is not unique.

  3. First record of Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae feeding on Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv. Jiggs, Poaceae in Brazil: morphological and molecular tools for identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro do Prado Ribeiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv. Jiggs is an important food source for dairy cattle in the semi-intensive milk production systems most often used in southern Brazil. Although many insect pests are associated with feed grasses, we report here the first occurrence of the fly Atherigona (Atherigona reversura Villeneuve, 1936 (Diptera: Muscidae feeding on bermudagrass in Brazil. This potential pest was observed in April 2015 in three localities (Abelardo Luz, Palmitos, and Videira in western Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil. The infested plants had senescent and necrotic terminal leaves that reduced plant growth. New growth had to sprout new tillers from basal nodes, which resulted in a reduced plant growth rate. We also provide a morphological identification key (with figures for A. (Atherigona reversura and A. (Acritochaeta orientalis Schiner, 1868. A molecular identification based on COI is also provided to better differentiate species. Keywords: COI gene, Insect pest, Pastures, Plant–insect interaction

  4. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. SSR-enriched genetic linkage maps of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis), and their comparison with allied plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sameer; Kim, Changsoo; Auckland, Susan A; Rainville, Lisa K; Adhikari, Jeevan; Schwartz, Brian M; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-04-01

    We report SSR-enriched genetic maps of bermudagrass that: (1) reveal partial residual polysomic inheritance in the tetraploid species, and (2) provide insights into the evolution of chloridoid genomes. This study describes genetic linkage maps of two bermudagrass species, Cynodon dactylon (T89) and Cynodon transvaalensis (T574), that integrate heterologous microsatellite markers from sugarcane into frameworks built with single-dose restriction fragments (SDRFs). A maximum likelihood approach was used to construct two separate parental maps from a population of 110 F 1 progeny of a cross between the two parents. The T89 map is based on 291 loci on 34 cosegregating groups (CGs), with an average marker spacing of 12.5 cM. The T574 map is based on 125 loci on 14 CGs, with an average marker spacing of 10.7 cM. Six T89 and one T574 CG(s) deviated from disomic inheritance. Furthermore, marker segregation data and linkage phase analysis revealed partial residual polysomic inheritance in T89, suggesting that common bermudagrass is undergoing diploidization following whole genome duplication (WGD). Twenty-six T89 CGs were coalesced into 9 homo(eo)logous linkage groups (LGs), while 12 T574 CGs were assembled into 9 LGs, both putatively representing the basic chromosome complement (x = 9) of the species. Eight T89 and two T574 CGs remain unassigned. The marker composition of bermudagrass ancestral chromosomes was inferred by aligning T89 and T574 homologs, and used in comparisons to sorghum and rice genome sequences based on 108 and 91 significant blast hits, respectively. Two nested chromosome fusions (NCFs) shared by two other chloridoids (i.e., zoysiagrass and finger millet) and at least three independent translocation events were evident during chromosome number reduction from 14 in the polyploid common ancestor of Poaceae to 9 in Cynodon.

  6. CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sedime...

  7. A new method to identify the location of the kick point during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Matthews, Miccal

    2013-12-01

    No method currently exists to determine the location of the kick point during the golf swing. This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the static kick point of 10 drivers (having identical grip and head but fitted with shafts of differing mass and stiffness) was determined by two methods: (1) a visual method used by professional club fitters and (2) an algorithm using 3D locations of markers positioned on the golf club. Using level of agreement statistics, we showed the latter technique was a valid method to determine the location of the static kick point. In phase two, the validated method was used to determine the dynamic kick point during the golf swing. Twelve elite male golfers had three shots analyzed for two drivers fitted with stiff shafts of differing mass (56 g and 78 g). Excellent between-trial reliability was found for dynamic kick point location. Differences were found for dynamic kick point location when compared with static kick point location, as well as between-shaft and within-shaft. These findings have implications for future investigations examining the bending behavior of golf clubs, as well as being useful to examine relationships between properties of the shaft and launch parameters.

  8. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael A., Robert L. Quarles, Darrin D. Dantin and James C. Moore. 2004. Evaluation of a Coastal Golf Complex as a Local and Watershed Source of Bioavailable Contaminants. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48(3-4):254-262. (ERL,GB 1183). Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacte...

  9. A methodological approach for the biomechanical cause analysis of golf-related lumbar spine injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Taeyong; Jang, Dong-Jin; Oh, Euichaul

    2014-01-01

    A new methodological approach employing mechanical work (MW) determination and relative portion of its elemental analysis was applied to investigate the biomechanical causes of golf-related lumbar spine injuries. Kinematic and kinetic parameters at the lumbar and lower limb joints were measured during downswing in 18 golfers. The MW at the lumbar joint (LJ) was smaller than at the right hip but larger than the MWs at other joints. The contribution of joint angular velocity (JAV) to MW was much greater than that of net muscle moment (NMM) at the LJ, whereas the contribution of NMM to MW was greater rather than or similar to that of JAV at other joints. Thus, the contribution of JAV to MW is likely more critical in terms of the probability of golf-related injury than that of NMM. The MW-based golf-related injury index (MWGII), proposed as the ratio of the contribution of JAV to MW to that of NMM, at the LJ (1.55) was significantly greater than those at other joints ( golf-related injuries around the lumbar spine. Therefore, both MW and MWGII should be considered when investigating the biomechanical causes of lumbar spine injuries.

  10. A pilot study of indoor air quality in screen golf courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goung, Sun-Ju Nam; Yang, Jinho; Kim, Yoon Shin; Lee, Cheol Min

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were to provide basic data for determining policies on air quality for multi-user facilities, including the legal enrollment of the indoor air quality regulation as designated by the Ministry of Environment, and to establish control plans. To this end, concentrations of ten pollutants (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), radon (Rn), oxone (O3), total bacteria counts (TBC), and asbestos) in addition to nicotine, a smoking index material used to determine the impact of smoking on the air quality, were investigated in indoor game rooms and lobbies of 64 screen golf courses. The average concentration of none of the ten pollutants in the game rooms and lobbies of screen golf courses was found to exceed the limit set by the law. There were, however, pollutant concentrations exceeding limits in some screen golf courses, in order to establish a control plan for the indoor air quality of screen golf courses, a study on the emission sources of each pollutant was conducted. The major emission sources were found to be facility users' activities such as smoking and the use of combustion appliances, building materials, and finishing materials.

  11. Three-dimensional trunk kinematics in golf: between-club differences and relationships to clubhead speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Cochrane, Jodie; Ball, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether significant three-dimensional (3D) trunk kinematic differences existed between a driver and a five-iron during a golf swing; and (ii) to determine the anthropometric, physiological, and trunk kinematic variables associated with clubhead speed. Trunk range of motion and golf swing kinematic data were collected from 15 low-handicap male golfers (handicap = 2.5 +/- 1.9). Data were collected using a 10-camera motion capture system operating at 250 Hz. Data on clubhead speed and ball velocity were collected using a real-time launch monitor. Paired t-tests revealed nine significant (p golf swing kinematics, namely trunk and lower trunk flexion/extension and lower trunk axial rotation. Multiple regression analyses explained 33.7-66.7% of the variance in clubhead speed for the driver and five-iron, respectively, with both trunk and lower trunk variables showing associations with clubhead speed. Future studies should consider the role of the upper limbs and modifiable features of the golf club in developing clubhead speed for the driver in particular.

  12. Grating Oriented Line-Wise Filtration (GOLF) for Dual-Energy X-ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yan; Cong, Wenxiang; Harrison, Daniel; Wang, Ge

    2017-12-01

    In medical X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), the use of two distinct X-ray source spectra (energies) allows dose-reduction and material discrimination relative to that achieved with only one source spectrum. Existing dual-energy CT methods include source kVp-switching, double-layer detection, dual-source gantry, and two-pass scanning. Each method suffers either from strong spectral correlation or patient-motion artifacts. To simultaneously address these problems, we propose to improve CT data acquisition with the Grating Oriented Line-wise Filtration (GOLF) method, a novel X-ray filter that is placed between the source and patient. GOLF uses a combination of absorption and filtering gratings that are moved relative to each other and in synchronization with the X-ray tube kVp-switching process and/or the detector view-sampling process. Simulation results show that GOLF can improve the spectral performance of kVp-switching to match that of dual-source CT while avoiding patient motion artifacts and dual imaging chains. Although significant flux is absorbed by this pre-patient filter, the proposed GOLF method is a novel path for cost-effectively extracting dual-energy or multi-energy data and reducing radiation dose with or without kVp switching.

  13. EFFECTS OF A COASTAL GOLF COMPLEX ON WATER QUALITY, PERIPHYTON, AND SEAGRASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a golf course complex on water quality, colonized periphyton and seagrass meadows in adjacent freshwater, near-coastal and wetland areas. The environmental impact of the recreational facility, which uses spray wastewater...

  14. Relationships between field-based measures of strength and power and golf club head speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Lloyd, Rhodri S; De Ste Croix, Mark; Oliver, Jon L

    2013-10-01

    Increased golf club head speed (CHS) has been shown to result in greater driving distances and is also correlated with golf handicap. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between field-based measures of strength and power and golf CHS with a secondary aim to determine the reliability of the selected tests. A correlation design was used to assess the following variables: anthropometrics, squat jump (SJ) height and squat jump peak power (SJPP), unilateral countermovement jump (CMJ) heights (right leg countermovement jump and left leg countermovement jump [LLCMJ]), bilateral CMJ heights, countermovement jump peak power (CMJPP), and medicine ball seated throw (MBST) and medicine ball rotational throw (MBRT). Fouty-eight male subjects participated in the study (age: 20.1 ± 3.2 years, height: 1.76 ± 0.07 m, mass: 72.8 ± 7.8 kg, handicap: 5.8 ± 2.2). Moderate significant correlations were reported between CHS and MBRT (r = 0.67; p golf athletes using the proposed battery of field tests. Additionally, movements that are more concentrically dominant in nature may display stronger relationships with CHS due to MBST and SJ displaying the highest explained variance after a stepwise linear regression.

  15. Performance processes within affect-related performance zones: a multi-modal investigation of golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lei, Harry; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2012-12-01

    Individual affect-related performance zones (IAPZs) method utilizing Kamata et al. (J Sport Exerc Psychol 24:189-208, 2002) probabilistic model of determining the individual zone of optimal functioning was utilized as idiosyncratic affective patterns during golf performance. To do so, three male golfers of a varsity golf team were observed during three rounds of golf competition. The investigation implemented a multi-modal assessment approach in which the probabilistic relationship between affective states and both, performance process and performance outcome, measures were determined. More specifically, introspective (i.e., verbal reports) and objective (heart rate and respiration rate) measures of arousal were incorporated to examine the relationships between arousal states and both, process components (i.e., routine consistency, timing), and outcome scores related to golf performance. Results revealed distinguishable and idiosyncratic IAPZs associated with physiological and introspective measures for each golfer. The associations between the IAPZs and decision-making or swing/stroke execution were strong and unique for each golfer. Results are elaborated using cognitive and affect-related concepts, and applications for practitioners are provided.

  16. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

  17. GOLF COURSES AS A SOURCE OF COASTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY: A FLORIDA EXPERIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and biological impacts of two coastal golf courses that receive wastewater spray irrigation were determined during a two-year period. A variety of techniques were used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and their bioavailability in t...

  18. You Don't Have to Be a Professional Golfer to Teach Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kory; Thornburg, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Although physical educators cannot be experts on every sport or activity, there is still a need to include specialized activities in the curriculum that a physical educator may not initially feel comfortable teaching because of inexperience and a lack of expertise. Golf, like other activities such as tennis, requires a specificity of training that…

  19. Assessment of management of a golf course by means of sustainability indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaio Cesare Pacini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Golf courses are supposed to produce remarkable negative effects on the environment, due to some techniques involved in their management. To provide data useful for the proper assessment of the agro-environmental sustainability of a golf course, the framework agro-environmental sustainability information system (AESIS was used, utilizing a set of indicators suitable to evaluate different dimensions of sustainability (physical, ecological, productive and social. The management of areal golf course located in Tuscany (central Italy was compared to an alternative land use of the same area represented by an ordinary farm based on a sunflower-wheat rotation. Assessment indicators were selected by applying a conceptual model based on ecology theory and were calculated considering site-specific production and pedo-climatic features of the area. Different weighting scenarios were hypothesized in order to have different management options assessed and to carry out a targeted sensitivity analysis. Main results confirmed the significant impact of golf management on some ecological characteristics but the holistic assessment of AESIS approach permitted an overall evaluation that comprised a wide range of different issues. AESIS demonstrated to be a practical and adaptive tool able to perform an efficient comparison of possible land destinations.

  20. The Sequence of Hip and Selected Upper-Extremity Joint Movements During the Golf Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Charles L.

    This study analyzed wrist, elbow, and hip actions of golfers who were accurately driving a golf ball a maximum distance. Electrogoniometry and cinematography were used to measure wrist, forearm, elbow, and hip actions during the downswing of 10 low-handicap golfers who were attempting to drive a minimum of 225 yards within a 50-yard corridor.…

  1. Etiologies of pediatric craniofacial injuries: a comparison of injuries involving all-terrain vehicles and golf carts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren C; McKinnon, Brian J; Hughes, C Anthony

    2013-03-01

    To determine incidence and etiologies of craniofacial injuries in the pediatric population through comparison of injuries caused by all-terrain vehicles and golf cart trauma. Case series with chart review. Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective review of pediatric traumas at a tertiary academic medical center from 2003 to 2012 identified 196 patients whose injuries resulted from accidents involving either all-terrain vehicles or golf carts. Data was collected and variables such as age, gender, driver vs. passenger, location of accident, Glasgow coma scale, Injury severity scale, Abbreviated injury scale, and presence or absence of helmet use were examined. 196 pediatric patients were identified: 68 patients had injuries resulting from golf cart accidents, and 128 patients from ATV accidents. 66.4% of ATV-related traumas were male, compared to 52.9% of golf cart-related traumas. Ages of injured patients were similar between the two modalities with average age of ATV traumas 10.8 (±4.0) years and golf cart traumas 10.0 (±4.6) years. Caucasians were most commonly involved in both ATV (79.7%) and golf cart traumas (85.3%). 58.6% of all ATV related trauma and 69.1% of all golf cart trauma resulted in craniofacial injuries. The most common craniofacial injury was a closed head injury with brief loss of consciousness, occurring in 46.1% of the ATV traumas and 54.4% of the golf cart traumas. Temporal bone fractures were the second most common type of craniofacial injury, occurring in 5.5% of ATV accidents and 7.4% of the golf cart traumas. Length of hospital stay and, cases requiring surgery and severity scores were similar between both populations. Intensive care admissions and injury severity scores approached but not reach statistical significance (0.096 and 0.083, respectively). The only statistically significant differences between the two modalities were helmet use (P=0.00018%) and days requiring ventilator assistance (P=0.025). ATVs and golf carts are often exempt

  2. Procedimiento y viabilidad para el envío de paquetes en campos de Golf mediante tecnologia drone

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrosa Cabello, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to study the feasibility of using drones in golf courses and designing an operative use. The first step was to conduct a search for the existence of drones with the ability to carry packages and see if this service currently exists on some golf course. After this search it was concluded that the technology needed to make a delivery of a package with dron exists and that there is no golf course in Europe that performs an operation of this style. The next s...

  3. Skin cancer prevention and detection campaign at golf courses on Spain's Costa del Sol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Boz, J; Fernández-Morano, T; Padilla-España, L; Aguilar-Bernier, M; Rivas-Ruiz, F; de Troya-Martín, M

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer prevention and detection campaigns targeting specific groups are necessary and have proven to be more effective than those aimed at the general population. Interventions in outdoor tourist spots have proven successful, although none have specifically targeted golf courses. The aims of this study were to describe the risk profile of golfers and golf course workers and evaluate the impact of a skin cancer prevention and early detection intervention. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at 6 golf courses. The intervention included a skin examination and completion of a questionnaire about demographic details, risk factors, and sun exposure and sun protection habits. Participants were also given advice on sun protection measures, self-examination, and use of sunscreens, and were asked about their satisfaction with the intervention and their intention to change their current behaviors. The effect was measured in terms of the diagnoses made, satisfaction with the intervention, reported intention to change, and potential effect in terms of existing risk factors. Of the 351 participants (57% golfers and 43% golf course workers), 70.4% had fair skin, 11.7% had a family history of skin cancer, and 8.5% had a personal history of skin cancer. Skin cancer and actinic keratoses were diagnosed in 10.7% and 40% of the golfers, respectively. The session was rated positively by 99.4% of the participants; 93.9% stated that they intended to improve their sun exposure habits and 93.4% said that they planned to examine their skin more frequently. Our findings confirm that golf course workers and, in particular, golfers are an important target for skin cancer prevention campaigns. This is the first intervention to specifically target golf courses, and it proved to be both feasible and useful. Its success appears to be attributable to numerous factors: it was conducted at golf courses, had multiple components, and was preceded by a motivational campaign

  4. The Development and Validation of a Golf Swing and Putt Skill Assessment for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Hardy, Louise L.; Brian, Ali S.; Robertson, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument’s discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test). A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment) was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24). Children (n = 43) aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3) were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1). A subset of children (n = 28) had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3). An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years). Intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3). Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1) and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40) = 11.18, p golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback. Key points Golf is becoming an increasingly popular sport among young children, however there is no standard protocol available to assess and identify skill deficits, mastery level, and talent identification in beginner young golf players. Process rather than product oriented outcomes better identify areas of skill deficit in young children. The proposed swing and putt instrument can reliably identify skill deficits in children of elementary school age who are new to golf and can be used by a range

  5. The development and validation of a golf swing and putt skill assessment for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Hardy, Louise L; Brian, Ali S; Robertson, Sam

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument's discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test). A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment) was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24). Children (n = 43) aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3) were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1). A subset of children (n = 28) had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3). An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years). Intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3). Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1) and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40) = 11.18, p < 0.001). The live assessment reflected the video assessment (ICC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59, 0.90) and scores did not differ between live and video assessments. Test retest reliability was acceptable (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23, 0.82), although the mean score was slightly higher at retest. This instrument could be used reliably by golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback. Key pointsGolf is becoming an increasingly popular sport among young children, however there is no standard protocol available to assess and identify skill deficits, mastery level

  6. Kinematic relationship between rotation of lumbar spine and hip joints during golf swing in professional golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Frederick; Suh, Seung Woo; Park, Hyun-Joon; Choi, Ahnryul

    2015-05-14

    Understanding the kinematics of the lumbar spine and hip joints during a golf swing is a basic step for identifying swing-specific factors associated with low back pain. The objective of this study was to examine the kinematic relationship between rotational movement of the lumbar spine and hip joints during a golf swing. Fifteen professional golfers participated in this study with employment of six infrared cameras to record their golf swings. Anatomical reference system of the upper torso, pelvis and thigh segments, and the location of each hip and knee joint were defined by the protocols of the kinematic model of previous studies. Lumbar spine and hip joint rotational angle was calculated utilizing the Euler angle method. Cross-correlation and angle-angle plot was used to examine the degree of kinematic relationship between joints. A fairly strong coupling relationship was shown between the lumbar spine and hip rotational movements with an average correlation of 0.81. Leading hip contribution to overall rotation was markedly high in the early stage of the downswing, while the lumbar spine contributed greater towards the end of the downswing; however, the relative contributions of the trailing hip and lumbar spine were nearly equal during the entire downswing. Most of the professional golfers participated in this study used a similar coordination strategy when moving their hips and lumbar spine during golf swings. The rotation of hips was observed to be more efficient in producing the overall rotation during the downswing when compared to the backswing. These results provide quantitative information to better understand the lumbar spine and hip joint kinematic characteristics of professional golfers. This study will have great potential to be used as a normal control data for the comparison with kinematic information among golfers with low back pain and for further investigation of golf swing-specific factors associated with injury.

  7. Analysis of impact noise induced by hitting of titanium head golf driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Young Chul; Lee, Jun Hee; An, Yong-Hwi; Park, Kyung Tae; Kang, Kyung Min; Kang, Yeon June

    2014-11-01

    The hitting of titanium head golf driver against golf ball creates a short duration, high frequency impact noise. We analyzed the spectra of these impact noises and evaluated the auditory hazards from exposure to the noises. Noises made by 10 titanium head golf drivers with five maximum hits were collected, and the spectra of the pure impact sounds were studied using a noise analysis program. The noise was measured at 1.7 m (position A) and 3.4 m (position B) from the hitting point in front of the hitter and at 3.4 m (position C) behind the hitting point. Average time duration was measured and auditory risk units (ARUs) at position A were calculated using the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans. The average peak levels at position A were 119.9 dBA at the sound pressure level (SPL) peak and 100.0 dBA at the overall octave level. The average peak levels (SPL and overall octave level) at position B were 111.6 and 96.5 dBA, respectively, and at position C were 111.5 and 96.7 dBA, respectively. The average time duration and ARUs measured at position A were 120.6 ms and 194.9 units, respectively. Although impact noises made by titanium head golf drivers showed relatively low ARUs, individuals enjoying golf frequently may be susceptible to hearing loss due to the repeated exposure of this intense impact noise with short duration and high frequency. Unprotected exposure to impact noises should be limited to prevent cochleovestibular disorders.

  8. Evaluation of water demand in golf courses from southern Portugal during the last three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago Pedras, Celestina M.; Lança, Rui M.; Granja-Martins, Fernando M.; Neto-Paixão, Helena M.; Vieira, Cristina; Monteiro, José P.; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Golf is an economic activity with a prominent position in the tourist-sport offer in the region of Algarve. Located in southern of Portugal, this region is the most suitable region for the growth of the golf industry. The climate is characterized by mild winters with slight rainfall and hot and dry summers. The region has an annual average temperature of 14oC and annual precipitation that rarely exceeds 500 mm year-1. Since most of the rainfall occurs concentrated in the winter, irrigation is needed during the remaining months of the year to meet the water demand from plants. A proper irrigation management will allow to optimize the use water, thus it constitutes a key issue for the sustainability of this activity in areas subjected to water scarcity. Currently, remote sensing provides the tools to assess the evolution of the greenish quality of the area in the golf courses. In this study, based on Landsat images, vegetation indices were calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), for the spring and summer seasons during the last 30 years. For the same period, according the data collected from weather stations distributed in the region, maps of precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind were produced. According the current maintenance practices and irrigation cycles, maps of potential and real evapotranspiration and with basis on the water balance were calculated, and water deficit maps estimated. Upon crossing this information with the NDVI maps, trends were identified in the consumption of water for irrigation due to the growth of the occupied area by golf courses in the region of Algarve. Since drought problems tend to increase due to climate changes, it becomes relevant the need to conduct this study aiming the research of strategies to ensure the beneficial use of water on golf courses and other turfgrass areas.

  9. Golf Course Irrigation with Reclaimed Water in the Mediterranean: A Risk Management Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Salgot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversy regarding the amount of water consumed or saved as a result of human activity is currently paramount in water-scarce areas. In recent decades, golf—a land and water consuming activity—has been implanted in several areas of the Mediterranean basin, where the scarcity of water resources is well-known. As a result, the use of conventional water resources for golf course irrigation is increasingly contested and its replacement by reclaimed water has become essential. This paper examines the wide range of issues involved in its use on golf courses, including hazards—due to the presence of microorganisms and pollutants—and the corresponding risks that can appear. The resulting biological, chemical and physical water quality concerns are analyzed. Legal aspects related to the use of reclaimed water are also discussed and good reuse practices are suggested, including a detailed examination of risk assessment procedures and tools through observation or chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. The HACCP system—which focuses on quality determination in water samples from relevant control points—is described in detail, as it is generally accepted as one of the most scientific ways to detect health problems on a golf course. The paper concludes that, given the increasing availability of treated and reclaimed water and the water needs of golf courses, the future development of the sport in areas without surplus water resources—such as the Mediterranean basin—will predictably depend upon the use of reclaimed water. In recent years, risk assessment or analysis has emerged as an essential tool to guarantee the application of reclaimed water at an acceptable risk level. There certainly have been considerable advances and improvements in the tools that guarantee the safe use of reclaimed water, although current methods available require simplification for their practical application. Nevertheless, protocols applied at present

  10. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  11. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  12. Crescimento do capim-tifton 85 sob doses de nitrogênio e alturas de corte Growth analysis of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under nitrogen fertilization and plant height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os índices de crescimento do capim-tifton 85 adubado com quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 33, 66, 100, e 133 kg/ha de N e colhido em três alturas da planta (30, 40 e 50 cm. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As doses de nitrogênio corresponderam às parcelas e as alturas na data de corte, às subparcelas. Para todas as variáveis analisadas, a interação dose de N × altura da planta não foi significativa. A taxa assimilatória líquida e a taxa de crescimento relativo do capim-tifton 85 aumentaram com as doses de nitrogênio. A razão de área foliar (RAF decresceu linearmente com a altura de corte das plantas, mas aumentou, também de forma linear, com a dose de nitrogênio. De modo linear, a razão de peso foliar decresceu com a altura de corte da planta forrageira e aumentou com a dose de nitrogênio. A área foliar específica do capim-tifton 85 foi influenciada de forma linear e positiva apenas pela adubação nitrogenada. O índice de área foliar (IAF do capim-tifton 85 aumentou cerca de 0,05 unidade a cada centímetro de incremento na altura de corte das plantas. Houve resposta quadrática da dose de nitrogênio no IAF do capim-tifton 85. O acréscimo na altura do capim-tifton 85 na época do corte reduz a participação de lâmina foliar na forragem. A adubação nitrogenada aumenta a taxa de crescimento do capim-tifton 85, portanto, para assegurar colheita eficiente da forragem, ao aumentar a dose de nitrogênio, é necessário reduzir o intervalo de colheita.The objective this study was to evaluate the growth rates of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under four nitrogen levels (0, 33, 66, 100, and 133 kg/ha N and harvested at three plant heights (30, 40 and 50 cm. The experimental design was completely randomized in a split plot scheme with three replications. Nitrogen rates were set in the plots and plants heights in the

  13. The Effects of Resistance Training on Golf Performance and Physiological Stress Response During Competition in Intercollegiate Golfers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doan, Brandon

    2002-01-01

    ...) on clubhead speed, consistency, and putting distance control. 2) To investigate the effects of 36 continuous holes of competitive golf on testosterone and cortisol response and their relation to performance. Study #1...

  14. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  15. Treatment of Travel Expenses by Golf Course Patrons: Sunk or Bundled Costs and the First and Third Laws of Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, Brown; Daniel, Rascher; Chad, McEvoy; Mark, Nagel

    2007-01-01

    To attract golf patrons, sport managers must understand consumption patterns of the golfer. Importantly, the treatment of travel costs must be understood. According to the Alchian-Allen (1964) theorem, golfers treat travel costs as bundled costs (third law of economic demand) whereas classical consumer theory indicates that golfers treat travel costs as sunk costs (first law of economic demand). The purpose of this study was to determine if golf patrons treated travel costs as sunk costs o...

  16. R&W Club Frederick Hosts 4th Annual Golf Tournament Benefiting The Children’s Inn at NIH | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R&W Club Frederick’s 4th Annual Golf Tournament to benefit the Children’s Inn at NIH teed off on time despite cloudy weather and scattered showers. Employees from NCI at Frederick, the main NIH campus, and Leidos Biomed, along with family and friends, came to enjoy an afternoon at the beautiful Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown and to support a wonderful charity.

  17. Methodological considerations for the 3D measurement of the X-factor and lower trunk movement in golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Ball, Kevin

    2010-09-01

    It is believed that increasing the X-factor (movement of the shoulders relative to the hips) during the golf swing can increase ball velocity at impact. Increasing the X-factor may also increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to provide recommendations for the three-dimensional (3D) measurement of the X-factor and lower trunk movement during the golf swing. This three-part validation study involved; (1) developing and validating models and related algorithms (2) comparing 3D data obtained during static positions representative of the golf swing to visual estimates and (3) comparing 3D data obtained during dynamic golf swings to images gained from high-speed video. Of particular interest were issues related to sequence dependency. After models and algorithms were validated, results from parts two and three of the study supported the conclusion that a lateral bending/flexion-extension/axial rotation (ZYX) order of rotation was deemed to be the most suitable Cardanic sequence to use in the assessment of the X-factor and lower trunk movement in the golf swing. The findings of this study have relevance for further research examining the X-factor its relationship to club head speed and lower trunk movement and low back pain in golf.

  18. Effects of golf course construction and operation on water chemistry of headwater streams on the Precambrian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jennifer G.; Dillon, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of golf course construction and operation on the water chemistry of Shield streams, we compared the water chemistry in streams draining golf courses under construction (2) and in operation (5) to streams in forested reference locations and to upstream sites where available. Streams were more alkaline and higher in base cation and nitrate concentrations downstream of operational golf courses. Levels of these parameters and total phosphorus increased over time in several streams during golf course construction through to operation. There was evidence of inputs of mercury to streams on two of the operational courses. Nutrient (phosphorus and nitrogen) concentrations were significantly related to the area of unmanaged vegetation in a 30 x 30 m area on either side of the sampling sites, and to River Bank Quality Index scores, suggesting that maintaining vegetated buffers along the stream on golf courses will reduce in-stream nutrient concentrations. - Golf course construction and operation had a significant impact on alkalinity, nitrogen and base cation concentrations of streams

  19. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M Charlotte

    2016-04-23

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  20. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanas Verikas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each. The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG

  1. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  2. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  3. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  4. Campos de golf y medio ambiente. Una interacción necesaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayetano Espejo Marín

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde finales de la década de los años ochenta del siglo pasado hay una preocupación generalizada por el impacto de los campos de golf sobre el medio ambiente. Varias Comunidades Autónomas españolas han redactado una normativa que permite controlar la incidencia de los campos de golf sobre dos aspectos fundamentales: las transformaciones paisajísticas y la procedencia del agua consumida. Las evaluaciones de impacto ambiental y el uso cada vez más generalizado de aguas depuradas contribuyen a minimizar los efectos sobre el entorno de estas instalaciones, que constituyen una interesante oferta turística de calidad sin estacionalidad.

  5. Quasi-stiffness of the knee joint in flexion and extension during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Sim, Taeyong; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical understanding of the knee joint during a golf swing is essential to improve performance and prevent injury. In this study, we quantified the flexion/extension angle and moment as the primary knee movement, and evaluated quasi-stiffness represented by moment-angle coupling in the knee joint. Eighteen skilled and 23 unskilled golfers participated in this study. Six infrared cameras and two force platforms were used to record a swing motion. The anatomical angle and moment were calculated from kinematic and kinetic models, and quasi-stiffness of the knee joint was determined as an instantaneous slope of moment-angle curves. The lead knee of the skilled group had decreased resistance duration compared with the unskilled group (P golf swing and developing rehabilitation strategies following surgery.

  6. Putting Like a Pro: The Role of Positive Contagion in Golf Performance and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charles; Linkenauger, Sally A.; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A.; Profitt, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    Many amateur athletes believe that using a professional athlete's equipment can improve their performance. Such equipment can be said to be affected with positive contagion, which refers to the belief of transference of beneficial properties between animate persons/objects to previously neutral objects. In this experiment, positive contagion was induced by telling participants in one group that a putter previously belonged to a professional golfer. The effect of positive contagion was examined for perception and performance in a golf putting task. Individuals who believed they were using the professional golfer's putter perceived the size of the golf hole to be larger than golfers without such a belief and also had better performance, sinking more putts. These results provide empirical support for anecdotes, which allege that using objects with positive contagion can improve performance, and further suggest perception can be modulated by positive contagion. PMID:22028804

  7. NCI Takes Back the Defelice Cup at Ninth Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer After being down by a point in the morning, NCI reclaimed the Defelice Cup trophy from Leidos Biomedical Research, with a final score of 12 ½ to 11 ½, at the ninth annual Ronald H. Defelice Golf Tournament, held Oct. 13. “The tightest matches in the nine-year history of this cup competition resulted in a narrow victory for NCI and allowed NCI to

  8. SOCIAL LEGITIMACY VERSUS BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES OF ANDALUSIAN GOLF COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José, Riquel Ligero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts an analysis of organizational motivations when developing policies for environmental liability. Specifically, to compare the production of social legitimacy to the improvement of organizational performance, we proceeded to test two models in a sector which in recent years has opened a wide debate on environmental sustainability. We refer to golf tourism in Andalusia, in which there has been a considerable increase in such facilities. We have used the statistical technique Partial Least Square (PLS.

  9. Helioseismic inferences of the solar cycles 23 and 24: GOLF and VIRGO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Jiménez, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Sun-as-a star helioseismic spectrophotometer GOLF and photometer VIRGO instruments onboard the SoHO spacecraft are collecting high-quality, continuous data since April 1996. We analyze here these unique datasets in order to investigate the peculiar and weak on-going solar cycle 24. As this cycle 24 is reaching its maximum, we compare its rising phase with the rising phase of the previous solar cycle 23.

  10. The Analysis of Knee Joint Movement During Golf Swing in Professional and Amateur Golfers

    OpenAIRE

    M.Somjarod; V. Tanawat; l. Weerawat

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of knee movement during swing importance for golf swing improving and preventing injury. Thirty male professional and amateur golfers were assigned to swing time by time for 3 times. Data from a vedio-based motion capture were used to compute knee joint movement variables. The results showed that professional and amateur golfers were significantly in left knee flexion angle at the impact point and mid follow through phase. Nevertheless, left knee externa...

  11. A COMPARISON OF GOLF SHOE DESIGNS HIGHLIGHTS GREATER GROUND REACTION FORCES WITH SHORTER IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Worsfold

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce golf turf damage the traditional metal spike golf shoe has been redesigned, but shoe-ground biomechanical evaluations have utilised artificial grass surfaces. Twenty-four golfers wore three different golf shoe traction designs (traditional metal spikes, alternative spikes, and a flat-soled shoe with no additional traction when performing shots with a driver, 3 iron and 7 iron. Ground action forces were measured beneath the feet by two natural grass covered force platforms. The maximum vertical force recorded at the back foot with the 3 iron and 7 iron was 0.82 BW (body weight and at the front foot 1.1 BW approximately in both the metal spike and alternative spike golf shoe designs. When using the driver these maximal vertical values were 0.49 BW at the back foot and 0.84 BW at the front foot. Furthermore, as performance of the backswing and then downswing necessitates a change in movement direction the range of force generated during the complete swing was calculated. In the metal spike shoe the vertical force generated at the back foot with both irons was 0.67 BW and at the front foot 0.96 BW with the 3 iron and 0.92 BW with the 7 iron. The back foot vertical force generated with the driver was 0.33 BW and at the front foot 0.83 BW wearing the metal spike shoe. Results indicated the greater force generation with the irons. When using the driver the more horizontal swing plane associated with the longer club reduced vertical forces at the back and front foot. However, the mediolateral force generated across each foot in the metal and alternative spike shoes when using the driver was greater than when the irons were used. The coefficient of friction was 0. 62 at the back and front foot whichever shoe was worn or club used

  12. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  13. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of baseball bats and golf clubs. Environmental research brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischman, M.; Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing baseball bats and golf clubs -- approximately 1,500,000 bats/yr and 550,000 golf clubs/yr. To make the bats, wood billets are oven-dried and machined to a standard dimension. After sanding they are branded and finished. The golf clubs are made by finishing and assembling purchased heads and shafts. The team's report detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the most waste, other than rinse water discharged to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW) and wood turnings which are sold, consists of scrap cardboard and paper from the shop and offices, and that the greatest savings, including new income, could be obtained by segregating the cardboard and paper wastes for sale to a local recycler.

  14. Examination of the suitability of collecting in event cognitive processes using Think Aloud protocol in golf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Elizabeth Whitehead

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined the use of think aloud (TA protocol as a means for collecting data of cognitive processes during performance in golf. In study 1, TA was employed to examine if different verbalisation (Level 2 or Level 3 TA instructions influence performance of high and low skilled golfers. Participants performed 30 putts using TA at either Level 2, Level 3, or no verbalization condition. Although Level 3 verbalization produced a higher volume of verbal data than Level 2, TA at either level 2 or 3 did not impair putting performance compared to no verbalization. Study 2 examined the congruence between data collected via TA at Level 3 and cued retrospective recall of cognitive processes during golf performance. Experienced golfers performed six holes of golf whilst engaging in Level 3 TA. After performance, three semi-structured retrospective interviews were conducted (ten minutes after performance, 24 hours after performance and 48 hours after performance. A comparison of the themes identified large discrepancies between the information reported during TA and at interview, with only 38-41% similarity in variables reported to influence decision making on each hole. Both studies suggest TA is a valuable method for recording cognitive processes of individuals during task performance. TA provides richer verbal data regarding decisions than cued retrospective recall, and TA does not negatively impact performance.

  15. Relationships between golf range users’ participation motivation, satisfaction, and exercise adherence intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Ran Shim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This paper aims to identify the relationship between participation motivation, satisfaction and exercise adherence intention of golf range users on the basis of self-determination theory. Design/methodology/approach - For this purpose, the authors proposed research questions and a conceptual research model as well. Then, the authors surveyed users of golf ranges located in Seoul Metropolitan City and Gyeonggi-do province. Findings - By applying convenience sampling, the authors received a total of 313 questionnaires. Results were as follows. First, among the participation motivation sub-factors, health-oriented motivation, achievement motivation, pleasure-oriented motivation and self-displayed motivation had a significant effect on emotional satisfaction, while achievement motivation and pleasure-orientation motivation had a significant effect on performance satisfaction. Second, the following participation motivation factors had a significant effect on exercise adherence intention: health-orientation motivation, achievement motivation and pleasure-orientation motivation. Third, among the satisfaction factors, emotional satisfaction and performance satisfaction both had a significant effect on exercise adherence intention. Originality/value - This is one of the first papers to examine the relationships that exist between golf range users’ participation motivation, satisfaction and exercise adherence intention.

  16. In Their Own Words: Stakeholder Perceptions of the Golf World Cup, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Sealy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for the formulation of a sport tourism event policy for the island of Barbados. Although some research has been conducted on the residents’ perceptions of major sporting events including the Olympic Games, smaller but globally significant events such as the Golf World Cup have received little attention from researchers. Less attention has been given to sport events in the Caribbean. This dearth in knowledge has inspired the direction of this study, which is, to explore the stakeholder perceptions of the Golf World Cup which was hosted in Barbados in December 2006. The data collection process adopted included semi-structured interviews with the Barbados tourism private sector. The 65 participants in this study highlighted a diversity of mainly congruent views. Private sector participants contend that the Golf World Cup was socially exclusive and perpetuated social divisions rather than ameliorated them. Many stakeholders felt that the event was culturally alienating and highlighted the failure of the organisers to undertake stakeholder consultations. The findings in this study can make a worthwhile contribution to the marketing, management and design of future events and the direction of policy formulation for sport events on the island of Barbados and the wider Caribbean.

  17. Visual and anatomic outcomes of golf ball-related ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S J; Park, K H; Heo, J W; Woo, S J

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics and prognoses of golf ball-related ocular injuries (GROIs) using standardized terminology, classification, and scoring systems. Twenty-two GROI patients were assessed using the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology, Ocular Trauma Classification Group (OTCG) classification, and Ocular Trauma Score. Globe preservation and final visual acuity (FVA) were assessed according to the injury severity categorical designation. Fourteen patients were injured on golf courses and eight on driving ranges. Nine patients (40.9%) had open-globe injuries (five ruptures (22.7%), four penetrating injuries (18.2%)). All rupture cases required enucleation, whereas penetrating injury cases did not (the FVA ranged from 20/100 to no light perception). In open-globe injuries, wearing glasses protected against rupture (P=0.008). Thirteen patients sustained closed-globe injuries that were accompanied by lens subluxation (38.5%), choroidal rupture (30.8%), macular commotio retinae (38.5%), and traumatic optic neuropathy (7.7%). Twelve (54.5%) patients had orbital wall fractures. The mean number of related surgeries required was 1.5±1.7 across all patients. Eyes with GROIs had devastating FVA and globe preservation status, especially those with open-globe injuries. Observing golf rules and improving driving-range facilities are essential for preventing GROIs. Protective eyewear may reduce ocular damage from GROIs, especially globe rupture.

  18. Golf-course and funnel energy landscapes: Protein folding concepts in martensites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaraiah, N.

    2017-06-01

    We use protein folding energy landscape concepts such as golf course and funnel to study re-equilibration in athermal martensites under systematic temperature quench Monte Carlo simulations. On quenching below a transition temperature, the seeded high-symmetry parent-phase austenite that converts to the low-symmetry product-phase martensite, through autocatalytic twinning or elastic photocopying, has both rapid conversions and incubation delays in the temperature-time-transformation phase diagram. We find the rapid (incubation delays) conversions at low (high) temperatures arises from the presence of large (small) size of golf-course edge that has the funnel inside for negative energy states. In the incubating state, the strain structure factor enters into the Brillouin-zone golf course through searches for finite transitional pathways which close off at the transition temperature with Vogel-Fulcher divergences that are insensitive to Hamiltonian energy scales and log-normal distributions, as signatures of dominant entropy barriers. The crossing of the entropy barrier is identified through energy occupancy distributions, Monte Carlo acceptance fractions, heat emission, and internal work.

  19. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael A.; Quarles, Robert L.; Dantin, Darrin D.; Moore, James C.

    2004-01-01

    Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacted by golf course runoff is not well understood. This report summarizes trace metal, pesticide and PCB residues for colonized periphyton, Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass), Callinectes sapidus Rathbun (blue crabs) and Crassostrea virginica Gemlin (Eastern oyster) collected from areas adjacent to a Florida golf course complex which receive runoff containing reclaimed municipal wastewater. Concentrations of 19 chlorinated pesticides and 18 PCB congeners were usually below detection in the biota. In contrast, 8 trace metals were commonly detected although concentrations were not usually significantly different for biota collected from reference and non-reference coastal areas. Residue concentrations in decreasing order were typically: zinc, arsenic, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, cadmium and mercury. Mean BCF values for the eight trace metals ranged between 160-57 000 (periphyton), 79-11 033 (R. maritima), 87-162 625 (C. virginica) and 12-9800 (C. sapidus). Most trace metal residues in periphyton colonized adjacent to the golf complex, were either similar to or significantly less than those reported for periphyton colonized in nearby coastal areas impacted by urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal and industrial wastewater discharges. Consequently, the recreational complex does not appear to be a major source of bioavailable contaminants locally nor in the immediate watershed based on results for the selected biota

  20. Electromyographic analyses of the erector spinae muscles during golf swings using four different clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike C

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyography (EMG) patterns of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the erector spinae (ES) muscle during the golf swing whilst using four different golf clubs. Fifteen right-handed male golfers performed a total of twenty swings in random order using the driver, 4-iron, 7-iron and pitching-wedge. Surface EMG was recorded from the lead and trail sides of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the ES muscle (T8, L1 and L5 lateral to the spinous-process). Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to identify the backswing, forward swing, acceleration, early and late follow-through phases of the golf swing. No significant differences in muscle-activation levels from the lead and trail sides of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the ES muscle were displayed between the driver, 4-iron, 7-iron and pitching-wedge (P > 0.05). The highest mean thoracic and lumbar ES muscle-activation levels were displayed in the forward swing (67-99% MVC) and acceleration (83-106% MVC) phases of the swing for all clubs tested. The findings from this study show that there were no significant statistical differences between the driver, 4-iron, 7-iron and pitching-wedge when examining muscle activity from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the ES muscle.

  1. The effects of golf training in patients with stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachten, Tobias; Jansen, Petra

    2015-05-01

    Stroke is the most common neurological disease and the primary cause of lifelong disability in industrialized countries. Because of this it is important to investigate any kind of successful therapy. From the 24 recruited stroke patients who were between 23 and 72 years old, 14 patients were separated either in a golf training group (EG), or a social communication meeting (CG). Both groups met for one hour sessions, twice a week, for ten weeks. All participants completed assessment tests before and after the experimental period: cognitive tests measuring attention (Go/No-Go task), visual-spatial memory (Block-Tapping test) and mental rotation performance (MRT); a balance test (Berg Balance Scale), and an emotional well-being test (CES-D-Scale). The results show that both groups improved in the CES Scale, the block-tapping test and the balance test. In addition, stroke patients who received a golf training showed a significant improvement in the MRT comparing to the control group (CG). It is indicated that golf training can improve visual imagery ability in stroke patients, even late after stroke.

  2. PREFERENSI PENGHUNI TINGGAL DI APARTEMEN BERSUBSIDI THE MODERN GOLF KOTA TANGERANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Dea Arijani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemenuhan kebutuhan perumahan layak bagi masyarakat menengah kebawah dan pembangunan perumahan vertikal menjadi sangat penting dalam mengurangi kepadatan. The Modern Golf Apartement menjadi apartemen bersubsidi pertama yang dibangun di kota Tangerang dengan statusnya yang bersubsidi memiliki daya tarik tersendiri bagi para penghuni untuk tinggal. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui preferensi dan tujuan penghuni untuk tinggal di apartemen bersubsidi The Modern Golf. Metode analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif kuantitatif dengan teknik sampling stratified random sampling. Berdasarkan analisis, diketahui bahwa faktor penghuni tinggal di apartemen bersubsidi The Modern Golf yang memiliki preferensi paling tinggi berdasakan nilai rata-ratanya yaitu faktor kemudahan aksesibilitas menuju sarana perdagangan dengan nilai rata-rata 4,63. Hal ini diperkuat dengan adanya berbagai jenis sarana perdagangan yang dapat memudahkan penghuni untuk memenuhi kebutuhannya tanpa perlu keluar dari kawasan The Modernland, serta terdapat kecenderungan aktivitas bahwa penghuni akan menuju ke sarana perdagangan baik mall maupun pusat pertokoan setelah pulang bekerja. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa adanya fenomena masyarakat perkotaan yang cenderung konsumtif serta tingginya minat masyarakat terhadap hunian yang berada di pusat kota dengan dilengkapi dengan sarana prasarana pendukung.

  3. Numerical study on the aerodynamics of a golf ball and its comparison with a smooth sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Tsubokura, Makoto; Tsunoda, Masaya

    2014-11-01

    The present study has numerically investigated the flow over a golf ball and a smooth sphere by conducting large-eddy simulation (LES) using hundreds of millions of unstructured elements. Simulations were conducted at various Reynolds numbers ranging from the subcritical to the supercritical regimes. Special attention was paid to the phenomenon of drag crisis as well as the effect of surface roughness on the drag crisis. The simulation result shows that the surface roughness introduced by the dimples of the golf ball causes a local instability of the flow around the ball and subsequently leads to a momentum transfer in the near-wall region inside the dimples. The flow with high momentum in the near-wall region travels further downstream, which consequently results in the drag crisis occurring at a relatively lower Reynolds number compared with that of the smooth sphere. Moreover, the Magnus effect resulting from the rotating motion of a sphere was also one of the main concerns in this study. The simulation result shows that lift forces are imposed on both the rotating smooth sphere and rotating golf ball. For most cases the lift force points to the positive direction, however, the negative lift force appears also under certain conditions.

  4. Peran Pemerintah dalam Perencanaan Pembangunan Lapangan Golf Kintamani dengan Prinsip Pariwisata Berkelanjutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning a tourist destination, some aspects need to be considered concerning government’s role, surrounding society, and sustainable development principles. The project of golf court in caldera Gunung Batur must be analysed by some experts. This study aims to anticipate some new troubles that might come up when the construction of golf court begins. Above it all, every study has opportunity to be applied whether by regional or national government, who responsibly takes control of the region, once they approved the project. Based on it, the plan of golf court construction in Kintamani, Bangli regency, Bali Province (as cited by www.bisnisbali.com on 27th January 2011 proposed by Ministre Jero Wacik and approved by the parlement members of DPRD Bangli, concerns the principles of sustainable tourism which could prevent, especially Kintamani region, from deconstructed side effects of the development. This research applies qualitative-descriptive method supported by literature review and news from media, especially online media which are able to provide the actual news from Kintamani region.

  5. Genotype x environment interactions in preweaning traits of purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman calves on common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Tharel, L M; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1993-02-01

    Preweaning data on 486 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross calves (AB, BA) managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interactions of forage type and sex of calf with direct effects, individual heterosis, and maternal effects. Calves were spring-born in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 to five sires of each breed. Male calves were castrated at birth, and calves were not creep-fed. Average values of heterosis for birth weight, 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (WT/HT) were important (P < .01) and consistent across forage environment. Heterosis for birth weight was larger in bull calves than in heifer calves (P < .05), whereas heterosis for other preweaning traits were consistent across sex of calf. Average maternal effects for WT/HT (P < .10) were important and consistent across forage environment. Maternal effects for birth weight were larger with bull calves than with heifer calves (P < .01). Maternal effects for weaning hip height favored the Angus dam managed on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not managed on fescue. A similar but nonsignificant trend occurred in maternal effects for 205-d weight. Direct effects for birth weight were larger in bull calves than in heifer calves (P < .01). Direct effects for weaning height were larger in calves managed on bermudagrass than in calves managed on tall fescue (P < .07). A similar but nonsignificant trend was evident in direct effects for 205-d weight. Direct effects for WT/HT were relatively small and unimportant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  7. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  8. Expression of CdDHN4, a Novel YSK2-Type Dehydrin Gene from Bermudagrass, Responses to Drought Stress through the ABA-Dependent Signal Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Aimin; Fan, Nana; Xie, Jianping; Yuan, Shili; An, Yuan; Zhou, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Dehydrin improves plant resistance to many abiotic stresses. In this study, the expression profiles of a dehydrin gene, CdDHN4, were estimated under various stresses and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in two bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon L.): Tifway (drought-tolerant) and C299 (drought-sensitive). The expression of CdDHN4 was up-regulated by high temperatures, low temperatures, drought, salt and ABA. The sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA and the expression of CdDHN4 under drought conditions wer...

  9. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  10. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  11. Fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of low moisture silage made from mature bermudagrass (C. dactylon) and switchgrass (P. virgatum) in mixture with alfalfa (M. sativa) or treated with urea and plantain (Musa AAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage...

  12. Preliminary study of N[sub 2]O flux over irrigated Bermudagrass in a desert environment. [USA - Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias, A.D.; Artiola, J.F.; Musil, S.A. (Arizona University, Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Soil and Water Science)

    1993-04-01

    The increase of atmospheric nitrous oxide is believed to be related to human activities, including increased agricultural use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers and irrigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate N[sub 2]O flux (F(N)) into the atmosphere using chamber and gradient profile methods over an irrigated, N fertilized, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv. 'Midiron') field in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. For the gradient profile method it was hypothesized that locally stable atmospheric conditions would enhance N[sub 2]O concentration differences sufficiently (more than approximately) 4 nl l[sup -1] to be resolved by gas chromatographic analysis of air samples collected at two heights (0.05 and 3.3 m) over the field. Significant differences (205 and 30 nl l[sup -1]) in mean concentration occurred during two sampling intervals in late afternoon and early morning of a 24 h period on 18-19 July 1991. During those intervals the surface layer was stable and relatively large F(N) estimated by the chamber method (371 and 48 ng m[sup -2] s[sup -1]) were comparable with F(N) estimated by the gradient profile method (283 and 101 ng m[sup -2] s[sup -1]). Simulations based on similarity theory indicate that resolution of N[sub 2]O concentration differences less than l nl l[sup -1] was required, but could not be achieved, when the surface layer was unstable and/or F(N) was small. Analysis also indicates that uncertainty of F(N) estimated by the chamber method was reduced slightly by estimation of temporal variation of vapour pressure in chamber air.

  13. Estimation of Biomass and Canopy Height in Bermudagrass, Alfalfa, and Wheat Using Ultrasonic, Laser, and Spectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Joshua Pittman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive biomass estimation of vegetation has been performed via remote sensing as well as physical measurements. An effective method for estimating biomass must have accuracy comparable to the accepted standard of destructive removal. Estimation or measurement of height is commonly employed to create a relationship between height and mass. This study examined several types of ground-based mobile sensing strategies for forage biomass estimation. Forage production experiments consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were employed to examine sensor biomass estimation (laser, ultrasonic, and spectral as compared to physical measurements (plate meter and meter stick and the traditional harvest method (clipping. Predictive models were constructed via partial least squares regression and modeled estimates were compared to the physically measured biomass. Least significant difference separated mean estimates were examined to evaluate differences in the physical measurements and sensor estimates for canopy height and biomass. Differences between methods were minimal (average percent error of 11.2% for difference between predicted values versus machine and quadrat harvested biomass values (1.64 and 4.91 t·ha−1, respectively, except at the lowest measured biomass (average percent error of 89% for harvester and quad harvested biomass < 0.79 t·ha−1 and greatest measured biomass (average percent error of 18% for harvester and quad harvested biomass >6.4 t·ha−1. These data suggest that using mobile sensor-based biomass estimation models could be an effective alternative to the traditional clipping method for rapid, accurate in-field biomass estimation.

  14. Biomass flow in Tifton-85 bermudagrass canopy subjected to different management strategies under rotational grazing with dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alves Cutrim Junior

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass flow characteristics and forage accumulation were evaluated in Bermudagrass (Tifton 85 pasture managed under intermittent stocking with different management strategies. The management levels utilized were conventional (10 cm residual height and unfertilized, light (20 cm residual height and unfertilized, moderate (20 cm residual height with fertilization of 300 kg N/ha.year and intensive (10 cm residual height with fertilization of 600 kg N/ha.year. A randomized design was used with repeated measurements over time, in two periods of the year, with four replicates. There was significant effect of management × period of the year on the leaf elongation rate (LER. The management levels under fertilization (0.59 and 0.60 cm/tiller.day for the intensive and moderate management, respectively and the rainy season (0.49 cm/tiller.day showed the greatest stem elongation rate. Leaf senescence rate (LSR before and after and total LSR were modified by the management × period of the year interaction. The intensive management, with 0.38 leaves/tiller.day, as well as the dry period, with 0.27 leaves/tiller.day, showed higher leaf appearance rate. The lowest phyllochron was observed in intensive management and dry periods, as well as an interaction with the management of the same periods of the year. There was management × period of year interaction effect on leaf lifespan; the highest value was found under conventional management and dry period. Both production and forage accumulation rates were higher in the intensive and moderate management levels and dry season, and there was interaction of the intensive management system with the seasons. Managing pastures under moderate and intensive rotational stocking, which occurred mainly in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, maximizes the flow of tissues and consequently production and accumulation of forage.

  15. Fibrolytic enzyme and ammonia application effects on the nutritive value, intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass hay in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Shin, J H; Staples, C R; Brown, W F; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to compare the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (Biocellulase A20) or anhydrous ammonia (4% DM) treatment on the nutritive value, voluntary intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cultivar Coastal) hay harvested after 2 maturities (5- and 13-wk regrowths). Six individually housed, ruminally cannulated Brangus steers (BW 325 ± 10 kg) were used in an experiment with a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 3 (additives) × 2 (maturities) factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7, 4, 1, 1, and 4 d for measuring in vivo digestibility, in situ degradability, no measurements, rumen liquid fermentation and passage indices, and rate of solid passage, respectively. Steers were fed hay for ad libitum intake and supplemented with sugarcane molasses and distillers grain (supplement total of 2.88 kg DM/d). Enzyme did not affect the nutritional composition of hay but ammonia treatment decreased hay NDF, hemicellulose, and ADL concentrations and increased the CP concentration particularly for the mature lignified 13-wk hay. The enzyme increased NDF and hemicellulose digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased those of the 13-wk hay. Ammoniation decreased intake of hay but increased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, hemicellulose, ADF, and cellulose and increased the ruminal in situ soluble and potentially digestible fractions and the rate of DM degradation of the 13-wk hay. Also, ammoniation increased the concentrations of ruminal NH3, total VFA, acetate, and butyrate but enzyme treatment did not. Neither enzyme addition nor ammoniation affected rate of liquid and solid passage. In conclusion, ammoniation decreased the concentration of most fiber fractions, decreased the intake of hays, and increased their CP concentration, in vivo digestibility, and in situ degradability at both maturities whereas enzyme application increased fiber digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased it in the case of

  16. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  17. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  18. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  19. Comparative physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved abiotic stress resistance in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.] by exogenous melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Jiang, Chuan; Ye, Tiantian; Tan, Dun-xian; Reiter, Russel J.; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Renyi; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a well-known animal hormone, is also involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, it is shown that exogenous application of melatonin conferred improved salt, drought, and cold stress resistances in bermudagrass. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment alleviated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress; this involved activation of several antioxidants. Additionally, melatonin-pre-treated plants exhibited higher concentrations of 54 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, than non-treated plants under abiotic stress conditions. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified 3933 transcripts (2361 up-regulated and 1572 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated plants versus controls. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, major carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/org transformation, transport, hormone metabolism, metal handling, redox, and secondary metabolism were over-represented after melatonin pre-treatment. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of the protective roles of exogenous melatonin in the bermudagrass response to abiotic stresses, partially via activation of antioxidants and modulation of metabolic homeostasis. Notably, metabolic and transcriptomic analyses showed that the underlying mechanisms of melatonin could involve major reorientation of photorespiratory and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:25225478

  20. Comparative physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved abiotic stress resistance in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.] by exogenous melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Jiang, Chuan; Ye, Tiantian; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Renyi; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-02-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a well-known animal hormone, is also involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, it is shown that exogenous application of melatonin conferred improved salt, drought, and cold stress resistances in bermudagrass. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment alleviated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress; this involved activation of several antioxidants. Additionally, melatonin-pre-treated plants exhibited higher concentrations of 54 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, than non-treated plants under abiotic stress conditions. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified 3933 transcripts (2361 up-regulated and 1572 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated plants versus controls. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, major carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/org transformation, transport, hormone metabolism, metal handling, redox, and secondary metabolism were over-represented after melatonin pre-treatment. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of the protective roles of exogenous melatonin in the bermudagrass response to abiotic stresses, partially via activation of antioxidants and modulation of metabolic homeostasis. Notably, metabolic and transcriptomic analyses showed that the underlying mechanisms of melatonin could involve major reorientation of photorespiratory and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Expression of CdDHN4, a Novel YSK2-Type Dehydrin Gene from Bermudagrass, Responses to Drought Stress through the ABA-Dependent Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Aimin; Fan, Nana; Xie, Jianping; Yuan, Shili; An, Yuan; Zhou, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Dehydrin improves plant resistance to many abiotic stresses. In this study, the expression profiles of a dehydrin gene, CdDHN4 , were estimated under various stresses and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in two bermudagrasses ( Cynodon dactylon L.): Tifway (drought-tolerant) and C299 (drought-sensitive). The expression of CdDHN4 was up-regulated by high temperatures, low temperatures, drought, salt and ABA. The sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA and the expression of CdDHN4 under drought conditions were higher in Tifway than in C299. A 1239-bp fragment, CdDHN4-P, the partial upstream sequence of the CdDHN4 gene, was cloned by genomic walking from Tifway. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the CdDHN4-P sequence possessed features typical of a plant promoter and contained many typical cis elements, including a transcription initiation site, a TATA-box, an ABRE, an MBS, a MYC, an LTRE, a TATC-box and a GT1-motif. Transient expression in tobacco leaves demonstrated that the promoter CdDHN4-P can be activated by ABA, drought and cold. These results indicate that CdDHN4 is regulated by an ABA-dependent signal pathway and that the high sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA might be an important mechanism enhancing the drought tolerance of bermudagrass.

  2. Expression of CdDHN4, a Novel YSK2-Type Dehydrin Gene from Bermudagrass, Responses to Drought Stress through the ABA-Dependent Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimin Lv

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrin improves plant resistance to many abiotic stresses. In this study, the expression profiles of a dehydrin gene, CdDHN4, were estimated under various stresses and abscisic acid (ABA treatments in two bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon L.: Tifway (drought-tolerant and C299 (drought-sensitive. The expression of CdDHN4 was up-regulated by high temperatures, low temperatures, drought, salt and ABA. The sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA and the expression of CdDHN4 under drought conditions were higher in Tifway than in C299. A 1239-bp fragment, CdDHN4-P, the partial upstream sequence of the CdDHN4 gene, was cloned by genomic walking from Tifway. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the CdDHN4-P sequence possessed features typical of a plant promoter and contained many typical cis elements, including a transcription initiation site, a TATA-box, an ABRE, an MBS, a MYC, an LTRE, a TATC-box and a GT1-motif. Transient expression in tobacco leaves demonstrated that the promoter CdDHN4-P can be activated by ABA, drought and cold. These results indicate that CdDHN4 is regulated by an ABA-dependent signal pathway and that the high sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA might be an important mechanism enhancing the drought tolerance of bermudagrass.

  3. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  4. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  5. The Influence of Face Angle and Club Path on the Resultant Launch Angle of a Golf Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A two-part experimental study was conducted in order to better understand how the delivered face angle and club path of a golf club influences the initial launch direction of a golf ball for various club types. A robust understanding of how these parameters influence the ball direction has implications for both coaches and club designers. The first study used a large sample of golfers hitting shots with different clubs. Initial ball direction was measured with a Foresight Sports camera system, while club delivery parameters were recorded with a Vicon motion capture system. The second study used a golf robot and Vision Research camera to measure club and ball parameters. Results from these experiments show that the launch direction fell closer to face angle than club path. The percent toward the face angle ranged from 61% to 83%, where 100% designates a launch angle entirely toward the face angle.

  6. Does the transparency of the websites can help in attracting customers? Analysis of the golf courses in Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Tascón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze the degree of transparency of the Web pages of organizations that belong to the world of sports, specifically golf courses in Andalusia. Design/methodology/approach: We performed a descriptive analysis of the conditions of transparency of 92 Web pages of golf clubs registered on the official website of the Royal Golf Federation of Andalusia (RFGA. A questionnaire created/adapted ad hoc is used for this study having as a reference the questionnaire used by Barrio and Martin (2012 that analyze the performance of the 4 conditions of transparency of Web pages. Findings: To reflect a high degree of transparency, they show a higher compliance than 75% in 8 of the 10 variables. The Web page becomes an element to quantify the performance of the field without investing too much in other promotional channels to attract as many customers as possible. Research limitations: In some Web pages, the access to information entailed a significant investment of time because they did not have the characteristic of being intuitive. In some cases was not available all required information. Practical implications: Knowledge of this information allows the director or manager identifies possible areas of improvement to optimize their management, while transparency offered by the golf courses is improved. Social implications: This study highlights the need for teaching the user to evaluate the quality, transparency and being critical with the information found on Web pages. Originality/value: The analysis of transparency allows clubs to be reflective of its golf courses. It becomes the tool that the manager can use to display part of all its virtues and to evaluate the social behavior of their customers, to attract possible clients and perform actions with the stakeholders in the golf industry.

  7. Immediate Effects of Sports Taping Applied on the Lead Knee of Low- and High-Handicapped Golfers During Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Eun-Kuk; Park, Jong-Chul

    2017-04-01

    Kim, T-G, Kim, E-K, and Park, J-C. Immediate effects of sports taping applied on the lead knee of low- and high-handicapped golfers during golf swing. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 981-989, 2017-Elite golf athletes suffer from various musculoskeletal injuries due to repeated golf swings. Repetitive varus moment during golf swing has been suggested as a possible cause of injuries to the lead knee. The aim of this study was to objectively and quantitatively evaluate the immediate effects of sports taping on the lead knee of elite golfers to restrict varus moment. Thirty-one elite golfers were assigned to the low- (LHG, n = 15) or high-handicapped group (HHG, n = 16). Using 3-dimensional motion analysis, the lead knee position on the frontal plane with and without rigid taping (RT), elastic taping (ET), and placebo taping was identified in 4 separate phases by the 5 events of golf swing as follows: the peak of the backswing (E1), parallel to the ground during downswing (E2), ball impact (E3), parallel to the ground during follow-through (E4), and finish (E5). The LHG when using a driver club had decreased movement toward knee varus with RT and ET than that without it from E1 to E2 (p = 0.001). The LHG when using a 5-iron club decreased movement toward knee varus with RT than that without it from E1 to E2 (p = 0.006) and from E2 to E3 (p = 0.019). The HHG when using a driver club had decreased movement toward knee varus with RT from E1 to E2 (p = 0.014). Sports taping may be helpful for elite golfers in terms of reducing varus moment of the lead knee during the downswing and be useful for the development of preventive strategies for golf-related knee injuries.

  8. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, vitro processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    To determine the potential impacts of the proposed golf course expansion on the south side of the Vitro site, ground water data from the UMTRA Vitro processing site were evaluated in response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office request. Golf in the Round, Inc., has proposed an expansion of the present driving range to include a 9-hole golf course on the UMTRA Vitro processing site, which is owned by the Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF). An expanded golf course would increase irrigation and increase the amount of water that could infiltrate the soil, recharging the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in the shallow ground water could then migrate off the site or discharge to surface water in the area. Dewatering of the unconfined aquifer on CVWRF property could also impact site contaminant migration; a significant amount of ground water extraction at CVWRF could reduce the amount of contaminant migration off the site. Since 1978, data have been collected at the site to determine the distribution of tailings materials (removed from the site from 1985 to 1987) and to characterize the presence and migration of contaminants in sediments, soils, surface water, and ground water at the former Vitro processing site. Available data suggest that irrigating an expanded golf course may cause contamination to spread more rapidly within the unconfined aquifer. The public is not at risk from current Vitro processing site activities, nor is risk expected due to golf course expansion. However, ecological risk could increase with increased surface water contamination and the development of ground water seeps

  9. The relationship and effects of golf on physical and mental health: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A; Daines, L; Archibald, D; Hawkes, R; Grant, L; Mutrie, N

    2016-06-01

    Golf is a sport played in 206 countries worldwide by over 50 million people. It is possible that participation in golf, which is a form of physical activity, may be associated with effects on longevity, the cardiovascular, metabolic and musculoskeletal systems, as well as on mental health and well-being. We outline our scoping review protocol to examine the relationships and effects of golf on physical and mental health. Best practice methodological frameworks suggested by Arksey and O'Malley, Levac et al and the Joanna Briggs Institute will serve as our guide, providing clarity and rigour. A scoping review provides a framework to (1) map the key concepts and evidence, (2) summarise and disseminate existing research findings to practitioners and policymakers and (3) identify gaps in the existing research. A three-step search strategy will identify reviews as well as original research, published and grey literature. An initial search will identify suitable search terms, followed by a search using keyword and index terms. Two reviewers will independently screen identified studies for final inclusion. We will map key concepts and evidence, and disseminate existing research findings to practitioners and policymakers through peer-reviewed and non-peer reviewed publications, conferences and in-person communications. We will identify priorities for further study. This method may prove useful to examine the relationships and effects of other sports on health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Evaluating management-induced soil salinization in golf courses in semi-arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.; Udeigwe, T. K.; Weindorf, D. C.; Kandakji, T.; Gautam, P.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Site-specific information on land management practices are often desired to make better assessments of their environmental impacts. A study was conducted in Lubbock, Texas, in the Southern High Plains of the United States, an area characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions, to (1) examine the potential management-induced alterations in soil salinity indicators in golf course facilities and (2) develop predictive relationships for a more rapid soil salinity examination within these urban landscape soils using findings from a portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from managed (well irrigated) and non-managed (non-irrigated) areas of seven golf course facilities at 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths and analyzed for a suite of chemical properties. Among the extractable cations, sodium (Na) was significantly (p golf facilities. Soil electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), parameters often used in characterizing soil salinity and sodicity, were for the most part significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed areas. Water quality reports collected over a 22-year period (1991-2013, all years not available) indicated a gradual increase in pH, EC, SAR, total alkalinity, and extractable ions, thus supporting the former findings. Findings from the PXRF suggested possible differences in chemical species and sources that contribute to salinity between the managed and non-managed zones. PXRF-quantified Cl and S, and to a lesser extent Ca, individually and collectively explained 23-85% of the variability associated with soil salinity at these facilities.

  11. Croissance relative, sex-ratio et exploitation de la crevette blanche metapenaeus monoceros (fabricius, 1798) du golfe de gabes (tunisie)

    OpenAIRE

    Jarboui, O.; Ben Abdallah, O.; Missaoui, H.; Ben Hadj Hamida, N.

    2003-01-01

    Les crevettes, particulièrement Penaeus kerathurus, sont considérées parmi les espèces de crustacés les plus exploitées au niveau des côtes tunisiennes, essentiellement dans le golfe de Gabès. Depuis l’année 1993, une nouvelle espèce de crevette d’origine lesseptienne est apparue dans le golfe et s’est bien adaptée avec ses conditions climatiques et environnementales : c’est la crevette blanche Metapenaeus monoceros. L’objectif principal de cette étude consiste à suivre l’exploitation de cett...

  12. Integrated dynamic policy management methodology and system for strategic environmental assessment of golf course installation policy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) focuses primarily on assessing how policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) influence the sustainability of the involved regions. However, the processes of assessing policies and developing management strategies for pollution load and resource use are usually separate in the current SEA system. This study developed a policy management methodology to overcome the defects generated during the above processes. This work first devised a dynamic management framework using the methods of systems thinking, system dynamics, and Managing for Results (MFRs). Furthermore, a driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) indicator system was developed. The golf course installation policy was applied as a case study. Taiwan, counties of Taiwan, and the golf courses within those individual counties were identified as a system, subsystems, and objects, respectively. This study identified an object-linked double-layer framework with multi-stage-option to simultaneously to quantify golf courses in each subsystem and determine ratios of abatement and allocation for pollution load and resource use of each golf course. The DPSIR indicator values for each item of each golf course in each subsystem are calculated based on the options taken in the two decision layers. The summation of indicator values for all items of all golf courses in all subsystems according to various options is defined as the sustainability value of the policy. An optimization model and a system (IDPMS) were developed to obtain the greatest sustainability value of the policy, while golf course quantity, human activity intensity, total quantities of pollution load and resource use are simultaneously obtained. The solution method based on enumeration of multiple bounds for objectives and constraints (EMBOC) was developed for the problem with 1.95 x 10 128 combinations of possible options to solve the optimal solution in ten minutes using a personal computer with 3.0 GHz CPU

  13. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  14. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  15. Effect of feeding alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with or without a cellulase enzyme on performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J K; Castro, J J; Mullis, N A; Adesogan, A T; West, J W; Morantes, G

    2010-11-01

    Forty-four lactating Holstein cows (173±30 DIM, 42.5±6.8 kg of milk, 4.03±0.69% fat, 674±78 kg of body weight) were used in an 8-wk, completely randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of forage source and supplemental cellulase enzyme on performance. Treatments included 2 forage combinations (corn silage plus 12.2% dry matter, DM, from either alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage) with or without a commercial cellulase enzyme applied to the total mixed ration at the rate of 4 g/head per day (Promote N.E.T.-L, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Experimental diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of protein (16.5% of DM), energy (1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM), and neutral detergent fiber (41.7% of DM) and were fed once daily as a total mixed ration behind Calan doors for ad libitum intake. The cellulase enzyme provided 1,200 cellulase units of activity/g of product and was applied to the total mixed ration and allowed to mix for 5min before feeding. Before beginning the trial, all cows were trained to use Calan (American Calan, Northwood, NH) doors and then fed the alfalfa hay-based diet for 2 wk. Data collected during wk 2 were used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. At the beginning of the 6-wk experimental period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of the 4 experimental diets. No interactions were observed between forage and enzyme for any measures. Daily DM intake; milk yield; concentrations of milk fat, true protein, lactose, and solids not fat; energy-corrected milk yield; and dairy efficiency were not different among alfalfa or Tifton 85 bermudagrass rations with or without cellulase enzyme supplementation. The results of this trial indicate that Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage can replace alfalfa hay in diets fed to high-producing, lactating dairy cows without depressing DM intake or milk yield when rations are balanced for NDF. Although

  16. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  17. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  18. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  19. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  20. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  1. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  2. The effects of cognitive anxiety on the biomechanical characteristics of the golf swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MBA De Ste Croix

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive anxiety (CA on the biomechanical characteristics of the golf swing. Written informed consent was obtained from 9 subjects, with a range of golf experience (handicap range 4-23. Each subject was filmed under a low anxiety condition (during practice, and a high anxiety condition (during competition and completed a revised version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2. Human movement analysis (Hu-m-an software package was used to identify the clubhead speeds during the backswing, downswing, and impact time, along with the completion times for each phase. The absolute angle of the club to the vertical, and the relative angle of the forearm, wrist, and club hinge, at the completion of the backswing stage were also examined. CA intensity scores were significantly lower during practice than competition (p<0.05. CA interpretation scores indicate that anxiety symptoms during practice were significantly more facilitative to performance (p<0.05. The time taken to complete the downswing phase was significantly lower during competition (p<0.05. The combined backswing and downswing times were significantly lower during the competition trial (p<0.05. There were no significant differences between the practice and competition trials on any of the remaining swing variables measured.

  3. Lower extremity work is associated with club head velocity during the golf swing in experienced golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, M P; Yontz, N; Chaudhari, A M

    2014-08-01

    While the golf swing is a complex whole body movement requiring coordination of all joints to achieve maximum ball velocity, the kinetic contribution of the lower extremities to club head velocity has not been quantified, despite the perception that the legs are a primary source of power during the swing. Mechanical power at the hips, knees, and ankles was estimated during the downswing phase of a full swing with a driver using a passive optical motion capture system and 2 force plates for adult males across a range of age and self-reported skill levels. Total work by the lower extremities was calculated by integrating the powers of all 6 joints over the downswing. Regression analyses showed that total lower extremity work was a strong predictor of club head velocity (R=0.63). Secondary analyses showed different relationships to club head velocity in lead and trail leg lower extremity joints, but none of these were as predictive of club head velocity as the total work performed by the lower extremities. These results provide quantitative evidence that the lower body's kinetic contribution may be an important factor in achieving greater club head velocity, contributing to greater driving distance and overall golf performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Reliability of an experimental method to analyse the impact point on a golf ball during putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ashley K; Mitchell, Andrew C S; Hughes, Gerwyn

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the reliability of an experimental method identifying the location of the impact point on a golf ball during putting. Forty trials were completed using a mechanical putting robot set to reproduce a putt of 3.2 m, with four different putter-ball combinations. After locating the centre of the dimple pattern (centroid) the following variables were tested; distance of the impact point from the centroid, angle of the impact point from the centroid and distance of the impact point from the centroid derived from the X, Y coordinates. Good to excellent reliability was demonstrated in all impact variables reflected in very strong relative (ICC = 0.98-1.00) and absolute reliability (SEM% = 0.9-4.3%). The highest SEM% observed was 7% for the angle of the impact point from the centroid. In conclusion, the experimental method was shown to be reliable at locating the centroid location of a golf ball, therefore allowing for the identification of the point of impact with the putter head and is suitable for use in subsequent studies.

  5. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  6. Looking to Learn: The Effects of Visual Guidance on Observational Learning of the Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Innocenzo, Giorgia; Gonzalez, Claudia C; Williams, A Mark; Bishop, Daniel T

    2016-01-01

    Skilled performers exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than less-skilled counterparts do and they look more frequently at task-relevant regions than at superfluous ones. We examine whether we may guide novices' gaze towards relevant regions during action observation in order to facilitate their learning of a complex motor skill. In a Pre-test-Post-test examination of changes in their execution of the full golf swing, 21 novices viewed one of three videos at intervention: i) a skilled golfer performing 10 swings (Free Viewing, FV); ii) the same video with transient colour cues superimposed to highlight key features of the setup (Visual Guidance; VG); iii) or a History of Golf video (Control). Participants in the visual guidance group spent significantly more time looking at cued areas than did the other two groups, a phenomenon that persisted after the cues had been removed. Moreover, the visual guidance group improved their swing execution at Post-test and on a Retention test one week later. Our results suggest that visual guidance to cued areas during observational learning of complex motor skills may accelerate acquisition of the skill.

  7. Local Navon letter processing affects skilled behavior: a golf-putting experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael B; Dawkins, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Expert or skilled behaviors (for example, face recognition or sporting performance) are typically performed automatically and with little conscious awareness. Previous studies, in various domains of performance, have shown that activities immediately prior to a task demanding a learned skill can affect performance. In sport, describing the to-be-performed action is detrimental, whereas in face recognition, describing a face or reading local Navon letters is detrimental. Two golf-putting experiments are presented that compare the effects that these three tasks have on experienced and novice golfers. Experiment 1 found a Navon effect on golf performance for experienced players. Experiment 2 found, for experienced players only, that performance was impaired following the three tasks described above, when compared with reading or global Navon tasks. It is suggested that the three tasks affect skilled performance by provoking a shift from automatic behavior to a more analytic style. By demonstrating similarities between effects in face recognition and sporting behavior, it is hoped to better understand concepts in both fields.

  8. Development of a golf-specific load monitoring tool: Content validity and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott B; Gastin, Paul B; Saw, Anna E; Robertson, Sam

    2018-05-01

    Athletes often record details of their training and competitions, supported by information such as environmental conditions, travel, as well as how they felt. However, it is not known how prevalent these practices are in golfers, or how valuable this process is perceived. The purpose of this study was to develop a golf-specific load monitoring tool (GLMT), and establish the content validity and feasibility of this tool amongst high-level golfers. In the first phase of development, 21 experts were surveyed to determine the suitability of items for inclusion in the GLMT. Of the 36 items, 21 received >78% agreement, a requirement to establish content validity and for inclusion in the GLMT. Total duration was the preferred metric for golf-specific activities, whilst rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was preferred for measuring physical training. In the second phase, feasibility of the tool was assessed by surveying 13 high-level male golfers following 28-days of daily GLMT use. All items included in the GLMT were deemed feasible to record, with all players participating in the feasibility study providing high to very high ratings. Golfers responded that they would consider using a load monitoring tool of this nature long term, provided it can be completed in less than five minutes per day.

  9. Photospheric activity of the Sun with VIRGO and GOLF. Comparison with standard activity proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Jiménez, A.; Bertello, L.; Corsaro, E.; Pallé, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    We study the variability of solar activity using new photospheric proxies originally developed for the analysis of stellar magnetism with the CoRoT and Kepler photometric observations. These proxies were obtained by tracking the temporal modulations in the observations associated with the spots and magnetic features as the Sun rotates. We analyzed 21 yr of observations, spanning solar cycles 23 and 24, collected by the space-based photometric VIRGO and radial velocity GOLF instruments on board the SoHO satellite. We then calculated the photospheric activity proxy Sph is for each of the three VIRGO photometers and the associated Svel proxy from the radial velocity GOLF observations. Comparisons with several standard solar activity proxies sensitive to different layers of the Sun demonstrate that these new activity proxies, Sph and Svel, provide a new manner to monitor solar activity. We show that both the long- and short-term magnetic variabilities respectively associated with the 11-yr cycle and the quasi-biennial oscillation are well monitored, and that the magnetic field interaction between the subsurface, photosphere, and chromosphere of the Sun was modified between Cycle 24 and Cycle 23. Furthermore, the photometric proxies show a wavelength dependence of the response function of the solar photosphere among the three channels of the VIRGO photometers, providing inputs for the study of the stellar magnetism of Sun-like stars.

  10. The crunch factor's role in golf-related low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael H; Grimshaw, Paul N

    2014-05-01

    The golf swing exposes the spine to complex torsional, compressive, and shearing loads that increase a player's risk of injury. The crunch factor (CF) has been described as a measure to evaluate the risk of low back injuries in golfers and is based on the notion that lateral flexion and axial trunk rotation jointly contribute to spinal degeneration. However, few studies have evaluated the appropriateness of this measure in golfers with low back pain (LBP). To objectively examine the usefulness of the CF as a measure for assessing the risk of low back injury in golfers. Field-based research using a cross-sectional design. This research used three-dimensional motion analysis to assess the golf swings of 12 golfers with LBP and 15 asymptomatic controls. Three-dimensional kinematics were derived using Vicon Motus, and the CF was calculated as the instantaneous product of axial trunk rotation velocity and lateral trunk flexion angle. Maximum CFs and their timings were not significantly different between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Furthermore, for those golfers who produced higher CFs (irrespective of the group), the increased magnitude could not be attributed to an increased axial angular trunk velocity or lateral flexion angle, but rather to a concomitant increase in both of these variables. The findings suggested that although the fundamental concepts that underpin the CF seem sensible, this measure does not appear to be sensitive enough to distinguish golfers with LBP from the asymptomatic players. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Different centre of pressure patterns within the golf stroke II: group-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, K A; Best, R J

    2007-05-01

    Although the golf coaching literature stresses the importance of weight transfer during the swing, research has been conflicting or lacking statistical support. A potential problem with previous studies is that no attempt was made to account for different movement strategies in the golf swing. This study evaluated the relationship between centre of pressure measures and club head velocity within two previously identified swing styles, the "Front Foot" and "Reverse" styles. Thirty-nine Front Foot golfers and 19 Reverse golfers performed swings with a driver while standing on two force plates. From the force plate data, centre of pressure displacement, velocity, range, and timing parameters were calculated. Correlation and regression analysis indicated that a larger range of centre of pressure and a more rapid centre of pressure movement in the downswing was associated with a larger club head velocity at ball contact for the Front Foot group. For the Reverse golfers, positioning the centre of pressure further from the back foot at late backswing and a more rapid centre of pressure transfer towards the back foot at ball contact was associated with a larger club head velocity at ball contact. This study has highlighted the importance of identifying different movement strategies before evaluating performance measures, as different parameters were found to be important for the Front Foot and Reverse styles.

  12. Customer Satisfaction Among the Members of the Summit Point Golf and Country Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERONICA JOY V. BENCITO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the customer satisfaction among the members of the Summit Point Golf and Country Club which served as the basis for continuous improvement. It determined the level of customer satisfaction on the services offered by the Summit Point employees in terms of food and beverages, customer service and facilities. Lastly, it also tested the significant differences on the level of customer satisfactions when grouped according to their membership variables of the club. The descriptive type of research was used to assess the operation of the club. Data gathered were analyzed using the weighted mean and ANOVA method. The members of the Summit Point Golf and Country Club are generally satisfied in terms of facilities and amenities, food and beverages and customer service. The hypothesis has no significant difference between the membership profile and level of customer satisfaction in terms of facilities and amenities and customer service is rejected. This means that their responses differ as to their reasons of joining the club, their obtained degree and the frequency of playing in the club.

  13. The relevance of coordination at the golf swing performance of junior players Importancia de la coordinación en el rendimiento del swing de golf en jóvenes promesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Juarez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The golf swing is a skill which could be classified as a high velocity hitting where the main goal is that the head of the golf club reaches its maximum velocity at impact time. The aim of this study was to find the movement pattern of the golf swing in order to apply this pattern to improve their performance. Twelve golf swings executed by four young players were biomechanically analyzed. Automatic capture with Vicon Oxford Metrics © was used. The analysis of the maximum angular velocity sequence during the downswing showed, that depending on the gender, they described different timing. The angular velocity sequences had the same order, being first the hip turn, secondly the shoulder turn y finally the golf club head acceleration. It was found discriminant function for each gender group which could predict whether the golf swing was “good” or “bad” considering the club head speed as performance criteria. This separation at the timing of the key events could be the reason why that explains men reached more velocity at the head club near impact time than women.
    Key Words: Biomechanics, hitting, swing, golf, pattern, performance.

     

    El swing de golf es una destreza que podríamos catalogar de golpeo de velocidad donde el objetivo es que la cara del palo alcance la máxima velocidad en el momento del impacto. El objetivo de este estudio fue hallar el patrón de movimiento en el swing de golf y aplicar este patrón para la mejora del rendimiento. Se han analizado biomecánicamente doce golpeos de cuatro jugadores promesas, mediante el sistema fotogrametría 3D Vicon Oxford Metrics © de captura automática. El análisis de la secuencia de velocidades angulares máximas en el downswing muestra cómo siguen un timing diferente en función del género. Las secuencias

  14. Análisis de la accesibilidad en los campos de golf de la Región de Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zarco-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Otorgar el correcto nivel de accesibilidad en los campos de golf es una premisa fundamental si se quiere fomentar y facilitar el acceso a la práctica del golf por personas con discapacidad. El presente estudio trata de analizar la accesibilidad en los campos de golf de la Región de Murcia. Para ello se recurre a un estudio de carácter cuantitativo utilizando una hoja de observación creada a partir de los criterios de accesibilidad encontrados en la legislación estatal y regional vigente, en la que se evalúa la accesibilidad de todos los campos de golf de 18 hoyos de la Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia. Los resultados indican que no se cumple la normativa vigente en torno a la accesibilidad ya que el cumplimiento de los ítems se sitúa por debajo de la mitad (40,88%. El área de accesos presenta el mejor resultado, con un 50,54% de ítems cumplidos de media, mientras que los vestuarios presentan los peores resultados, con un 34,94%. En todas las áreas se observa cómo la señalización y mobiliario presentan los porcentajes más bajos. Sería necesario tomar medidas para superar los criterios de accesibilidad requeridos para estos espacios.

  15. Evaluating poverty grass (Danthonia spicata L.) for use in tees, fairways, or rough areas in golf courses in the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; Brad Fresenburg; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2007-01-01

    Poverty grass (Danthonia spicata L.), a native, cool-season perennial bunchgrass with wide distribution in the United States, is being evaluated for its suitability for use on golf courses. The goal is to identify practices to improve seed germination and successfully establish field plots as monocultures or with other native species to mimic natural...

  16. The identification of benefit needs of golf players in the U.S.: Implicationsand strategy considerations for sport management professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUNG-MI LEE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The golf industry has expanded over the past 50 years throughout the world, particularly in America. The number of golfers in the United States has increased seven-fold since 1950, as the game was transformed from an expensive diversion of the rich to a mass-market pastime. A number of recent studies have shown that demographic variables such as age, gender, occupation, income, and race are –in general– poor predictors of golfers’ consumer behaviour and, consequently, less than optimum bases for segmentation strategies. Because of those problems associated with demographic segmentation, benefit segmentation has become a favourite tool of marketers; to satisfy target consumers’ needs, benefit needs and product attributes are the most popular variables for segmenting the target market. The main strength of benefit segmentation lies in the causal relationship to perceived future behaviour. The purpose of this study was to identify the benefit needs of golfers who frequent public golf courses. Implications for public golf course owners or managers are then discussed with strategy considerations about golf marketing for a variety of benefit segments.

  17. An electromyographic study of the effect of hand grip sizes on forearm muscle activity and golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Hunter, Henry H; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike Chris

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the differences in surface electromyography (EMG) activity of two forearm muscles in the lead and trail arm at specific phases of the golf swing using a 7-iron with three different grip sizes among amateur and professional golfers. Fifteen right-handed male golfers performed five golf swings using golf clubs with three different grip sizes. Surface EMG was used to measure muscle activity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) on both forearms. There were no significant differences in forearm muscle activity when using the three golf grips within the group of 15 golfers (p > 0.05). When using the undersize grip, club head speed significantly increased (p = 0.044). During the backswing and downswing phases, amateurs produced significantly greater forearm muscle activity with all three grip sizes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, forearm muscle activity is not affected by grip sizes. However, club head speed increases when using undersize grips.

  18. Kinematic evaluation of movement smoothness in golf: relationship between the normalized jerk cost of body joints and the clubhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Joo, Su-Bin; Oh, Euichaul; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2014-02-26

    When the human body is introduced to a new motion or movement, it learns the placement of different body parts, sequential muscle control, and coordination between muscles to achieve necessary positions, and it hones this new skill over time and repetition. Previous studies have demonstrated definite differences in the smoothness of body movements with different levels of training, i.e., amateurs compared with professionals. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that skilled golfers swing a driver with a smoother motion than do unskilled golfers. In addition, the relationship between the smoothness of body joints and that of the clubhead was evaluated to provide further insight into the mechanism of smooth golf swing. Two subject groups (skilled and unskilled) participated in the experiment. The skilled group comprised 20 male professional golfers registered with the Korea Professional Golf Association, and the unskilled group comprised 19 amateur golfers who enjoy golf as a hobby. Six infrared cameras (VICON460 system) were used to record the 3D trajectories of markers attached to the clubhead and body segments, and the resulting data was evaluated with kinematic analysis. A physical quantity called jerk was calculated to investigate differences in smoothness during downswing between the two study groups. The hypothesis that skilled golfers swing a driver with a smoother motion than do unskilled golfers was supported. The normalized jerk of the clubhead of skilled golfers was lower than that of unskilled golfers in the anterior/posterior, medial/lateral, and proximal/distal directions. Most human joints, especially in the lower body, had statistically significant lower normalized jerk values in the skilled group. In addition, the normalized jerk of the skilled group's lower body joints had a distinct positive correlation with the normalized jerk of the clubhead with r = 0.657 (p golf swings and, eventually, to improve golf performance.

  19. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  20. Location and assessment of drainage pipes beneath farm fields and golf course greens using ground penetrating radar: A research summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancing the efficiency of soil water removal, and in turn crop productivity, on farmland already containing a subsurface drainage system, typically involves installing new drain lines between the old ones. However, before this approach can be attempted, the older drainage pipes need to be located...

  1. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  2. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  3. New techniques to control salinity-wastewater reuse interactions in golf courses of the Mediterranean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrao, J.; Costa, M.; Rosado, V.; Gamito, P.; Santos, R.; Khaydarova, V.

    2003-04-01

    Due to the lack water around the Mediterranean regions, potable water luxurious uses - as in golf courses - are increasingly contested. In order to solve this problem, non conventional water resources (effluent, gray, recycled, reclaimed, brackish), like treated wastewater, for irrigation gained increasing role in the planning and development of additional water supplies in golf courses. In most cases, the intense use of effluent for irrigation attracted public awareness in respect of contaminating pathogens and heavy metals. The contaminating effect of salinity in soil and underground water is very often neglected. The objective of this work is to present the conventional techniques to control salinity of treated wastewater and to present some results on new clean techniques to solve this problem, in the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS project (no. IC-15CT98-0105) "Adaptation of Efficient Water Use Criteria in Marginal Regions of Europe and Middle Asia with Scarce Sources Subject to Environmental Control, Climate Change and Socio-Economic Development" and of the INCO-DC project (no. IC18-CT98-0266) "Control of Salination and Combating Desertification Effects in the Mediterranean Region. Phase II". Saline water is the most common irrigation water in arid climates. Moreover, for each region treated wastewater is always more saline than tap water, and therefore, when treated wastewater is reused in golf courses, more salinity problems occur. Conventional techniques to combat the salination process in golf courses can be characterized by four generations: 1) Problem of root zone salination by soil leaching - two options can occur - when there is an impermeable layer, salts will be concentrated above this layer; on the other hand, when there is no impermeable layer, aquifers contamination can be observed; 2) Use of subsurface trickle irrigation - economy of water, and therefore less additional salts; however the problem of groundwater contamination due to natural rain

  4. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  5. The Development and Validation of a Golf Swing and Putt Skill Assessment for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett, Louise L. Hardy, Ali S. Brian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument’s discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test. A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24. Children (n = 43 aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3 were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1. A subset of children (n = 28 had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3. An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years. Intraclass correlations (ICC assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3. Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1 and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40 = 11.18, p < 0.001. The live assessment reflected the video assessment (ICC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59, 0.90 and scores did not differ between live and video assessments. Test retest reliability was acceptable (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23, 0.82, although the mean score was slightly higher at retest. This instrument could be used reliably by golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback.

  6. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  7. Validation of an Inertial Sensor System for Swing Analysis in Golf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lückemann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wearable inertial sensor systems are an upcoming tool for self-evaluation in sports, and can be used for swing analysis in golf. The aim of this work was to determine the validity and repeatability of an inertial sensor system attached to a player’s glove using a radar system as a reference. 20 subjects performed five full swings with each of three different clubs (wood, 7-iron, wedge. Clubhead speed was measured simultaneously by both sensor systems. Limits of Agreement were used to determine the accuracy and precision of the inertial sensor system. Results show that the inertial sensor system is quite accurate but with a lack of precision. Random error was quantified to approximately 17 km/h. The measurement error was dependent on the club type and was weakly negatively correlated to the magnitude of clubhead speed.

  8. Putting to a bigger hole: Golf performance relates to perceived size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K.; Linkenauger, Sally A.; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    When engaged in a skilled behaviour such as occurs in sports, people's perceptions relate optical information to their performance. In current research we demonstrate the effects of performance on size perception in golfers. We found golfers who played better judged the hole to be bigger than golfers who did not play as well (Study 1). In follow-up laboratory experiments, participants putted on a golf mat from a location near or far from the hole then judged the size of the hole. Participants who putted from the near location perceived the hole to be bigger than participants who putted from the far location. Our results demonstrate that perception is influenced by the perceiver's current ability to act effectively in the environment. PMID:18567258

  9. Influencia de variables psicológicas en el rendimiento de jugadores amateurs de golf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Irazusta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la presente investigación es analizar las variaciones del estado de ánimo intracompetición en los jugadores amateurs de golf, así como analizar la influencia que tiene el grado de confianza y otras variables motivacionales en el resultado de la competición. Se realizó la investigación con un total de 296 jugadores y se pasaron los cuestionarios a cada jugador en tres momentos, antes, durante y después de la competición.Una vez analizados los datos se constató que existen grandes fluctuaciones en el estado de ánimo de los jugadores y que el resultado esperado sufre modificaciones a lo largo de la competición.

  10. Positive psychology interventions in golf: Mindfulness versus positive self-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Results: There was a significant multivariate effect of Time on putting test scores, F(1, 21 = 13.9, p = .001, Ƞ2 = .399. Specifically, a mean increase of 1.4 out of 10 putts over the 4-week intervention period was found, but no univariate effect of Time on distance (cm from the hole for putts missed. There was no Group or Time by Group interaction effect for either putting test variable. Furthermore, groups did not differ at baseline or post-intervention on reported handicap, KIMS, technique adherence, or rounds of golf played. Conclusions: These preliminary findings fail to support previously reported findings that mindfulness or positive self-talk have short-term effects on putting accuracy. To maximise access, the current study used a self-guided intervention, which may have accounted for the lack of improvement that may occur with one-on-one coaching.

  11. Changes in task self-efficacy and emotion across competitive performances in golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardley, Ian D; Jackson, Ben; Simmons, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    This research aimed to investigate (a) the effect of golfers' perceptions of coach motivation efficacy on golfers' precompetition task self-efficacy, (b) the effect of performance on pre-to-postround changes in self-efficacy, (c) the effect of pre-to-postround changes in self-efficacy on pre-to-postround changes in affect and emotion, and (d) whether any effects of performance on pre-to-postcompetition changes in affect and emotion were mediated by pre-to-postcompetition changes in self-efficacy. In Study 1, a scale measuring golf self-efficacy was developed and validated using data from 197 golfers. In Study 2, 200 golfers completed this measure alongside measures of coach motivation efficacy, and positive and negative affect before a golf competition; all measures (except coach motivation efficacy) were again completed following the competition. Structural equation modeling showed that coach motivation efficacy positively predicted precompetition self-efficacy, performance positively predicted pre-to-postcompetition changes in self-efficacy, which had positive and negative effects, respectively, on pre-to-postcompetition changes in positive and negative affect; mediation analyses demonstrated that pre-to-postcompetition changes in self-efficacy mediated effects of performance on pre-to-postcompetition changes in positive and negative affect. In Study 3, the Study-2 procedures were replicated with a separate sample of 212 golfers, except measures of excitement, concentration disruption, somatic anxiety, and worry replaced those for positive and negative affect. Structural analyses showed the findings from Study 2 were largely replicated when specific emotions were investigated in place of general indices of affect. This investigation makes novel contributions regarding the potential importance of perceptions of coach efficacy for golfers' own efficacy beliefs, and the role personal efficacy beliefs may play in facilitating the effects of performance on affective

  12. Numerical investigation of the flow over a golf ball in the subcritical and supercritical regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.E.; Beratlis, N.; Balaras, E.; Squires, K.; Tsunoda, M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the role of surface dimpling on the flow over a golf ball, direct numerical simulations (DNS) are conducted within the framework of an immersed boundary approach for two physical regimes. Computations of the flow over a non-rotating golf ball are reported for a subcritical flow at a Reynolds number of 2.5 x 10 4 and a supercritical case at a Reynolds number of 1.1 x 10 5 . Grid refinement studies for both Reynolds numbers indicated that characteristics of the subcritical flow could be captured using a mesh of 337 x 10 6 points, and for the supercritical case using a grid with 1.2 x 10 9 points. Flow visualizations reveal the differences in separation characteristics between the two Reynolds numbers. Profiles of the mean velocity indicate that the flow detaches completely at approximately 84 o in the subcritical case (measured from the stagnation point at the front of the ball), while in the supercritical regime there are alternating regions of reattachment and separation within dimples with complete detachment around 110 o . Energy spectra highlight frequencies associated with vortex formation over the dimples prior to complete detachment in the supercritical regime. Reynolds stresses quantify momentum transport in the near-wall region, showing that the axial stress increases around 90 o for the subcritical case. In the supercritical regime these stress components alternately increase and decrease, corresponding to local separation and reattachment. Prediction of the drag coefficient for both Reynolds numbers is in reasonable agreement with measurements.

  13. On the signatures of flare-induced global waves in the Sun: GOLF and VIRGO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Mathur, Savita; García, Rafael A.; Jiménez, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    Recently, several efforts have been made to identify the seismic signatures of flares and magnetic activity in the Sun and Sun-like stars. In this work, we have analysed the disc-integrated velocity and intensity observations of the Sun obtained from the Global Oscillations at Low Frequencies (GOLF) and Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations/Sun photometers (VIRGO/SPM) instruments, respectively, on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory space mission covering several successive flare events, for the period from 2011 February 11 to 2011 February 17, of which 2011 February 11 remained a relatively quiet day and served as a `null test' for the investigation. Application of the spectral analysis to these disc-integrated Sun-as-a-star velocity and intensity signals indicates that there is enhanced power of the global modes of oscillations in the Sun during the flares, as compared to the quiet day. The GOLF instrument obtains velocity observations using the Na I D lines which are formed in the upper solar photosphere, while the intensity data used in our analysis are obtained by VIRGO/SPM instrument at 862 nm, which is formed within the solar photosphere. Despite the fact that the two instruments sample different layers of the solar atmosphere using two different parameters (velocity versus intensity), we have found that both these observations show the signatures of flare-induced global waves in the Sun. These results could suffice in identifying the asteroseismic signatures of stellar flares and magnetic activity in the Sun-like stars.

  14. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with nasal positive airway pressure improves golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Marc L; Friedman, Neil S

    2013-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with impairment of cognitive function, and improvement is often noted with treatment. Golf is a sport that requires a range of cognitive skills. We evaluated the impact of nasal positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on the handicap index (HI) of golfers with OSAS. Golfers underwent a nocturnal polysomnogram (NPSG) to determine whether they had significant OSAS (respiratory disturbance index > 15). Twelve subjects with a positive NPSG were treated with PAP. HI, an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and sleep questionnaire (SQ) were submitted upon study entry. After 20 rounds of golf on PAP treatment, the HI was recalculated, and the questionnaires were repeated. A matched control group composed of non-OSAS subjects was studied to assess the impact of the study construct on HI, ESS, and SQ. Statistical comparisons between pre- and post-PAP treatment were calculated. The control subjects demonstrated no significant change in HI, ESS, or SQ during this study, while the OSAS group demonstrated a significant drop in average HI (11.3%, p = 0.01), ESS, (p = 0.01), and SQ (p = 0.003). Among the more skilled golfers (defined as HI ≤ 12), the average HI dropped by an even greater degree (31.5%). Average utilization of PAP was 91.4% based on data card reporting. Treatment of OSAS with PAP enhanced performance in golfers with this condition. Treatment adherence was unusually high in this study. Non-medical performance improvement may be a strong motivator for selected subjects with OSAS to seek treatment and maximize adherence.

  15. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  16. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  17. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  18. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  19. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  20. Effort, performance, and motivation: insights from robot-assisted training of human golf putting and rat grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jaime E; Gebrekristos, Berkenesh; Perez, Sergi; Rowe, Justin B; Sharp, Kelli; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Robotic devices can modulate success rates and required effort levels during motor training, but it is unclear how this affects performance gains and motivation. Here we present results from training unimpaired humans in a virtual golf-putting task, and training spinal cord injured (SCI) rats in a grip strength task using robotically modulated success rates and effort levels. Robotic assistance in golf practice increased trainees feelings of competence, and, paradoxically, increased their sense effort, even though it had mixed effects on learning. Reducing effort during a grip strength training task led rats with SCI to practice the task more frequently. However, the more frequent practice of these rats did not cause them to exceed the strength gains achieved by rats that exercised less often at higher required effort levels. These results show that increasing success and decreasing effort with robots increases motivation, but has mixed effects on performance gains.

  1. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro Processing Site. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Ground water elevations of the shallow unconfined aquifer have been monitored at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah, for the purposes of characterizing ground water flow conditions and evaluating the effects of irrigation of the golf driving range. Data collected, to date, show that the water table reached its highest level for the year during March and April 1995. From May through July 1995, the water table elevations decreased in most monitor wells due to less precipitation and higher evapotranspiration. Review and evaluation of collected data suggest that irrigation of the golf driving range will have negligible effects on water levels and ground water flow patterns if rates of irrigation do not significantly exceed future rates of evapotranspiration

  2. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  3. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  4. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  5. In vivo kinematics of healthy male knees during squat and golf swing using image-matching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koji; Hamai, Satoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Ikebe, Satoru; Shimoto, Takeshi; Hara, Daisuke; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Higaki, Hidehiko; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-03-01

    Participation in specific activities requires complex ranges of knee movements and activity-dependent kinematics. The purpose of this study was to investigate dynamic knee kinematics during squat and golf swing using image-matching techniques. Five healthy males performed squats and golf swings under periodic X-ray images at 10 frames per second. We analyzed the in vivo three-dimensional kinematic parameters of subjects' knees, namely the tibiofemoral flexion angle, anteroposterior (AP) translation, and internal-external rotation, using serial X-ray images and computed tomography-derived, digitally reconstructed radiographs. During squat from 0° to 140° of flexion, the femur moved about 25 mm posteriorly and rotated 19° externally relative to the tibia. Screw-home movement near extension, bicondylar rollback between 20° and 120° of flexion, and medial pivot motion at further flexion were observed. During golf swing, the leading and trailing knees (the left and right knees respectively in the right-handed golfer) showed approximately five millimeters and four millimeters of AP translation with 18° and 26° of axial rotation, respectively. A central pivot motion from set-up to top of the backswing, lateral pivot motion from top to ball impact, and medial pivot motion from impact to the end of follow-through were observed. The medial pivot motion was not always recognized during both activities, but a large range of axial rotation with bilateral condylar AP translations occurs during golf swing. This finding has important implications regarding the amount of acceptable AP translation and axial rotation at low flexion in replaced knees. IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  7. Knowledge-guided golf course detection using a convolutional neural network fine-tuned on temporally augmented data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingbo; Wang, Chengyi; Yue, Anzhi; Chen, Jiansheng; He, Dongxu; Zhang, Xiuyan

    2017-10-01

    The tremendous success of deep learning models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in computer vision provides a method for similar problems in the field of remote sensing. Although research on repurposing pretrained CNN to remote sensing tasks is emerging, the scarcity of labeled samples and the complexity of remote sensing imagery still pose challenges. We developed a knowledge-guided golf course detection approach using a CNN fine-tuned on temporally augmented data. The proposed approach is a combination of knowledge-driven region proposal, data-driven detection based on CNN, and knowledge-driven postprocessing. To confront data complexity, knowledge-derived cooccurrence, composition, and area-based rules are applied sequentially to propose candidate golf regions. To confront sample scarcity, we employed data augmentation in the temporal domain, which extracts samples from multitemporal images. The augmented samples were then used to fine-tune a pretrained CNN for golf detection. Finally, commission error was further suppressed by postprocessing. Experiments conducted on GF-1 imagery prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  9. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  10. Real-ear acoustical characteristics of impulse sound generated by golf drivers and the estimated risk to hearing: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Bardsley, Barry

    2014-01-21

    This study investigated real-ear acoustical characteristics in terms of the sound pressure levels (SPLs) and frequency responses in situ generated from golf club drivers at impact with a golf ball. The risk of hearing loss caused by hitting a basket of golf balls using various drivers was then estimated. Cross-sectional study. The three driver clubs were chosen on the basis of reflection of the commonality and modern technology of the clubs. The participants were asked to choose the clubs in a random order and hit six two-piece range golf balls with each club. The experiment was carried out at a golf driving range in South Wales, UK. 19 male amateur golfers volunteered to take part in the study, with an age range of 19-54 years. The frequency responses and peak SPLs in situ of the transient sound generated from the club at impact were recorded bilaterally and simultaneously using the GN Otometric Freefit wireless real-ear measurement system. A swing speed radar system was also used to investigate the relationship between noise level and swing speed. Different clubs generated significantly different real-ear acoustical characteristics in terms of SPL and frequency responses. However, they did not differ significantly between the ears. No significant correlation was found between the swing speed and noise intensity. On the basis of the SPLs measured in the present study, the percentage of daily noise exposure for hitting a basket of golf balls using the drivers described above was less than 2%. The immediate danger of noise-induced hearing loss for amateur golfers is quite unlikely. However, it may be dangerous to hearing if the noise level generated by the golf clubs exceeded 116 dBA.

  11. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Putting Grip on Eye and Head Movements During the Golf Putting Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the effect of three different putting grips (conventional, cross-hand, and one-handed on variations in eye and head movements during the putting stroke. Seven volunteer novice players, ranging in age from 21 to 22 years, participated in the study. During each experimental session, the subject stood on a specially designed platform covered with artificial turf and putted golf balls towards a standard golf hole. The three different types of grips were tested at two distances: 3 and 9 ft. For each condition, 20 putts were attempted. For each putt, data were recorded over a 3-s interval at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Eye movements were recorded using a helmet-mounted eye movement monitor. Head rotation about an imaginary axis through the top of the head and its center-of-rotation was measured by means of a potentiometer mounted on a fixed frame and coupled to the helmet. Putter-head motion was measured using a linear array of infrared phototransistors embedded in the platform. The standard deviation (STD, relative to the initial level was calculated for eye and head movements over the duration of the putt (i.e., from the beginning of the backstroke, through the forward stroke, to impact. The averaged STD for the attempted putts was calculated for each subject. Then, the averaged STDs and other data for the seven subjects were statistically compared across the three grip conditions. The STD of eye movements were greater (p < 0.1 for conventional than cross-hand (9 ft and one-handed (3 and 9 ft grips. Also, the STD of head movements were greater (p < 0.1; 3 ft for conventional than cross-hand and one-handed grips. Vestibulo-ocular responses associated with head rotations could be observed in many 9 ft and some 3 ft putts. The duration of the putt was significantly longer (p < 0.05; 3 and 9 ft for the one-handed than conventional and cross-hand grips. Finally, performance, or percentage putts made, was

  13. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhong, Bao; Liu, Xun; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-11-01

    As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chilling (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Physiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage triggered by chilling stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additionally, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differentially expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partially via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differentially expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. In vitro selection of salinity tolerant variants from triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x C. dactylon) and their physiological responses to salt and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyun; Peng, Xinxiang; Guo, Zhenfei; Zhang, Gengyun; Wang, Zhongcheng; Wang, Congying; Pang, Chaoshu; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Jihua

    2007-08-01

    A protocol was established for in vitro selection of salinity tolerant somaclonal variations from suspension cultured calli of triploid bermudagrass cv. TifEagle. To induce somaclonal variations the calli were subcultured for 18 months and were then subject to three-round selections for salt-tolerant calli by placing on solid medium containing 0.3 M NaCl for 10 days followed by a recovery for 2 weeks. The surviving calli were regenerated on regeneration medium containing 0.1 M NaCl. Three somaclonal variant lines (2, 71, and 77) were obtained and analyzed. The selected somaclonal lines showed higher relative growth and less injury than TifEagle under salt stress, indicating that they increased salt tolerance. In addition, they had higher relative water content and lower electrolyte leakage than TifEagle after withholding irrigation, indicating that they also increased drought tolerance. The three somaclonal variant lines had higher proline content than TifEagle under normal growth condition. The line 71 had a higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio, whereas the lines 2 and 77 had higher CAT activity under control and salt stress conditions, indicating that different mechanisms for salt tolerance might exist in these three lines.

  15. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  16. Resolution of low-velocity control in golf putting differentiates professionals from amateurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yumiko; Fujii, Keisuke; Miura, Akito; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2017-07-01

    It is difficult for humans to apply small amounts of force precisely during motor control. However, experts who have undergone extended training are thought to be able to control low-velocity movement with precision. We investigated the resolution of motor control in golf putting. A total of 10 professional and 10 high-level amateur golfers participated. Putting distances were 0.6-3.3 m, in increments of 0.3 m. We measured the impact velocity and the club-face angle at impact, and the acceleration profile of the downswing. The professionals showed significantly smaller coefficients of variation with respect to impact velocity and smaller root mean square errors in relation to acceleration profiles than did the amateurs. To examine the resolution of motor control for impact velocity, we investigated intra-participant differences in the impact velocity of the club head at two adjacent distances. We found that professionals had higher velocity precision when putting small distance intervals than did amateurs. That is, professionals had higher resolution of low-velocity control than did high-level amateurs. Our results suggest that outstanding performance at a task involves the ability to recognise small distinctions and to produce appropriate movements.

  17. Relationships between clubshaft motions and clubface orientation during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Tokio; Yokozawa, Toshiharu; Inaba, Yuki; Matsuda, Yuji; Shiraki, Hitoshi

    2017-09-01

    Since clubface orientation at impact affects ball direction and ball spin, the ability to control clubface orientation is one of the most important skills for golfers. This study presents a new method to describe clubface orientation as a function of the clubshaft motions (i.e., swing plane orientation, clubshaft angle in the swing plane, and clubshaft rolling angle) during a golf swing and investigates the relationships between the clubshaft motions and clubface orientation at impact. The club motion data of driver shots were collected from eight skilled golfers using a three-dimensional motion capture system. The degrees of influence of the clubshaft motions on the clubface orientation were investigated using sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the swing plane horizontal angle affected the clubface horizontal angle to an extent of 100%, that the clubshaft angle in the swing plane affected both the clubface vertical and horizontal angles to extents of 74 and 68%, respectively, and that the clubshaft rolling angle affected both the clubface vertical and horizontal angles to extents of -67 and 75%, respectively. Since the method presented here relates clubface orientation to clubshaft motions, it is useful for understanding the clubface control of a golfer.

  18. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain.

  19. The relationship between the golf swing plane and ball impact characteristics using trajectory ellipse fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Andrew; McGrath, Denise; Wallace, Eric S

    2018-02-01

    The trajectory of the clubhead close to ball impact during the golf swing has previously been shown to be planar. However, the relationship between the plane orientation and the orientation characteristics of the clubhead at ball impact has yet to be defined. Fifty-two male golfers (27 high skilled, 25 intermediate skilled) hit 40 drives each in an indoor biomechanics laboratory. This study successfully fitted the trajectory of the clubhead near impact to an ellipse for each swing for players of different skill levels to help better explain this relationship. Additionally, the eccentricities of the ellipses were investigated for links to skill level. The trajectory of the clubhead was found to fit to an ellipse with RMSE of 1.2 mm. The eccentricity of the ellipse was found to be greater in the high-skilled golfers. The club path and angle of attack generated from the ellipse fitted clubhead trajectory were found to have a normalised bias-corrected RMSE of 2% and 3%, respectively. A set of "rule of thumb" values for the relationship between the club path, angle of attack and delivery plane angle was generated for use by coaches.

  20. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell/Supercapasitor Hybrid Power Management System for a Golf Cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Afiqah Abd Hamid; Ros Emilia Rosli; Edy Herianto Majlan; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Ramizi Mohamed; Ramli Sitanggang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presented the transformation of a golf cart system powered lead acid battery into an environmental friendly hybrid vehicle. The design developed by using an advantage contributes by the uprising alternative power source candidate which is Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and the maintenance free energy storage device, a supercapacitor (SC). The fuel cell (FC) stack was an in house manufactured with 450 W (36 V, 12.5 A) power, while the SC was from Maxwell Technologies (48 V, 165 F). This two power sources were controlled by the mechanical relay, meanwhile the reactant (hydrogen) are control by mass flow controller (MFC) both signaled by a National Instrument (NI) devices. The power management controller are programmed in the LabVIEW environment and then downloaded to the NI devices. The experimental result of the power trend was compared before and after the transformation with the same route to validate the effectiveness of the proposed power management strategy. The power management successfully controls the power sharing between power sources and satisfies the load transient. While the reactant control managed to vary the hydrogen mass flow rate feed according to the load demand in vehicular applications. (author)

  1. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  2. Caracterização química e granulométrica de solos do Golfão maranhense Chemical and granulometric caracterization of soils in the Golfão Maranhense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Souza Valladares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A área de estudo corresponde aos campos flúvio-marinhos com risco de inundação e presença de solos hidromórficos da região do Golfão Maranhense. Os solos dessa região apresentam algum impedimento a drenagem, proximidade com o mar (fonte de sais, condições favoráveis a inundação e aos processos de evaporação. Este conjunto de fatores pode elevar as concentrações de sais solúveis e inviabilizar ou reduzir a produtividade. Foram coletadas 38 amostras de solo em 22 pontos com trado holandês a profundidades variáveis, normalmente de 0 a 20 e de 30 a 50 cm. As amostras foram secas ao ar e analisados atributos químicos e granulométricos. Os solos do golfão maranhense apresentam grande variabilidade e predominam os com argila de atividade alta, alta soma de bases e altos teores de hidrogênio e alumínio. Os teores de magnésio são predominantes em relação aos de cálcio. Apesar da maioria dos solos apresentarem textura argilosa a granulometria é bastante variável. Mesmo com altos teores de magnésio e de sódio o grau de floculação das amostras pode ser considerado alto. Os solos do Golfão Maranhense não se encontram salinizados, porém é necessário manejá-los de maneira adequada para não promover sua salinização.The study area of this study corresponds to fluviomarine fields with flood risk and the presence of hydromorphic soils in the Golfão Maranhense region. The soils of the area present slow drenage, proximity with the sea (salt source and favorable conditions for flood, and evaporation processes. All these factors may increase the concentration of soluble salts and reduce productivity or make it inviable. We collected 38 soil samples in 22 points at variable depths, normally between 0 to 20 and 30 to 50 cm. The samples were air dried and their chemical and granulometric attributes analyzed. The soil of Golfão Maranhense presents high variability of chemical and granulometric attributes, and is predominant

  3. Improved determination of dynamic balance using the centre of mass and centre of pressure inclination variables in a complete golf swing cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Sim, Taeyong; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Golf requires proper dynamic balance to accurately control the club head through a harmonious coordination of each human segment and joint. In this study, we evaluated the ability for dynamic balance during a golf swing by using the centre of mass (COM)-centre of pressure (COP) inclination variables. Twelve professional, 13 amateur and 10 novice golfers participated in this study. Six infrared cameras, two force platforms and SB-Clinic software were used to measure the net COM and COP trajectories. In order to evaluate dynamic balance ability, the COM-COP inclination angle, COM-COP inclination angular velocity and normalised COM-COP inclination angular jerk were used. Professional golfer group revealed a smaller COM-COP inclination angle and angular velocity than novice golfer group in the lead/trail direction (P golf injuries.

  4. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  5. Lixiviación de agroquímicos en campos de golf bajo diferentes dotaciones de riego y sustratos

    OpenAIRE

    Martín del Campo Delgado, MIguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    La contaminación por actividades agrícolas, que afecta tanto a aguas superficiales como subterráneas, es debida, fundamentalmente, a la aplicación de agua y nutrientes en cantidades mayores a las que las plantas pueden utilizar. En este sentido, los campos de golf pueden ser considerados como una actividad agrícola, en donde se cultiva césped de manera intensiva, con demandas de agua similares a la que se aplican en cultivos de cítricos, girasol y arroz y utilizándose grandes cantidades de fe...

  6. Los campos de golf en España y sus repercusiones en el sector turístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Feo Parrondo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El golf es uno de los deportes con más crecimiento en España en las dos últimas décadas, triplicándose el número de campos y multiplicándose casi por 18 el de golfistas federados. Los campos se reparten por todo el territorio aunque siguen predominando los ubicados cerca de la costa mediterránea para que en ellos jueguen turistas europeos, sobre todo británicos. Por sus altos costes sigue siendo un deporte de élite que reporta ingresos turísticos muy elevados.

  7. A Comparison of Trap Types for Assessing Diversity of Scarabaeoidea on South Carolina Golf Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Juang-Horng; Hinson, Kevin R

    2015-10-01

    A 2-yr survey was conducted on golf courses in South Carolina to 1) document the species richness and seasonal activity of Scarabaeoidea; 2) assess any species compositional differences among three trap types (ultraviolet light, unbaited flight-intercept, and unbaited pitfall); and 3) identify any dominant taxa in each trap type. A total of 74,326 scarabaeoid beetles were captured, of which 77.4% were Aphodiinae (not identified to species). The remaining specimens belong to 104 species in 47 genera and 6 families. The most abundant species were Cyclocephala lurida Bland, Dyscinetus morator (F.), Euetheola humilis (Burmeister), Hybosorus illigeri Reiche, and Maladera castanea (Arrow). In all trap types, >90% of all specimens and taxa were collected between April and August. Ultraviolet light traps collected ∼94% of total specimens consisting of 83 taxa (of which 51 were unique to this trap type), whereas flight-intercept traps captured ∼2% of all specimens representing 53 taxa (18 of which were unique), and pitfall traps captured ∼4% of all specimens representing 15 taxa (no unique species; all species also captured by ultraviolet light traps). Indicator species analysis identified 2-3 and 10-13 taxa that were most frequently collected by flight-intercept and ultraviolet light traps, respectively. Flight-intercept traps complemented ultraviolet light traps by capturing more species of dung and carrion beetles and diurnal phytophagous scarab beetles. Results suggested that a similar survey for domestic or exotic scarabaeoid beetles in turfgrass systems should be conducted between April and August using ultraviolet light and flight-intercept traps at 13-58 sites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Development and validation of the Approach-Iron Skill Test for use in golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Samuel John; Burnett, Angus F; Newton, Robert U

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate a golf-specific approach-iron test for use with elite and high-level amateur golfers. Elite (n=26) and high-level amateur (n=23) golfers were recruited for this study. The 'Approach-Iron Skill Test' requires players to hit a total of 27 shots. Specifically, three shots are hit at each of nine targets on a specially constructed driving range in a randomised order. A real-time launch monitor positioned behind the player, measured the carry distance for each of these shots. A scoring system was developed based on the percentage error index of each shot, meaning that 81 points was the maximum score possible (with a maximum of three points per shot). Two rounds of the test were performed. For both rounds of the test, elite-level golfers scored significantly higher than their high-level amateur counterparts (56.3 ± 5.6 and 58.5 ± 4.6 points versus 46.0 ± 6.3 and 46.1 ± 6.7 points, respectively) (P<0.05). For both elite and high-level players, 95% limits of agreement statistics also indicated that the test showed good test-retest reliability (2.1 ± 7.9 and 0.2 ± 10.8, respectively). Due to the clinimetric properties of the test, we conclude that the Approach-Iron Skill Test is suitable for further examination with the players examined in this study.

  9. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  10. Effect of the dose of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme preparations on preingestive fiber hydrolysis, ruminal fermentation, and in vitro digestibility of bermudagrass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Adesogan, A T

    2015-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of the dose rates of 5 Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE; 1A, 2A, 11C, 13D, and 15D) on in vitro digestibility, fermentation characteristics, and preingestive hydrolysis of bermudagrass haylage and to identify the optimal dose of each EFE for subsequent in vitro and in vivo studies. In experiment 1, EFE were diluted in citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 6) and applied in quadruplicate in each of 2 runs at 0× (control), 0.5×, 1×, 2×, and 3×; where 1× was the respective manufacturer-recommended dose (2.25, 2.25, 10, 15, and 15g of EFE/kg of dry matter). The suspension was incubated for 24h at 25°C and for a further 24h at 39°C after the addition of ruminal fluid. In experiment 2, a similar approach to that in experiment 1 was used to evaluate simulated preingestive effects, except that sodium azide (0.02% wt/vol) was added to the EFE solution. The suspension was incubated for 24h at 25°C and then 15mL of water was added before filtration to extract water-soluble compounds. For both experiments, data for each enzyme were analyzed separately as a completely randomized block design with a model that included effects of EFE dose, run, and their interaction. In experiment 1, increasing the EFE dose rate nonlinearly increased the DM digestibility of 1A, 2A, 11C, and 13D and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) of 1A, 2A, 11C, and 13D. Optimal doses of 1A, 2A, 11C, 13D, and 15D, as indicated by the greatest increases in NDFD at the lowest dose tested, were 2×, 2×, 1×, 0.5×, and 0.5×, respectively. Increasing the dose rate of 2A, 11C, and 13D nonlinearly increased concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and propionate (mM), decreased their acetate-to-propionate ratios and linearly decreased those of samples treated with 1A and 15D. In experiment 2, increasing the dose rate of each EFE nonlinearly decreased concentrations of netural detergent fiber; also, increasing

  11. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  12. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  13. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  14. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  15. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  16. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  17. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  18. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2000-03-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 190 Angus (A x A), Brahman (B x B), and reciprocal-cross cows (A x B and B x A) and 434 two- and three-breed-cross calves managed on common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), or a combination of both forages (ROT) were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991, and calves sired by 13 Polled Hereford bulls were born from 1995 to 1997. Heterosis for calving rate was larger on E+ than on BG or ROT (P < .05), whereas maternal effects were larger on BG than on ROT (P < .10). Maternal heterosis for birth weight was negative on BG (P < .11) but positive on E+ and ROT (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects were evident on BG (P < .10) and E+ (P < .01) but not on ROT. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, calf weaning hip height, and calf weaning weight:height ratio; BG was highest, ROT was intermediate, and E+ was lowest. Maternal heterosis for these traits was generally greater on E+ than on BG (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio were not important on any forage. Heterosis for weaning weight per cow exposed was substantial on all forages (P < .01) and was significantly greater on E+ (P < .01) than on BG or ROT, but maternal effects were not significant. Thus, we observed more advantage to Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on E+ than on BG. We also observed that moving cows and calves from E+ to BG in the summer will alleviate some, but not all, of the deleterious effects of E+ on calf growth, although it may be more beneficial for reproductive traits in purebred cows.

  19. Comparison of wet brewers' grains or dried distillers' grains as supplements to conserved bermudagrass forage as winter feeding options for beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M V; Hersom, M J; Thrift, T A; Yelich, J V

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the use of 2 byproduct supplements and conserved warm-season forage as winter feeding options for primiparous beef cows. Gestating Angus ( = 48) and Brangus ( = 24) 2-yr-old cows were stratified by BW and breed to 1 of 12 pens. Pens were randomly assigned 1 of 2 supplements, wet brewers' grains (WBG) or dried distillers' grains (DDG). Coastal bermudagrass hay or round bale silage (RBS) was fed free choice (6 pens each) and cows received WBG or DDG supplements at a daily rate of 0.05% BW (DM basis) prorated for feeding 3 d/wk. Total BW and BCS changes did not differ ( = 0.65 and = 0.93, respectively) between DDG- and WBG-supplemented cows. Total amount of forage DM offered and mean calculated daily forage DM offered did not differ ( = 0.59 and = 0.20, respectively) between supplement treatments. Estimated daily mean and total supplement DM offered was greater ( forage sources were used in an unbalanced 6 × 4 design to measure intake, digestibility, and rumen parameters in ruminally fistulated steers. Supplement did not affect forage DMI of hay ( = 0.31) or RBS ( = 0.63). Total DMI was not different ( = 0.37 and = 0.73) for hay-based and RBS-based diets, respectively. Total tract digestibility tended to be greater ( = 0.06) for DDG than for WBG in hay diets but was not different ( = 0.76) for RBS diets. Daily mean ruminal pH was greater ( = 0.03) for WBG than for DDG when supplemented to hay-based diets. In RBS diets, a supplement × hour interaction ( = 0.05) existed for ruminal pH. Daily mean ruminal ammonia N concentration was greater ( forage. High-moisture forage sources can be coupled with high-moisture byproduct supplements.

  20. Efeitos do contínuo de níveis de interferência contextual na aprendizagem do "putt" do golfe Effects of a contextual interference continuum on golf putting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A estruturação da prática motora é uma variável de aprendizagem muito estudada na área de Controle Motor e Aprendizagem, sendo, neste âmbito, o efeito de Interferência Contextual um dos pressupostos teóricos mais investigados (TANI, 2005. Tendo como suporte a hipótese de PORTER e MAGILL (2004, 2005, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o grupo com prática num contínuo de níveis Interferência Contextual alcançava melhores resultados na aprendizagem do "putt", do golfe, comparativamente com os grupos de prática por blocos, em séries e aleatória. Participaram voluntariamente 48 estudantes (24 de cada gênero do ensino superior com 21,2 ± 1,4 anos de idade, todos destros e inexperientes. Na fase de aquisição foram realizados 126 ensaios de "putt" às distâncias de 2, 2,75 e 3,5 metros do buraco. Vinte e quatro horas depois ocorreu a fase de retenção e o teste de tranferência. Na fase de retenção foram praticados 30 ensaios de forma aleatória. O teste de tranferência consistiu em 20 ensaios, 10 ensaios a 2,5 metros e 10 ensaios a 2,5 metros com 10 graus de desvio face ao centro do buraco. A análise dos resultados demonstra que não existem diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre grupos. O efeito do incremento de Interferência Contextual não foi verificado neste estudo.The purpose of this study was to investigate the contextual interference (CI effect on learning a golf putting task. PORTER and MAGILL (2004, 2005 conducted studies where they applied a new concept of practice: the contextual interference continuum. The hypothesis is that practicing with gradual increases of CI will lead to better performance on retention and transfer tests that both the blocked and random groups. Forty undergraduate students (N = 48 were randomly assigned to one of four groups: blocked, serial, random, or increasing CI practice schedule. Participants were inexperienced with the task and were blinded to the purpose of the

  1. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  2. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  3. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  4. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  5. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  6. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  7. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  8. Biomechanical effect of altered lumbar lordosis on intervertebral lumbar joints during the golf swing: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Tae Soo; Cho, Woong; Kim, Kwon Hee; Chae, Soo Won

    2014-11-01

    Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, little research has been done on intervertebral loads in relation to the anatomical-morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical-morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints during a golf swing. The golf swing motions of ten professional golfers were analyzed. Using a subject-specific 3D musculoskeletal system model, inverse dynamic analyses were performed to compare the intervertebral load, the load on the lumbar spine, and the load in each swing phase. In the intervertebral load, the value was the highest at the L5-S1 and gradually decreased toward the T12. In each lumbar spine model, the load value was the greatest on the kypholordosis (KPL) followed by normal lordosis (NRL), hypolordosis (HPL), and excessive lordosis (EXL) before the impact phase. However, results after the follow-through (FT) phase were shown in reverse order. Finally, the load in each swing phase was greatest during the FT phase in all the lumbar spine models. The findings can be utilized in the training and rehabilitation of golfers to help reduce the risk of injury by considering individual anatomical-morphological characteristics.

  9. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Area Promotes Implicit Motor Learning in a Golf Putting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Frank F; Yeung, Andrew Y; Poolton, Jamie M; Lee, Tatia M C; Leung, Gilberto K K; Masters, Rich S W

    2015-01-01

    Implicit motor learning is characterized by low dependence on working memory and stable performance despite stress, fatigue, or multi-tasking. However, current paradigms for implicit motor learning are based on behavioral interventions that are often task-specific and limited when applied in practice. To investigate whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area during motor learning suppressed working memory activity and reduced explicit verbal-analytical involvement in movement control, thereby promoting implicit motor learning. Twenty-seven healthy individuals practiced a golf putting task during a Training Phase while receiving either real cathodal tDCS stimulation over the left DLPFC area or sham stimulation. Their performance was assessed during a Test phase on another day. Verbal working memory capacity was assessed before and after the Training Phase, and before the Test Phase. Compared to sham stimulation, real stimulation suppressed verbal working memory activity after the Training Phase, but enhanced golf putting performance during the Training Phase and the Test Phase, especially when participants were required to multi-task. Cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC may foster implicit motor learning and performance in complex real-life motor tasks that occur during sports, surgery or motor rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Two- and Three-Dimensional Methods for Analysis of Trunk Kinematic Variables in the Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aimée C; Roberts, Jonathan R; Wallace, Eric S; Kong, Pui; Forrester, Stephanie E

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional methods have been used to compute trunk kinematic variables (flexion/extension, lateral bend, axial rotation) and X-factor (difference in axial rotation between trunk and pelvis) during the golf swing. Recent X-factor studies advocated three-dimensional (3D) analysis due to the errors associated with two-dimensional (2D) methods, but this has not been investigated for all trunk kinematic variables. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk kinematic variables and X-factor calculated by 2D and 3D methods to examine how different approaches influenced their profiles during the swing. Trunk kinematic variables and X-factor were calculated for golfers from vectors projected onto the global laboratory planes and from 3D segment angles. Trunk kinematic variable profiles were similar in shape; however, there were statistically significant differences in trunk flexion (-6.5 ± 3.6°) at top of backswing and trunk right-side lateral bend (8.7 ± 2.9°) at impact. Differences between 2D and 3D X-factor (approximately 16°) could largely be explained by projection errors introduced to the 2D analysis through flexion and lateral bend of the trunk and pelvis segments. The results support the need to use a 3D method for kinematic data calculation to accurately analyze the golf swing.

  11. QGOLF-9: Escala para la evaluación de la calidad percibida en los clubes de golf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Serrano-G\\u00F3mez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de la calidad percibida ha cobrado una gran importancia en la gestión de las organizaciones de prestación de servicios. El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar una escala con propiedades psicométricas adecuadas, breve y de fácil aplicación que permita incorporar las percepciones de los usuarios a la gestión de los clubes de golf. Fueron entrevistados 403 usuarios de 4 clubes de golf con campos de 9 hoyos ubicados en Galicia (316 hombres y 87 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 16 y 75 años (Media = 47.19; DE = 13.91. Para la recogida de datos se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado ad hoc que contaba con 25 elementos agrupados en 4 dimensiones. Fruto de un Análisis Factorial Exploratorio inicial y de un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio posterior, ha sido posible obtener una escala final compuesta por tan solo 15 ítems agrupados en tres dimensiones. Dicha escala, además de ser breve y de fácil aplicación, posee un alto grado de validez de criterio (ya que explica el 72% del desempeño percibido del club y una elevada consistencia interna (con un α global de .91, lo que la convierte en una herramienta de notable interés aplicado.

  12. Design of a Golf Swing Injury Detection and Evaluation open service platform with Ontology-oriented clustering case-based reasoning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hao-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, people can easily use a smartphone to get wanted information and requested services. Hence, this study designs and proposes a Golf Swing Injury Detection and Evaluation open service platform with Ontology-oritened clustering case-based reasoning mechanism, which is called GoSIDE, based on Arduino and Open Service Gateway initative (OSGi). GoSIDE is a three-tier architecture, which is composed of Mobile Users, Application Servers and a Cloud-based Digital Convergence Server. A mobile user is with a smartphone and Kinect sensors to detect the user's Golf swing actions and to interact with iDTV. An application server is with Intelligent Golf Swing Posture Analysis Model (iGoSPAM) to check a user's Golf swing actions and to alter this user when he is with error actions. Cloud-based Digital Convergence Server is with Ontology-oriented Clustering Case-based Reasoning (CBR) for Quality of Experiences (OCC4QoE), which is designed to provide QoE services by QoE-based Ontology strategies, rules and events for this user. Furthermore, GoSIDE will automatically trigger OCC4QoE and deliver popular rules for a new user. Experiment results illustrate that GoSIDE can provide appropriate detections for Golfers. Finally, GoSIDE can be a reference model for researchers and engineers.

  13. Off-site transport of fungicides with runoff: A comparison of flutolanil and pentachloronitrobeneze applied to creeping bentgrass managed as a golf course fairway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flutolanil and pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) are fungicides used to control or suppress foliar and soil borne diseases in turf and ornamental crops. On golf courses, sports fields, sod farms and commercial lawns these fungicides are used as preventive treatments to combat snow mold, brown patch an...

  14. Organismal effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems: developmental instability, clinical hematology, body condition, and blood parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Mineau, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    This is the second of two articles reporting the results of a nonlethal biomonitoring study that quantified the effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems of the Ottawa/Gatineau region (ON and PQ, Canada, respectively). In the present article, we describe results of measurements regarding developmental instability (e.g., fluctuating asymmetry), congenital birth defects (e.g., skeletal terata), clinical hematology (e.g., differential counts), general body condition (e.g., body mass-length relationships), and blood parasite load (Trypanosoma sp. and Bartonella spp.). Voles were captured during the year 2001 to 2003 at six golf courses and two reference sites. Once voles were fully sedated using isoflurane, blood was collected, radiographs taken, and morphometric measurements recorded. Three animals from each course were euthanized to determine body burdens of historically used organochlorine (OC) and metal-based pesticides. Exposure to in-use pesticides was determined from detailed golf course pesticide-use records. None of the endpoints measured was significantly related to body burdens of OC pesticides and metals historically used, nor did any endpoint significantly vary among capture sites in relation to total pesticide application to the capture site or to the number of days since the last application of pesticide. Based on these findings, it appears that voles from golf courses were no less healthy than their conspecifics from reference sites.

  15. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  16. Are inertial forces ever of significance in cricket, golf and other sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In previous papers we investigated the motion of a spherical projectile rotating about an arbitrary axis, subject to a drag force, a lift or Magnus force, and in the presence of a wind. The aim was to determine the motion of balls used in sporting games, primarily cricket. Newton’s laws of motion apply in an inertial (unaccelerated) coordinate system, but the rotating Earth is not an inertial system. In such a non-inertial system two additional forces are present, the Coriolis force which produces a side-ways movement, and the centrifugal force. Generally these two inertial forces produce noticeable effects only on the large scale, when either the time of travel and/or the path length is large. In this paper we have added both of these forces to the equations of motion. In addition, we have also included a ground friction force in order to simulate a ball rolling over a surface or, more generally, a body moving through a resistive medium such as water. Here we quantitatively investigate the magnitude and direction of the effect of the inertial forces in a number of cases. It is found that, as expected, the effects of the inertial forces are generally small for ball games. In cricket the side-ways movement is ≲1 cm for a throw from the boundary and ≲1 mm for a slow bowler’s delivery, and for a long drive in golf it is ≲10 cm. In lawn bowls the side-ways movement can be ∼2.8 cm, which may be significant, given the nature of this sport. The inertial forces are also potentially of relevance in sporting events not employing spherical projectiles. For example, in Olympic rowing we find that the side-ways movement can be more than 40 m for a 2 km race if it is not compensated for, and nearly 20 m for a 4 min mile event in athletics. The effect is also of significance in events such as swimming and horse racing. The importance of this is that athletes may not be aware of the effect and, in the case of rowing for example, may attribute it to side-ways currents

  17. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  18. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  19. Seismic sensitivity to sub-surface solar activity from 18 yr of GOLF/SoHO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2015-06-01

    Solar activity has significantly changed over the last two Schwabe cycles. After a long and deep minimum at the end of Cycle 23, the weaker activity of Cycle 24 contrasts with the previous cycles. In this work, the response of the solar acoustic oscillations to solar activity is used in order to provide insights into the structural and magnetic changes in the sub-surface layers of the Sun during this on-going unusual period of low activity. We analyze 18 yr of continuous observations of the solar acoustic oscillations collected by the Sun-as-a-star GOLF instrument on board the SoHO spacecraft. From the fitted mode frequencies, the temporal variability of the frequency shifts of the radial, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes are studied for different frequency ranges that are sensitive to different layers in the solar sub-surface interior. The low-frequency modes show nearly unchanged frequency shifts between Cycles 23 and 24, with a time evolving signature of the quasi-biennial oscillation, which is particularly visible for the quadrupole component revealing the presence of a complex magnetic structure. The modes at higher frequencies show frequency shifts that are 30% smaller during Cycle 24, which is in agreement with the decrease observed in the surface activity between Cycles 23 and 24. The analysis of 18 yr of GOLF oscillations indicates that the structural and magnetic changes responsible for the frequency shifts remained comparable between Cycle 23 and Cycle 24 in the deeper sub-surface layers below 1400 km as revealed by the low-frequency modes. The frequency shifts of the higher-frequency modes, sensitive to shallower regions, show that Cycle 24 is magnetically weaker in the upper layers of Sun. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe following 68 GOLF frequency tables are available and Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  20. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  1. BP-ANN for fitting the temperature-germination model and its application in predicting sowing time and region for Bermudagrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erxu Pi

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the most significant environmental factors that affects germination of grass seeds. Reliable prediction of the optimal temperature for seed germination is crucial for determining the suitable regions and favorable sowing timing for turf grass cultivation. In this study, a back-propagation-artificial-neural-network-aided dual quintic equation (BP-ANN-QE model was developed to improve the prediction of the optimal temperature for seed germination. This BP-ANN-QE model was used to determine optimal sowing times and suitable regions for three Cynodon dactylon cultivars (C. dactylon, 'Savannah' and 'Princess VII'. Prediction of the optimal temperature for these seeds was based on comprehensive germination tests using 36 day/night (high/low temperature regimes (both ranging from 5/5 to 40/40°C with 5°C increments. Seed germination data from these temperature regimes were used to construct temperature-germination correlation models for estimating germination percentage with confidence intervals. Our tests revealed that the optimal high/low temperature regimes required for all the three bermudagrass cultivars are 30/5, 30/10, 35/5, 35/10, 35/15, 35/20, 40/15 and 40/20°C; constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 40°C inhibited the germination of all three cultivars. While comparing different simulating methods, including DQEM, Bisquare ANN-QE, and BP-ANN-QE in establishing temperature based germination percentage rules, we found that the R(2 values of germination prediction function could be significantly improved from about 0.6940-0.8177 (DQEM approach to 0.9439-0.9813 (BP-ANN-QE. These results indicated that our BP-ANN-QE model has better performance than the rests of the compared models. Furthermore, data of the national temperature grids generated from monthly-average temperature for 25 years were fit into these functions and we were able to map the germination percentage of these C. dactylon cultivars in the national scale

  2. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  3. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  4. Verbal-motor attention-focusing instructions influence kinematics and performance on a golf-putting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzert, Jörn; Maurer, Heiko; Reiser, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined how varying the content of verbal-motor instructions and requesting an internal versus external focus influenced the kinematics and outcome of a golf putting task. On Day 1, 30 novices performed 120 trials with the instruction to focus attention either on performing a pendulum-like movement (internal) or on the desired ball path (external). After 20 retention trials on Day 2, they performed 20 transfer trials with the opposite instruction. Group differences for retention and a group by block interaction showed that external instruction enhanced movement outcome. Kinematic data indicated that specific instruction content influenced outcomes by eliciting changes in movement execution. Switching from the external to the internal focus instruction resulted in a more pendulum-like movement.

  5. KINEMATIC ANALYSES OF THE GOLF SWING HUB PATH AND ITS ROLE IN GOLFER/CLUB KINETIC TRANSFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the fundamental geometric and kinematic characteristics of the swing hub path of the golf shot for four diverse subjects. In addition, the role of the hub path geometry in transferring the kinetic quantities from the golfer to the club were investigated. The hub path was found to have a complex geometry with significantly changing radii, and a constantly moving center-of-curvature during the downswing for all subjects. While the size and shape of the hub path differed considerably among the subjects, a three phase radius-based pattern was revealed that aligned with distinct stages of the downswing. Artificially controlling and optimizing the hub path of the better golfer in the group indicated that a non-circular hub path was superior to a constant radius path in minimizing the kinetic loading while generating the highest possible club head velocity. The shape and purpose of the hub path geometry appears to result from a complex combination of achieving equilibrium between the golfer and the club, and a purposeful configuring of the path to control the outward movement of the club while minimizing the kinetic loading on the golfer yet transferring the maximum kinetic quantities to the club. Describing the downswing relative to the hub path phasing is presented and was found to be informative since the phases align with significant swing, kinetic and kinematic markers. These findings challenge golf swing modeling methodologies which fix the center-of-curvature of the hub path thus constraining it to constant radius motion

  6. How to quantify the transition phase during golf swing performance: Torsional load affects low back complaints during the transition phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Taeyong; Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, Soeun; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2017-10-01

    The transition phase of a golf swing is considered to be a decisive instant required for a powerful swing. However, at the same time, the low back torsional loads during this phase can have a considerable effect on golf-related low back pain (LBP). Previous efforts to quantify the transition phase were hampered by problems with accuracy due to methodological limitations. In this study, vector-coding technique (VCT) method was proposed as a comprehensive methodology to quantify the precise transition phase and examine low back torsional load. Towards this end, transition phases were assessed using three different methods (VCT, lead hand speed and X-factor stretch) and compared; then, low back torsional load during the transition phase was examined. As a result, the importance of accurate transition phase quantification has been documented. The largest torsional loads were observed in healthy professional golfers (10.23 ± 1.69 N · kg -1 ), followed by professional golfers with a history of LBP (7.93 ± 1.79 N · kg -1 ), healthy amateur golfers (1.79 ± 1.05 N · kg -1 ) and amateur golfers with a history of LBP (0.99 ± 0.87 N · kg -1 ), which order was equal to that of the transition phase magnitudes of each group. These results indicate the relationship between the transition phase and LBP history and the dependency of the torsional load magnitude on the transition phase.

  7. Impacts of and adaptation to GHG climate change on the ski and golf recreational activities and the tourism industry : a case study in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.; Bryant, C.; Andre, P.; Thouez, J.P.; Savoie, M.; Tapes, V.; Granjon, D.; Pecheux, I.; Davey, N. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-03-31

    The ski and golf industries in southern Quebec are 2 major sectors of the province's tourism industry and both are sensitive to climate change. The impacts that are attributable to future climate change can significantly affect the profitability and viability of these recreational activities in southern Quebec. This paper presented the results of detailed studies conducted in regions around Montreal, Quebec City and the Eastern Townships in which the diagnostic outputs of 2 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCM) were used to analyze the impact of climate change on the ski and golf industries. The models were used for 3 time periods: a control period from 1961 to 1990; a short term future period from 2010 to 2039; and a long-term future period from 2040-2069. The climate variables chosen for the impacts and adaptation studies included maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric humidity and wind speeds. Environment Canada provided the data for the control period, and the gaps for missing data were filled by regression analyses between neighbouring stations. The outputs of the 2 GCMs were used to determine the changes in the selected climate variables for the 2 future time periods. Irrigation requirements for the golfing season were calculated for each of the stations within the study area for the 3 time periods. The study showed that future climate change and variability will have significant impacts on these 2 key sectors in southern Quebec. The important changes in variety of key climate variables and parameters, mainly temperature and precipitation, will cause negative impacts, more so for the ski industry as opposed to the golf sector. There will be a significant reduction in the length of the ski season in the future, and snow-making may be the only possibility for some of the 84 ski centers in southern Quebec to continue to operate. However, less intense cold may favour the number of skiable days for certain centres

  8. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  9. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  10. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  11. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  12. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  13. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  14. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  15. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  16. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  17. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  18. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  19. Relación entre la potencia muscular de extremidades inferiores y tronco con la velocidad de salida de la bola en el swing de drive en golf

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Torres Ronda; Joan Solé Fortó; Lisímaco Vallejo Cuéllar; Xavier Balius Matas

    2010-01-01

    A pesar del interés emergente en el acondicionamiento físico en el golf, se han llevado a cabo pocos estudios para valorar la relación entre la potencia mecánica y el rendimiento en golf. El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar si existía una correlación entre la velocidad de salida de la bola del swing de drive y la potencia muscular de extremidades inferiores y tronco, en un grupo de 8 golfistas (16,8 ± 1,4 años; 2,2 ± 1,8 Handicap; 63,1 ± 6,4 kg.; 172,7 ± 7,5 cm). El test incluyó medicione...

  20. Ansiedad estado competitiva y estrategias de afrontamiento: su relación con el rendimiento en una muestra argentina de jugadores amateurs de golf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar\\u00EDa Florencia Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo consiste en estudiar si existe una relación entre ansiedad competitiva, estrategias de afrontamiento, y rendimiento deportivo en una muestra de 77 jugadores argentinos amateurs de golf (edad promedio: 16.14. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, correlacional y transversal. Se administraron las versiones en español del Inventario de Ansiedad Competitiva y del Cuestionario de Aproximación al Afrontamiento en el Deporte. Los jugadores de golf que tienen un peor nivel de hándicap presentan mayores niveles de ansiedad somática (r = .30; p < .01; mientras que los que obtienen un mejor rendimiento deportivo en el torneo son los que presentan mayores niveles de autoconfianza (r = -.31; p < .01 y recurren a la búsqueda de apoyo social como estrategia de afrontamiento (r = -.27; p < .01.

  1. How LO Can You GO? Using the Dice-Based Golf Game GOLO to Illustrate Inferences on Proportions and Discrete Probability Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Paul; Richardson, Mary; Gabrosek, John; Reischman, Diann

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive activity that revolves around the dice-based golf game GOLO. The GOLO game can be purchased at various retail locations or online at igolo.com. In addition, the game may be played online free of charge at igolo.com. The activity is completed in four parts. The four parts can be used in a sequence or they can be…

  2. Selling the green dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the marketing and sales of energy generated from renewable energy sources. To purchase environmental energy in the USA, the consumer need do no more than tick a box on a sheet of paper. But, it is not just households that opt for green energy: businesses are also willing customers. A factor in the success in selling green energy to big business is that the retail price of wind power can be held constant over periods of several years, whereas fossil fuel prices can fluctuate wildly. Details of sources and sales of the top ten companies selling green energy are given

  3. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...

  4. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  5. Students’ motivation in a disc golf-lesson and a soccer-lesson: An experimental study in the Physical Education setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Vernegaard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of physical education (PE in both Norway and Denmark is that PE should inspire to a lifelong active lifestyle. Based on the self-determination theory, the aim of the present study was to compare students’ intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and perceived competence in a lifestyle sport inspired PE-lesson (disc golf to a traditional PE-lesson (soccer and general PE. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether differences in motivation and perceived competence were conditional of the students’ relative attitude toward PE. The result of the study revealed that perceived competence was higher in the disc golf-lesson compared to the soccer-lesson and general PE. No overall differences in intrinsic motivation were found. However, when investigating differences in intrinsic motivation according to the students’ relative attitude toward PE, the results indicated that the students with a negative attitude toward PE was significantly more intrinsically motivated in disc golf-lesson compared to soccer-lesson and general PE. The findings may be seen as further recommendations to physical educators to vary the activity choices in physical education classes.

  6. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  7. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  8. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  9. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  10. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  11. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what......, who, when and where has thus far only been supported by anecdotal evidence, but seems fundamental to the decision-making of a range of green space providers. The present study aims to describe, characterise and discuss outdoor teachers’ use, preferences and ecostrategies in relation to green space....... A nationwide survey was conducted among Danish teachers practising outdoor teaching (107 respondents), and it showed that a majority used and preferred forest areas. The outdoor teachers used mainly school grounds and local green space for their outdoor teaching with a majority using the same place or mostly...

  12. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects...

  13. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  14. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  15. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  16. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...; it affords the broad-spectrum decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. Composed entirely of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics, detergents, laundry boosters, and vitamins, Decon Green (trademark...

  17. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  18. Chemical concentrations in water and suspended sediment, Green River to Lower Duwamish Waterway near Seattle, Washington, 2016–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman T.; Senter, Craig A.; Chapman, Elena A.

    2018-01-05

    From August 2016 to March 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected representative samples of filtered and unfiltered water and suspended sediment (including the colloidal fraction) at USGS streamgage 12113390 (Duwamish River at Golf Course, at Tukwila, Washington) during 13 periods of differing flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including metals, dioxins/furans, semivolatile compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, butyltins, the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and total and dissolved organic carbon. Concurrent with the chemistry sampling, water-quality field parameters were measured, and representative water samples were collected and analyzed for river suspended-sediment concentration and particle-size distribution. The results provide new data that can be used to estimate sediment and chemical loads transported by the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway.

  19. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanshyam Das Soni

    2017-01-01

    Technology is application of knowledge to practical requirements. Green technologies encompass various aspects of technology which help us reduce the human impact on the environment and create ways of sustainable development. Social equitability, economic feasibility and sustainability are the key parameters for green technologies. Today the environment is racing towards the tipping point at which we would have done permanent irreversible damage to the planet earth. Our current actions are pu...

  20. What is a green building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreenegoor, R.C.P.; Krikke, T.; Mierlo, van B.P.; Pluijm, van der W.M.P.; Poortvliet, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2009-01-01

    What is a green building? A large amount of definitions and green rating tools prove that an exact definition is still a point of discussion. To research the differences between green rating tools, four different buildings are assessed with: EPN, BREEAM, LEED, GreenCalc+ and EcoQuantum. These tools