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Sample records for bermudagrass cynodon dactylon

  1. Analysis of Natural Variation in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Reveals Physiological Responses Underlying Drought Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Shi; Yanping Wang; Zhangmin Cheng; Tiantian Ye; Zhulong Chan

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing i...

  2. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Growth and Metabolic Profile of Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xie; Longxing Hu; Zhimin Du; Xiaoyan Sun; Erick Amombo; Jibiao Fan; Jinmin Fu

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic responses to cadmium (Cd) may be associated with variations in Cd tolerance in plants. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in metabolic profiles in bermudagrass in response to Cd stress and to identify predominant metabolites associated with differential Cd tolerance using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two genotypes of bermudagrass with contrasting Cd tolerance were exposed to 0 and 1.5 mM CdSO4 for 14 days in hydroponics. Physiological responses to Cd were ...

  3. Contrasting Changes Caused by Drought and Submergence Stresses in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Tiantian; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which bermudagrass withstands the drought and submergence stresses through physiological, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. The results showed that significant physiological changes were observed after drought treatment, while only slight changes after submergence treatment, including compatible solute contents, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. Proteomics results showed that 81 proteins regulated by drought or submergence treat...

  4. Effects of cadmium exposure on growth and metabolic profile of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Hu, Longxing; Du, Zhimin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Amombo, Erick; Fan, Jibiao; Fu, Jinmin

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic responses to cadmium (Cd) may be associated with variations in Cd tolerance in plants. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in metabolic profiles in bermudagrass in response to Cd stress and to identify predominant metabolites associated with differential Cd tolerance using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two genotypes of bermudagrass with contrasting Cd tolerance were exposed to 0 and 1.5 mM CdSO4 for 14 days in hydroponics. Physiological responses to Cd were evaluated by determining turf quality, growth rate, chlorophyll content and normalized relative transpiration. All these parameters exhibited higher tolerance in WB242 than in WB144. Cd treated WB144 transported more Cd to the shoot than in WB242. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 39 Cd responsive metabolites in both genotypes, mainly consisting of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, fatty acids and others. A difference in the metabolic profiles was observed between the two bermudagrass genotypes exposed to Cd stress. Seven amino acids (norvaline, glycine, proline, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and gulonic acid), four organic acids (glyceric acid, oxoglutaric acid, citric acid and malic acid,) and three sugars (xylulose, galactose and talose) accumulated more in WB242 than WB144. However, compared to the control, WB144 accumulated higher quantities of sugars than WB242 in the Cd regime. The differential accumulation of these metabolites could be associated with the differential Cd tolerance in bermudagrass. PMID:25545719

  5. Effects of cadmium exposure on growth and metabolic profile of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers].

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    Yan Xie

    Full Text Available Metabolic responses to cadmium (Cd may be associated with variations in Cd tolerance in plants. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in metabolic profiles in bermudagrass in response to Cd stress and to identify predominant metabolites associated with differential Cd tolerance using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two genotypes of bermudagrass with contrasting Cd tolerance were exposed to 0 and 1.5 mM CdSO4 for 14 days in hydroponics. Physiological responses to Cd were evaluated by determining turf quality, growth rate, chlorophyll content and normalized relative transpiration. All these parameters exhibited higher tolerance in WB242 than in WB144. Cd treated WB144 transported more Cd to the shoot than in WB242. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 39 Cd responsive metabolites in both genotypes, mainly consisting of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, fatty acids and others. A difference in the metabolic profiles was observed between the two bermudagrass genotypes exposed to Cd stress. Seven amino acids (norvaline, glycine, proline, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and gulonic acid, four organic acids (glyceric acid, oxoglutaric acid, citric acid and malic acid, and three sugars (xylulose, galactose and talose accumulated more in WB242 than WB144. However, compared to the control, WB144 accumulated higher quantities of sugars than WB242 in the Cd regime. The differential accumulation of these metabolites could be associated with the differential Cd tolerance in bermudagrass.

  6. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations.

  7. Produção e valor nutritivo da grama bermuda Florakirk [Cynodon dactylon (L. pers.] em diferentes idades de crescimento Yield and nutritive value of Florakirk bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. pers.] at different plant ages

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    Andréa Campmany Vieira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Itapetininga/SP, numa pastagem de Florakirk (Cynodon dactylon formada há um ano, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção, composição químico-bromatológica e digestibilidade do cultivar em função da sua idade de crescimento. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 6 tratamentos (idades de crescimento definidas por cortes realizados aos 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 dias após o corte de uniformização e 4 repetições. A produção de matéria seca da parte aérea aumentou de forma quadrática (PThis research was conducted in Itapetininga, SP, Brazil, using a one year-old pasture, with the objective of evaluating the effect of plant age on yield, chemical and mineral composition, and digestibility of Florakirk bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon. The experimental design consisted of randomized complete blocks, with six treatments replicated four times. Treatments consisted of six cutting ages (20-70 days at ten-day intervals. Dry matter yield increased quadratically (P0.05 in S concentration between 20 and 60 days. A larger variation for macronutrient concentrations was observed than for micronutrient (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations with increasing plant age. There was no influence of age on B concentration. The best association of nutritive value and yield was observed at 40 days. Occurrence of the spittlebug and foliar diseases was observed, which probably retarded the vegetative and maturity processes.

  8. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Shi; Tiantian Ye; Bao Zhong; Xun Liu; Zhulong Chan

    2014-01-01

    As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chil ing (<20 °C) and freezing (<0 °C). In this study, exogenous application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) improved both chil ing and freezing stress tolerances, while ethylene glycol‐bis‐(b‐aminoethyl) ether‐N,N,N,N‐tetraacetic acid (EGTA) reversed CaCl2 effects in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Pysiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment al eviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cel damage triggered by chil ing stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non‐enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additional y, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differential y expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partial y via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differential y expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation.

  9. Exogenous application of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide enhanced multiple abiotic stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

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    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2013-10-01

    As a gaseous molecule, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently found to be involved in plant responses to multiple abiotic stress. In this study, salt (150 and 300 mM NaCl), osmotic (15% and 30% PEG6000) and cold (4 °C) stress treatments induced accumulation of endogenous H2S level, indicating that H2S might play a role in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and cold stresses. Exogenous application of H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) conferred improved salt, osmotic and freezing stress tolerances in bermudagrass, which were evidenced by decreased electrolyte leakage and increased survival rate under stress conditions. Additionally, NaHS treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress, via modulating metabolisms of several antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and GR (glutathione reductase)] and non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool and redox state. Moreover, exogenous NaHS treatment led to accumulation of osmolytes (proline, sucrose and soluble total sugars) in stressed bermudagrass plants. Taken together, all these data indicated the protective roles of H2S in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and freezing stresses, via activation of the antioxidant response and osmolyte accumulation. These findings might be applicable to grass and crop engineering to improve abiotic stress tolerance.

  10. Nitric oxide-activated hydrogen sulfide is essential for cadmium stress response in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are important gaseous molecules, serving as important secondary messengers in plant response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the interaction between NO and H2S in plant stress response was largely unclear. In this study, endogenous NO and H2S were evidently induced by cadmium stress treatment in bermudagrass, and exogenous applications of NO donor (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) or H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) conferred improved cadmium stress tolerance. Additionally, SNP and NaHS treatments alleviated cadmium stress-triggered plant growth inhibition, cell damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, partly via modulating enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Moreover, SNP and NaHS treatments also induced the productions of both NO and H2S in the presence of Cd. Interestingly, combined treatments with inhibitors and scavengers of NO and H2S under cadmium stress condition showed that NO signal could be blocked by both NO and H2S inhibitors and scavengers, while H2S signal was specifically blocked by H2S inhibitors and scavengers, indicating that NO-activated H2S was essential for cadmium stress response. Taken together, we assigned the protective roles of endogenous and exogenous NO and H2S in bermudagrass response to cadmium stress, and speculated that NO-activated H2S might be essential for cadmium stress response in bermudagrass.

  11. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

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    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  12. Disomic Inheritance and Segregation Distortion of SSR Markers in Two Populations of Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. var. dactylon.

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    Yuanwen Guo

    Full Text Available Common bermudagrass [C. dactylon (L. Pers. var. dactylon] is economically and environmentally the most important member among Cynodon species because of its extensive use for turf, forage and soil erosion control in the world. However, information regarding the inheritance within the taxon is limited. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine qualitative inheritance mode in common bermudagrass. Two tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, first-generation selfed (S1 populations, 228 progenies of 'Zebra' and 273 from A12359, were analyzed for segregation with 21 and 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers, respectively. It is concluded that the inheritance mode of tetraploid bermudagrass was complete or near complete disomic. It is evident that the two bermudagrass parents had an allotetraploid genome with two distinct subgenomes since 33 SSR primer pairs amplified 34 loci, each having two alleles. Severe transmission ratio distortions occurred in the Zebra population while less so in the A12359 population. The findings of disomic inheritance and segregation ratio distortion in common bermudagrass is significant in subsequent linkage map construction, quantitative trait locus mapping and marker-assisted selection in the species.

  13. Eficácia de uma nova formulação de glifosato para o controle de grama-seda (Cynodon dactylon, em pomar de citros. Efficacy of a new formulation of glyphosate to bermudagrass control (Cynodon dactylon in citrus orchard

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    Gustavo Martini

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia do herbicida glifosato potássico, comparado ao sulfosato e ao glifosato amínico, utilizados como padrões comerciais. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em um pomar de laranja da variedade Pêra-rio, infestado por grama-seda (Cynodon dactylon com aproximadamente 25 cm de altura, em 70% da área. O experimento foi instalado no município de Taiúva-SP, em solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo, distrófico, de textura arenosa, com relevo suave ondulado. Os tratamentos testados foram: glifosato potássico (ZAPP Qi a 1,05; 2,10 e 2,50 kg e.a./ha, sulfosato (ZAPP e glifosato amínico (ROUNDUP CS a 1,98 e 2,16 kg e.a./ha, respectivamente, além da testemunha sem capina. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em pós-emergência da planta daninha, com pulverizador costal, à pressão constante (mantida por CO2 comprimido de 2,5 kg/cm², munido de barra com seis bicos de jato plano ("leque" DG 11002, com um consumo de calda equivalente a 200 L/ha. Os melhores resultados de controle foram obtidos com 2,5 kg e.a./ha do glifosato potássico, que também garantiu menor brotação da grama-seda. No entanto, a dosagem de 2,10 kg e.a./ha deste mesmo herbicida não foi menos eficaz que o sulfosato e o glifosato, com 1,98 e 2,16 kg e.a./ha, respectivamente.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of the potash glyphosate formulation, compared with sulphosate and aminic glyphosate formulation, used with commercial patterns, applied in orange orchard of Pera-rio variety, on the bermudagrass The experiment was conducted in Taiúva - SP, on ultisol. The treatments were: potash glyphosate (ZAPP Qi at 1.05, 2.10 and 2.50 Kg a.e./ha, sulphosate (ZAPP and aminic glyphosate formulation (ROUNDUP CS at 1.98 and 2.16 Kg a.e./ha, respectively, along writh the control without weed. The herbicides were applied in postemergency with costal sprayer, constant pressure (2,5 kg/cm², with six nozzles DG 11002. The equivalent spray volume was 200 L/ha. The

  14. HYPOLIPEDEMIC EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON ON HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY AND DNA FRAGMENTATION ANALYSIS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEREMIC RATS

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    C. Selva Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of Ayurvedic herbal formulation Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass on histopathological study and DNA fragmentation analysis in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats. Four groups of rats were employed namely control, hypercholesterolemia rats (4% Cholesterol+1% cholic acid, Cynodon dactylon treatment in hypercholesteremic rats and Cynodon dactylon alone treated rats. Results of DNA fragmentation was found to be greater in High cholesterol diet fed groups. Lesser fragmentation was found in high cholesterol diet + Cynodon dactylon treated group when compared to the high cholesterol diet group. Cynodon dactylon alone treated group is comparably similar to that of normal group (lesser fragmentation. Histopathological study of thoracic aorta of Cynodon dactylon treated group shows decrease in atherogenicity compared to untreated high cholesterol diet fed rats. The data demonstrated that Cynodon dactylon formulation was associated with hypolipidemic effects on the experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats.

  15. Effect of submergence on rhizospheric soil enzyme activity and fertility of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)%深淹对狗牙根根际土壤酶活性及肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭淑端; 朱明勇; 张克荣; 张全发; 姜利红

    2011-01-01

    Bermudagrass that naturally grows in water fluctuation (XC) and non-water fluctuation (FC) zones in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area was submerged in different depths of water in order to investigate rhizospheric soil enzyme activities and fertility under different submergence stresses. The results showed that sucrase activity in non-flooded rhizospheric soil was higher than those in soils submerged with different depths of water, suggesting the flooded soils were not as rich in plant nutrients as non-flooded soils.The activities of urase and acid phosphatase in FC rhizospheric soil were higher than those in XC rhizospheric soil. FC rhizospheric soil N content was significantly lower than that of XC after flooding. Total phosphorus in FC rhizospheric soil was significantly higher than that in XC before flooding. This suggested that XC used more soil nutrients than FC during growth period and reserved more energy which enhanced its submergence-resistant ability. All these findings indicated that there existed some relationships among rhizospheric soil enzyme activity, fertility and tolerance to submergence in bermudagrass under different habitats (submergence stress).%以三峡库区消落带生境和非消落带生境生长的狗牙根(XC、FC)为试验材料,研究了不同生境狗牙根经不同深度水淹胁迫后,植株根际土壤酶活性和土壤肥力状况.结果表明:未淹对照植株根际土壤的蔗糖酶活性明显大干不同深度淹水处理,说明淹水处理不能给植物提供与未淹对照同样多的营养源;FC根际土壤的脲酶和酸性磷酸酶活性都较XC的高;淹水处理后,FC根际土壤的全氮含量明显低于XC;淹水前FC根际土壤的全磷含量明显高于XC,表明在未进行淹水处理之前的生长时期,XC可能较FC利用更多的土壤营养进行生长,储备更多的能量,从而为淹水期间植株提供能量供应,为增强其耐淹能力奠定较好的能量基础.以上结果说明不同生境狗

  16. Energy analysis in Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers hay production; Analise energetica na producao de feno de Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro T. [UNIOESTE, Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose R.C.; Bueno, Osmar C. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Facudade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio T. [EMBRAPA - Gado de leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the energy consumption related to the introduction, development, hay processing and storage of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers allied to the analysis of the energetic efficiency. The data used in this project were collected from EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, localized in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from a seven year period of an intensive system of milk production. Energetic coefficients were used to generate the survey and several matrix components obtained from pertinent literature. The direct energy, related to the inputs, showed more efficient participation on the energetic matrix than the indirect energy and the percentages were 94.64 and 5.31, respectively. Farm tractor was the main indirect energy consumer, which is responsible for turning on all the equipment, followed by the irrigation system. The energetic efficiency presented by the whole system was 4.2, being considered positive and demonstrating that the agriculture ecosystem is sustainable. Most of the direct energy employed in this system was oil derived on fuel form. There was, however, a great consume of another oil derived energy such as fertilizer, but mainly on the nitrogen form (28.89% of the total employed energy). (author)

  17. INDIGENOUS EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON IN EXPERIMENTAL INDUCED ULCERS AND GASTRIC SECRETIONS

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    Kondaveeti Suresh Babu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cynodon dactylon is a perinneal grass,the plant is a rich source of metabolites such as proteins,carbohydrates mineral constituents, β-sitosterols, flavinoids, alkaloids, glycosides and triterpenoids the plant has been long used in traditional medicines to treat various alignments it also has antiviral and antimicrobial properties but none has proved its efficacy in evaluating gastro protective activity so we had made an attempt to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of extract of Cynodon dactylon in albino rats. The experiment was set up using male albino wistar rats weighing 150-180gms. These were further divided evenly into different treatment groups. The extract of Cynodon dactylon was investigated for its anti- ulcer activity against pylorus ligation, aspirin induced and ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats at 100,200, 300mg/kg body weight. Histopathological assessment of rat stomach was carried out. A significant reduction (p<0.01 in ulcer index was seen in Cynodon dactylon extract treated rats of pylorus ligation, aspirin induced and ethanol induced gastric ulcer models. The gastroprotective effect was further confirmed by histopathological examination of rat stomach. Thus the present study concludes the Cynodon dactylon extract having potential gastroprotective effect in the three models tested.

  18. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

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    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  19. Research and Improvement in Germplasm Resources of Cynodon dactylon%狗牙根种质资源研究与改良进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春琼; 张永发; 刘国道

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (bermudagrass), is an internationally recognized warm-season turfgrass used for high quality pasture. There are abundant wild bermudagrass germplasm resources in China distributed throughout the south of the Yellow River Valley, however, evaluation and improvement of bermudagrass germplasm remains poor. This review describes research advances in the germplasm resources of bermudagrass in terms of distribution, biological characteristics, genetic diversity, stress resistance, and breeding. The problems and perspectives related to research in germplasm resources of Cynodon dactylon were also elucidated briefly. The purpose is to provide background information for the development and utilization of bermudagrass germplasm.%狗牙根(Cynodondactylon(L.)Pets)既是应用最广泛的暖季型草坪草,也是优质牧草.我国拥有丰富的狗牙根种质资源,分布遍及黄河流域以南的广大地区,但我国的狗牙根种质资源评价与改良工作水平还很低.通过对狗牙根种质资源的分布、生物学特征、抗逆性、遗传多样性及育种等方面的研究进展进行系统概括和归纳,简要评述了狗牙根种质资源研究中存在的问题并展望其应用前景,以期为狗牙根种质资源的开发利用提供基础资料.

  20. VOLUNTARY INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS (CYNODON DACTYLON) EMPLOYED AS SOLE FEED FOR RABBITS

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    Deshmukh, S.V.; Pathak, N.N.; Randhe, S.R.; Deshmukh, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    Abstract not available. Deshmukh, S.; Pathak, N.; Randhe, S.; Deshmukh, S. (1993). VOLUNTARY INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS (CYNODON DACTYLON) EMPLOYED AS SOLE FEED FOR RABBITS. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10561.

  1. Identification and determination of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration in Cynodon dactylon (L.) by HPLC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Saradha Devi; Kaliyaperumal, Ashokkumar; Subramaniyan, Annapoorani

    2015-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) is a potent medicinal plant in the traditional and current Indian medicinal systems. The objective of this research was to find out the levels of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll b in C. dactylon leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a diode array detector. HPLC analysis revealed that total carotenoid and total flavonoid concentration were 62 mg/100 g and 249.1 μg/g, respectively. The mean chlorophyll b was 85.1 mg/100 g in C. dactylon. Among the flavonoids, quercetin (164.7 μg/g) was the major flavonoid followed by kaempferol (48.2 μg/g), rutin (18.4 μg/g), catechin (12.1 μg/g) and myricetin (5.7 μg/g). Of the carotenoids, β-carotene (35.2 mg/100 g) was predominant followed by lutein (17.0 mg/100 g), violaxanthin (5.8 mg/100 g) and zeaxanthin (4.2 mg/100 g). Chlorophyll b concentration was 85.1 mg/100 g in C. dactylon. The results of this investigation should be useful information for further pharmacological studies. PMID:25495959

  2. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawar, Vr; Chitme, Hr; Patel, Kn; Patel, Nj; Racharla, Vr; Dhoraji, Nc; Vadalia, Kr

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  3. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cynodon Dactylon (L. Pers. on ISchemia/Reperfusion-Induced Arrhythmias

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    A Garjani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Probable antiarrhythmic effects of Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. (family Poaceae against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced arrhythmias were investigated in isolated rat heart. Methods: The hearts were subjected to 30min regional ischemia followed by 30min reperfusion and perfused with hydroalcoholic extract of rhizome of C. dactylon (25, 50, 100 and 200µg/ml. Results: During ischemia, the extract produced marked reduction in the number, duration and incidences of ventricular tachycardia (VT at 25 and 50µg/ml (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively. Total number of ischemic ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs were lowered by 25-100µg/ml (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. At the reperfusion phase, C. dactylon (25 and 50µg/ml decreased incidence of VT from 100% (control to 13 and 33% (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively. Duration and number of VT and total VF incidence were also reduced at the same concentration (p<0.05 for all. Perfusion of the extract (25-100µg/ml was markedly lowered reversible VF duration from 218±99sec to 0 sec, 0 sec and 10±5sec (p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively. Moreover, C. dactylon (25 and 50µg/ml decreased number of total VEBs from 349±73 to 35±17 (p<0.001 and 66±26 (p<0.01. In this study, it was also shown that perfusion of the extract produced a marked and concentration-dependent positive inotropic effect. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that C. dactylon produce protective effects against I/R-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts probably by increase in the myocardial contractility and as a result by improvement of hemodynamic factors.

  4. Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnan Saravana Murali; Srinivasan Sivasubramanian; Savariar Vincent; Shanmugaraj Bala Murugan; Bupesh Giridaran; Sundaram Dinesh; Palani Gunasekaran; Kaveri Krishnasamy; Ramalingam Sathishkumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract ofCynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction’s cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells.Methods:The ethanolic extract ofC. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluatedin vitrousing Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction.Results:Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction ofC. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells.Conclusions:Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction fromC. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus.

  5. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma

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    R Kowsalya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced signifi cant results in the protective action. Results: The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses signifi cant anticancer properties

  6. Evidence-based Critical Evaluation of Glycemic Potential of Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly; Watal, Geeta

    2008-12-01

    The present study is an extension of our previous work carried out on Cynodon dactylon. This study deals with the critical evaluation of glycemic potential of ethanolic extract of defatted C. dactylon. The doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg kg(-1) bw of the extract were administered orally to normal as well as Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats to study its glycemic potential. The effect of repeated oral administration of the same doses of ethanolic extract was also studied on serum lipid profile of severely diabetic (SD) rats. The dose of 500 mg kg(-1) bw was identified as the most effective dose as it lowered the blood glucose levels of normal by 42.12% and of diabetic by 43.42% during fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test respectively. The SD rats were also treated daily with this identified dose of 500 mg kg(-1) bw for 2 weeks and a significant reduction of 56.34% was observed in FBG level. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels were also decreased by 32.94, 64.06 and 48.46% respectively in SD rats whereas, cardioprotective high density lipoprotein increased by 16.45%. The reduced urine sugar level and increased body weight are additional advantages. These evidences clearly indicate that the ethanolic extract of defatted C. dactylon has high antidiabetic potential along with good hypolipidemic profile. PMID:18955211

  7. Depleted Uranium Toxicity, Accumulation, and Uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (Purple Threeawn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Afrachanna D; Wynter, Michelle; Medina, Victor F; Bednar, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) in western Arizona is a testing range where Depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been historically fired. A portion of the fired DU penetrators are being managed under controlled conditions by leaving them in place. The widespread use of DU in armor-penetrating weapons has raised environmental and human health concerns. The present study is focused on the onsite management approach and on the potential interactions with plants local to YPG. A 30 day study was conducted to assess the toxicity of DU corrosion products (e.g., schoepite and meta-schoepite) in two grass species that are native to YPG, Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea). In addition, the ability for plants to uptake DU was studied. The results of this study show a much lower threshold for biomass toxicity and higher plant concentrations, particularly in the roots than shoots, compared to previous studies. PMID:27016940

  8. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal potentials of ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Saidur; Rahman; Rasheda; Akter; Santosh; Mazumdar; Faridul; Islam; Nusrat; Jahan; Mouri; Nemai; Chandra; Nandi; Abu; Syeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. aerial parts(EECA) in Wistar rats.Methods: To assess the antidiabetic activity of EECA, oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) model and alloxan induced diabetic test(AIDT) model were performed. The EECA was used at the doses of 2 g/kg, 1 g/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight in OGTT model and 1.5 g/kg was used for AIDT model. Castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were performed for evaluating the antidiarrhoeal effects at doses of 1 g/kg, 750 mg/kg respectively.Results: The dose 2 g/kg in OGTT and 1.5 g/kg in AIDT model blood glucose levels decreased significantly(P < 0.01) in Wistar rats that showed antidiabetic effect of EECA. After administration of EECA at the dose of 1 g/kg, the extract showed significant(P < 0.05) antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model. The results were also significant(P < 0.01) in barium sulphate milk model for the same dose by using above mentioned animals.Conclusions: It is concluded that EECA contains both antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal properties.

  9. Suplementação de bovinos em pastagem de Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers) no verão Cattle supplementation on coastcross pasture (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers) during the summer

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Emílio Fernandes Prohmann; Antonio Ferriani Branco; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Ulysses Cecato; Wagner Paris; Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2004-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado no município de Luiziana, noroeste do Estado do Paraná, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001. Foram utilizados 32 novilhos inteiros, com 13 meses de idade e peso inicial médio de 325 kg, pertencentes a dois grupos genéticos distintos, sendo 20 ½ Red Angus ½ Nelore e 12 ½ Marchigiana ½ Nelore. Avaliou-se o desempenho destes animais, em quatro piquetes de Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers), perfazendo um total de 5,05 ha e diferentes níveis de suple...

  10. DOSES DE LODO DE ESGOTO SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DA GRAMA BERMUDA (Cynodon dactylon

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    NOBILE, Fabio Olivieri de

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Population growth occurred rapidly, resulting in cities with poor infrastructure on the sanitation sector. So, there was the introduction of sanitary treatment, causing difficulty in choosing alternatives for the proper disposal of sewage sludge, rich in essential nutrients for the plants. The experiment was conducted to determine the best dose of sewage sludge to Grass Cynodon dactylon. It was conducted in greenhouse in the University Center of Educational Foundation of Barretos-SP. The experimental design was a randomized block, with four replicates of six plots, four with the application of sewage sludge doses (50, 100, 150 and 200%, a portion with 0%, , and the last installment using only mineral fertilizer. A total of 20 experimental units. The doses which took sewage sludge were D50%: 0,12 g, D100%: 0,24 g, D150%: 0,48 g, D200%: 0,72 g. For mineral fertilizer the dose applied was DAD: 1, 5g. All vessels were treated with lime prior to incorporation of sewage sludge, the dosage used was 6,25 g (2.5 t ha-1 . Each vessel contained 5 kg of soil. Initially the growth of grasses occurred more rapidly, after 43 days all plants started to show significant reductions in plant height. With increasing doses of sewage sludge there was greater root development, and constancy in the shoot. The uptake of K by grasses was relatively minor, what makes it possible to conclude that the material has a lack for the referred element. O crescimento populacional ocorreu de forma rápida, resultando em cidades com pouca infra-estrutura em saneamento básico. Deste modo, surgiram estações de tratamento de esgoto e a dificuldade de alternativas para o descarte adequado do lodo de esgoto, rico em nutrientes essenciais para as plantas. O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a melhor dose de lodo de esgoto para grama Bermuda Cynodon dactylon. Conduzido em casa de vegetação no Centro Universitário da Fundação Educacional de Barretos-SP. O

  11. Radiomodulatory potential of hydroalcoholic extract of a medicinal plant Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae), against radiation-induced cytogenetic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of humans to ionizing radiations may be advertently by routine diagnostic and therapeutic purposes or inadvertently during natural, occupational and nuclear accident situations. Therefore, in order to overcome the deleterious biological effects of radiation several chemical agents have been studied for their radioprotective potential. The medicinal plants being one of the resources for such clinically important natural agents, used extensively in several drug discovery related research. Here the radiomodulatory potential of hydroalcoholic extract of a medicinal plant Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae), against radiation-induced cytogenetic damage was analyzed using Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79) and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) growing in vitro is reported

  12. Cynodon dactylon and Sida acuta extracts impact on the function of the cardiovascular system in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rajaretinam Rajesh; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen cardioactive herbs from Western Ghats of India. The heart beat rate (HBR) and blood flow during systole and diastole were tested in zebrafish embryos. We found that Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) induced increases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos with a HBR of (3.968±0.344) beats/s, which was significantly higher than that caused by betamethosone [(3.770±0.344) beats/s]. The EC50 value of C. dactylon was 3.738 µg/mL. The methanolic extract of Sida acuta (S. acuta) led to decreases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos [(1.877±0.079) beats/s], which was greater than that caused by nebivolol (positive control). The EC50 value of Sida acuta was 1.195 µg/mL. The untreated embryos had a HBR of (2.685±0.160) beats/s at 3 d post fertilization (dpf). The velocities of blood flow during the cardiac cycle were (2,291.667±72.169) µm/s for the control, (4,250±125.000) µm/s for C. dactylon and (1,083.333±72.169) µm/s for S. acuta. The LC50 values were 32.6 µg/mL for C. dactylon and 20.9 µg/mL for S. acuta. In addition, the extracts exhibited no chemical genetic effects in the drug dosage range tested. In conclusion, we developed an assay that can measure changes in cardiac function in response to herbal small molecules and determine the cardiogenic effects by microvideography.

  13. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  14. Animal waste and FGD gypsum effects on bermudagrass and soil leachate nutrient contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous experiments on newly relcaimed coal mine soils in northeastern Mississippi, applying poultry litter at 22.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 enhanced bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) biomass and selected soil quality parameters. Additionally, co-application of 11.2 Mg ha-1 FGD gypsum and litter reduced so...

  15. Suplementação de bovinos em pastagem de Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers no verão Cattle supplementation on coastcross pasture (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers during the summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Emílio Fernandes Prohmann

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no município de Luiziana, noroeste do Estado do Paraná, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001. Foram utilizados 32 novilhos inteiros, com 13 meses de idade e peso inicial médio de 325 kg, pertencentes a dois grupos genéticos distintos, sendo 20 ½ Red Angus ½ Nelore e 12 ½ Marchigiana ½ Nelore. Avaliou-se o desempenho destes animais, em quatro piquetes de Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, perfazendo um total de 5,05 ha e diferentes níveis de suplementação energética (na base de 0; 0,2; 0,4; e 0,6% do peso vivo com casca de soja. Foram realizadas estimativas da disponibilidade e da qualidade da forragem. Após 112 dias de experimento, observaram-se elevados ganhos de peso para todos os tratamentos (acima de 0,850 kg/dia.This trial was carried out in Luiziana, northwest of Paraná, from November 2000 to February 2001. Twenty-four animals with 325 kg of initial body weight and 13 months of age, from two different genetic groups, ½ Red Angus ½ Nellore (20 and ½ Marchigiana ½ Nellore (12 were used. Animal performance was evaluated, under grazing conditions on coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers and four levels of soybean hulls: 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% of body weight. Pasture production and quality were also evaluated. The experimental area consisted of four paddocks of Coastcross, with 5.05 ha of total area. After 112 days of experimental period, all treatments showed high gains per animal (above 0.850 kg/day.

  16. Experimental ecological genetics in Plantago. II. Lead tolerance in Plantago lanceolata and Cynodon dactylon from a roadside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Antonovics, J.

    A population of Plantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain) from a roadside was found to have higher Pb tolerance than populations away from the roadside; this reflected the sharp differences in Pb content of the soil and the plants at these sites. Tolerance tests on seedlings showed that the Pb tolerance was transmitted to seed progeny. Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) showed generally a higher Pb tolerance than P. lanceolata, but there was no evidence of a greater Pb tolerance of the roadside population when compared with populations from control sites. These results suggest that the Pb level found at the roadside was sufficiently high to impose selection pressure for the evolution of tolerance in a sensitive species, but no overt effect was seen in a species with a greater inherent tolerance. This provides another example of rapid and highly localized evolutionary change in plants.

  17. Análise energética na produção de feno de Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers Energy analysis in Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers hay production

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    Alessandro T. Campos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar o consumo de energia na implantação, condução, fenação e armazenamento, assim como a eficiência energética do Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, em sistema intensivo de produção de leite, na região de Coronel Pacheco - MG, sendo utilizados dados coletados pela Embrapa Gado de Leite, em média de sete anos. Para o levantamento dos componentes da matriz, foram utilizados coeficientes energéticos preconizados por autores especializados. A energia direta, relativa aos insumos, teve maior participação que a indireta, sendo os percentuais encontrados de 94,69 e 5,31, respectivamente. O principal consumidor de energia indireta foi o trator, por acionar todos os equipamentos tratorizados, seguido do equipamento de irrigação. A eficiência energética, de 4,18, foi considerada favorável, demonstrando sustentabilidade do agroecossistema. A maioria da energia direta utilizada foi derivada de petróleo, na forma de combustível. Houve, ainda, grande consumo de outro derivado de petróleo, o fertilizante, principalmente na forma de nitrogênio (28,89% do total.The aim of this work was to characterize the energy consumption related to the introduction, development, hay processing and storage of Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers allied to the analysis of the energetic efficiency. The data used in this project were collected from Embrapa Gado de Leite, localized in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from a seven year period of an intensive system of milk production. Energetic coefficients were used to generate the survey and several matrix components obtained from pertinent literature. The direct energy, related to the inputs, showed more efficient participation on the energetic matrix than the indirect energy and the percentages were 94.64 and 5.31, respectively. Farm tractor was the main indirect energy consumer, which is responsible for turning on all the equipments, followed by the

  18. 狗牙根和牛鞭草的消浪减蚀作用%Role of Cynodon dactylon L.and Hemarthria altissimain wave attenuation and erosion control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟荣华; 贺秀斌; 鲍玉海; 杨克君; 高进长; 吕发友

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion and bank degradation is a major post-dam concern regarding the riparian zone of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). The development and succession of vegetation are the main countermeasures, especially to enhance bank stability and mitigate soil erosion. Thus, the role of forCynodon dactylon(L.) Pers.andHemarthria altissima(Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb. inwave attenuation and erosion control was measured via the flume experiments. The results showed that the two grass species play an important role in wave attenuation and erosion control. The effects of wave attenuation and erosion control capabilities for the two species were different. The mean wave dissipation coefficient (MWDC) for Cynodon dactylon(L.) Pers. andHemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb. were 0.37 and 0.30, respectively, with the wave period of 1.2 s to 1.5 s. Nevertheless, the values of MWDCfor Hemarthria altissima(Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb.was similar toCynodon dactylon(L.) Pers.(ranged from 0.15 to 0.30) when the wave period was between 0.8 s to 1.2 s. The MWDCvalues of 0.43 and 0.30 were responded forCynodon dactylon(L.) Pers. under 80% and 40% area coverage, respectively. In contrast, the MWDCvalues forHemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb. were 0.35 and 0.24, respectively, under two different coverage. The MWDCvalues forCynodon dactylon(L.) Pers. with a wave height of 8 and 4 cm were 0.34 and 0.39, respectively; whilst, the ones forHemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb. were 0.15 and 0.32, respectively. The MWDCvalues showed generally increasing trend with increasing wave period. Species studied also significantly reduced wave induced soil erosion. The results of washout tests indicated the soil erosion modulus decreased with increasing eroded time. The largest erosion modulus was measured for bare land (799.40 g/(m2·min)), followed byHemarthria altissima(Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb. (57.28 g/(m2·min)),Cynodon dactylon(L.) Pers.(17.63 g/(m2·min)). When

  19. MOLECULAR DOCKING ANALYSES OF CYNODON DACTYLON DERIVED PHYTOCHEMICALS AGAINST WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV STRUCTURAL PROTEIN VP26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Devi.I

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available White spot disease is a major infectious disease of penaeid shrimps caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. The viral structural proteins are responsib le for binding virus to the cellular membranes of the host that is being systematically infected. An In silic o attempt was made to identify the potential drug to inhibit the WSSV spread of diseases. For that an effort , was made to deduce the antiviral potentiality of Cynodon dactylon derived phytochemicals with docking tec hnique. To stimulate the structure based drug design the, 3D structure of the VP26 (PDB-ID: 2EDM, a tegument protein thought to be i nvolved in the entry of WSSV nucleocapsid into the host nucleus, is retrieved from PDB datab ase and docking studies are carried out with the sketched phytochemical structures using GOLD software. Among the phytochemicals scr eened, luteolin and apigenin shows the best binding affinity with binding energies of 42.51 and 38.92 K.cal/m ol exhibiting the potential to block VP26 (2EDM protein of WSSV. This study will be helpful in developing novel antiviral drugs from plant sources against aquatic important pathogens.

  20. A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extracts of Ficus religiosa L, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Rabinson, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Tridax procumbens L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melinda Krishanti P; Xavier Rathinam; Marimuthu Kasi; Diwakar Ayyalu; Ramanathan Surash; Kathiresan Sadasivam; Sreeramanan Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the antioxidative effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa), Chromolaena odorata (C. odorata), Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) and Tridax procumbens (T. procumbens) as well as the contents of antioxidants in the extracts. Methods:Total phenol and total flavanoid contents were measured according to the standard procedures. The total antioxidant capacity was determined using the phosphomolybdenum method. Reducing power was determined by the potassium ferricyanide reducing method. The free radical scavenging activity was measured by 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results:Quantitative phytochemical analysis of total phenol content showed that C. odorata had the highest content of phenolic compounds significantly followed by F. religiosa, T. procumbens and C .dactylon. As for the total flavanoids content, F. religiosa had the highest content, followed by C. odorata, T. procumbens and C. dactylon. Study on the total antioxidant capacity revealed that F. religiosa, C. dactylon and C. odorata showed higher total antioxidant capacity. T. procumbens showed the lowest capacity. Meanwhile, T. procumbens and C. odorata have the highest reducing power activity followed by F. religiosa and C. dactylon. The results of DPPH radical scavenging activity indicated that T. procumbens induced the largest elevation as the concentration of its extract increased, followed by C. odorata and F. religiosa and C. dactylon. Conclusions:The present study demonstrates the antioxidative capacity of all the four plant species. Of all the plants, C. odorata, a perennial weed plant showed potentially a high antioxidant activity, with higher phenolic and flavonoids contents. The data suggest that C. odorata can be best utilized in developing bioantioxidants.

  1. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna.

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    J A Zwerts

    Full Text Available South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta, and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns.

  2. 两种生境下狗牙根叶表皮亚显微结构的比较%Comparative study on leaf epidermis submicroscopic structure of Cynodon dactylon under two habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周存宇; 费永俊; 刘志雄; 柯林; 杨敏

    2012-01-01

    The leaf epidermis submicroscopic structures of five varieties of Cynodon dactylon and wild bermuda-grass planted in rural area soil and vegetation concrete were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The shape, size and density of stomata on the leaf epidermis, epidermal appendages (mastoids, bristles etc. ) of C. dactylon grown under the two habitats were compared. The five varieties and wild C. dactylon used in the experiments showed morphological responses to saline stress, and mastoids on upper and low epidermis increased, compared with control. On the epidermis of some varieties, such as Sahara, Hawk, and wild type, the mastoids around stomata distributed regularly, resulting in stomatal apparatuses below the cells a-round them. As the stomatal resistance increased, transpiration rate might decrease, and water usage efficiency might increase. Compared with control, increased stomatal density on upper and lower epidermis occurred on Kashi, Sahara, Heaven, and Hawk. According to the stomatal characteristics of the varieties grown on vegetation concrete, high stomatal density occurred on Kashi and Sahara. In general, among the five varieties of C. dactylon and wild bermudagrass used in this study, Sahara, Hawk, and Kashi showed better adaptation to vegetation concrete.%通过对生长在田园土和植被砼2种生境下的5个品种狗牙根及野生狗牙根叶表皮微形态进行扫描电镜观察,比较了在不同生境下狗牙根叶表皮上气孔形状、大小、密度和表皮毛、乳突等附属物.结果表明,供试的5个狗牙根品种及野生狗牙根对植被砼环境作出了积极的响应与适应,上下表皮乳突明显较田园土的增多,并且有些狗牙根品种叶表皮的气孔器周围乳突有规律的排列,使气孔器凹陷在其周边的细胞里面,使气体扩散阻力增大,有利于降低蒸腾,增加植物对水分的利用效率.与田园土上生长狗牙根相比,植被砼上狗牙根上、下表皮气

  3. Performance of holsteins cows in pasture of Cynodon dactylon cv. Coast-cross supplemented with concentrate Desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em pastagem de Cynodon dactylon cv. Coast-cross suplementada com concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Carvalho Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the experimental station of Embrapa Gado de Leite (Dairy Cattle Embrapa, in Coronel Pacheco, in Zona da Mata Region of Minas Gerais, with the purpose of evaluating the productive performance of Holstein cows kept on 'Coast-cross' (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pears pasture, fertilized, strategically irrigated and where the cows were daily supplemented with 3 or 6 kg of concentrate/cow/day. The data were collected during three years (October/2000 to October/2003, involving 108 lactations. An experimental randomized block design with two replicate areas per treatment was adopted, with nine animals per area and eighteen animals per treatment being utilized, with fixed stocking rate of five cows/ha. The system of grazing, under rotated stocking, with one day occupation of the enclosures (piquetes and 25 and 35 days rest in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively was used. The pasture was irrigated in the months of lowest rainfall and fertilized with NPK broadcast at six applications/year. The availability of dry matter of the pasture was 7,280 kg/ha and 6,167 kg/ha in early grazing, with the post-grazing waste stubble of 4,885 kg/ha and 3,994 kg/ha, in the rainy (Spring/Summer and dry (Fall/Winter seasons, respectively. During part of the experimental period, a few morphogenic characteristics of the pasture were evaluated, recording availability of 83.9; 125.6 and 89.5 kg of DM of leaf blades/ha/day, on spring, summer and fall, respectively. The daily averages of milk production per cow were 15.57 and 18.80 kg/ day with 3.5% of fat and per area 77.80 and 94.00 kg/ha, when 3 or 6 kg of concentrate/cow/day were fed, respectively. It was concluded that supplemented and managed 'Coast-cross' pasture adequately enables high milk production per animal and per area, as quantitatively and qualitatively adequate for milk production.O trabalho foi desenvolvido na base física da Embrapa Gado de Leite, em Coronel Pacheco, na Zona da Mata de

  4. Desempenho de bezerros da raça Nelore e cruzados desmamados recebendo concentrado em pastagem adubada de Cynodon dactylon cv. Coastcross Performance of weaned Nelore and crossbred calves grazing Cynodon dactylon cv. Coastcross fertilized pastures supplemented with concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Maria da Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Em três anos de pesquisa, avaliou-se o desempenho de bezerros desmamados de quatro grupos genéticos (Nelore; Canchim × Nelore; Angus × Nelore; e Simental × Nelore em pastagem de Cynodon dactylon, cv. Coastcross, adubada, sob manejo rotacionado, recebendo mistura mineral ou concentrado. O concentrado foi fornecido na quantidade de 3 kg/animal/dia e continha 18,8% de proteína bruta e 81,5% de nutrientes digestíveis totais na matéria seca. A quantidade de forragem disponível diferiu com a utilização de mistura mineral e concentrado (2.961 kg e 3.383 kg de matéria seca (MS por hectare, respectivamente. A oferta de MS/animal/dia foi 9,9 kg/dia (3,9% PV para mistura mineral e 9,0 kg/dia (3,3% PV para concentrado. A forragem disponível possuía, na matéria seca, 13,6% de proteína bruta, 79,8% de fibra em detergente neutro; 62,3% de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, 3,9 g/kg de cálcio, 2,0 g/kg magnésio, 2,5 g/kg de fósforo, 22,7 g/kg de potássio, 2,8 g/kg de enxofre, 9,9 mg/kg de cobre, 22,5 mg/kg de zinco, 98 mg/kg de manganês e 188 mg/kg de ferro. Foram observadas interações grupo genético × suplementação e ano × suplementação para ganho diário de peso e taxa de lotação das pastagens e ciclo de pastejo × suplementação para a taxa de lotação. O ganho diário de peso nos animais Nelore, Canchim × Nelore, Angus × Nelore e Simental × Nelore criados com suplementação do pasto com mistura mineral foi de 0,48; 0,63; 0,68 e 0,50 kg, enquanto naqueles que receberam concentrado foi de 0,87; 0,95; 0,99 e 0,95 kg, respectivamente. As médias estimadas das taxas de lotação das pastagens foram 6,1 para todos os grupos genéticos que receberam mistura mineral e 7,5; 7,6; 8,8 e 9,0 unidades animais/ha para os grupos genéticos Nelore, Canchim × Nelore, Angus × Nelore e Simental × Nelore que receberam concentrado, respectivamente. O grupo genético influencia o desempenho de bovinos em pastagem de capim

  5. Role of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon in prevention of carbofuran- induced oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, D K; Sharma, R K; Rai, P K; Watal, G; Sharma, B

    2011-02-12

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of aqueous extract of C. dactylon on carbofuran induced oxidative stress (OS) and alterations in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain of rats. Vitamin C was used as a positive control. Wistar rats were administered with single sub-acute oral dose (1.6 mgkg-1 b.wt.) of carbofuran for 24 h. The OS parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and that of AChE were studied in brain. Carbofuran treatment significantly increased the activities of SOD and CAT by 75 and 60%, respectively. It also induced the level of LPO by 113%. In contrast, the activities of GST and AChE were recorded to be diminished by 25 and 33%, respectively. Pretreatment of the rats with aqueous extract of C. dactylon (oral; 500mgkg-1) restored SOD activity completely but CAT activity only partially (7%). Carbofuran induced LPO was moderated by 95% in the brain of C. dactylon treated rats. The observed changes in OS parameters in C. dactylon treated group were comparable to that observed in vitamin C (200 mg-kg-1 b. wt.) treated group. Surprisingly, C. dactylon treatment significantly recovered the activity of AChE to a similar level as observed in the brain of control group. In contrast vitamin C treatment did not cause significant change in the activity of AChE in carbofuran treated group. There were no noticeable changes in the aforementioned study parameters in the brain of rats receiving C. dactylon and vitamin C, only. The results suggest that the study is extremely important in the context of development of new anticholinestesterase and antioxidant antidotes against carbofuran from C. dactylon.

  6. Preliminary Screening of Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon) for Salt-Tolerance%狗牙根耐盐性材料初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞; 黄春琼; 张绪元; 刘国道

    2010-01-01

    狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)是暖季型草坪草中得分最高,应用最广泛的草种之一,具有耐盐碱,生长快、建坪迅速等优点.本试验采用荷格伦特营养液培养法,依次用20、26、31 g/L的NaCl营养液对403份狗牙根材料进行耐盐处理30d.筛选出在26g/L的NaCI溶液中存活的耐盐种质21份,再对这些耐盐种质进行不同盐质量分数梯度(20、22、25、28和30g/L)复选,初步筛选出较耐盐种质11份,次耐盐种质10份,这些材料为培育耐盐狗牙根品系提供了优良亲本.

  7. Efecto de la liberación controlada de nitrógeno sobre la fermentación y la degradabilidad in situ de Cynodon dactylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ojeda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de una fuente no proteica de liberación controlada de nitrógeno (NnpLC sobre algunos parámetros de la fermentación ruminal y degradabilidad in situ de Cynodon dactylon. Materiales y métodos. 4 vacas fistuladas al rumen alimentadas con una dieta base de heno de Cynodon dactylon (4.8% proteína cruda y 78.4% fibra detergente neutra, 1 kg de melaza de caña y 55 g de mezcla mineral (tratamiento Control, y tratamientos experimentales con adición a la dieta base de 150 g urea (Urea, sustitución de Urea por NnpLC a razón de 50% del aporte de nitrógeno (Urea/ NnpLC y 183 g NnpLC (NnpLC. En un Cuadrado Latino 4x4 y períodos de 17 días, se registró consumo del día 7 al 14. El día 15 fueron tomadas muestras seriadas de contenido ruminal para evaluar pH, nitrógeno amoniacal (N-NH3 y ácidos grasos volátiles. La degradabilidad de la materia orgánica (DMO48 y fibra detergente neutro (DFND48 a las 48 h fueron medidas con bolsas de nylon. Resultados. No hubo diferencias (p>0.05 en consumo de materia seca (8.2±0.35 kgMS/animal/día, pH (6.1±0.21, DMO48 (52.2±6.2% y DFND48 (30.1±2.8%; aunque hubo diferencias (p<0.01 en valores medios de N-NH3 (19.1, 166.7, 181.6 y 281.8 mg/L; respectivamente. NnpLC incrementó (p<0.05 el ácido propiónico (27.3%, redujo el T1/2 (13.2% y optimizó la relación P:E (22.0± 0.76. Conclusiones. El uso de una fuente NnpLC generó un perfil de ácidos grasos volátiles con patrón gluconeogénico, optimizó la concentración de N-NH3 y mejoró la relación P:E, por lo que debe considerarse una alternativa para manipular el medio ambiente ruminal de vacunos alimentados con recursos fibrosos.

  8. ÍNDICE CLIMÁTICO DE CRESCIMENTO PARA OS CAPINS Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU, Cynodon dactylon cv. TIFTON 85 E Panicum maximum cv. TANZÂNIA E RELAÇÃO COM A PRODUÇÃO DE MASSA SECA CLIMATIC GROWTH INDEX FOR THE GRASSES Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU, Cynodon dactylon cv. TIFTON 85 AND Panicum maximum CV. TANZÂNIA AND ITS RELATION TO DRY MASS PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Yngrid Loyola Franco; Marcos Welber Ribeiroda Silva; Modesto Antonio Chaves; Rilvaynia Dantas Soares; Flaviano Gomes dos Santos; Bianca Damasceno Pinho

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo estimar o índice climático de crescimento dos capins Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Cynodon dactylon cv. Tifton 85 e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e correlacioná-lo com a produção de matéria seca. Realizou-se o experimento no período de novembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006 na Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB) em Itapetinga, BA, (15º 09’ 07"; sul, ...

  9. Estimativa do consumo de matéria seca de vacas em lactação em pastejo rotativo em capim coastcross (Cynodon dactylon, (L. Pers cv. coast-cross Estimative of the dry matter intake of lactating cows in intensive grazing coastcross grass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo estimar o consumo total de MS de vacas das raças gir e girolanda, em pastagem de capim coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross]. Foram utilizadas oito vacas gir e oito girolanda com 30 a 90 dias de lactação. Foi utilizada uma área de cinco hectares (ha, dividida em 10 piquetes de um hectare, e a pastagem manejada em pastejo rotacionado, com três dias de ocupação e 27 dias de descanso e taxa de lotação de 1,6 animais/ha no final da seca e 3,2 animais/ha nas demais épocas experimentais. Para a estimativa do consumo, foi utilizado o marcador cromo mordente. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com dois tratamentos (gir e girolanda, oito repetições e quatro blocos (épocas. O consumo total médio foi de 7,68kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça girolanda e 5,71kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça gir, correspondentes a 1,58% e 1,38% do peso vivo, respectivamente. Os consumos médios de capim coastcross estimados foram de 2,70kg e 4,68kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça gir e girolanda, correspondendo a 0,66 e 1,16% de PV, respectivamente.The objective of this experiment was to estimate the total dry matter intake of gir and girolanda breed cows kept in coastcross pasture [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross]. Eight gir and eight girolanda cows were used, all between 30 and 90 days of lactation period. The pasture (five ha was divided in 10 paddocks, grazed for three days with 27 days of resting period with stocking rate of 1.6 cows/ha at the end of the dry season and 3.2 cows/ha in the other experimental periods. Chromic mordant marker was used to estimate dry matter intake. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with two treatments (gir and girolanda, eight replications and four blocks (seasons. The total mean dry matter intake for girolanda cows was of 7.68 kg DM/cow/day and 5.71 kg DM/cow/day for gir cows, corresponding to 1.58% and 1.38% live weight

  10. Teores de carboidratos não-estruturais, nitrogênio total e peso de raízes em Coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers pastejado por ovinos Nonstructural carbohydrates, total nitrogen and weight of roots in Coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers grazed by sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Cecato

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no período de outubro de 1997 a abril de 1998, com o objetivo de avaliar os teores de carboidratos não-estruturais (CHO, nitrogênio total (NT e produção de raízes em pastagem de Coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, em quatro níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS: 1978, 2130, 2545 e 3857 kg de MS/ha, sob pastejo contínuo e lotação variável. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. As avaliações dos teores de CHO e NT foram estudadas nas raízes e base do colmo, em função dos níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS e do tempo (dias do experimento. Os resultados observados evidenciam que os teores de CHO nas raízes e a porcentagem de NT na base de colmo não foram influenciados pelos níveis de RMS e período de coleta. Os maiores teores de CHO na base do colmo foram encontrados a partir do resíduo de 2545 kg de MS/ha, e no tempo houve constante adaptação às condições de pastejo. O teor de CHO foi superior na base do colmo, comparada às raízes. A porcentagem de NT nas raízes diminuiu até o nível de 2545 kg de MS/ha. A produção de matéria seca de raízes aumentou, à medida que aumentou os RMS, ocorrendo declínio em relação ao período de coleta.The experiment was conducted from October 1997 to April 1998, to evaluate the nonstructural carbohydrates (SC, total nitrogen (TN and roots weight, of the pasture of Coastcross - 1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, under four levels of dry matter residue (DMR: 1978, 2130, 2545 and 3857 kg DM/ha, under continuous stocking (put and take. A completely randomized design, with two replications, was used. SC and TN contents were analysed on roots and stem base according to dry matter residue levels (DMR and time (days of sampling. SC in the roots and percentage of TN in the stem base were not influenced by levels of DMR and sampling period. The highest SC in the stem base was found in the residue of

  11. Avaliação da densidade de uma pastagem de coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers em níveis residuais de matéria seca sob pastejo Density evaluation of a coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers pasture under grazing in different levels of dry matter residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Coelho

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no Câmpus do Arenito - UEM, em Cidade Gaúcha, no período de outubro de 1997 a março de 1998, com o objetivo de avaliar na pastagem de coastcross -1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, em quatro níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS: 1.978, 2.130, 2.545 e 3.857 kg de MS/ha, com lotação contínua e carga animal variável, as densidades e participação dos componentes botânicos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. As avaliações da densidade de forragem, participação dos componentes botânicos e a relação folha/colmo foram estudados nos estratos inferiores (0 - 10 cm e superiores (10 - 20 cm da pastagem, em função dos níveis RMS. A densidade da pastagem (g de MS/m3 nos estratos inferior e superior teve uma relação positiva com os níveis de RMS e negativa em relação ao tempo (dias do experimento. A percentagem de material morto (MM foi superior no estrato inferior em relação à percentagem de colmos verdes (CV e de folhas verdes (FV. No estrato superior o MM e CV tiveram a maior participação, porém FV, aumentou à medida que se elevaram os níveis de RMS.This experiment was carried out in Arenito Research Center-UEM, in Cidade Gaúcha-PR, from October/1997 to March /1998, to evaluate in coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers grazing, in four levels of dry matter residue (DMR: 1,978; 2,130; 2,545; 3,857 kg of DM/ha, with a continuous allotment system and variable number of allotments, the densities and participation of botanical component. A completely randomized design with two replications was used. Forage density, participation of botanical components and leaf/stem ratio were evaluated in inferior strata (0-10 cm and superior ones (10-20 cm of the pasture, according to the levels of DMR. The pasture density (g of DM/m3 in superior and inferior strata had a positive relation with the DMR levels and negative when associated to the period (days

  12. Rotations with Coastal Bermudagrass and Fallow for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Soilborne Fungi on Vegetable Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A. W.; Burton, G W; Wilson, J.P.; Golden, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of fallow and coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus cv. Emerald), squash (Cucurbita pepo cv. Dixie Hybrid), and sweet corn (Zea mays cv. Merit) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra and squash than sweet corn and declined over the years on vegetable crops following fal...

  13. Gamma-ray Irradiation Induces Useful Morphological Variation in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul SEVER MUTLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. is a widely used warm-season turfgrass species in warmer regions of the world. Gamma (ɣ irradiation has been used to generate useful variations in turfgrass breeding for various morphological traits. The objective of the present study was to measure and determine variations in morphology and turfgrass characteristics of a native drought resistant bermudagrass germplasm irradiated with 70, 90 or 110 Gy using a 60Co source. The stolons containing a single node were irradiated and immediately planted for regeneration in a greenhouse at the Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey. Selected mutants regenerated from the irradiated stolons were clonally propagated and transplanted into plastic pots for further observations of turfgrass characteristics.  Survival rates of stolons exposed to 70, 90 and 110 Gy were 76%, 43% and 17% respectively, 6 weeks after treatment. Dosages of 85 and 57 Gy were determined as LD50 and LD20 for the cuttings, respectively. The linear reduction of survival rate with increasing gamma-rays was highly correlated (r2=0.99. A total of four mutant lines (0.3 % of the irradiated plants showed a distinct dwarfed growth habit. Three of these lines were originated from 70 Gy and one from 110 Gy. These mutant lines exhibited more dwarf growth habit, higher shoot density, finer leaf texture than parental genotype. Mutant lines developed in this study can be used for the development of improved bermudagrass cultivars for landscaping and sports turf.

  14. 水淹胁迫对狗牙根光合、生长及营养元素含量的影响%Effects of flooding on photosynthesis,growth and nutrient content of Cynodon dactylon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文娇; 白林利; 李昌晓

    2016-01-01

    以狗牙根当年生扦插苗为试验材料,采用盆栽控制实验,设置对照组(CK)、表土水淹组(SF)和全淹组(TF),研究水淹对狗牙根光合、生长、生物量和营养元素含量的影响。结果显示,1)与 CK 相比,SF 组的狗牙根净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率和气孔限制值均显著降低,胞间 CO2浓度显著增加,但水分利用效率与 CK 组差异不显著。2)SF 组分枝数、叶片数、根生物量、叶生物量和根冠比均显著低于 CK 组,而株高、基径、茎生物量和总生物量与 CK组差异不显著;TF 组除根冠比与 CK 组无显著差异外,株高、基径、分枝数、叶片数、根生物量、茎生物量和总生物量均显著低于 CK 组。3)与 CK 组相比,SF 和 TF 组根的 N、P、K、Fe、Mn 含量均呈上升趋势,Cu 含量显著降低;叶片中,SF 组 P、K、Cu 含量显著下降,Fe、Mn 含量显著升高。研究表明,水淹显著影响了狗牙根光合、生长及营养元素含量。狗牙根通过适度降低叶片 P、K、Cu 含量及升高 Fe、Mn 含量促进狗牙根叶片净光合速率的降低。然而狗牙根可通过提高对 N、P、K 等营养元素的吸收,促进其生长,维持较高的净光合速率,以有效应对水淹环境;其次,全淹环境中,狗牙根叶片衰老、凋落,叶片中 N、P 等营养元素可直接进入水体,存在增加水体富营养化的潜在风险,因此,应加强对三峡库区消落带狗牙根植被的刈割收获管理,以尽可能减少由此引起的二次污染。%A flooding simulation experiment was conducted to detect the effects of flooding on photosynthesis, growth and nutrient concentrations of Cynodon dactylon .Two flooding-depth levels,surface flooding (SF)and total flooding (TF)were imposed,and compared with control (CK).Net photosynthetic rate (P n ),stomatal conductance (G s ),transpiration rate (T r )and stomatal limitation

  15. Effect of method of applying fibrolytic enzymes or ammonia to Bermudagrass hay on feed intake, digestion, and growth of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, N A; Adesogan, A T; Staples, C R; Krueger, W K; Kim, S C; Littell, R C; Sollenberger, L E

    2008-04-01

    This study examined how different methods of applying a fibrolytic enzyme or ammonia affect the nutritive value of Bermudagrass hay and the performance of beef cattle. Fifty Angus x Brangus crossbred steers (mean initial BW 244 +/- 26 kg) were individually fed for ad libitum intake of a 5-wk regrowth of a mixture of Florakirk and Tifton 44 Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers] hay for 84 d with a concentrate supplement (77% soybean hull pellets, 23% cottonseed meal (DM basis) fed at 1% of BW daily. The Bermudagrass was conserved as hay without treatment (control), with NH(3) (30 g/kg of DM), or with a fibrolytic enzyme (16.5 g/t, air-dry basis) that was applied immediately after cutting (Ec), at baling (Eb), or at feeding. Chromic oxide was dosed to steers for 10 consecutive days, and fecal Cr concentrations from the last 5 d were used to estimate apparent total tract digestibility. In situ ruminal DM degradability was measured by incubating ground (4-mm) hay samples in duplicate in each of 2 ruminally cannulated cows having ad libitum access to Bermudagrass hay and 500 g/d of soybean meal. Unlike the enzyme treatment, ammoniation increased (P 0.05) by treatment. The wash loss fractions in hays treated with Ec and Eb were lower than that in the control hay, but the potentially degradable fraction, total degradable fraction, and the effective degradability were increased (P < 0.01) by NH(3) treatment. Application at cutting was the most promising method of enzyme treatment, and this treatment was almost as effective as ammonia for enhancing forage quality. PMID:18156364

  16. Bermudagrass Management in the Southern Piedmont U.S. IV. Soil Surface Nitrogen Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of nitrogen (N applied in forage-based agricultural systems is important for understanding the long-term production and environmental impacts of a particular management strategy. We evaluated the factorial combination of three types of N fertilization (inorganic, crimson clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.] cover crop plus inorganic, and chicken [Gallus gallus] broiler litter pressure and four types of harvest strategy (unharvested forage, low and high cattle [Bos Taurus] grazing pressure, and monthly haying in summer on surface residue and soil N pools during the first 5 years of ̒Coastal̓ bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers. management. The type of N fertilization used resulted in small changes in soil N pools, except at a depth of 0 to 2 cm, where total soil N was sequestered at a rate 0.2 g ‧ kg–1‧ year–11 greater with inorganic fertilization than with other fertilization strategies. We could account for more of the applied N under grazed systems (76–82% than under ungrazed systems (35–71%. As a percentage of applied N, 32 and 48% were sequestered as total soil N at a depth of 0 to 6 cm when averaged across fertilization strategies under low and high grazing pressures, respectively, which was equivalent to 6.8 and 10.3 g ‧ m–2 ‧ year–1. Sequestration rates of total soil N under the unharvested-forage and haying strategies were negligible. Most of the increase in total soil N was at a depth of 0 to 2 cm and was due to changes in the particulate organic N (PON pool. The greater cycling of applied N into the soil organic N pool with grazed compared with ungrazed systems suggests an increase in the long-term fertility of soil.

  17. Dietas contendo silagem de milho (Zea maiz L. e feno de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. em diferentes proporções para bovinos Corn silage and tifton 85 bermudagrass hay-based diets for steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Rodrigues Cavalcante

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade, o pH e concentração de amônia ruminais e a taxa de passagem em bovinos alimentados com dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 (TIF e silagem de milho (SM em diferentes proporções. Utilizaram-se quatro animais castrados, com peso médio de 523kg, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4, recebendo 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado, na base da matéria seca. O volumoso consistiu das seguintes proporções (%: 100 TIF:0 SM; 67 TIF:33 SM; 33 TIF:67 SM e 0 TIF:100 SM. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, de matéria orgânica (MO e de matéria orgânica digestível (MOD, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos totais (CHOT e digeríveis (CHOD não foram influenciados pelas diferentes proporções de feno de capim-tifton 85: silagem de milho nas dietas, registrando-se valores médios de 9,2; 8,7; 6,4; 1,1; 3,7; 7,3 e 5,4 kg/dia, respectivamente. O consumo de extrato etéreo (EE elevou linearmente com o aumento da silagem de milho nas dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes da MS, MO, PB, EE e CHO também não foram influenciadas pelas diferentes proporções de silagem de milho, obtendo-se, respectivamente, valores médios de 71,8; 73,0; 69,5; 69,2 e 73,9%. Para a digestibilidade da FDN, observou-se efeito quadrático, estimando-se valor máximo de 65,2% para dietas contendo 30,98% de silagem de milho. Estimou-se concentração máxima de amônia de 12,0 mg/100 ml e valor mínimo de pH de 5,98 às 2,44 e 6,82 horas após a alimentação, respectivamente. A taxa de passagem não foi influenciada pelas diferentes proporções de feno:silagem, no volumoso, apresentando valor médio de 4,2%/hora.The intake, digestibility, ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations and passage rate were evaluated in steers fed corn silage (CS and Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay (T85H-based diets, at different forage proportions. Four rumen fistulated steers with 523 kg of live

  18. Animal production and canopy attributes of Cynodon pasture managed under continuous stocking with wethers at three levels of forage allowance

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Vendrúsculo dos Santos; Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski; Fernando Luiz Ferreira de Quadros; Cleber Cassol Pires; Tatiana Pfüller Wommer; Camila Ornelas Mônego

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of forage allowance (3, 6 or 9 kg of green leaves dry matter (DM)/100 kg of body weight (BW)) on both animal performance and attributes of Cynodon dactylon var.dactylon canopy managed under continuous stocking by wethers. The study was carried out with 27 Polwarth wethers throughout five 28-day periods, in a completely randomized experiment, which included three paddocks per treatment and three tester animals per paddock. Fora...

  19. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes on the fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and digestibility of bermudagrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D B; Adesogan, A T; Krueger, N; Littell, R C

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the nutritive value and aerobic stability of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage could be improved by addition of proprietary, exogenous cellulase/hemicellulase enzyme preparations at ensiling. A 5-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was conserved without treatment (control) or after treatment with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes including Promote NET (Pr), Biocellulase X-20 (X20), Biocellulase A-20 (A20), and Enzyme CT. The respective enzymes were applied at half the recommended rate, the recommended rate, or twice the recommended rate corresponding to 0.65, 1.3, and 2.6 g/kg of DM, 7.3, 14.5, and 29 mg/kg of DM, at 7.3, 14.4, and 29 mg/kg of DM, and 89, 178, and 356 mg/kg of DM, for Pr, X20, A20, and CT, respectively. The enzymes were sprayed on the bermudagrass at ensiling (not added at feeding as suggested by the manufacturers) to test the objectives of the study. Six 1-kg replicates of chopped (5 cm) forage were ensiled for 145 d in 2.8-L mini silos. Three silos per treatment were used for chemical analysis and 3 for aerobic stability monitoring. The silage juice was analyzed for organic acids, pH, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), ammonia-N, and soluble N. Freeze-dried samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), NDF (IVNDFD), and ADF (IVADFD) were determined after digesting the silages in buffered rumen fluid for 6 or 48 h in 2 ANKOM(II) Daisy Incubators. Compared with the other silages, those treated with Pr had lower DM losses, and lower pH and ammonia-N concentration than control silages. Residual WSC concentration was greater in Pr- and CT-treated silages than in control silages and greater in Pr-treated silages than CT-treated silages. Compared with control silages, NDF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and CT, and ADF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and A20

  20. Estimation of Biomass and Canopy Height in Bermudagrass, Alfalfa, and Wheat Using Ultrasonic, Laser, and Spectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Joshua Pittman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive biomass estimation of vegetation has been performed via remote sensing as well as physical measurements. An effective method for estimating biomass must have accuracy comparable to the accepted standard of destructive removal. Estimation or measurement of height is commonly employed to create a relationship between height and mass. This study examined several types of ground-based mobile sensing strategies for forage biomass estimation. Forage production experiments consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were employed to examine sensor biomass estimation (laser, ultrasonic, and spectral as compared to physical measurements (plate meter and meter stick and the traditional harvest method (clipping. Predictive models were constructed via partial least squares regression and modeled estimates were compared to the physically measured biomass. Least significant difference separated mean estimates were examined to evaluate differences in the physical measurements and sensor estimates for canopy height and biomass. Differences between methods were minimal (average percent error of 11.2% for difference between predicted values versus machine and quadrat harvested biomass values (1.64 and 4.91 t·ha−1, respectively, except at the lowest measured biomass (average percent error of 89% for harvester and quad harvested biomass < 0.79 t·ha−1 and greatest measured biomass (average percent error of 18% for harvester and quad harvested biomass >6.4 t·ha−1. These data suggest that using mobile sensor-based biomass estimation models could be an effective alternative to the traditional clipping method for rapid, accurate in-field biomass estimation.

  1. Fibrolytic enzyme and ammonia application effects on the nutritive value, intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass hay in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Shin, J H; Staples, C R; Brown, W F; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to compare the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (Biocellulase A20) or anhydrous ammonia (4% DM) treatment on the nutritive value, voluntary intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cultivar Coastal) hay harvested after 2 maturities (5- and 13-wk regrowths). Six individually housed, ruminally cannulated Brangus steers (BW 325 ± 10 kg) were used in an experiment with a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 3 (additives) × 2 (maturities) factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7, 4, 1, 1, and 4 d for measuring in vivo digestibility, in situ degradability, no measurements, rumen liquid fermentation and passage indices, and rate of solid passage, respectively. Steers were fed hay for ad libitum intake and supplemented with sugarcane molasses and distillers grain (supplement total of 2.88 kg DM/d). Enzyme did not affect the nutritional composition of hay but ammonia treatment decreased hay NDF, hemicellulose, and ADL concentrations and increased the CP concentration particularly for the mature lignified 13-wk hay. The enzyme increased NDF and hemicellulose digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased those of the 13-wk hay. Ammoniation decreased intake of hay but increased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, hemicellulose, ADF, and cellulose and increased the ruminal in situ soluble and potentially digestible fractions and the rate of DM degradation of the 13-wk hay. Also, ammoniation increased the concentrations of ruminal NH3, total VFA, acetate, and butyrate but enzyme treatment did not. Neither enzyme addition nor ammoniation affected rate of liquid and solid passage. In conclusion, ammoniation decreased the concentration of most fiber fractions, decreased the intake of hays, and increased their CP concentration, in vivo digestibility, and in situ degradability at both maturities whereas enzyme application increased fiber digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased it in the case of

  2. Diversity among Cynodon accessions and taxa based on DNA amplification fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, S; Taliaferro, C M; Anderson, M P; de los Reyes, B G; Edwards, R M

    1999-06-01

    The genus Cynodon (Gramineae), comprised of 9 species, is geographically widely distributed and genetically diverse. Information on the amounts of molecular genetic variation among and within Cynodon taxa is needed to enhance understanding of phylogenetic relations and facilitate germplasm management and breeding improvement efforts. Genetic relatedness among 62 Cynodon accessions, representing eight species, was assessed using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF). Ten 8-mer oligonucleotides were used to amplify specific Cynodon genomic sequences. The DNA amplification products of individual accessions were scored for presence (1) or absence (0) of bands. Similarity matrices were developed and the accessions were grouped by cluster (UPGMA) and principal coordinate analysis. Analyses were conducted within ploidy level (2x = 18 and 4x = 36) and over ploidy levels. Each primer revealed polymorphic loci among accessions within species. Of 539 loci (bands) scored, 496 (92%) were polymorphic. Cynodon arcuatus was clearly separated from other species by numerous monomorphic bands. The strongest species similarities were between C. aethiopicus and C. arcuatus, C. transvaalensis and C. plectostachyus, and C. incompletus and C. nlemfuensis. Intraspecific variation was least for C. aethiopicus, C. arcuatus, and C. transvaalensis, and greatest for C. dactylon. Accessions of like taxonomic classification were generally clustered, except the cosmopolitan C. dactylon var. dactylon and C. dactylon var. afganicus. Within taxa, accessions differing in chromosome number clustered in all instances indicating the 2x and 4x forms to be closely related. Little, if any, relationship was found between relatedness as indicated by the DAF profiles and previous estimates of hybridization potential between the different taxa. PMID:10382294

  3. BP-ANN for fitting the temperature-germination model and its application in predicting sowing time and region for Bermudagrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erxu Pi

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the most significant environmental factors that affects germination of grass seeds. Reliable prediction of the optimal temperature for seed germination is crucial for determining the suitable regions and favorable sowing timing for turf grass cultivation. In this study, a back-propagation-artificial-neural-network-aided dual quintic equation (BP-ANN-QE model was developed to improve the prediction of the optimal temperature for seed germination. This BP-ANN-QE model was used to determine optimal sowing times and suitable regions for three Cynodon dactylon cultivars (C. dactylon, 'Savannah' and 'Princess VII'. Prediction of the optimal temperature for these seeds was based on comprehensive germination tests using 36 day/night (high/low temperature regimes (both ranging from 5/5 to 40/40°C with 5°C increments. Seed germination data from these temperature regimes were used to construct temperature-germination correlation models for estimating germination percentage with confidence intervals. Our tests revealed that the optimal high/low temperature regimes required for all the three bermudagrass cultivars are 30/5, 30/10, 35/5, 35/10, 35/15, 35/20, 40/15 and 40/20°C; constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 40°C inhibited the germination of all three cultivars. While comparing different simulating methods, including DQEM, Bisquare ANN-QE, and BP-ANN-QE in establishing temperature based germination percentage rules, we found that the R(2 values of germination prediction function could be significantly improved from about 0.6940-0.8177 (DQEM approach to 0.9439-0.9813 (BP-ANN-QE. These results indicated that our BP-ANN-QE model has better performance than the rests of the compared models. Furthermore, data of the national temperature grids generated from monthly-average temperature for 25 years were fit into these functions and we were able to map the germination percentage of these C. dactylon cultivars in the national scale

  4. Produção de forragem em pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém Forage production on bermudagrass sod seeding with oat and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Elgalise Techio Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar dois sistemas forrageiros manejados com vacas da raça Holandesa. Os sistemas foram constituídos por pastagem de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. "Coastcross" sobre-semeada com aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. "Comum" e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. "Comum" e aveia e azevém em cultivo estreme. Foram conduzidos oito pastejos (de 09/06/04 a 13/10/04 e de 02/08/05 a 29/10/05, sendo avaliada a massa de forragem pré e pós-pastejo, a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (MS, a produção total de forragem, a oferta de forragem, a composição botânica, a biomassa total de lâminas foliares e carga animal. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 para os referidos parâmetros. A produção total de MS, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS e a carga animal foram de 8467,9; 7105,7kg de MS ha-1; 54,1 e 69,2kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 1050,8 e 925,5kg de peso vivo ha-1, para a pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém e para a pastagem anual, respectivamente. Houve maior participação de lâminas foliares de aveia na pastagem constituída por aveia e azevém (P0,05 entre os sistemas forrageiros quanto à produção total de biomassa de lâminas foliares. Estes resultados indicam que o sistema forrageiro constituído por bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém, utilizada no período hibernal, pode ser usada em condições climáticas similares às do presente estudo.This study was aimed at comparing two pasture-based systems grazed by Holstein cows. The systems were sod seeding of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. Common and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Common in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. Coastcross and oat and ryegrass mixture in extreme cultivation. From 06/09/04 to 10/13/04 and 08/02/05 to 10/29/05, in eight grazing periods, the pregraze and postgraze herbage mass, dry matter (DM daily acumulation rate, total dry matter production

  5. Efeito de extratos aquosos de estruturas de grama-seda no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de arroz, milho e trigo Effects of aqueous extracts of bermudagrass structures on initial growth of rice, corn and wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo de Salvo Soares Novo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar os efeitos de extratos aquosos de estruturas de grama-seda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers e de exsudatos radiculares presentes no solo no qual a planta se desenvolveu, sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial de arroz, trigo e milho. O extrato aquoso das estruturas da parte aérea, subterrâneas e da planta inteira, assim como do estolão, da folha + colmo, estolão + folha + colmo, rizoma, raiz e de rizoma + raiz de grama-seda foi elaborado a partir de 100 g L-1 de material seco. Foram avaliados a protrusão da radícula e os crescimentos da radícula e da plúmula de cada espécie. A inibição ou o estímulo do desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas foi dependente da espécie avaliada e da estrutura vegetal empregada na elaboração do extrato. A protrusão da radícula foi mais inibida que os crescimentos da radícula e da plúmula. O estímulo do desenvolvimento da radícula e da plúmula foi mais evidente quando o extrato foi elaborado a partir das estruturas do sistema radicular, da parte aérea e da planta inteira que de estruturas individualizadas de grama-seda. De modo geral, o arroz e o milho foram mais inibidos por extratos elaborados a partir da parte aérea e subterrânea, respectivamente. Para o trigo, a inibição ou o estímulo foi dependente da variável analisada. O desenvolvimento da radícula e da plúmula de arroz, milho e trigo foi estimulado por extrato elaborado a partir da planta inteira. O extrato produzido a partir da fração argila + silte estimulou o desenvolvimento da radícula do milho e da plúmula do trigo.The objective of this work was to study the effects of aqueous extracts of Bermudagrass structures (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers and soil exudates, on the germination and initial growth of rice, corn and wheat seedlings. The aqueous extracts of above-ground and subterranean parts and of the whole plant, as well as of stolons, leaves + culm, stolons + leaves + culm, rhizome, root and rhizome

  6. Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juvenal Kanani; Dirk Philipp; Kenneth PCoffey; Elizabeth BKegley; Charles PWest; Shane Gadberry; John Jennings; Ashley NYoung; Robert TRhein

    2014-01-01

    Background:The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminal y cannulated cows (594 ± 35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets:low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal col ection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Results:Forage DMI was affected by diet (P=0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P<0.05) than from L. Apparent DMD tended (P=0.08) to differ among diets while FO (P=0.20) was not affected by diet treatments. Average ADL recovery (1.16) was greater (P<0.05) than that of ADIA (1.03) and APL (1.06), but ADIA and APL did not differ (P=0.42). Estimates of FO and DMD derived using APL and ADIA were not different (P≥0.05) from total fecal collection while those using ADL differed (P<0.05). There was no diet by marker interaction (P≥0.22) for either FO or DMD. Conclusion:Acid-detergent insoluble ash and APL accurately predicted FO and DMD of cattle fed bermudagrass hay of varying nutrient composition. These internal markers may facilitate studies involving large numbers of animals and forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of forages based on the relationship of dietary

  7. 不同居群野生狗牙根材料的SSR分析%SSR Analyses of Different Bermudagrass Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延辉; 帕提古丽; 李江华; 于辉; 阿不来提

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diversity level of Xinjiang Bermudagrass,the genetic diversities of Bermudagrass from Xinjiang,Huanan and abroad were investigated using SSR marker.Results indicated that 142 allelic variations were amplified by 20 primers,of which 124 were polymorphism and each locus had 7 allelic variations.The percentage of polymorphic loci was 87.86%,the average of Nei's (H) was 0.4347.The genetic similarities (GS) of 106 materials ranged from 0.43 to 1.0,the average was 0.715.The genetic differentiation coefficient was 41.19% among the population and 58.81% inside the population.Data illustrated genetic variation within populations was larger than among populations according to genetic identity and differentiation.The general clustering consequences by UPGMA method indicated that 106 materials were classified into three groups when the similarity coefficient was 0.39.The genetic variance of Bermuda grass was not obviously related to the origin,but the materials from the same region were more classified into the same group.These clustering results were correlated with geographic origin in some extent.%为评价新疆狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)资源的遗传多样性水平,以采自新疆不同地域的狗牙根与部分华南地区及国外的狗牙根为材料,用SSR标记开展遗传多样性研究.结果表明:20对引物共产生142个等位变异,平均每个位点7个,其中有124个等位变异显示多态性,多态位点百分率为87.86%,位点Nei's基因多样性(H)指数平均为0.4347;根据遗传一致性及遗传分化结果,106份狗牙根材料的遗传相似性系数值在0.43~1.0之间,平均0.715,居群间遗传分化系数为0.4119,表明有41.19%的变异存在于居群间,58.81%的变异存在于居群内,居群内的遗传分化大于居群间的遗传分化;根据UPGMA法聚类表明,106份供试材料相似系数为0.39时可聚为3类,材料间的遗传差异与其采集地的关系不很明显,但来自同一

  8. Characterizing Oxadiazon Resistance and Improving Postemergence Control Programs for Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) in Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Michael Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Goosegrass is a problematic weed of golf courses, sports fields, and residential lawns that decreases playability and aesthetic quality of turf. With the recent banning of MSMA in sports fields and intensive restrictions in golf and sod production, turfgrass managers are seeking alternatives for postemergence goosegrass control and how to utilize currently labeled goosegrass control products more effectively. Studies were conducted to investigate a suspected-resistant (SR) goosegrass access...

  9. Bermudagrass: Spring weed control programs and biotype research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research conducted from 2008 through 2012 evaluated bermudagrass control with Sencor (metribuzin) and Command (clomazone) plus Direx (diuron). Averaged across experiments, bermudagrass was controlled 54, 41, and 43% four weeks after Sencor application at 3 lb/A in mid-February, early-March, and mid-...

  10. Nutritional Value of Warm- and Cool-Season Grasses for Ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Mundie, Benjamin Scott

    1999-01-01

    A metabolism trial was conducted to compare the nutritional value of: 1)â Quickstandâ bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], 2)caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasia (Trin.) C.E. Hubb], 3)tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and 4)orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). The warm-season grasses (bermudagrass and bluestem) were higher (P < .01) in fiber components than the cool-season grasses (tall fescue and orchardgrass). Bluestem was lower (P < .001) in CP, hemicellulose, a...

  11. Effects of supplementary selenium source on the blood parameters in beef cows and their nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 2 years, 32 beef cows nursing calves were randomly selected from a herd of 120 that were managed in 6 groups and were assigned to six 5.1-ha bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) pastures. Treatments were assigned to pastures (2 pastures/treatment) and cows had ad libitum access to 1 of 3...

  12. Suplementação de bovinos em pastagens de Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers) no inverno Cattle supplementation on Coastcross pasture (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers) during the winter

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Emílio Fernandes Prohmann; Antonio Ferriani Branco; Ulysses Cecato; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Kátia Cylene Guimarães; Rosemeri Aparecida Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado no município de Luiziana, noroeste do Estado do Paraná, no período de junho a outubro de 2000. Foram utilizados 24 novilhos inteiros, com nove meses de idade e peso inicial médio de 223 kg, pertencentes a dois grupos genéticos distintos, sendo 15 ½ Red Angus ½ Nelore e nove ½ Marchigiana ½ Nelore. Avaliou-se o desempenho dos animais submetidos a três formas de suplementação e a qualidade e produtividade da forragem. A área experimental foi constituída por quatro pi...

  13. Nutrients removal by Typha latifolia and Cynodon spp. grown in constructed wetlands

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    Mateus Pimentel de Matos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extraction capacity of two species when grown in constructed wetlands with subsurface horizontal flow (SACs for the treatment of swine wastewater (ARS. To this end, were built 8 SACs of 2.0 m x 0.5 m x 0.6 m, fiber glass, filled with 0.55 m of fine gravels. In SAC2; SAC4; SAC6 and SAC8 was cultivated cattail (Typha latifolia and in SAC3; SAC5; SAC7 and SAC9 was cultivated tifton-85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.. The SAC2 and SAC3, SAC4 and SAC5, SAC6 and SAC7 and SAC8 and SAC9 received 163, 327, 461 and 561 kg ha-1 day-1 of BOD, respectively. During the 120 days of the SACs monitoring, it was found that the cattail has not adapted to the conditions of exposure. The highest yields were obtained with the application of organic load average of 327 kg ha-1 day-1 of BOD. The tifton-85 was the plant species with the highest capacity to extract nutrients, getting to draw between 443 and 540, 86 and 99, 193 and 241, 0.77 and 2.17, and 1.21 and 3.68 kg ha-1 TKN, P, K, Cu and Zn, respectively, while cattail showed greater capacity to absorb sodium.

  14. Physiological and Molecular Mechanism of Nitric Oxide (NO) Involved in Bermudagrass Response to Cold Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Hu, Zhengrong; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-01-01

    Bermudagrass is widely utilized in parks, lawns, and golf courses. However, cold is a key factor limiting resource use in bermudagrass. Therefore, it is meaningful to study the mechanism of bermudagrass response to cold. Nitric oxide (NO) is a crucial signal molecule with multiple biological functions. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether NO play roles in bermudagrass response to cold. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as NO donor, while 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramentyli...

  15. Predição da composição química de bermudas (Cynodon spp. pela espectroscopia de reflectância no infravermelho proximal Prediction of chemical composition of Cynodon spp. by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

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    Roberto Serena Fontaneli

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversos cultivares de Cynodon dactylon têm sido cultivados no Rio Grande do Sul para alimentação do rebanho leiteiro, na forma de pastejo ou feno. A rápida determinação do valor nutritivo dessas forrageiras pode ser útil para seu manejo e para o planejamento da dieta dos animais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver curvas de calibração para análise do valor nutritivo de quatro cultivares de Cynodon (Tifton 68, Tifton 85, Florakirk, Coastcross, utilizando o método de reflectância no infravermelho proximal (NIRS. Foram utilizadas 129 amostras de forragem verde, coletadas e analisadas entre 1998 e 2001. Os coeficientes de determinação para proteína bruta, fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro, fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido, matéria seca, cálcio, fósforo, potássio e magnésio foram, respectivamente: 0,98; 0,97; 0,99; 1; 0,92; 0,97; 0,99 e 0,72%. Os erros-padrão de calibração foram de 0,38; 0,60; 0,35; 0,14; 0,02; 0,01; 0,05 e 0,01%, respectivamente. As equações obtidas foram consideradas de excelente resolução para todos os parâmetros estimados, o que indica a acurácia do método para a espécie avaliada.Many Cynodon dactylon cultivars have been cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul state to be used as pasture or hay to feed dairy cattle. Quick determination of the nutritional value of these forages would be valuable for management and diet planning. This work had the objective to develop calibration curves for analysis of the nutritional value of four Cynodon cultivars (Tifton 68, Tifton 85, Florakirk, Coastcross, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS. A total of 129 fresh samples of green pasture were collected and analyzed from 1998 to 2001. The determination coefficients for crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, dry matter, calcium, phosphorus, potash and magnesium were, respectively, .98, .97, .99, 1, .92, .97, .99 and .72%. The calibration standard error for the same

  16. Performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs grazing Alicia bermudagrass and common bermudagrass-dallisgrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, W E; Gates, R N; Blouin, D C; Saxton, A M; Nelson, B D

    1997-07-01

    This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained relatively pure stands of Alicia bermudagrass (AP) or a mixed stand of common bermudagrass and dallisgrass (CDP). Forage allowance was equalized, using "put-and-take" cow-calf pairs, among forage and breed types at the initiation of each 14-d grazing interval. Forage samples were obtained in each paddock at the initiation of each grazing interval. Forage CP concentration was greater (P Brangus cows, but it was greater (P Brangus than for Angus calves. Relative performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs was consistent between forages; no breed x forage interactions were observed. PMID:9222851

  17. Cold tolerance, seed production and seed germination of a forage bermudagrass core collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage bermudagrass can be an important perennial warm-season forage for transitional zones of warm and cool season pastures. Cold-tolerant seeded varieties will be especially desirable. A forage bermudagrass core collection was assessed for seed production and seed germination. Also, a replicate...

  18. Carbon dioxide fluxes from Tifway bermudagrass: early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, David L.; Zhang, G.; Leclerc, M. Y.; Raymer, P.; Steketee, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports for the first time preliminary data on carbon uptake of warm-season turfgrass at a well-managed sod farm in south central Georgia. It examines the changes in carbon uptake from one of the most widely used warm-season turfgrass cultivars in the world, Tifway Bermudagrass. It elucidates the role of canopy density and light avalaibility on the net carbon uptake using the eddy-covariance technique. Preliminary evidence suggests that turfgrass is effective at sequestering carbon dioxide during the summer months even when the canopy is being reestablished following a grass harvest.

  19. Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of the grass, Cynodon dactylon, from gold and uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of PIXE, proton back-scattering (BS) spectrometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to determine in situ elemental concentrations in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass roots and AM fungal spores from gold and uranium mine tailings in South Africa. AM regions of roots were characterised by locally elevated P and vesicles were defined by distinctive transition metal and radionuclide distributions. Vesicles (AM structures responsible for nutrient storage), accumulated Mn, Cu, Ni and U, whereas Fe and Zn were present at lower levels than in host tissue. AM spores from mine tailings accumulated Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Br, Y, Th and U, but were deficient in P and K. The sequestration of excess metals and radionuclides in vesicles may limit metal availability, and thus toxicity, to the host

  20. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerts, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Bomhoff, D.; Verhagen, I.; Swart, J.M.; Boer, de W.F.

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of graz

  1. Comparative physiological and proteomic analyses reveal the actions of melatonin in the reduction of oxidative stress in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Xin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-08-01

    The fact of melatonin as an important antioxidant in animals led plant researchers to speculate that melatonin also acts in the similar manner in plants. Although melatonin has significant effects on alleviating stress-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS), the involvement of melatonin in direct oxidative stress and the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear in plants. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin significantly alleviated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-modulated plant growth, cell damage, and ROS accumulation in Bermuda grass. Additionally, 76 proteins significantly influenced by melatonin during mock or H2O2 treatment were identified by gel-free proteomics using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation). Metabolic pathway analysis showed that several pathways were markedly enhanced by melatonin and H2O2 treatments, including polyamine metabolism, ribosome pathway, major carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, redox, and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study provides more comprehensive insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of melatonin in Bermuda grass responses to direct oxidative stress. This may relate to the activation of antioxidants, modulation of metabolic pathways, and extensive proteome reprograming. PMID:25958881

  2. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

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    Thomas Serensits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass did not establish well, resulting in unacceptable cover. Perennial ryegrass generally persisted the most one year after seeding, either because of summer survival of plants or because of new germination the following fall. Plant counts one year after seeding were greater in the higher seeding rate treatment compared to the lower seeding treatment rate of perennial ryegrass, suggesting new germination had occurred. Plant counts one year after seeding plots with intermediate ryegrass or Italian ryegrass were attributed primarily to latent germination and not summer survival. Applications of foramsulfuron generally did not prevent overseeded species stand one year after seeding, supporting the conclusion of new germination. Although quality is less with intermediate ryegrass compared to perennial ryegrass, it transitions out easier than perennial ryegrass, resulting in fewer surviving plants one year later.

  3. Losses of surface runoff, total solids, and nitrogen during bermudagrass establishment on levee embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Robert W; Beasley, Jeffrey S; Gaston, Lewis A; Borst, Steven M; Sheffield, Ron E; Strahan, Ron E; Munshaw, Gregg C

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient and sediment runoff from newly constructed levee embankments pose a threat to water quality during soft armor vegetation establishment. Research was initiated in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effect of bermudagrass ( L.) coverage and N source on nutrient and sediment runoff from levee embankments during establishment. Bermudagrass plots were seeded at 195.3 kg pure live seed ha and fertilized at 50 kg N ha using a water-soluble N source, urea or NH-NO, or slow-release N source, S-coated urea (SCU) or urea formaldehyde (UF), with controls unfertilized. Vegetative cover percentage, time until the onset of runoff, runoff volume, and total solids (TS), NO-N, and NH-N concentrations were measured from simulated and natural rainfall events for 70 d in 2008 and 56 d in 2009. Bermudagrass at 90% grass cover delayed the onset of runoff an additional 441 to 538 s and reduced runoff volumes 74 to 84% of that exhibited at 10% grass cover. Nitrogen fertilizers did not accelerate bermudagrass growth sufficiently, however, to reduce TS loading compared with unfertilized bermudagrass in either year of the study. The application of urea and SCU resulted in cumulative N losses of 2.45 and 3.13 kg ha compared with 1.59 kg ha from the unfertilized bermudagrass in 2008, and 1.73 kg ha from NH-NO vs. 0.24 kg ha from controls in 2009. Only UF increased bermudagrass establishment without increasing cumulative N losses compared with unfertilized bermudagrass. Therefore, the benefit of greater erosion and runoff resistance expected from N-accelerated vegetative growth did not occur but had the unintended consequence of higher N losses when water-soluble N and SCU fertilizers were applied. PMID:21712593

  4. Use of additives and pre-wilting in Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage production

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    Marcela Abbado Neres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of tropical grasses silage has become common in ruminant feed. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, nutritional value, pH, fermentative capacity, ammonia nitrogen / total nitrogen (NH3N/total N of Tifton 85 bermudagrass grass silage with different additives and wilting. The treatments were: pre-drying in the sun for two hours before silage, use of inoculant-enzymatic addition of soybean hulls, corn grits addition and use of salt in the surface layer of the silo. The experimental design was completely randomized with 6 treatments and 4 replications. Plants of Tifton 85 bermudagrass with 38 days of growth were ensiled in experimental silos with Bunsen valve type with packing densities of 236 kg of silage per m³ for Tifton 85 bermudagrass pre-dried in the sun and 294 kg of silage per m³ for the other treatments. The proportions of soybean hulls and corn grits added to the silage were calculated based on the initial DM content of Tifton 85 bermudagrass order to obtain MS 320 g kg-1 for the material to be ensiled. The buffering capacity did not differ between treatments in getting 29.56 (meqHCl/100gMS. It was found that the concentration of ammonia nitrogen did not differ between silages and remained low (3.22 g kg-1, the pH after silo opening was also similar with an average of 4.09 getting above 4.2 only in Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage without pre-treatment. The crude protein was higher in silages Tifton 85 bermudagrass and Tifton 85 bermudagrass with soybean hulls (17.48 g kg-1. The use corn grits caused a reduction in the values of NDF. The use of salt on the surface the layer reduced the production of latic and acetic acid.

  5. A Research on Engineering Application of Inter-seeding Perennial Rye-grass seeds in Dwarf Cynodon Datylon Lawn with Multiple Measures during Autumn in Huzhou Region%矮生百慕大草坪秋季不同措施下交播多年生黑麦草籽研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓将

    2015-01-01

    Perennial rye-grass seeds with different rate of seeding have been inter-seeded in dwarf Cynodon dactylon lawns with similar substrate and management during different time. Successful practices for three years indicated that with 12 hours of soaking and a seeding rate of 30 grams per square-meter in late September, the lawns produce optimum effect in winter and that the least negative effect is brought to the turning green of dwarf Cynodon dactylon in next March or April. This applied research provides Huzhou and even the regions of Hangzhou and Jiaxing with valuable reference, where the inter-seeding mentioned above in winter can be implemented and the synchronous landscape of lawn be improved as well.%在相同基质和管控水平的矮生百慕大草坪上,采用不同时间节点、不同播种量交播多年生黑麦草草籽。通过连续3年的交播比较发现,湖州地区9月下旬浸种12 h,播种量30 g/m2的草坪冬季效果最佳,春季3、4月份对底草矮生百慕大返青影响最小。本研究为湖州及杭嘉湖地区矮生百慕大草坪冬季交播多年生黑麦草草籽、提升冬季草坪景观效果提供借鉴。

  6. Evaluation of a Hypocrea jecorina Enzyme Preparation for Hydrolysis of Tifton 85 Bermudagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, E. A.; Brandon, S. K.; Doran-Peterson, J.

    Tifton 85 bermudagrass, developed at the ARS-USDA in Tifton, GA, is grown on over ten million acres in the USA for hay and forage. Of the bermudagrass cultivars, Tifton 85 exhibits improved digestibility because the ratio of ether- to ester-linked phenolic acids has been lowered using traditional plant breeding techniques. A previously developed pressurized batch hot water (PBHW) method was used to treat Tifton 85 bermudagrass for enzymatic hydrolysis. Native grass (untreated) and PBHW-pretreated material were compared as substrates for fungal cultivation to produce enzymes. Cellulase activity, measured via the filter paper assay, was higher for fungi cultivated on PBHW-pretreated grass, whereas the other nine enzyme assays produced higher activities for the untreated grass. Ferulic acid and vanillin levels increased significantly for the enzyme preparations produced using PBHW-pretreated grass and the release of these phenolic compounds may have contributed to the observed reduction in enzyme activities. Culture supernatant from Tifton 85 bermudagrass-grown fungi were combined with two commercial enzyme preparations and the enzyme activity profiles are reported. The amount of reducing sugar liberated by the enzyme mixture from Hypocrea jecorina (after 192 h incubation with untreated bermudagrass) individually or in combination with feruloyl esterase was 72.1 and 84.8%, respectively, of the commercial cellulase preparation analyzed under the same conditions.

  7. Coast cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. hay and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. millsp digestibility and nutrients average intake by sheep under two feeding systems/ Consumo médio e digestibilidade do feno de capim “Coast cross” (Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. e feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp em carneiros submetidos a dois regimes alimentares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Waldemar de Oliveira Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out with the objectives of determining the daily average intake (DAI, apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of coast cross hay and pigeon pea nutrients and to evaluate thenitrogen balance in sheep. Ten wethers with average weight of 27.50 kg, alloted to suitable cages, were used. A completely randomized design with two treatments (T1= 80% coast cross hay + 20% pigeon peaand T2= 60% coast cross hay + 40% pigeon pea and five replicates, was used. The treatments were evaluated under two feeding systems (voluntary and restrict. Animals receiving ration of T2 presentedhigher DAI (g/kg PV 0.75 (PO experimento foi realizado com os objetivos de determinar o consumo médio diário (CMD, o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA dos nutrientes do feno de capim Coast cross e feijão guandu e avaliar o balanço de nitrogênio (BN em ovinos. Foram utilizados dez ovinos machos, castrados, com peso médio de 27,50 kg, alojados em gaiolas para metabolismo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos (T1 = 80% de feno de Coast cross + 20% de guandu e T2 = 60% de feno de Coast cross + 40% de guandu e cinco repetições por tratamento. Os tratamentos foram avaliados sob dois regimes alimentares (consumo voluntário e restrito. Os animais recebendo ração do T2 apresentaram maior CMD (g/kg PV0,75 (p < 0,05 de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra bruta (FB, matéria orgânica (MO e extrato não nitrogenado (ENN, do que aqueles animais recebendo ração do T1. O CDA da FB da ração T2 foi maior (p < 0,05 do que o da ração T1. O BN dos animais que receberam 40% de guandu (13,15g N/ dia foi superior aos daqueles que receberam 20% desta leguminosa (10,29g N/dia. Conclui-se que o feijão guandu pode ser utilizado como fonte protéica na alimentação de ruminantes, possibilitando CDA da MS próximo de 52% para animais em regime de consumo voluntário, e 81% para animais em regime de consumo restrito. O aumento na porcentagem de feijão guandu nas dietas de ovinos alimentados com feno de Coast-cross pode resultar em melhoria no CDA da FB da dieta, bem como no balanço de nitrogênio dos animais.

  8. Intake and apparent digestibility of rations containing different proportions of Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. hay plus ground soybean grain and sheep eating behaviour/ Consumo e digestibilidade aparente de rações com diferentes proporções de feno de capim Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. e soja crua moída e comportamento alimentar de ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rodrigues Casimiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment were to determine the average daily intake (ADI and the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of rations containing two levels of coastcross hay and ground soybean grain, as well as, to study the behavior of sheep fed on these rations. Ten wethers averaging 40.0 kg of live weight were allocated in feeding trial cages for this experiment. A completely randomized design with two treatments (T1= 80% coastcross hay + 20% soybean grain and T2= 60% coast cross hay + 40% soybean grain and five replicates, were used. The treatments were evaluated under two feeding systems (voluntary and restrict. There were two experimental periods of seven days with fifteen days of previous adaptation each. The animals were fed twice a day with rations containing half of the estimated daily intake. The behaviours studied were times spent eating, ruminating and resting in a five minutes interval observation during twelve hours. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 between treatments for nutrientsADI but for crude protein and ether extract (EE. The ADC for dry matter (DM, fiber (F and total carbohydrates (TC were significantly greater (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o consumo médio e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de rações contendo dois níveis de feno de capim coast-cross e soja crua moída, bem como estudar o comportamento de ovinos alimentados com essas rações. Foram utilizados dez ovinos machos, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 40,0 kg, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos (T (T1= 80% de feno de coastcross picado + 20% de soja crua moída e T2= 60% de feno de coastcross picado + 40% de soja crua moída e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram avaliados em regimes de consumo voluntário e consumo restrito. O ensaio compreendeu um período de adaptação de 15 dias, seguido de dois períodos de coleta de sete dias cada. A ração foi fornecida em duas refeições diárias, cada qual contendo a metade da quantidade de alimento a ser fornecido ao dia. Foram feitas observações etológicas durante 12 horas seguidas, nos três últimos dias do período de consumo voluntário, onde foram coletados dados de tempo de ingestão de ração, de ruminação e de repouso. A coleta de fezes foi efetuada duas vezes ao dia através das bolsas coletoras. Observou-se que não houve diferença (p > 0,05 entre tratamentos para o consumo médio diário (CMD de nutrientes pelos animais, com exceção da proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da matéria seca (MS, fibra bruta (FB e carboidratos totais (CT foram maiores (p < 0,05 nos animais submetidos ao consumo restrito. Não houve diferença na digestibilidade dos nutrientes estudados entre os tratamentos. O tempo despendido em alimentação e ruminação não foi influenciado pelo nível de concentrado da ração, mas o tempo despendido em ócio foi maior no tratamento com maior teor de concentrado. Pode-se concluir que os animais alimentados com 80% de feno de Coastcross e 20% de soja apresentaram maior CMD de PB e EE. Os CDA da MS, FB e CT das rações foram maiores em animais submetidos ao consumo restrito. O nível de.

  9. Valor nutritivo do capim-elefante (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, do feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa, L. e do feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. para eqüinos Nutritive value of elephant grass (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, L. and coast-cross grass hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Vieira de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes nos alimentos volumosos capim-elefante, feno de alfafa e feno de capim coast-cross em eqüinos adultos. Dezoito éguas adultas da raça Mangalarga Marchador foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos, que consistiram em dietas contendo os seguintes alimentos volumosos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - feno de alfafa e T3 - feno de capim coast-cross. Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia. O período experimental constituiu de uma fase de oito dias para adaptação às dietas e cinco dias para a coleta total das fezes. Não houve diferenças no consumo diário de matéria seca (MS das forragens, sendo observados valores médios de 6,27 kg MS, 68,41 g MS/kg0,75 ou 1,51%PV. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade aparente do capim-elefante e dos fenos de alfafa e capim coast-cross foram de 43,10; 55,20; e 49,80% para a MS; 41,60; 53,40; e 47,90% para a energia bruta; 24,60; 71,20; e 56,10% para a proteína bruta; e 40,60; 35,50; e 63,30% para a fibra em detergente neutro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients of elephant grass forages, alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays in adult horses. Eighteen adult Mangalarga Marchador mares were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments that consisted on diets with the following forages: T1 - elephant grass, T2 - alfalfa hay, T3 - coast-cross grass hay. The animals were ad libitum fed twice a day. The experimental period was constituted by a phase of eight days for diet adaptation and a phase of five days for total collection of feces. There were no differences of forage dry matter intake, with average values of 6.27 kg DM, 68.41 g DM/kg0,75 or 1.51% LW. The average coefficients of apparent digestibility of elephant grass and alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays were 43.10, 55.20, and 49.80% for DM, 4160, 53.40, and 47.90% for gross energy, 24.60; 71.20 and 56.10% for crude protein and 40.60, 35.50, and 63.30% for neutral detergent fiber.

  10. Recuperação de matéria seca e composição química de silagens de gramíneas do gênero Cynodon submetidas a períodos de pré-emurchecimento Recovery of dry matter and chemical composition of Cynodon sp. stargrass silage under periods of pre-wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Souza Quaresma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de períodos de pré-emurchecimento das gramíneas Estrela- Africana-Branca [Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg.] e Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp. sobre algumas características de suas silagens. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dez tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo duas gramíneas (Estrela-Africana-Branca e Tifton 85 e cinco períodos de pré-emurchecimento da forragem (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 h. As gramíneas foram cortadas aos 50 dias de rebrotação e permaneceram ensiladas por 55 dias em silos experimentais. O pré-emurchecimento promoveu aumento no teor de matéria seca da forragem cortada e da silagem das gramíneas Tifton 85 e Estrela Africana Branca. Houve diminuição nos teores de N-amoniacal (N-NH3/N-total da silagem do capim-estrela-africana-branca, a uma taxa de 1,66 unidade percentual por hora de pré-emurchecimento, mas não houve alteração nessa variável da silagem do capim-tifton 85. A silagem do capim-tifton 85 apresentou maior recuperação de matéria seca, maior teor de FDN e menor teor de proteína bruta do que a silagem do capim-estrela-africana-branca. O pH e o teor de FDA das silagens não foram influenciados pelo pré-emurchecimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of periods of pre-wilting of stargrass [Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg.] and Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon sp. on some characteristics of their silage. Arandomized design with ten treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were arranged in a 2x5 factorial, two grasses (stargrass and Tifton 85 and five periods of pre-wilting of forage (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. The grasses were harvested at 50 days regrowth and stored for 55 days in experimental silos. The pre-wilting caused an increase in dry matter content of forage and silage of both, Tifton 85 and stargrass. There was a decrease in the levels of ammonia-N (N-NH3/N

  11. Transcriptional regulation of heat shock proteins and ascorbate peroxidase by CtHsfA2b from African bermudagrass conferring heat tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Yang, Zhimin; Liu, Jun; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress transcription factor A2s (HsfA2s) are key regulators in plant response to high temperature. Our objectives were to isolate an HsfA2 gene (CtHsfA2b) from a warm-season grass species, African bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), and to determine the physiological functions and transcriptional regulation of HsfA2 for improving heat tolerance. Gene expression analysis revealed that CtHsfA2b was heat-inducible and exhibited rapid response to increasing temperature. Ectopic expression of CtHsfA2b improved heat tolerance in Arabidopsis and restored heat-sensitive defects of Arabidopsis hsfa2 mutant, which was demonstrated by higher survival rate and photosynthetic parameters, and lower electrolyte leakage in transgenic plants compared to the WT or hsfa2 mutant. CtHsfA2b transgenic plants showed elevated transcriptional regulation of several downstream genes, including those encoding ascorbate peroxidase (AtApx2) and heat shock proteins [AtHsp18.1-CI, AtHsp22.0-ER, AtHsp25.3-P and AtHsp26.5-P(r), AtHsp70b and AtHsp101-3]. CtHsfA2b was found to bind to the heat shock element (HSE) on the promoter of AtApx2 and enhanced transcriptional activity of AtApx2. These results suggested that CtHsfA2b could play positive roles in heat protection by up-regulating antioxidant defense and chaperoning mechanisms. CtHsfA2b has the potential to be used as a candidate gene to genetically modify cool-season species for improving heat tolerance. PMID:27320381

  12. Physiological and Molecular Mechanism of Nitric Oxide (NO Involved in Bermudagrass Response to Cold Stress.

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    Jibiao Fan

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass is widely utilized in parks, lawns, and golf courses. However, cold is a key factor limiting resource use in bermudagrass. Therefore, it is meaningful to study the mechanism of bermudagrass response to cold. Nitric oxide (NO is a crucial signal molecule with multiple biological functions. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether NO play roles in bermudagrass response to cold. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP was used as NO donor, while 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramentylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-xide (PTIO plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME were applied as NO inhibitor. Wild bermudagrass was subjected to 4 °C in a growth chamber under different treatments (Control, SNP, PTIO + L-NAME. The results indicated lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage (EL, higher value for chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities after SNP treatment than that of PTIO plus L-NAME treatments under cold stress. Analysis of Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence transient displayed that the OJIP transient curve was higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. The values of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters were higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. Expression of cold-responsive genes was altered under cold stress after treated with SNP or PTIO plus L-NAME. In summary, our findings indicated that, as an important strategy to protect bermudagrass against cold stress, NO could maintain the stability of cell membrane, up-regulate the antioxidant enzymes activities, recover process of photosystem II (PSII and induce the expression of cold-responsive genes.

  13. Microbiological profile and aerobic stability of Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage with different additives

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    Marcela Abbado Neres

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological profile and aerobic stability of silage with Tifton 85 bermudagrass and different additives and wilting. The studied treatments were: pre-drying in the sun for two hours before ensiling; use of bacterial-enzymatic inoculant; addition of soybean peel; addition of corn grits and use of salt in the surface layer of the silo. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and four replications. Plants of Tifton 85 bermudagrass with 38 days were ensiled in experimental silos with Bunsen valves, with compacting density of 236 kg silage per m³ for Tifton 85 bermudagrass, which was pre-dried in the sun; the average silage was 294 kg m-3 for the other treatments. The ratios between soybean hulls and corn grits, added to the silage, were calculated based on the initial DM content from Tifton 85 bermudagrass in order to obtain 320 g/kg DM of the material to be ensiled. There was an increase of lactic bacteria and Clostridium as well as an absence of enterobacteria after the silo opening. Fungi developed only in Tifton 85 bermudagrass and its treatments before the ensilage and yeasts developed in silages of Tifton 85 bermudagrass when they received soybean hulls or corn grits after silo opening. There was no breach regarding aerobic stability of silages during the studied period. The pH reached the highest values within 48 hours after opening the silos, but there were variations during this period.

  14. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbon levels on morphological and physiological characteristics of two bermudagrass species

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    Z. Saraeian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs are one of the most important soil contaminants. Presence of these compounds in soil may cause some stresses to plants and make the growth conditions unfavorable. Thus, for landscaping in the contaminated areas, tolerant plants to these stresses are needed. The aim of this research was to determine morphophysiological characteristics of two native and non-native bermudagrass species in a soil with 0, 2.1, 3.87 and 12.25 percent by weight PHs:soil. A factorial experiment, based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications, was performed in research greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. Results showed that application of 2.1% PHs to soil significantly reduced color and density of bermudagrasses (3.3% and 5%, respectively, and the growth of native and non-native species was reduced by 31.1% and 7.3%, respectively. Relative water content and chlorophyll content were significantly decreased and proline content was increased, when soil pollutant content by PHs was increased. Also, the increase in contaminants content up to 2.1% increased catalase activity. But, higher rates of contamination reduced its activity, as compared to control. Conclusively, both bermudagrass species had acceptable turf quality and therefore could be recommended to be used in PHs-polluted soils; although quality and growth of non-native bermudagrass was better than the native one.

  15. Effect of Heavy Metals Pollution on Soil Microbial Diversity and Bermudagrass Genetic Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Fan, Jibiao; Zhu, Weixi; Amombo, Erick; Lou, Yanhong; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a serious global environmental problem as it adversely affects plant growth and genetic variation. It also alters the composition and activity of soil microbial communities. The objectives of this study were to determine the soil microbial diversity, bermudagrass genetic variation in Cd contaminated or uncontaminated soils from Hunan province of China, and to evaluate Cd-tolerance of bermudagrass at different soils. The Biolog method, hydroponic experiments and simple sequence repeat markers were used to assess the functional diversity of microorganisms, Cd-tolerance and the genetic diversity of bermudagrass, respectively. Four of the sampling sites were heavily contaminated with heavy metals. The total bioactivity, richness, and microbial diversity decreased with increasing concentration of heavy metal. The hydroponic experiment revealed that bermudagrass populations collected from polluted sites have evolved, encompassing the feature of a higher resistance to Cd toxicity. Higher genetic diversity was observed to be more in contaminated populations than in uncontaminated populations. Heavy metal pollution can result in adverse effects on plant growth, soil microbial diversity and activity, and apparently has a stronger impact on the genetic structure. The results of this study provide new insights and a background to produce a genetic description of populations in a species that is suitable for use in phytoremediation practices. PMID:27303431

  16. Effects of Paclobutrazal on Physiological Response of Several Bermudagrass Cultivars to Cold Stress%多效唑对几个狗牙根品种抗寒性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 刘志雄

    2007-01-01

    通过测定狗牙根[Cynodon dactylon(L.)Pets.]叶片质膜相对透性、过氧化氢酶(CAT)相对活性、游离脯氨酸含量(Pro)、丙二醛(MDA)含量等生理指标,研究喷施多效唑的3个狗牙根品种[普通脱壳狗牙根(Common)、杰克宝(Jackpot)、萨拉旺(Savannah)]经5℃的低温处理12h后这些生理指标的变化情况,比较3种浓度多效唑对3个狗牙根品种抗寒能力的影响.结果表明:与对照相比CAT活性都有升高,而游离脯氨酸含量、质膜相对透性和MDA降低.200ml/L多效唑和300ml/L多效唑在一定程度上降低了低温胁迫对狗牙根品种的伤害,提高了它们的抗寒性.就这3个品种的抗寒性表现而言,Common对这两种浓度的多效唑反应最敏感,Savannah其次,Jackpot反应较差.

  17. Use of additives and pre-wilting in Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage production

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Abbado Neres; Paula Regina Hermes; João Paulo Ames; Maximilliane Alavarse Zambom; Deise Dalazen Castagnara; Leiliane Cristine de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The use of tropical grasses silage has become common in ruminant feed. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, nutritional value, pH, fermentative capacity, ammonia nitrogen / total nitrogen (NH3N/total N) of Tifton 85 bermudagrass grass silage with different additives and wilting. The treatments were: pre-drying in the sun for two hours before silage, use of inoculant-enzymatic addition of soybean hulls, corn grits addition and use of salt in the surface lay...

  18. Crescimento de folhas do capim-bermuda tifton 85 submetido à adubação nitrogenada após o corte Leaf growth of tifton 85 bermudagrass submitted to nitrogen fertilization after cutting

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    Linda Monica Premazzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de doses e épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio após o corte no fator de correção de área foliar, na taxa de alongamento de folhas e no comprimento e área da lâmina foliar do capim-bermuda tifton 85 (Cynodon spp foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. Ambos os experimentos foram estabelecidos em vasos com capacidade para 7 kg de terra, com solo classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, para avaliação de quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 80, 160 e 240 mg kg-1 de solo e duas épocas de aplicação (imediatamente após o corte e sete dias após o corte das plantas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Com o fornecimento de nitrogênio, observou-se diminuição no fator de correção de área foliar. O nitrogênio proporciona variação positiva no comprimento foliar, na área da lâmina foliar e na taxa de alongamento da folha, variações que ocorreram em maior grandeza entre a não-aplicação de nitrogênio e a dose de 80 mg kg-1 de solo.With the objective of evaluating the influence of nitrogen rates and application time after cutting on correction factor for leaf area, on leaf elongation rate and on blade leaf length and area of tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse. Both experiments were established in pots with capacity for 7 kg of soil classified as Entisol, in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme, for evaluation of four nitrogen rates (0, 80, 160 and 240 mg kg-1 of soil and two application times (immediately after cutting and seven days after cutting of the plants. It was used a complete randomized block design, with four replications. As nitrogen was supplied, it was observed a decrease in the correction factor for leaf area. There is a predominance of positive effects of nitrogen on leaf length, on leaf blade area and on leaf elongation rate

  19. a new species of cat snake (serpentes: colubridae) morphologically similar to boiga cynodon from the nusa tenggara islands, indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    we describe a new cat snake species of the genus boiga from the nusa tenggara islands,indonesia.the new species is superficially similar to boiga cynodon,as it was identified previously.it differs from the latter species by the following combination of characteristics:only reaching half of the size of b.cynodon (up to 1250 mm svl),higher number of dorsal scales; lower ventral and subcaudal counts and having only a very fine postorbital stripe.

  20. Effects of genotype, wilting, and additives on the nutritive value and fermentation of bermudagrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramini, J M B; Aguiar, A D; Adesogan, A T; Sollenberger, L E; Alves, E; Galzerano, L; Salvo, P; Valente, A L; Arriola, K G; Ma, Z X; Oliveira, F C L

    2016-07-01

    Bermudagrass is the main warm-season grass species used for livestock production in the southeastern United States; however, when it is ensiled, the silage fermentation parameters are often less than desirable. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of management practices on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of bermudagrass silage. In Exp. 1, treatments were the factorial combinations of 2 bermudagrass genotypes, 'Jiggs' () and 'Tifton 85' ( sp.), 4 additives, and 2 DM concentrations at ensiling. The additives were 1) untreated control (deionized water), 2) Ecosyl, 3) B500, or 4) sugarcane molasses. The 2 DM concentrations at ensiling were low DM (22% DM) or high DM (53% DM). Treatments were replicated 3 times in a completely randomized design. Silage treated with molasses had a lesser ( < 0.05) pH and greater ( < 0.01) lactate concentrations than the control, Ecosyl, and B500 in silage with low DM concentrations and greater ( < 0.01) in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) and lesser ( < 0.01) ADF concentrations than the other treatments at either DM concentration. Silage treated with B500 had the greatest ( < 0.01) aerobic stability, whereas that treated with molasses had the least aerobic stability. However, all treatments presented long aerobic stability (≥150 h). Jiggs had lesser ( < 0.01) ADF and NDF and NDF digestibility (NDFD) concentrations than Tifton 85 and Tifton 85 had greater ( < 0.01) IVTD than Jiggs in the silage with a high DM concentration. In Exp. 2, Jiggs silage treated with either molasses (20 g molasses [DM]/kg forage [as-fed basis]) or nothing (control, untreated silage) was fed to 16 beef heifers ( sp.) in individual drylot pens in a completely randomized design with 8 replicates for voluntary DMI, in vivo apparent DM digestibility, and NDFD evaluations. There were no differences ( = 0.36) among treatments in NDFD; however, there was a trend ( < 0.08) for greater in vivo apparent DM digestibility and DMI

  1. Desidratação de cultivares de Cynodon spp. durante o processo de fenação Dehydration of Cynodon grass cultivars during haymaking

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    Geane Dias Gonçalves

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve por objetivo avaliar a desidratação de cultivares de Cynodon spp. (Poaceae durante o processo de fenação. Foram realizadas amostragens nos tempos zero (momento do corte, 3, 6, 21, 24, 27 e 30 horas após o corte, a fim de se determinar a curva de desidratação e os teores de proteína bruta (PB da planta inteira e das frações folhas e colmos. Determinou-se também a espessura dos colmos de cada cultivar. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos completamente casualizados em esquema fatorial 3x7 (cultivares x tempos de amostragens, com três repetições. A velocidade de perda de água foi semelhante para os cultivares avaliados, tanto para a planta como para as frações colmos e folhas. Não houve efeito para os teores de PB com o avanço nos tempos de secagem. Porém, houve diferença para a relação L/C, onde o Tifton 85 apresentou maior valor. Já para o diâmetro do colmo, o Tifton 44 foi superior em relação aos demais cultivares.Dehydration of cultivars of the genus Cynodon (Poaceae and the possible variations of chemical composition of forages during the haymaking process were evaluated. Three cultivars of Cynodon, Tifton 85, Coast cross and Tifton 44 were used, in plots of 15 m2, with three randomized blocks. Samples at 0 (cutting time, 3, 6, 21, 24, 27 and 30 hours after cutting were taken to determine the dehydration curve of whole plant, leaves and stem. Speed in water loss in plant, leaves and stem segments was similar in all cultivars. Drying did not affect CP taxes. There was, however, a difference for the leaves/stem relationship in which Tifton 85 had the highest value. Tifton 44 was higher in the other cultivars with regard to stem diameter.

  2. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1997-04-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue. PMID:9110202

  3. Características químicas e produtivas da gramínea coastcross (Cynodon Dactylon (L. Pers pastejada por novilhos no verão - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1727 Chemical and productive characteristics of coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers grazed by steers during summer - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1727

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    Paulo Emílio Fernandes Prohmann

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados quatro piquetes com área de 1 ha cada, sendo pastejados por 32 novilhos mestiços suplementados ou não, com peso inicial médio de 345 kg. As coletas de forragem foram realizadas a cada 28 dias. As estimativas de produção e análises químicas foram efetuadas para os componentes estruturais lâmina verde (LV, bainha + colmo verde (BCV e material morto (MM. Foram observadas variações na participação dos componentes estruturais LV, BCV e MM e nos teores de PB e FDN. Correlações negativas foram encontradas entre a massa de forragem e a PB e DIVMS. O fracionamento da proteína bruta apresentou para LV a fração B3 como mais usada, para a BCV e MM a fração A e B2 foram superiores (pThis experiment utilized four one-hectare paddocks, grazed by thirty-two crossbreed steers (345kg mean initial weight with or without supplementation. Production estimation and forage sampling were taken every 28 days in four places of each paddock. Chemical analyses were conducted for green leaf blade (GLB, leaf sheath + green stem (LSGS and dead material (DM fractions. Variations were observed on participation of GLB, LSGS and DM fractions and in CP and NDF concentration. The forage mass showed negative correlation with CP and IVDDM. The crude protein partition showed most significant for GLB fraction B3; for LSGS and MM, fractions A and B2 were superior (p<0.05. The highest observed values for carbohydrate partition were on B2 fraction, but occurring more A + B1 fraction in GLB, B2 in LSGS and MM and C fraction in DM (p<0.05.

  4. Variation in Occurrence of Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes on Forage Bermudagrass over Years, Sampling Times, and Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R G

    2005-10-01

    ABSTRACT Leaf samples of forage bermudagrass with symptoms of infection by species of Bipolaris, Curvularia, and Exserohilum (dematiaceous hyphomycetes) were collected from three swine waste application sites in Mississippi at eight sampling times during each of 3 years. Samples were assayed for pathogens by observing sporulation on plated leaf tissue. Among 3,600 leaves assayed, eight species of the three genera were observed. Features and criteria for the practical identification of species on plated leaf samples are described. Sporulation by dematiaceous hyphomycetes was observed on 97% of leaves; a single pathogen was observed on 20% and two to five pathogens were observed on 77% of leaves. Distributions of leaves among classes with one to five pathogens per leaf, for sites within years, always differed significantly (P = 0.01) from a Poisson distribution and usually included fewer leaves than expected with four or five pathogens. Significant (P = 0.05) variation in frequencies of occurrence of pathogens among 72 samples of 50 leaves each was attributed to pathogen species, sampling times, and species-time interactions. Exserohilum rostratum, Curvularia lunata, and Bipolaris cynodontis were the most frequent pathogens across years and sites; B. spicifera and C. geniculata were intermediate; and B. hawaiiensis, B. sorokiniana, and B. stenospila were least frequent. For the five most common pathogens, significant differences in frequency among locations were commonplace. Six pathogens exhibited significant (P = 0.05) positive and negative correlations with others in overall frequencies of occurrence across years, sampling times, and sites. However, chi(2) tests of dual occurrence indicated that interactions between specific pairs of pathogens in or on leaves are not likely to be major causes for overall frequency correlations. Results indicate that dematiaceous hyphomycetes typically infect forage bermudagrass on swine waste application sites in complexes rather

  5. Relationship between the Rumen Microbiome and Residual Feed Intake-Efficiency of Brahman Bulls Stocked on Bermudagrass Pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua C McCann; Leanne M Wiley; Forbes, T. David; Rouquette, Francis M.; Tedeschi, Luis O.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) testing has increased selection pressure on biological efficiency in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess the association of the rumen microbiome in inefficient, positive RFI (p-RFI) and efficient, negative RFI (n-RFI) Brahman bulls grazing ‘Coastal’ bermudagrass [Cynodondactylon (L.) Pers.]under two levels of forage allowance (high and low stocking intensity). Sixteen Brahman bulls were previously fed in confinement for 70 d to determine the RFI phenot...

  6. Um novo clorofilômetro para estimar os teores de clorofila em folhas do capim Tifton 85 A new chlorophyll meter to estimate chlorophyll contents in leaves of Tifton 85 bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élio Barbieri Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho foi verificar o desempenho de um novo clorofilometro portátil, em parcelas experimentais vegetadas com o capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.. Para tal, foi utilizado um experimento de curta duração, em que três doses de N (0,75 e 150kg de N ha-1 foram combinadas com quatro datas de amostragem (8, 16, 24 e 28 dias após um corte de uniformização. As análises foram feitas em lâminas da folha mais nova totalmente expandida. Os teores das clorofilas a, b e a+b foram quantificados espectrofotometricamente após a extração com acetona 80%, enquanto que o clorofilômetro forneceu os correspondentes valores de Índice de Clorofila Falker (ICF. As leituras do aparelho foram sensíveis tanto às doses de N quanto às datas de amostragem. Foram obtidas correlações positivas entre ambos os métodos de quantificação (clorofila a: r=0,646; b: r=0,797; e total: r=0,721, que evidenciaram a utilidade desse novo clorofilometro na determinação indireta dos teores de clorofila foliar no capim-Tifton 85.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performance of a new portable chlorophyll meter in the indirect determination of chlorophyll contents in Tifton 85 bermudagrass leaves. In a field trial of short duration, three N doses (0, 75 and 150kg ha-1 were combined with four sampling dates (8, 16, 24 e 28 days after a cut for sward uniformity in completely randomized blocks, with treatments arranged in a split-plot design. Analyses were performed in the youngest fully expanded leaf blade. Contents of chlorophylls a, b and total were quantified spectrophotometrically, after extraction with acetone 80%, while chlorophyll meter readings, expressed as Falker Chlorophyll Index (FCI units, provided the same information. Chlorophyll meter readings were sensitive to both N rates and sampling dates. It were obtained significant positive correlations between both methods (chlorophyll a: r=0.646, chlorophyll b: r=0.797 and for total

  7. IN VITRO FERMENTATION EFFICIENCY OF MIXTURES OF Cynodon nlemfuensis, Leucaena leucocephala AND TWO ENERGY SOURCES (MAIZE OR SUGAR CANE MOLASSES)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan M. Estrada-Liévano; Carlos A. Sandoval-Castro; Luis Ramírez-Avilés; Concepción M. Capetillo-Leal

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation efficiency of Cynodon nlemfuensis forage (star grass) and Leucaena leucocephala foliage (leucaena) and two energy sources (i.e. maize and sugar cane molasses) mixture was evaluated. Mixture samples (1 g DM) were incubated for 24 h. All the mixtures were added with 500 mg of polyetilenglycol (PEG). Adding molasses to star grass increased dry matter true digestibility and carbohydrate fermentation (P0.01), while having a quadratic effect on cell walls digestibility (P0...

  8. Tiller size/density compensation in grazed Tifton 85 bermudagrass swards

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    Sbrissia André Fischer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the tiller size/density compensation mechanism in Tifton 85 bermudagrass swards grazed by sheep under continuous stocking. Treatments corresponded to four sward steady state conditions (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm of sward surface height, maintained by sheep grazing. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Pasture responses evaluated include: tiller population density, tiller mass, leaf mass and leaf area per tiller, and herbage mass. Tiller volume, leaf area index, tiller leaf/stem ratio, and tiller leaf area/volume ratio were calculated and simple regression analyses between tiller population density and tiller mass were performed. Measurements were made in December, 1998, and January, April, and July, 1999. The swards showed a tiller size/density compensation mechanism in which high tiller population densities were associated with small tillers and vice-versa, except in July, 1999. Regression analyses revealed that linear coefficients were steeper than the theoretical expectation of -3/2. Increments in herbage mass were attributable to increases in tiller mass in December and January. Leaf area/volume ratio values of Tifton 85 tillers were much lower than those commonly found for temperate grass species.

  9. Dry matter genotypes of Cynodon by microwave and conventional oven methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this work was to comparing the drying process in a microwave oven and forced air ventilation, as well as their effects on the chemical composition of different genotypes of the genus Cynodon (Tifton 85, Jiggs, Russell, Tifton 68 and Vaquero collected at different ages cutting (28, 48, 63 and 79 days. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-plot design, with 4 replicates. There was no difference (P>0.05 between the methods analyzed on the chemical composition of the genotypes studied. Increasing age cutoff negatively influenced (P<0.05 the crude protein content of the different plant parts. A significant increase (P<0.05 of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and dry matter production was observed with increasing age cut. The use of the microwave oven is a quick and precise method obtain the dry matter content of the fodder showing efficiency similar to the method of drying in an oven with forced air circulation. The genotypes showed better chemical composition results when handled at age 28 days.

  10. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, M; Neres, M A; Guimarães, V F; Klein, J; Inagaki, A M; Ducati, C

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM). The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low) and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm). In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt). The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration (T), water use efficiency (WUE), and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment), baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were more

  11. Tillering of Tifton 85 bermudagrass in response to nitrogen rates and time of application after cutting

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    Premazzi Linda Monica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is determinant for pasture productivity, as it results in increasing forage yield and is associated with the growth physiology of forage plants. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates and times of application after cutting on Tifton 85 Bermuda grass (Cynodon spp. tillering. Plants were grown in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil and nitrogen rates were 0, 80, 160 and 240 mg kg-1 of soil; times of application were immediately after and seven days after cutting. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment was set in a completely randomized block design (n= 4. Plants were evaluated in two sequential growth periods - 39 and 41 days. Nitrogen rates affected tiller density, considering the initial number of tillers in the second growth and the emerged and final number of tillers at the end of the growth periods. Tiller weight increased up to the nitrogen rate of 201 and 185 mg kg-1 of soil in the first and second growth periods, and the correlation coefficients between the final number of tillers and dry matter yields in the top part of the plant for these periods were 0.92 and 0.94, respectively. The rate of tiller development, evaluated in each of the seven-day periods, was affected by nitrogen rates and time of application. There was an effect of rates and time of application in the first and a significant interaction between rates and time in the second growth period.

  12. Tiller size/population density compensation in grazed Coastcross bermudagrass swards

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    Sbrissia André Fischer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several compensatory mechanisms in pastures do not allow optimisation of responses from the processes of herbage production and utilisation. Compensation due to tiller size/density relationships is one of these mechanisms. This experiment evaluated this process for Coastcross bermudagrass and compared the responses to those reported for temperate forages. Treatments were "steady state" sward surface heights of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm that were maintained from August, 1998, through July, 1999 by sheep grazing. The experimental design was a randomised complete block, replicated four times. Pasture responses were evaluated on four separate dates (15/12/1998, 25/01/1999, 07/04/1999 and 04/07/1999 with respect to: tiller population density, tiller weight, leaf mass and leaf area per tiller and herbage mass (biomass. Tiller volume, leaf area index (LAI, tiller leaf:stem ratio and tiller leaf area:volume ratio (R were calculated. Simple regression analyses between tiller population density and tiller weight were also performed. Coastcross swards showed a tiller size/density compensation mechanism where high tiller population densities were associated with small tillers and vice-versa; except on the last evaluation. However, regression analysis revealed linear coefficients of -3.83 to -2.05, which are lower than the theoretical expectation of -3/2. The lower R values observed, when compared to those reported for perennial ryegrass, suggest that Coastcross swards optimised their LAI via clonal integration among tillers in contrast with tillers of cool-season grasses that respond more as individuals. However, this hypothesis has yet to be experimentally verified.

  13. Dactylone inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced transformation and phenotype expression of human cancer cells and induces G1-S arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Sergey N; Shubina, Larisa K; Bode, Ann M; Stonik, Valentin A; Dong, Zigang

    2007-06-15

    The marine natural chamigrane-type sesquiterpenoid, dactylone, is closely related to secondary metabolites of some edible species of red algae. In the present study, the effect of dactylone was tested on the mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ Cl41 cell line and its stable transfectants as well as on several human tumor cell lines, including lung (H460), colon (HCT-116), and skin melanomas (SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-28). This natural product was effective at nontoxic doses as a cancer-preventive agent, which exerted its actions, at least in part, through the inhibition of cyclin D3 and Cdk4 expression and retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) phosphorylation. The inhibition of these cell cycle components was followed by cell cycle arrest at the G1-S transition with subsequent p53-independent apoptosis. Therefore, these data showed that application of dactylone and related compounds may lead to decreased malignant cell transformation and/or decreased tumor cell proliferation. PMID:17575161

  14. Effect of summer forage species grazed during finishing on animal performance, carcass quality, and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J R; Miller, M C; Andrae, J G; Ellis, S E; Duckett, S K

    2013-09-01

    Angus-cross steers (n = 60) were used to assess the effect of forage species [alfalfa (AL; Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass (BG; Cynodon dactylon), chicory (CH; Cichorium intybus L.), cowpea (CO; Vigna unguiculata L.), and pearl millet (PM; Pennisetum glaucum (L. R Br.)] in replicated 2-ha paddocks for finishing on cattle performance, carcass quality, and meat quality in a 2-yr study. Steers were blocked by BW and assigned randomly to finishing-forage treatments before the start of the experiment. Steers grazing AL and CH had greater (P 1 kg/d). Finishing on legumes (AL and CO) increased dressing percentage, reduced Warner-Bratzler shear force values, and increased consumers preference, whereas finishing on grasses (BG and PM) enhanced anticarcinogenic fatty acid concentrations. PMID:23825343

  15. CRECIMIENTO DE Brachiaria decumbens Stapf Y Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst EN SUELOS SULFATADOS ÁCIDOS DE CÓRDOBA

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    Enrique Combatt C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effect of different doses of lime in acid sulphate soils and physiological responses of two species of grasses, Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst and Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Materials and methods. The work was carried out during 2006 in acid sulfate soils at El Deseo farm (Ciénaga de Oro - Córdoba, Colombia, where 3, 6 and 9 tons/ha of agricultural lime was applied and two grass species, Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst (pasto estrella and Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (pasto brachiaria were planted. The responses considered during 5 mowings were the chemical features of the soil, fresh and dry weight of each genotype and the leaf/stem ratio. An experiment of complete random blocks was designed using a structure of divided plots, where the main plots corresponded to the grasses and the subplots to the lime doses. Results. The most outstanding results suggested that the pH values and aluminum in the soil concentrations fall significantly with the quantity of applied lime, decreasing up to 80%. In general, the interchangeable bases increased with the lime dosage and the contents of the microelements decreased considerably over time, although this was not evident for the lime. Independently of genotype, the production of fresh biomass showed a linear relationship within lime dosage (y=0,656x + 11,99; R2=0.92; the dry mass and the leaf/stem ratio were always greater for B. decumbens compared to C. nlemfuensis, independent of lime dosage.

  16. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

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    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  17. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the choice of breed type is important in maintaining a crossbreeding program, in that mature BW and rate of maturing are critical to the matching of animal requirements to available production resources. PMID:12542146

  18. Effect of species of cool-season annual grass interseeded into Bermudagrass sod on the performance of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Stewart, C B; Phillips, J M; Watkins, K B; Gunter, S A

    2007-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of species of cool-season annual grass on the growth of stocker cattle over 3 yr. In Exp. 1, the small grains (SG) oat (O), rye (R), and wheat (W), or combinations of SG and annual ryegrass (RG), were interseeded into Bermudagrass sod in a completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 2, RG was planted alone or with O, R, triticale (T), or W in a completely randomized design. Pastures were planted in late October of each year, and seeding rates were 134.4 and 22.4 kg/ha for SG and RG, respectively. In Exp. 1, grazing was initiated on December 18. In Exp. 2, grazing was initiated on December 23 for SG pastures and January 21 or February 16 for RG pastures in yr 1 and on December 8 for all pastures in yr 2. Grazing was managed using the put-and-take method, in which additional calves were added as needed to maintain equal grazing pressure among pastures. In Exp. 1, no interactions (P > or = 0.28) were detected, so the main effects of SG species and RG addition are discussed. From December 18 to March 12, there were no differences in ADG (P > or = 0.17), whereas during the spring (from March 12 to May 7), addition of RG increased (P = 0.05) ADG. Using RG increased (P or = 0.44) in ADG, BW gain/hectare, or grazing-days/hectare. In conclusion, the choice of cool-season annual to establish is highly weather-dependent, but R and W are generally superior to other small grains, and RG is a necessary complement to SG when interseeding cool-season annuals into Bermudagrass sod.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13335-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 111_1( AF384111 |pid:none) Cynodon dactylon phytochelatins sy... 256 8e-67 EU247758_1( EU247758 |pid:none) N...( AY553634 |pid:none) Cynodon dactylon phytochelatins sy... 238 4e-61 AJ548470_1( AJ548470 |pid:none) Solanu

  20. Crescimento do capim-tifton 85 sob doses de nitrogênio e alturas de corte Growth analysis of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under nitrogen fertilization and plant height

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    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os índices de crescimento do capim-tifton 85 adubado com quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 33, 66, 100, e 133 kg/ha de N e colhido em três alturas da planta (30, 40 e 50 cm. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As doses de nitrogênio corresponderam às parcelas e as alturas na data de corte, às subparcelas. Para todas as variáveis analisadas, a interação dose de N × altura da planta não foi significativa. A taxa assimilatória líquida e a taxa de crescimento relativo do capim-tifton 85 aumentaram com as doses de nitrogênio. A razão de área foliar (RAF decresceu linearmente com a altura de corte das plantas, mas aumentou, também de forma linear, com a dose de nitrogênio. De modo linear, a razão de peso foliar decresceu com a altura de corte da planta forrageira e aumentou com a dose de nitrogênio. A área foliar específica do capim-tifton 85 foi influenciada de forma linear e positiva apenas pela adubação nitrogenada. O índice de área foliar (IAF do capim-tifton 85 aumentou cerca de 0,05 unidade a cada centímetro de incremento na altura de corte das plantas. Houve resposta quadrática da dose de nitrogênio no IAF do capim-tifton 85. O acréscimo na altura do capim-tifton 85 na época do corte reduz a participação de lâmina foliar na forragem. A adubação nitrogenada aumenta a taxa de crescimento do capim-tifton 85, portanto, para assegurar colheita eficiente da forragem, ao aumentar a dose de nitrogênio, é necessário reduzir o intervalo de colheita.The objective this study was to evaluate the growth rates of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under four nitrogen levels (0, 33, 66, 100, and 133 kg/ha N and harvested at three plant heights (30, 40 and 50 cm. The experimental design was completely randomized in a split plot scheme with three replications. Nitrogen rates were set in the plots and plants heights in the

  1. Relationship between the rumen microbiome and residual feed intake-efficiency of Brahman bulls stocked on bermudagrass pastures.

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    Joshua C McCann

    Full Text Available Residual feed intake (RFI testing has increased selection pressure on biological efficiency in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess the association of the rumen microbiome in inefficient, positive RFI (p-RFI and efficient, negative RFI (n-RFI Brahman bulls grazing 'Coastal' bermudagrass [Cynodondactylon (L. Pers.]under two levels of forage allowance (high and low stocking intensity. Sixteen Brahman bulls were previously fed in confinement for 70 d to determine the RFI phenotype. Bulls were then allotted 60 d stocking on bermudagrass pastures to estimate RFI using the n-alkane technique. At the conclusion of the grazing period, rumen liquid samples were collected from each bull by stomach tube to evaluate the rumen microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454 pyrosequencing were performed on each sample. After denoising the sequences, chimera checking, and quality trimming, 4,573 ± 1,287 sequences were generated per sample. Sequences were then assigned taxonomy from the Greengenes database using the RDP classifier. Overall, 67.5 and 22.9% of sequences were classified as Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, respectively. Within the phylum Bacteroidetes, Prevotella was the most predominant genus and was observed in greater relative abundance in p-RFI bulls compared with n-RFI bulls (P = 0.01. In contrast, an unidentified Bacteroidales family was greater in relative abundance for n-RFI bulls than p-RFI (26.7 vs. 19.1%; P = 0.03. Ruminococcaceae was the third most abundant family in our samples, but it was not affected by RFI phenotype. No effect of stocking intensity was observed for bacterial taxa, but there was a tendency for alpha diversity and operational taxonomic unit richness to increase with lower stocking intensity. Results suggested the rumen microbiome of p-RFI Brahman bulls has greater levels of Prevotella, but the bacterial community composition was unaffected by stocking

  2. Apparent digestibility of diets with combinations of soybean hulls and coastcross (Cynodon sp. hay offered to ram lambs Digestibilidade aparente de dietas com combinações de casca de soja e feno de "coastcross" (Cynodon sp. oferecidas para cordeiros

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    Rafael Canonenco de Araujo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean hulls (SH are an alternative fiber source that may be used to maintain neutral detergent fiber (NDF concentration while increasing the energy concentration of ruminant diets. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing coastcross (Cynodon sp. hay NDF by SH NDF on the apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance of Santa Inês ram lambs. Twenty-four animals (42.5 ± 3.6 kg of body weight and six months old were placed in metabolism crates and assigned in a randomized complete block design defined by body weight (BW. Experimental diets provided a similar concentration of NDF (52% and crude protein (15%. Hay NDF from a 70% roughage-based diet was replaced with SH NDF by 33%, 67%, and 100%, resulting in 0, 25, 52, and 77% of SH in the dietary dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a linear increase (p 0.05 on water intake when SH replaced hay. The SH can replace forage and may be included up to 77% in the dietary DM of ram lambs with satisfactory values of nutrient digestibilities.A casca de soja (CS é uma fonte de fibra alternativa que visa manter o teor de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e aumentar a concentração energética da dieta de ruminantes. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar os efeitos da substituição da FDN de feno de "coastcross" (Cynodon sp. pela FDN da CS sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e balanço de nitrogênio em cordeiros Santa Inês. Vinte e quatro animais (42,5 ± 3,6 kg de peso vivo e seis meses de idade foram colocados em gaiolas para ensaio de digestibilidade e arranjados em delineamento blocos completos casualizados definidos pelo peso vivo (PV. As dietas isonitrogenadas (15% de proteína bruta continham concentrações semelhantes de FDN (52%. O tratamento controle foi composto de 70% de feno na matéria seca (MS da dieta, sendo a FDN proveniente do feno substituída em 33%, 67% e 100% pela FDN proveniente da CS, correspondendo a 0, 25, 52 e 77% de

  3. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

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    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  4. Agronomic performance of tifton 85 (cynodon spp grass cultivated in constructed wetlands used in milk processing wastewater treatment

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    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in order to study the performance of the tifton 85 (Cynodon spp grass cultivated in wetlands (SACs and submitted to different organic load application rates (TCOs of milk processing wastewater (ARL, in the climatic conditions of Viçosa - MG. The experimental structure was constituted by five SACs with horizontal subsuperficial flow, using tanks of 0.40 x 0.75 x 3.00 m (depth, width and length filled with 0.33 m depth of fine stones. The ARL was applied in average flow of 60 L.day-1, hydraulic time residence of 4.8 days and TCOs of 66, 130, 190, 320 and 570 kg.ha-1.day-1 of DBO. The tifton 85 grass adapted well to SACs, presenting good rooting, high yield and capacity of nutrients (N, P and K and sodium removal of the ARL, whose values were, respectively, between 216 - 544, 24 - 61, 115 - 204 and 4.3 – 10.9 kg.ha-1.

  5. Biomass flow in Tifton-85 bermudagrass canopy subjected to different management strategies under rotational grazing with dairy goats

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    José Antonio Alves Cutrim Junior

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass flow characteristics and forage accumulation were evaluated in Bermudagrass (Tifton 85 pasture managed under intermittent stocking with different management strategies. The management levels utilized were conventional (10 cm residual height and unfertilized, light (20 cm residual height and unfertilized, moderate (20 cm residual height with fertilization of 300 kg N/ha.year and intensive (10 cm residual height with fertilization of 600 kg N/ha.year. A randomized design was used with repeated measurements over time, in two periods of the year, with four replicates. There was significant effect of management × period of the year on the leaf elongation rate (LER. The management levels under fertilization (0.59 and 0.60 cm/tiller.day for the intensive and moderate management, respectively and the rainy season (0.49 cm/tiller.day showed the greatest stem elongation rate. Leaf senescence rate (LSR before and after and total LSR were modified by the management × period of the year interaction. The intensive management, with 0.38 leaves/tiller.day, as well as the dry period, with 0.27 leaves/tiller.day, showed higher leaf appearance rate. The lowest phyllochron was observed in intensive management and dry periods, as well as an interaction with the management of the same periods of the year. There was management × period of year interaction effect on leaf lifespan; the highest value was found under conventional management and dry period. Both production and forage accumulation rates were higher in the intensive and moderate management levels and dry season, and there was interaction of the intensive management system with the seasons. Managing pastures under moderate and intensive rotational stocking, which occurred mainly in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, maximizes the flow of tissues and consequently production and accumulation of forage.

  6. Availability of sulfur in fly ash to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elseewi, A.A.; Bingham, F.T.; Page, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was added to soil in variable amounts and the availability of sulfur to a variety of plant species from this source was compared to that of gypsum. The study was conducted under greenhouse conditions with a calcareous and two acid soils which were low in plant-available sulfur. The fly ash used contained 0.4% S, all of which is extractable by NH/sub 4/OAc. When mixed with a calcareous and an acid soil at rates of 1 to 2% by weight, the fly ash corrected a S deficiency in the soil and maximized the yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.). The increase in yield (twofold to threefold in alfalfa and 40 to 70% in bermudagrass) was accompanied by an increase in the S content of the plant tops from a deficiency level (<0.1%) to a sufficiency level (greater than or equal to 0.2%). The availability of fly ash-S and gypsum (CaSO/sub 4/ . 2H/sub 2/O)-S was compared by the addition of equal amounts of S from the two sources (25-, 50-, and 100-mg S/kg soil) to an acid soil. Yield and S content of turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) were equally improved, demonstrating that the availability of fly ash derived-S is equivalent to that of gympsum-S.

  7. Effect of dietary restriction and hay inclusion in the diet of slow-growing broilers

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    Karla P. Picoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.

  8. Avaliação de cultivares do gênero Cynodon com e sem nitrogênio Evaluation of cultivars of the genus Cynodon with or without nitrogen

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    Ulysses Cecato

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, da matéria orgânica (DIVMO, da parede celular (DIVPC, a produção de matéria seca verde total (PMSVT, vigor da rebrota (VR e relação colmo/lâmina foliar (C/L de cinco cultivares do gênero Cynodon (Tifton 44, Tifton 85, “Coast-cross”, Estrela Porto Rico e Estrela Roxa, em 4 cortes a cada 35 dias no verão (PV e 2 cortes a cada 70 dias no inverno (PI com e sem N (0 e 400 kg/ha/ano. Na avaliação da composição química, a PB não diferiu (P ≤ 0,05 entre as gramíneas, porém diferiu (P ≤ 0,05 quanto ao nível de nitrogênio e ao corte. A concentração da FDA e FDN apresentou diferença estatística (P ≤ 0,05 entre as gramíneas, nível de adubação e cortes realizados. As gramíneas apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre si (P ≤ 0,05 para a DIVMS, DIVMO e DIVPC. A Tifton 44 apresentou digestibilidade maior para todos os parâmetros, enquanto que a cultivar Estrela Porto Rico apresentou DIVPC menor em relação às demais, e as outras não diferiram entre si. A PMSVT diferiu (P Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDDM, organic matter (IVDOM and cell wall (IVDCW, green dry matter production (GDMP, plant re-growth (PR and stem/leaf ratio (S/L of five cultivars of the genus Cynodon at two levels of N fertilization (0 and 400 kg/ha in the summer and spring are provided. CP did not differ (P > 0.05 from other grasses in chemical composition. However differences (P ≤ 0.05 occurred due to nitrogen level and cut intervals. Values for ADF and NDF were affected (P ≤ 0,05 by grass, nitrogen level and cut intervals. Grasses showed statistical differences (P ≤ 0.05 for IVDDM, IVDOM and IVDCW. Tifton 44 showed the highest digestibility for all parameters, while Estrela Porto Rico the lowest digestibility for IVDCW. Other grasses did not differ from each other. There were

  9. Frações de zinco em solo arenoso e suas relações com disponibilidade para Cynodon spp cv. Tifton-85 Zinc fractions in a sandy soil and its relations with availability to Cynodon spp cv. Tifton-85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. André

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar um esquema de fracionamento de zinco em Argissolo arenoso e suas relações com a disponibilidade de Zn para Cynodon spp cv. Tifton-85, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 x 2 (5 doses de Zn, 2 doses de calcário e 2 épocas de amostragem, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As doses de Zn foram de 0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10 mg dm-3; metade dos vasos não recebeu calagem (V = 42 % e metade recebeu a calagem com vistas em elevar o índice de saturação por bases a 70 %. As épocas de amostragem foram 30 e 150 dias após aplicação de Zn, respectivamente, antes do plantio e depois do 3º corte de Tifton-85. A aplicação de Zn resultou em aumento significativo do elemento nas frações: trocável, óxidos de Mn, matéria orgânica e óxidos de Fe. O Zn ligado aos óxidos de Mn aumentou significativamente com a calagem. Após 150 dias de experimentação, houve diminuição do Zn trocável, ligado aos óxidos de Mn, à matéria orgânica e aos óxidos de Fe, e aumento na fração residual. A distribuição de Zn nas frações do solo foi: residual > óxidos de Fe > óxidos de Mn > trocável > matéria orgânica. As relações entre as características estudadas mostraram que tanto o Zn-DTPA quanto o Zn trocável, ligado à M.O. e aos óxidos de Mn, foram eficientes para representar o Zn absorvido pela planta.To evaluate a fractionation scheme for Zn in a sandy soil (Ultisol and its relation with Zn availability for Cynodon spp cv. Tifton-85, an experiment was carried out in greenhouse, with a factorial scheme (5 doses of zinc, 2 doses of lime and 2 times of sampling, in a completely randomized block design, with three replications. The doses of Zn were: 0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10 mg dm-3; half of the pots did not received liming (V = 42% and, in the other half, liming was done to increase the base saturation index to 70%. The sampling times were 30 and 150 days after Zn

  10. Evaluation of the contamination of infecting larvae of nematodes on pasture of Cynodon sp. in a milk producing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Augusto Perazza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the contamination of infecting larvae of parasitic nematodes in cattle on Cynodon sp. pasture. The research was conducted in a milkproduction system situated in the town of Boa Esperança, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, during the fall-winter seasons 2008. The samples of the grass were collected in ten points inserted into an outline in “W”, previously designed, in the period of morning between at 7:30 and 8:30, observing the presence of dew in all the collections performed. The samples were CUT close to the soil and separated in half, which constituted an upper and lower sample of each collecting point, their being afterwards placed into plastic bag, identified and carried to a plastic foam box . The samples were processed singly. The infecting larvae (L3 were identified and the amount per kilogram of dry matter in forage was estimated (L3/kg DM. The climatic conditions such as temperature, air relative humidity and rainfall enabled the development of the free life stages throughout the period. Even at low rainfall rates during the months of May to August, the counts of the amount of larvae in the pastures were high. Under the conditions of the dry period (Fall/Winter, the L3 forms of Cooperia sp. presented an expressive predominance in relation to the other genera throughout the period. The greatest amount of infecting larvae of this species was found in the months of July and August in the upper pasture, while for the samples of the lower part were found peaks in the months of June and August. The large number of genera of pathogenic helminths to animals in this study along the drier seasons of the year, especially in the upper pasture, demonstrates the importance of these agents as cause of losses in milk production in Minas Gerais state.

  11. Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

    For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the

  12. Intensidades de pastejo e a composição morfológica de pastos de Cynodon spp

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    Fagundes Jailson Lara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição morfológica de pastos de Cynodon spp. (?Tifton 85?, ?Florakirk? e ?Coastcross? submetidos a quatro intensidades de pastejo (5, 10, 15 e 20 cm estabelecidas por ovinos em regime de lotação contínua. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas sub-divididas, onde na parcela foram alocados os cultivares e na sub-parcela as intensidades de pastejo. O período de avaliação foi de 3 de julho a 31 de dezembro de 1998. Pastos mantidos mais altos apresentaram as maiores massas de forragem (kg MS ha-1, sendo que ?Tifton 85? apresentou os valores mais elevados, seguido de ?Florakirk? e de ?Coastcross?. Valores calculados para densidade "bulk" (kg MS cm-1 ha-1 mostraram-se mais elevados para pastos mais baixos, sendo que ?Tifton 85? apresentou os maiores valores para qualquer das alturas estudadas. Os cultivares foram classificados em ordem decrescente de proporção de material vivo no pasto da seguinte maneira: ?Tifton 85? > ?Coastcross? > ?Florakirk?. Já o comportamento dos cultivares em relação a material morto foi o inverso. Ocorreu um aumento do percentual de haste no pasto com o avanço do período experimental. Os cultivares não apresentaram uma relação consistente quanto a proporção de haste, mas puderam ser classificados em ordem decrescente quanto a proporção de folha da seguinte maneira: ?Tifton 85? > ?Coastcross? @ ?Florakirk?. As diferentes intensidades de pastejo estudadas não apresentaram influência sobre as características morfológicas avaliadas.

  13. Determination of protein and carbohydrate fractions of Cynodon grasses in different cut age Determinação das frações de proteína e de carboidratos de gramíneas do gênero Cynodon em idades ao corte

    OpenAIRE

    Geane Dias Gonçalves; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Ulysses Cecato; Júlio César Damasceno; Antônio Ferriani Branco; Karina Toledo da Silva

    2001-01-01

    Three Cynodon grasses (Poaceae) (Tifton 85, Tifton 44 and Coast-cross) harvested at ages 21, 42 and 63 days in the summer were evaluated for protein and carbohydrate fractions composition. Crude protein was divided into 5 fractions: A (non-protein nitrogen), B1 (soluble protein with fast rumen degradability), B2 (insoluble protein with intermediate rumen degradability), B3 (insoluble protein with slow rumen degradability) and C (indigestible protein). Carbohydrates were divided into 3 fractio...

  14. 三峡库区狗牙根根系固坡抗蚀效应研究%Effect of Root System of Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. ) on Slope Reinforcement and Soil Erosion Resistance in Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌芸; 祝亚军; 何丙辉

    2010-01-01

    研究了三峡库区嘉陵江岸的野生狗牙根(Cynodondactylon(L)Pers.)根系在土壤表层(0-30 cm)的分布特征,并从土壤理化性质和抗剪强度方面分析了其固坡抗蚀效应.研究结果表明:(1)样本的根系密度(RSD,root systemdensity)与根系生物量呈较显著的正线性相关(R2>=0.874 7),且90%总根数和86%的总根量均集中分布在0-30咖的表土层;(2)狗牙根根系改变了土壤结构.土壤容重与根系生物量呈极显著的负线性相关(R2>=0.977 8).总孔隙度与根系生物量呈极显著的正线性相关(R2>=0.980 5);(3)狗牙根根系提高了土壤团聚体和有机质含量,土壤团聚体、有机质含量均与根系生物量呈极显著的正线性相关(R2>=0.947 7,0.952 7);(4)根系增强了土体的抗剪强度.根系密度越大则抗剪强度增量越大;(5)根系对土体抗剪强度的增强主要是通过粘聚力来实现;(6)根系主要是通过增强土体的抗剪强度来实现其固坡抗蚀效应.

  15. Characterization of gene expression associated with drought avoidance and tolerance traits in a perennial grass species.

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    Peng Zhou

    Full Text Available To understand molecular mechanisms of perennial grass adaptation to drought stress, genes associated with drought avoidance or tolerance traits were identified and their expression patterns were characterized in C4 hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.×C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy, cv. Tifway] and common bermudagrass (C. dactylon, cv. C299. Plants of drought-tolerant 'Tifway' and drought-sensitive 'C299' were exposed to drought for 5 d (mild stress and 10 d (severe stress by withholding irrigation in a growth chamber. 'Tifway' maintained significantly lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content than 'C299' at both 5 and 10 d of drought stress. Four cDNA libraries via suppression subtractive hybridization analysis were constructed and identified 277 drought-responsive genes in the two genotypes at 5 and 10 d of drought stress, which were mainly classified into the functional categories of stress defense, metabolism, osmoregulation, membrane system, signal and regulator, structural protein, protein synthesis and degradation, and energy metabolism. Quantitative-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of 36 drought up-regulated genes that were more highly expressed in drought-tolerant 'Tifway' than drought-sensitive 'C299', including those for drought avoidance traits, such as cuticle wax formation (CER1 and sterol desaturase, for drought tolerance traits, such as dehydration-protective proteins (dehydrins, HVA-22-like protein and oxidative stress defense (superoxide dismutase, dehydroascorbate reductase, 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, and for stress signaling (EREBP-4 like protein and WRKY transcription factor. The results suggest that the expression of genes for stress signaling, cuticle wax accumulation, antioxidant defense, and dehydration-protective protein accumulation could be critically important for warm-season perennial grass adaptation to long-term drought stress.

  16. Effect of early weaning and concentrate supplementation at forage intake and ingestive behavior of sheep grazing Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.

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    Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate then early weaning and concentrate supplementation effect at pasture characteristics, forage intake and ingestive behavior of lambs grazing Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.. A randomized block design was used with four treatments, three replications and five lambs per replicate. A total of 60 Suffolk lambs, that 36 were females and 24 steers. The treatments had corresponded to the combinations between early weaning precocious and concentrate supplementation strategies, that resulted in the following ones finishing systems: 1 lambs kept with mothers without supplementation; 2 lambs kept with mothers supplemented with concentrate in creep feeding at 2% of body weigh (BW in DM/day; 3 weaned lambs at 45 ± 5 days without supplementation and 4 weaned lambs at 45 ± 5 days and supplemented with concentrate at 2% of BW in DM/day. Grazing utilization method was continuous stocking with adjustment every 21 days, to maintain forage offer at 12% of BW in DM/day. To characterize the pastoral environment was assessed: morphological composition of pasture. There were made four observations the behavioral activities for individually lambs per 24 hours, such as: grazing, ruminating, suckling, supplementation, and others activities. The intake rate was measured using the technique of double sampling and determination of bite rate was made by visual observation of the number of bits made for animal. The behavior and the distribution of daily activities made by the lambs are influenced for the strategies evaluated. The exclusive presence of milk or supplement concentrate in the diet are important modulators of grazing activity, and the absence of these nutrient sources were offset per an increase in grazing time. This response considered the decrease in nutritional support and lower efficiency in harvesting the forage by lambs. The weaning influenced the morphological characteristics of the pasture, which showed favored the

  17. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2000-03-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 190 Angus (A x A), Brahman (B x B), and reciprocal-cross cows (A x B and B x A) and 434 two- and three-breed-cross calves managed on common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), or a combination of both forages (ROT) were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991, and calves sired by 13 Polled Hereford bulls were born from 1995 to 1997. Heterosis for calving rate was larger on E+ than on BG or ROT (P Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on E+ than on BG. We also observed that moving cows and calves from E+ to BG in the summer will alleviate some, but not all, of the deleterious effects of E+ on calf growth, although it may be more beneficial for reproductive traits in purebred cows. PMID:10764060

  18. Genetic x environment interactions on blood constituents of Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and calves grazing common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, N A; Brown, M A; Phillips, W A

    2001-05-01

    Over a 2-yr period, effects of genotype and forage on blood metabolites, enzymes, and minerals were determined in Angus, Brahman, Angus x Brahman (sire x dam), and Brahman x Angus cows, and 129 calves from these cows sired by Hereford bulls. Cows and calves continuously grazed either common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected 'Kentucky-31' tall fescue pastures throughout the year. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture in April, August, October (weaning), and November (after 30 d in a feedlot) of each year. Plasma urea N concentrations of cows and calves were affected by forage (P Brahman x Angus and Angus x Brahman crossbred cows and their calves seen to be more tolerant of the negative effects of tall fescue than the average of their purebred contemporaries. PMID:11374533

  19. Ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of nitrogen and neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen from common crabgrass forages sampled on seven dates in northern Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, R K; Coblentz, W K; Coffey, K P; Turner, J E; Scarbrough, D A; Jennings, J A; Richardson, M D

    2006-03-01

    Southern crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) is often an undesirable species in field and forage crops, but visual observations suggest that livestock prefer it to many other summer forages. The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between July 11 and August 22, 2001 and then to determine ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of N and neutral detergent insoluble N (NDIN) for these forages. A secondary objective was to compare these kinetic estimates for crabgrass with those of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), and or-chardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) as control hays. All kinetic evaluations were conducted with 5 ruminally cannulated Gelbvieh x Angus x Brangus steers (383 +/- 22.7 kg). Concentrations of N for crabgrass decreased linearly (P < or = 0.002) across sampling dates for leaf, stem, and whole-plant tissues. Conversely, percentages of the total N pool within NDIN and ADIN fractions generally increased over sampling dates in mostly linear patterns. For crabgrass, the immediately soluble portion of the total N pool (fraction A; overall mean = 54.6% of N) was greater (P < 0.001) than for all control hays. Crabgrass exhibited a more rapid N disappearance rate (overall mean = 0.093/h; expressed as a proportion disappearing/h) than that of bermudagrass (0.046/h; P < 0.001), but the disappearance rate for alfalfa N (0.223/h) was considerably faster (P < 0.001) than for crabgrass. The effective ruminal disappearance of N was greater (P < 0.001) for crabgrass (overall mean = 85.4%) than for the alfalfa (83.3%), bermudagrass (72.3%), or orchardgrass (76.0%) control hays. For alfalfa, the ruminal disappearance rate of NDIN (0.150/h) was more rapid (P < 0.001) than for crabgrass (overall mean = 0.110/h); however, the disappearance rate for crabgrass was faster than that for bermudagrass (0.072/h; P < 0.001) or for orchardgrass (0.098/h; P = 0.010). Effective ruminal

  20. Kinetics of caesium and potassium absorption by roots of three grass pastures and competitive effects of potassium on caesium uptake in Cynodon sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, J. Juri; Valverde, L. Rubio; Garcia-Sanchez, M. J.; Fernandez, J. A.; Velasco, R. H.

    2008-08-01

    Caesium uptake by plant roots has been normally associated with the uptake of potassium as the potassium transport systems present in plants have also the capacity to transport caesium. Three grass species (Eragrostis curvula, Cynodon sp and Distichlis spicata) growing in seminatural grassland of central Argentina were selected to study their capability to incorporate Cs+ (and K+) using electrophysiological techniques. Although the 137Cs soil inventory ranged between 328-730 Bq m-2 in this region, no 137Cs activity was detected in these plants. However, all the species, submitted previously to K+ starvation, showed the uptake of both Cs+ and K+ when micromolar concentrations of these cations were present in the medium. The uptake showed saturation kinetics for both cations that could be fitted to the Michelis-Menten model. KM values were smaller for K+ than for Cs+, indicating a higher affinity for the first cation. The presence of increasing K+ concentrations in the assay medium inhibited Cs+ uptake in Cynodon sp., as expected if both cations are transported by the same transport systems. This effect is due to the competition of both ions for the union sites of the high affinity potassium transporters. In field situation, where soil concentration of Cs+ is smaller than K+ concentration, is then expectable that caesium activity in plants is not detectable. Nevertheless, the studied plants would have the capacity to incorporate caesium if its availability in soil solution increases. In addition, studies of Cs/K interaction can help us to understand the variability in transfer factors.

  1. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (Pcarcass weights (Pcarcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows.

  2. PENDUGAAN DAYA TAMPUNG RUSA LIAR (Cervus timorensis) DI PADANG RUMPUT MAR TAMAN NASIONAL WASUR MERAUKE

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Tjahyono Hariadi; Thimotius Sraun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to know carrying capacity of rusa deer (Cervus timorensisi) at Mar, Wasur National Park Merauke district. The data collected were spesies of grasses, production each species and carrying capacity. The results showed species of grasses were Cynadon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Phragmites karka. Mar was dominated by Cynadon dactylon. The production of Cynodon dactylon was 2.183 kg/ha. The carryng capacity of rusa deer was 0.5 ha/head/year.

  3. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (Pyield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows.

  4. ESTABLISHMENT AND EVALUATION OF SWITCHGRASS ON RECLAIMED MINE SOIL [English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, David; Shankle, Brandon; Oswalt, Ernest; Duckworth, Jeremy; Sanborn, Judd; Buell, Rebecca; Roberson, Bill

    2010-06-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native warm season perennial grass that has productive potential of up to 20 Mg ha-1 of biomass and it persists for decades when harvested once per year. Switchgrass provides excellent ground cover and soil stabilization once established and contributes to soil sequestration of new carbon. Slow establishment on newly reclaimed soil, however, provides for significant erosive opportunities thereby requiring initial soil stabilization with a cover crop. Several planting options were evaluated on two topsoil substitute soils. The planting options included: 1) an existing stand of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) that was killed with glyphosate followed by disking in red oxidized topsoil substitute and prime farmland topsoil respread in 2007, 2) red oxidized topsoil substitute was seeded directly with switchgrass, 3) browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) was established with switchgrass, 4) or switchgrass was established in senescing browntop millet or wheat without tillage. Switchgrass was successfully established into a bermudagrass sod that had been killed with herbicides and disked as well as into a senescing stand of browntop millet or wheat. Significant soil erosion occurred on the disked area in 2008 leading to considerable repair work followed by planting wheat. Disked areas that did not erode had an excellent stand of switchgrass with 23.3 plants m-2 in November, 2008. Eroded areas replanted in April, 2009 into senescing wheat had 46 plants m-2 by July, 2009. The area planted directly into newly respread soil in May, 2009 was eroded severely by a 75 mm thunderstorm and was repaired, disked and replanted to switchgrass and browntop millet. Switchgrass seeded with browntop millet had a sparse switchgrass stand and was replanted to switchgrass in August, 2009. Rainfall volumes from August, 2009 to October, 2009 totaled 750 mm, but new erosion damage in areas successfully planted to switchgrass has been minimal.

  5. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil nutrient concentration and phosphatase activity and forage nutrient uptake from a grazed pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Sandra Leanne; Wood, Charles Wesley; Wood, Brenda Hall; Feng, Yucheng; Owsley, Walter Frank; Muntifering, Russell Brian

    2015-05-01

    Over a 3-year period, the effect of differing N-application regimes on soil extractable-P concentration, soil phosphatase activity, and forage P uptake in a P-enriched grazed-pasture system was investigated. In the fall of each year, six 0.28-ha plots were overseeded with triticale ( × Triticosecale rimpaui Wittm.) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) into a tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea)/bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) sod and assigned to 1 of 3 N-fertilizer treatments (n = 2): 100% of N recommendation in a split application (100N), 50% in a single application (50N), and 0% of N recommendation (0N) for triticale. Cattle commenced grazing the following spring and grazed until May. In the summer, plots were overseeded with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), fertilized at the same rates by reference to N recommendations for bermudagrass, and grazed by cattle until September. There were no effects of N fertilization on soil phosphatase activity, electrical conductivity, or concentrations of water-soluble P. Concentrations of extractable P decreased in plots receiving 50N, but increasing N fertilization to 100N resulted in no further reduction in extractable P. Forage biomass, foliar P concentrations, and forage P mass were not affected by N fertilization rates at the plant-community level, but responses were observed within individual forage species. Results are interpreted to mean that N fertilization at 50% of the agronomic recommendation for the grass component can increase forage P mass of specific forages and decrease soil extractable P, thus providing opportunity for decreasing P losses from grazed pasture. PMID:25728918

  6. Soil Organic Carbon Pools Under Switchgrass Grown as a Bioenergy Crop Compared to Other Conventional Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.G.DOU; F.M.HONS; W.R.OCUMPAUGH; J.C.READ; M.A.HUSSEY; J.P.MUIR

    2013-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been proposed as a sustainable bioenergy crop because of its high yield potential,adaptation to marginal sites,and tolerance to water and nutrient limitations.A better understanding of the potential effects of biomass energy crop production practices on soil biological properties and organic matter dynamics is critical to its production.Our objective was to evaluate changes in C pools under a warm-season perennial switchgrass in different soils compared to typically-grown crops collected at College Station,Dallas,and Stephenville,TX in February 2001.Sampling depths were 0-5,5-15,and 15-30 cm.Switchgrass increased soil organic C (SOC),soil microbial biomass C (SMBC),mineralizable C,and particulate organic matter C (POM-C) compared to conventional cropping systems.Soil C concentrations were in the order:long-term coastal bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] > switchgrass or kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.) planted in 1992 > switchgrass 1997 > conventional cropping systems.Soil C concentrations tended to increase with increasing clay content.Greater microbial biomass C followed the order of Dallas >College Station > Stephenville,and ranged from approximately 180 mg C kg-1 soil at Stephenville to 1900 mg C kg-1 soil at Dallas.Particulate organic C was more sensitive than other fractions to management,increasing as much as 6-fold under long-term coastal bermudagrass compared to conventional cropping systems.Our study indicated that conversion of conventional cropping systems into switchgrass production can sequestrate more SOC and improve soil biological properties in the southern USA.

  7. Rainfall simulation in greenhouse microcosms to assess bacterial-associated runoff from land-applied poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John P; Adeli, Ardeshir; Read, John J; McLaughlin, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Runoff water following a rain event is one possible source of environmental contamination after a manure application. This greenhouse study used a rainfall simulator to determine bacterial-associated runoff from troughs of common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] that were treated with P-based, N-based, and N plus lime rates of poultry (Gallus gallus) litter, recommended inorganic fertilizer, and control. Total heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, as well as antibiotic resistance profiles for the staphylococci and enterococci isolates were all monitored in runoff waters. Analysis following five rainfall events indicated that staphylococci, enterococci, and clostridia levels were related to manure application rate. Runoff release of staphylococci, enterococci, and C. perfringens were approximately 3 to 6 log10 greater in litter vs. control treatment. In addition, traditional indicators such as thermotolerant and total coliforms performed poorly as fecal indicators. Some isolated enterococci demonstrated increased antibiotic resistance to polymixin b and/or select aminoglyocosides, while many staphylococci were susceptible to most antimicrobials tested. Results indicated poultry litter application can lead to microbial runoff following simulated rain events. Future studies should focus on the use of staphylococci, enterococci, and C. perfringens as indicators.

  8. Effects of forage type, body condition and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine cytochrome P450 regulatory region on cow productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M A; Murphy, K Y; Reiter, S T; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Looper, M L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2013-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the coding sequence of cytochrome p450 (CYP3A28) have been associated with milk yield and composition, and calving traits in cows. In this study, we aimed to determine whether (i) the CYP3A28 regulatory region was polymorphic and (ii) SNP genotype, forage type, body condition and their interactions affect cow productivity. Primers for CYP3A28 promoter were designed to amplify a 483-bp segment by PCR. Amplicon sequences revealed seven SNP (T-318C, T-113A, C-189T, T-78G, A6G, G17A and T21C) in Brahman (38 cows), Brahman x Angus reciprocal crosses (47 cows) and crossbreds (98 cows). Angus cows (n = 41) appeared to be fixed at those SNP locations. Genotype and forage {endophyte-infected tall fescue [KY+; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire] vs. bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]} effects on lifetime (8-years) calving rate, and calf weaning weights and heights were determined in Herd 1 (126 cows); genotype and BC (low vs. moderate) effects on calving date and calving percent were determined in Herd 2 (98 cows). Four SNP (T-318C, T-113A, A06G and T21C) appeared to be related to cattle productivity, CC cows at T-318C having a lower (p Brahman-influenced cows are associated with cattle productivity. PMID:22054297

  9. Índice de área foliar, coeficiente de extinção luminosa e acúmulo de forragem em pastagens de Cynodon spp. sob lotação contínua

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundes Jailson Lara; Silva Sila Carneiro da; Pedreira Carlos Guilherme Silveira; Carnevalli Roberta Aparecida; Carvalho Carlos Augusto Brandão de; Sbrissia Andre Fisher; Pinto Luis Felipe de Moura

    2001-01-01

    Avaliou-se o índice de área foliar, o coeficiente de extinção luminosa e o acúmulo de matéria seca em três cultivares de Cynodon spp. (Tifton 85, Florakirk e Coastcross) submetidas a quatro intensidades de pastejo (5, 10, 15 e 20 cm) por ovinos em regime de lotação contínua. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas, tendo na parcela as cultivares, e na subparcela, as intensidades de pastejo. Os maiores valore...

  10. Índice de área foliar, interceptação luminosa e acúmulo de forragem em pastagens de Cynodon spp. sob diferentes intensidades de pastejo Canopy characteristics and herbage accumulation of Cynodon spp. submitted to different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaílson Lara Fagundes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o índice de área foliar (IAF, interceptação luminosa (IL e acúmulo de matéria seca em três cultivares de Cynodon spp. (Tifton-85, Florakirk e Coastcross submetidos a quatro intensidades de pastejo (5, 10, 15 e 20 cm estabelecidas com ovinos em regime de lotação contínua. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas sub-divididas, onde na parcela foram alocados os cultivares e na sub-parcela as intensidades de pastejo. Os maiores valores de IAF foram encontrados para Tifton-85. As taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. Tifton-85 apresentou como amplitude ótima de uso condições de pasto que variaram de 5 a 15 cm. Para Florakirk essa amplitude foi até 20 cm e para Coastcross o limite foi superior a 20 cm. Diferentes cultivares apresentaram requerimentos variados de manejo de desfolha quando o objetivo foi o uso eficiente da luz e dos demais fatores de crescimento para elevados índices de utilização da forragem produzida.Leaf area index (LAI, light interception and herbage accumulation were evaluated for three Cynodon spp. cultivars (Tifton-85, Florakirk and Coastcross submitted to four grazing intensities (5, 10, 15 and 20 cm established by sheep under a continuous stocking management. A complete randomised block design was used with four replications, with treatements in a split-plot arrangement. Grass cultivars were allocated to plots and grazing intensities to sub-plots. The largest values of LAI were observed for Tifton-85. Rates of dry matter accumulation were similar for all treatments. Tifton-85 presented a narrower optimal range for pasture conditions (5 to 15 cm as compared to Florakirk (5-20 cm and Coastcross (5-20+ cm. Different grass cultivars presented different grazing management requirements in situations where the efficient use of light and high levels of herbage utilisation were targeted.

  11. Carboidratos não estruturais e acúmulo de forragem em pastagens de Cynodon spp. sob lotação contínua

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    Carvalho Carlos Augusto Brandão de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservas orgânicas são compostos capazes de determinar o vigor e a velocidade da rebrota de plantas forrageiras influenciando sua persistência na pastagem. Dentre os compostos constituintes das reservas orgânicas estão os carboidratos não estruturais (CNE. Os teores e a quantidade de CNE foram avaliados em amostras de pastagens de 'Tifton-85', 'Florakirk' e 'Coastcross', estabelecidas em Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, durante as estações de inverno, primavera e verão. Os tratamentos corresponderam a quatro situações de "steady state" do relvado, caracterizadas por alturas de pasto de 5, 10, 15 e 20 cm mantidas por ovinos sob regime de lotação contínua. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados, com um arranjo de parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Os cultivares foram alocados nas parcelas e alturas de pasto nas subparcelas. As coletas das amostras para determinação de CNE foram realizadas mensalmente utilizando-se tubos de aço de 15 cm de diâmetro por 50 cm de altura. Os teores de CNE foram quantificados através de metodologia analítica baseada em digestão ácida e as taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram mensuradas através de gaiolas de exclusão. Os cultivares de Cynodon spp. avaliados apresentaram um padrão de variação sazonal quanto à prioridade de alocação de CNE para os órgãos de reserva (base do colmo e raízes. Os teores de CNE obtidos não atingiram níveis que pudessem ser considerados danosos à perenidade e à produtividade das pastagens de 'Tifton-85', 'Florakirk' e 'Coastcross'. 'Tifton-85' apresentou maior quantidade de CNE na base do colmo e raízes, o que poderia contribuir para uma maior tolerância a períodos de estresse.

  12. Características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-tifton 85 sob doses de nitrogênio e alturas de corte Morphogenic and structural characteristics of tifton 85 bermudagrass under different nitrogen doses and harvesting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-tifton 85 adubado com nitrogênio nas doses de 0, 33, 66, 100 ou 133 kg/ha.ano em três alturas à data de corte (30, 40 ou 50 cm. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As doses de nitrogênio (N corresponderam às parcelas e as alturas ao tempo de corte, às subparcelas. A taxa de aparecimento foliar do capim-tifton 85 foi influenciada de forma negativa pela altura da planta na época do corte e de maneira positiva pela dose de nitrogênio. A taxa de senescência foliar e o número total de folhas por perfilho diminuíram, enquanto a taxa de alongamento foliar aumentou com a adubação nitrogenada. Por outro lado, a taxa de senescência foliar e o número total de folhas por perfilho aumentaram com a altura das plantas na época da colheita. Já o número de folhas vivas por perfilho não foi influenciado pela dose de nitrogênio nem pela altura da planta na época do corte. Para uma mesma altura do capim-tifton 85 na época da colheita, a adubação nitrogenada aumenta o fluxo de tecidos e a frequência de desfolhação. Na condição de desfolhação intermitente, o capim-tifton 85 deve ser colhido com altura de até 30 cm.The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of tifton 85 bermudagrass under different nitrogen doses (0, 33, 66, 100 or 133 kg/ha.year of N and three different plant heights (30, 40 or 50 cm at harvesting time. A split plot scheme in a completely randomized design with three replications was used. The nitrogen (N doses stood for the portions and the haversting heights, for the subportions. The leaf appearance rate of tifton 85 bermudagrass was negatively influenced by plant height at harvesting time, but positively influenced by N dose. Leaf senescence rate and total number of leaves per tiller decreased, whereas leaf elongation rate

  13. Determination of protein and carbohydrate fractions of Cynodon grasses in different cut age Determinação das frações de proteína e de carboidratos de gramíneas do gênero Cynodon em idades ao corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Dias Gonçalves

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Three Cynodon grasses (Poaceae (Tifton 85, Tifton 44 and Coast-cross harvested at ages 21, 42 and 63 days in the summer were evaluated for protein and carbohydrate fractions composition. Crude protein was divided into 5 fractions: A (non-protein nitrogen, B1 (soluble protein with fast rumen degradability, B2 (insoluble protein with intermediate rumen degradability, B3 (insoluble protein with slow rumen degradability and C (indigestible protein. Carbohydrates were divided into 3 fractions: A + B1 (fast and intermediate rumen digestibility, B2 (slow rumen digestibility and C (indigestible fiber. Experimental design consisted of a split-plot (grasses as plots and cut age as sub-plots with three repetitions. Cut age was analyzed by regression and models were chosen on the analysis of identity. There were no differences (p> 0,05 among grasses with regard to protein and carbohydrate fractions composition. C fraction of protein showed linear increase (p 1 fraction decreased (p 2 and C fractions increased (p O experimento teve por objetivos quantificar as frações de proteína e de carboidratos de três cultivares de Cynodon (Poaceae (Tifton 85, Tifton 44 e Coast-cross, colhidos com idades ao corte de 21, 42 e 63 dias no verão. Para a proteína bruta (PB, determinou-se a fração A (nitrogênio não-protéico, fração B1 (proteína solúvel de rápida degradabilidade no rúmen, fração B2 (proteína insolúvel com taxa de degradação intermediária, fração B3 (proteína com taxa de degradação lenta e fração C (proteína indigestível. Para os carboidratos, determinaram-se as frações A+B1 (frações de rápida e média degradação ruminal, fração B2 (fração lentamente degradada no rúmen e a fração C (carboidratos não digeríveis no rúmen. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de parcelas subdivididas (cultivares como parcelas e idade ao corte como subparcelas com três repetições. Para o fator idade ao corte, foi usada regress

  14. Produção Microbiana e Parâmetros Ruminais de Novilhos Alimentados com Dietas Contendo Vários Níveis de Concentrado Microbial Production and Ruminal Parameters in Bullos Fed Diets Containing Different Concentrate Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a eficiência de síntese microbiana e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos. Foram utilizados cinco bovinos da raça Nelore, não-castrados, com 165 kg, fistulados no rúmen, abomaso e íleo. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com cinco períodos de coleta e quatro tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de concentrado na dieta (20, 40, 60 e 80%. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.. As dietas foram isonitrogenadas com 15% de proteína bruta. O indicador microbiano utilizado foi as bases purinas. As análises estatísticas do pH ruminal e das concentrações de N-NH3 foram realizadas em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo na parcela os tratamentos e na subparcela o tempo de coleta. As médias para compostos nitrogenados totais presentes no abomaso e N microbiano foram 68,58 e 60,75 g/dia, respectivamente. A quantidade de carboidratos totais degradados no rúmen (CHODR foi 1,37 kg/dia. Foi observado para a eficiência microbiana valor de 392,4 g MS microbiana/kg CHODR. A composição de bactérias e a eficiência de síntese microbiana não foram influenciadas pelo nível de concentrado das dietas.It was aimed to study the efficiency of microbial synthesis and ruminal parameters in bovine. It were used five 165 kg growing no-castrated Nellore bulls, rumen, abomasum and ileum fistulated.A randomized blocks design with four treatments and five collection periods was used. The treatments consisted of four concentrate levels (20, 40, 60 and 80%. The roughage used was Tifton 85' (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. Bermudagrass hay. The diets were isonitrogen with 15% of crude protein. The microbial marker used was purine basis. The averages for total compound nitrogen in the abomasum and microbial nitrogen were 68.58 and 60.75 g/day, respectively. The amount total rumen carbohydrates degraded (CHODR was 1.37 kg/day. It was observed for microbial efficiency 392.4 g DM

  15. Ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of dry matter and fiber in growing steers for common crabgrass forages sampled on seven dates in northern Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, R K; Coblentz, W K; Coffey, K P; Turner, J E; Scarbrough, D A; Jennings, J A; Richardson, M D

    2005-05-01

    Southern crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) is often viewed as an undesirable weed, largely because it encroaches upon field and forage crops, gardens, and lawns. However, visual observations of livestock grazing mixed-species pastures suggest that cattle seem to prefer crabgrass to many other summer forages. The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between July 11, and August 22, 2001, and then to determine ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of DM and NDF for these crabgrass forages. A secondary objective was to compare these kinetic estimates with those of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) control hays. All forages were evaluated in situ using five (383 +/- 22.7 kg) ruminally cannulated crossbred (Gelbvieh x Angus x Brangus) steers. Whole-plant crabgrass exhibited more rapid (P < or = 0.002) ruminal disappearance rates of DM (overall range = 0.069 to 0.084 h(-1)) than did bermudagrass (0.054 h(-1)) and orchardgrass (0.060 h(-1)) hays, but disappearance rates were slower (P < 0.001) for crabgrass than for alfalfa hay (0.143 h(-1)). Effective ruminal disappearance of DM was greater (P < 0.001) for crabgrass (overall range = 69.3 to 75.4%) than for all the control hays. Similarly, disappearance rates of NDF for crabgrass (overall range = 0.069 to 0.086 h(-1)) were more rapid (P < 0.001) than observed for bermudagrass and orchardgrass hays; however, NDF in alfalfa disappeared at a faster (P < 0.001) rate (0.107 h(-1)) than crabgrass. These results indicate that crabgrass offers greater effective ruminal degradability of DM and NDF than orchardgrass or alfalfa of moderate quality. More importantly, it potentially offers faster and more extensive ruminal disappearance than perennial warm-season grasses typically found throughout the southeastern United States, and it should likely support improved performance by ruminant

  16. Comparison of Drought-Resistance about Three Wild Rocky-Grasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xianjian; WEI Fangqiang; BAI Jingwen; LAI Ting

    2007-01-01

    In this experiment, using the methods of drought-stressin the pot and PEG simulative drought-stress, three native rockyslope grasses Pogonatherum panideum(Lam.) Hack, Erioophorumcomosum nees and Cynodon dactylon cultivated in the pots wereselected as materials to study their drought-resistance by analyzingthe indexes such as the leaf area index, the drying roots accumulation, the holding water ability of leaf, the relative conductance ofleaf, the soluble protein, chlorophyll. At the same time, by comparing with membership function value of each index, the order ofeach grass drought-resistance was decided. The results showedthat the drought-resistance of Erioophorum comosum nees wasstronger than Cynodon dactylon and drought-resistance of Cynodon dactylon was stronger than Pogonatherum panideum (Lam.)Hack. The purpose of the experimental results was to find theoretical foundations for selecting and cultivating native protecting-slope vegetations to adapt to rocky slopes.

  17. Consumo, degradabilidade ruminal e digestibilidade aparente de fenos de gramíneas do gênero Cynodon e rações concentradas utilizando indicadores internos Nutritional value of Cynodon grass hay. Intake, degradability and apparent digestibility by means of internal markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN dos fenos de capins-coastcross e Tifton 85 e de rações contendo quatro níveis de concentrado para animais na fase de recria. A produção fecal foi estimada usando-se as fibras em detergente neutro (FDNi e em detergente ácido (FDAi indigestíveis como indicadores internos, obtidos após 144 horas de incubação ruminal. Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos com oito meses de idade e 32 animais não-castrados na fase de recria, todos da raça Nelore, para as avaliações de consumo e digestibilidade. Utilizaram-se três bovinos fistulados no rúmen para estudar a degradação da MS, PB e FDN dos fenos. Os tempos de incubação foram 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 e 144 horas. Os consumos dos nutrientes do feno de capim-coastcross foram menores que os observados para o capim-Tifton 85. As determinações das digestibilidades do feno de capim-coastcross não diferiram entre indicadores, entretanto as do feno de capim-Tifton 85 foram maiores, quando se utilizou como indicador a FDAi. Na fase de recria, todos os coeficientes de digestibilidade foram menores, quando se utilizou a FDNi como indicador. Os fenos apresentaram taxas de degradação para MS, PB e FDN relativamente próximas. Concluiu-se que a FDAi estimou melhor a digestibilidade dos nutrientes.It was aimed to evaluate intake, apparent digestibility and in situ degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of coastcross and Tifton 85' bermudagrass hays, and of diets with four concentrate levels for growing animals. The fecal production was estimated by means of internal markers, indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDFi and acid detergent fiber (ADFi, obtained after 144 hours of ruminal incubation. It were used eight months old bovines and 32 non castrated animals in the growing phase

  18. Desempenho agronômico de capim tifton 85 (cynodon spp cultivado em sistemas alagados construídos utilizados no tratamento de água residuária de laticínios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in order to study the performance of the tifton 85 (Cynodon spp grass cultivated in wetlands (SACs and submitted to different organic load application rates (TCOs of milk processing wastewater (ARL, in the climatic conditions of Viçosa - MG. The experimental structure was constituted by five SACs with horizontal subsuperficial flow, using tanks of 0.40 x 0.75 x 3.00 m (depth, width and length filled with 0.33 m depth of fine stones. The ARL was applied in average flow of 60 L.day-1, hydraulic time residence of 4.8 days and TCOs of 66, 130, 190, 320 and 570 kg.ha-1.day-1 of DBO. The tifton 85 grass adapted well to SACs, presenting good rooting, high yield and capacity of nutrients (N, P and K and sodium removal of the ARL, whose values were, respectively, between 216 - 544, 24 - 61, 115 - 204 and 4.3 – 10.9 kg.ha-1.

  19. PENDUGAAN DAYA TAMPUNG RUSA LIAR (Cervus timorensis DI PADANG RUMPUT MAR TAMAN NASIONAL WASUR MERAUKE

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    Bambang Tjahyono Hariadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to know carrying capacity of rusa deer (Cervus timorensisi at Mar, Wasur National Park Merauke district. The data collected were spesies of grasses, production each species and carrying capacity. The results showed species of grasses were Cynadon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Phragmites karka. Mar was dominated by Cynadon dactylon. The production of Cynodon dactylon was 2.183 kg/ha. The carryng capacity of rusa deer was 0.5 ha/head/year.

  20. Performance and economic analyses of year-round forage systems for forage-fed beef production in the Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, G; Rodriguez, J; Gillespie, J; Bhandari, B; Wang, J J; McMillin, K W

    2014-12-01

    On a global scale, most beef is produced from grazing pastures or rangelands. Certain limitations exist, however, such as not having adequate animal rates of gain for marbling and availability of adequate forage nutritional value and quantity for constant animal weight gains. In the last 20 yr, there has been an increased interest in forage-fed beef for multiple reasons (health related, environmental concerns, and welfare issues). Starting on June 5, 13, 14, and 8 in 4 consecutive yr, 54 steers (initial BW=259±5.6 kg; average of 9 mo of age) were randomly allotted to 3 yr-round forage systems. Each system occupied 6 ha/replicate and had the same stocking rate. System 1 had annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) for winter grazing and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) for summer grazing; while Systems 2 and 3 added rye and a clover mix to the ryegrass and diversified the use of pastures in the fall (dallisgrass [Paspalum dilatatum] and clovers [Trifolium spp.]). System 3 added the use of annual summer forages. During their respective growing season for each forage or forage mix, mass and height did not limit animal performance; however, there was a sampling date effect (P0.05) were detected between systems in ADG year round, during the winter season, or carcass characteristics. Return over total direct costs and total specified expenses were greater for Systems 1 and 2, while System 3 was the lowest. Hay making and bale sales played a major role in explaining the economic results of this study. Where possible, year-round forage systems are a viable alternative for forage-fed beef production; however, the low gains during summer and forage availability during the transition period when hay is necessary deserve further research to find alternatives to improve productivity during those times of the year.

  1. Subsurface application of poultry litter and its influence on nutrient losses in runoff water from permanent pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D B; Way, T R; Torbert, H A

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pressure to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields has increased in recent years. To abate this nutrient loss to the environment, better management practices and new technologies need to be developed. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate if subsurface banding poultry litter (PL) would reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss in surface water runoff using a four-row prototype implement. Rainfall simulations were conducted to create a 40-min runoff event in an established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) pasture on soil types common to the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. The Coastal Plain soil type was a Marvyn loamy sand (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludults) and the Piedmont soil type was a Hard Labor loamy sand (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Oxyaquic Kanhapludults). Treatments consisted of surface- and subsurface-applied PL at a rate of 9 Mg ha(-1), surface broadcast-applied commercial fertilizer (CF; urea and triple superphosphate blend) at the equivalent N (330 kg N ha(-1)) and P (315 kg N ha(-1)) content of PL, and a nonfertilized control. The greatest loss for inorganic N, total N, dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total P occurred with the surface broadcast treatments, with CF contributing to the greatest loss. Nutrient losses from the subsurface banded treatment reduced N and P in surface water runoff to levels of the control. Subsurface banding of PL reduced concentrations of inorganic N 91%, total N 90%, DRP 86%, and total P 86% in runoff water compared with surface broadcasted PL. These results show that subsurface band-applied PL can greatly reduce the impact of N and P loss to the environment compared with conventional surface-applied PL and CF practices. PMID:21520749

  2. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  3. Forage and tree seedling growth in a soil with an encased swine sludge layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Chad J; Will, Rodney; Fultz, Lisa; Hamilton, Doug

    2013-10-15

    The closure of swine farms requires decommissioning of lagoons that contain large amounts of swine solids (sludge). Sludge is typically transported and land applied to soils. However, in some cases this process could be economically prohibitive and/or unpractical. An alternative idea is to encase sludge with lagoon soil berms after removing overlying effluent, followed by establishment of forages or short-rotation woody crops on the encased sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate growth potential for several forages and tree species into a pure layer of swine sludge. Alfalfa (Meticago sativa), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), and sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) were established in 40 cm deep pots consisting of a lagoon berm soil overlaying a sludge layer for 12 w followed by analysis of aboveground and belowground biomass production. "New" and "old" sludge was collected from an active 10 year old lagoon and decommissioned 50 year old lagoon, respectively. A control (soil only) was used. Encased sludge treatments increased forage biomass production. Sycamore and green ash were sensitive to new sludge but not old sludge as these species had less biomass production in new sludge than control and showed tissue trace nutrient deficiencies. While both sludge materials contained adequate nutrients, the new sludge had a salt concentration 1.8 times higher than old sludge as indicated by electrical conductivity (12.4 mS). Thus, the forage crops and black locust were able to thrive in new sludge due to their salt tolerance. PMID:23835521

  4. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Stacey A; Whitworth, Whitney A; Montgomery, T Gregory; Beck, Paul A

    2012-07-24

    In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow) that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.)/bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture): 1) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG), 2) wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR), or 3) wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L.) and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW). All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients). The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27) among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17) among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06) to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02) for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  5. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain.

  6. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  7. Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dhandapani, R.; Sabna, B.

    2008-01-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discu...

  8. Digestive utilization of ozone-exposed forage by rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture of common Southern Piedmont (USA) grassland species (Lolium arundinacea, Paspalum dilatatum, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens) was exposed to ozone [ambient (non-filtered; NF) and twice-ambient (2X) concentrations] and fed to individually caged New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus c...

  9. Efeito do nível de caroço de algodão sobre a digestibilidade da fibra dietética do feno de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) em ovinos Effect of level of whole cottonseed on digestibility of dietary fiber in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    M.C.P. Rogério; I. Borges; D.A.B. Teixeira; N.M. Rodriguez; L.C. Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Vinte e cinco ovinos machos castrados foram submetidos a um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso para avaliar o efeito do nível de caroço de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum) a uma dieta básica de feno de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.). Foram estudados os consumos da matéria seca (MS), matéria orgânica (MO), proteína bruta (PB) e extrato etéreo (EE) por unidade de tamanho metabólico e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da fibra detergente neutro, fibra detergente ácido, hemicelulose e celulose. O experime...

  10. Optimizing fertilisation for bermudagrass soilless sod using spent mushroom compost as the main substrate over plastic%蘑菇渣基质生产狗牙根无土草皮配方施肥优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付玲; 王彩云; 尹少华

    2013-01-01

    A ternary quadratic rotational combinational design was used to determine the effects of nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertiliser on bermudagrass soilless sod over plastic.The spent mushroom compost was used as the main substrate and coal cinder,sludge and sand as the assistant mixtures.Sod performance,such as establishment time,sod formation time,root activity,sod weight,aboveground and underground biomass,chlorophyll content and density,and integrated turf quality of different fertiliser mixture,were analysed.Sod weight was stable but there were significant differences in the other parameters.All three factors influenced integrated turf quality,but P was the most important.The interactions among the three factors were significant.The regression model between integrated turf quality and three ingredients was established with the method of fuzzy subordinate function analysis,and the optimal mixture of fertilisers was obtained using simulations,one of which was:3.403 5-3.746 8 g/m2 N,8.673 7-9.450 7 g/m2 P2O5 and 4.576 9-4.697 7 g/m2 K2O.%以塑料薄膜为阻隔材料,以蘑菇渣为主要基质,煤渣、污泥和沙子为配材,采用三元二次旋转组合试验设计,对不同氮磷钾施量配方的狗牙根无土草皮成坪时间、成卷时间、根系活力、地上生物量、地下生物量、草皮重、叶绿素含量和密度等性状进行了综合品质评定,建立了草皮综合品质与氮磷钾三因子之间显著相关的回归模型.结果表明,除草皮重外,其他坪用性状差异显著.氮磷钾三因子对综合品质都有影响,其中磷肥影响最大,且三因子互作显著.通过模拟寻优得到氮磷钾优化配方方案为N:10.646 8~10.804 0 g/m2;P2O5:27.157 8~27.215 2g/m2;K2O:13.813 9~14.010 0 g/m2.

  11. Influência da espécie vegetal cultivada nas condições redox de sistemas alagados construídos Influence of plant species cultivated on redox potential in constructed wetland systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Em vista da escassez de informações sobre a influência de diferentes macrófitas nas condições ambientais de Sistemas Alagados Construídos (SACs, monitorou-se o potencial redox (Eh da água residuária da suinocultura (ARS em tratamento, em 5 SACs, com dimensões de 24,0 m x 1,1 m x 0,70 m. A ARS, previamente tratada em filtros, foi aplicada numa vazão de 0,8 m³ d-1, com tempo de residência aproximado de 4,8 d. Nos SAC1, SAC2 e SAC3 foram plantados, respectivamente, taboa (Typha latifolia L., alternanthera (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb e capim tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers.; no SAC4 foi plantado, no primeiro terço do tanque, alternanthera, no segundo terço, taboa e no terceiro terço, capim tifton-85. No SAC5, nada foi plantado. Coletaram-se amostras do afluente luente dos filtros e nos pontos de coleta posicionados a 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 m (saída de cada SAC. Os valores de Eh nos afluentes dos SACs variaram entre -18 e -152 mV, entretanto, houve predomínio de condições anóxicas/aeróbias, geralmente a partir de 4 m nos sistemas. Os efluentes dos SACs apresentaram potencial redox que variou de 53 a 226 mV. Houve tendência de mais rápida oxigenação das águas residuárias no SAC1, cultivado com a taboa e, a partir de 12 m de percurso, a condição redox do meio foi semelhante em todos os SACs.Taking account to the scarcity of information about the influence of different macrophytes in environmental conditions of constructed wetlands (CWs, the redox potential (Eh of swine wastewater (SW was monitored under treatment in 5 CWs beds (24.0 x 1.0 x 0.7 m. After previous treatment in filters, SW was treated in CWs under a flow rate of 0.8 m³ d-1 with residence time of approximately 4.8 d. In CW#1, CW#2 and CW#3, were planted, respectively, cattail (Typha latifolia L., alternanthera (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb and Tifton-85 bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.. In CW#4 (multivegetated was planted

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Raj Narayan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Achyranthes aspera, Alternanthera pungens, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara and Tagetes patula was investigated against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441 , Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160 and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (MTCC 4673, using agar diffusion technique. Results showed that the only ethanolic extracts of 4 plants species except Alternanthera pungens were effective against all the test microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the extracts of ethanol were found to be 25 to 125 mg/ml, while the water based extracts showed no inhibition. The results of the study provide scientific basis for the use of the plant extract in the treatment of wounds and skin diseases. Therefore it is concluded that the active principles possessing antibacterial activity may be extracted from the leaves of Achyranthes aspera, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara and Tagetes patula by ethanol.

  13. Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, R; Sabna, B

    2008-04-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

  14. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Rojas-Contreras, A.; Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-07-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  15. In situ caecal degradation of roughages in horses Degradação cecal in situ de alimentos volumosos em equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Pimentel Silva; Fernando Queiroz de Almeida; Eliane da Silva Morgado; Liziana Maria Rodrigues; Tiago Marques dos Santos; Henrique Torres Ventura

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the in situ degradation of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein (CP) in roughages by the in situ caecal digestion technique in horses. The roughages evaluated were: Lucerne hay (Medicago sativa), peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo), desmodio(Desmodium ovalifolium), stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), lime-yellow pea (Macrotyloma axillare) and coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. co...

  16. Digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alimentos volumosos determinada pela técnica dos sacos móveis em eqüinos Nutrient digestibility of forage feed determined using mobile bag technique in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Pimentel Silva; Fernando Queiroz de Almeida; Eliane da Silva Morgado; Almira Biazon França; Henrique Torres Ventura; Liziana Maria Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Objetivou-se estimar a digestibilidade de nutrientes de forrageiras em eqüinos utilizando-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis. Foram avaliados alfafa (Medicago sativa), amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi), desmódio (Desmodium ovalifolium), estilosantes (Stylosanthes guianensis), guandu (Cajanus cajan), macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare) e capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross). O delineamento foi em blocos inteiramente casualizados com sete alimentos e cinco blocos (animais). ...

  17. Effects of increasing dietary fiber on digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics: I. growing and finishing gilts/
    Efeitos do incremento de fibra dietética sobre a digestibilidade, desempenho e características de carcaça: I. suínos em crescimento e terminação

    OpenAIRE

    César Gonçalves de Lima; Paulo José do Amaral Sobral; Antonio Cesar Alves Fagundes; Romualdo Shigueo Fukushima; Luiz Waldemar de Oliveira Souza; Liliana Lotufo Oetting; Carlos Eduardo Utiyama; Carlos Grossklaus; Soraia Marques Putrino; Jacinta Diva Ferrugem Gomes

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effects of fibrous ration on parameters of nutrient digestibility, animal performance and carcass characteristics, using 24 crossbred gilts during growing and finishing phases in a completely randomized design experiment. The animals were fed ad libitum with isonutrients rations containing increments of 0 or 8% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), obtained through the inclusion of 0 or 10% coast cross grass hay (Cynodon dactylon). In the growing phase, treatments wer...

  18. Relationship between luminous flux intercepted at different times in leaf area index of different forages
    Relação entre o fluxo luminoso interceptado em diferentes épocas no índice de área foliar de diferentes forrageiras

    OpenAIRE

    Laurêncio Caetano da Silva Júnior; Bernardo Melo Montes Nogueira Borges; Fábio Teixeira Lucas; Wilson Jesus da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the leaf area index of six different grasses. The experiment was installed at the Instituto Federal de Tecnologia e Educação of Uberaba, using a randomized block design with split plots in time. The plots were sown: Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Panicum maximum cv. Mombasa, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes, Cynodon dactylon hb. Tifton and the plots, ten seasons of evaluation in 10 x 6 factorial a...

  19. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović Branko I.; Meseldžija Maja U.

    2006-01-01

    Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L) Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., R...

  20. Effect of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal in goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, B R; Kommuru, D S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Shakya, K P; Miller, J E

    2011-05-31

    Effect of sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] leaf meal feeding was evaluated in two experiments in indoor reared goats with experimental infection of Haemonchus contortus larvae. In the first experiment, ten 8-10 month old male Spanish and Alpine cross kids pair matched for body weight and age were fed SL or bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay one week before infection and were infected with 5000 H. contortus L(3). The animals were maintained on the same diet for the remaining period and were slaughtered 28 days post-infection (DPI) to determine the establishment of incoming infective larvae. Goats fed SL had lower establishment (P<0.05) of H. contortus larvae than that of the control goats fed BG hay. In the second experiment, twenty-five 8-10 months old male Alpine cross, Saanen, Nubian×Saanen and Spanish kids reared in confinement on BG were experimentally infected with 5000 H. contortus L(3). On 35 DPI, the animals were allocated to two groups after blocking by fecal egg count (FEC), and one group was fed SL leaf meal (n=13), and another control group remained on BG (n=12). Four goats/group were slaughtered successively on days 7, 14, and 28 days post SL feeding, except on day 7, when five SL fed goats were slaughtered. Fecal egg counts and blood packed cell volume (PCV) were measured at weekly intervals and worm count, female worm fecundity, worm length and mucosal eosinophils, mast cells and globule leucocytes were measured after slaughter. Goats fed SL had a lower FEC (P<0.05) one week after feeding, as compared to those fed on BG, and the values remained at low level thereafter. Similarly, PCV was also significantly affected by feeding (P<0.01), and feeding and time interaction (P<0.05). However, worm burden, female worm fecundity, parasite length, and mucosal inflammatory cell count were similar between the groups. Feeding SL reduced the establishment of infective larvae and FEC of H. contortus in experimental

  1. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D A; Terrill, T H; Kouakou, B; Shaik, S A; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Kannan, G; Burke, J M

    2008-09-01

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay. PMID:18469053

  2. Efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats: dose titration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, T H; Dykes, G S; Shaik, S A; Miller, J E; Kouakou, B; Kannan, G; Burke, J M; Mosjidis, J A

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) parasitism is the greatest threat to economic sheep and goat production in the southern USA, and there is widespread prevalence of GIN resistance to broad-spectrum anthelmintics in this region. A natural alternative for controlling GIN in small ruminants is feeding hay of sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours., G. Don)], a perennial warm-season legume high in condensed tannins. To determine the level of SL needed to reduce GIN infection, a confinement study was completed with 32 Spanish/Boer/Kiko cross yearling bucks offered one of four diets with 75% hay and 25% concentrate (n=8, 2 pens/treatment, 4 goats/pen). The hay portion of each diet consisted of a combination of ground SL (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet) and bermudagrass [BG, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the diet]. The bucks were allowed to acquire a natural GIN infection on pasture prior to moving to the pens. After a 3-week adjustment period in the pens, the goats were stratified by fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), randomly assigned to treatments and pens, and then fed the treatment diets for six weeks. During the experimental period, fecal and blood samples were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and PCV, respectively. Adult worms from abomasum and small intestines were collected for counting and identification of species at slaughter. Goats fed SL hay at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet had 45.3% (P=0.2048), 66.3% (P=0.0134), and 74.5% (P=0.0077) lower FEC than control animals (75% BG hay) after 21 days. The 50% and 75% SL goats had 84.6% (P=0.0625) and 91.9% (P=0.0340) lower FEC than controls by day 42. The 75% SL-fed goats tended to have higher (P=0.0624) PCV and had fewer (P=0.035) abomasal worms than control animals, while PCV and adult worm numbers of the 50% and 25% SL goats were not different from controls. The optimum level of SL hay in the diet for reducing worm numbers of small

  3. Effects of forage type, body condition and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine cytochrome P450 regulatory region on cow productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M A; Murphy, K Y; Reiter, S T; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Looper, M L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2013-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the coding sequence of cytochrome p450 (CYP3A28) have been associated with milk yield and composition, and calving traits in cows. In this study, we aimed to determine whether (i) the CYP3A28 regulatory region was polymorphic and (ii) SNP genotype, forage type, body condition and their interactions affect cow productivity. Primers for CYP3A28 promoter were designed to amplify a 483-bp segment by PCR. Amplicon sequences revealed seven SNP (T-318C, T-113A, C-189T, T-78G, A6G, G17A and T21C) in Brahman (38 cows), Brahman x Angus reciprocal crosses (47 cows) and crossbreds (98 cows). Angus cows (n = 41) appeared to be fixed at those SNP locations. Genotype and forage {endophyte-infected tall fescue [KY+; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire] vs. bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]} effects on lifetime (8-years) calving rate, and calf weaning weights and heights were determined in Herd 1 (126 cows); genotype and BC (low vs. moderate) effects on calving date and calving percent were determined in Herd 2 (98 cows). Four SNP (T-318C, T-113A, A06G and T21C) appeared to be related to cattle productivity, CC cows at T-318C having a lower (p KY+ and were TT at T-318C produced calves that tended (p < 0.07) to weigh less than their contemporaries. Moreover, calves of TT cows were shorter (p < 0.05) at weaning than calves of CC or TC cows. In Herd 2, moderate-BC cows that were TT or AA at T-318C, T-113A, T-78G, A6G and T21C had greater (p < 0.05) calving rates (74-80%) than heterozygous cows (46-60%), and low-BC cows that were AA at G17A calved at least 6 days earlier (p < 0.05) than heterozygous cows. Our findings suggest that SNP in the CYP3A28 regulatory region of Brahman-influenced cows are associated with cattle productivity.

  4. Consumo, digestibilidade e desempenho de novilhos alimentados com rações à base de feno de capim-tifton 85, em diferentes idades de rebrota Intake, digestibility and performance of steers fed diets containing tifton-85 bermudagrass hays at different regrowth ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josvaldo Rodrigues Ataíde Júnior

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CT e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar em bovinos Nelore, recebendo rações contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 com 35, 42 e 56 dias de rebrota. Foram utilizados 18 novilhos, não-castrados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 345 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Todas as rações continham 60% de volumoso e 40% de mistura concentrada constituída por fubá de milho e minerais, na base da matéria seca. O experimento teve duração de 100 dias, 16 dias de adaptação e três períodos de 28 dias para a avaliação do desempenho. O avanço da idade de rebrota do capim-tifton 85 produziu comportamento linear decrescente para consumos de MS, PB e EE, enquanto os consumos de CT e FDN não foram afetados pela idade de rebrota. O ganho médio diário de peso (1,23 kg e a conversão alimentar (6,35 não foram influenciados pela idade de rebrota. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS (59,6, PB (48,0, EE (53,2, CT (63,6 e FDN (41,5 também não foram influenciados pela idade de rebrota do feno de capim-tifton 85. Embora as dietas utilizadas sejam eqüivalentes nutricionalmente, recomenda-se a idade de corte de 42 dias de rebrota.Intake and apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (TC and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, average daily weight gain and feed: gain of diets containing Tifton 85 bermudagrass hays with 35, 42 and 56 days of regrowth were evaluated with Nellore steers. Eighteen animals averaging 345 kg were allotted in a randomized complete blocks design with six replicates. All diets contained 60% forage and 40% of a concentrate mix based on ground corn and minerals, in dry matter basis. The experiment lasted 100 days, in which 16 were used for the animal

  5. Heterogeneity of Soil and Vegetation in the Urban Habitats of New Industrial Cities in the Desert Landscape of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier Abd EL-GHANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation and soil supporting the habitats in 4 new industrial cities were assessed. Five main habitats were distinguished from inner city toward outskirts: lawns, home gardens, public gardens, waste lands and desert outskirts. After application of Twinspan, 26 vegetation groups were identified in the 5 recognized habitats, demonstrating that some groups are chatracteristic of a certain city, e.g. Asphodelus aestivus - Deverra tortuosa - Thymelaea hirsuta group was confined to the desert habitat of Burg El-Arab city; Thymelaea hirsuta - Linaria albifrons and Atriplex halimus - Atriplex lindleyi subsp. inflata - Suaeda vermiculata - Typha domingensis groups were found in the waste lands of Burg El-Arab city; Conyza bonariensis - Cynodon dactylon - Sonchus oleraceus group in the home garden habitat of 10th Ranadan city; Cynodon dactylon group in the lawns of Burg El-Arab city; Bassia indica - Plantago major group in the public gardens of Burg El-Arab city; Oxalis corniculata - Plantago lagopus group in the public gardens of 10th Ramadan city; Sonchus oleraceus - Cynodon dactylon and Dactyloctenium aegyptium - Leptochloa fusca - Phragmites australis groups in the public gardens of 6th October city. Silt, clay, organic matter, carbonates and carbon contents showed significant diffrences among the 5 habitats.

  6. Efeito do nível de caroço de algodão sobre a digestibilidade da fibra dietética do feno de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. em ovinos Effect of level of whole cottonseed on digestibility of dietary fiber in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.P. Rogério

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco ovinos machos castrados foram submetidos a um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso para avaliar o efeito do nível de caroço de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum a uma dieta básica de feno de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.. Foram estudados os consumos da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB e extrato etéreo (EE por unidade de tamanho metabólico e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da fibra detergente neutro, fibra detergente ácido, hemicelulose e celulose. O experimento foi constituído por cinco dietas e cinco ovinos por tratamento (zero, 12, 24, 35 e 45% de inclusão de caroço de algodão. Não houve diferenças entre dietas nos consumos de MS e de MO. Os consumos da PB e do EE aumentaram linearmente com os níveis de inclusão de caroço de algodão. A adição do caroço integral de algodão resultou em decréscimo linear dos coeficientes de digestibilidade das frações fibrosas, com exceção da hemicelulose. A utilização do caroço de algodão em dietas para ovinos deve ser limitada a 12 e 24% do total das rações em razão do maior consumo de EE e PB e, ao mesmo tempo, ao menor dano à digestibilidade das frações fibrosas.The study aimed to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of whole cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum on intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE and apparent digestibility (% of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose of experimental diets based on Tifton 85's hay (Cynodon spp.. Twenty five sheep were randomly allotted to five treatments in a completely randomized design with five replicates. The treatments were formulated to contain zero; 12; 24; 35 and 45% of whole cottonseed. Higher crude protein and ether extract intakes were observed for 45% whole cottonseed diets, but no significant differences were observed for dry matter and organic matter intakes. Digestibility coefficients of NDF

  7. Alteração química de solo cultivado com capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. e fertirrigado com percolado de resíduo sólido urbano - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.6124

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    Denise de Freitas Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características químicas de um solo cultivado com capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. após aplicação de diferentes taxas de percolado de resíduo sólido urbano (RSU. Empregou-se um reservatório de PVC, com capacidade de 5.000 L, preenchido com RSU novo, para produzir o percolado utilizado na pesquisa. O percolado foi aplicado a taxas de 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 kg ha-1 dia-1 de DBO. Mediram-se o pH, o conteúdo de matéria orgânica (MO, N-total, NO3-, NH4+, P disponível e as concentrações trocáveis de K, Ca, Mg, Mn. Determinou-se por cálculo a capacidade de troca catiônica (CTC do solo. Verificou-se que a aplicação do percolado de RSU proporcionou aumento na concentração de N-total, K, P, NO3- e Mn do solo. A utilização de percolado de RSU a taxas inferiores a 750 kg ha-1 dia-1 de DBO não causou elevação das concentrações dos contaminantes a níveis críticos, durante o período experimental e, portanto, podem ser utilizadas. Entretanto, é recomendável um monitoramento de longo prazo das características químicas do solo, bem como das águas subterrâneas para que se avaliem os riscos de contaminação ambiental se a disposição for feita em área externa ao aterro sanitário.

  8. Inclusão de silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas em lactação, mantidas em pasto de Cynodon: consumo e digestibilidade = Inclusion levels of superior third of cassava foliage silage for dairy cows in tropical graze: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Modesto

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a inclusão (0%, 10%, 20% e 30% da silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (STSRM para vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas à pasto, analisando o consumo e a digestibilidade. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4x4, e para o fator níveis de inclusão, regressão. Foram analisados: consumo de matéria orgânica (CMO, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, proteína bruta (PB, carboidratos totais (CCT, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF; digestibilidade aparente da matéria orgânica (DMO, proteína bruta (DPB, fibra em detergente neutro (DFDN, carboidratos totais (DCT e carboidratos não fibrosos (DCNF. Houve efeito crescente (pThe aim of the experiment was to evaluate the intake and digestibility of Holsteins dairy cow fed with Cynodon graze and inclusion levels (0, 10, 20 e 30% of superior third of cassava foliage silage (STCFS. Eight lactating dairy cow were used in a square design 4x4 and to inclusion levels, regression was used. Thefollowing aspects were analyzed: organic matter intake (OMI, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP, total carbohydrate (TC, nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC; apparent digestibility of organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, total carbohydrate (ADTC, nonfiber carbohydrate (ADNFC. The inclusion levels of STCFS had an increasing effect (P<0.05 to total OMI, STCFS + concentrate DOI, STCFS + concentrate NDF, total CP, total TC, total NFC in kg/day and total OMI and total % live weight. The ADCP had decreasing effect (P<0.05 with the increase of inclusion levels ofSTCFS.

  9. Eficiência microbiana, fluxo de compostos nitrogenados no abomaso, amônia e pH ruminais, em bovinos recebendo dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 de diferentes idades de rebrota Microbial efficiency, abomasal nitrogen compounds flow, ruminal ammonia and ruminal pH in cattle fed diets containing tifton 85 bermudagrass hays at different regrowth ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Guimarães Ribeiro

    2001-04-01

    cattle fed diets containing Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay with different regrowth ages were evaluated. Four rumen and abomasum fistulated zebu cattle with average 340 kg LW were allotted in a 4x4 Latin square. All diets contained 60:40 forage to concentrate ratio. The forage was consisted in Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay with 28, 35, 42 and 56 days of age, and the concentrate contained corn meal and mineral mix. The amount of microorganisms was determined using purines as a marker. The pH and N-ammonia were determined in the ruminal fluid before and 2, 4 and 6 hours after feeding. The passage rate was determined by unicompartimental model using the chromic oxide as a marker. The microbial efficiency synthesis was not affected by the age of the hay in the diet, presenting mean values of 31.32 g Nbact/kg RDOM, 30.74 g Nbact/kg RDCHO, 33.74 g DMbact/kg RDCHO and 12.5 g CPbact/100 g TDN. The maximum estimates of total nitrogen compound flows, ammonia and non ammonia were 119.0, 9.76 and 109.6 g/day, with the inclusion of hay with 39.7; 37.6 and 39.9 days of regrowth age, respectively and the bacterial nitrogen compounds flow of 80.54 an average. Nitrogen balance, passage rate, ruminal ammonia concentration and ruminal pH also were not affected by the age of the hay, with values of 30.67 g/day, 3.2%/h, 9.7 mg/100mL (maximum at 1.38h and 6.08 (minimum at 6.64 h, respectively.

  10. Teores de proteína bruta para bovinos alimentados com feno de capim-tifton 85: parâmetros ruminais, eficiência de síntese microbiana e degradabilidade in situ Effects of crude protein levels on microbial efficiency and in situ degradability in steers fed Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay supplemented with different protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilane Aparecida da Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da deficiência de PB na dieta sobre a eficiência de síntese microbiana e a degradabilidade in situ da MS e FDN em novilhos mestiços. Os tratamentos consistiram de dietas compostas de feno de tifton 85 (FN suplementadas com uréia (FNUR, farelo de soja (FNFS e farelo de glúten de milho- 60 (FNGL. Foram utilizados oito novilhos canulados no rúmen e no duodeno, distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4 x 4. O pH e a concentração de nitrogênio não-amoniacal (N-NH3 foram mensurados no fluido ruminal antes e 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas após o fornecimento da ração, utilizando-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAi como indicador do fluxo duodenal. A eficiência microbiana foi determinada por meio das bases purinas. Em todas as dietas, o pH e a concentração de N-NH3 foram adequados para o crescimento dos microrganismos ruminais. Não houve efeito da deficiência de PB na dieta sobre a ingestão de MS, a eficiência de síntese microbiana e a cinética de degradação da MS e FDN do feno de tifton 85. O teor de PB das dietas não alterou o crescimento microbiano, a eficiência de síntese microbiana e a cinética de degradação ruminal.Eight crossbred steers fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were randomly assigned to two replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to evaluate the effects of crude protein (CP levels on microbial protein synthesis efficiency and in situ degradability of nutrients. Animals received a control diet containing Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay or the control diet supplemented with urea, soybean meal or corn gluten meal-60. Ruminal pH and concentration of ruminal ammonia (NH3-N were determined in the ruminal fluid at 0 (pre-feeding, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after feeding. Indigestible acid detergent fiber was used as the internal marker for measuring duodenal flow of nutrients while total purines were used as the direct microbial marker to measure microbial protein synthesis and microbial efficiency

  11. Bioenergy Crop Breeding and Production Research in the Southeast, Final Report for 1996 to 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.H.

    2003-05-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native grass species to much of the US. It has shown great potential for use in production of fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass (Lynd et al., 1991). Work in Alabama demonstrated very high dry matter yields can be achieved with switchgrass (Maposse et al. 1995) in the southeastern US. Therefore, this region is thought to be an excellent choice for development of a switchgrass cropping system where farmers can produce the grass for either biomass or forage. Another report has shown success with selection and breeding to develop high yielding germplasm from adapted cultivars and ecotypes of switchgrass (Moser and Vogel 1995). In the mid 1990s, however, there was little plant breeding effort for switchgrass with a potential for developing a cultivar for the southeast region. The main goal of the project was to develop adaptive, high-yielding switchgrass cultivars for use in cropping systems for bioenergy production in the southeastern US. A secondary objective was to assess the potential of alternate herbaceous species such as bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge.), and napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) that may compete with switchgrass for herbaceous bioenergy production in the southeast. During the conduct of the project, another goal of developing molecular markers useful for genetic mapping was added. The ''lowland'' cultivars, Alamo and Kanlow, were found to be the highest yielding switchgrass cultivars. Although most summers during the project period were hot and dry, their annual dry matter yield continue to outperform the best ''upland'' cultivars such as Cave-in-Rock, Shawnee, NE Late, and Trailblazer. The use of a breeding procedure based on the ''honeycomb design'' and multi-location progeny testing, coupled with the solid heritability and genetic gain estimates for dry matter yield in lowland type switchgrass

  12. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Some Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants against Human Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Bishnu P. Marasini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide increase of multidrug resistance in both community- and health-care associated bacterial infections has impaired the current antimicrobial therapy, warranting the search for other alternatives. We aimed to find the in vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of 16 different traditionally used medicinal plants of Nepal against 13 clinical and 2 reference bacterial species using microbroth dilution method. The evaluated plants species were found to exert a range of in vitro growth inhibitory action against the tested bacterial species, and Cynodon dactylon was found to exhibit moderate inhibitory action against 13 bacterial species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi, and S. typhimurium. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of tested ethanolic extracts were found from 31 to >25,000 μg/mL. Notably, ethanolic extracts of Cinnamomum camphora, Curculigo orchioides, and Curcuma longa exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes with a MIC of 49, 49, and 195 μg/mL, respectively; whereas chloroform fraction of Cynodon dactylon exhibited best antibacterial activity against S. aureus with a MIC of 31 μg/mL. Among all, C. dactylon, C. camphora, C. orchioides, and C. longa plant extracts displayed a potential antibacterial activity of MIC < 100 μg/mL.

  13. Analyzed Comparisons of Micro-Environmental Factors Optimal for Growth of Bermudagrass and the Mosses in Minhang District of Shanghai%上海闵行地区狗牙根草坪草与藓类植物生长小环境因子的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春霞; 吴子安; 何亚丽

    2015-01-01

    研究狗牙根(Cynodon)草坪中藓类植物与狗牙根草坪草生长的小环境因子的差异,有利于狗牙根草坪中藓类植物的防治.于2013年至2014年采用配对取样法,分析了着生狗牙根草坪草的土壤(简称“狗牙根土壤”)和着生藓类植物的土壤(简称“藓类土壤”)中的相对含水量、电导率、pH值以及土壤和狗牙根及藓类植物体中的23种无机元素的相对含量和9种环境污染元素(7种重金属元素、Al和As)的绝对含量.分析结果表明,大雨后6d内藓类土壤的相对含水量(24.7%)均高于狗牙根土壤(23.5%);藓类土壤的pH值(7.93)显著低于狗牙根土壤(8.03);2类土壤的提取液的电导率(EC)没有显著差异.9种环境污染元素的绝对含量以藓类土壤(6.7~10 608.5mgkg)和藓类植物(2.3~1 906.6mg/kg)中的Al离子和Fe、Zn、Cr、Cu及Ni重金属离子分别显著高于狗牙根土壤(1.4~2 730.9mg/kg)和狗牙根植物(0.16~80.5 mg/kg);藓类植物体内的Pb(3.4 mg/kg)含量显著高于狗牙根草坪草(0.2mg/kg),而在2类土壤中含量几乎为零;狗牙根草坪草中检测到Cl、Br元素相对含量为分别8.5%和0.2%,但在藓类植物体和2类土壤中均未检测到;藓类植物体中检测到Ti、Sr、Cu、Cr、Ni、Zr元素,而狗牙根草坪草中未含有这6种元素.由结果推测,在碱性土壤上具有相对较高的含水量、较低的pH值、相对较高的重金属和Al等环境污染元素含量和极低的Br、Cl元素含量,有利于藓类植物的滋生和生长.通过改善草坪坪床结构,使之有利于排水,可以削弱藓类植物的长势.而要根治狗牙根草坪上的藓类植物还需要根据化学元素的分析结果,进一步进行化学防治技术的研究.

  14. Inclusão de silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas em lactação, mantidas em pasto de Cynodon: consumo e digestibilidade - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.637 Inclusion levels of superior third of cassava foliage silage for dairy cows in tropical graze: intake and digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.637

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristina da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a inclusão (0%, 10%, 20% e 30% da silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (STSRM para vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas à pasto, analisando o consumo e a digestibilidade. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4x4, e para o fator níveis de inclusão, regressão. Foram analisados: consumo de matéria orgânica (CMO, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, proteína bruta (PB, carboidratos totais (CCT, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF; digestibilidade aparente da matéria orgânica (DMO, proteína bruta (DPB, fibra em detergente neutro (DFDN, carboidratos totais (DCT e carboidratos não fibrosos (DCNF. Houve efeito crescente (p The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the intake and digestibility of Holsteins dairy cow fed with Cynodon graze and inclusion levels (0, 10, 20 e 30% of superior third of cassava foliage silage (STCFS. Eight lactating dairy cow were used in a square design 4x4 and to inclusion levels, regression was used. The following aspects were analyzed: organic matter intake (OMI, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP, total carbohydrate (TC, nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC; apparent digestibility of organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, total carbohydrate (ADTC, nonfiber carbohydrate (ADNFC. The inclusion levels of STCFS had an increasing effect (p < 0.05 to total OMI, STCFS + concentrate DOI, STCFS + concentrate NDF, total CP, total TC, total NFC in kg/day and total OMI and total % live weight. The ADCP had decreasing effect (p < 0.05 with the increase of inclusion levels of STCFS.

  15. Caracterização das frações que constituem as proteínas e os carboidratos, e respectivas taxas de digestão, do feno de capim-tifton 85 de diferentes idades de rebrota Characterization of the protein and the carbohydrate fractions, and the respective degradation rates of tifton 85 bermudagrass hay at different regrowth ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Guimarães Ribeiro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a composição bromatológica, as frações da proteína bruta (A, B1, B2, B3 e C e dos carboidratos totais (A, B1, B2 e C e as respectivas taxas de digestão das frações B1, B2 e B3 de proteínas e das frações A + B1 e B2 de carboidratos e do feno de capim-tifton 85, obtido de plantas colhidas com 28, 35, 42 e 56 dias de rebrota, adubadas com 75 kg/ha/corte de N. Os teores protéicos dos fenos com idades de rebrota de 28 a 56 dias variaram de 17,58 a 12,58%. Os valores das frações protéicas A, B1, B2, B3 e C apresentaram-se, respectivamente, entre 22,10 e 35,53%; 0,24 e 4,55%; 30,37 e 31,34%; 26,55 e 36,62%; e 5,75 e 6,76%, como proporções da proteína bruta total, nos fenos com idades de rebrota entre 28 e 56 dias. As taxas de digestão das frações protéicas B1, B2 e B3 encontraram-se entre 0,319 e 1,324; 0,0724 e 0,0936; e 0,0077 e 0,012 h -1, respectivamente, nos fenos com idades de rebrota entre 28 e 56 dias. Os teores de carboidratos totais variaram de 72,98 a 78,77%, em fenos com 28 a 56 dias de rebrota. Os valores das frações A, B1, B2 e C de carboidratos apresentaram-se entre 2,73 e 5,44%; 1,91 e 2,35%; 77,49 e 80,59%; e 13,59 e 17,87%, respectivamente, como proporções dos carboidratos totais, em fenos com idades entre 28 e 56 dias de rebrota. As taxas de digestão das frações de carboidratos A + B1 e B2 encontraram-se entre 0,181 e 0,20 e 0,04 e 0,0466 h -1, respectivamente, em fenos com idades entre 28 e 56 dias de rebrota.The chemical composition, crude protein fractions (A, B1, B2, B3 and C and total carbohydrate fractions (A, B1, B2 and C, and respective degradation rate of B1, B2 and B3 protein fractions and A + B1 and B2 carbohydrate fractions of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay from plants harvested with 28, 35, 42 and 56 days of regrowth, fertilized with 75 kg/ha/cut of N, were evaluated. The protein content of hays from 28 to 56 days of regrowth ranged from 17.58 to 12.58%. The values of A, B1, B2, B3

  16. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species. PMID:19290313

  17. STUDY OF AQUATIC ANGIOSPERMIC PLANTS OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. PATEL1 AND N. K. PATEL2

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the taxonomic study of Aquatic Angiosperms growing throughout the Anand city. The plants are listed along with their brief taxonomic account of each species with current nomenclature, vernacular name, family and uses. The  collected plants are systematically observed during present work, During my study I observed various aquatic angiospermic plants such as   Ceratophyllum demersum, Colocasia esculenta, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Nymphoides indicum, Ludwigia repens, Polygonum orientale, Typha elephantina, Lemna perpusilla, Spirodella polyrrhiza, Xanthium indicum, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Cynodon dactylon, Hydrilla verticillata were very common. Whereas Nymphaea nouchali, Polygonum barbatum, Scirpus articulatus were very rare in the study area.

  18. A STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF VARIOUS PLANT LEAVES AGAINST SELECTED MICROBIAL SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Valarmathy,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extract of leaves were examined against four common bacterial isolates. The ethanolic extracts of various leaves such as Moringa oleifera (Murungai , Musa paradisiaca (Banana, Azardiratica indica (Neem, Cynodon dactylon(Grass, Alternanthera sessilis (Ponnangkani, Anisochilus carnosus (Karpooravalli, investigated individually for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method .These were investigated against selected species of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae to find the inhibitory activities of the microbes. The ethanolic extract of Azardiratica indica showed considerably high activity against Escherichia coli than other extracts. These results were compared with standard antibiotic Penicillin. But the extract showed higher activity than the given standard antibiotic.

  19. Calorific values of plant and insect species of a tropical grassland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.S.; Yadava, P.S.

    1973-01-01

    Data are given on the calorific value of plant tops in various months of the year for a range of species from a grassland community at Kurukshetra, India, including Aeschynomene indica, Bothriochloa pertusa, Brachiaria reptans, Cassia occidentalis, C. pumila, Crotaleria medicaginea, Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Digitaria sanguinalis, Prosopis sp., Rhynchosia minima and Sporobolus diander. Data on energy content of below-ground plant parts in May are given for Polypogon monspeliensisand Cenchrus ciliaris, and on both the above parameters for C. setigerus, Alhagi camelorum, Apluda mutica, Dichanthium annulatum, Panicum miliare and Sorghum halepense. Energy contents of standing dead material and of litter are given for each month of the year.

  20. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD DE Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) A INSECTICIDAS ASOCIADA A CÉSPED EN QUINTANA ROO, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Imelda León-García; Esteban Rodríguez-Leyva; Laura D. Ortega-Arenas; Juan F. Solís-Aguilar

    2012-01-01

    El gusano cogollero Spodoptera frugiperda es una de las principales plagas que ataca al maíz (Zea mays L.) y céspedes (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Person) en el sur de EE.UU., México, Centro y Sudamérica. Este gusano causa daños al follaje y ocasionalmente pérdida de secciones de la carpeta, y su control se realiza mediante insecticidas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la susceptibilidad de S. frugiperda a insecticidas de uso común en campos de go...

  1. 百色乡土草坪植物研究初探%Tentative Report on Researches into Lawn Plants in the Countryside in Beise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小飚; 农万廷; 蔡成翔

    2006-01-01

    通过对百色市乡土野生草坪植物资源的调查,结合初步的驯化栽培试验,结果表明:狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon(L.)Pers)、酢浆草(Oxalis comiculata L.)、链荚豆(Alysicarpus vaginalis(L.)DC.)、三点金(Desmodium triflorum(L.)DC.)、铺地蝙蝠草(Chriatia obcordata(poir.)Bahn.f.)等5种草本植物坪用特性优良,适合在百色建植各类草坪.

  2. Estimating Time of Weed Emergence in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Tursun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modelling is carried out for eleven major weeds in cucumber to develop estimated models for weed emergence time. Weed species were grouped according to their emergence patterns. Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare and Solanum nigrum were early emerging, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea and Sorghum halepense were season long emerging Tribulus terrestris was the late emerging weed species. Different non-linear growth curves (Chapman-Richard, Weibull, logistic, Gompertz and cubic spline fitted to the data of cumulative percent emergence for the different species and years. Cubic spline seemed the best model for many species.

  3. Perfil de n-alcanos em cinco espécies de plantas forrageiras tropicais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i3.1207 Profile of n-alkanes in five species of plants tropical forages - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i3.1207

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Ferriani Branco; Eduardo Shiguero Sakaguti; Nelson Massaru Fukumoto; Júlio Cesar Damasceno; Cristiano Côrtes; Ulisses Cecato

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o perfil de n-alcanos em espécies de gramíneas (Brachiaria brizantha, Cynodon dactylon e Panicum maximum) e leguminosas (Arachis pintoi e Glycine wightii). Foram identificados e quantificados por meio de cromatografia gasosa, os n-alcanos C24 a C35, sendo C32 e C34 padrões internos. As concentrações dos n-alcanos nas diferentes espécies e respectivas frações (lâminas foliares, colmos porções superior e inferior e matéria morta para gramíneas; folhas, caul...

  4. Período de estacionalidade de produção de pastagens irrigadas Seasonality period of production in irrigated pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Bartolomeu Rassini

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o período de estacionalidade de produção de matéria seca de espécies forrageiras irrigadas. As espécies utilizadas foram Pennisetum purpureum cv. Taiwan (capim-elefante), Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia (capim-tanzânia), Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk (capim-braquiária), Brachiaria bryzantha cv. Marandu (capim-marandu), Paspalum atratum cv. Pojuca (capim-pojuca) e Cynodon dactylon cv. Coastcross (capim-coastcross). Durante dois anos (1999/2000 e 2000...

  5. Fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas de gramíneas tropicais cortadas em três idades Carbohydrates and proteins fractions of tropical grasses cut at three ages

    OpenAIRE

    J.F. Sá; M.S. Pedreira; F.F. Silva; P. Bonomo; M.P. Figueiredo; D.R. Menezes; T.B. Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Avaliou-se o fracionamento dos carboidratos e das proteínas das gramíneas tropicais tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon cv Tiffon 85), braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu) e tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv Tanzânia), cortadas aos 28, 35 e 54 dias de idade. Determinaram-se os teores de matéria seca (MS), matéria orgânica (MO), proteína bruta (PB), extrato etéreo (EE), fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (FDN CP), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), lignina (LIG), nitrog...

  6. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Danielle Ilze Barbosa da Silva; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira Araújo; Luiz Fernando Carvalho Leite; Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys), capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia), capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth), Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) R. de Wit.) tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas...

  7. Início de florescimento, produção e valor nutritivo de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais sob condição de sombreamento natural Initial flowering, dry matter yield and nutritive value of tropical forage grasses under natural shading

    OpenAIRE

    Margarida Mesquita Carvalho; Vicente de Paula Freitas; Deise Ferreira Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Um experimento foi conduzido para estudar seis gramíneas forrageiras tropicais quanto ao seu valor nutritivo, florescimento, e produção de matéria seca quando sombreadas por árvores de angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa). Foram estudadas as gramíneas Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Panicum maximum cvs. Aruana, Makueni, Mombaça e Tanzânia e Cynodon dactylon cv. Tifton 68. O desempenho das gramíneas sob as árvores foi comparado com o obtido em área próxima, sem árvores (controle). O so...

  8. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic. During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other short grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Andropogon ssp., Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aciculatus and tender and young shoots and twigs of Schelristechya fuesche, Saccharum spontaneum, Lagerstroemia flosreginae etc. are consumed in limited portions. The rhino consumes 11 cultivated crops and vegetables, viz., Ricinus communis, Oryza sativa, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Brassica nigra, Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and Ipomoea batatas etc. Highest density of food plant species observed in the study area were Cynodon dactylon (167.5/m2, Hemarthria compressa (73.75/m2, Vetiveria zizanioides (56/m2, Saccharum ravannae (51.5/m2, Pharagmites karka (50.75/m2, Leersia hexandra (46.75/m2, Brachiarea pseudointerrupta (40/m2 and Eichhornia crassipes (35/m2.

  9. Efecto de rastrojos de malezas y herbicidas pre-emergentes en el control de malezas en frijol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Herrera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Estación Experimental Fabio Baudrit, Alajuela, Costa Rica de setiembre de 1998 a febrero de 1999, se evaluó el efecto de los rastrojos de Ixophorus unisetus, Digitaria spp., Cynodon dactylon y Rottboellia cochinchinensis sobre: las malezas, la eficacia de los herbicidas pendimetalina, alaclor e imazetapir, y sobre la nodulación por Rhizobium y el crecimiento del frijol. Se encontró que la presencia de rastrojos sobre la superficie del suelo a razón de 4,5 t de materia seca/ha no fue efectiva para reducir el crecimiento de malezas en el cultivo del frijol sembrado en labranza de conservación. La eficacia de los herbicidas pendimetalina, imazetapir y alaclor no fue afectada por la presencia de los rastrojos sobre la superficie del suelo. Los rastrojos de Ixophorus unisetus afectaron negativamente el crecimiento y la producción del frijol, mientras que los rastrojos de Digitaria spp. y Cynodon dactylon tuvieron efectos positivos sobre el cultivo

  10. Impact of solid waste burning air pollution on some physio-anatomical characteristics of some plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study evaluated the effect of solid waste burning pollution on carbohydrate, stomata and chlorophyll contents of seven different plant species. Leaf samples of Artemisia maritima L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Amaranthus viridis L., Cynodon dactylon L., Chenopodium album L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker, growing in the (1m, 500m and 1000m distance) vicinity of burning points at residential colony, University of Baluchistan Quetta were collected. Results revealed that the carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll contents in the leaves of selected plant species were found to be significantly low at 1m distance, but as the distance from the source of pollution increased (500m and 1000m) these contents increased accordingly. Generally the percentage of completely and partially clogged stomata was found higher near the pollution source (1m distance). The percentage of open stomata in all investigated plant species was noticed lower near the pollution source (1m distance), while with the increase of distance (500m-1000m) the percentage of open stomata increased accordingly. As regard to carbohydrate and chlorophyll contents, the Artemisia maritima L., were found most sensitive to air pollution in all four directions at 1m distances as compared to the other species. While plant species, Cynodon dactylon L. showed more resistant to air pollution effect as regard to carbohydrate contents and high percentage of open stomata at 1m distances with respect to other species. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Warm Season Turfgrass under Different Irrigation Regimes in Arid Region

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    Abdullah Mohd Hassan ALSHEHHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrasses play a very important role in enhancing quality of life in modern urban living. Water quantity is the most important challenge worldwide in establishing and maintaining quality turf. The present study was aimed to test the performance of three warm season turfgrasses under four water levels for plantation in arid zones. Pits (48 measuring 1m length x 1m width x 0.6 m depth were planted with four replications of Common Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, Tifway Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis and Seashore Paspalum grass (Paspalum vaginatum in complete randomized design (CRD. Irrigation was done daily with 15 l/plot during the first 4 weeks (establishment period and four irrigation levels (5, 10, and 15, 20 l/lot were maintained in the following 8 weeks (treatment period. Physical parameters (canopy temperatures, ambient temperature, leaf area, shoot production and relative water content were measured once in two week as well as the visual quality (shoot color, shoot density and shoot uniformity was assessed, however, chlorophyll analysis was done in the end of the study. It was found that temperature has significant effect on performance of turfgrasses. Canopy temperature was higher than ambient temperature in the three turfgrasses but it has different level in each variety. Five liter of water per day per square meter gave acceptable turf quality when ambient temperature ranged from 20 to 33�C. Seashore paspalum performed best followed by Tifway Bermuda grass and common Bermuda grass respectively.

  12. Larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes Aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anitha Rajasekaran; Geethapriya Duraikannan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes aegypti. Methods:Petroleum ether, Chloroform and aqueous extracts obtained from Acalypha indica, Aerva lanata,Boerhaavia diffusa, Commelina benghalensis, Gompherna sps, Datura stramonium, Euphorpia hirta, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens were used for larvicidal activity at concentration of 1000μg/ml and the mortality rate was calculated after 24 and 48hrs . The LC50 for the extracts were also estimated after 24 hrs. Results: The petroleum ether extract ofLantana camara, Tridax procumbens and Datura stramonium showed 100% mortality after 48hrs of incubation. Tridax procumbens petroleum ether extract had the least LC50 of 219 μg/ml followed by Lantana and Datura with 251and 288 μg/ml respectively. A combination of petroleum ether extracts of Aerva lanata and Cynodon dactylon, Boerhaavia diffusa and Commelina benghalensis exhibited 100% mortality of larvae. Formulation-1 inhibited the metamorphosis of the larvae by retaining 60% in its larval stage. Petroleum ether extracts of Lantana, Tridax, Datura and a combination of extracts were effective larvicide. The formulations proved to be effective in inhibiting the metamorphosis. Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in datura petroleum ether extract . Conclusions: Either the crude extracts of Datura stramonium, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens or its phytochemicals can be used as effective vector control agents individually or in combination.

  13. Efeitos alelopaticos de alguns extratos vegetais na germinação do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.C. Castro

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por finalidade avaliar os possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de três plantas daninhas (Cyperus rotundus, Sorghum halepense e Cynodon dactylon, uma leguminosa (Canavalia ensiformis e colza (Brassica napus, na germinação das sementes do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Santa Cruz utilizado como indicador. Tubérculos de tiririca, rizomas de capim massambará, o sistema radicular de grama seda, além de folhas e raízes de feijão-de-porco e colza, foram homogeneizados em solução aquosa, submetidos a filtração e centrifugação. A aplicação do sobrenadante no substrato de germinação das sementes de tomateiro mostrou afetar o processo germinativo e o desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. C. rotundus, S. halepense e raízes de C. ensiformis possuem substâncias altamente inibitórias à germinação do tomateiro 'Santa Cruz'', sendo que a planta indicadora também mostrou-se sensível às substâncias presentes nas folhas de B. napus e em C. dactylon.The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible allelopathic efecfts of Cyperus rotundus L., Sorghum halepense L., Cynodon dactylon L., Canavalia ensiformis D.C., and Brassica napus L. on seed germination of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Cruz. Extracts from tubers of C. rotundus, roots of S. halepense and C. dactylon, and leaves and roots of C. ensiformis and B. napus were used to evaluate the effects on tomato seed germination. Aqueous solution of these organs, obtained by homogenization, filtration and centrifugation, were introduced on Petri dishes containing tomato seeds. The evaluation of germination showed a strong negative allelopathic effect of C. rotundus tubers, S. halepense and C. ensifor mis roots on tomato seeds. Extracts from leaves of B. napus and C. dactylon roots inhibited germination of 'Santa Cruz' tomato seed also.

  14. Tolerância do Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. e da Brachiaria brizantha ao glyphosate Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. and Brachiaria brizantha tolerance to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a tolerância de Tifton 85 e Brachiaria brizantha ao glyphosate e verificar o controle de B. brizantha em área de pastagem de Tifton 85 já estabelecida. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em que se testaram as doses: 0, 720, 1.440, 2.160 e 2.880 g ha-1 de glyphosate. Cada parcela possuía dimensões de 3,5 m de comprimento por 3,0 m de largura, totalizando 10,5 m², com área útil de 7,5 m ². A eficiência do herbicida no controle de B. brizantha e o nível de intoxicação nas plantas de Tifton 85 foram avaliados 15, 30 e 60 dias após aplicação (DAA, mediante escala de 0 a 100, em que 0 é ausência de controle e/ou intoxicação e 100, controle total ou morte das plantas. Para avaliação da produção e do potencial de rebrota das forrageiras, as plantas de ambas as espécies foram colhidas aos 300 DAA e secas em estufa. Observou-se controle acima de 90% das plantas de B. brizantha a partir das doses de 1.473,75 e 1.721,25 g ha-1 de glyphosate, aos 30 e 60 DAA, respectivamente. As porcentagens de intoxicação das plantas de Tifton 85, referente a estas doses de controle de B. brizantha, foram, respectivamente, de 24,90 e 4,13% aos 30 e 60 DAA. Além disso, aos 60 DAA, para a maior dose avaliada (2.880 g ha-1 de glyphosate foi observada intoxicação das plantas de Tifton 85 de apenas 18,22%. Aos 300 DAA, observou-se ausência de produção de massa seca de B. brizantha a partir da dose de 2.160 g ha-1 do herbicida, devido ao eficiente controle. Os resultados evidenciam maior tolerância das plantas de Tifton 85 ao glyphosate em relação às plantas de B. brizantha, possibilitando o controle desta espécie em pastagem estabelecida de Tifton 85, sem causar danos à forrageira cultivada.This study aimed to evaluate Tifton 85 and Brachiaria brizantha tolerance glyphosate and verity Brachiaria brizantha control in an established Tifton 85 pasture area. Rates of 0; 720; 1.440; 2.160; and 2.880 g ha-1 of glyphosate were tested in to an experiment arranged in a randomized block design, with four replicates divided into 3.5 m x 3.0 m, totaling 10.5 m², and only 7.5 m² of useful area. Herbicide efficiency in B. brizantha control and intoxication level on Tifton 85 plants were evaluated at 15, 30 and 60 days after application (DAA, following the scale from 0 (absence of control and/or intoxication to 100 (total control or plant death. At 300 DAA, the forage plants of both species were cut and dried to evaluate production and sprouting potential. Control superior to 90% of B. brizantha plants was observed from 1,473.75 and 1,721.25 g ha-1 of glyphosate rates, respectively at 30 and 60 DAA. The intoxication of Tifton 85 plants referring to B. brizantha control rates were 24.90 and 4.13%, respectively. At 60 DAA, 18.22% of Tifton 85 plants intoxication was observed at the highest rate evaluated (2.880 g ha-1 of glyphosate. Absence of B. brizantha dry matter production occurred at 300 DAA, at 2.160 g ha¹ herbicide rate as a result of efficient control. Results showed higher tolerance of Tifton 85 plants to glyphosate in relation to B. brizantha plants, allowing this species control in established Tifton 85 pasture, with no damage to the cultivated forage.

  15. Remoção de fósforo em sistema de tratamento de esgoto doméstico, por escoamento superficial Phosphorus removal in overland flow system for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. S. Loures

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a remoção e a concentração de fósforo (P no esgoto doméstico, conduziram-se ensaios de campo, utilizando-se o método de escoamento superficial, sob diferentes taxas de aplicação: 0,24; 0,36 e 0,48 m³ h-1 m-1. Nas amostras de esgoto verificou-se que a taxa de aplicação 0,24 m³ h-1 m-1 proporcionou as maiores taxas de remoção de P: 47,46% para P total; 47,45% para P total dissolvido; 42,60% para P inorgânico dissolvido e 85,12% para P orgânico dissolvido; entretanto, para P total no resíduo, a taxa de aplicação 0,36 m³ h-1 m-1 resultou na maior eficiência de remoção de P: 55,65%. Para avaliar o solo ao longo do seu perfil coletaram-se amostras antes e depois da aplicação do esgoto, em duas camadas: de 0 a 10 cm (C1 e de 50 a 60 cm (C2. Para as taxas de aplicação 0,24 e 0,48 m³ h-1 m-1 verificou-se, em ambas as camadas, diminuição no conteúdo de P disponível: para 0,24 m³ h-1 m-1, 21% em C1 e 63% em C2; e, para 0,48 m³ h-1 m-1, 70% em C1 e 57% em C2; porém, para a taxa 0,36 m³ h-1 m-1 constatou-se, em ambas as camadas, aumento na referida variável: 8% em C1 e 59% em C2. Para avaliar a capacidade da forrageira em remover P efetuaram-se 3 cortes em área de 1 m², ressaltando-se que a taxa 0,36 m³ h-1 m-1 proporcionou o maior valor de remoção de P pelo capim-coastcross: 15,78 kg ha-1 de P em um total de 137 dias de avaliação.In order to evaluate the overland flow treatment efficiency for removing phosphorus (P at different application rates: 0.24, 0.36 and 0.48 m³ h-1 m-1 of domestic wastewater, in flow slopes with a down-slope grade of 2%, an experiment was developed in the experimental area of the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Viçosa. For the biomass production the 'coastcross' bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon was used. The highest removal rates for samples collected at 8 m from the beginning of the borders occurred for the application rate of 0

  16. Produção e qualidade de pastagens de Coastcross-1 e milheto utilizadas com vacas leiteiras Production and quality of Coastcross-1 and pearl millet pastures utilized with dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Fernanda Barros Scaravelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de pastagens do gênero Cynodon, em propriedades leiteiras do Rio Grande do Sul, tem crescido, especialmente na última década. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a dinâmica, a produção de matéria seca, a qualidade e a composição botânica de pastagens de Coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon x C. nlemfluensis e milheto (Pennisetum americanum cv. Comum, sob sistema de pastejo rotacionado, com vacas em lactação da raça Holandês. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem no pré-pastejo (MFPP, a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (TAD, a produção total de forragem (PTF e a composição botânica das pastagens. Para o milheto e a Coastcross-1, foram avaliados os componentes estruturais: lâmina foliar (LF, colmo + bainha (CB, outras espécies (OE e material morto (MM. Na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem, foram colhidas amostras por simulação de pastejo para determinação dos teores de proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. Não houve diferença significativa (P>0,05 para MFPP, TAD, PTF e PB. O milheto apresentou maior disponibilidade de lâminas foliares (PThe use of pastures of the genus Cynodon has increased, for the last decade especially in dairy properties of Rio Grande do Sul. This research aims to compare the dynamic, dry matter production, quality and botanical composition of Coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon x C. nlemfluensis and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum cv. Comum pastures. The pastures were utilized by lactating Holstein dairy cows under rotational stocking system. Pregraze dry matter availability (DMA, daily dry matter accumulation rate (DMR, total dry matter production (TDM were evaluated. For the botanical composition, the structural components: leaf blade (LB, stem + sheat (SS, dead material (DMT of pastures and other species (OS were evaluated. Before and after grazing, samples were collected by hand-plucking in order to determine the crude protein concentration (CP and neutral

  17. Disponibilidade e composição química de forrageiras com diferentes hábitos de crescimento, pastejadas por ovinos Availability and chemical composition of pasture with different growth habits, grazed by sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilice Zundt

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar a disponibilidade e a composição química de três forrageiras com diferentes hábitos de crescimento. As espécies estudadas, pertencentes à família Poaceae foram Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq, “Coast-Cross” (Cynodon dactylon Pers e Pensacola (Paspalum notatum Fluegge. A maior e a menor produção mensal de matéria seca (MS do Tanzânia, “Coast-cross” e Pensacola foram: 3.095 – 1.391 kg/ha; 2.715 – 1.078 kg/ha e 1.099 - 136 kg/ha, respectivamente. A produção total de MS/ha/ano foi de 23.714 kg para a Tanzânia, 22.443 kg “Coast-cross” e 7.150 kg para Pensacola. Esta última apresentou o pior desempenho produtivo ao longo do período. Os valores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT não diferiram entre as forrageiras.The availability and chemical composition of forage with different habits of development was evaluated. Species were Panicum maximum Jacq, Cynodon dactylon Pers and Paspalum notatum Fluegge (Poaceae. Highest and lowest monthly productions of Dry Mater (DM of Panicum, Cynodon and Paspalum were 3,095 kg – 1,391 kg; 2,715 – 1,078 kg and 1,099 – 136 kg respectively. Total production of DM/ha/years amounted to 23,714 kg for Panicum, 22,443 kg for Cynodon and 7,150 kg for Paspalum. The latter showed the worst production performance during the period. CP, ADF, NDF and TDN values did not differ among types of forage.

  18. Nutritive value of pastures of Cynodon mixed with forage peanut in southwestern Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Fernando Ziech

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritive value of pastures of Coastcross-1 and Tifton 85 mixed with increasing inclusion of forage peanut (0, 25, 50, 75% occupancy area, subjected to cuts, over two study years in Southwestern Paraná State. The experimental design was factorial (three factors distributed in randomized block. The factors were cultivars (2, the occupancy area of forage peanut (4 and seasons of cuts (5, with three replications. It was evaluated the percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and in vitro digestibility of dry matter of leaf blades, stem + sheath of grasses and available forage mass of pastures. Values of crude protein ranged from 17.0 to 20.4% and from 16.8 to 19.3% for the forage mass available of Coastcross-1 and Tifton 85, respectively. Higher digestibility values were found at the beginning of evaluations. On average, the Coastcross-1 showed better nutritive value compared to Tifton 85, and, the inclusion of forage peanut increased crude protein content in leaf blades of grasses studied, in the second year after planted.

  19. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp) under different doses of fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Karlize Prigol; Patric André Castro; Débora Ferreira Laureano; Diego Chiodelli; Raquel Cristina Roman; Lenilson da Fonseca Roza; Luan Carlos Pagani; Edir Oliveira da Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The corr...

  20. Spring nitrogen fertilization of ryegrass-bermudagrass for phytoremediation of phosphorus-enriched soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilization of forage grasses is critical for optimizing biomass and utilization of manure soil nutrients. Field studies were conducted in 2007-09 to determine the effects of spring N fertilization on amelioration of high soil P when cool-season, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) is...

  1. Soil test and bermudagrass forage yield responses to animal waste and FGD gypsum ammendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of soil and plant responses to animal or industrial byproducts is needed for effective use of these potential amendments on reclaimed mine soil. This study compared seven treatments of 11.2 Mg ha-1 flue gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum (control), 896 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer (13-13-13), 22.4 M...

  2. Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2003-03-01

    Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains unexplored. In a few cases, active chemical constituents were identified. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon, Symplocos racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica, Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental models. This paper presents a limited review of plants used in Ayurvedic medicine. PMID:15866825

  3. Exigências Líquidas de Aminoácidos para Ganho de Peso de Nelores Não-Castrados

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Fabiano Ferreira da; Valadares Filho Sebastião de Campos; Ítavo Luís Carlos Vinhas; Veloso Cristina Mattos; Valadares Rilene Ferreira Diniz; Cecon Paulo Roberto; Moraes Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de; Paulino Pedro Veiga Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Foram utilizados 40 novilhos Nelore inteiros, com peso vivo médio inicial de 240 kg, sendo quatro novilhos de referência, quatro alimentados para mantença e o restante distribuído em oito tratamentos, com quatro diferentes níveis de concentrado nas dietas (20; 40; 60 e 80%) e dois níveis de proteína bruta (PB) (15 e 18%). A fase de recria foi avaliada até 360 kg de peso vivo e a fase de engorda, até 450 kg de peso vivo. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de capim Tyfton (Cynodon dactylon). Após o ...

  4. [Nutrient Characteristics and Nitrogen Forms of Rhizosphere Soils Under Four Typical Plants in the Littoral Zone of TGR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-feng; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Jian-jun; Yue, Jun-sheng

    2015-10-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), which is the largest water conservancy project ever built in tne world, produced a drawdown area of about 348.93 km2 because of water level control. The biological geochemical cycle of the soil in the drawdown zone has been changed as the result of long-term winter flooding and summer drought and vegetation covering. The loss of soil nitrogen in the drawdown zone poses a threat to the water environmental in TGR. Pengxi river, is an important anabranch, which has the largest drawdown area has been selected in the present study. The four typical vegetation, contained Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Anthium sibiricum and Zea mays L. as the control, were studied to measure nutrient characteristics and nitrogen forms of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in three distribution areas with different soil types (paddy soil, purple soil and fluvo-aquic soils). The variables measured included organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), hydrolysis N, available P and available K, pH, ion-exchangeable N (IEE-N), weak acid extractable N (CF-N) , iron-manganese oxides N (IMOF-N), organic matter sulfide N (OSF-N), added up four N forms for total transferable N (TF-N) and TN minus TF-N for non-transferable N (NTF-N). The results showed: (1) pH of rhizosphere soil was generally lower than that of non-rhizosphere soil under different vegetation in different type soils because the possible organic acid and H+ released form plant roots and cation absorption differences, and the OM, TP, TN and hydrolysis N of rhizosphere soil were generally higher than those of non-rhizosphere soil, and that the enrichment ratio (ER) of all the four nutrient indicators showed Cyperus rotundus > Cynodon dactylon > Zea mays L. > Anthium sibiricum. Available P showed enrichment in the rhizosphere of three natural vegetations but lose under corn, and available K, TK showed different ER in different conditions. (2) IEF-N CF

  5. Anna Pavala Sindhooram--an antiatherosclerotic Indian drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, K R; Seethapathy, P G; Shanmugasundaram, E R

    1983-05-01

    The procedure for the preparation of Anna Pavala Sindhooram (APS), a drug based on the concepts of Indian medicine for the prevention and reversal of the atherosclerotic disease process is described in detail. The uniformity in the composition of samples of the drug obtained in 10 batches, prepared over a period of 5 years is evident from the chemical analysis of the mineral constituents. The possibility of iodine, copper, iron, calcium and magnesium present in the Anna Pavala Sindhooram, acting metabolically to reduce hypercholesterolemia is discussed. The ingredients used are green vitriol (Annabedi or ferrous sulphate), coral reef (Corallium rubrum or Pavalam), leaves of Acalypha indica (Kuppaimeni), Lippia nodiflora (Poduthalai), Vinca rosea (Nityakalyani), Lawsonia alba (maruthondri) and Cynodon dactylon (Arugampul) and the flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis (Chemparathampoo) and the ripe fruits of Phyllanthus emblica (nellikkai). Sindhooram is the chief therapeutic form of herbo-mineral preparations used in the Sidha system of Indian medicine. PMID:6876850

  6. Roughage digestion evaluation in horses with total feces collection and mobile nylon bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziana Maria Rodrigues

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of roughages in horses with total feces collection and mobile bags. Two trials were carried out simultaneously. The first trial evaluated the digestibility of nutrients of coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross with total feces collection. The second trial assessed the digestibility of nutrients of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi and coastcross hay with mobile bags. This trial was conducted with gastric insertions of nylon bags every 12 hours, and each bag contained 663 mg of feed samples in a proportion of 17 mg DM/cm². Feces and bags were collected directly from the stall floor immediately after excretion. There was no difference between the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, carbohydrates and hydrolysable carbohydrates of coastcross hay estimated with feces collection and mobile bags. Forage peanut showed high nutrients digestibility, with values close to those observed with alfalfa, indicating potential for use in diets for horses.

  7. Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mg, Al, Ti, and S contents in plants and soil of heaps of nickel smelting works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasova, V.; Hajduk, J.

    1977-01-01

    The writers established the Fe, Ce, Cr, Ni, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti and S contents in the neopedon of heaps piling up from processing of nickel ore as well as in the plants: Cardaria draba, Salsola cali, Agropyrum repens, Bromus erectus, Calamagrostis epigeios, Cynodon dactylon and Matricaria inodora, growing on such heaps. Ca, Mg and S contents were found to be higher in dicotyledons and Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents higher in monocotyledons. The analyzed dicotyledons appeared to be concentrators of Ca and S. Highest Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents were found in individuals of the species Agropyrum repens. The neopedon as well as the plants had extraordinarily high Cr concentrations. The species Salsola cali has been found to possess an unusually higher affinity to the dump substrate after processing of nickel ore and to be a concentrator of Mg. 16 references, 1 table.

  8. Hıyarda (Cucumis sativus L.) yabancı ot çıkış zamanın tahminine yönelik araştırmalar

    OpenAIRE

    Nihat Tursun; İrfan Ersin Akıncı; Mustafa Şahin; Ahmet Uludağ

    2015-01-01

    İstatistiki modellerin geliştirilmesi için hıyar bitkisinde on bir önemli yabancı otun çıkış zamanın belirlenmesinde modellemeler yapılmıştır. Hıyar deneme arazisinde bulunan önemli yabancı otlar çıkış zamanlarına göre gruplara ayrılmıştır. Bu yabancı otlardan; Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare ve Solanum nigrum erken, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea ve Sorghum halepense bütün vejetasyon boyunca ...

  9. EFEITO DA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO PROTÉICA SOBRE OS PARÂMETROS CLÍNICOS E PARASITOLÓGICOS DE OVINOS MANTIDOS EM PASTAGEM DE TIFTON 85 EFFECT OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE CLINICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF LAMBS UNDER PASTURE OF TIFTON 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maia Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A suplementação proteica pode ser uma importante ferramenta para os sistemas de produção de ovinos em pastagens tropicais. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os parâmetros clínicos e parasitológicos de ovinos mantidos em pastagem de Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon irrigada, recebendo suplementos com diferentes fontes proteicas. Foram utilizados 28 ovinos castrados e mestiços, distribuídos homogeneamente em quatro tratamentos. Além do controle não suplementado, os tratamentos avaliados foram: farelo de soja, ureia e torta de algodão. Realizou-se a vermifugação dos animais de acordo com o método Famacha©. Não houve diferença significativa (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos para o consumo de matéria seca total, ganho médio diário e ganho de peso total. Foi observado maior consumo de forragem (P<0,05 para os animais mantidos exclusivamente em pastagem. Estes animais também apresentaram maior contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG (P<0,05 em comparação aos suplementados com ureia ou com torta de algodão. Não houve diferença significativa (P>0,05 para os diferentes tons de coloração da conjuntiva nem para o número de animais vermifugados. Observou-se uma prevalência de 72,0% a 83,0% de larvas de Trichostrongylus sp. As diferentes suplementações proteicas não influenciaram as características clínicas nem produtivas dos animais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cynodon dactylon, endoparasitas, Famacha©, farelo de soja, torta de algodão, ureia.
    The protein supplementation may be an important tool for sheep production systems in tropical grazing. This work aimed to evaluate parasitological and clinical aspects of lambs under irrigated pasture of Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon and receiving supplementation from different protein sources. Twenty-eight, castrated and crossbreed lambs, were used as animal testers and allocated into four treatments. Besides the control with exclusively use of pasture

  10. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  11. Effect of power plant emissions on plant community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; Agrawal, M.; Narayan, D. (Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India))

    1994-06-01

    A field study was conducted around two coal-fired thermal power plants (TPP) to analyse the impact of their emission on the structure of herbaceous communities in a dry tropical area. Phytosociological studies reflected that Cassia tora, Cynodon dactylon and Dichanthium annulatum dominate at heavily polluted sites. Alsycarpus monilifer, Convolvulus pluricaulis, and Desmodium triflorum are uniformly distributed, whereas Paspalidium flavidum, Phyllanthus simplex, and Rungia repens are dominant at less polluted sites. On the basis of Importance Value Index, the species were classified as sensitive, intermediate and resistant to TPP emissions. Shannon-Wiener Index of species diversity, species richness and evenness were inversely related to the pollution load in the area. Significant negative correlation between ambient SO[sub 2] concentration and species diversity suggested selective elimination of sensitive species from the heavily polluted sites.

  12. Forage selection by teddy goats versus sheep on thal ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazing behaviours of Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were studied on rangelands of ThaI. Bite count method was used to determine the dietary composition of both animal species. The overall preference of Teddy goats was higher for Khabble grass (Cynodon dactylon), which was 40.57% of the total number of bite made on different plant species during the study period (March-July). Teddy goats utilized a wide range of browsing plant species like Wan (Salvadora oleoides), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Babil (Acacia jacquemontii), Jandi (Prosopis spicigera) etc. Browsing species were major component (>50%) of goat diets dur- ing March through June. Whereas Thalli sheep had been consistent in their heavy use of Khabble grass (overall 89.27%). Browsing plant species were not an important component of their diets. Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were competitive for Khabble grass particularly at its vegetative growth stage. (author)

  13. Disponibilidade e composição química de forrageiras com diferentes hábitos de crescimento, pastejadas por ovinos Availability and chemical composition of pasture with different growth habits, grazed by sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Marilice Zundt; Elias Nunes Martins; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo; Evilásio Pontes de Melo; Leonardo Martim Nieto; Sandra Mari Yamamoto; Alexandre Agostinho Mexia

    2001-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar a disponibilidade e a composição química de três forrageiras com diferentes hábitos de crescimento. As espécies estudadas, pertencentes à família Poaceae foram Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq), “Coast-Cross” (Cynodon dactylon Pers) e Pensacola (Paspalum notatum Fluegge). A maior e a menor produção mensal de matéria seca (MS) do Tanzânia, “Coast-cross” e Pensacola foram: 3.095 – 1.391 kg/ha; 2.715 – 1.078 kg/ha e 1.099 - 136 kg/ha, respectivam...

  14. Hypoglycemic effect of plants used in Mexico as antidiabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Ramos, R; Alarcón-Aguilar, F; Lara-Lemus, A; Flores-Saenz, J L

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of 12 "antidiabetic" plants used in Mexico. The studies were performed using 27 healthy rabbits with the gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or decoction of the "antidiabetic" plant before the induction of temporary hyperglycemia by subcutaneous injection of 50% dextrose solution (4 ml/kg of weight) at the beginning of the experiment and after 60 min. Blood glucose was determined every 60 min for a period of 5 h. Tolbutamide and eight of the studied plants decreased significantly the hyperglycemia as compared with control test (water) (p Marrubium vulgare, Crataegus pubescens, Cynodon dactylon, Calea zacatechichi, Buddleia americana, Bauhinia divaricata and Coix lachryma. The decrease of hyperglycemia caused by Physalis phyladelphyca, Pavonia schiedeana and Eucaliptus globulus was not significant (p > 0.05). Urtica dioica increased glycemia slightly. PMID:1308793

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazada Siddiqui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, Solanum nigrum Linn, were collected from different localities and screened for their antibacterial activity against phytopathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Among all the tested species, nine plant species viz Acacia nilotica, Ageratum conyzoied, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cleome viscose, Datura stramonium, Euphorbia hirta, Hyptis suaveolens, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Prosopis juliflora and Tridex procumbens showed medium to light antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Significant antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous extracts of Prosopsis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens, Euphorbia hirta and Acacia nilotica

  16. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.T. Paley

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact that elephants represent 78 of the herbivore biomass in the park, it appears likely that elephant feeding restricts the availability of forage for other browsers. Due to the limited time frame of this study, further research is needed to provide a comprehensive record of the elephant diet for all seasons of the year.

  17. Response of bermuda grass to abiotic stress%狗牙根抗非生物胁迫的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    产祝龙; 施海涛; 王艳平

    2013-01-01

    狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)是暖季型草坪草中应用最广泛的草种之一,具有抗性强,生长快、建坪迅速等优点.狗牙根分布广泛,对不同逆境的抗性具有差异性.本文综述了冷害、干旱、渍害、盐分等胁迫对狗牙根生理生化以及分子水平的影响,总结了近10年来相关的研究进展,并对今后有可能深入的研究内容提出了意见和建议.

  18. Dynamics of vegetation development on drained peat soils of the Hula Valley, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Henkin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lake Hula and its neighbouring peatland in the upper Galilee, Israel were drained during the 1950s. For about 40 years after drainage most of the area was under continuous intensive cultivation with rain-fed winter crops and irrigated summer crops. In 1994 an area of about 110 ha of mainly peat soil was re-flooded and 350 ha surrounding it were partly taken out of intensive agricultural use. The surrounding area was still cultivated under rain-fed conditions in the cool winter season, but left fallow during the hot, dry summer. The summer vegetation was mowed periodically to promote the development of a continuous sward cover for recreation and control of wind erosion. The goal of this research was to study the relationship between dynamic changes in the soil and water conditions and the composition and species distribution of the spontaneous summer vegetation. During four consecutive years the vegetation dynamics were characterised by increasing dominance of Cynodon dactylon and Sorghum halepense. Cyperus rotundus, which was common under irrigated cultivation, partly disappeared under the new non-irrigated regime. The density and growth rate of the vegetation mainly reflected differences in the water table depth, which varied between 0.5 m and 3 m. Three years after re-flooding, soil salinity was high in areas where the water table was higher than 0.5 m and in dry patches where almost no cover of vegetation was found. In these sites the concentration of mineral nitrogen (N-NO3 and/or N-NH4 was especially high. A continuous vegetation cover developed on the peat soil in areas where the depth of the water table was between 1 m and 2 m. Mowing the vegetation periodically in summer suppressed the growth of tall, weedy species and promoted the dominance of Cynodon dactylon creating a dense, productive sward.

  19. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros Suffolk alimentados com diferentes volumosos Performance and carcass traits of Suffolk lambs fed with different roughages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Cordeiros da raça Suffolk, desmamados aos 60 dias e confinados, foram alimentados com silagem de milho, silagem de sorgo granífero ou feno de Coast cross (Cynodon dactylon L. Pears e ração concentrada (3,5% do peso vivo, com o objetivo de avaliar seu desempenho, a proporção dos componentes-não-carcaça e o rendimento e características das suas carcaças. Foi utilizado um delineamento completamente casualizado em esquema fatorial (três alimentos volumosos e dois sexos. Os animais alimentados com silagem de milho ou de sorgo mostraram maior (P0,05 pelo tipo de alimento, contudo, os animais alimentados com silagem de milho apresentaram carcaças com maior (P0,05 na proporção de músculos (60,0 e 60,7%. A silagem de sorgo pode substituir a silagem de milho para cordeiros confinados, contudo o uso do feno de gramínea reduz o seu desempenho.Suffolk lambs, weaned at 60 days, were raised in slatted floor pens and fed corn silage, sorghum silage or Coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon L. Pears plus concentrate ration (3,5% of live weight to evaluate their performance, proportion of non-carcass components and carcass dressing and traits. A completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (tree roughage feed X two sexes was used. Lambs fed corn silage or sorghum silage showed greater (P0.05 between feeds, although, lambs fed corn silage showed greater (P0.05 in proportion of muscle (60.0 and 60.7%. Sorghum silage can replace corn silage for feedlot lambs, but grass hay feeding worsens their performance.

  20. Efeito da adição de soro de leite sobre a digestibilidade aparente e os parâmetros sanguíneos de vacas secas Effect of whey addition on apparent digestibility and blood parameters of dry cows

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    F.M. David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adição de soro de leite líquido à dieta sobre os parâmetros sanguíneos e sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da proteína bruta (DAPB, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN e da fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA em 12 vacas Girolando, secas, que receberam feno de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon, suplementado com sal proteinado, e zero (controle, 15, 30 ou 45 litros de soro de leite/dia. A adição de soro na dieta afetou a DAMS e a DAPB (PThe effect of liquid whey addition in the diet on blood parameters and on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, crude protein (ADCP, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADADF was evaluated in 12 dry Gir cows, receiving coastcross (Cynodon dactylon hay supplemented with protein salt and zero (control, 15, 30, or 45 liters of whey per day. The inclusion of the whey in the diet affected the ADDM and ADCP (P<0.01 and had no effect on ADNDF and ADADF. As high the volume of whey inclusion, higher the ADDM and ADCP values. The average values of glucose in blood plasma - 59.3, 64.0, 66.6, and 69.2mg/dL - varied (P<0.01 among treatments, adjusting themselves to positive linear dL regressions. The whey inclusion diminished (P<0.01 blood urea values - 22.83, 20.17, 17.5, and 15.67. The whey improved the efficiency of utilization of nitrogen compounds in the rumen and can be used to complement protein supplements with high levels of urea.

  1. Substituição do milho por farelo de palma forrageira em dietas de ovinos em crescimento: desempenho Replacement of corn by forage cactus meal in growing lambs diets: performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar quatro níveis de substituição do milho (0; 33; 67 e 100% pelo farelo de palma forrageira sobre o desempenho de ovinos em crescimento terminados em confinamento. Vinte carneiros mestiços Santa Inês foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma e cinco repetições. Além do milho e/ou farelo de palma, os animais receberam feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon, como volumoso, farelo de soja, calcário e sal mineral. O ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar diminuíram, enquanto os consumos de FDN e de FDA aumentaram linearmente com a substituição. Os consumos de matéria seca, de proteína bruta, de matéria orgânica e de carboidratos totais e o rendimento de carcaça não foram influenciados pela substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma.The objective of this work was to evaluate four corn replacement levels (0, 33, 67 and 100% by forage cactus meal on performance of feedlot growing lambs. Twenty crossbred lambs were allotted to a completely randomized block design with four treatments (replacement of corn by forage cactus meal and five replications. Besides corn and/or forage cactus meal, the animals were fed Tifton hay (Cynodon dactylon, as forage, soybean meal, limestone and mineral salt. Weight gain and feed:gain ratio decreased and intakes of NDF and ADF increased linearly with corn replacement. The intakes of dry matter, crude protein, organic matter and total carbohydrates and carcass yield were not affected by replacement of corn by forage cactus meal.

  2. 海水胁迫对狗牙根种子萌发的影响%The Effect of Seawater Stress on Seed Germination of Bermuda Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵世光; 孙鑫; 张雷; 郑霞; 梅景; 张辉

    2013-01-01

    To study the saline toleration of Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)Pers.] seeds,the seeds were treated with seawater of different concentrations; and then the seeds germination and seedlings growth were observed.The result showed that the germination rate and germination index under the seawater concentration of 5%,the germination vigor and simplified vigor index under the seawater concentration of 15% had no significant difference from the control group.The semi-lethal salt concentration reached to 20%~30%.It was indicated that the Bermuda grass seeds had well toleration to saline.The low concentration of the seawater could stimulate the growth of the radicles and leaves,the inhibition on the roots were greater than on the leaves when under higher concentration of seawater.%为研究狗牙根[Cynodon dactylon (L.)Pers.]种子对盐碱的耐受性,采用不同浓度的海水处理狗牙根种子,观察其萌发和幼苗生长情况.结果表明,狗牙根种子的发芽率和发芽指数在低于5%海水处理、发芽势和简化活力指数在低于15%海水处理时,均与对照组差异不显著;其耐盐半致死浓度为20%~30%,说明狗牙根种子对盐碱具有一定的耐受性.低浓度海水可以刺激狗牙根幼苗根、叶的生长,而较高浓度海水对狗牙根幼苗根的抑制程度大于叶.

  3. Tolerance of Grasses to Heavy Metals and Microbial Functional Diversity in Soils Contaminated with Copper Mine Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Ying; LUO Yong-Ming; HUANG Chang-Yong; LONG Jian; LI Zhen-Gao; P.CHRISTIE

    2008-01-01

    Copper (Cu) mine tallings,because of their high content of heavy metals,are usually hostile to plant colonization.A pot experiment was conducted to determine the tolerance of four forage grasses to heavy metals in Cu mine tailings and to examine the variation in the microbial functional diversity of soils from the tailing sites in southern China.All the four grass species survived on Cu mine tailings and Cu mine tailing-soil mixture.However,on pure mine tailings,the growth was minimal,whereas the growth was maximum for the control without mine railings.The tolerance of grasses to heavy metals followed the sequence: Paspalum notatum >Festuca arundinacea >Lolium perenne >Cynodon dactylon.The planting of forage grasses enhanced the soil microbial biomass.The Biolog data indicated that the soil microbial metabolic profile values (average well color development,community richness,and Shannon index) of the four forage grasses also followed the sequence: P.notatum > F.arundinacea > L.perenne > C.dactylon.Thus,P.notatum,under the experimental conditions of this study,may be considered as the preferred plant species for revegetation of Cu mine tailing areas.

  4. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  5. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against three mosquito vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Bagavan; A Abdul Rahuman

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of plant extracts. Methods: The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf, flower and seed extracts of Abrusprecatorius (A. precatorius), Croton bonplandianum (C. bonplandianum), Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon), Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) were tested against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles vagus (An. vagus), Armigeres subalbatus(Ar. subalbatus) and Culex vishnui (Cx. vishnui). Results: The highest larval mortality was found in seed ethyl acetate extracts of A. precatorius and leaf extracts of C. bonplandianum, flower chloroform and methanol extracts of M. paradisiaca, and flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against An. vagus with LC50 values of 19.31, 39.96, 35.18, 79.90 and 85.90 μg/mL; leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. dactylon, flower methanol extract of M. paradisiaca, flower bud methanol extract of S. aromaticum against Ar. subalbatus with LC50 values of 21.67, 32.62, 48.90 and 78.28 μg/mL, and seed methanol of A. precatorius, flower methanol extract ofM. paradisiaca , flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against Cx. vishnui with LC50 values of 136.84, 103.36 and 149.56 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of crude solvent extracts of different mosquitoes.

  6. INVENTARISASI HIJAUAN PAKAN KUDA PACUAN DI NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

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    Sudirman Sudirman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacuan kuda dilaksanakan setiap tahun di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat yang diikuti oleh tidak kurang dari 700 ekor kuda pacuan dalam lima kelas lomba. Kegiatan ini umumnya berlangsung selama 1-2 minggu di Pulau Sumbawa dan senantiasa menjadi agenda hiburan rakyat serangkaian dengan acara perayaan hari-hari besar nasional maupun regional dan/atau lokal. Selama kurun waktu tersebut, semua kuda yang akan dilombakan diberikan pakan berupa hijauan dari jenis tumbuhan tertentu dan/atau spesifik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 menginventarisisr jenis-jenis tumbuhan yang dijadikan hijauan pakan kuda pacuan selama lomba berlangsung, dan (2 mengkaji komposisi nutrisi jenis hijauan pakan dimaksud. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data pada penelitian ini adalah metode observasi dan wawancara. Semua kuda pacuan yang berasal dari beberapa kabupaten di provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat yangmengikuti lomba pacuan kuda di kabupaten Sumbawa tahun 2012 diamati pemberian pakannya, kemudian dilakukan identifikasi dan analisis komposisi nutrisi jenis hijauan yang diberikan. Untuk mengetahui jenis pakan yang diberikan, dilakukan pengamatan langsung dan wawancara dengan peternak kuda pacuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tercatat 9 jenis tumbuhan (2 famili, 8 marga yang diberikan pada kuda pacuan selama lomba berlangsung, yaitu Alysicarpus vaginalis (Fabaceae, Desmodium dichotomum (Fabaceae, Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae, Cynodon sp. (Poaceae, Dactyloctenium aegyptium (Poaceae, Brachiaria sp. (Poaceae, Eleusine indica (Poaceae, Eulalia fimbriata (Poaceae dan Leersia hexandra (Poaceae. Hijauan pakan diberikan pada kuda pacuan dalam bentuk pakan tunggal maupun kombinasi diantara jenis-jenis tumbuhan tersebut dengan komposisi nutrisi yang berbeda.

  7. Nitrogen and carbohydrate fractions in exclusive Tifton 85 and in pasture oversown with annual winter forage species - 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i1.11428

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    Ana Claudia Ruggieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was undertaken at the Faculty of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, during winter-spring-summer of 2001-2002, to determine the fractionation of nitrogen and carbohydrates in Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Vanderyst x Cynodon nlemfuensis (L. Pers, exclusively or oversown with winter annual forage species. Treatments comprised bristle oat (Avena strigosa Schreb, yellow oat (Avena byzantina C. Koch, triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, bristle oat + yellow oat, bristle oat + triticale, yellow oat + triticale, bristle oat + yellow oat + triticale seeded in Tifton 85 and sole crop (control. Experimental design was composed of completely randomized blocks with three replications. Fodder was cut 20 cm high (presence of winter forage and 10 cm high (Tifton 85 pasture. Crude protein, total carbohydrate and the fractions of nitrogen compounds and carbohydrates were determined. Decrease was reported in the levels of chemical compounds in winter forage species and in Tifton 85 during the evaluation periods. The content of nitrogen compounds and carbohydrates varied widely during the evaluation period according to the morphological characteristics of grass species and botanical composition of pastures.

  8. Controle de Brachiaria brizantha com uso do glyphosate após o estabelecimento de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. Control of Brachiaria brizantha with glyphosate's after Tifton's 85 (Cynodon spp. establishment

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    M.V. Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência do glyphosate no controle de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu em áreas de cultivo do Tifton 85 foi avaliada utilizando o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com oito doses de glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 1.800 g ha-1, e quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída de um vaso com duas plantas de B. brizantha cv. Marandu e duas plantas de Tifton-85. A aplicação do herbicida foi feita quando as plantas de B. brizantha apresentavam cerca de 40 cm de altura. O nível de intoxicação nas plantas de Tifton 85 e a eficiência do herbicida no controle de B. brizantha foram avaliados aos 15, 30 e 60 dias após aplicação (DAA. Aos 60 DAA, as plantas foram colhidas ao nível do solo e secas em estufa. A rebrota foi avaliada, do mesmo modo, aos 60 dias após o corte (DAC. Obeservou-se controle superior a 90% de B. brizantha, a partir da dose de 738,28 g ha-1 de glyphosate, enquanto a intoxicação para as plantas de Tifton 85 foi de apenas 12,05. Aos 60 DAA, houve redução na produção de massa seca de braquiária a partir da dose de 90 g ha-1. Doses superiores a 720 g ha-1 diminuíram o crescimento e desenvolvimento do Tifton 85, afetando sua produção, sem, no entanto, ocasionar a morte das plantas. Os resultados evidenciam boa tolerância do Tifton 85 até a dose de 720 g ha-1 de glyphosate.No information is available on selective herbicide to control Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu on established pasture of 'Tifton 85'. This work evaluated the selectivity of glyphosate to Tifton 85 culture, using a randomized block design, with eight glyphosate rates (0; 90; 180; 360; 720; 1.080; 1.440 and 1.800 g ha-1 , and four replications. Each plot consisted of a pot with two Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu plants and two 'Tifton-85' plants. Herbicide was applied when Brachiaria was around 40 cm high. After 15, 30 and 60 days of application (DAA, intoxication level on Tifton plants and herbicide efficiency on Brachiaria control were evaluated. At 60 DAA, the plants were cut and dried in a greenhouse, and the sprouts evaluated 60 days after cut. Under 738.28 g ha-1 of glyphosate, 90% of the Brachiaria brizantha plants were controlled, while Tifton plant intoxication was observed only at 12.05%. At 60 DAA, Brachiaria dry matter production decreased from 90 g ha-1 , with total control of these plants being observed at the rate of 738.28 g ha-1. Rates higher than 720 g ha-1 reduced the growth and development of Tifton 85, affecting its production without, however, leading to death of the plants. The results evidenced good selectivity for glyphosate to Tifton 85 culture up to 720 g ha-1.

  9. Produção e qualidade do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst = Production and quality of milk from Holstein cows fed stargrass silages (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst

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    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade do leite produzido por vacas da raça Holandesa no terço final da lactação, alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de inoculante ou uréia em relação à silagem de milho. Foram avaliadas silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de aditivo enzimo-bacteriano na dosagem de 80 g deinoculante/tonelada, uréia na dosagem de 7 kg t-1 e silagem de milho. Para avaliação do desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade foram utilizadas seis vacas da raça Holandesas com peso médio de 480 kg distribuídas em delineamento (duplo quadrado latino (3 x 3. Asdigestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram maiores para a silagem de milho. O fornecimento de silagens de grama estrela com aditivo e com uréia não interferiu na produção e qualidade do leite, mostrando-se como alternativa para sistemas de produção animal com base emvolumosos conservados mediante a análise econômica da substituição da silagem de milho.The study aimed to evaluate animal performance and quality of milk from Holstein cows during the final third period of lactation fed stargrass silages supplied with inoculant or urea in relation to corn silage. Stargrass silages with enzymatic-bacterial inoculant (80 g of additive/ton of silage, urea supply (7 kg t-1 and corn silage were evaluated. Six Holstein cows with an average body weight of 480 kg were allocated in a double Latin square design (3 x 3. Corn silagepresented the highest values of DM, CP and NDF digestibility when compared to stargrass silages. Supplying Holstein cows with stargrass silages with additive and urea did not promote any effect on production and milk quality. Thus, it can be an alternative in animalproduction systems based on conserved roughage, depending on economical analysis for the replacement of corn silage.

  10. Ruminal degradability and carbohydrate fractioning of stargrass silages (Cynodon nlemfuensis vanderyst. with different additives/ Degradabilidade ruminal e fracionamento de carboidratos de silagens de grama estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis vanderyst. com diferentes aditivos

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    Maria da Graça Morais

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate in this trial the effect of additive and urea supplies on ruminal degradabilty and carbohydrates fractioning of stargrass silages. There were evaluated silage without additive (SGE, silage with enzymatic-bacterial additive (SGE150 and SGE300 respectively, 150 and 300 g of additive/ton of silage and silage with urea (SGEU, 10 kg/ton. Three Holstein steers were used in blocks randomizeds design for ruminal degradability assay. The effective degradability (ED of DM and NDF were higher (P 0.05 among treatments. Silages with additive presented the lowest values (P Objetivou-se com o estudo avaliar o efeito de aditivo enzimo-bacteriano e de uréia sobre a degradabilidade ruminal e o fracionamento de carboidratos em silagens de grama estrela. Foram avaliadas silagens sem aditivo (SGE e com aplicação de aditivo enzimo-bacteriano (SGE150 e SE300, respectivamente 150 e 300g aditivo/tonelada e uréia (SGEU, 10 kg/tonelada. Para o ensaio de degradabilidade foram utilizados três bois da raça Holandesa distribuídos em blocos casualizados. A degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS e da FDN foram maiores para o tratamento SGE300 em todas as taxas de passagem. Para a DE da PB houve diferença (p < 0,05 para o tratamento SGEU. Os carboidratos totais (CHT tiveram os maiores valores para o tratamento SGE, enquanto que, para as frações A+B1 e B2 não houve efeito significativo entre os tratamentos. Para a fração C os menores valores foram para os tratamentos com inoculante. Conclui-se que a aplicação do inoculante ou uréia não melhoraram a degradabilidade potencial (DP das silagens de grama estrela em relação ao tratamento isento da aplicação de inoculante.

  11. Aspects related to production e storage of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay with white oat IPR 126 and Guapa oversowing

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    João Paulo Ames

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics, curve dehydration, dry matter production, chemical composition, occurrence of fungi, temperature in the storage of hay bales of Tifton 85 oversowing with long-cycle oat (IPR 126 and oats for short-cycle grains production (Guapa, were evaluated. For chemical composition, the experimental design used was randomized blocks, a split-plot overtime and 3 treatments (single Tifton 85, Tifton 85 with IPR 126 oat oversowing and Tifton 85 in association with Guapa white oat and 3 assessment periods (cutting, baling and 30 days of storage with 5 repetitions. The dry matter production was higher in single Tifton 85 compared to associations with white oat. The largest stem diameter of guapa white oat contributed to reduce losses of water in the dehydration process, with the hay in this culture system being stored under 800 g kg-1 DM. It was found that the crude protein did not differ between cropping systems, but Tifton 85 hay showed high levels of acid detergent insoluble protein and higher levels of NDF and lignin. The occurrence of fungi was higher after storage predominating fungi of the genus Penicillium.

  12. 铬污染地区植物重金属含量特征与耐性植物筛选研究%Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Plants Growing on Cr Contaminated Area and Cr-Tolerant Plants Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑施雯; 魏远; 顾红波; 朱建林; 李小明; 江泽平

    2011-01-01

    通过研究浙江温州某制革区土壤与植物重金属含量及其与土壤污染之间的关系,初步筛选了适合于土壤铬污染生态修复的植物种质资源.调查共记录25种高等植物,分属13科.主要优势物种有:狗牙根、灰绿藜、藿香蓟、牛蘩缕、牛筋草、蔊菜、反枝苋和四季竹.狗牙根、灰绿藜、牛筋草、蔊菜和反枝苋宜作为Cr污染土壤生态修复的先锋植物.污染区Cr耐性植物地上部分的Cr含量为110.26~774.05 mg·ks-1,平均值为280.95 mg·kg-1;根部Cr含量为774.05~2 334.56 mg·ks-1,平均值为1 229.75 mg·ks-1.狗牙根积累的Cr含量最高,地上部分与根分别为774.05、2 334.56 mg·kg-1.植物体中的重金属含量与土壤重金属含量呈弱相关性,而植物地上部分Cr含量与根部Cr含量以及地上部分Cr富集系数与根Cr富集系数均呈显著正相关,地上部分富集系数越大,根的富集能力越高.%The research focused on heavy metal concentrations of soil and plants in Wenzhou' s tanning zone in Zhejiang Province of East China and relationship with soil pollution. The available plant germplasm resources for Cr contaminated soil restoration were initially definited. Twenty-five species belonging to 13 families were found in the polluted area, including 8 dominant species: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pets. , Chenopodium glaucum Linn. , Ageratum conyzoides Linn. , Malachium aquaticum ( L. ) Fries, Eleusine indica ( Linn. ) Gaertn. , Rorippa indica (Linn.) Hiem, Amaranthus retrofiexus Linn. and Oligostachyum lubricum (Wen) Keng f. The investigation showed that Cynodon dactylon (Linn) Pers. , Chenopodium glaucum , Eleusine indica (Linn) Gaertn, Rorippa montana (Linn) Hiern, Amaranthus retrofiexus Linn. were the adaptive pioneer species for soil ecological restoration.Cr concentrations in the aboveground were 110. 26 -774. 05 mg · kg-1, and the average value was 280. 95 mg ·kg-1; concentrations in roots were 774. 05 -2 334. 56 mg · kg

  13. Levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens de várzea no Estado do Amazonas Phytosociological assessment of pastures under flooded low land conditions in the State of Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.L. Galvão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens é uma importante ferramenta de suporte às recomendações de manejo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar um levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens de várzea do município de Autazes-AM. O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas de várzea sazonalmente inundadas, localizadas nesse município. No estudo, utilizou-se o método do quadrado, aplicado por meio de um quadrado de 1,0 m², lançado ao acaso 31 vezes em cada área de três hectares. Nas duas áreas foram encontrados 27.706 indivíduos, distribuídos em 12 famílias e 22 espécies. As famílias mais importantes em número de espécies nas duas áreas foram Poaceae (7 e Cyperaceae (4. Brachiaria subquadripara mostrou, nas duas áreas, maiores valores de frequência, densidade, abundância e IVI. As espécies que apresentaram maiores valores de IVI na área 1 foram: B. subquadripara (118,45, Paspalum fasciculatum (51,25, Cynodon dactylon (46,99 e Lindernia crustacea (25,25, e na área 2 foram: B. subquadripara (111,66, C. dactylon (55,44, Acroceras zizanioides (33,70 e L. crustacea (24,91. Em ambas as áreas, a família Poaceae representou mais de 90% do total de indivíduos encontrados, e algumas espécies apresentaram bom potencial forrageiro.The phytosociological assessment of pastures is an important support tool for management recommendations. The objective of this work was to make a phytosociological assessment of flooded low land in Autazes-Amazon, Brazil. The study was carried out in two areas that had been flooded in the past. The inventory square method was applied using a square frame of 1.0 m², randomly thrown 31 times in each area of three hectares. In these two areas, 27,706 individuals were found, distributed in 12 families and 22 species. The most important families in number of species in the two areas were Poaceae (7 and Cyperaceae (4. Brachiaria subquadripara presented higher frequency, density, abundance and IVI

  14. Effect of simulated acid rain stress on germination of four turf grass seeds%模拟酸雨胁迫对4种草坪草种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田如男; 张培东; 程澄

    2011-01-01

    以中性溶液(pH =7.0)为对照,研究了模拟酸雨(pH为2.0、2.5、3.0、3.5、4.0、5.0)胁迫对黑麦草(Lolium perenne)、高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、匍匐剪股颖(Agrostis palustris)和狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)4种多年生草坪草种子萌发的影响.结果表明:酸雨胁迫对4种草坪草种子萌发的影响不同,pH =2.0的酸雨完全抑制了4种草坪草种子的萌发,表现为发芽率、发芽势、活力指数均为零.黑麦草、高羊茅种子能在pH:≥2.5的酸雨胁迫下正常萌发,匍匐剪股颖种子能在pH≥3.0的酸雨胁迫下正常萌发,狗牙根种子在不同程度酸雨胁迫下均萌发不良.此外,酸雨胁迫还延缓了4种草坪草种子的萌发进程.应用主成分分析和隶属函数分析法对4种草坪草种子抗酸雨胁迫能力进行综合评定,得出4种草坪草种子抗酸雨胁迫能力由强到弱的顺序依次为高羊茅、黑麦草、匍匐剪股颖、狗牙根.%The seeds of Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea, Agrostis palustris and Cynodon dactylon were treated with simulated acid rain at pH 2.0,2.5,3.0,3.5,4. 0,5.0 and 7. 0(as control) to study the effects of acid rain on their germination. The results showed that the seeds germination of four turf grass under acid rain stress were affected at different levels. Acid rain intensity pH 2.0 completely inhibited the seed germination of turf grass, showing no germination was observed and germination energy and vigor index was 0.0. The seeds of L. Perenne and F. Arundinacea could germinate normally under acid rain stress (pH^2. 5) ,and the seeds of A. Paluslris could germinate normally under acid rain stress (pH^3.0).The seeds of C. Dactylon germinated poorly under acid rain stress. In addition, the process of germination became slow under acid rain stress. The comprehensive evaluation results derived from principal components analysis and subordinate function analysis showed the order (from strong to weak) of anti-acid rain ability

  15. Desenvolvimento de gramados submetidos à aplicação de retardadores de crescimento em diferentes condições de luminosidade Development of turfgrass submitted to application of growth regulators under different light conditions

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    C.D.G. Maciel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento das gramas Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon, Esmeralda (Zoysia japonica e São Carlos (Axonopus compressus submetidas a subdoses de herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento em duas condições de luminosidade, três experimentos foram conduzidos em estufa plástica em Paraguaçu Paulista-SP, de setembro a dezembro de 2006. Para cada espécie de grama, o delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 x 2, com quatro repetições; foram estudados dois reguladores de crescimento (trinexapac-ethyl e ethephon e três herbicidas aplicados em subdoses (clethodim, imazethapyr e metsulfuron-methyl e uma testemunha sem aplicação. Todos os tratamentos foram avaliados em duas condições de luminosidade, representadas por ausência de sombreamento (0% e sombreamento parcial (50%. Os resultados obtidos aos 63 dias após aplicação evidenciaram que o trinexapac-ethyl (250 g ha¹, clethodim (12 g ha-1 e imazethapyr (12 g ha-1 apresentaram-se como os melhores retardadores do desenvolvimento vegetativo das gramas C. dactylon (65,8, 29,6 e 18,7%, Z. japonica (66,2, 40,7 e 49,7% e A. compressus (56,5, 10,3 e 17,2% e da emissão de inflorescências de C. dactylon (100,0, 95,9 e 89,6%, em baixa e alta luminosidade. Os tratamentos ethephon (300 g ha-1 e metsulfuron-methyl (3,6 g ha-1 destacaram-se como as melhores opções para redução do desenvolvimento vegetativo (15,5 e 26,7% e da matéria seca das raízes (34,7 e 33,9% da grama São Carlos (A. compressus, quando comparados ao trinexapac-ethyl. Para gramados de C. dactylon e Z. japonica, em condições em que a preservação da estética é fundamental, os herbicidas clethodim e imazethapyr podem substituir o regulador de crescimento trinexapac-ethyl, em razão do menor dano visual no gramado. Novos estudos com reguladores de crescimentos e subdoses de herbicidas devem ser conduzidos com outras gramas cultivadas, de forma a

  16. Consumo de forragem e desempenho de vacas Holandesas sob pastejo em gramíneas tropicais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.549 Forage intake and performance of Holstein lactating cows fed on tropical grassland pastures - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.549

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    Daniel Portella Montardo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a estrutura das pastagens de Capim Elefante Anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott (CEA e Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon nlemfuensis (T85 e sua relação com o consumo de forragem e desempenho de vacas em lactação. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2004/05, em área da Escola Estadual Técnica Celeste Gobbato, em Palmeira das Missões, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas-teste da raça Holandesa, alimentadas exclusivamente com as pastagens, em pastejo contínuo, distribuídas em dois piquetes por tratamento. As densidades de forragem foram mais altas no T85 que no CEA, em função da maior produção de forragem. Os estratos do dossel forrageiro mais acessíveis ao consumo pelos animais (acima de 20 e 10 cm de altura para CEA e T85, respectivamente apresentaram estruturas distintas, mas o consumo de forragem e a produção de leite foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos. A composição química destas camadas foi similar à das respectivas simulações de pastejo em ambas forrageiras, indicando a determinação da composição química nos estratos mais acessíveis ao pastejo como ferramenta útil nas inferências sobre a qualidade da forragem potencialmente consumível. Pastagens tropicais podem proporcionar produções de leite acima de 17 kg vaca-1 dia-1, mesmo sem uso de suplementação.The structure of Dwarf Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott (DEG and Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon nlemfuensis (T85 pastures and its relation with forage intake and the performance of lactating cows were evaluated. The trial was conducted in the growth season of 2004/05, in an area belonging to the Celeste Gobbato State Technical School, in the city of Palmeira das Missões, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Twelve Holstein cows were used as testers, fed exclusively on pasture under continuous grazing, in two paddocks per treatment. Forage density was higher on T85 than in

  17. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals in natural plants thriving on wastewater effluent at Hattar industrial estate, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Pervez, Arshid; Inoue, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the potential of native plants for the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals (HM). Thirteen predominant plant species (including trees, bushes and grasses) namely Ricinus communis, Ipomoea carnea, Cannabis sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia modesta, Solanum nigrum, Xanthium stromarium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and Dactyloctenium aegyptium were collected from the wastewater originated from Hattar industrial estate of Pakistan, Plants shoots and roots were analyzed for heavy metals/metalloid: Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, and As. Among plant species, the accumulation potential for HM varied depending on the type of element. Regardless of the plant species, HM concentrations varied in the order of Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Ni>Cd>As. Tree species of R. communis, A. nilotica, A. modesta, and D. sissoo exhibited an enhanced concentrations of metals. Accumulation pattern of Fe, Pb, Cd, and As in plants could be related to the HM composition of soil and wastewater. Most of the species exhibited higher HM composition in the root as compared to shoot. The species that found with greater ability to absorb HM in the root, got higher HM concentrations in its shoot. Shoot tissue concentrations of HM were attained by the species as D. sissoo>A. modesta>A. nilotica>R. communis>I. carnea>C. album>E. indica>P. hysterophorus>S. nigrum>C. sativa>D. aegyptium>X. strumarium>C. dactylon. Based on results, tree plants were noticed as higher accumulators of HM in polluted soils. PMID:25254600

  18. Produção e qualidade de forragem da mistura de aveia e azevém sob dois métodos de estabelecimento Forage production and quality of oats and ryegrass mixture under two establishment methods

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    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, comparou-se a sobre-semeadura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. em pastagem de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. ao cultivo estreme como métodos de implantação de pastagens de inverno em sistema de pastejo rotacionado com vacas holandesas em lactação. Foram avaliados a produção total de MS (PTF, a massa de forragem de entrada (MFE, o resíduo (RES, as perdas de forragem (PD, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS (TAD, a carga animal (CA, a oferta de forragem (OF e a biomassa de lâminas foliares (BLF. Para determinação da composição botânica, foram separados em cada espécie (aveia, azevém e coastcross os componentes estruturais folha, colmo e material senescente. Na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem, foram colhidas amostras por simulação de pastejo para determinação dos teores de PB e FDN. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos para PTF, MFE, RES, PD, TAD, OF e CA. A oferta média de lâminas foliares foi de 1,3±0,67 kg LF/100 kg PV. A sobre-semeadura proporcionou maior biomassa de lâminas foliares disponibilizando forragem com maior teor de PB e menor de FDN na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem.The oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sodseeding in pasture of coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. was compared to oats and ryegrass in extreme tillage, as establishment methods of winter pastures under rotational stocking with lactating Holstein dairy cows. The total DM production (DMP, pre-grazed herbage mass, residue (RES, forage losses (FL, daily DM accumulation rate (DAR, stocking rate (SR, forage on offer (FO and leaf blade biomass (LBB were evaluated. For botanical composition, oats, ryegrass and coastcross were separated in the structural components: leaves, stems and dead material. Hand plucking samples for CP and NDF determinations were collected during pre- and post-grazing. The DMP, HM, RES, FL, DAR, SR and FO were not

  19. Perfil de n-alcanos em cinco espécies de plantas forrageiras tropicais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i3.1207 Profile of n-alkanes in five species of plants tropical forages - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i3.1207

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    Antônio Ferriani Branco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o perfil de n-alcanos em espécies de gramíneas (Brachiaria brizantha, Cynodon dactylon e Panicum maximum e leguminosas (Arachis pintoi e Glycine wightii. Foram identificados e quantificados por meio de cromatografia gasosa, os n-alcanos C24 a C35, sendo C32 e C34 padrões internos. As concentrações dos n-alcanos nas diferentes espécies e respectivas frações (lâminas foliares, colmos porções superior e inferior e matéria morta para gramíneas; folhas, caule porção superior e inferior e matéria morta para leguminosas foram submetidas à análise de variância e teste de média (Tukey. Nos períodos de primavera e inverno, para a maioria das espécies e frações, há predomínio dos n-alcanos de cadeia ímpar. Houve maior concentração de C29, C31 e C33 na primavera, C27, C28, C29, C30 e C31, no verão e C27, C29, C31 e C33 no invernoThis experiment aimed to study the profile of n-alkanes in tropical grasses species (Brachiaria brizantha, Cynodon dactylon and Panicum maximum and legumes (Arachis pintoi and Glycine wightii. They were identified and quantified, through gas cromatography, the n-alkanes C24 to C35, being the alkanes C32 and C34 internal indices. The n-alkanes concentrations in the different species and respective fractions (leaf blade, stem higher and lower portion and dead matter for grasses; leaves, stem higher portion, stem lower portion and dead matter for legumes were submitted to variance analysis and mean test (Tukey. For most of the species and fractions, there is prevalence of odd chain n-alkanes during springtime and winter. There was larger concentration of the alkanes C29, C31 and C33 in springtime, C27, C28, C29, C30 and C31 in summer and C27, C29, C31 and C33 in winter

  20. Diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community

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    Ran Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both composition and aggregation patterns of species in a community are the outcome of community self-organizing. In this paper we conducted analysis on species diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community, Zhuhai, China. According to the sampling survey, in total of 47 plant species, belonging to 16 families, were found. Compositae had 10 species (21.3%, seconded by Gramineae (9 species, 19.1%, Leguminosae (6 species, 12.8%, Cyperaceae (4 species, 8.5%, and Malvaceae (3 species, 6.4%. The results revealed that the means of aggregation indices Iδ, I and m*/m were 21.71, 15.71 and 19.89 respectively and thus individuals of most of plant species strongly followed aggregative distribution. Iwao analysis indicated that both individuals of all species and clumps of all individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution. Taylor's power law indicated that individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution and aggregation intensity strengthened as the increase of mean density. We held that the strong aggregation intensity of a species has been resulted from the strong adaptation ability to the environment, the strong interspecific competition ability and the earlier establishment of the species. Fitting goodness of the mean, I, Iδ, m*/m with probability distributions demonstrated that the mean (density, I, Iδ, and m*/m over all species followed Weibull distribution rather than normal distribution. Lophatherum gracile, Paederia scandens (Lour. Merr., Eleusine indica, and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. were mostly aggregative, and Oxalis sp., Eleocharis plantagineiformis, Vernonia cinerea (L. Less., and Sapium sebiferum (L. Roxb, were mostly uniform in the spatial distribution. Importance values (IV showed that Cynodon dactylon was the most important species, seconded by Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Cajanus scarabaeoides (L. Benth., Paspalum scrobiculatum L., and Rhynchelytrum repens. Oxalis

  1. Use of slow release urea in the mineral supplementation of beef cattle Tifton-85 pastureUtilização de uréia de liberação lenta em sal mineral na suplementação de bovinos de corte em pastagem de Tifton-85

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    Wagner Paris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work to evaluate the effect of supplementation of urea release slow partial substitution of urea present in the common protein salt of heifers grazin Tifton-85 during the winter. The study was coducted in the period from May to September 2010. In an area of ??11.6 hectares of grazing Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon, divided into four paddocks of 2.9 acres, 36 heifers were kept testers (½ Red Angus ½ Nellore, treated as follows: Only mineralized salt (SM protein salt with urea (SP; protein salt with 25% substitution of urea by slow degradation of urea (SPLD25 and protein salt with 50% substitution of urea by slow degradation of urea (SPLD50. There was no effect of different sources of supplementation on animal performance (P>0.05. However, differences were observed between the experimental periods, in consequence of the variation in chemical and structural composition of the forage. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da suplementação com uréia de liberação lenta em substituição parcial da uréia comum, presente no sal proteinado de novilhas pastejando em capim Tifton-85 no período do inverno. O trabalho foi realizado no período de maio a setembro de 2010, em uma área de 11,6 hectares de pastagem de Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon, dividida em quatro piquetes de 2,9 hectares. Foram mantidas 36 novilhas testers (½ Red Angus ½ Nelore, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: apenas sal mineralizado (SM; sal proteinado com uréia (SP; sal proteinado com 25% de substituição da uréia por uréia de lenta degradação (SPLD25; e sal proteinado com 50% de substituição da uréia por uréia de lenta degradação (SPLD50. Não houve efeito das diferentes fontes de suplementação sobre o desempenho dos animais (P > 0,05, sendo recomendado a utilização de sal mineralizado que apresenta menor custo.

  2. Efeitos da substituição do milho pelo resíduo de panificação sobre as características de carcaça de novilhos da raça Holandesa Effects of corn replacement by bakery waste on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Holstein steers

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    Roberta Passini

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de resíduo de panificação (RP em substituição ao milho na dieta de novilhos da raça Holandesa sobre rendimento de carcaça e qualidade da carne. Foram aplicados quatro tratamentos, respectivamente, 0, 10, 20 e 30% de RP em substituição ao milho, na mistura de concentrados. Os animais foram alimentados com ração completa peletizada, contendo 30% de feno de Coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon L. como volumoso. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, totalizando 20 animais. O experimento teve início quando os animais atingiram 90 kg de peso vivo e durou 120 dias. Ao término do experimento os animais foram abatidos, sendo avaliados rendimento de carcaça e porcentagem de cortes comerciais, composição e qualidade da carne. A qualidade da carne foi avaliada por intermédio da coloração, maciez e composição química (umidade, gordura, proteína e minerais. Os resultados não mostraram diferenças entre os tratamentos para os parâmetros estudados. Portanto, o resíduo de panificação pode ser considerado uma fonte alternativa viável para a alimentação dos novilhos, em comparação com o milho.The effects of the addition of bakery waste (BW replacing corn in the diet of Holstein steers was studied on carcass dressing and meat quality. Four treatments were applied, respectively, 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of bakery waste replacing corn in the concentrated mixture. The animals were fed with complete pelleted mixtures, with 30% of Coast-cross hay (Cynodon dactylon L. as roughage. A randomized block design with four treatments and five repetitions, total of 20 animals, was used. The experiment began when the calves reached 90 kg of live weight and lasted for 120 days. At the end of experiment, the animals were slaughtered and carcass dressing, commercial cuts and meat composition and quality were evaluated. The meat quality was evaluated by color

  3. Incorporação de uréia encapsulada em suplementos protéicos fornecidos para novilhos alimentados com feno de baixa qualidade Incorporation of coated urea in protein supplements supplied to steers fed with low quality hay

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    Eduardo Bohrer de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da suplementação com uréia encapsulada ou normal sobre a utilização de volumoso de baixa qualidade em novilhos. Os tratamentos foram: Feno + sal mineralizado; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia comum; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia encapsulada fórmula 1; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia encapsulada fórmula 2. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. de baixa qualidade (PB: 4,62%, FDN: 83,46%. Foram realizadas medidas de digestibilidade, consumo e cinética digestiva. A relação entre o consumo de proteína degradável no rúmen e o consumo de matéria orgânica digestível foi maior (P0,05, ao comparar suplementados ou não suplementados com PDR, e da mesma forma ao comparar fontes de nitrogênio não-protéico. A suplementação de proteína degradável no rúmen não foi efetiva em alterar os parâmetros estudados, assim como as fontes de uréia encapsulada mostraram respostas semelhantes à uréia comum.A trial was accomplished with the objective to verify the effect of the coated or common urea supplementation on the utilization of low quality hay in steers. The treatments were: hay + mineral supplement; hay + protein supplement with common urea; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 1; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 2. Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. hay of low quality (CP: 4.62%, NDF: 83.46% was used. The measures were: digestibility, intake and digestive kinetics. The relation between degradable intake protein and digestible organic mater intake was highest (P0.05 when compared the supplemented or not supplemented diets with DIP and in the same way, when compared the non-protein nitrogen sources. The ruminal degradable protein supplementation was not effective for modifying the studied parameters, as well as, the coated urea sources showed to be similar to the common urea.

  4. Perennial grasses for recovery of the aggregation capacity of a reconstructed soil in a coal mining area in southern Brazil

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    Lizete Stumpf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a soil after surface coal mining involves heavy machinery traffic during the topographic regeneration of the area, resulting in compaction of the relocated soil layers. This leads to problems with water infiltration and redistribution along the new profile, causing water erosion and consequently hampering the revegetation of the reconstructed soil. The planting of species useful in the process of soil decompaction is a promising strategy for the recovery of the soil structural quality. This study investigated the influence of different perennial grasses on the recovery of reconstructed soil aggregation in a coal mining area of the Companhia Riograndense de Mineração, located in Candiota-RS, which were planted in September/October 2007. The treatments consisted of planting: T1- Cynodon dactylon cv vaquero; T2 - Urochloa brizantha; T3 - Panicum maximun; T4 - Urochloa humidicola; T5 - Hemarthria altissima; T6 - Cynodon dactylon cv tifton 85. Bare reconstructed soil, adjacent to the experimental area, was used as control treatment (T7 and natural soil adjacent to the mining area covered with native vegetation was used as reference area (T8. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected in October/2009 (layers 0.00-0.05 and 0.10-0.15 m to determine the percentage of macro- and microaggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD of aggregates, organic matter content, bulk density, and macro- and microporosity. The lower values of macroaggregates and MWD in the surface than in the subsurface layer of the reconstructed soil resulted from the high degree of compaction caused by the traffic of heavy machinery on the clay material. After 24 months, all experimental grass treatments showed improvements in soil aggregation compared to the bare reconstructed soil (control, mainly in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, particularly in the two Urochloa treatments (T2 and T4 and Hemarthria altissima (T5. However, the great differences between the

  5. [Effect of Soil and Dominant Plants on Mercury Speciation in Soil and Water System of Water-Level-Fluctuation Zone in the Three Gorges Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Wang, Yong-min; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Ya-wei; An, Si-wei; Wang, Ding-yong

    2016-03-15

    Plentiful plants in the water-level-fluctuation-zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir ( TGR) grow vigorously during the non-flooded period, especially the herbaceous ones. Then, the WLFZ is submerged gradually from the end of September. Soil-plant system that under a long time flooded condition may change the form of mercury, thus resulting in a secondary pollution of the water environment in TGR. To understand the characteristics of mercury species in soils and water after submerged, four kinds of typical plants from TGR were tested in the lab under submerged condition. The results indicated that the plants could promote the formation of soil methylmercury ( MeHg) , and had a significant effect on the different forms of mercury concentrations of the overlying water during inundation. Cynodon dactylon as the dominant species in WLFZ, because of its higher content of total mercury ( THg ) and methylmercury, the effect on MeHg and the other forms of mercury in the soil and the overlying water system was obvious. After 90 days, the soil MeHg level was the highest in Cynodon dactylon & soil & water treatment (B1) [(1,135.86 ± 113.84) ng · kg⁻¹]. It was approximately 2 times less than that of the soil MeHg in soil & water treatment (CK2) . The variation characteristics of total mercury (THg), reactive mercury (RHg) , dissolved mercury (DHg), total methylmercury (TMeHg) and dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) of overlying water all showed a parabolic shape with a peak skewed to the left, and the peak was reached on the 30th day. Meanwhile, TMeHg, THg and DHg in B1 treatment were the highest, which were (2.88 ± 0.06), (40.29 · 2.42) and (35.51 · 3.77) ng · L⁻¹ respectively, and TMeHg and THg in the overlying water were mainly in the form of dissolved state. Therefore, it could be inferred that the water consumption of the Three Gorges reservoir would increase the mercury pollution load of the reservoir.

  6. Relationship between luminous flux intercepted at different times in leaf area index of different foragesRelação entre o fluxo luminoso interceptado em diferentes épocas no índice de área foliar de diferentes forrageiras

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    Laurêncio Caetano da Silva Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the leaf area index of six different grasses. The experiment was installed at the Instituto Federal de Tecnologia e Educação of Uberaba, using a randomized block design with split plots in time. The plots were sown: Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Panicum maximum cv. Mombasa, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes, Cynodon dactylon hb. Tifton and the plots, ten seasons of evaluation in 10 x 6 factorial arrangement with four replications. Rates of leaf area of each forage at different times of year were evaluated. Compared to other forage species, Panicum maximum had a higher leaf area index when subjected to periodic fertilization and irrigation. Only in the late fall Brachiaria Xaraés IAF had increased, but did not differ significantly from the others.Objetivou-se avaliar o índice de área foliar de 6 diferentes gramíneas forrageiras. O experimento foi instalado no Instituto Federal de Educação Tecnológico de Uberaba utilizando delineamento em blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Nas parcelas foram semeadas: Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes, Cynodon dactylon hb. Tifton e nas subparcelas, dez épocas de avaliação em esquema fatorial 6 x 10 com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados os índices de área foliar de cada forrageira em diferentes épocas do ano. Comparadas com as outras espécies forrageiras, o Panicum maximum apresentou maior índice de área foliar quando submetido à adubação periódica e irrigação. Apenas no final do outono a braquiária xaraés apresentou IAF maior, mas, não diferenciou estatisticamente das demais.

  7. Bermuda grass sod production as related to nitrogen rates Produção de tapetes de grama bermuda em função de doses de nitrogênio

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    Claudinei Paulo de Lima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Of all nutrients, N has the strongest effect on grass growth and an adequate N fertilization can reduce the time required for the formation of high-quality mats. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of N fertilization on Bermuda grass sod production and quality. The experiment was conducted in an area of commercial sod production, in Capela do Alto, state of São Paulo. Cynodon dactylon (Pers L., known as Bermuda grass, was evaluated in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of five N rates: 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1. Increasing N applications to Bermuda grass increased the soil cover rate, reducing the time required for mat formation. The accumulation of rhizome + root + stolon dry matter was highest at a rate of 354 kg ha-1 N and the mat resistance to breakage at a rate of 365 kg ha-1 N. Nitrogen rates between 354 and 365 kg ha-1 increased mat resistance and consequently the suitability for postharvest handling, tending to improve the efficiency in the area.O N é o nutriente que proporciona as maiores respostas no crescimento das gramas, e a adubação nitrogenada adequada pode proporcionar a formação do tapete com boa qualidade em menor tempo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adubação nitrogenada na produção e qualidade de tapetes de grama-bermuda. O experimento foi instalado e conduzido em área de produção comercial de grama, localizada na cidade de Capela do Alto, SP. A grama utilizada foi a Cynodon dactylon (Pers L., conhecida como grama-bermuda. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por cinco doses de N: 0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 kg ha-1. O aumento das doses de N aumentou a taxa de cobertura do solo pela gramabermuda, reduzindo o tempo para formação do tapete. O máximo acúmulo de matéria seca de rizomas + estolões + ra

  8. Composição química e contribuição nutritiva de cecotrofos de diferentes dietas Chemical composition and nutritive contribution of cecothrophes from different diets

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    Augusto Vidal da Costa Gomes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de cinco fontes de fibra sobre a produção, composição química e a contribuição nutritiva dos cecotrofos em termos de matéria seca e proteína bruta foram estudados. Quarenta coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia branco foram alojadas em gaiolas metabólicas, por 12 dias, para adaptação às dietas. No 13º dia, para evitar a coprofagia, os animais receberam um colar de madeira por um período de 24 horas, procedendo-se à coleta dos cecotrofos de duas em duas horas. A dieta padrão tinha como principal fonte de fibra o feno de alfafa. As outras dietas foram caracterizadas pela substituição isométrica do feno de alfafa por feno de guandu (Cajanus cajan, palha de feijão, palha e sabugo de milho branco e o feno coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon. Foi observado efeito do tipo de dieta sobre a composição química dos cecotrofos e o teor de PB ingerida por cecotrofia, porém a produção de cecotrofos não diferiu entre dietas.The effects of five fiber sources on the production, chemical composition and cecotrophes nutritive contribution on dry matter and crude protein base were studied. Forty White New Zealand female rabbits were housed in metabolic cage for 12 days to adaptation to the diets. In the 13th day, to prevent coprophagy, the animals received a necklace of wood for a period of 24 hours, and the cecotrophes were collected every two hours. The standard diet had the alfalfa hay as a mainly fiber source. The other diets were characterized by isometric replacement of alfalfa hay by pigeon pea hay (Cajanus cajan, bean straw, white corn with cob and husks and coast-cross hay (Cynodon dactylon. Effect of diet type on cecotrophes chemical composition and crude protein content ingested by cecotrophy was observed, however the cecotrophes production was not different among diets.

  9. Características químicas de solo submetido ao tratamento com esterco líquido de suínos e cultivado com gramíneas forrageiras

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    Queiroz Flávia Martins de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, o efeito da aplicação intensiva de esterco líquido de suínos (ELS, pelo método do escoamento superficial, nas características químicas de um solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo cultivado com quatro espécies forrageiras: quicuio da Amazônia (Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweick, braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. e tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.. O ELS foi aplicado em parcelas de 4m² e com 5% de declividade, durante 4 meses, na taxa média equivalente a 800kg ha-1d-1 de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO5. Para caracterização química, amostras de solo foram coletadas à profundidade de 0-0,20m, antes de iniciar o experimento e após o término dele. A aplicação de ELS proporcionou acúmulo de P, K, Na e Zn no solo, enquanto as concentrações de Mg e Cu diminuíram e a de Ca se manteve inalterada. Houve aumento na acidez, na soma de bases, na CTC e redução na saturação por bases. Devido ao acúmulo de nutrientes, recomenda-se monitoramento das características químicas do solo, ao longo de seu perfil e das águas subterrâneas para que se avaliem riscos de contaminação ambiental.

  10. Allelopathic Potential of Invasive Plantago virginica on Four Lawn Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huatian; Zhou, Yumei; Chen, Yang; Wang, Quanxi; Jiang, Lifen; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-01-01

    Plantago virginica L. has invaded many lawn ecosystems in the Eastern part of China. The invasion has incurred an economic cost to remove them. In order to prevent the invasion, it is critical to understand the invasive mechanisms of this species. However, few studies have been conducted on the allelopathic mechanisms of its invasion. In this study, we examined allelopathic effects of P. virginica on germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of four widely used lawn species. We found extensive allelopathic potential of P. virginica on other lawn species, which varied with species and developmental stage. While most effects of the extracts of P. virginica were inhibitory, some variables in some species were promoted by the addition of the extracts. The extracts of P. virginica significantly inhibited seed germination of Agrostis matsumurae. While the overall differences in seed germination rate of Poa annua were significant among treatments, difference between control and any of the treatments was not significant. The height of seedlings of A. matsumurae and Cynodon dactylon was significantly lower under the treatments of adding extracts of P. virginica. In contrast, growth of seedlings of Festuca elata and P. annua did not show significant differences among treatments. The root length of A. matsumurae, C. dactylon and P. annua was suppressed by the extracts of P. virginica whereas root length of F. elata was not affected. Aboveground biomass of A. matsumurae and F. elata was significantly higher than control, except for F. elata at the concentration of 50mg/mL, whereas aboveground biomass of C. dactylon and P. annua was reduced at higher concentrations of the extracts. Except for A. matsumurae, root biomass of the other three lawn species declined under the treatments with the extracts of P. virginica. Our results revealed that P. virginica had allelopathic potential on four lawn species and supported the theory of "novel weapons hypothesis". Invasion by P

  11. Composição química, fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas e digestibilidade in vitro de forrageiras tropicais em diferentes idades de corte Chemical composition, fractionation of carbohydrates and crude protein and in vitro digestibility on tropical forages in the different cutting ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Toro Velásquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o valor nutritivo de três espécies forrageiras tropicais: capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq., capim-marandu (Brachiaria brizantha e capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon spp, em duas épocas do ano (janeiro-março e abril-junho e em três idades de rebrota (28, 35 e 42 dias, por meio da composição química, do fracionamento de proteínas e carboidratos e da digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O capim-marandu destacou-se no período de janeiro-março, com menores conteúdos de parede celular e fração B2 dos carboidratos e maiores valores de proteína bruta, fração A + B1, DIVMS e DIVMO, em comparação aos capins tanzânia e tifton 85, independentemente da idade de corte. O aumento da concentração de parede celular em detrimento ao conteúdo celular com o avanço da maturidade das plantas foi evidente no capim-marandu no período de janeiro-março, quando foram observados maior valor da fração B2, maior conteúdo de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e menor concentração da fração carboidratos não-fibrosos. No período de abril-junho, a composição em parede celular não apresentou diferenças evidentes com aumento da idade, devido às condições ambientais observadas. O capim-tanzânia apresenta, de modo geral, baixos valores de parede celular e altos valores de carboidratos não-fibrosos, DIVMS e DIVMO nesse período, seguido pelos capins marandu e tifton 85, respectivamente.This trial was conducted with the objective of evaluating the nutritive value of three tropical forage species: tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq., marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp in two different periods of the year (January-March and April-June and in three cutting ages (28, 35 and 42 days, based on the chemical composition, protein and carbohydrate fractions, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DMD and organic matter (OMD. Marandu grass, in the

  12. Squamate diversity in different croplands of district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan

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    Sara Balouch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied squamate diversity in 5 different croplands (wheat, sorghum, millet, maize and groundnut of district Chakwal, North Punjab, Pakistan, in February and September, 2013, using area-constrained searches for squamates and line intercept method for vegetation. We recorded 11 squamate species (6 lizards; 5 snakes. Based on diversity index value (H the highest squamate diversity was recorded from maize (1.91, followed by wheat (1.54, groundnut (1.51, sorghum (1.34 and millet (1.21. We recorded Calotes versicolor versicolor, Ophisops jerdonii and Eutropis dissimilis as most frequently sighted species in all croplands. The multivariate generalized model revealed that sightings of species differed significantly (F(5,40 = 2.89, P < 0.05; Wilk’s Λ = 0.30, Partial η2 = 0.94 among cropland types and their boundary vegetation. The cluster analysis of boundary vegetation produced two main clusters: (1 groundnut and wheat, and (2 sorghum, millet and maize. We concluded that herbs (Parthenium hysterophorus Chenopodium album, shrubs (Calotropis procera, Ziziphus jujube, Gymnosporia royleana, and grasses (Cynodon dactylon, Setaria pumila along the cropland boundary provided abode for lacertids (O. jerdonii and skinks (E. dissimilis, while tress (Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Ziziphus mauritiana for agamids (Calotes versicolor. We suggest the inclusion of maintaining cropland boundary vegetation particularly grasses and shrubs in agricultural practices to ensure the conservation of squamate and their habitat.

  13. Impact of industries in the accumulation of radionuclides in the lower part of Ebro river (Catalonia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebro River extends over almost 930 km and is the main Spanish river entering the Mediterranean Sea. There are several industries located along this river course including a di-calcium phosphate factory (DCP) and two nuclear power reactors. These installations, together with other factors such as the geology, can contribute to the radiological content of the river. Therefore, this study was performed to determine some natural and also some anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in the Ebro River ecosystem. We analysed water samples, solid samples (rice field sludge and surface marine sediment samples), and also biota samples (Cladophora glomerata and Cynodon dactylon). For water samples, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium, thorium and also a group of gamma-emitting isotopes' activities were determined. The main contribution to radioactivity for these samples was due to some isotopes from the uranium and thorium chain. For the solid samples, we quantified some natural and artificial gamma radioisotopes, which may be related to the geological and/or industrial activities located in this zone. In the case of biota, the results indicate that the presence of the DCP has a significant influence, since the highest activity was observed in the surroundings of this industry (Flix), where isotopes such as 214Bi and 214Pb presented activity values of 105 ± 43 Bq/kg and 100 ± 58 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  14. Distribution of Amblydromalus limonicus in northeastern Spain and diversity of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in tomato and other vegetable crops after its introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorąży, Alicja; Kropczyńska-Linkiewicz, Danuta; Sas, Daniel; Escudero-Colomar, Lucia-Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman and McGregor) was detected for the first time in 2011 on tomatoes of several locations of the northeastern Spain. During 2012 and 2013 samplings on tomato crop cultivars in the two provinces of Catalonia where the species was found were carried out. The goals of the study were to know the range of spread of the species in these two provinces, its abundance in tomato cultivars, non-crop vegetation among them, in the different parts of the tomato plant and in some other vegetable crops. Results showed that A. limonicus was present at both regions sampled, although there were significant differences in the abundance of the species between sampling points. It is the second in abundance in tomato and the cultivars that most frequently host A. limonicus were Anaidis, Hybrid and Marmande. No significant differences were found in the abundance of A. limonicus among tomato plant canopy strata. On average, it accounted for 31.6 % of all sampled phytoseiids. It was present in four crops (tomato, bean, cucumber and strawberry) and in Amaranthus cruentus, Chenopodium polyspermum, Cynodon dactylon, Mentha sp., Parietaria officinalis and Phleum pratense. Amblydromalus limonicus is well established in the extreme northeast of Spain all year round in crops and non-crops. PMID:27193216

  15. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  16. Extractor capacity of different plant species cultivated in wetlands used to pig wastewater treatment

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    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extracting capacity of different plant species when cultivated in constructed wetlands systems (CWS for the treatment of pig wastewaters (PW. For this, four CWS were constructed with 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m, sealed with geomembrana of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of gravel “zero”. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 were planted cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and grass-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In CWS4 was planted Alternanthera on the 1st third, Typha in 2nd third and tifton-85 in the 3rd third of the bed. After passing through a organic filter filled with crushed sugar cane bagasse, the ARS was applied in SACS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which provided a detention time of 4.8 days. There was a trend to obtain higher extraction of pollutants by plants grown at the beginning of the CWS. The Alternanthera plant species that was presented greater capacity for nutrient extractor, extracting 9.5 and 23% of all total-N and K applied through ARS. Plants extracted small amounts of copper from the ARS. Because of the improved performance of plants, Alternanthera or Tifton-85 grass must be cultivated in CWS for the ARS treatment.

  17. Herbaceous vegetation restoration potential and soil physical condition in a mountain grazing land of Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia

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    Gebrewahd Amha Abesha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An existence of information in the form database and full knowledge of grazing land vegetation resources and trend over time is essential for management decisions. This study was conducted in Kiltew -Awelaelo, eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. The study aimed to investigate species composition and diversity of the herbaceous vegetation, and examine the physical soil condition of the grazing lands. A total of 45 quadrats measuring 20m×20m (400m2 were laid out in 15 sample sites from three corresponding land use types (i.e. ten year enclosure, five year enclosure and open grazing land. From each land use type five sites having three quadrats were investigated. Each quadrat was laid out at an interval of 400m in five parallel transects each 200m apart from other. To collect data of herbaceous and soil five randomly located 1m2 area each, was selected and marked, within each 400m2 sample quadrat of sample sites located along the main transect. There was significant (PBracharia sp., Bromus pectinatus, Chloris gayana, Cenchurs cilarias, chloris radiata, Cynodon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria Velutina, Eragrostis teniufolia, Lintonia nutans, Setaria pumila, Seteria verticillate, and Tragus racemosus all occurred frequently forming the major constituents of the sites. Therefore, regeneration from area enclosure can be on advocated practice for grazing lands rehabilitation.

  18. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with wildlife and vegetation of Haller park along the Kenyan coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzala, W; Okanga, S

    2006-09-01

    This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.

  19. OBSERVAÇÕES EPIDEMIOLÓGICAS DE HELMINTOS GASTRINTESTINAIS EM OVELHAS MESTIÇAS MANEJADAS EM PASTAGENS COM DIFERENTES HÁBITOS DE CRESCIMENTO

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    Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Ovelhas, provenientes do acasalamento de fêmeas Corriedale com machos das raças Bergamácia e Hampshire Down, foram divididas em três grupos e manejadas em piquetes compostos exclusivamente por uma das seguintes espécies de gramíneas: Panicum maximun Jacq., Cynodon dactylon Pers. e Paspalum notatum Flueeg., com o objetivo de avaliar a infecção por helmintos gastrintestinais. A cada 28 dias, durante um período de um ano, foram obtidas informações sobre o número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e realizadas culturas de larvas a partir das amostras de fezes de todos os animais. Os animais que pastejaram Paspalum notatum Flueeg. apresentaram a maior contagem de OPG e não houve diferença estatística (P>0.05 entre os grupos genéticos empregados. O gênero Haemonchus predominou nas culturas de larvas. Foi observada também a influência do mês de coleta sobre o OPG (P<0.05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Epidemiologia, Haemonchus, OPG, ovinos, Trichostrongylus.

  20. Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands.

  1. Effect of Grazing on Plant Attributes and Hydrological Properties in the Sloping Lands of the East African Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddese, Girma; Saleem, M. A. Mohamed; Astatke, Abyie; Ayaleneh, Wagnew

    2002-09-01

    Extending livestock grazing to the steep slopes has led to unstable grazing systems in the East African Highlands, and new solutions and approaches are needed to ameliorate the current situation. This work was aimed at studying the effect of livestock grazing on plant attributes and hydrological properties. The study was conducted from 1996 to 2000 at the International Livestock Research Institute at Debre Ziet Research Station. Two sites were selected: one at 0-4% slope, and the other at 4-8% slope. The treatments were: (1) no grazing (control); (2) light grazing, 0.6 animal unit months per hectare (aum/ha); (3) moderate grazing, 1.8 aum/ha; (4) heavy grazing, 3.0 aum/ha; (5) very heavy grazing, 4.2 aum/ha; (6) initially plowed and continuously very heavily grazed, 4.2 aum/ha. The result showed that species richness, infiltration rate, bare ground, and soil loss significantly varied with grazing pressure. Species richness was higher in grazed plots compared to nongrazed plots. Biomass yield improved on heavily grazed plots as cow dung accumulated over years. Cynodon dactylon plant species persisted with livestock grazing pressure in both sites. Infiltration rate improved and soil erosion declined in all treatments after the first year.

  2. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb in wild grasses affected by the Aznalcóllar mine spill (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; López, R

    2002-05-01

    The collapse of the tailing dam in the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) occurred in April 1998 and affected approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. An urgent soil cleaning up and remediation programme was started just after the accident. Eighteen months later, mineral nutrients and trace elements concentration in soil and two wild grasses--Cynodon dactylon and Sorghum halepense--have been studied. Three types of conditions are distinguished: (a) unaffected soils (control); (b) cleaned up and remediated soils (remediated); and (c) sludge-covered soils left in a fenced plot (non-remediated). As, Cd, Cu and Pb in grasses reached toxic levels for the food web in the non-remediated plot, while on remediated soils only Cd reached a toxic level in grass tissues. However, Pb and, to a lesser extent As and Fe, reached also toxic levels in unwashed plants (as they would be ingested by animals) in remediated soils. Both native grasses seem tolerant of trace elements pollution and suitable for stabilisation of spill-affected soils.

  3. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae', two novel phytoplasmas associated with diseases of sugarcane, weeds and papaya in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha, Yaima; López, Mercedes; Piñol, Berta; Fernández, Miriam; Picornell, Buenaventura; Almeida, Roberto; Palenzuela, Iris; Wilson, Michael R; Jones, Phil

    2005-11-01

    During 2003, surveys of sugarcane yellow leaf disease and papaya bunchy top-like disease were carried out on plantations in Havana province, Cuba, to determine the roles of weeds and Auchenorrhyncha insects in the epidemiology of these diseases. More than 250 plant and insect samples were collected and indexed by using a nested PCR for phytoplasma 16S rDNA with the generic primer pairs P1/P7 and R16F2n/R16R2. The PCR products were further characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism using HaeIII, AluI, Sau3AI, Tru9I, HhaI, HpaII and TaqI endonucleases, giving patterns that distinguished them from those of the other reference phytoplasmas analysed. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified the phytoplasmas present in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.), Cynodon dactylon L., Conyza canadensis L. Cronq., Sorghum halepense L. Pers., Macroptilium lathyroides L. Urb., Saccharosydne saccharivora (Westwood) and Cedusa spp., and those in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and Empoasca papayae, as two novel provisional phytoplasma species. We propose that these phytoplasmas should be given Candidatus status, as 'Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae', respectively.

  4. Determination of fungal pathogens of common weed species in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, I; Karamanli, N; Yanar, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the fungal pathogens on Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delphinium consolida L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rumex crispus L., Solanum nigrum L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. which were common weed species of agricultural areas. Surveys were conducted in May-June and August-September in 2004-2005 growing seasons. During the surveys density and frequency of the above mentioned weed species were also determined and number of infected plants was counted in each sampling area. Infected weed samples were collected from each sampling point and brought to the laboratory in polyethylene bags and the pathogens were identified at genus or species level. As a result of two year surveys, ten fungal pathogens were determined on eight weed species. The most important fungal pathogens determined on common weed species were as follow; Peronospora farinosa (Fr.) Fr. on C. album, and Septoria convolvuli DC., Erysiphe convolvuli DC., and Puccinia punctiformis (Strauss) Roehrl. on C. arvensis. These fungal diseases were observed mainly on the weeds located at the borders of fields. Infection rates of these pathogens reached up to 21.2% in some of the survey areas. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these pathogen under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  5. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Branko I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., Rubus caesius L. Echinochloa crus-gall L., Polygonum aviculare L., P. lapathifolium L., P. persicaria L., Setaria glauca (L P. B., S. viridis (L P. B., Solanum nigrum L. and Sorghum halepense (L Pers. In shooting period up to 4-8 weeks upon emergence, sugar beet is under the haviest harmfull inluence of weeds, especially invasive ones such as: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Iva xanthifolia L. Sorghum halepense (L Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. Sugar beet growing requires intensive cultural practices, i.e. basic and additional tillage and cultivation. Due to the widening of weed problems, frequent herbicide use in several applications is needed in the longer time period.

  6. Evaluation of some weed extracts against field dodder on alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, S A; Rahman, A A

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of some weed extracts against field dodderCuscuta campestris Yunck. on alfalfa (Medicago stiva L.) and to identify and quantify the phytotoxic agents of these extracts. All concentrations of aqueous extract of every weed showed significant effectiveness on dodder when compared to the untreated plant under lath house and field conditions. Control percentages of the (0.5 g) of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and wall goosefoot (Chenopodium murale) ranged between 83 and 96, and the same concentration caused injury to alfalfa foliage up to 43% when applied in the field. Phytotoxic agents were identified as phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic, isochlorogenic,p-coumaric acids, and scopoletin. Their quantities varied with species; Bermuda grass had the highest content (32.2 μg/g dry weight) followed by Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), well goosefoot, and tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus). These results might aid in screening for effective alternate approaches for controlling dodder on alfalfa planted for seeds.

  7. NITROGEN BALANCE AND RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN GOATS FED DIETS CONTAINING SOAKED AND ROASTED MUCUNA BEAN (Mucuna Pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. MBEWE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soaking and roasting velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens on nitrogen utilization and rumen microbial protein synthesis in goats was investigated. Sixteen goats were randomly assigned to four diets in a completely randomized design. Goats were fed a basal diet of Cynodon dactylon hay plus 30% soaked (treatment 1, 30% roasted (treatment 2 and 30% untreated velvet bean (treatment 3. The control diet had 100% hay (treatment 4. Animals were given experimental diets over 14 days following a 7-day adjustment period. Feed, refusals, urine and faecal samples were collected daily from individual goats for determination of nitrogen, nitrogen intake, utilization and allantoin in faeces and urine. Microbial protein yield was estimated from the allantoin. Data were analysed using PROC General Linear Model of Statistical Analysis Software. Goats fed a diet with soaked beans had significantly higher (P0.05 from that of goats fed untreated beans. Microbial protein synthesis was highest for diets with soaked beans although this was non-significantly different (P>0.05 from diets with roasted and untreated beans. All diets containing velvet beans, processed or not, contributed to significantly higher (P<0.05 microbial protein yield than diets with hay only. In terms of nitrogen balance, soaking can be recommended as an appropriate processing method for velvet beans for goat feeding. However, for microbial protein yield, processing method was not statistically important and the bean could be used untreated producing the same results.

  8. Carbonyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide fluxes in an urban lawn and adjacent bare soil in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Yi; Xinming Wang

    2011-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) fluxes from an urban Cynodon dactylon lawn and adjacent bare soil were measured during April-July 2005 in Guangzhou, China.Both the lawn and bare soil acted as sinks for COS and sources for DMS.The mean fluxes of COS and DMS in the lawn (-19.27 and 18.16 pmol/(m2·sec), respectively) were significantly higher than those in the bare soil (-9.89 and 9.35 pmol/(m2·sec), respectively).Fluxes of COS and DMS in mowed lawn were also higher than those in bare soils.Both COS and DMS fluxes showed diurnal variation with detectable but much lower values in the nighttime than in the daytime.COS fluxes were related significantly to temperature and the optimal temperature for COS uptake was 29℃.While positive linear correlations were found between DMS fluxes and temperature.COS fluxes increased linearly with ambient COS mixing ratios,and had a compensation point of 336 ppt.

  9. Preliminary survey on turf weeds in Yongzhou City of Hunan Province%湖南省永州市草坪杂草调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋艳华; 卿国林

    2009-01-01

    对湖南省永州市草坪杂草进行实地调查,鉴定和统计,汇总了湖南省草坪杂草的种类、分布特点以及主要草坪杂草的危害情况.结果表明:永州市草坪杂草共有41种,隶属于20个科;永州市危害较重的杂草有狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)、酢浆草(Oxalis corniculata)、鸡眼草(Kummerowia sfria-ta)、革命草(Alternanthera philoxexoides)、野艾蒿(Artemisia lavandulaefolia)、早熟禾(Poa annua)、车前(Plantago asiatica).尤其是狗牙根、野艾蒿和鸡眼草,相对多度达到20%,杂草已经在不同程度上成为湖南永州市草坪的优势杂草,其与草坪形成了当地的草坪群.永州市草坪杂草在形成过程中产生了相对性,绝对性和时空性,直接威胁着草坪草的生存.

  10. Isozymes Indicate Alligatorweeds in Shanghai Belong to a Large Colone%上海的空心莲子草来源于同一克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 赵磊; 陈小勇; 沈浪

    2004-01-01

    外来种入侵是生物多样性丧失的主要原因之一,尤其是一些入侵性强的杂草侵入乡土植物的生境、竞争资源,最后导致许多植物局部绝灭。因此,对外来植物特征的研究成为近几十年来的研究热点之一.Keeler曾经总结了世界上危害最大的杂草的一些特征,发现它们在繁殖上具有特别的特征,一类靠产生大量种子扩散,如苋科的杂配苋(Amaranthus hybridus),而另一些则具有极强的无性繁殖能力。甚至完全牺牲有性繁殖,如禾本科的狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon).

  11. Effects of aluminate ion toxicity on plant growth and mineral nutrition in bauxite residue reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Extraction of aluminum from bauxite ore with caustic sodium hydroxide produces an alkaline waste termed bauxite residue. Methods of vegetating bauxite residue impoundments were investigated utilizing alkaline tolerant species with readily available organic amendments. Species screening experiments identified Distichlis spicata var. stricta, an alkaline tolerant grass, as a potential species for bauxite residue reclamation. Additions of sewage sludge to bauxite residue increased growth over 10-fold. Low yields were associated with high shoot tissue concentrations of Fe and Al, and low concentrations of Mg, K, P, Ca and N. In field experiments at a bauxite residue impoundment in Mobile, Alabama, organic amendments (paper pulp waste, coastal bermuda grass mulch and sewage sludge) were tested as ameliorants to increase growth of Distichlis. In coarse textured bauxite residue amended with sewage sludge, a dense cover of Distichlis formed within 1.5 years. After 2.5 years, substantial declines in Distichlis cover occured. Additions of large quantities (6 cm) of sewage sludge to the surface of fine textured bauxite residue fostered growth of numerous local species. Most successful were Panicum dichotomiflorum and Cynodon dactylon. This research indicates the use of alkaline tolerant species with organic ameliorants has potential for bauxite residue reclamation. Problems with aluminum toxicity and Mn/sup 2 +/ deficiency must be overcome through additional research. The use of local, perhaps Al tolerant, species is also indicated if methods of effectively isolating roots from bauxite residue alkalinity are successful.

  12. Biodiversity and Phytosociological Studies of Upstream and Downstream Riparian Areas of Pakistan: Special Reference to Taunsa Wildlife Sanctuary and Keti Shah Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan riparian zone mostly belongs to Sindh and Punjab provinces and prone to climatic problems and anthropogenic activities. The research was conduct to estimate and compare the structure and composition of riverine floral diversity in low riparian zone of River Indus. The data was collected from Keti Shah forest and Taunsa wildlife sanctuary. Total 14259 plants/individuals were recorded, which belong to 54 plant species with 18 different families. In Taunsa pre-monsoon survey, total 30 plant species were found with 4476 plants from 16 different families. In Taunsa post-monsoon survey total 3348 individuals were recorded from 20 plant species and 9 families. Similarly, in Keti Shah forest, total 3975 individual were recorded from 22 species and 11 families during the pre-monsoon season and 2460 plants were recorded in post-monsoon season, belonging to 16 species and 10 families. These species mostly belong to Fabaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Asclepiadaceae. Different phytosociological parameters indicate Tamarix dioca, Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Imperata cylindrica, Fimbristylis hispidula, Acacia nilotica, Phragmites karka, Tamarix sp. and Saccharum bengalense as dominant species. The biodiversity in upstream and downstream areas were rich in pre-monsoon season in comparison to post-monsoon season in surveyed areas. This study is useful for management of the area in the future as conservation strategies can be made through considering the adaptive tree species in future plantation and endangered species can be conserved. (author)

  13. Effect of polluted water on soil and plant contamination by heavy metals in El-Mahla El-Kobra, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem Mahmoud, Esawy; Ghoneim, Adel Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The discharge of untreated waste water in Zefta drain and drain no. 5 is becoming a problem for many farmers in the El-Mahla El-Kobra area, Egypt. The discharged water contains high levels of contaminants considered hazardous to the ecosystem. Some plants, soil, water, and sediment samples were collected from the El-Mahla El-Kobra area to evaluate the contamination by heavy metals. The results showed that the heavy metals, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the water of Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded permissible limits for irrigation. In rice and maize shoots grown in soils irrigated by contaminated water from Zefta drain and drain no. 5, the bioaccumulation factors for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mn were higher than 1.0. The heavy metals content of irrigated soils from Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded the upper limit of background heavy metals. In this study, the mean contaminant factor values of the drain no. 5 sediments revealed that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni > 6, indicating very high contamination. The bioaccumulation coefficient values of Cynodon dactylon, Phragmites australis, and Typha domingensis aquatic plants growing in Zefta drain are high. These species can be considered as hyperaccumulators for the decontamination of contaminated water.

  14. Relação entre pressão e volume para implantação da técnica in vitro semi-automática de produção de gases na avaliação de forrageiras tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo demonstrar o procedimento inicial para a instalação da técnica in vitro semi-automática de produção de gases em diferentes laboratórios, ou seja, estabelecer uma equação que estime o volume (V de gases produzidos no interior dos frascos por meio de dados de pressão (P e V, obtidos manualmente durante a fermentação de diferentes substratos. Foram utilizadas sete forrageiras: feno de Cynodon dactylon (tifton 85, Brachiaria brizantha (braquiarão, Neonotonia wightii (soja perene e silagens de quatro genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, que geraram 1036 dados de P e V. A equação relacionando V e P obtida foi: V = -0,004 (s.e. 0,06 + 4,43P (s.e. 0,043 + 0,051 P²(s.e. 0,007, R² = 0,99, a qual permitiu a instalação da técnica in vitro semi-automática de produção de gases no laboratório de nutrição animal do Departamento de Zootecnia da Escola de Veterinária da UFMG.

  15. [Effects of different types of litters on soil organic carbon mineralization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Jun; Pan, Jian-Jun; Chen, Jin-Ying; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Li-Ming; Sun, Bo; Li, Zhong-Pei

    2009-06-15

    Using litter incubation experiment in laboratory, decomposition discrepancies of four typical litters from Zijin Mountain were analyzed. The results show that organic carbon mineralization rates of soil with litters all involve fast and slow decomposition stages, and the differences are that the former has shorter duration,more daily decomposition quantity while the latter is opposite. Organic carbon mineralization rates of soil with litters rapidly reached maximum in the early days of incubation, and the order is soil with Cynodon dactylon litter (CK + BMD) (23.88 +/- 0.62) mg x d(-1), soil with Pinus massoniana litter (CK+ PML) (17.93 +/- 0.99) mg x d(-1), soil with Quercus acutissima litter (CK+ QAC) (15.39 +/- 0.16) mg x d(-1) and soil with Cyclobalanopsis glauca litter (CK + CGO) (7.26 +/- 0.34) mg x d(-1), and with significant difference between each other (p Power curve model can describe the trends of organic carbon mineralization rate and mineralized accumulation amount,which has a good correlation with their change. PMID:19662876

  16. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Kaffka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV. We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. growth, quality, and use by cattle. Simulations based on field measurements and a related container study indicate that although soil chemical composition is affected by irrigation water quality, irrigation timing and frequency can be used to mitigate salt and trace mineral accumulation. Bermuda grass yields of up to 12 Mg dry matter (DM·ha−1 were observed at the field site and predicted by the model. Forage yield and quality supports un-supplemented cattle stocking rates of 1.0 to 1.2 animal units (AU·ha−1. However, a balance must be achieved between stocking rate, desired average daily gain, accumulation of salts in the soil profile, and potential pollution of ground water from drainage and leaching. Using available weather data, crop-specific parameter values and field scale measurements of soil salinity and nitrogen levels, the model can be used by farmers growing forages on saline soils elsewhere, to sustain forage and livestock production under similarly marginal conditions.

  17. Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands. PMID:25005162

  18. Determination of fungal pathogens of common weed species in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, I; Karamanli, N; Yanar, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the fungal pathogens on Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delphinium consolida L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rumex crispus L., Solanum nigrum L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. which were common weed species of agricultural areas. Surveys were conducted in May-June and August-September in 2004-2005 growing seasons. During the surveys density and frequency of the above mentioned weed species were also determined and number of infected plants was counted in each sampling area. Infected weed samples were collected from each sampling point and brought to the laboratory in polyethylene bags and the pathogens were identified at genus or species level. As a result of two year surveys, ten fungal pathogens were determined on eight weed species. The most important fungal pathogens determined on common weed species were as follow; Peronospora farinosa (Fr.) Fr. on C. album, and Septoria convolvuli DC., Erysiphe convolvuli DC., and Puccinia punctiformis (Strauss) Roehrl. on C. arvensis. These fungal diseases were observed mainly on the weeds located at the borders of fields. Infection rates of these pathogens reached up to 21.2% in some of the survey areas. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these pathogen under in vitro and in vivo conditions. PMID:21542473

  19. Comparison of leaf structure of Bermuda grass grown under two habitats%两种生境下狗牙根叶片结构的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周存宇; 费永俊; 杨朝东; 杨敏; 柯林

    2010-01-01

    通过对生长在田园土和植被砼2种生境下的5种狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)叶片的横切面进行观察,比较了其叶片厚度、上表皮厚度、下表皮厚度和主脉中维管束鞘("花环"结构)的直径.结果表明:除南京狗牙根外,与田园土生境相比,其他4个品种狗牙根在植被砼生境下的叶片厚度都有所增加;除040459/680外,与田园土生境相比,其他4个品种狗牙根在植被砼生境下的叶片上、下表皮厚度都有增加;主脉中"花环"结构直径在2种生境间的变化无明显规律.

  20. 常温贮藏下新农1号狗牙根种子劣变的研究%Study on seed deterioration of Xinnong No. 1 Bermuda grass stored at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培英; 孙宗玖; 阿不来提; 张建春

    2007-01-01

    对常温贮藏下新农1号狗牙根Cynodon dactylon cv.Xinnong No.1种子劣变进行研究,结果表明:随贮藏年限增加,新农1号狗牙根种子的发芽指数(GI)、发芽势(GE)、活力指数(Ⅵ)、发芽率(G)、电导率及可溶性糖均表现先逐渐增大,达到最大值时下降的趋势;经相关分析,种子发芽指数、发芽率、活力指数三者间呈显著相关,可以衡量种子的老化程度,而电导率与种子的老化程度相关不显著;综合各项指标,新农1号狗牙根的贮藏年限最好不要超出4年,以2~3年最好.

  1. 废弃矿山生态复绿常用17种植物叶绿素含量及SOD和POD活力测定%The Contents of Chlorophyll Components and Activity of SOD and POD of 17 Species Generally Applied in Ecologic Greening of Abandoned Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春阳; 郑玉红; 陆波; 何树兰; 陈晓萱

    2012-01-01

    选用废弃矿山绿化常用的禾本科、豆科、葡萄科和紫葳科共17种为实验材料,测定了其叶绿素各组分含量及超氧岐化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活力,结果表明:叶绿素a、b类胡萝卜素和叶片色素总质量比最高的植物分别是胡枝子、狗牙根、牧草型狗牙根和狗牙根,其质量比分别为2.46mg/g·FW、1.10mg/g·FW、0.32mg/g·FW和3.63mg/g·FW;4者质量比最低的是紫穗槐、三出叶爬山虎、芒和紫穗槐,为1.10mg/g·FW、0.48mg/g·FW、0.08mg/g·FW和1.70mg/g·FW.ωa(叶绿素a)/ωb(叶绿素b)最高的是牧草型狗牙根,为3.03mg/g·FW,最低的是芒,仅为1.65mg/g·FW.POD和SOD活力最高的是网络崖豆藤和芒,达477.00U和217.20U,最低的是牧草型狗牙根和紫穗槐,仅为24U和39.43U.%The contents of chlorophyll components and activity of SOD and POD of 17 species in Gramine-ae, Leguminosae, Vitaceae and Bignoniaceae generally applied in ecologic greening of abandoned mines were determined. The results were stated as follows: The maximum contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carote-noids and total chlorophyll were Lespedeza bicolor, Cynodon dactylon, C. Dactylon (for forage) and C. Dactylon, which were 12.46, 1.10, 0. 32 and 3.63 mg/g ? FW, respectively. The lowest contents of the four indexes were Amorpha fruticosa, Parthenocissus tricuspidata (ternate leaf) , Miscanthus sinensis and A. Fruticosa, which were 1.10, 0.48, 0.08 and 1.70 mg/g ? FW. C. Dactylon (for forage) and P. Tricuspidata (ternate leaf) possessed the first and last place for the chlorophyll a/b value. About the activity of SOD and POD, Millettia reticulate and M. Sinensis had the maximum activity, which could reach 477.00U and 217.20U.

  2. Small farm plots and application of simulated rain to determine the potential for bacterial runoff after poultry litter surface application to bermudagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land application of poultry litter is an economical and environmentally viable use of this manure byproduct. Runoff following a rain event is one possible source of environmental contamination resulting from manure application. In this second part of a two-part study, a series of treatments involv...

  3. Efeito do metribuzin no controle das plantas daninhas e na produção de grãos em Glycine max (L merrill Effect of metribuzin in weed control and yield of Glycine max (L. merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available No ano agrícola 1985/ 86, em Viçosa-MG, foi instalado um ensaio de campo em solo Pdzólico Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso e com 2,9% de matéria orgânica, objetivando estudar o efeito das doses de metribuzin (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 no controle de plantas daninhas e na produtividade da soja (Geycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uber aba'. A maioria das monocotiledôneas que ocorreram na area experimental foi represent ada por Cyperus rotundus L., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. e Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., tendo-se verificado somente redução em Brachiaria planta taginea em virtude do aumento das doses de metribuzin, ocorrendo o mesmo com relação às dicotiledôneas que se fizerem presentes no experimento, com exceção de Oxalis Oxyptera Prop., que não foi controlada nas doses utilizadas. A densidade total médias das invasoras, menos Cyperus rotundus , Oxalis oxyptera e Cynodon dactylon, foi de 141; 124; 62 e 59 plantas . m-2, respectivamente, para as doses de 0,0; 0,35 ; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 de metribuzin. A dose de 0,35 kg i.a. de metribuzin.ha-1 foi suficiente para promover a redução da matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas daninhas com a mesma eficiência de controle da dose de 1,05 kg i.a .ha-1 Entretanto, a densidade total médil das invasoras foi reduzida sig nificativamente nas doses de 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. de metribuzin.ha-l. O efeito do metribuzin na soja foi evidenciado somente na dose de 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1, com injúria foliar (clorose leve ocorrida até 25 dias, aproximadamente, apôs a emergência das plântulas. Após esse período, houve total recuperação de todas as plantas de soja submetidas a essa dose. A produção de grão se o índice de colheita não foram influencia dos significativamente pelas doses de metribuzin.In order to test doses of metribu zin (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg a.i.ha ¹ in weed control and yield of soybe an (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, Uberaba, an experiment was conducted under

  4. Structural, productive and bromatologic characteristcs of Tifton 85 and Jiggs grasses fertilized with some macronutrients

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    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to evaluate the effect of fertilization of Tifton 85 and Jiggs grasses with some macronutrients on the structural, productive and bromatologic characteristics. Were evaluated two grasses (Cynodon dactylon cv. Tifton 85 and C. dactylon cv. Jiggs and five sources of fertilizer (three formulations NPK: 08-28-16, 30-00-20 and 20-10-10, and two sources nitrogen: urea and super N in a factorial scheme 2 x 5, distributed in a completely randomized design with four replications. The planting of grasses without fertilization was performed to simulate a pasture located in low natural fertility. The highest yields (P = 0.009 and ratios of leaves (P < 0.001 were observed in Tifton 85 grass, resulting in a lower proportion of stems when compared to Jiggs grass. The sources of fertilizers used changed the weight and the proportion of leaves and stems, as well as the leaf/stem ratio, number of tillers and mass production of Tifton 85 and Jiggs grasses. There was a significative interaction between the study factors (grass and fertilizer for concentrations of DM (P = 0.024, ADF (P = 0.012, hemicellulose (P = 0.007, DMD (P = 0.012, TDN (P = 0.012, DE (p = 0.012 and ME (P = 0.012 leaves and the protein content (p = 0.016 of the stem. In general, the application of 30-00-20 fertilizer resulted in lower ADF content in the leaves of Tifton 85 grass and higher DM, with higher energy content also, and providing super N implied lower ADF content and higher DM digestibility of Jiggs grass leaves. In the whole plant, the Jiggs grass had higher NDF (P = 0.017 compared to Tifton 85 grass, however, the concentration of ADF that grass was lower (P < 0.001 than Tifton 85 grass, which resulted in higher DM (P < 0.001 and energy intake (P < 0.001. The application of super N decreased the ADF content (P = 0.026 of grasses, mainly from Jiggs, implying an increase in the digestibility of DM (P = 0.026 and energy content (P = 0.026. Although there are

  5. [Effects of Three Industrial Organic Wastes as Amendments on Plant Growth and the Biochemical Properties of a Pb/Zn Mine Tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi-zhu; Yang, Sheng-xiang; Li, Feng-mei; Cao, Jian-bing; Peng, Qing-jing

    2016-01-15

    A field trial was conducted in an abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial wastes [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments on plant growth, soil nutrients and enzyme activities, and heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues and the mine tailings. (1) The main findings were as follows: (1) The mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 24.2%-27.3%, 45.7%-48.3%, 18.0%-20.9% and 10.1%-14.2% as compared to the control tailings. When compared to the control tailings, the mean values of organic matter, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 2.27-2.32, 12.4-12.8 and 4.04-4.74 times, respectively. Similarly, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, urease and phosphatase), being 5.51-6.37, 1.72-1.96, 6.32-6.62 and 2.35-2.62 times higher than those in the control tailings. (2) The application of these wastes promoted seed germination and seedling growth. The vegetation cover reached 84%, 79% and 86% at SSV, MHR and SMC subplots. For Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC led to significant increases in the shoot biomass yields with 4.2-5.6 and 15.7-17.3 times greater than those in the tailings. Moreover, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly reduced the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the shoots of L. perenne and C. dactylon in comparison with the control tailings. (3) Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the vegetation cover and biomass were positively correlated with soil nutrient elements and enzyme activities. Significant negative correlations were observed between DTPA-extractable metal concentrations and vegetation cover and biomass. The metal concentrations in plants were positively correlated with

  6. Effects of dietary brown propolis on nutrient intake and digestibility in feedlot lambs

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    Jonilson Araújo da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested brown propolis in crude or extract form as a feed supplement for feedlot lambs to identify the type that most improves in vivo nutrient digestibility. Digestibility was assessed by both total fecal collection and internal markers and the results obtained by these techniques were compared. The completely randomized design was used to compare feed intake and nutrient digestibility of 24 male lambs aged seven months among four dietary treatments (crude brown propolis, propolis ethanol extract, monensin sodium, and control. Methods of feces collection were compared using a completely randomized split-plot design, with experimental diets corresponding to the main factor and the methods to estimate fecal production as the sub-factor. The diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 50:50, with Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp. as roughage, and ground corn, soybean meal and minerals as concentrate. The lambs fed diets with crude propolis had higher feed intake than those fed diets containing monensin sodium. The different diets did not affect dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber digestibility, but crude propolis supplementation provided higher ether extract digestibility than monensin sodium. Nutrient digestibility, as indicated by indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber, was lower than that found with the fecal collection method. The addition of brown propolis has the same effect as monensin, but neither maximized nutrient availability in the diet of feedlot lambs at 7 months of age. Digestibility assessment using the internal markers indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber is not an efficient method compared with total feces collection.

  7. Allelopathy in saline agricultural land: Vegetation successional changes and patch dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, K; Malik, K A; Sheikh, K H; Lodhi, M A

    1989-02-01

    In reclamation fields of salt-affected wasteland, five plant communities colonized the undisturbed land, represented byCynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sporobolus arabicus, andSuaeda fruticosa. Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca), a highly salt tolerant plant when cultivated, shared dominance withCynodon, Desmostachya, andSporobolus in 15-month-old fields, whereasPolypogon was the only dominant species in 30-month-old kallar grass fields. Through successional stages, soil pH, salinity, sodicity, and Na, K, Ca + Mg significantly decreased due to leaching. Electrical conductivity successively changed from 13.0 to 3.0 to 1.0, while soil total nitrogen, NH4 nitrogen, NO3 nitrogen and available P significantly increased. In high-density kallar grass fields, six weed species appeared only in well-defined patches and radially eliminated or reduced kallar grass growth. Many soil factors, such as pH, EC, NH4 nitrogen, NO3 nitrogen and available P analyzed in patch vegetation soils, were mostly either comparable or significantly better than those of surrounding kallar grass fields. On the other hand, aqueous extracts of all six invading species and kallar grass significantly reduced kallar grass seed germination to varying degrees. Further, decaying leaf powder of allelopathically suspected species significantly reduced kallar grass biomass, which varied from species to species and in most cases corresponded with field data of kallar grass in patch vegetation. It should be strongly pointed out that allelopathic behavior discussed in patch dynamics was in areas where soil saline-sodic conditions had improved greatly (e.g., EC = from 13.0 to only 1.0) due to kallar grass plantation. Further,Suaeda appeared to be a poor competitor when soil conditions improved for other species as well, and it could not capitalize on its evolutionary strategic trait of performing well in saline-sodic conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that

  8. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton (Cynodon spp em dietas de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação. 1. Digestibilidade = Forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill and urea in replacement of tifton hay (Cynodon spp in lactating Holstein cows diet. 1. Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Valéria de Araújo Cavalcanti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0%; 12,5%; 25%; 37,5%; e 50% de palma forrageira e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica(DAMO, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da proteína bruta (DAPB, dos carboidratos totais (DACHOT e dos carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas, com peso médio de 480 kg e produção média de leite de 20 kg/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5x5. As DAMS, DAMO, DACHOT e DACNF aumentaram, aDAFDN diminuiu linearmente e a DAPB não foi influenciada com o aumento dos níveis de palma e uréia na dieta. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais de mantença, a energia digestível de lactação, energia metabolizável de lactação e energia líquida de lactação aumentaram à medida que eram incluídas palma e uréia na dieta.The effect of five levels forage cactus and urea (0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% in replacement of tifton hay in lactating Holstein cows diets, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, crude protein (ADCP, total carbohydrates (ADTC and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC were evaluated. Five Holstein cows weighing on average 480 kg and with an average milk yield of 20 kg of milk/day were used in a 5x5 Latin square design. The DM, OM, TC and NFC apparent digestibility increased while NDF apparent digestibility decreased linearly and the CP apparent digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of forage cactus and urea. The total digestible nutrients of maintenance,digestible energy of lactation, metabolizing energy of lactation and liquid energy of lactation increased as the forage cactus and urea levels increased.

  9. Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior degradabilidade efetiva para todos os nutrientes avaliados e a peletização da grama Esmeralda promoveu maior DE da MS e da fibra, sem alterar a DE da PB.

  10. Recovery of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infective larvae from three grass species contaminated in the autumn Recuperação de larvas infectantes de Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três espécies de gramíneas contaminadas no outono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Abdallah da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to assess the recovery of infective larvae (L3 of Trichostrongylus colubriformis from Brachiaria decumbens cv. Australiana, Cynodon dactylon cv. Coast-cross and Panicum maximum cv. Aruana. The experimental module comprised six plots, with two plots per herbage species. Larval survival was assessed from autumn to winter, under the effect of two herbage-paring heights (5 and 30 cm. TThe paring was carried out immediately before contamination with faces containing T. colubriformis eggs. The feces and herbage were collected at one, two, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks after feces had been deposited in the experimental plots. In general, larvae were recovered from both herbage and feces until the 16th week. The longer persistence of these larvae in the environment was probably due to warmer temperatures. The number of L3 recovered from the pasture was not influenced by the height of plants, except for Brachiaria and Aruana herbage in the fourth week. Regarding the concentrations of larvae per kg of dry matter (L3/kg DM, recovery was higher from low pasture in all three herbage species. During the autumn, the development and survival of the T. colubriformis free-living stages were not affected by the different herbage species.O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a recuperação de larvas infectantes (L3 de Trichostrongylus colubriformis em Brachiaria decumbens cv. Australiana, Cynodon dactylon cv. Coast-cross e Panicum maximum cv. Aruana. Foram utilizados módulos experimentais constituídos por seis canteiros, perfazendo dois canteiros por espécie forrageira. A sobrevivência larval foi avaliada do outono até o inverno, sob o efeito de duas alturas de poda (5 e 30 cm. A poda foi realizada imediatamente antes da deposição das fezes contaminadas com ovos de T. colubriformis. A colheita das fezes e da forragem foi realizada uma, duas, quatro, oito, 12 e 16 semanas após a deposição das fezes nos canteiros experimentais. De

  11. Análise econômica da produção de carne de cordeiros sob dois sistemas de terminação: pastagem e confinamento Economical analysis of meat lamb production under two finishing systems: pasture and dry-lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados os custos de produção e o retorno econômico do quilograma de carcaça, de 13 cordeiros Corriedale (C, 14 Bergamácia x Corriedale (BC e 9 Hampshire Down x Corriedale (HC, em pastagem de Cynodon dactylon e 10 C, 11 BC e 8 HC em confinamento, recebendo ração completa, com 18% de proteína bruta e 72% de nutrientes digestíveis totais, idênticos ao da pastagem. A lotação utilizada foi de 20 cordeiros/ha. No confinamento, considerou-se 0,5m²/cordeiro. A despesa total para terminação dos cordeiros na pastagem foi R$2.382,40 e para terminação em confinamento foi R$2.918,40, com as respectivas receitas de R$3.686,90 e R$4.498,03. O custo de produção do kg de carcaça dos cordeiros confinados (R$2,30, em valor absoluto foi superior, porém, muito próximo dos terminados em pastagem (R$2,26. O retomo econômico para os cordeiros terminados em confinamento (R$1.579,63 foi superior ao dos terminados em pastagem (R$1.304,50, mostrando uma diferença em valores absolutos de R$275,13 a favor dos cordeiros confinados. A produção de carne de cordeiro em confinamento é economicamente viável.This experiment was carried out to study costs and economical return of carcass lamb (kg production in two finishing systems. The systems compared were, a grazing system based on "coast cross" pasture (Cynodon dactylon with the following genotypes: 13 Corriedale (C. 14 Bergamacia x Corriedale (BC, and 9 Hampshire Down x Corriedale {HC}, and a dry-lot system with the following crossbreeds : 10 C, 11 BC, and 8 HC. In the dry-lot system the lambs were fed with a total mix ration, containing the some leveis ofcrude protein and total digestible nutrients of the pasture. The stock rate in the pasture was 20 lambs/ha. In the dry-lot was used an área of 0.5m²/lamb and the lambs were housed in a suspenso and siated floor facitity. The total costs in the graang system was US$ 1985.33, and in the dry-lot system was US$ 2432.00. The total incarne for

  12. Desenvolvimento morfológico das gramas Esmeralda, São Carlos e Tifton 419 Morphological development of Emerald, Carpetgrass and Tifton 419 turfgrasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleusa Maria Kojoroski-Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento morfológico das gramas São Carlos (Axonopus affinis, Tifton 419 (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis e Esmeralda (Zoysia sp., cultivadas em casa de vegetação e colhidas integralmente aos 97, 118, 146, 174, 202, 230 e 258 dias de idade. A Tifton 419 mostrou os maiores comprimentos de estolão (83,3 cm, altura de planta (23,6 cm e número de folhas (12-24 cm-1 de estolão; as folhas mediram 6,7 cm x 1,9 mm (textura fina. Os estolões da São Carlos atingiram em média 58,3 cm e foram os mais espessos (2,5 cm, com 2-4 folhas cm de estolão-1; as folhas mediram 10,9 cm x 12,3 mm (textura grossa e a altura máxima da planta foi de 13 cm. A Esmeralda foi inferior quanto à altura (10 cm, comprimento de estolão (45 cm e número de folhas (7 folhas cm de estolão-1; as folhas mediram 6,2 cm x 3,7 mm (textura média. O acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea (mg planta-1 atingiu 12.100 (São Carlos, 8.700 (Tifton 419 e 3.500 (Esmeralda e a relação raiz:parte aérea foi de 0,33; 0,15 e 0,19, respectivamente. As distintas características morfológicas das gramas podem subsidiar sua escolha para diferentes propósitos.This study evaluated the morphological development of Carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis, Tifton 419 (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis and Emerald (Zoysia sp. turfgrasses grown in greenhouse and harvested at 97, 118, 146, 174, 202, 230 and 258 days old. Tifton 419 showed the largest stolons (83.3 cm, height (23.6 cm and leaf number (12-24 cm-1 stolon; leaves measured 6.7 cm x 1.9 mm (fine texture. Carpetgrass stolons reached on average 58.3 cm and were thicker (2.5 cm, with 2-4 leaf cm-1; their leaves measured 10.9 cm x 12.3 mm (coarse texture and the maximum height of the plant was 13 cm. The Emerald presented the lowest height (10 cm, stolon length (45 cm, leaf number (7 leaves cm stolon-1; their leaves measured 6.2 cm x 3.7 mm (medium texture. The dry matter accumulation (mg plant-1 reached 12

  13. Suplementação nitrogenada com ureia comum ou encapsulada sobre parâmetros ruminais de novilhos alimentados com feno de baixa qualidade Nitrogen supplement with common or coated urea on ruminal parameters of steers fed with low quality hay

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    Eduardo Bohrer de Azevedo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento de suplementação com novilhos fistulados no rúmen com o objetivo de verificar a utilização de ureia encapsulada como fonte de nitrogênio de liberação mais lenta e uniforme ao longo do tempo, bem como seu efeito sobre a degradabilidade da parede celular do feno. Os tratamentos foram: Feno + sal mineralizado (SM; Feno + suplemento proteico com ureia comum (SU; Feno + suplemento proteico com ureia encapsulada fórmula 1 (UE1; e Feno + suplemento proteico com ureia encapsulada fórmula 2 (UE2. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. de baixa qualidade (PB: 4,62% e FDN: 83,46%. Foram realizadas medidas de pH e N-NH3 ruminais e parâmetros de degradação ruminal da FDN do volumoso. Verificou-se efeito (P0,05 da ureia comum. Os valores de pH e degradabilidade in situ não foram afetados pelos tratamentos (P>0,05, ao serem comparados os suplementados ou não suplementados com proteína degradável no rúmen e ao serem comparadas fontes de nitrogênio não proteico. A ureia encapsulada não demonstrou superioridade sobre a ureia comum, provavelmente pela baixa eficiência da sua proteção. A utilização de ureia encapsulada e a suplementação de proteína degradável não foram eficientes em aumentar a degradabilidade da parede celular do volumoso utilizado.A supplementation trial was accomplished with rumen fistulated steers with the objective of verifying the coated urea use as a source of nitrogen of slower and uniform release throughout the time, as well as its effect on cellular wall degradability. The treatments were: hay + mineral supplement; hay + protein supplement with common urea; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 1; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 2. The forage used was Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. hay of low quality (CP: 4.62% and NDF: 83.46%. The measures were: ruminal pH and N-NH3, rumen degradability of NDF and ruminal degradation parameters

  14. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino

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    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass, and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 70 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton, que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso

  15. Desempenho de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com proteína de soja sólida ou líquida Performance of Holstein calves fed soybean meal protein in solid or liquid form

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    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição de metade do total de proteína da dieta na forma sólida (farelo de soja por proteína na forma líquida (leite de soja, com relações sólidos:líquidos de 100,0:0%; 87,5:12,5%; e 75,0:25,0%. Utilizaram-se 24 bezerros machos da raça Holandesa com 60 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três dietas à base de concentrado (80% e feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (20%, balanceadas para nitrogênio e energia. Nas dietas com partes líquidas, o intuito foi manter o reflexo de formação da goteira esofagiana no período experimental de 10 meses, no qual os animais foram mantidos em confinamento, sendo abatidos ao atingirem pesos corporais superiores a 400 kg. Em alguns dos animais, dotados de cânulas de rúmen, foi possível detectar neste órgão apenas pequenas quantidades do leite de soja ingerido, confirmando sucesso na formação da goteira esofagiana. Os ganhos de peso diários apresentaram redução linear (1,399; 1,341; e 1,191 kg à medida que foram fornecidas maiores quantidades de leite de soja. As conversões de matéria seca e proteína bruta em ganhos de peso, durante os últimos 60 dias experimentais, pioraram conforme aumentaram as quantidades de proteína na forma líquida. O fornecimento de proteína na forma líquida na dieta não altera os rendimentos de carcaça em bezerros holandeses.The effects were assessed of substituting half the total diet protein in solid form (soybean meal with liquid form (soybean milk at solid:liquid ratios of: 100.0:0% L; 87.5:12.5% L; 75.0:25.0% L. Twenty-four Holstein breed 60-d male calf steers were assigned to a randomized block design, with three concentrate (80% diets and 20% coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon hay, balanced for nitrogen and energy. In the diets with liquid parts, the intention was to keep the functional reflex of the esophageal groove throughout the 10 months of the experimental period, in which

  16. Composição centesimal e lipídica da carne de ovinos do nordeste brasileiro Proximate analysis and lipidic composition of lamb meat from Northeastern Brazil

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    Jorge Fernando Fuentes Zapata

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a composição centesimal e lipídica da carne de ovinos do Nordeste brasileiro. Para isso, foram utilizados 21 borregos, machos inteiros, sendo 10 animais ½ Somalis Brasileira ´ ½ Crioula (SB-C e 11 animais ½ Santa Inês ´ ½ Crioula (SI-C. Os animais receberam duas dietas durante a fase de amamentação: feno de capim-gramão (Cynodon dactylon + feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala ad libitum (D1 e feno de capim-gramão + feno de leucena + concentrado com 20% de proteína bruta ad libitum (D2. Não foi observado o efeito dos genótipos nem do sistema de alimentação sobre a composição centesimal e lipídica da carne. Os valores de umidade, proteína, cinzas e gordura, variaram de 76,12 a 76,19%, 19,19 a 19,46%, 1,08 a 1,10% e 2,01 a 2,39%, respectivamente. Os valores de colesterol variaram de 54,43 a 60,05mg por 100g de carne. Os ácidos graxos encontrados em maior quantidade na fração lipídica da carne dos animais estudados foram oleico, palmítico e esteárico. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a carne de ovinos do Nordeste brasileiro apresenta uma composição centesimal e lipídica similar às carnes de ovinos de clima temperado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the proximate and lipidic compositon of lamb meat from tropical sheep reared in Northeastern Brazil. Twenty-one rams, ten ½ Somalis Brasileira ½ ´ Crioula (SB-C and 11 ½ Santa Inês ´ ½ Crioula (SI-C were used. Two feeding regimes were utilized during weaning: grass hay (Cynodon dactylon + leucena hay (Leucaena leucocephala ad libitum (D1 and grass háy + leucena hay + 20% crude protein concentrate ad libitum (D2. It was not observed effect of crossbreed or feeding regime on proximate and lipidic composition of the meat. Moisture, protein, ash and fat values varied from 76.12 to 76.19%, 19.19 to 19.46%, 1.08 to 1.10% and 2.01 to 2.39%, respectively. Cholesterol content ranged from 54.43 to 60.05mg

  17. Níveis de concentrado na dieta de bezerros Levels of concentrate in the diet of calves

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    Marinaldo Divino Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar níveis de concentrado para bezerros em crescimento. Foram utilizados quatro bezerros mestiços, Holandês × Zebu, com idade média de 7 meses e 155 kg de peso vivo, distribuídos em quadrado latino (4×4. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade, na forma de dieta completa contendo os níveis de 20, 40, 60 e 80% de concentrado, com base na matéria seca (MS. As dietas foram compostas de feno de Cynodon dactylon, fubá de milho, farelo de soja e mistura mineral e foram isoprotéicas (15,4%. Os consumos de MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e carboidratos totais (CT apresentaram comportamento linear e os consumos de proteína bruta (PB e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, comportamento quadrático, em kg/dia. Quando calculados em %PV, os consumos de MO, PB, EE e NDT apresentaram comportamento quadrático, enquanto os de MS, FDN e CT tiveram comportamento linear. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente total da MS e PB foram influenciados de forma quadrática pelos níveis de concentrado, enquanto os de MO, EE, FDN e CT tiveram comportamento linear. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de concentrado sobre a concentração média de nitrogênio amoniacal em cada tempo de análise. Entretanto, para pH, observou-se influência dos níveis nos tempos analisados. Os níveis de concentrado não influenciaram a concentração média de glicose sérica, mas tiveram efeito linear negativo sobre o nitrogênio uréico sérico (NUS em cada tempo pós-prandial. Pode-se incluir até 60% de concentrado na dieta de bezerros, entretanto níveis maiores podem comprometer a utilização do volumoso.The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of concentrate for growing calves. Four Holstein × Brahman crossbred calves with average age of 7 months and 155 kg of body weight were used, distributed into one Latin square design (4 × 4. The animals were fed ad libtum in the form of complete diet containing

  18. Seletividade de herbicidas a cinco tipos de gramas Herbicide selectivity to five species of turfgrasses

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    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as opções de controle de plantas daninhas em gramados, destaca-se o uso de herbicidas, porém poucas informações existem na literatura sobre a sua seletividade a gramados. Assim, foi desenvolvida a presente pesquisa em casa de vegetação da ESALQ - Piracicaba, com o objetivo de testar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio (sulfentrazone a 1,4 kg i.a. ha-1 e oxadiazon a 1,0 kg i.a. ha-1 e em pós-emergência (halosulfuron a 112,5 g i.a. ha-1, 2,4-D a 2,010 kg i.a. ha-1 e MSMA a 2,4 kg i.a. ha-1, em cinco espécies de gramas (família Poaceae: são-carlos (Axonopus affinis, esmeralda (Zoysia japonica, bermuda (Cynodon dactylon, zoysia (Zoysia matrella e santo-agostinho (Stenotaphrum secundatum. As conclusões gerais deste trabalho de pesquisa foram de que a seletividade de herbicidas aos diversos tipos de grama é função principalmente da espécie de grama e do tipo e da dose do herbicida aplicado. Dentre os herbicidas testados, destacam-se como mais seletivos o halosulfuron na dose de 112,5 g i.a. ha-1 e o 2,4-D na de 2,010 kg i.a. ha-1; as espécies de grama do gênero Zoysia (esmeralda [Z. japonica] e zoysia [Z. matrella], de maneira geral, são mais tolerantes aos herbicidas testados nesta pesquisa.Among the weed control options, herbicide is certainly one to be considered for weed control in turfgrass; however, little has been published about herbicide selectivity, specially under Brazilian landscape conditions. Therefore, this research was conducted at USP/ESALQ, Piracicaba-SP, Brazil, to evaluate herbicide selectivity to turfgrass of pre-planting application herbicides (sulfentrazone at 1.4 kg a.i.ha-1 and oxadiazon 1.0 kg a.i.ha-1 and post-emergence application herbicides (halosulfuron at 112.5 g a.i.ha-1, 2,4-D at 2.010 kg a.i.ha-1 and MSMA at 2.4 kg a.i.ha-1, in five species of turfgrass: Axonopus affinis Chase, Zoysia japonica, Cynodon dactylon, Zoysia matrella and Stenotaphrum secundatum. It was concluded

  19. Lixiviação de nitrato em pastagem de coastcross adubada com nitrogênio Nitrate leaching in heavily nitrogen fertilized coastcross pasture

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    Odo Primavesi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar possíveis perdas de N-nitrato em profundidade, em experimentos conduzidos no período das chuvas em dois anos consecutivos em pastagem de capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross instalada sobre Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico típico, na região de São Carlos, SP. Foram determinados os teores de nitrato no perfil do solo, após aplicações superficiais de 125, 250, 500 e 1.000 kg ha-1ano-1 de nitrogênio, na forma de uréia e nitrato de amônio, parcelados em cinco vezes, até a profundidade de 160 cm. Em 1999, a determinação dos teores de N-nitrato após o quinto corte do capim, indicou maiores teores para nitrato de amônio, em especial na maior dose de N. As maiores variações ocorreram até 100 cm. Em 2000, foram medidos semanalmente os teores de N-nitrato no perfil do solo nos tratamentos com as doses de 500 e 1.000 kg ha-1ano-1 de N. As maiores variações (de 0 a 81,2 mg kg-1 de N-NO3- ocorreram até 40 cm de profundidade. Os resultados indicam não haver risco de contaminação do lençol freático em solos profundos de textura média ocupados por gramínea tropical manejada intensivamente quando não se utilizam adubações nitrogenadas superiores à capacidade de ciclagem da forrageira e quando se considera o potencial de fornecimento do solo.The goal of this work was to assess nitrate losses in the soil profile. Nitrate concentration was determined in the profile of a soil under coastcross pasture (Cynodon dactylon cv. Coastcross, in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, in the rainy season of two consecutive years. The soil was a dark red Latosol (Hapludox, affected by tropical altitude climate. Nitrogen doses of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 kg ha-1 year-1, as urea or ammonium nitrate were broadcasted splited in five applications. Soil nitrate concentration was determined down to 160 cm depth. In 1999, nitrate level varied according to N sources, reaching higher figure in soil that had received 1,000 kg ha-1 year

  20. Digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alimentos volumosos determinada pela técnica dos sacos móveis em eqüinos Nutrient digestibility of forage feed determined using mobile bag technique in horses

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    Vinícius Pimentel Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar a digestibilidade de nutrientes de forrageiras em eqüinos utilizando-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis. Foram avaliados alfafa (Medicago sativa, amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, desmódio (Desmodium ovalifolium, estilosantes (Stylosanthes guianensis, guandu (Cajanus cajan, macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare e capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross. O delineamento foi em blocos inteiramente casualizados com sete alimentos e cinco blocos (animais. Foram utilizados cinco eqüinos mestiços com 17 a 27 anos de idade e peso vivo médio de 350 kg. O ensaio teve duração de 12 dias: três para a adaptação às baias, cinco para inserção gástrica dos sacos através de sonda nasogástrica e quatro de coleta dos sacos nas fezes. No período pré-experimental de 30 dias, os animais foram mantidos em piquetes com dieta composta de 80% de feno de coastcross e 20% de concentrado. Na confecção dos sacos, utilizou-se náilon com porosidade de 45 µ e dimensão de 7,5 × 2 cm. Em cada saco, foram inseridos 510 mg de matéria seca de amostra do alimento. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes das forragens foram calculados considerando o resíduo obtido no saco. A digestibilidade dos nutrientes do amendoim, estilosantes e macrotiloma foram superiores à da demais forrageiras, com destaque para a digestibilidade da proteína bruta, cujos valores foram de 91,4; 94,9 e 97,0%, respectivamente. O amendoim e macrotiloma apresentaram digestibilidade da fibra em detergente neutro de 72,3 e 65,2% e da fibra em detergente ácido de 70,9 e 59,4%, respectivamente. O amendoim forrageiro, macrotiloma e estilosantes apresentam digestibilidade dos nutrientes satisfatória e têm potencial para o uso em dietas para eqüinos.This work was carried out to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of forages using mobile bags technique in horses. The forages were lucerne (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi, desmodio

  1. Digestão dos carboidratos de alimentos volumosos em eqüinos Digestion of carbohydrates of forages in horses

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    Eliane da Silva Morgado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foram realizados dois ensaios com os objetivos de avaliar o fracionamento dos carboidratos de alimentos volumosos e estimar a digestibilidade desses nutrientes em dois ensaios de digestão com eqüinos. No ensaio 1, foram utilizados cinco eqüinos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos - fenos de alfafa (Medicago sativa; amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi; desmódio (Desmodium ovalifolium; guandu (Cajanus cajan; macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare; estilosantes (Stylosanthes guianensis; ou coastcross (Cynodon dactylon - avaliados pela técnica de sacos de náilon móveis. No ensaio 2, foram utilizados quatro eqüinos em delineamento quadrado latino 4 × 4, alimentados com feno de coastcross em quatro tipos de moagem com o objetivo de avaliar se a redução do tamanho de partícula interfere na digestibilidade dos carboidratos. Os resultados comprovaram que os eqüinos possuem alta eficiência na digestão dos carboidratos não-fibrosos e de suas frações hidrolisáveis e rapidamente fermentáveis. Os fenos de amendoim forrageiro, estilosantess e macrotiloma apresentaram elevada digestibilidade dos carboidratos fibrosos e não-fibrosos, enquanto a digestibilidade de todos os nutrientes do amendoim forrageiro foi superior a 70%, o que indica potencial para uso desta leguminosa em dietas para eqüinos. O processamento do feno de coastcross não influenciou a digestibilidade das frações dos carboidratos fibrosos e não-fibrosos. A análise dos carboidratos fibrosos e não-fibrosos é um bom indicativo do valor nutricional dos alimentos e pode ser incluída na avaliação da qualidade de alimentos para eqüinos.This work was carried out to evaluate the fractions of carbohydrates and estimate the apparent digestibility of these nutrients in two digestion assays with horses. In assay 1, five horses were allotted to a complete randomized blocks design and treatments were seven forages hays, alfalfa (Medicago sativa

  2. Alimentação de bezerros ruminantes com dieta sólida ou líquida, via goteira esofageana: formação da goteira e escape ruminal Ruminant calves fed with solid or liquid diet: Esophageal groove formation and ruminal by- pass

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    Renato Ranzini Rodrigues

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Efeitos da alimentação de proteína texturizada de soja (PTS, fornecida tanto na forma líquida (via goteira esofageana como sólida (via concentrados, foram estudados em um delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4. Quatro novilhos da raça Holandês dotados de cânulas ruminais e com 100 kg de peso ao início do experimento, foram empregados para avaliar proteína texturizada de soja fornecida em quatro níveis crescentes na forma líquida 0/0, 1/3, 2/3 e 3/3, oferecida em mamadeira, conjuntamente com níveis decrescentes de PTS na mistura concentrada de forma a manter o mesmo nível de proteína na dieta. Os subperíodos experimentais contaram 21 dias, sendo os dezesseis primeiros para adaptação à dieta, constituída de feno de coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, mistura concentrada e porção líquida. No vigésimo dia foi colhido material para análise de N-NH3 do líquido ruminal,bem como controle do pH, às 0, 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6 h após a primeira refeição. Também foi estimada a eficiência de formação da goteira esofageana com o emprego de marcador de fase líquida polietilenoglicol (PEG, colhido diretamente do rúmen. O reflexo da formação da goteira esofageana foi mais eficiente no tratamento de mais alto nível de suplemento protéico líquido mostrando menores concentrações de PEG no rúmen. As medições de nitrogênio amoniacal concordaram com essa observação, pois houve decréscimo em sua concentração com o aumento do nível de suplementação líquida. Não ocorreram efeitos da forma de suplementação protéica sobre os ganhos de peso dos bezerros.Effects of feeding textured soy protein (TSP, in liquid form (through esophageal groove, or solid form (throughout concentrate were studied in a Latin-square changeover 4 x 4 design. Four Holstein steers fitted with ruminal cannulas were used, weighting 100 kg of live weight at the beginning of the trial, to evaluate treatments consisting of increasing TSP levels in liquid form (0

  3. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros das raças Texel, Suffolk e cruza Texel x Suffolk Performance and characteristics of the carcass of lambs the breed Texel, Suffolk and cross Texel x Suffolk

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    Sérgio Carvalho

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento objetivou comparar o desempenho e as características de carcaça de 14 cordeiros, sendo quatro da raça Texel, cinco da raça Suffolk e cinco cruza Texel x Suffolk. Os cordeiros foram desmamados aos 64 dias de idade em média, e terminados em regime de confinamento total, até o abate com idade média de 128 dias. Do nascimento ao desmame, as ovelhas (mães dos cordeiros foram mantidas em pastagem nativa e receberam uma suplementação concentrada na proporção de 1% de peso vivo, tendo também os cordeiros acesso a uma suplementação concentrada na forma de creep-feeding na proporção de 1,5% do peso vivo. O alimento concentrado utilizado na suplementação das ovelhas e dos cordeiros continha 21% de proteína bruta (PB, 70% de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, 2% de cálcio (Ca e 0,4% de fósforo (P. Após o desmame, os cordeiros passaram a receber uma dieta composta por feno de Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon + concentrado, na proporção 40:60 na Matéria Seca (MS, a qual continha 15,1% de PB, 60,8% de NDT, 1,4% de Ca e 0,3% de P. O peso ao abate foi inferior (PThe objective of this work was to compare the performance and carcass characteristics of 14 lambs, being four of the Texel, five of the Suffolk and five cross Texel x Suffolk breeds. The lambs were weaned at 64 days of age in average, and finished in feedlot, until slaughtering with average age of 128 days. From birth to weaning, dams were maintained in native pasture and received a concentrated supplementation at a 1% ratio of live weight and lambs had access to a concentrated supplementation in the form of creep-feeding at a 1.5% ratio of the live weight. The concentrated food used in the supplementation of the sheep and the lambs contained 21% of crude protein (CP, 70% of total digestible nutrients (TDN, 2% of calcium (Ca and 0.4% of phosphorus (P. After weaning, lambs started to receive a composed diet of hay made of Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon + concentrate

  4. Levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens degradadas sob condições de várzea Phyto-sociological assessment of degraded pastures under flooded low land conditions

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    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento foi realizado em duas áreas de várzea, eventualmente inundáveis, localizadas na Fazenda Experimental de Leopoldina, da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais. A área 1, de 3 ha, estava ocupada por uma pastagem de capim-angola (Brachiaria mutica, mal manejada e sem controle de plantas daninhas há mais de dez anos. A área 2, de 5 ha, estava ocupada por uma pastagem de capim-setária (Setaria anceps cv. Kazungula, implantada na estação chuvosa do ano anterior, cuja formação ficou prejudicada pelo baixo estabelecimento da forrageira. Para o estudo fitossociológico, utilizou-se o método do quadrado inventário, aplicado por meio de um quadrado de 1,0 m², lançado ao acaso 19 vezes na área 1 e 41 vezes na área 2. As espécies encontradas foram identificadas e cadastradas. Na pastagem de capim-angola foram identificadas 27 espécies, distribuídas em 11 famílias e na pastagem de capim-setária 34 espécies distribuídas em 13 famílias. As famílias mais representativas em número de espécies foram: Poaceae (11, Asteraceae (6, Papilionoideae (5, Malvaceae e Euphorbiaceae (4. As maiores freqüências foram das seguintes espécies: Cynodon dactylon, Sida rhombifolia, Cyperus esculentus, Mimosa pudica, Senna occidentalis, Setaria anceps cv. Kazungula e Paspalum urvillei. Em geral, as duas áreas apresentaram-se infestadas com plantas daninhas, inclusive com plantas tóxicas, espinescentes e de baixa palatabilidade, reduzindo a capacidade de suporte animal dos pastos e impedindo o aproveitamento adequado das áreas pelos bovinos.An assessment was carried out of two contingently flooded low land areas, located at the Experimental Farm of Leopoldina, owned by Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG-Brazil-MG. Area 1 (3 ha was cultivated with Angola-grass (Brachiaria mutica pasture, not well managed and without any weed control for more than 10 years. Area 2 (5 ha was occupied by Setaria grass

  5. Dinâmica do fósforo em ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo diversos níveis deste mineral Dynamics of phosphorus in the body of sheep fed different levels of this mineral in the diets

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    Everton do Espírito Santo Borges

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica do fósforo no organismo de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com dietas com diversos níveis deste mineral, considerando as correlações entre os níveis de fósforo consumido e de fósforo no plasma; na saliva; no conteúdo ruminal; nas fezes; e na urina. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros com 5 meses de idade e 27 kg de peso vivo. O experimento foi dividido em dois períodos de cinco semanas, cada um com nove animais. Os animais foram mantidos individualmente em gaiolas para estudo de metabolismo e receberam uma dieta basal constituída de feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, L. Pers. e concentrado com diferentes níveis de fósforo (1,9; 2,6; 3,3 g/dia provenientes de fosfato bicálcico. No 15º dia, iniciaram-se as coletas de saliva, plasma, conteúdo ruminal, fezes e urina para as análises de fósforo inorgânico. Observaram-se correlações positivas entre o aumento do consumo de fósforo e os teores desse mineral no plasma (r = 0,64, na saliva (r = 0,86, no conteúdo ruminal (r = 0,82, nas fezes (r = 0,92 e na urina (r = 0,37, comprovando que, quando absorvido, o fósforo é distribuído no corpo pelo plasma. Após a saturação no organismo, o excesso é secretado via saliva, segue para o rúmen e, ao chegar ao intestino, é reabsorvido em menor quantidade e excretado via fezes. À medida que se aumentaram os níveis de fósforo na dieta, verificou-se aumento expressivo dos teores desse mineral na saliva, no plasma, no conteúdo ruminal e nas fezes.The dynamics of phosphorus in the body of Santa Ines lambs fed diets with different levels of this mineral was evaluated, considering the correlations among the levels of phosphorus consumed, in plasma; in saliva, in rumen contents, in feces, and in urine. Eighteen lambs were used with five mo old and 27 kg BW. The experiment was divided into two periods of five weeks, each with nine animals. The animals were individually kept in cages of metabolism study and were

  6. 矿山岩石边坡植被恢复中植物配置的研究%Study on the plant furnishing of vegetation recovery of the mine rock slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振峰; 程文; 陈增香; 潘荣森; 胡天寿; 孙凯蕾; 李东樵

    2015-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of high technical difficulty and low success rate of recovering vegetation on the rock slope of mining wasteland ,the optimal solution of proportion of plants was de-termined,based on the analysis of the nature of rock and the application of plants on slope,herbs and woody planted in the mining wasteland,and control of its density and seeding rates. Taking Yongping copper mine as a case,tests showed that greening plants should be acid proof,because of the serious acid of rock slope. The plants choose Estuca elata,Cynodon dactylon,Miscathus sinensis, Indigofera pseudotinctoria, Lespedeza bicolor, Crotalaria pallida, Parthenoeissus trieuspidata,and Puerarialobata. Because germination time of woody plants usually was later than herbs,so it was necessary to control the density of herbs and woody plants. Suggestions for the ratio of Estuca elata,Cynodon dactylon,Miscathus sinensis,Indigofera pseudotinctoria,Lespedeza bicolor,Crotalaria pallida,Parthenoeissus trieuspidata,Puerarialobata respectively were 4. 88 g/m2 ,1. 63 g/m2 ,2. 61 g/m2 ,2. 59 g/m2 ,4. 76 g/m2 ,1. 56 g/m2 ,2-3 p/m and 2-3 p/m.%针对矿山废弃地岩石边坡进行植被恢复存在的技术难度大和成功率低的特点,通过对废弃地的岩石性质和生态恢复边坡绿化植物应用情况调查的分析,草本植物和木本植物在铜矿废弃地生长情况,及其密度和播种量控制试验,确定矿山废弃地岩石边坡绿化植物配比的优化方案。以永平铜矿为研究对象进行的试验表明,矿山废弃地岩石边坡酸性污染严重,应选择耐酸植物;宜选择草本植物高羊茅、狗牙根、芒草;木本植物马棘、胡枝子、猪屎豆;藤本植物爬墙虎和葛藤;木本植物的发芽时间通常迟于草本植物,合理控制草本植物和木本植物的生长密度;喷播绿化植物配置方案建议为:高羊茅(4.88 g/m2),狗牙根(1.63 g/m2),芒草(2.61 g/m2

  7. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit. tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas do ano: setembro de 2007 e março de 2008, período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente. Os sistemas com capim-Tifton, capim-Tanzânia e Leucena mostraram maior número de indivíduos nos dois períodos avaliados. A queimada ocorrida no capim-Andropogon antes da primeira coleta resultou em uma redução na abundância e diversidade da fauna edáfica. Os maiores valores em riqueza, diversidade e uniformidade de fauna foram obtidos na amostragem realizada no período úmido. A mata mostrou maior diversidade e equitabilidade nos dois períodos avaliados. Em situação de estresse hídrico alguns grupos como Formicidae e Collembola predominaram nos sistemas de manejo diminuindo a uniformidade, enquanto no período úmido vários grupos mostraram boa representatividade o que favoreceu a uniformidade. A análise multivariada de componentes principais evidenciou que os sistemas com mata, capim-Tifton e capim-Tanzania e Leucena mostraram associação com vários grupos da fauna edáfica nos dois períodos avaliados enquanto que o sistema com capim-Andropogon, que sofreu queimada, apresentou afinidade apenas com o grupo Heteroptera, no período seco.The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of fauna as a function of soil moisture in different fodder-production management systems of Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, Andropogon Grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth and

  8. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues. PMID:23124167

  9. A Case Study of Allelopathic Effect on Weeds in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most powerful and effective method of weed control is by chemical substances called herbicides. In recent years, they were published quite data on different side effects of herbicides on humans, animals, crops and the environment as a whole. Therefore, the increased interest for biological weed control lately is reasonable, since its improvement and expansion will contribute to limiting excessive use of herbicides, respectively their harmful effects and will support the successful implementation of complex weed control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of selected plant species, containing allelopathic active substances, on germination, growth and biomass of some widespread weeds in wheat. Experiments were carried out at laboratory conditions using seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., sort Sadovo 1 and most common weeds therein: Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L Pers, white pigweed (Chenopodium album L., twitch (Cynodon dactylon L. and curly dock (Rumex crispus L.. Allelopathic substances were extracted with distilled water from flowers of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., leaves of spearmint (Mentha longifolia (L Huds., and leaves of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.. Of the tested active allelopathic plants, the most negative impact on germination of all weeds seeds (including wheat, as well as on the development of plants exhibited the water extract of lavender. Lavender and basil had a stronger negative effect on white pigweed and twitch compared with both mint species. A significant inhibitory effect of spearmint even at low concentrations was recorded on the germination of all weed species tested while the wheat was slightly affected, which manifests this plant as a potential effective species in strategies for weed control management.

  10. Produção Microbiana e Parâmetros Ruminais de Novilhos Alimentados com Dietas Contendo Vários Níveis de Concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítavo Luís Carlos Vinhas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a eficiência de síntese microbiana e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos. Foram utilizados cinco bovinos da raça Nelore, não-castrados, com 165 kg, fistulados no rúmen, abomaso e íleo. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com cinco períodos de coleta e quatro tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de concentrado na dieta (20, 40, 60 e 80%. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.. As dietas foram isonitrogenadas com 15% de proteína bruta. O indicador microbiano utilizado foi as bases purinas. As análises estatísticas do pH ruminal e das concentrações de N-NH3 foram realizadas em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo na parcela os tratamentos e na subparcela o tempo de coleta. As médias para compostos nitrogenados totais presentes no abomaso e N microbiano foram 68,58 e 60,75 g/dia, respectivamente. A quantidade de carboidratos totais degradados no rúmen (CHODR foi 1,37 kg/dia. Foi observado para a eficiência microbiana valor de 392,4 g MS microbiana/kg CHODR. A composição de bactérias e a eficiência de síntese microbiana não foram influenciadas pelo nível de concentrado das dietas.

  11. Impact of Tillage and Herbicides on Weed Density, Yield and Quality of Cotton in Wheat Based Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Usman; Niamatullah Khan; Muhammad Umar Khan; Aziz ur Rehman; Said Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Conservation tillage may improve yield of cotton in addition to improvement in soil quality if practiced for longer period. However, the practice may not be productive in short-term particularly when severe weeds are infesting the crops such as Cynodon dactylon, Conyza canadensis, Tribulus terrestris, and Cyperus rotundus, etc. Recent studies indicate that conventional tillage (CT) is more productive than zero tillage (ZT)/reduced tillage (RT). Performance of cotton under three tillage systems, viz., ZT, RT and CT;and five herbicides, i.e., haloxyfop-R-methyl 10.8 EC (108 g a.i. ha-1), lactofen 24 EC (168 g a.i. ha-1), haloxyfop 10.8 EC+lactofen 24 EC, hand weeding, and weedy check were evaluated during 2010-2011 at Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan, to explore the best management option for effective weed control, enhanced yield and quality of cotton grown after wheat. The results revealed that hand weeding and Haloxyfop as post emergence alone or in combination with Lactofen reduced weed density to the minimum irrespective of the tillage systems. Excessive rainfall and cooler temperature limited cotton growth and yield in 2010. The adverse weather conditions had more adverse effect on boll weight under ZT and RT than CT. Haloxyfop+lactofen produced higher seed cotton yield in RT than ZT, however, it could not exceed CT. Broad-spectrum herbicides × CT produced the highest number of bolls/plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield. Fiber quality and net returns were also the highest in broad-spectrum herbicides × CT. In conclusion, broad-spectrum herbicides under CT were more productive in wheat based cropping system on silty clay soil of D.I.Khan.

  12. The effects of diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nadino; das Neves, José Henrique; Nazato, Carina; Louvandini, Helder; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the effects of Diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus, 28 lambs were allocated to one of four groups treated as follows: Group Basal Diet - Normal; Group Basal Diet - Immune-Suppressed; Group Supplemented Diet - Normal; and Group Supplemented Diet - Immune-Suppressed. The Basal Diet contained Cynodon dactylon (cv. coast cross) hay with 82 g crude protein (CP)/kg dry matter (DM), which was provided to the lambs in all groups ad libitum. In addition, animals on the Supplemented Diet received daily a commercial concentrate containing 171 g CP/kg DM, which was offered in an amount corresponding to 3% of the animal's live weight. The Immune-Suppressed groups received treatments with the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone sodium succinate (1.33 mg/kg of body weight), administered weekly. All lambs received a single infection with 4000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3) and were euthanised 28 days post-infection. Differences in pH and in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations occurred in rumen as a result of the distinct Diets offered to lambs. Such changes, however, did not have any apparent effect on larvae exsheathment and/or larvae survival inside the rumen, with all groups presenting similar worm burdens. However, animals on the Supplemented Diet presented reductions in worm growth and faecal egg counts. There was a significant effect of the Diet on the IgG levels against total antigens of H. contortus L3 from 7 to 27 days post-infection, with supplemented animals showing higher overall mean values (PDiet; however, only the length of males was significantly affected (P<0.05). In conclusion, the changes caused in the rumen contents by supplementation with concentrate did not impair H. contortus establishment.

  13. EVALUATION OF LOW DOSE HERBICIDES IN TRANSPLANTED RICE (Oryza Sativa L.

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    SK.Deepthi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 at College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar. The experiment consisted of 12 treatments laid out in randomized block design with three replications consisting of two pre-emergence herbicides integrated with post emergence herbicides and one hand weeding at 40DAT and two post emergence herbicide, hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 days after transplanting, compared with weed free and unweeded check. The predominant weed flora observed in the experimental field were Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum repens, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus difformis, Eclipta alba and Ammania baccifera. The results revealed that pre-emergence application of Bensulfuron methyl 0.6% + Pretilachlor 6% @ 10 kg granules ha- 1+ Hand weeding at 40 DAT (5455 kg ha-1 and 6345 kg ha-1 and Bensulfuron-methyl 0.6% + Pretilachlor 6% @ 10 kg granules ha-1 + Bispyribac sodium @ 25 g a.i ha-1 recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield (5365 and 6265kg ha-1, respectively which remained at par with two hand weedings at 20 and 40 DAT (5580 and 6464 kg ha- 1. In terms of economics, highest net returns (Rs. 33,189 ha-1 and B:C ratio (1.40 were also high with the preemergence application of Bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ Pretilachlor 6% @ 10 kg granules ha-1+ Bispyribac sodium @ 25 g a.i. ha-1 at 20DAT (1.40 compared to that of two hand weedingds (Rs. 31,952 ha-1 and benefit cost ratio (1.17 .

  14. Mapping of IgE-binding regions on recombinant Cyn d 1, a major allergen from Bermuda Grass Pollen (BGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla Prem L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon; subfamily Chloridoideae is an important source of seasonal aeroallergens in warm tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. Improved approaches to diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases require a thorough understanding of the structure and epitopes on the allergen molecule that are crucial for the antigen-antibody interaction. This study describes the localization of the human IgE-binding regions of the major group 1 pollen allergen Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass. Methods A cDNA library was constructed from Bermuda grass pollen (BGP using a Lambda gt11 expression vector. The gene encoding the Cyn d 1 allergen was isolated by screening the library with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against grass group 1 allergen. In order to characterize the IgE epitopes on Cyn d 1, seven overlapping fragments and three deletion mutants were cloned and over-expressed in E. coli. The recombinant fragments and deletion mutants were evaluated for their comparative IgE reactivity with sera of non atopic individuals and grass pollen allergic patients by ELISA and a dot-blot assay. Results Analysis of IgE binding regions by overlapping fragments and deletion mutants identified two major allergenic regions corresponding to amino acids 120–170 and 224–244. Deletion of either or both regions led to a significant reduction in IgE binding, emphasizing the importance of the C-terminal region on Cyn d 1 in epitope-IgE interaction. Conclusion Anti-Cyn d 1 IgE antibodies from allergic human sera recognize two epitopes located at the C-terminal end of the molecule. These data will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for BGP hypersensitivity.

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caturegli, Lisa; Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) 'Patriot', Zoysia matrella (Zm) 'Zeon' and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) 'Salam'. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option.

  16. Peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal in the diet of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T Mariniello; de Medeiros, A Nunes; Oliveira, R Lopes; Gonzaga Neto, S; Ribeiro, M Divino; Bagaldo, A Regina; Ribeiro, O Lolato

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that peanut cake can substitute for soybean meal in the feed of ruminants on the basis of the intake, performance, digestion, and serum urea and glucose concentration in crossbred Boer × indigenous goat kids. Forty intact vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer × indigenous goat kids (average age = 5 mo, average BW = 15.6 ± 2.7 kg) were used. The goats were fed Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon) hay and concentrate mixes of corn bran, soybean meal, premix mineral, and peanut cake substituted for soybean meal at rates of 0.0%, 33.33%, 66.67%, and 100%. The animals were confined for 62 d, and the digestibility trial was performed from d 27 to 31 of confinement. Samples of orts and feces were quantified and collected from each animal during this period. On the d 32 of confinement, a blood sample was taken from animals to measure urea N and glucose. Data were analyzed with a regression model. Substitution of soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet of the animals resulted in a reduction in intake of DM (P = 0.02), CP (P = 0.03), NDF (P = 0.03), nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC; P = 0.01), and TDN (P = 0.02) and an increase in intake of ether extract (P cake is not a complete, equal substitute for soybean meal in goat feed. However, peanut cake may represent an eventual replacer able to reduce goat producers’ dependence on traditional ingredients in the feed of growing goat kids.

  17. Current glimpse of airborne allergenic pollen in Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ghosal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, atopic dermatitis have been steadily increasing all over the world, including India. Owing to its alarming trend, several aerobiological surveys have been undertaken in different parts of India to delineate the variety of pollen and spore load. In this review, we have reported the current state of aerobiological knowladge in India with particular reference to allergenic airborn pollen occurence in 2001–2015. Pollen have been found to contribute a significant proportion in the air and caused allergy symptoms in the local inhabitants. Aerobiological records, a questionnaire survey and hospitalization records have been employed for the analysis. Holoptelea integrifolia, Amaranthus spinosus in northern region, Sorghum vulgare, Pennisetum, Gynandropsis gynandra, Parthenium hysterophorus, Dolichandrone platycalyx in southern regions, and Parthenium hysterophorus from the western region; Cynodon dactylon, Cenchrus ciliaris in the central area; Acacia auriculiformis, Cleome gynandra, Catharanthus roseus, Phoenix sylvestris, Areca catechu, and Lantana camara in the eastern regions as potential aeroallergens in India. The statistical approach confirmed the correlation between hospitalization rate associated with allergy-related health troubles and the prevalent allergenic pollen in the air. The Poaceae group has been found to be dominant throughout India. Immuno-biochemical studies identified various protein with allergenic potential found in the pollen recorded. Epitope identification and homology of the major allergenic protein Cat r1 of Catharanthus sp and Par j 1 of Parietaria judaica have been found. Identification of allergenic pollen grains and the modern approach concerning cross-reactivity and epitope revelation of dominant airborne pollen have important clinical implications for the prevention, diagnosis and treatments of allergic diseases in India.

  18. Dietary medicinal plant extracts improve growth, immune activity and survival of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, G; Uma, R P; Iyapparaj, P; Citarasu, T; Peter, S M Punitha; Babu, M Michael; Palavesam, A

    2009-05-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with acetone extract (1% w/w) from four medicinal plants (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon, H(1), beal Aegle marmelos, H(2), winter cherry Withania somnifera, H(3) and ginger Zingiber officinale, H(4)) on growth, the non-specific immune response and ability to resist pathogen infection in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were assessed. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the extract were assessed against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrioparahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio campbelli, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae. Oreochromis mossambicus were fed 5% of their body mass per day for 45 days, and those fed the experimental diets showed a greater increase in mass (111-139%) over the 45 days compared to those that received the control diet (98%). The specific growth rate of O. mossambicus fed the four diets was also significantly greater (1.66-1.93%) than control (1.52%) diet-fed fish. The blood plasma chemistry analysis revealed that protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels of experimental fish were significantly higher than that of control fish. Packed cell volume of the blood samples of experimental diet-fed fish was also significantly higher (34.16-37.95%) than control fish (33.0%). Leucocrit value, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were enhanced in fish fed the plant extract-supplemented diets. The acetone extract of the plants inhibited growth of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae with extracts from W. somnifera showing maximum growth inhibition. A challenge test with V. vulnificus showed 100% mortality in O. mossambicus fed the control diet by day 15, whereas the fish fed the experimental diets registered only 63-80% mortality at the end of challenge experiment (30 days). The cumulative mortality index for the control group was 12,000, which was equated to 1.0% mortality, and accordingly, the lowest mortality of 0.35% was registered in H(4)-diet-fed group. PMID

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caturegli, Lisa; Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) 'Patriot', Zoysia matrella (Zm) 'Zeon' and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) 'Salam'. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option. PMID:27341674

  20. Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Janet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum, Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  1. Organic Matter Fractions and Quality of the Surface Layer of a Constructed and Vegetated Soil After Coal Mining. II - Physical Compartments and Carbon Management Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio dos Anjos Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils constructed after mining often have low carbon (C stocks and low quality of organic matter (OM. Cover crops are decisive for the recovery process of these stocks, improving the quality of constructed soils. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops on total organic C (TOC stocks, C distribution in physical fractions of OM and the C management index (CMI of a soil constructed after coal mining. The experiment was initiated in 2003 with six treatments: Hemarthria altissima (T1, Paspalum notatum (T2, Cynodon dactylon (T3, Urochloa brizantha (T4, bare constructed soil (T5, and natural soil (T6. Soil samples were collected in 2009 from the 0.00-0.03 m layer, and the TOC and C stocks in the physical particle size fractions (carbon in the coarse fraction - CCF, and mineral-associated carbon - MAC and density fractions (free light fraction - FLF; occluded light fraction - OLF, and heavy fraction - HF of OM were determined. The CMI components: carbon pool index (CPI, lability (L and lability index (LI were estimated by both fractionation methods. No differences were observed between TOC, CCF and MAC stocks. The lowest C stocks in FLF and OLF fractions were presented by T2, 0.86 and 0.61 Mg ha-1, respectively. The values of TOC stock, C stock in physical fractions and CMI were intermediate, greater than T5 and lower than T6 in all treatments, indicating the partial recovery of soil quality. As a result of the better adaptation of the species Hemarthria and Brizantha, resulting in greater accumulation of labile organic material, the CPI, L, LI and CMI values were higher in these treatments, suggesting a greater potential of these species for recovery of constructed soils.

  2. The negative effects of cadmium on Bermuda grass growth might be offset by submergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuduan; Huang, Huang; Zhu, Mingyong; Zhang, Kerong; Xu, Huaqin; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-10-01

    Revegetation in the water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) could stabilize riverbanks, maintain local biodiversity, and improve reservoir water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR). However, submergence and cadmium (Cd) may seriously affect the survival of transplantations. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is a stoloniferous and rhizomatous prostrate weed displaying high growth rate. A previous study has demonstrated that Bermuda grass can tolerate deep submergence and Cd stress, respectively. In the present study, we further analyzed physiological responses of Bermuda grass induced by Cd-and-submergence stress. The ultimate goal was to explore the possibility of using Bermuda grass for revegetation in the WLFZ of China's TGRR and other riparian areas. The Cd-and-submergence-treated plants had higher malondialdehyde contents and peroxidase than control, and both increased with the Cd concentration increase. All treated plants catalase activity increased with the experimental duration increases, and their superoxide dismutase also gradually increased with the Cd concentration from 1 day to 15 days. Total biomass of the same Cd-and-submergence plants increased along the experimental duration as well. Plants exposed to Cd-and-submergence stress showed shoot elongation. The heights of all treated plants were taller than those of the control. Leaf chlorophyll contents, maximum leaf length, and soluble sugars contents of all the Cd-and-submergence-treated plants were more than those of the untreated control. Although Cd inhibits plants growth, decreases chlorophyll and biomass content, and with the submergence induced the leaf and shoot elongation, more part of the Cd-and-submergence stress plants appeared in the air, exhibited fast growth with maintenance of leaf color, which guaranteed the plants' photosynthesis, and ensured the total biomass and carbohydrate sustainability, further promoting Cd-and-submergence tolerance. The results imply that the negative

  3. 江浙地区草坪杂草调查研究进展%Investigation of Turf Weeds in Jiangsu-Zhejiang Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成文竞

    2012-01-01

    近20年来,以上海、南京等为代表的江浙地区城市对高羊茅、马尼拉、狗牙根等草坪的杂草分布情况进行了调查,发现杂草种类最高达34科、112种,禾本科和菊科种类最多,香附子、狗牙根、马唐、狗尾草、牛筋草、空心莲子草、天胡荽等杂草分布最普遍。不同养护水平、草坪类型、季节、建植年限等方面的草坪杂草分布存在较大差异,有关草坪草种和环境因素对杂草分布影响的研究还需要加强。%At most 112 species of turf weeds belonging to 34 families were identified in Jiangsu-Zhejiang region over the past 20 years, among which the number of the gramineous family and composite family were most. Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalli, Setaria viridis, Eleusine indica,Alternanthera philoxeroides and Hydroctyle sibthorpiodes were the most predominant weeds.The distribution of turf weeds showed big differences among the different turf maintenance level,lawn type, season, turf age, etc. More research on impact of turfgrass species and environmental factors on weed distribution was suggested.

  4. 白龙江中游地震滑坡体植被初期的自然恢复能力——以陇南市武都区清水沟滑坡体为例%Natural recovery ability of the initial vegetation stage of earthquake landslide in the middle reaches of Bai Longjiang——A case study in Qingshuigou earthquake landslide of Wudu District, Longnan City, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马和; 张继强; 康建军; 薛睿; 赵亚萍; 龚志勇; 刘东皓

    2015-01-01

    在野外样方调查的基础上,对陇南市武都区清水沟地震滑坡体上的植物群落组成以及物种多样性进行详细调查和统计分析.结果表明,1)研究区域内植被自然恢复以草本植物为主,有26种,占研究区植物总数的76.5%,灌木较少,有8种,无乔木分布,植物群落组成以草本和小灌木为主,其中优势种为狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)、马唐(Digitaria sanguinalli)、黄茅(Heteropogon contortus)、芦苇(Phragmites australis)、骆驼蓬(Peganum harmala)等;2)由于环境因子的差异,不同立地条件植物群落物种组成、群落类型以及群落结构存在差异;3)不同立地条件的环境因子不同,特别是水热光照条件组合存在差异,导致不同立地条件下植物群落的自然恢复能力存在明显差异,其自然恢复能力和抗干扰能力指数大小表现为中坡位>下坡位>上坡位.

  5. Study on Distribution and Morphological variation of Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. Germplasms Collected from South China%华南地区三点金种质资源调查及形态学变异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳茂峰; 辛国荣; 冯莉

    2010-01-01

    调查三点金(Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.)野生居群在华南地区的分布,并研究其分布区气候及土壤、生境类型、群落组成及其形态学变异.结果表明:三点金分布在低海拔、靠近沿海的热带亚热带地区酸性土壤中,对养分要求不严,其主要生境是路边草地、人工草坪和河边草地等.伴生群落可分为两类:在南部地区,主要以地毯草(Axonopus compressus (Swartz) Beauv.)和狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pars.)为主;而在北部地区则以草坪类的台湾草(Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Trin.)为主.12个野生居群的三点金植株形态差异较小, 但各测量指标在12居群中均有显著差异.其中植株高度和叶柄的长度变异系数最大,分别为14.35%和15.49%.对三点金居群进行聚类分析发现,12个三点金居群可以分为东部、中部,西部三组,其形态在经度上有区域性特点.

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Caturegli

    Full Text Available Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt 'Patriot', Zoysia matrella (Zm 'Zeon' and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv 'Salam'. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm to 0.97 (Cdxt. Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95. The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) ‘Patriot’, Zoysia matrella (Zm) ‘Zeon’ and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) ‘Salam’. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option. PMID:27341674

  8. Tamanho relativo dos órgãos internos e do trato gastrintestinal de bovinos Zebu e mestiços leiteiros em sistema de recria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backes Alfredo Acosta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 12 bovinos machos castrados, com peso vivo médio de 257kg, sendo quatro zebu e oito mestiços leiteiros (quatro fraction one-half sangue Holandês x Gir e quatro fraction one-half sangue Holandês x Guzerá. Foram pesados e distribuídos em dois tratamentos (zebu e mestiços leiteiros, em fase de recria. Os animais foram avaliados até atingirem 340kg de peso vivo. O volumoso utilizado foi o feno de capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon. Por ocasião do abate foram coletadas amostras de rúmen, retículo, omaso, abomaso e intestinos, após o seu esvaziamento e limpeza, obtendo-se ainda os pesos e amostras de sangue, pele, pés, cabeça, fígado, rins, pulmões, língua, baço e gordura interna (mesentério e gorduras perirenal e pericardíaca. O peso do corpo vazio (PCVZ foi obtido pela soma dos pesos da carcaça, sangue, pele, pés, rabo, vísceras e órgãos. Na fase de recria e engorda, os animais zebu apresentaram a pele e o conjunto cabeça-pés-pele mais pesado do que os mestiços leiteiros. Também apresentaram os órgãos rins, baço, coração e língua mais leves do que dos mestiços. O conjunto rúmen-retículo-omaso-abomaso e os teores de gordura mesentérica e interna não apresentaram diferença entre animais mestiços leiteiros e zebu.

  9. Effects of Soil and Water Conservation Measures on Soil Structure and Fertility in Orchard of Red Soil Region%水土保持措施对红壤坡地果园土壤结构和肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洁; 喻荣岗; 谢颂华

    2010-01-01

    [目的]为了探讨果园水土保持措施的土壤保育效果,研究红壤低丘岗地柑橘(Citrus reticulate Banco)园水土保持措施对园地土壤理化性状的影响,以便在果业开发过程中,最大限度地控制水土流失,保护土壤资源.[方法]通过野外试验观测和室内分析,以果园清耕为对照,分析了不同处理小区的理化性状,并用主成分分析法对土壤肥力状况进行了综合评价.[结果]各措施改良土壤效果为:狗牙根[Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers.]全园覆盖>百喜草(Paspalum natatum)全园覆盖>百喜草带状覆盖+套种黄豆[Glycine max (L.) Merr.]或萝卜(Raphanus sativus L.)>横坡间种(套种黄豆和萝卜) >纵坡间种(套种黄豆和萝卜) >百喜草带状覆盖>标准水平梯田+梯壁百喜草>水平梯田+清耕梯面>清耕.[结论]该研究可为南方山地果业开发中科学实施水土保持措施提供依据.

  10. Study of Chemical Constituents and Medicinal Uses of Indicator Species of District Bannu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman ullah khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess record and report the chemical constituents and ethnobotanical knowledge of indicator species of District Bannu. Medicinal outlines of about 57 plants were recorded through interview local people i.e. farmers, herbalists, hakims and Medicinal plants user dealers. The present investigation comprises the indigenous uses of 57 species belonging to 36 families of Angiosperms based upon their utility. Out of this rich Medicinal germplasm, 66.15% plants are wild while 44.18%, species were found to be cultivated, 26.74% species are both wild and cultivated of the total flora of this area. The most important medicinal families are Solanaceae (7 spp, 12.28%, Asteraceae (5 spp, 8.77%, Mimosaceae (3 spp, 5.26%, Moraceae (3 spp, 5.26%, Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Rhamnaceae (2 spp, 3.51% While the remaining 25 families having 1 species each which is 1.75% of all families. The most common medicinal plants in the area are Abroma augusta (L. F., Acacia modesta wall., Achyranthes bidentata Blume , Albizia lebbeek L., Calotropis procera L., Capparis decidua Forsk Carthamus oxycantha M. B, Chenopodium album L., Citrus medica L., Citrullus colocynthis Schrad, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb, Cynodon dactylon L. Cyperus rotundrus L., Dodonia viscosa L., Eucalyptus globule L., Nerium oleander L., Papaver somniferum L., Trachy spermum ammi L. Typha orientallis J. Preslw., Vitex negundo L., Withania somnifera L., Xanthium strumarium L., Zizphus mauratiana Lam., Some plants have wild fruits i.e.., Solanum nigrum L., while Nerium oleander L. and Dodonaea viscosa (L. Jaeq are ornamental.

  11. Feeding restriction impairs milk yield and physicochemical properties rendering it less suitable for sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Fruscalso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feed shortages are relatively frequent in subtropical pasture-based dairy production systems. The effect of feed restriction on milk yield and physical-chemical traits was evaluated in this study. The experiment was carried out in Brazil's south region. Treatments consisted of control and restricted diet. Six multiparous and six primiparous cows, with 499 ± 47.20 kg body weight (BW, at mid-lactation (188 ± 124 days in milk, producing 19.35 ± 4.10 kg of milk were assigned to two groups, balanced for parity, each group receiving a different sequence of the dietary treatments for 56 days, in a crossover design. Diet nominated as control included 8 kg DM 100 kg BW-1 of Bermuda grass var. Tifton pasture (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., 5.00 kg of concentrate and 2.50 kg of Tifton hay per day. The restriction diet consisted of 50 % of the quantity offered in the control diet. Milk production and physicochemical composition were evaluated. Feed restriction reduced milk production by 40 %, body condition score by 5 %, milk magnesium by 14.3 %, lactose by 1.7 %, titratable acidity by 10 % and stability to the ethanol test by 9 % and it tended to increase (7 % milk potassium content. No changes were found for the remaining characteristics. Since feed restriction is quite frequent in Brazil's extensive dairy production systems, our concern is that besides decreased milk production, changes can occur in the physiochemical attributes of the milk, mainly a reduction in the stability to the ethanol test, which may increase the volume of milk rejected by the industry.

  12. Comportamento de espécies herbáceas em misturas de solo com diferentes graus de contaminação com metais pesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Marco Aurélio Carbone

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, o comportamento de espécies herbáceas em relação ao excesso de Cd e Zn no solo. O gradiente de contaminação foi estabelecido a partir de mistura de solo contaminado com solo sem contaminação em diferentes proporções. As sementes foram semeadas em tubetes contendo 250 mL de solo, e após 90 dias as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas. A maioria das espécies apresentou redução no crescimento com aumento da contaminação do solo e elevadas concentrações de Cd e Zn na matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, na mistura com 15% de solo contaminado. A espécie Pffafia sp. mostrou-se tolerante à contaminação, crescendo em misturas de solo contendo até 90 mg kg-1 de Cd e 1.450 mg kg-1 de zinco. Além disso, apresentou concentração superior a 100 mg kg-1 de Cd na MSPA, sendo considerada hiperacumuladora desse metal. Sida glaziovii, Bidens pilosa, Rhynchelytrum repens, Cenchrus echinatus e Nicandra physaloides, por sua vez, foram severamente afetadas pela contaminação, ao contrário de Trifolium repens, Euchlaena mexicana, Cynodon dactylon, Avena strigosa, Cenchrus ciliares e Cyperus sp. que apresentaram crescimento satisfatório. As espécies avaliadas mostram-se promissoras para estudos adicionais sobre a reabilitação de áreas contaminadas com metais pesados.

  13. 珠三角地区四季草坪杂草群落组成及其生态位%Turf weeds community composition and niches in Pearl River Delta Region in four seasons.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳茂峰; 冯莉; 杨彩宏; 田兴山; 辛国荣

    2009-01-01

    利用倒置"W"九点取样法,对珠三角地区5个城市32个草坪样点进行了季节动态调查.结果表明:春季草坪杂草群落结构以水蜈蚣(KyUinga brevifolia)+三点金(Desmodium triflorum)+狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)+积雪草(Asiatic pennywort)为主;夏季以水蜈蚣+三点金+香附子(Cypems rotundus)+伞房花耳草(Hedyotis corymbosa)为主;秋季以水蜈蚣+三点金+伞房花耳草+狗牙根为主;冬季以积雪草+水蜈蚣+天胡荽(Hydrocotyle sibthorpoioides)+三点金为主.运用改进的Levins生态位宽度指数和Pianka生态位重叠指数对四季优势杂草生态位进行分析,结果表明,大部分杂草生态位宽度在0.5以下,生态位宽度达到0.50的有水蜈蚣(四季均最高),三点金(秋季)、狗牙根(春季)、酢浆草(Oxalis pes-caprae)(春季).春季优势杂草的生态位重叠指数达到0.60的最多,冬季则最少.生态位重叠指数的最大值出现在夏季,分别是天胡荽和母草(Lindernia crustacea)、白花蛇舌草(Hedyotis diffusa)和瓶尔小草(Ophioglossum vulgatum)之间,可达0.85.

  14. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    Full Text Available Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the

  15. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  16. Methane emission of Santa Inês sheep fed cottonseed by-products containing different levels of gossypol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Oliveira, Pedro Batelli; Campeche, Aline; Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Paim, Tiago do Prado; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Dantas, Angela Maria Morais; de Souza, Jurandir Rodrigues; Louvandini, Helder

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the methane (CH4) emission of Santa Inês sheep fed cottonseed by-products, verifying if the gossypol content of these feedstuffs affects CH4 emission. Twelve late-lactating Santa Inês sheep (44.8 ± 7.5 kg body weight (BW)) were allocated in metabolic cages for an experimental period of 19 days, 14 days for adaptation and 5 days for measuring CH4 emission and dry matter intake (DMI). The animals were divided into four treatments, established in accordance with the cottonseed by-product used in concentrate formulation: Control (CON - no cottonseed by-product), Whole cottonseed (WCS), Cottonseed cake (CSC), and Cottonseed meal (CSM). The free gossypol level of the concentrates were 0, 1,276, 350, and 190 ppm for CON, WCS, CSC, and CSM, respectively. Also, the animals received Cynodon dactylon cv. Coast Cross hay, water, and mineral salt ad libitum. The ether extract content of the diets was balanced between treatments by including soybean oil in concentrates. The technique used to measure the CH4 emission was the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique, and the gas samples collected were quantified by analysis in gas chromatography system. The CH4 emission was evaluated considering the daily emission (g CH4/day); DMI (g CH4/kg DMI); and BW (g CH4/kg BW). No statistical difference was found (P > 0.05) between treatments for DMI and CH4 parameters. In the regression analysis, no significant relation (P > 0.05) between gossypol content and CH4 emission was observed. These results suggest that gossypol does not affect rumen methanogenesis. PMID:24132456

  17. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  18. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  19. Performance of the constructed wetland systems in pollutants removal from hog wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallison da Silva Freitas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a constructed wetland systems (CWS for pollutants removal, in mono crop and multi crop with three different species of plants, originated from hog wastewater treatment (HW. Therefore, 5 CWS of 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m were constructed, sealed with a membrane of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of small gravel. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 grown to cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In the bed of CWS4 was planted at 1st third Alternanthera, cattail, in the 2nd third and tifton-85 grass and in the 3rd third of. The CWS5 was not planted and it was used as control. After passing through a filter filled with crushed bagasse of sugar cane, the HW was applied to the CWS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which corresponded to a hydraulic detention time of 4.8 days. According to the results it was shown that the five CWS(s had statistically nearly the same removal of pollutants, and the average removal efficiency of TSS, COD, BOD and Zn, were 91, 89, 86 and 94%, respectively. Also high removals were obtained concerning the ST, N-total, NH4+ and P-total, with average values of 62, 59, 52 and 50%, respectively. The plants in all planted CWS worked in a similar way maintaining the system efficiency and the non cultivated CWS presented analogous capacity of pollutants removal when compared to the cultivated CWS(s.

  20. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3-15N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  1. ANALYSIS OF LABOR USE AND PROFITABILITY IN THREE PASTURE SYSTEMS FOR THE GRASS-FED BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Basu Deb; Gillespie, Jeffrey; Scaglia, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    An experiment to compare three pasture systems was conducted at the Iberia Research Station in Jeanerette, Louisiana, for five consecutive years from 2009/10 to 2013/14. System 1 included of bermudagrass and ryegrass pasture; System 2 included bermudagrass, ryegrass, clover mix (berseem, red and white clovers), rye, and dallisgrass; and System 3 included bermudagrass, ryegrass, sorghum sudan, soybeans, clover mix (berseem, red and white clovers), rye, and dallisgrass. Fifty-four May-weaned st...

  2. Ruminal variables in steers fed with Tifton 85 (Cynodon Spp hay with different particle sizes / Variáveis ruminais em novilhos alimentados com feno de Tifton 85 com diferentes tamanhos de partículas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 concentration and the pH were determined with the objective of evaluating the effect of different particle sizes (5, 7, 10mm and whole of Tifton 85 hay in the diet of Holstein steers, with average live weight of 300kg and age of 20 months. A completely randomized design, with four replicates, in a split-plot arrangement was used. The plots were the experimental treatments (5, 7, 10mm and whole hay and the subplots were the times of collection (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h. The use of diets including hay with particle sizes of 5mm and whole, did not affect (P>0,05 the ruminal pH; average values were 6.14 and 6.61, respectively. A linear reduction in the ruminal pH was verified in the steers fed on diets constituted by 10mm particles. For the diets including Tifton hay with particle size of 7mm, it was observed a quadratic effect, where the minimum pH (5.39 was observed 8:00 h after the feed was furnished. Concentrations of N-NH3 were affected by collection time in a quadratic way. Maximum concentrations of N-NH3, 15.55, 15.83, 18.32, 12.0 mg/100 mL, were observed at 4:28, 3:58, 2:99 and 2:80h after feeding, for the diets including Tifton 85 hay with 5, 7, 10mm and whole particle sizes, respectively. It was concluded that all diets allowed normal nycterohemeral patterns of fermentation.As concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 e pH foram determinadas objetivando avaliar o efeito de diferentes tamanhos de partículas de feno de Tifton 85 (5, 7, 10mm e inteiro na dieta de novilhos holandeses, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 300kg e idade média de 20 meses. As determinações das concentrações de amônia ruminal (N-NH3 e o pH foram analisadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcela subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas os tratamentos experimentais (5, 7, 10mm e feno inteiro e nas sub-parcelas os tempos de coleta (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h, com quatro repetições. A utilização de dietas constituídas com tamanhos de 5mm e partícula inteira não afetaram o pH ruminal (P>0,05, registrando-se valores médios de pH 6,14 e 6,61, respectivamente. Verificou-se redução linear no pH ruminal dos novilhos alimentados com a dieta constituída com partícula de 10mm e constatou-se efeito quadrático para a dieta constituída com tamanho de partícula de feno de Tifton 7mm, apresentando pH mínimo de 5,39 a 8:00 horas após o fornecimento da alimentação. As concentrações de N-NH3 foram influenciadas quadraticamente pelos tempos de coleta, registrando concentrações máximas, de 15,55; 15,83; 18,32; 12,00mg/100mL de N-NH3 às 4:28; 3:58; 2:99 e 2:80 horas após alimentação, para as dietas constituídas de feno de Tifton 85 inteiro, picado em 5mm, 7mm e 10mm, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que todas as dietas permitiram padrões nictemerais normais de fermentação.

  3. Substituição do feno de "Coastcross" (Cynodon sp. por casca de soja na alimentação de borregas confinadas Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in ewe lambs diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Barreto de Morais

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e oito borregas da raça Santa Inês (23,1kg de peso vivo e 124 dias de idade foram utilizadas para avaliar os efeitos da substituição do feno de "Coastcross" por casca de soja (CS no desempenho em confinamento. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos completos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. As dietas experimentais foram isonitrogenadas e continham a mesma quantidade de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. A casca de soja foi incluída nas proporções de 0; 12,5; 25 e 37,5% da matéria seca das dietas correspondendo aos tratamentos experimentais 0CS, 12,5CS, 25CS e 37,5CS, respectivamente. A FDN da CS substituiu 0; 25; 50 e 75% da FDN do feno. Houve efeito linear crescente (PForty-eight Santa Ines ewe lambs (23.1kg BW and 124 days old were used to evaluate the replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls on feedlot performance. Animals were assigned to a complete randomized block design with four diets and six replicates. All diets were isonitrogenous and contained the same amount of NDF. Soybean hulls replaced hay at 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 37.5% on DM basis, corresponding to the experimental treatments OCS, 12.5CS, 25CS and 37.5CS, respectively. Soybean hulls NDF replaced hay NDF at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. There was a linear increased response (P<0.01 on dry matter intake (0.95, 1.02, 1.08 and 1.20kg day-1 and average daily gain (113, 137, 150 and 187g day-1 and a linear improvement (P<0.01 on feed conversion (8.55, 7.20, 7.11 and 6.25kg of DM kg of gain-1 when soybean hulls were added to the diet. When soybean hulls are added to the diet (up to 37.5%, DM basis there is an improvement on animal performance and the ewe lambs attain breeding weight faster.

  4. Substituição do feno de "Coastcross" (Cynodon sp.) por casca de soja na alimentação de borregas confinadas Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in ewe lambs diets

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Barreto de Morais; Ivanete Susin; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Clayton Quirino Mendes; Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Júnior

    2007-01-01

    Quarenta e oito borregas da raça Santa Inês (23,1kg de peso vivo e 124 dias de idade) foram utilizadas para avaliar os efeitos da substituição do feno de "Coastcross" por casca de soja (CS) no desempenho em confinamento. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos completos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. As dietas experimentais foram isonitrogenadas e continham a mesma quantidade de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN). A casca de soja foi incluída nas propo...

  5. Effects of ABA,paclobutrazol and uniconazole on the drought resistance of bermudagrass%ABA、多效唑和烯效唑提高狗牙根抗旱性的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢少云; 陈斯曼; 陈斯平; 郭振飞

    2003-01-01

    研究了ABA、多效唑(PP333)和烯效唑(S-3307)对矮生狗牙根抗旱性的影响。结果表明,在干旱条件下,ABA,PP333和S-3307均提高了矮生狗牙根的相对含水量,提高了抗旱性。ABA和S-3307处理后矮生狗牙根蒸腾失水量减小;50mg/L的PP333提高矮生狗牙根的过氧化物酶(POD)活性,10mg/L的S-3307提高过氧化氢酶(CAT)和POD活性,而5mg/L的ABA处理后超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、CAT和POD活性均增高.

  6. Correlações entre componentes anatômicos, químicos e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca de gramíneas forrageiras Chemical and anatomical traits, and in vitro dry matter digestibility correlations in forage grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Campos Paciullo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Lâminas foliares e segmentos de colmo das gramíneas forrageiras capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora e capim-bermuda Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp foram amostradas em dois níveis de inserção no perfilho (inferior e superior, em duas idades (momento da exposição da lígula da folha e 20 dias após e em duas estações de crescimento (verão e outono. Amostras dos segmentos de colmo e lâminas foliares foram submetidas à determinação de sua composição química, composição anatômica e digestibilidade in vitro. Após obtenção dos dados, foram estabelecidas as correlações entre os componentes químicos e anatômicos e entre estes e a DIVMS, na lâmina, no colmo e no agrupamento dos dados das duas frações. A espessura da parede celular foi a característica anatômica a se correlacionar mais fortemente com todos os componentes químicos, independente da fração considerada. Suas correlações foram positivas com os teores de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e lignina e negativa com os de proteína bruta. A proporção de mesofilo se correlacionou positivamente com os teores de proteína bruta e negativamente com os de fibra em detergente ácido, enquanto a proporção de esclerênquima apresentou correlação positiva com os teores de fibra em detergente neutro. Os componentes químicos se correlacionaram fortemente entre si e com a DIVMS. Entre as características anatômicas, somente a espessura da parede celular mostrou correlação significativa com a DIVMS, independente da fração. O mesofilo se correlacionou positivamente e o xilema negativamente com a DIVMS, respectivamente, na lâmina e no colmo.Leaf blades and stem segments at two stages of development (day of leaf ligule exposure and 20 days thereafter and two insertion levels on tillers (lower and upper of signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens, molassesgrass (Melinis minutiflora and tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon sp

  7. Ten years later: Evaluation of the effectiveness of 12.5% amitraz against a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using field studies, artificial infestation (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-12-15

    Using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and in vitro adult immersion tests, the present study evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of 12.5% amitraz administered via whole body spraying against a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population that did not have any contact with chemical products belonging to this acaricide family for 10 years (approximately 40 generations). Two natural infestation trials, two artificial infestation trials (Stall tests) and two adult immersion tests were performed in two different stages in 2005 and 2015. Between 2002 and 2015, the bovine herd of this property was formed by approximately 450 animals from the Simmental breed that were divided into nine paddocks formed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. For the natural infestation experiments in 2005 and 2015, we selected nearly 70 animals naturally infested with ticks from the same herd that belonged to the "São Paulo" farm located in São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil. Field studies were performed in the same paddock (9). To evaluate anti-R. (B.) microplus activity in the artificially infested cattle (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, two experiments of each methodology were performed at CPPAR (the Center of Research in Animal Health located on the FCAV/UNESP campus in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil) in 2005 and 2015. R. (B.) microplus used in the artificial infestation, and adult immersion test experiments were obtained from paddocks 1-9 in 2005 and 2015 from the commercial farm where the field studies were performed. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that amitraz use in rotation with pyrethroids every 28 days for three consecutive years (2002-2004) previous to the beginning of the first trial (2005) was sufficient to generate a R. (B.) microplus strain resistant to amitraz. Moreover, using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, we verified that 40 generations of the tick species with no

  8. Plants screening for roadside slope protection by mixture seeding in Yichang-Changyang section of Shanghai-Chengdu freeway%沪蓉西高速公路宜昌-长阳段混播护坡植物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学平; 张洪江; 张翔; 江玉林; 李海芬; 曹传林; 王金娟

    2011-01-01

    Three indices including early growth ability, stress resistance, growth potential were used to evaluate 19 tree plants and 8 herbaceous plants based upon introduce and observation of the experiment plants in Yichang-Changyang section of Shanghai-Chengdu freeway in Hubei Province.Value of subjection was calculated based on classifying analysis, ranking series and comprehensive assessment.Results show that the lndigofera pseudotinctoria have the best performance, Solanum deflexicarpum,Desmodium sinuatum, Cynodon dactylon, Melia azedarach, Robinia pseudoacacia, Lespedeza cunecta,Virex negundo, Paspalum notatum rank the second, Festuca arundinacea, Eragrostis curvula, Cudrania tricuspidata, Rhus chinensis, Dodonaea viscosa, Senna obtusifolia, Rhamnus utilis, Ailanthus altissima rank the third, Lotus corniculatus, Pterocarya kunth, Kummerrowia stipulacea, Sapiu sebiferum,Eremochloa ophiuroides, Trifolium repens rank the forth, Pinus massoniana rank the poorest; Cajanus cajan, Tephrosia candid and Crotaria assamica grew fast in the seeding year, but nearly all failed survive the winter.%在沪蓉西高速公路宜昌-长阳段引种植物观测的基础上,选择初期生长力、抗逆性、生长势3个指标评价19种木本植物、8种草本植物的表现,并以隶属度值为基础进行3个指标的分类排序与等级划分及综合评价.结果表明:供试植物中以马棘表现最优,苦刺、波叶山蚂蟥、狗牙根、苦楝、刺槐、截叶胡枝子、荆条、百喜草表现良好,高羊茅、弯叶画眉草、柘树、盐肤木、坡柳、决明、冻绿、臭椿表现中等,百脉根、枫杨、鸡眼草、乌桕、假俭草、白三叶等表现较差,马尾松表现最差;木豆、山毛豆、猪屎豆第1年生长速度十分迅速,但抗寒性差,持续能力差.

  9. Experimental Research on Seedling Greening Plants on Rock Slope Growth Rhythm of Common of Expressway in Guizhou%贵州高速公路岩石边坡常用绿化植物幼苗生长规律实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符治明; 张晓龙; 李洪青; 唐洋洋

    2012-01-01

    10 species of trees, shrubs and 10 herbs, which are commonly used as greening plants on rocky slopes of expressway in Guihzou, were studied for their seedling growth rhythm, in order to select suitable plant species for highway greening. The results showed that: 1)Cassia bicapsularis is the first emerging species, and Cajanus cajan, Sophora xanthantha and Amorpha fruticosa have higher germination rate and height; 2) the height growth of various tree and shrub seedlings presented a "slow-fast-slow" , namely "S" type, of growth rhythms;3) the herb plants, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens, have higher coverage rate and height growth; 4)Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora xanthantho, Indigofera pseudotinctoria, Cynodondactylon, Trifolium repens, Festuca arundinacea,and Lolium perenne can be used as the pioneer plant species, which have great interspecific competition advantageous, thereby speed up the formation of plant communities and achieve the goals of rapidly covering and fixation of the highway rock slopes.%本文通过播种试验,研究贵州高速公路边坡绿化常用的10种乔、灌植物和10种草本植物的幼苗生长规律,以选择出最适合高速公路绿化的植物种类。结果表明:乔灌木植物中双荚决明出苗时间最短,木豆、双荚决明、紫穗槐、多花木兰的出苗率及高生长较大,各种乔灌木幼苗的高生长总体呈现“慢一快一慢”即“S”型的生长节律;草本植物中狗牙根和自三叶的盖度及高生长较大;刺槐、双荚决明和多花木兰及狗牙根、白三叶、草坪高羊茅、草坪黑麦草等可作为主要的护坡植物先锋种,其应用于高速公路岩石边坡绿化可在种问竞争中处于相对有利的地位,有利于植物群落的形成和实现快速覆盖固坡的作用。

  10. Research on Wild Plant Flora and Cultivated Plant Construction in Huaibei National Urban Wetland Park%淮北国家城市湿地公园野生植物区系及栽培植物营建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立龙; 张喆; 晋秀龙; 陆林

    2016-01-01

    论文对淮北煤矿塌陷区国家城市湿地公园野生植物区系进行调查,对公园栽培植物营建进行分析.结果表明:1)该区共有野生植物42科95属115种,其中单子叶植物6科27种,双子叶植物35科87种,蕨类植物1科1种.菊科(Compositae)、禾本科(Gramineae)和豆科(Leguminosae)为优势科;属的成分相对分散,均为寡种属和单种属;植物以农田杂草为主,区系成分简单,野生湿地植物种类优势明显.2)湿地公园湿地植被划分为2个植被型组、5个植被型和18个群系.白茅(Imperata cylindrical)、藜(Chenopodium album)、狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)、苍耳(Xanthium sibiricum)、芦苇(Phragmites australis)、香蒲(Typha orientalis等为湿地公园湿地植物优势种群,形成大面积优势群落.3)栽培植物共计19科31属34种,主要有意杨(Populus×canadensis‘I-214’)、垂柳(Salix babylonica)、冬青卫矛(Euonymus japonica)、马尼拉草(Zoysia tenuifolia)等.4)园区有喜旱莲子草(Alternanthera philoxeroides)等外来植物共10种,其中小花山桃草(Gaura parviflora)为安徽省首次记录.论文针对公园野生植物保护及栽培植物营建中存在的主要问题,提出了相应的保护及修复对策.

  11. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente em bezerros da raça holandesa alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de volumoso

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    Ricardo Dias Signoretti

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de volumoso nas dietas sobre os consumos e as digestibilidades aparentes de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos totais (CHOT e energia bruta (EB e sobre os consumos de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Trinta e cinco bezerros da raça Holandesa puros por cruzamento, não-castrados, com idade média de 60 dias e peso vivo inicial de 78 kg, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com nove repetições por dieta, exceto para a dieta com 10% de volumoso, com oito repetições. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade com dietas contendo níveis de 10, 25, 40 e 55% de volumoso, na base da MS, usando-se feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, fubá de milho e farelo de soja, os quais constituíram dietas com aproximadamente 16% de PB. O óxido crômico foi usado para obtenção das estimativas dos fluxos de MS fecal. Os carboidratos totais foram obtidos por 100 - (%PB + %EE + %Cinzas. O consumo de NDT foi obtido por (cPB - PBf + 2,25 (cEE - EEf + (cCHOT - CHOTf, em que c significa consumo e f, excreção fecal. Não houve efeito dos níveis de volumoso nas dietas sobre os consumos de MS e MO (kg/dia, % PV e g/kg0,75 e de PB e CHOT (kg/dia e % PV. O consumo de FDN (kg/dia, %PV e g/kg0,75 aumentou, enquanto o consumo de EE e NDT (em kg/dia e %PV reduziu linearmente em função dos níveis de volumoso na dieta. Houve efeito linear decrescente sobre as digestibilidades aparentes de MS, MO, PB, EE, CHOT e EB, em função do aumento dos níveis de volumoso nas dietas, enquanto a digestibilidade aparente da FDN não foi influenciada. Os consumos de EE, FDN e NDT e as digestibilidades aparentes de MS, MO, EE, PB, CHOT e EB foram influenciados pelos níveis de volumoso nas dietas.

  12. Prevalence of pollinosis in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis in the South of Mexico City 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Segura-Méndez, Nora; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    familia Pooideae (Lolium perenne) y la familia Chloroideae (Cynodon dactylon).

  13. Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88 ± 2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p = 0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results.

  14. Application of Industrial Waste CaF2 for Vegetative Covering of Phosphogypsum Disposal Site

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    Leaković, S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum, i.e. calcium sulphate dihydrate is generated as a by-product in the phosphoric acid production during reaction between phosphate rock and sulphuric acid. It is stored as nonhazardous waste in a disposal site. Since 1983, when the phosphoric acid plant started operation, about 8 140 000 t of phosphogypsum have been disposed there. The disposal site consists of four separate ponds (compartments which are bounded by 6 meter high embankments of earth. According to a special design, it is possible to build layers upon the existing disposal site using phosphogypsum for making embankments. So far, the first 6-meter high level has been built with a 1:3 side slope of phosphogypsum embankments. Formation of the second level with 1:5 side slope is currently in progress. Another byproduct of phosphoric acid production is fluoride- and phosphorus-polluted wastewater. Before being discharged into the natural recipient, this wastewater is treated with calcium hydroxide. The product of neutralisation is calcium fluoride (CaF2 which is deposited in separate lagoons as nonhazardous waste. The application of calcium fluoride as a substrate for plants in the process of vegetative covering of the phosphogypsum disposal site is a new method of its usage. This way, a significant financial benefit is achieved because it is not necessary to build a new lagoon for calcium fluoride disposal. Regarding the environmental aspect, usage for vegetative covering is far better than the standard process of calcium fluoride disposal because residual phosphorus from CaF2 is utilised for enhanced growth of the plants. At the same time, the necessity for natural soil covering of the disposal site is reduced by 500 000 m3. Apart from the natural grass species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., grass mixtures with high content of red fescue (Festuca rubra L. and false indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L. displayed the best growth on the

  15. Alimentação de bezerros ruminantes com dieta sólida ou líquida, via goteira esofageana: formação da goteira e escape ruminal

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    Rodrigues Renato Ranzini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Efeitos da alimentação de proteína texturizada de soja (PTS, fornecida tanto na forma líquida (via goteira esofageana como sólida (via concentrados, foram estudados em um delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4. Quatro novilhos da raça Holandês dotados de cânulas ruminais e com 100 kg de peso ao início do experimento, foram empregados para avaliar proteína texturizada de soja fornecida em quatro níveis crescentes na forma líquida 0/0, 1/3, 2/3 e 3/3, oferecida em mamadeira, conjuntamente com níveis decrescentes de PTS na mistura concentrada de forma a manter o mesmo nível de proteína na dieta. Os subperíodos experimentais contaram 21 dias, sendo os dezesseis primeiros para adaptação à dieta, constituída de feno de coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, mistura concentrada e porção líquida. No vigésimo dia foi colhido material para análise de N-NH3 do líquido ruminal,bem como controle do pH, às 0, 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6 h após a primeira refeição. Também foi estimada a eficiência de formação da goteira esofageana com o emprego de marcador de fase líquida polietilenoglicol (PEG, colhido diretamente do rúmen. O reflexo da formação da goteira esofageana foi mais eficiente no tratamento de mais alto nível de suplemento protéico líquido mostrando menores concentrações de PEG no rúmen. As medições de nitrogênio amoniacal concordaram com essa observação, pois houve decréscimo em sua concentração com o aumento do nível de suplementação líquida. Não ocorreram efeitos da forma de suplementação protéica sobre os ganhos de peso dos bezerros.

  16. Prevalencia de sensibilización a aeroalérgenos en pacientes con rinitis alérgica en el sur de Bolivia

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    Eliot Iván Narváez-Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La rinitis alérgica es la enfermedad crónica más común, de elevado impacto sanitario y de importancia creciente en la mayor parte del mundo, los aeroalérgenos de ácaros, hongos y pólenes constituyen los desencadenantes más frecuentes de alergia respiratoria, por lo que se realizó un estudio de prevalencia para comprobar la sensibilización cutánea a los mismos, utilizando la prueba de Prick en pacientes con rinitis alérgica en el sur de Bolivia. El estudio fue descriptivo en el universo de pacientes derivados al servicio de Alergia en la ciudad de Tarija. Se incluyeron 350 pacientes con diagnóstico de rinitis alérgica entre 11 y 60 años y se realizaron 18 pruebas cutáneas a cada uno, asignados por orden consecutivo entre junio de 2013 y julio de 2015. Como instrumentos de recogida de información se utilizaron la historia clínica, registro de pacientes atendidos y una encuesta confeccionada y validada en nuestra institución. Las variables de estudio fueron edad, sexo y sensibilización cutánea hacia Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium notatum, Acer negundo, Betula verrucosa, Cupressus arizonica, Eucalyptus globulus, Salix fragilis, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia trifida y Chenopodium album. La prueba de Prick se consideró positiva cuando los habones fueron ≥3 mm. Se realizaron 6300 pruebas cutáneas, la mayor prevalencia de sensibilización fue para los ácaros Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (90% y Dermatophagoides farinae (66%, seguido del hongo Alternaria alternata (23% y pólenes Chenopodium álbum (20%, Amaranthus retroflexus (19% y Salix fragilis (21%. Se concluye que los ácaros Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus y Dermatophagoides farinae constituyeron la causa de mayor sensibilización cutánea en pacientes con rinitis alérgica.

  17. PERÍODO CRÍTICO DE COMPETENCIA DE LAS ARVENSES CON EL CULTIVO DE MAIZ ( Z ea mays L. EN HUAMBO, ANGOLA

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    Dácia J. C. J. Vaz Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación estuvo dirigida a la determinación del periodo crítico de competencia entre las arvenses y el maíz ( Zea mays L.. Se sembraron dos experimentos sobre un suelo Ferralítico con una variedad de ciclo largo, en un agroecosistema severamente afectado por el uso desmedido de herbicidas. Se estableció un diseño de bloques al azar, con dieciocho tratamientos y cuatro replicas para dos circunstancias “con arvenses hasta” y “sin arvenses hasta” a los 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 días después de la germinación y un testigo, con y sin arvenses todo el ciclo, para cada circunstancia respectivamente y en un experimento posterior, con sólo tres tratamientos (con y sin arvenses durante todo el ciclo y sin arvenses solo en el período crítico encontrado. Entre las especies dominantes se encontraron: Cyperus rotundus L., Bidens pilosa L., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. y Chloris polydatyla (L. Swartz. Los resultados mostraron que el período crítico de competencia entre las arvenses y el maíz se ubica entre 21 y 49 días posterior a la germinación, momento imperativo para realizar labores de manejo de arvenses. Antes y después de este período, no beneficia al cultivo y se incrementan los costos de producción. La relación entre la altura y el número de hoja de la planta con el rendimiento y el número de días con y sin arvenses, fue positiva para R 2 superior a 0,95 para ambas variables vs rendimiento y similar respuesta respecto a los días “con y sin arvenses”, con mejor ajuste para la primera.

  18. Consumo e Digestibilidades Aparentes Totais e Parciais de Nutrientes em Novilhos Alimentados com Dietas Contendo Vários Níveis de Concentrado

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    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o consumo e as digestibilidades totais e parciais de nutrientes em bovinos. Foram utilizados cinco bovinos da raça Nelore, não-castrados, com 165 kg, fistulados no rúmen, abomaso e íleo. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e cinco períodos de coleta. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de concentrado na dieta (20, 40, 60 e 80%. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.. Somente os consumos de FDN e FDA apresentaram redução linear com o aumento do nível de concentrado da dieta. Os consumos de MS e NDT foram em média de 3,45 e 2,24 kg/dia, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da MS, MO e CHOT aumentaram linearmente, em função do nível de concentrado na dieta. Enquanto as digestibilidades aparentes da PB e EE apresentaram média de 59,50 e 70,81%, respectivamente. Houve redução linear nos coeficientes de digestibilidade da FDN e FDA. O nível de concentrado não afetou a digestão ruminal da PB e EE, cujas médias foram 4,80 e 1,41%, respectivamente. A digestibilidade ruminal da FDN apresentou redução linear com o aumento do nível de concentrado na dieta. No intestino delgado, a digestibilidade máxima da MS de 34,89% foi estimada com 49,01% de concentrado na dieta; a digestibilidade da MO aumentou linearmente e as digestibilidades da PB, FDN, EE e CHOT não foram influenciadas pela inclusão de concentrado na dieta. Não houve efeito dos níveis de concentrado sobre as digestibilidades no intestino grosso para MS, MO, PB, EE e CHOT, cujas médias foram 17,98; 12,48; 10,53; -2,84 e 11,08%, respectivamente.

  19. Parâmetros de degradabilidade potencial da matéria seca e da proteína bruta das silagens de seis genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, com e sem tanino no grão, avaliados pela técnica in situ Potential degradability parameters of the dry matter and crude protein of six sorghum silage genotypes (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, with or without tannin on grain, evaluated by in situ technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio Ribeiro Molina

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para testar o efeito da presença de tanino no grão sobre os parâmetros de degradabilidade potencial da matéria seca e da proteína bruta de seis genótipos de sorgo para silagem, foi conduzido um experimento utilizando a técnica da degradabilidade in situ. Quatro novilhos canulados no rúmen, alimentados individualmente, duas vezes ao dia ad libitum com feno de Tifton 85, foram utilizados para a incubação de silagens de sorgo no estádio de grão leitoso, pertencentes a seis genótipos: BR 303, BR 304, BR 601e AG 2006 (sem tanino no grão; BR 700 e BR 701 (com tanino. Foram incubadas 5 g de amostra nos tempos de incubação: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. O tempo zero (t0 foi utilizado para cálculo da fração solúvel. A presença do tanino reduziu a extensão de degradação da matéria seca e da proteína bruta nas silagens de sorgo BR 700 e BR 701. As degradabilidades potenciais destes nutrientes foram influenciada pelo tanino. Não foi observado efeito depressivo do tanino sobre as taxas de degradação para nenhum nutriente, em nenhuma silagem testada.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of tannin on grain over potential degradability parameters of the dry matter and crude protein of six sorghum silage genotypes by in situ technique. It was used four crossbred steers, canulated in rumen, fed ad libitum twice at day with a diet comprised by Cynodon dactylon hay. Six sorghum silage genotypes, harvested at milk stage, were incubated in the rumen: BR 303, BR 304, BR 601, and AG 2006 (without tannin on grain; BR 700, and BR 701 (with tannin on grain. Five grams of samples were incubated at times: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The time zero (t0 was used to calculate the soluble fraction. Tannin decrease the extent of degradation of dry matter and crude protein of BR 700 and BR 701 sorghum silages. The potential degradabilities of these nutrients were reduced by tannin presence on grain. There was not effect of tannin

  20. Fungal Planet description sheets: 214-280.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Shivas, R G; Quaedvlieg, W; van der Bank, M; Zhang, Y; Summerell, B A; Guarro, J; Wingfield, M J; Wood, A R; Alfenas, A C; Braun, U; Cano-Lira, J F; García, D; Marin-Felix, Y; Alvarado, P; Andrade, J P; Armengol, J; Assefa, A; den Breeÿen, A; Camele, I; Cheewangkoon, R; De Souza, J T; Duong, T A; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fournier, J; Frisullo, S; García-Jiménez, J; Gardiennet, A; Gené, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Hirooka, Y; Hospenthal, D R; King, A; Lechat, C; Lombard, L; Mang, S M; Marbach, P A S; Marincowitz, S; Marin-Felix, Y; Montaño-Mata, N J; Moreno, G; Perez, C A; Pérez Sierra, A M; Robertson, J L; Roux, J; Rubio, E; Schumacher, R K; Stchigel, A M; Sutton, D A; Tan, Y P; Thompson, E H; van der Linde, E; Walker, A K; Walker, D M; Wickes, B L; Wong, P T W; Groenewald, J Z

    2014-06-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Ophiognomonia

  1. Sequence homology: A poor predictive value for profilins cross-reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazouki Nazanin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background Profilins are highly cross-reactive allergens which bind IgE antibodies of almost 20% of plant-allergic patients. This study is aimed at investigating cross-reactivity of melon profilin with other plant profilins and the role of the linear and conformational epitopes in human IgE cross-reactivity. Methods Seventeen patients with melon allergy were selected based on clinical history and a positive skin prick test to melon extract. Melon profilin has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The IgE binding and cross-reactivity of the recombinant profilin were measured by ELISA and inhibition ELISA. The amino acid sequence of melon profilin was compared with other profilin sequences. A combination of chemical cleavage and immunoblotting techniques were used to define the role of conformational and linear epitopes in IgE binding. Comparative modeling was used to construct three-dimensional models of profilins and to assess theoretical impact of amino acid differences on conformational structure. Results Profilin was identified as a major IgE-binding component of melon. Alignment of amino acid sequences of melon profilin with other profilins showed the most identity with watermelon profilin. This melon profilin showed substantial cross-reactivity with the tomato, peach, grape and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass pollen profilins. Cantaloupe, watermelon, banana and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue grass displayed no notable inhibition. Our experiments also indicated human IgE only react with complete melon profilin. Immunoblotting analysis with rabbit polyclonal antibody shows the reaction of the antibody to the fragmented and complete melon profilin. Although, the well-known linear epitope of profilins were identical in melon and watermelon, comparison of three-dimensional models of watermelon and melon profilins indicated amino acid differences influence the electric potential and accessibility of the solvent-accessible surface of

  2. Dual function of novel pollen coat (surface proteins: IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity disrupting the airway epithelial barrier.

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    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pollen coat is the first structure of the pollen to encounter the mucosal immune system upon inhalation. Prior characterizations of pollen allergens have focused on water-soluble, cytoplasmic proteins, but have overlooked much of the extracellular pollen coat. Due to washing with organic solvents when prepared, these pollen coat proteins are typically absent from commercial standardized allergenic extracts (i.e., "de-fatted", and, as a result, their involvement in allergy has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a unique approach to search for pollen allergenic proteins residing in the pollen coat, we employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM to assess the impact of organic solvents on the structural integrity of the pollen coat. TEM results indicated that de-fatting of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass pollen (BGP by use of organic solvents altered the structural integrity of the pollen coat. The novel IgE-binding proteins of the BGP coat include a cysteine protease (CP and endoxylanase (EXY. The full-length cDNA that encodes the novel IgE-reactive CP was cloned from floral RNA. The EXY and CP were purified to homogeneity and tested for IgE reactivity. The CP from the BGP coat increased the permeability of human airway epithelial cells, caused a clear concentration-dependent detachment of cells, and damaged their barrier integrity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using an immunoproteomics approach, novel allergenic proteins of the BGP coat were identified. These proteins represent a class of novel dual-function proteins residing on the coat of the pollen grain that have IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity, which disrupts the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier. The identification of pollen coat allergens might explain the IgE-negative response to available skin-prick-testing proteins in patients who have positive symptoms. Further study of the role of these pollen coat proteins in allergic

  3. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  4. Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88 ± 2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p = 0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

  5. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  6. A greenhouse trial to investigate the ameliorative properties of biosolids and plants on physicochemical conditions of iron ore tailings: Implications for an iron ore mine site remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An iron ore mine site in Swaziland is currently (2015) in a derelict state as a consequence of past (1964-1988) and present (2011 - current) iron ore mining operations. In order to control problems associated with mine wastes, the Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) recently (2013) proposed the application of biosolids in sites degraded by mining operations. It is thought that this practice could generally improve soil conditions and enhance plant reestablishment. More importantly, the SWSC foresees this as a potential solution to the biosolids disposal problems. In order to investigate the effects of biosolids and plants in soil physicochemical conditions of iron mine soils, we conducted two plant growth trials. Trial 1 consisted of tailings that received biosolids and topsoil (TUSB mix) while in trial 2, tailings received biosolids only (TB mix). In the two trials, the application rates of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 t ha(-1) were used. After 30 days of equilibration, 25 seeds of Cynodon dactylon were sown in each pot and thinned to 10 plants after 4 weeks. Plants were watered twice weekly and remained under greenhouse conditions for 12 weeks, subsequent to which soils were subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results obtained, there were significant improvements in soil parameters related to fertility such as organic matter (OM), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), ammonium [Formula: see text] , magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphorus ( [Formula: see text] ). With regard to heavy metals, biosolids led to significant increases in soil total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb. The higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in treated tailings compared to undisturbed adjacent soils are a cause for concern because in the field, this might work against the broader objectives of mine soil remediation, which include the recolonization of reclaimed sites by soil-dwelling organisms. Therefore, while

  7. Passage of chromium-mordanted and rare earth-labeled fiber: time of dosing kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coastal bermudagrass hay was labeled with Cr by the Cr-mordant procedure and with 177Lu applied to the same fiber. Neutral detergent fiber prepared from the same Coastal bermudagrass hay was labeled with Yb, 169Yb, Tb and 160Tb by soaking overnight following by thorough washing and drying. Wood chips were similarly labeled with Sm or La, and Solka Floc was labeled with 147Nd and 141Ce. The carriers, labels and times of administration to cattle were: bermudagrass fiber with both Cr and 177Lu, bermudagrass fiber with 169Yb and Solka Floc labeled with 147Nd at 0 h; bermudagrass fiber with Yb, Solka Floc with 141Ce and wood chips with Sm at 24 h; wood chips with La at 48 h; and bermudagrass fiber labeled with 160Tb at the beginning and labeled with Tb at the end of a meal. Fecal collection followed and passage characteristics were determined with a two-compartment, age-dependent model. Markers labeling the different fiber sources had different (P less than .01) passage rates (Solka Floc greater than Coastal bermudagrass greater than wood chips), but there was no difference within fiber source for rare earth passage. There also was no difference between the passage characteristics of Cr-mordant and 177Lu. However, passage rate of particles administered at the beginning of the meal (160Tb) was 42% higher than for particles at the end of the meal (Tb)

  8. Potencial discriminatório dos N-alcanos em plantas forrageiras tropicais por análises multivariadas Discriminatory potential of the N-alkanes in tropical forages by multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Côrtes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O potencial dos n-alcanos em discriminar frações ou espécies de gramíneas (Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. cv. Marandu, Cynodon dactylon Pers. cv. Coast-cross 1 e Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia 1 e leguminosas tropicais (Arachis pintoi Koprov & Gregory. cv. Amarillo e Glycine wightii Verdc. Soja Perene foi avaliado neste estudo. As forrageiras foram amostradas na primavera, no verão e inverno, com quatro repetições por espécie. Utilizaram-se nas análises os n-alcanos C24 a C35, sendo o C32 e C34 padrões internos. As concentrações dos n-alcanos nas diferentes espécies e respectivas frações (lâminas foliares, haste porções superior e inferior e matéria morta, para gramíneas; folhas, caule porções superior e inferior e matéria morta para leguminosas foram avaliadas mediante análises multivariadas. O potencial discriminatório dos n-alcanos foi determinado pela análise de variáveis canônicas. As espécies e frações foram divididas em grupos por meio da análise de agrupamento. Os alcanos com menor potencial discriminatório foram: C26, C29, C25, C27 e C28 (primavera, C26, C28, C27, C30 e C29 (verão e C28, C26, C25, C29 e C27 (inverno. Nos períodos de primavera e inverno, a técnica de n-alcanos permitiu distinguir a lâmina foliar do coastcross das hastes superior e inferior, bem como das gramíneas e leguminosas. Em pastagens exclusivas de Brachiaria brizantha, no período de verão, seria possível discriminar as frações de importância nutricional, lâmina foliar e haste superior, pela determinação dos n-alcanos. As análises multivariadas, as variáveis canônicas e a análise de agrupamento representam boas alternativas de cálculo para melhorar a aplicabilidade da técnica dos n-alcanos na discriminação das dietas de herbívoros.The discriminatory potential of n-alkanes in tropical grasses (Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. cv. Marandu, Cynodon dactylon Pers. cv. Coast-cross 1 and Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanz

  9. Consumo, conversão alimentar, ganho de peso e características da carcaça de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore Intake, feed: gain ratio, weight gain and characteristics of the carcass of F1 Simental x Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de concentrado nas rações sobre os consumos de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHO, nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, magnésio (Mg, sódio (Na e potássio (K. Ganhos de peso vivo (GPV e de corpo vazio (GPCV, conversão alimentar (CA, ganho de carcaça (GC e rendimentos de carcaça em relação ao peso vivo (RCPV e ao corpo vazio (RCPCV também foram avaliados. Foram utilizados 29 bovinos, não-castrados, F1 Simental x Nelore com, em média, 17 meses de idade e peso vivo inicial de 354 kg. Cinco animais foram abatidos ao início do experimento, como referência, para se estimar o peso de corpo vazio (PCV inicial. Os animais restantes foram distribuídos nos tratamentos, de forma inteiramente casualizada, de acordo com o nível de concentrado nas rações: 25; 37,5; 50; 62,5; e 75%. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade até atingirem o peso de abate pré-estabelecido de 500 kg. Como volumoso, foram utilizados os fenos de coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon e braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens. O consumo de MS, PB, EE e NDT aumentou, enquanto o de FDN reduziu linearmente com o aumento de concentrado nas rações. O consumo de P, Mg e K foi influenciado de forma linear e o de Ca quadraticamente pelos níveis de concentrado. Houve aumento de GDPV, GDPCV e GC e redução linear de CA, em função dos níveis de concentrado nas rações, porém os RCPV e RCPCV não foram influenciados pelos níveis de concentrado nas rações. O desempenho animal foi melhor com a utilização de maiores teores de concentrado nas rações.The effects of different dietary concentrate levels on the intakes of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (TC, total digestible nutrients (TDN, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na and potassium (K

  10. Consumo, digestibilidade, desempenho, desenvolvimento ponderal e economicidade de dietas com polpa cítrica em substituição ao feno de capim-tifton 85 para novilhas leiteiras Effects of partial replacement of Tifton 85 hay with citrus pulp on intake, performance, and development of dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Mendes Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o consumo, a digestibilidade, o desempenho, o desenvolvimento ponderal, a conversão alimentar e a economicidade de dietas com polpa cítrica em substituição ao feno de tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pear para novilhas leiteiras. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis (0; 16,6; 33,3 e 50% de substituição do feno por polpa cítrica. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com sete repetições. Utilizaram-se 28 novilhas holandesas (12 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 184 kg mantidas em baias individuais. Os consumos de MS, MO, PB, CT e NDT aumentaram linearmente e o de FDN decresceu à medida que o feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. O consumo de EE elevou de forma quadrática com aumento dessa substituição, apresentando valor mínimo quando 2,27% do feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. Os consumos de Ca e P aumentaram com o aumento dos níveis de substituição do feno. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da MS, MO, PB e FDN reduziram linearmente, enquanto os de EE e CT não foram influenciados pela substituição. O ganho de peso aumentou linearmente, mas o crescimento de altura de cernelha foi menor e o de altura de garupa não foi influenciado pelos níveis de substituição. Observou-se aumento linear no perímetro torácico à medida que o feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. A polpa cítrica pode ser utilizada em até 35% da dieta total na alimentação de novilhas leiteiras de acordo com a conveniência econômica e a disponibilidade de alimentos volumosos, como alternativa para o produtor reduzir a idade à primeira cobertura e ao primeiro parto, com menor custo de alimentação.The objective of this trial was to evaluate intake, digestibility, performance, development, feed efficiency and feeding costs in dairy heifers fed increasing levels of citrus pulp that partially replaced Tifton-85 hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pear in the

  11. In situ caecal degradation of roughages in horses Degradação cecal in situ de alimentos volumosos em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pimentel Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the in situ degradation of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude protein (CP in roughages by the in situ caecal digestion technique in horses. The roughages evaluated were: Lucerne hay (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo, desmodio(Desmodium ovalifolium, stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lime-yellow pea (Macrotyloma axillare and coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross. The assay was conducted in a complete randomized design with seven roughages and three replications. One mare with a cannula fitted in the caecum was used, fed diet consisting of coastcross hay (80% and concentrate (20% at 2.0% BW, four times a day. Nylon 6.5 × 20 cm bags were used with 45 μ/pore, containing 5.2 g DM/bag, inserting 3 or 4 bags in the caecum at the times of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours incubation. The caecum in situ degradability parameters of nutrients were obtained by Ørskov model. The DM degradability parameters of all the roughages were significant. There was no fit to the model for pigeon pea for CP and NDF and desmodio. Peanut, stylo and lime-yellow pea presented larger potentially degradable DM with values of 53, 46.5 and 40%, respectively, and higher values for the soluble fraction of 20, 21, 28.6%, with high degradability rates of 10.36, 20.26 and 14.8% h-1. Higher NDF degradation rates were observed in these foodstuffs with values of 9.1 and 11.3, 11.2% h-1, high potentially degradable fraction with values of 55, 51.8 and 47.2%, and greater CP degradation at 48 hours with values of 87, 95, and 94.8%. Peanut, stylo and lime-yellow pea presented potential for use in horses diets.Objetivou-se avaliar a degradação da matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e proteína bruta de alimentos volumosos pela técnica da digestão cecal in situ em equinos. Avaliaram-se as forrageiras: feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa

  12. Plantas úteis para o revestimento do solo pesquisa acêrca das suas caraterísticas de cobertura e travamento

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    F. M. Aires de Alencar

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve, neste trabalho, investigações realizadas sôbre as caraterísticas de cobertura e fixação do solo, de dez espécies vegetais. A técnica e o método que empregou consistiram, em síntese, em fazer cortes da parte aérea e em escavar blocos de terra com raízes a determinadas alturas e profundidades, numa área de 0,25 m², de forma a obter a densidade de cobertura do solo pela parte aérea e de travamento pela parte subterrânea, a diferentes distâncias da superfície do solo. Os resultados obtidos levaram às seguintes conclusões preliminares : a A espécie Paspalum notatum Flügge, compreendendo duas variedades - grama Batatais de fôlha larga e grama Americana de folha estreita, apresentou a maior percentagem em pêso e volume da parte aérea e subterrânea a 2 e 8 centímetros, acima e abaixo do nível do solo. b A grama das Roças (Paspalum dilatatum Poir. oferece boa cobertura, mas o efeito de travamento é fraco para tôdas as profundidades, c O capim Kikuiu (Pennisetum clandestinum Chio v., a grama Tio Pedro (Paspalum convexum H. B. e o capim Gengibre (Paspalum maritimum Trin. proporcionam boa cobertura e sofrível travamento do solo. d A grama Sêda (Cynodon dactylon Pers. e a grama Portuguêsa (Panicum repens L. deram dados satisfatórios para tôdas as alturas e profundidades, e A Margaridinha (Wedelia paludosa L. possibilita ótima cobertura e bom travamento a tôdas as profundidades, f O Kudzu comum (Pueraria thumbergiana Benth. forneceu dados bem elevados, mesmo para o último bloco subterrâneo, que atinge 80 centímetros de profundidade. Em face dos dados obtidos, o autor faz considerações sôbre a utilização das vegetações estudadas em práticas conservacionistas de caráter vegetativoThis paper describes the investigations carried out and the methods employed to determine the characteristics of ten plant species for use in various aspects of soil erosion control. Seed of the ten plant species to be

  13. 会泽铅锌矿渣堆周边7种野生植物重金属含量及累积特征研究%Heavy Metal Contents and Accumulation Characteristic of Seven Wild Plants from the Slagheap Surrounding of Huize Lead-zinc Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丽; 祖艳群; 李元; 王吉秀; 李博; 李建国; 金显存

    2013-01-01

    A field survey on wild plants growing in the slagheap surrounding of Huize lead-zinc tailings was carried out.The samples of plants and soils were collected.The contents of Cd,Pb and Zn in plants and soil were measured.The heavy metal accumulation characteristics of seven wild plants were studied.The results showed that the soil from the slagheap surrounding of lead-zinc mining tailings was contaminated by cadmium.The average content of Cd was 101 mg·kg-1,which was 462 times of the background level of soil in Yunnan Province.The average contents of Zn and Pb were 9065 mg· kg-1 and 3244 mg·kg-1,which were 101 times and 80 times of the background levels of soil in Yunnan Province.It was found that the seven wild plants had different abilities of uptake and accumulation of Pb,Zn,Cd.The contents of Cd in Chenopodium ambrosioides L.,Achnatherum splendens Trin.Nevski and Cyperus microiria Steud were more than 100 mg· kg-1,which were 105~112 times higher than that in normal plants(1 mg· kg-1).The transfer coefficient of Cd in C.ambrosioides was 2.5,indicating high transportation capacity of Cd.The bioconcentration coefficient of Cd in A.splendens and C.microiria were higher than 1,indicating high bioconcentration capacity of Cd.It suggests that the Cd absorption characteristics of these three plants need further researches.The contents of Pb in A.splendens and C.microiria were 2045 mg·kg-1 and 1623 mg· kg-1,which exceeded the threshold value(1000 mg·kg-1) as a Pb hyperaccumulator.The Zn transfer coefficient of Malva verticillata L.was up to 4.1,showing a strong transfer ability to Zn.The transfer coefficient of Cynodon dactylon L.Pers.to Pb,Zn and Cd were more than 1.In general,the results indicate that the five wild plants had strong bioconcentration capacity to heavy metal and could be useful as hyperaccumulator for phytoremediation of soil polluted by Pb,Zn and Cd.%调查了云南会泽铅锌矿冶炼矿渣堆周边野外植物,采样分析了土壤和植物

  14. Suplementação energética e proteica de um volumoso de baixa qualidade pela técnica de produção cumulativa de gás in vitro Energy and protein supplementation of a low quality roughage by the in vitro gas cumulative production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio André Wilbert

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido utilizando-se a técnica semiautomática de produção cumulativa de gás in vitro com o objetivo de avaliar a combinação da suplementação energética com a proteica em dietas à base de um volumoso de baixa qualidade, feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon dactylon L., com 7,69% de proteína bruta, 70,34% de fibra em detergente neutro e 57,98% de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica. Foram avaliadas duas fontes de proteína degradável no rúmen (ureia ou proteína isolada de soja; quatro níveis de grão de milho moído (0, 20, 40 e 60% e quatro níveis suplementares de proteína degradável no rúmen (0; 2,8; 5,6 e 8,4% em delineamento completamente casualizado em um fatorial 2 × 4 × 4. A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica aumentou linearmente em resposta à inclusão de milho com inclinação maior utilizando proteína isolada de soja. O fator de partição foi superior com proteína isolada de soja e foi detectado aumento linear em resposta ao aumento da proteína degradável com 20% de milho. A produção máxima de gás da fração de rápida (A e de lenta (D degradação aumentou linearmente em resposta à inclusão de milho, com proteína isolada de soja, e quadraticamente com ureia. A taxa de degradação de A aumentou com a inclusão de até 20% de milho e a taxa de degradação de D foi maior com ureia. O lag-time de A aumentou linearmente em resposta a inclusão de milho e no lag-time de D foi observada diminuição com até 20% de milho sem alterações em níveis superiores. A suplementação com até 60% de milho moído foi benéfica para a digestibilidade de dietas com volumoso de baixa qualidade. A associação entre energia e proteína foi benéfica em alguns parâmetros estudados. A ureia gerou melhores respostas em níveis moderados de grão de milho moído.It was conducted an experiment using the semi-automatic in vitro cumulative gas production with the objective of

  15. Effect of Soil and Dominant Plants on Mercury Speciation in Soil and Water System of Water-Level-Fluctuation Zone in the Three Gorges Area%三峡水库消落带土壤与优势植物淹水后对土-水系统汞形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽; 王永敏; 张成; 余亚伟; 安思危; 王定勇

    2016-01-01

    Plentiful plants in the water-level-fluctuation-zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) grow vigorously during the non-flooded period, especially the herbaceous ones. Then, the WLFZ is submerged gradually from the end of September. Soil-plant system that under a long time flooded condition may change the form of mercury, thus resulting in a secondary pollution of the water environment in TGR. To understand the characteristics of mercury species in soils and water after submerged, four kinds of typical plants from TGR were tested in the lab under submerged condition. The results indicated that the plants could promote the formation of soil methylmercury (MeHg), and had a significant effect on the different forms of mercury concentrations of the overlying water during inundation. Cynodon dactylon as the dominant species in WLFZ, because of its higher content of total mercury ( THg) and methylmercury, the effect on MeHg and the other forms of mercury in the soil and the overlying water system was obvious. After 90 days, the soil MeHg level was the highest in Cynodon dactylon ﹠ soil ﹠ water treatment (B1)[(1 135. 86 ± 113. 84) ng•kg - 1 ]. It was approximately 2 times less than that of the soil MeHg in soil ﹠ water treatment (CK2). The variation characteristics of total mercury (THg), reactive mercury (RHg), dissolved mercury (DHg), total methylmercury (TMeHg) and dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) of overlying water all showed a parabolic shape with a peak skewed to the left, and the peak was reached on the 30th day. Meanwhile, TMeHg, THg and DHg in B1 treatment were the highest, which were (2. 88 ± 0. 06),(40. 29 ± 2. 42) and (35. 51 ± 3. 77) ng•L - 1 respectively, and TMeHg and THg in the overlying water were mainly in the form of dissolved state. Therefore, it could be inferred that the water consumption of the Three Gorges reservoir would increase the mercury pollution load of the reservoir.%三峡库区消落带落干期植被生长茂盛,蓄水

  16. Performance of dairy calves fed milk, milk replacer or post-weaning concentrate with acidifiers Desempenho de bezerros leiteiros alimentados com leite, sucedâneo do leite ou concentrado pós-desmame com acidificantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinaldo Divino Ribeiro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of acidifiers to milk, milk replacer or post-weaning concentrate on the performance and health status of weaning and post-weaning calves. Three experiments were carried out, in the first experiment 62 Holstein × Zebu crossbred calves (males and females, reared from birth to 60 days of age, were distributed and fed milk with or without acidifier. From the third day, the calves were suckled (5L of milk/d for 56 days, split into two meals. The acidifier was added to milk at the time of feeding. From the second week of calf's age a starter diet (18% of CP was also offer. In second experiment, the same animals from first experiment, but from 61 to 120 days of age were distributed and fed (2 kg/d post-weaning concentrate (18% of CP with or without acidifier and Cynodon dactylon hay ad libitum. In third experiment, 16 male Holstein × Zebu crossbred calves, reared from birth to 60 days of age, were distributed and fed milk replacer with or without acidifier. The acidifier used in the first and third experiments was composed by the citric, lactic, fumaric, and phosphoric acids, and vitamin C (liquid diet; and by betaglucans, flavonoides, linoleic and oleic and citric acids, and vitamin C (solid diet. The addition of acidifier to milk or to post-weaning concentrate did not affect the dry matter (DM and CP intakes, which were 818 and 196; 1740 and 217 g/d respectively. Similarly, it did not show high average daily gains, with 525 and 513 g/d, respectively. The addition of acidifiers to milk replacer showed results similar to those observed in calves fed milk. Therefore, the use of acidifiers in milk, milk replacer or in the post-weaning concentrate did not result in beneficial effects for calves.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição de acidificantes ao leite, sucedâneo do leite ou concentrado pós-desmame sobre o desempenho e o status de saúde de bezerros ao desmame e p

  17. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton (Cynodon spp em dietas de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação. 1. Digestibilidade - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.638 Forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill and urea in replacement of tifton hay (Cynodon spp in lactating Holstein cows diet. 1. Digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.638

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Veras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0; 12,5; 25; 37,5; e 50% de palma forrageira e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica (DAMO, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da proteína bruta (DAPB, dos carboidratos totais (DACHOT e dos carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas, com peso médio de 480 kg e produção média de leite de 20 kg/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5x5. As DAMS, DAMO, DACHOT e DACNF aumentaram, a DAFDN diminuiu linearmente e a DAPB não foi influenciada com o aumento dos níveis de palma e uréia na dieta. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais de mantença, a energia digestível de lactação, energia metabolizável de lactação e energia líquida de lactação aumentaram à medida que eram incluídas palma e uréia na dieta.The effect of five levels forage cactus and urea (0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% in replacement of tifton hay in lactating Holstein cows diets, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, crude protein (ADCP, total carbohydrates (ADTC and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC were evaluated. Five Holstein cows weighing on average 480 kg and with an average milk yield of 20 kg of milk/day were used in a 5x5 Latin square design. The DM, OM, TC and NFC apparent digestibility increased while NDF apparent digestibility decreased linearly and the CP apparent digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of forage cactus and urea. The total digestible nutrients of maintenance, digestible energy of lactation, metabolizing energy of lactation and liquid energy of lactation increased as the forage cactus and urea levels increased.

  18. Inclusão de silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas em lactação, mantidas em pasto de Cynodon: consumo e digestibilidade = Inclusion levels of superior third of cassava foliage silage for dairy cows in tropical graze: intake and digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Cristina Modesto; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Ulysses Cecato; Daniele Cristina da Silva; Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a inclusão (0%, 10%, 20% e 30%) da silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (STSRM) para vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas à pasto, analisando o consumo e a digestibilidade. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4x4, e para o fator níveis de inclusão, regressão. Foram analisados: consumo de matéria orgânica (CMO), fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN), proteína bruta (PB), carboidratos totais (CCT), carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF); digestibilidade aparente ...

  19. Gas production, microbial synthesis by radio phosphorus and digestibility of babassu and mofumbo in sheep diets; Producao de gases, sintese microbiana pelo radiofosforo e digestibilidade do babacu e mofumbo em dietas de ovinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla Filho, Adibe Luiz

    2015-06-01

    When food shortages in natural pastures is committed to animal nutrition, small ruminants can incorporate into their diets the leaves of other plants, such as trees and shrubs, many of them rich in secondary metabolites such as tannins and which still lack of studies about its effect on animal productivity. In order to verify the possibility of using leaves of Orbignya phalerata (Babassu) and Combretum leprosum (Mofumbo) in feed and to evaluate the effect of their inclusion in the sheep production system, two studies were conducted at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory of Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba (LANA/CENA-USP). The first study evaluated the performance variables, biochemical and hematological parameters and also determined the microbial protein synthesis, nutrient apparent digestibility and enteric production of methane (CH4). The second study assessed the carcass characteristics, fatty acid profile and meat color of male sheep used in the first study. The experimental treatments were diets with forages to concentrate rate of 50:50, drawn up on the basis of using the leaves of the experimental plants replacing 30% of the Cynodon dactylon (Tifton-85) hay, resulting in three treatments: Control (no hay replacement), Babassu and Mofumbo. In the first study, there were used 24 Santa Ines sheep, in a randomized experimental design with eight repetitions for each treatment and 48 days of trial period. Also during this period, an in vitro microbial protein synthesis was performed using the radio phosphorus using five different inoculum of each studied treatment. After this period, for nine days, six animals from each treatment were allocated in metabolic cages for determining the nutrient apparent digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance. Simultaneously it was quantified the enteric CH4 production in vivo. The Control group showed greater (P < 0.05) apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber

  20. Rumen parameters of sheep fed Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Machado Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on animal nutrition have shown factors that affect livestock yield and their interaction with the environment, through assessments on food nutritional values, nutrient metabolism in livestock and biochemical parameters related to nutrition and animal breeding. Inclusion levels of hay Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte in the diet of sheep were studied by measuring the dry matter intake (DMI, production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and rumen pH. Four males Santa Inês sheep with cannulas in the rumen were used in a 4x4 Latin Square design with four periods (21 days each and four treatments that corresponded to the inclusion levels (0%, 30%, 60% and 100% of Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte to replace grass hay Cynodon dactylon cv. Coastcross in the diet. The DMI showed a quadratic effect increased until treatment with 60% of Arachis and reduced in the treatment with 100% of the legume. Significant interaction was observed between treatments and sampling times for NH3-N and acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio. There was no interaction between treatments and sampling time for rumen pH and total VFA concentration. It is observed a rapid increase in ammonia concentration until 2 hours after the feeding, and then a decline is seen. At 8 hours after the feeding, the quadratic effect occurred (P0.05 increasing NH3-N concentration with 60% of Arachis, declining afterwards. The acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration, showed a quadratic effect (P0.01 in the sampling time after the feeding for treatment with 60% of Arachis with the concentration rising until 4 hours and declining thereafter. For total SCFA concentration, when analyzed individually, we observed the effect of sampling time (P0.05, in which the means showed a quadratic effect, with maximum increase until 4 hours after the feeding, reducing at 8 hours. For acetate:propionate ratio was a linear effect (P0

  1. Gas production, microbial synthesis by radio phosphorus and digestibility of babassu and mofumbo in sheep diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When food shortages in natural pastures is committed to animal nutrition, small ruminants can incorporate into their diets the leaves of other plants, such as trees and shrubs, many of them rich in secondary metabolites such as tannins and which still lack of studies about its effect on animal productivity. In order to verify the possibility of using leaves of Orbignya phalerata (Babassu) and Combretum leprosum (Mofumbo) in feed and to evaluate the effect of their inclusion in the sheep production system, two studies were conducted at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory of Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba (LANA/CENA-USP). The first study evaluated the performance variables, biochemical and hematological parameters and also determined the microbial protein synthesis, nutrient apparent digestibility and enteric production of methane (CH4). The second study assessed the carcass characteristics, fatty acid profile and meat color of male sheep used in the first study. The experimental treatments were diets with forages to concentrate rate of 50:50, drawn up on the basis of using the leaves of the experimental plants replacing 30% of the Cynodon dactylon (Tifton-85) hay, resulting in three treatments: Control (no hay replacement), Babassu and Mofumbo. In the first study, there were used 24 Santa Ines sheep, in a randomized experimental design with eight repetitions for each treatment and 48 days of trial period. Also during this period, an in vitro microbial protein synthesis was performed using the radio phosphorus using five different inoculum of each studied treatment. After this period, for nine days, six animals from each treatment were allocated in metabolic cages for determining the nutrient apparent digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance. Simultaneously it was quantified the enteric CH4 production in vivo. The Control group showed greater (P < 0.05) apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber

  2. Manejo da adubação nitrogenada de tensões hídricas sobre a produção de matéria seca e índice de área foliar de Tifton 85 cultivado no Cerrado Management of nitrogen fertilization and of water tension on the production of dry matter and leaf area index of Tifton 85 cultivated in the Cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Régia Anasenko Marcelino

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina (DF, objetivando avaliar a influência de tensões hídricas (35, 60, 100 e 500 kPa e doses de nitrogênio (0 - Testemunha, 45, 90, 180, 360 kg/ha sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS, a taxa de produção de matéria seca (TPMS e o índice de área foliar (IAF do capim Cynodon spp. cv. Tifton 85. Empregou-se delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas em três repetições; nas parcelas foram distribuídas as tensões e nas subparcelas, as doses de nitrogênio (N. As doses de nitrogênio influenciaram a produção de matéria seca em todas as tensões, onde a maior produtividade (41,8 t/ha foi obtida na tensão de 35 kPa e na dose de 360 kg/ha de N e menor produtividade (17,3 t/ha, na tensão de 100 kPa sem adição de N. Nas tensões de 60, 100 e 500 kPa, a eficiência na utilização do N foi maior nas doses mais elevadas. As maiores TPMS foram observadas no período com temperaturas elevadas, enquanto as menores foram no período com temperaturas reduzidas. Durante o período de 16/03 a 09/08, não se observou efeito das doses de N. Nos demais períodos, a TPMS aumentou com o incremento das doses de N. Não foram observados efeitos das tensões hídricas sobre a TPMS. O IAF elevou-se com o aumento nas doses de N, principalmente no período de 21/09 a 10/01. Entretanto nos períodos de baixa temperatura não houve respostas do IAF às doses crescentes de N. As tensões hídricas não afetaram o IAF em nenhum dos períodos avaliados.This work was carried out to evaluate the influence of water tensions (35, 60, 100 and 500 kPa and nitrogen levels (0 - Control, 45, 90, 180, 360 kg/ha on the dry matter (DM yield, the dry matter yield rate (DMYR and the leaf area index (LAI of Cynodon spp. cv. Tifton 85 bermudagrass. A randomized blocks design in a split splot scheme with three replications was used, split plots were represented by the water tensions were and the plots

  3. Nutrient content of soils under artificial grass vegetation in the urban hydro-fluctua-tion belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region%三峡水库城区消落带人工草本植被土壤养分含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨予静; 李昌晓; 马朋

    2015-01-01

    A study has been undertaken to explore the dynamics of soil chemical properties under different wa-ter-logging durations following re-vegetation in the urban hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.The study also aimed to determine the potential impact of vegetation reconstruction on water quality. Soil samples were taken from Hemarthria compressa ,Cynodon dactylon and Saccharum spontaneum commu-nities,and from non-vegetated areas in a hydro-fluctuation belt located in downtown Chongqing,in June 2012, March 2013,May 2013,July 2013 and September 2013.Analysis was undertaken of soil pH,organic matter (OM),alkali hydrolysable nitrogen (AN),available phosphorus (AP),available potassium (AK),total nitro-gen (TN),total phosphorus (TP)and total potassium (TK).Results showed that vegetation type significantly influenced soil pH values and AN,AP and TP contents.No significant differences were found in the tested properties between soils without vegetation and those beneath the three types of artificial grasses.However, there were significant soil differences under different water-logging durations.pH values and OM contents fluc-tuated throughout the experiment.Soil pH ranged from 6.5 to 8.5.AN contents were relatively higher in March and September 2013,when the water level dropped,while maximum AP contents were found in June 2012.At that time,AP contents under bare areas,H .compressa,C.dactylon,and S .spontaneum were (2.62±0.30),(3.92±0.34),(1.08±0.16),and (1.24±0.06)mg/kg respectively.TP and TK contents in-creased in the later phases of the experiment.The study also showed that,besides vegetation and hydrological factors,other factors such as urban sewage discharge,human disturbance and point or non-point source pollu-tion caused by surface runoff influenced soil pH and nutrients.For the Yangtze River in Chongqing urban areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region,the potential risk of water eutrophication caused by artificial grasses might be lower

  4. Inclusão de silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas em lactação, mantidas em pasto de Cynodon: consumo e digestibilidade - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.637 Inclusion levels of superior third of cassava foliage silage for dairy cows in tropical graze: intake and digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.637

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Cristina da Silva; Ulysses Cecato; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Eliza Cristina Modesto; Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a inclusão (0%, 10%, 20% e 30%) da silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (STSRM) para vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas à pasto, analisando o consumo e a digestibilidade. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4x4, e para o fator níveis de inclusão, regressão. Foram analisados: consumo de matéria orgânica (CMO), fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN), proteína bruta (PB), carboidratos totais (CCT), carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF); digestibilidade aparente ...

  5. 75 FR 8256 - Nicosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0569; FRL-8812-5 Nicosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency... Agriculture and the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture under section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizing use of the pesticide on Bermudagrass, forage and...

  6. Relationship of milk yield and quality to preweaning gain of calves from Angus, Brahman and reciprocal-cross cows on different forage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H

    2002-10-01

    Interactions of the regression of preweaning ADG on dam milk yield and quality with breed group and forage environment were evaluated in a two-phase study. Phase I consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1989 to 1991 for purebred Angus (n = 64) and Brahman (n = 62) cows mated to sires of both breeds. Phase II consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1991 to 1997 for Angus (n = 94), Brahman (n = 85), Angus x Brahman (n = 86) and Brahman x Angus (n = 93) mated to Polled Hereford sires. In Phase I, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Phase II, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue (1991 to 1995) and a rotational system of both forages (1995 to 1997) in which each forage was grazed during its appropriate growing season, usually June through October for bermudagrass and November through May for tall fescue. Milk yield was estimated monthly six times during lactation from spring through fall and converted to a 24-h basis. Milk fat, milk protein, and somatic cell count were analyzed by a commercial laboratory. In Phase I, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and protein yield was greater (P Brahman cows on bermudagrass than Angus on bermudagrass. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield in Phase I was greater (P < 0.05) for cows on tall fescue than cows which grazed bermudagrass. In Phase II, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield was greater or tended to be greater (P < 0.01, P < 0.11, P < 0.01, respectively) in purebred cows compared to reciprocal-cross cows. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield and milk protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) on tall fescue than bermudagrass in Phase II. These results suggest that the influence of milk yield and quality on calf growth may differ among breed types and production system, and the efficacy of genetic

  7. 三峡水库运行对汉丰湖湿地植物群落及生境的影响%Impact of Operating Three Gorges Reservoir on the Habitat and Plant Community in Hanfeng Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志永; 潘晓洁; 郑志伟; 胡红青; 程丽; 李春辉; 丁庆秋; 万成炎

    2014-01-01

    above ground,height and cover of the plant community were measured and soil samples were collected in three 1 m ×1 m plots along the elevation gradients (160-165 m,166-170 m and 171 -175 m)of each transect. The soil bulk density was measured by the cutting-ring method,and the physio-chemical parameters and the avail-able nutrient content of 90 soil samples at 0-20cm depth were determined and compared with the data from an ear-lier study carried out in 2010.A total of 59 species of vascular plants belonging to 20 genera were recorded,with rich species diversity among Asteraceae,Gramineae and Polygonaceae.Vegetation was dominated by herbaceous plants with percentages of annual and perennial herbs accounting,respectively,for 54.2% and 37.3% of total species.The range of fresh weight in the plant community was 488.3-6586.1 g/m2,the height range was 19.6-102.2 cm and the cover range was 23%-201%,with mean values of2031.5 g/m2,59.2 cm and 109%,respec-tively.The ranges of soil density,pH,organic matter,available nitrogen,available phosphorus and potassium were 1.00-1.60 g/cm3,6.83-8.59,1.40 -22.5 g/kg,6.00 -94.38 mg/kg,1.33 -59.37 mg/kg and 2.50 -219.00 mg/kg,with mean values of 1.32 g/cm3,8.15,10.03 g/kg,29.37 mg/kg,12.18 mg/kg and 46.13 mg/kg,respectively.Plant species with high importance values were Cynodon dactylon (22.84 ±5.78), Hemarthria altissima (16.38 ±13.27,Digitaria sanguinalis (11.10 ±12.27),Echinochloa mitis (10.83 ±3.64) and Setaria viridis (9.56 ±5.38).Monte Carlo testing revealed that pH and concentration of available potassium are the primary environmental variables affecting the importance value of species.Results indicate that variations in the plant community in Hanfeng Lake can be attributed primarily to changes in habitat due to operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  8. New techniques to control salinity-wastewater reuse interactions in golf courses of the Mediterranean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrao, J.; Costa, M.; Rosado, V.; Gamito, P.; Santos, R.; Khaydarova, V.

    2003-04-01

    or artificial leaching remained; 3) Enhanced fertilization increases turfgrass tolerance to salinity, but the contamination will be increased by other hazardous chemicals such as nitrate; 4) Use of salt tolerant turfgrass species this technique will be very useful to the plants, but does not solve the problem os soil or groundwater contamination. When reusing treated wastewater in the Mediterranean areas, the only way to control the salination process and to maintain the sustainability of golf courses is to combat the salination problems by environmentally safe and clean techniques. These new clean techniques include: 1) Use of salt removing turfgrass species; 2) Use of drought tolerant turfgrass species - reduction of salt application by deficit irrigation; 3) Reuse of minimal levels of wastewater enough to obtain a good visual appearance GVA of the turfgrass. Regarding these new clean techniques, experiments were carried out in golf courses of Algarve, Portugal, the most southwest part of Europe. It was shown: 1) Use of salt removing turfgrass species - 3 sprinkle irrigated cultivars were studied (Agrostis solonífera L.; Cynodon dactylon, L. and Penninsetum clandestinum Hochst ex Chiov). 2) Use of drought tolerant turfgrass species -responses to several levels of sprinkle irrigation wastewater and potable water (with and without fertilization). An experimental design, known as sprinkle point source was specially used to simulate the several levels of water application, expressed by the crop coefficient kc and by the crop evapotranspiration rate ETc. Turfgrass yield was enhanced linearly with the increased application of treated wastewater. 3) Reuse of minimal levels of wastewater enough to obtain a good visual appearance GVA of the turfgrass - The minimal crop coefficient kc for a good visual appearance GVA of the turfgrass was around 1.0 to potable water irrigated mixed cultivars (with 30 kg nitrogen ha-1 month-1) and 1.2 to wastewater irrigated Bermuda grass

  9. Tratamentos físicos do grão de aveia branca (Avena sativa na alimentação de bovinos Treatments of oats grain for beef cattle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo José Goi

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Centro de Treinamento da COTRIJUÍ, e no Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, de maio a dezembro de 1993, para avaliar o efeito de diferentes formas de tratamento físico do grão de aveia sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade de bovinos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para comparar o grão de aveia nas formas: grão inteiro seco (GAIS, grão moído (GAMO, grão machacado (GAMA e grão inteiro umedecido (GAIU. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 24 animais da raça Hereford, com idade média de 13 meses e peso médio de 260kg. Foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado para avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão no ganho de peso. A duração do experimento foi de 84 dias. Os ganhos de peso médio diário obtidos foram: 1,047; 1,055; 1,107 e l,067 kg para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre tratamentos. No experimento II foram utilizados, durante dois períodos, 8 novilhos da raça Holandês com idade média de 14 meses e peso médio de 243kg, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, objetivando avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão sobre a digestibilidade da dieta. A dieta experimental foi similar ao experimento I, sendo o feno de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon substituído pelo feno de aveia (Avena sativa moído. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra bruta, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e extrativos não nitrogenados, nem para o NDT. Os valores de digestibilidade da matéria orgânica obtidos foram: 59,27; 57,10; 61,46 e 59,7 6% para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente e para estes, o NDT foram 64,02; 66,56; 65,78 e 62,12%. Conclui-se que o grão de aveia branca pode ser utilizado inteiro na alimentação de bovinos sem afetar sua performance.The present work was conducted at COTRIJUÍ Experimental Farm-RS from

  10. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses, the assessment of their genetic and cytogenetic effects and biomass production from grass. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: altering protein quantity and quality in pearl millet grain by irradiation and mutation breeding; effect of nitrogen and genotype (male and female) on pearl millet grain; irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf bermudagrasses; irradiation breeding of sterile Coastcross-1, a forage grass hybrid to increase winterhardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific irradiation induced mutants with their normal inbred parent; economic assessment of irradiation induced mutants; use of ethidium bromide to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; use of mitomycin and streptomycin to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; biomass of napiergrass; evaluation of mutagen induced lignin mutants in sorghum; interspecific transfer of germplasm using gamma radiation; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to control the reproductive behavior in plants; genetics of radiation induced mutations; response of pearl millet pollen to gamma radiation; and nature of morphological changes in sterile triploid bermudagrass on golf courses

  11. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses, the assessment of their genetic and cytogenetic effects and biomass production from grass. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, G W; Hanna, W W

    1979-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: altering protein quantity and quality in pearl millet grain by irradiation and mutation breeding; effect of nitrogen and genotype (male and female) on pearl millet grain; irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf bermudagrasses; irradiation breeding of sterile Coastcross-1, a forage grass hybrid to increase winterhardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific irradiation induced mutants with their normal inbred parent; economic assessment of irradiation induced mutants; use of ethidium bromide to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; use of mitomycin and streptomycin to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; biomass of napiergrass; evaluation of mutagen induced lignin mutants in sorghum; interspecific transfer of germplasm using gamma radiation; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to control the reproductive behavior in plants; genetics of radiation induced mutations; response of pearl millet pollen to gamma radiation; and nature of morphological changes in sterile triploid bermudagrass on golf courses.

  12. PRODUKSI BIOMASSA DAN NILAI NUTRISI RUMPUT PAKAN PADA TANAH DENGAN TINGKAT SALINITAS BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati F

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt from sea water can ingress through groundwater, rivers and estuaries that cause large areas of salt-affected soils. The presence of excess salts on the soil surface and in the root zone inhibits crop growth and production. An electrical conductivity of the saturation soil extract at saline soil is more than 4 dS/m. A experiment was conducted to identify potentially suitable forage grasses for growing at saline soil Five forage grasses were tested in greenhouse. They were Panicum maximum, Setaria sphacelata, Euchlaena mexicana, Brachiaria brizantha, and Cynodon plectostachyus. Grasses were planted at non-saline soil (EC = 0.5 dS/m and saline soil (EC = 11 dS/m. Biomass yield and nutritional value of grasses were evaluated. Biomass yield (fresh and dry matter of shoot and root was significantly reduced at saline soil compared with non-saline soil. Ranking of forages according to the percent reduction in biomass yield due to the higher level of salinity was Brachiaria brizantha > Euchlaena mexicana > Panicum maximum > Cynodon plectostachyus > Setaria sphacelata. Crude protein percentage of Brachiaria brizantha was significantly lower at saline soil compared with non saline soil. While there were no significantly different of crude protein between non-saline soil and saline soil of Panicum maximum, Setaria sphacelata, Euchlaena mexicana and Cynodon plectostachyus. Acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber of Brachiaria brizantha were significantly higher at saline soil. So, Brachiaria brizantha was judged as the worst species in terms of biomass yield and nutritional value. Although, the percentage reduction biomass yield of Cynodon plectostachyus at saline soil was low, Cynodon plectostachyus was judged to be unacceptable because of its poor nutritional value and low production. Euchlaena mexicana had lower biomass at saline soil, also it had lower nutritional value compared with Panicum maximum. In conclusion, based on biomass yield

  13. Fractions of carbohydrates and of nitrogenous compounds of tropical grasses at different cutting ages Fracionamento de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados de gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Regina de Souza Siqueira Campos; José Fernando Coelho da Silva; Hernán Maldonado Vásquez; Andréa Vittori; Martinho de Almeida e Silva

    2010-01-01

    It was evaluated by the Cornell System carbohidrates fractions and nitrogenous compounds of the following grasses at the cutting ages of 14, 28, 42, and 56 days: nilo grass (Acroceras macrum), angola grass (Brachiaria purpurascens), aleman grass (Echinochloa polystachya), limpo grass (Hemarthria altíssima), setaria grass (Setaria anceps), tanner grass (Brachiaria arrecta), and tifton-85 grass (Cynodon spp). The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design, in a split plot ...

  14. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen R. Kaffka; John Maas; James D. Oster; Máximo F. Alonso; Dennis L. Corwin

    2013-01-01

    Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV). We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dac...

  15. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fernanda Barros; Souza Nilson Evelázio de; Matsushita Makoto; Prado Ivanor Nunes do; Nascimento Willian Gonçalves do

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour) and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol) of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger) pasture systems, with mineral or mineral prot...

  16. SUPPLEMENTARY IRRIGATION EFFECT ON THE PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF THE TIFTON 85, TANZÂNIA AND MARANDU GRASSES IN THE SOUTHWEST OF BAHIA STATE EFEITO DA IRRIGAÇÃO SUPLEMENTAR SOBRE A PRODUÇÃO DOS CAPINS TIFTON 85, TANZÂNIA E MARANDU NO PERÍODO DE VERÃO NO SUDOESTE BAIANO

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Welber Ribeiro da Silva; Norivaldo Lima Santos; Modesto Antônio Chaves

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the productive potential of three tropical forages growing in the summer, with and without irrigation. Two single experiments were realized in a completely randomized experimental design with the grasses: tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.); tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. tanzânia) and marandu (Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. cv. marandu) with five replications. Characteristics evaluated were: green mass production, dry mass production, cumulative forage p...

  17. Yellow and purple nutsedges survey in the southeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyherabide Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 79 fields was conducted between December 1993 and January 1994, to determine the distribution and relative importance of species of the genus Cyperus, to justify developing management strategies in the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Yellow and purple nutsedge were found in 43% and 9% respectively of the surveyed fields. Thirty eight per cent of the surveyed area showed a heavy infestation of yellow nutsedge, and in 90% of cases yellow nutsedge was invading fields cultivated with summer crops and associated with one or more of other seven perennial weeds, mainly bermudagrass.

  18. 白三叶和狗牙根混播群落3年间地上生物量和种间竞争的动态%Three year study of above-ground biomass and interspecific competition of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宏; 陈明新; 蔡化; 王凤; 张鹤山; 刘洋

    2011-01-01

    采用2种牧草总密度保持不变而组成种比例在0~1变化的替代试验法,设白三叶100%(A)、白三叶75%+狗牙根25%(B)、白三叶50%+狗牙根50%(C)、白三叶25%+狗牙根75%(D)、狗牙根100%(E)5种处理,研究混播组合播种后3年的地上生产力和种间竞争动态.结果表明:建植第1年,3种混播组合的地上生物量高于A处理(2.078 kg/m2),但不及E处理(4.406 kg/m2);试验第2、第3年,混播组合的全年地上生物量均显著高于单播处理(P<0.05);连续3年的地上生物总量以C处理最高,达17.72 kg/m2,与其他各处理差异显著(P<0.05);播种后3年中的各年前期,混播组合的地上生物量主体为白三叶,白三叶和狗牙根占有不同的生态位,表现出共生关系,但白三叶的竞争能力大于狗牙根;随着时间的推移,狗牙根逐渐成为地上生物量主体,2种牧草出现拮抗作用,狗牙根的竞争力大于白三叶,最终整个群落变为以狗牙根为优势种的草地.%From 2005 to 2007, mixed community of white clover and bermudagrass were observed to investigate the above-ground biomass and inter-specific competition dynamics of the mix-sowed forage grasses. With the total density of the forage grasses unchanged, five seeding treatments were carried out, namely, treatment A (white clover, 100%),treatment B (white clover, 75%; bermudagrass, 25%), treatment C (w,hite clover, 50%; bermudagrass, 50%), treatment D (white clover, 25%; bermudagrass, 75%) and treatment E (bermudagrass, 100%). The results indicated the aboveground biomass of the 3 mixture treatments (B, C and D ) were all higher than that of treatment A (2.078 kg/m2), but less than that of treatment E (4.406 kg/m2) in 2005 and the yields of 3 mixture treatments were all higher than that of treatments A and E in 2006 and 2007. The aboveground biomass of treatment C was the maximum (17.72 kg/m2) and was significantly different from other treatments (P<0.05) in 3 years

  19. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 – 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. Th...

  20. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; Diego Cunha Zied; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni; João Kopytowski Filho

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The ...

  1. AVIRIS spectra of California wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by the AVIRIS from wetlands in the Suisun Bay area of California on 13 October 1987 were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of numerous vegetation types (including Sesuvium verrucosum, Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, Xanthium strumarium, Cynadon dactylon, and Distichlis spicata) and soil were isolated. Despite some defects in the data, it was possible to detect vegetation features such as differences in the location of the chlorophyll red absorption maximum. Also, differences in cover type spectra were evident in other spectral regions. It was not possible to determine if the observed features represent noise, variability in canopy architecture, or chemical constituents of leaves.

  2. Selectividad de caña de azúcar en bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Aranda; G.D. Mendoza; Ramos, J.A.; S. Salgado; A. C. Vitti

    2009-01-01

    Se condujo este trabajo con el objetivo de conocer la aceptación del forraje de caña de azúcar integral en la dieta con base de pasto para bovinos adultos fistulados en rumen y duodeno estabulados; para ello, se ofreció pasto estrella africana (Cynodon plectostachyus) y caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum) mezclada con 1% de urea a voluntad, por separado. Se midió la composición de los alimentos, consumo de materia seca, pH ruminal y duodenal. Se utilizaron técnicas de la estadística descri...

  3. Desenvolvimento do trato digestivo de bezerros leiteiros criados em sistema de aleitamento fracionado

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael A. Azevedo; Leonardo Araújo; Douglas V.L. Duarte; Maiara S. Cruz; Suely F. Costa; Neide J.F Oliveira; Eduardo R. Duarte; Luciana C. Geraseev

    2013-01-01

    Para avaliar o efeito do sistema de aleitamento fracionado no desenvolvimento ruminal de bezerros leiteiros holandeses, foram utilizados 12 animais, com peso corporal inicial médio de 37,0 kg, alojados individualmente em baias. O tratamento convencional constituiu-se de quatro litros de leite diários durante 60 dias e o fracionado, de seis litros do 6º ao 25º dia; quatro litros dos dias 26 a 45 e dois litros de 46 a 59 dias de vida, além de concentrado, feno de Cynodon sp., água e suplemento ...

  4. Desenvolvimento de bezerros leiteiros alimentados com silagem de leite de transição: I - Trato digestivo

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, R.A.; S.R.A. Rufino; Cruz, M. S.; Costa, S. F.; N.J. F. Oliveira; S.G. Coelho; E.R. Duarte; L.C. Geraseev

    2014-01-01

    Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento do trato digestivo de bezerros Holandeses aleitados com silagem de leite de transição. Foram utilizados 18 animais, com peso corporal inicial médio de 36,50kg (±4,03), alimentados individualmente em baias com concentrado, feno de Cynodon sp., água e suplemento mineral oferecidos ad libitum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em leite integral e silagem de leite de transição dilu...

  5. Evaluación de seis abonos verdes en un vertisol ústico en condiciones del valle del cauca

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla C. C. R.; Sánchez M. S.; Salamanca W. F.

    2006-01-01

    En el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Sede Palmira, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, se evaluaron seis tratamientos con tres repeticiones. (Cajanus cajan guandul arbóreo y arbustivo; Canavalia ensiformis, fríjol Canavalia; Cynodon niemfuensis, pasto estrella; Zea mays, Maíz y Cucúrbita moschata, zapallo). El pasto estrella y el zapallo fueron cultivos previos al ensayo; los otros materiales se sembraron por semilla a 50 cm en cuadro y se incorporaron al su...

  6. Forage Crops to Support Rehabilitation of Animal Husbandry in Merapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Risdiono Prawirodiputra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Merapi eruption in October 2010 caused livestock losses. To rehabilitate it, the forages demand should be fulfilled. The constraints faced in Merapi after eruption is low organic content of the soil, therefore the forages to be planted should be adapted to such condition. There are some forages recommended to be planted. For short term rehabilitation, the species recommended are those from the genus of Brachiaria, Cynodon and Pennisetum. Flemingia is also good for short term rehabilitation. For long term rehabilitation, Sesbania, Calliandra, Gliricidia and Leucaena are recommended.

  7. CRECIMIENTO DE BECERROS EN UN SISTEMA DE DOBLE PROPÓSITO EN EL TRÓPICO HÚMEDO DE MÉXICO.

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús G. de las Heras-Torres; Mario M. Osorio-Arce; José C. Segura-Correa

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el crecimiento hasta el destete, de becerros cruzados en un sistema de doble propósito en el trópico mexicano. Los becerros eran animales ¾ Europeo (Holstein, Simmental, Suizo) ¼ Cebú, igual que sus madres. Los becerros apoyaban a las vacas en el ordeño y tomaban la leche residual después de éste por 30 minutos (amamantamiento restringido) y se mantenían en un potrero de Estrella de África (Cynodon plestostachyus), teniendo acceso a un suplemento ener...

  8. Respostas do capim-Tifton 85 à aplicação de nitrogênio: cobertura do solo, índice de área foliar e interceptação da radiação solar Responses of the grass Tifton 85 to the application of nitrogen: soil cover, leaf area index, and solar radiation interception

    OpenAIRE

    A.P.P. Oliveira; R.O.P. Rossiello; L. Galzerano; J.B.G. Costa Júnior; Silva, R.P.; M.J.F. Morenz

    2010-01-01

    Estudaram-se os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada sobre o crescimento do capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. cv. Tifton 85), em termos de ocorrência de plantas e altura do dossel, índice de área foliar e interceptação de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa. O estudo foi desenvolvido sobre um planossolo de ocorrência em campo experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis de N (0; 150; 300; 450 e 600kg/ha de N-ureia, aplicados em duas vezes), arranjados em um desenho experimental de blocos inteiram...

  9. Imagens multiespectrais para avaliação de índice de área foliar e massa seca do capim 'Tifton 85', sob adubação nitrogenada

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Rossini Simões; Roberto Oscar Pereyra Rossiello; Mariana Guimarães Graciosa; Marley Lamounier Machado; Camila Figueiredo da Silva

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar as respostas do capim 'Tifton 85' (Cynodon spp.) à adubação nitrogenada, em termos de área foliar verde e de massa seca da parte aérea, utilizando índices calculados a partir de informações contidas em imagens multiespectrais, em comparação com indicadores obtidos por métodos diretos. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro doses de N-ureia (0; 100; 150 e 200 kg ha-1), dispostos em um desenho experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetiç...

  10. Carcass and meat traits of lambs fed by-products from the processing of oil seeds - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.20403

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Correa Santos; Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel; Eliane da Silva Morgado; Severino Cavalcante de Souza Júnior

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of adding by-products from the processing of oil seeds in the diet of lambs on the carcass and meat traits. Twenty-four non-castrated weaned male Santa Inês lambs with approximately 70 days of age and initial average weight of 19.11 ± 2.12 kg were distributed into a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of diets containing by-products with 70% of concentrate and 30% of tifton hay (Cynodon spp.) and were termed SM: control with soybean meal; SC: formulated ...

  11. Influência da luminosidade no comportamento de onze espécies forrageiras perenes de verão Influence of luminosity on the behavior of eleven perennial summer forage species

    OpenAIRE

    André Brugnara Soares; Laércio Ricardo Sartor; Paulo Fernando Adami; Alexandre Costa Varella; Lidiane Fonseca; Jean Carlos Mezzalira

    2009-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento de espécies forrageiras (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Panicum maximum cvs. Tanzânia, Aruana e Mombaça, Hemarthria altissima cv. Florida; Paspalum notatum cv. Pensacola, Axonopus catharinensis, Cynodon sp. híbrido Tifton-85; Arachis pintoi cvs. Alqueire e Amarillo) submetidas a diferentes níveis de luminosidade produzidos por árvores de Pinus taeda (céu aberto; 9 m entre linhas e 3 m entre árvores; e 15 m entre linhas...

  12. Metabolismo de nutrientes em ovinos alimentados com casca de soja em substituição ao feno de coastcross Nutrient metabolism in sheep fed soybean hulls replacing coastcross hay

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Shinkai Gentil; Ivanete Susin; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Evandro Maia Ferreira; Clayton Quirino Mendes; Omer Cavalcanti de Almeida; Mário Adriano Ávila Queiroz

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo neste experimento foi avaliar os efeitos da substituição do feno de coastcross (Cynodon sp.) por casca de soja sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, os parâmetros ruminais e o metabolismo de nitrogênio. Dezesseis borregos (PV = 40,0±5 kg) foram individualmente alojados em gaiolas metálicas para ensaio de metabolismo em delineamento experimental do tipo blocos completos casualizados. O experimento teve duração de 14 dias, sendo 10 dias para adaptação dos animais às rações...

  13. 狗牙根抗寒性研究进展%Research progress of cold resistance in Bermuda grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代会平; 杨知建; 胡勇

    2007-01-01

    狗牙根Cynodon dactylon作为最重要、应用最广的暖季型草坪草种之一,低温是其最大限制因素.综述了国内外狗牙根抗寒性的相关研究,包括低温胁迫下其形态结构和生理生化变化、抗寒性测定方法以及增强抗寒性的措施等,并提出了今后的研究建议.

  14. Distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi coal mine in Huainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhao-xia; WANG Shun-chang; WANG Xing-ming

    2012-01-01

    In China,coal mine spoils have traditionally been dumped in cone-shaped heaps that have the potential to pollute air,soil and water environments.The coal waste pile occupies lots of arable land and endangers the ecological system in the coal mine district.Vegetation restoration is an efficient approach for controlling the environment pollution of coal waste pile,and is also a topic of current interest in restoration ecology and degradation system ecology.This study focused on the distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi Coal Mine in Huainan.The results show that two stable plant communities (Synodon dactylon+Erigeron bonariensis.L+Setaria viridis community and Humulus scanden+Erigeron bonariensis.L community) exist at the bottom of the pile.Synodon dactylon and Erigeron bonariensis.L have much higher values of summed dominance ratio,which denote that these two species can be used for restoration of coal waste piles.The high levels of pH (8.77) and salinity,low levels of total P and total K in coal mine spoil can be the limiting factors for the residence and growth of vegetation.

  15. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  16. Predição da degradação da matéria seca pelo volume de gases utilizando a técnica in vitro semi-automática de produção de gases Prediction of dry matter degradation from volume of gas production using the in vitro semi-automatic gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ú.T. Nogueira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se a degradação da matéria seca (DMS via produção de gases (PG por meio de equações. Foram agrupados dados de volume de gases e DMS de oito forrageiras (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, feno de Cynodon spp, silagem de milho, silagem de milheto, sorgo de corte, capim-elefante e cana-de-açúcar e de milho em grão. Os dados de DMS obtidos em laboratório foram comparados à DMS obtida pelas equações de regressão. Apesar dos altos coeficientes de determinação, os resultados demonstraram a impossibilidade de estimar a DMS via PG pelas equações geral, de dois e de três pontos.The dry matter degration (DMD was estimated through volume of gas produced (GP during the in vitro fermentation. The DMD from eight forages (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, cynodon hay, maize silage, Pennisetum glaucon, sorghum, elephant grass and sugarcane and corn grain were obtained and were compared with the DMD estimated using regression equations. The results showed the GP can not predict the DMD due to inocula effects, chemical composition of substrate or losses of particles of soluble material during filtration process.

  17. Arbitrarily amplified DNA: New molecular approaches to plant breeding, ecology and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several DNA fingerprinting techniques that use arbitrary primers to characterize, scan and tag genomic DNA were optimized and used to study plants and microbial pathogens. The generated arbitrarily amplified DNA (AAD) profiles could be tailored in their complexity and polymorphic content, allowing analysis of closely related organisms, such as vegetatively-propagated horticultural crops or clonal fungal populations. AAD markers were used in cultivar and strain identification, map-based cloning, and marker-assisted breeding, sometimes as sequence-tagged sites. Phenetic analysis using parsimony, cluster, and numerical methods was applied successfully to the identification of genetic relationships in turfgrass species such as bermudagrass, woody plants such as dogwoods, and floricultural species such as petunia and chrysanthemum. AAD profiles were used to measure for the first time a genome-wide mutation rate, directly in a plant. Mutation rates in vegetatively propagated bermudagrass were comparable to those in human, mice, fruit flies, and worms. In combination with established tools used in molecular systematics (e.g. rDNA sequence analysis), AAD markers tracked the introduction of exotic dogwood anthracnose-causing fungi in North America. As part of a breeding effort to combat dogwood diseases, AAD was used in pseudo-testcross mapping of the tree at the intra-specific level. Markers were efficiently generated despite the close relatedness of parental dogwood material. Finally, DNA markers and tags were also generated in soybean, and were used to construct high density maps and walk towards defined genomic regions in the positional cloning of the supernodulation nts-1 symbiotic gene. (author)

  18. Sensitization study of dogs with atopic dermatitis in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD is a common dermatosis, defined as a genetic-related disease which predisposes to skin inflammation and pruritus, associated to a IgE-specific response in most of cases. Clinical diagnosis may be later complemented by skin allergy and/or serological tests. The aim of these tests is to identify possible allergens in order to enable the clinicians to select candidate antigens for allergen specific immunotherapy. In the present study 58 CAD positive animals were tested. All were submitted to the intradermal test (IDT and screened for the presence of antibodies against different antigens using ELISA. The obtained results show a high prevalence of sensitization among the tested dogs to house dust mites and to pollen ofC. dactylon. With this work it was possible to identify the main allergens involved in immunological response of dogs with CAD living in central area of Rio Grande do Sul.

  19. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-07-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 - 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost. PMID:24031271

  20. The benefits of being big: effects of body size on energy budgets of three wintering goose species grazing Carex beds in the Yangtze River Floodplain, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Meijuan;

    2013-01-01

    which failed to do so and could only maintain positive energy budgets by grazing high-quality Alopecurus, Cynodon and Eleocharis. However, all three species failed to maintain positive energy balance and lost mass in midwinter. These results have important implications for explaining the divergent...... partitioning in the distribution of closely related species. By estimating daily energy expenditure (based on observed activity budgets) and energy intake (using the indigestible marker method in food and faeces), we compared the field energy budgets of three wintering herbivorous goose species differing...... in body size feeding on the same Carex meadows. Throughout the winter, the larger Bean Geese Anser fabalis serrirostris and Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons maintained positive energy budgets grazing lower quality Carex, in contrast to the smaller Lesser White-fronted Geese Anser erythropus...

  1. Source and level of energy supplementation for yearling cattle fed ammoniated hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royes, J B; Brown, W F; Martin, F G; Bates, D B

    2001-05-01

    Brahman x British crossbred steers were used in growth and digestion trials to evaluate the response of source (corn, sugar cane molasses, or soybean hulls) and feeding rate (0, 1.4, or 2.8 kg DM per steer daily in the growth trials; 0, 15, or 30% of the ration DM in the digestion trial) of energy supplementation in cattle fed ammoniated (4% of forage DM) stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis) hay. Cattle on all treatments were fed 0.5 kg cottonseed meal daily. In the growth trials, steers grazed dormant bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pasture. Increasing the levels of supplementation decreased hay intake but increased total dietary intake for all diets (P hemicellulose digestibility. Apparent OM digestibility of all diets increased linearly (P = 0.02) as the level of supplementation increased. Apparent NDF and ADF digestibility decreased (P sources. PMID:11374553

  2. Retenção do fósforo de fenos de gramíneas tropicais em ovinos Phosphorus balance in sheep fed on tropical grass hays

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Reis; D.S. Graça; R.M. Maurício

    1999-01-01

    Mediu-se a retenção do fósforo de quatro gramíneas tropicais, capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora), capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens), capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactilon) e capim-colonião (Panicum maximum), em cinco ovinos por meio de ensaios de balanço de fósforo. O experimento constou de quatro fases, cada uma com duração de 21 dias (14 dias de adaptação à dieta e sete dias de colheita de fezes), totalizando 20 observações. A análise dos dados foi feita por polinômios ortogonais, testa...

  3. Desempenho e digestibilidade aparente em cabritos Boer x Saanen em confinamento recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho Effects of replacing ground corn with soybean hulls on performance and apparent digestibility of nutrients in feedlot Boer x Saanen kids

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Hideo Hashimoto; Claudete Regina Alcalde; Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom; Karina Toledo da Silva; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo; Elias Nunes Martins; Carlos Eduardo Crispim de Oliveira Ramos; Gabriella de Oliveira Passianoto

    2007-01-01

    Foram utilizados 27 cabritos Boer x Saanen (15 machos e 12 fêmeas, 25,75 ± 3,80 kg PV) distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado para avaliar os os efeitos da substituição de casca do grão de soja (CGS) por grão de milho moído (GMM) sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes da dieta. As rações foram compostas de feno de grama-estrela (Cynodon spp.), farelo de soja, milho, casca do grão de soja e minerais, sendo os tratamentos constituídos de 0 (GMM), 50 (CGS50...

  4. Effect of Chistosan on Bermuda grass germination%壳聚糖对狗牙根种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹国勇; 刘晚苟

    2004-01-01

    用不同浓度的壳聚糖柠檬酸溶液处理狗牙根Cynodon dactylon种子,研究壳聚糖对狗牙根种子萌发的影响.结果表明:适当浓度的壳聚糖溶液(2.0%)能提高狗牙根种子活力,促进幼苗生长,提高发芽率和发芽势,呼吸速率也随浓度的增大而明显提高.因此壳聚糖处理有利于狗牙根种子的萌发.

  5. Assessment of turf quality of native Bermuda grass accessions collected in Panxi region of Sichuan Province%四川攀西地区野生狗牙根坪用价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赞; 毛凯; 吴彦奇; 高洪文; 韩建国

    2005-01-01

    以四川攀西地区12份野生狗牙根Cynodon dactylon为研究材料,以四川省夹江、海南省兴隆和国外品种Tifway 3份材料作为对照,通过小区引种试验,对其坪用价值进行评定.结果表明:C10在运动草坪中表现已超过商业品种Tifway,极有开发价值; C10适合于用作观赏草坪; C01,C05和C10适合用作游憩草坪;C05,C01和C08在水保草坪中具有一定开发价值.

  6. Imagens multiespectrais para avaliação de índice de área foliar e massa seca do capim 'Tifton 85', sob adubação nitrogenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Rossini Simões

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar as respostas do capim 'Tifton 85' (Cynodon spp. à adubação nitrogenada, em termos de área foliar verde e de massa seca da parte aérea, utilizando índices calculados a partir de informações contidas em imagens multiespectrais, em comparação com indicadores obtidos por métodos diretos. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro doses de N-ureia (0; 100; 150 e 200 kg ha-1, dispostos em um desenho experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Aos 26 dias, após um corte de uniformização, foram determinados os seguintes atributos do dossel: o Índice de Área Foliar (IAF, a massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, o índice de cobertura verde (ICV, utilizando uma câmara digital na faixa do visível e o Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (NDVI, utilizando uma câmara multiespectral. Os quatro atributos do dossel vegetativo responderam positivamente à adubação nitrogenada. Enquanto o ICV mostrou relações curvilineares com o IAF e a MSPA (R² IAF=0,89; R² MSPA=0,87, o NDVI mostrou relações lineares (r² IAF=0,62; r2 MSPA=0,64, sem evidenciar tendência à saturação. Foi concluído que é possível avaliar a adubação nitrogenada em pastagens de Cynodon spp., utilizando análise de imagens, e que tanto o NDVI quanto o ICV podem ser utilizados como indicadores de produtividade do capim Tifton 85

  7. Eficiência microbiana e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos alimentados com dietas à base de volumosos tropicais Microbial efficiency and ruminal parameters in cattle fed diets based on tropical forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Cabral

    2008-05-01

    -85 bermudagrass hay. Six ruminal and abomasal fistulated cattle were utilized in a double 3 × 3 latin square. Abomasal digesta dry matter of and microbial dry matter flows were determined by use of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and base purines as microbial marker, respectively. The N-NH3 concentration and ruminal pH were determined before and 2, 4 and 8 hours after feeding. The diets based on corn silage and Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay provided higher nitrogen compounds flow into abomasum. Isolated bacteria from rumen averaged 8.89% of total N and had an N-RNA:N-total ration of 18.40. The corn silage diet provided higher ruminal degradation of organic matter (2.96 kg/day and of total carbohydrates (3.07 kg/day and higher microbial matter flow to the abomasum (788.28 g/day. The Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay and elephant grass silage diets had the greatest microbial efficiencies, which values were 28.10 and 30.39 g of microbial N/kg of rumen degradable carbohydrates. The corn silage diet showed lower N-NH3 concentration and ruminal pH after feeding, possibly indicating reduction of microbial efficiency.

  8. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  9. Vasoactivity and Vasoconstriction Changes in Cattle Related to Time off Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, James L; Aiken, Glen E; Bussard, Jessica R; Foote, Andrew P; Harmon, David L; Goff, Ben M; Schrick, F Neal; Strickland, James R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and α-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+; Epichlöe coenophialia) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The objective of this experiment was to determine the period of time necessary for the vascular effects of ergot alkaloids to subside. Two experiments were conducted to investigate changes in vascular contractile response and vasoconstriction over time relative to removal from an ergot alkaloid-containing E+ tall fescue pasture. In Experiment 1, lateral saphenous vein biopsies were conducted on 21 predominantly Angus steers (357 ± 3 kg body weight) at 0 (n = 6), 7 (n = 6), 14 (n = 5), or 28 days (n = 4) after removal from grazing pasture (3.0 ha; endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 1.35 mg/kg DM) for 126 days. In Experiment 2, lateral saphenous veins were biopsied from 24 Angus-cross steers (361 ± 4 kg body weight) at 0, 21, 42, and 63 days (n = 6 per time point) following removal from grazing tall fescue pastures (3.0 ha; first 88 days endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 0.15 mg/kg DM; last 18 days endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 0.57 mg/kg DM) for 106 total days. Six steers (370 ± 18 kg body weight) off of bermudagrass pasture for the same time interval were also biopsied on Day 0 and Day 63 (n = 3 per time point). Additionally, in Experiment 2, cross-sectional ultrasound scans of caudal artery at the fourth coccygeal vertebra were taken on Days 0, 8, 15, 21, 29, 36, 42, and 45 to determine mean artery luminal area to evaluate vasoconstriction. In both experiments, steers were removed from pasture and housed in a dry lot and fed a corn silage diet for the duration of biopsies and ultrasound scans. Biopsied vessels used to evaluate vasoactivity were cleaned, incubated in a multimyograph, and exposed to increasing concentrations of 4-Bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl) methylamine hydrobromide (TCB2; 5HT2A agonist

  10. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  11. The Experimental Study on the Effect of Vegetation Root on the Soil Shear Strength%植被根系对土体抗剪强度影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔宇; 杨平; 王磊; 稽晓雷

    2012-01-01

    以狗牙根为研究对象,分析了实验用土的液塑限、最大干密度、最优含水量;采用单因素法设计,分别使用竖直、水平、与水平方向成30°3种方式向试样中放置根丝进行GDS三轴试验,绘制了试样的应力应变曲线和包络图,分析了狗牙根加筋土主应力差与轴向应变的关系.结果表明:素土及含根土围压偏应力间呈线性关系;根丝植入对有效内摩擦角φ影响较小;根丝水平放置、倾斜放置时对试样粘聚力c影响较小,竖直放置时对c值有明显增强作用.这是由于水平和倾斜的放置方式,减少了样品的有效受剪区域.%Taking bermudagrass as the research object ,the author analysis the liquid plastic limit,maximum dry density, optimum moisture content of the experimental soil, adopt the single-factor method, what the GDS triaxial tests have been carried out in three ways: the vertical,horizontal,and horizontal direction at 30°. The author also draw the stress-strain curves , the envelope diagram of samples, and analysis the relationship of bermudagrass reinforced earth principal stress difference and the axial strain. The results show that prime soil and soil containing the root of their confining pressure-linear relationship between deviator stress; implantation of the root less impacted on the effective internal friction an gle φ; The root has little impact on the cohesion of soil when they are placed horizontally or aslant,however,the vertical placement is much more effective. It is due to the horizontal and the inclined position reduces the effective shear area of samples.

  12. Effects of bovine cytochrome P450 single-nucleotide polymorphism, forage type and body condition on production traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M A; Larson, M J; Reiter, S T; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Looper, M L; Coffey, K P; Rosenkrans, C F

    2012-08-01

    Relating single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to cows with acceptable productivity could benefit cattle breeders in areas where tall fescue is the predominant forage. This study aimed to (i) identify SNPs in bovine cytochrome P450 3A28 (CYP3A28) and (ii) determine the associations between SNP genotype, forage and cow body condition (BC). Genotype (CC, CG or GG) and forage [Kentucky-31 wild-type endophyte-infected tall fescue (KY+) vs. bermudagrass] effects on milk volume and quality were determined in Herd 1 cows (123 cows); in Herd 2 (99 cows), genotype and BC (low vs. moderate) effects on ovarian follicle size, calving date and calving per cent were determined; and in Herd 3 (114 cows), effects of genotype and fescue cultivar [KY+ vs. non-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (HiMag4)] were related to calving per cent, calving date and weaning weights of both cow and her calf. A cytosine (C) to guanine (G) transversion at base 994 (C994G) in CYP3A28 was identified. There was a genotype × forage type interaction (p milk protein in Herd 1 cows; CC cows grazing bermudagrass had greater milk protein percentage in relation to other cows in the herd. In Herd 2, BC and genotype × BC tended (p < 0.10) to influence follicle size and Julian calving date respectively. Diameter of the largest follicle tended to be larger in moderate BC than in low-BC cows; whereas, CC and CG cows in moderate BC and homozygous (CC and GG) cows in low BC tended to calve 14 days earlier in relation to CG cows in low BC. In Herd 3, there was a genotype × forage type interaction (p < 0.05) on calving per cent, Julian calving date and calf weaning weight. In this study, genetic alterations (G allele at C994G) coupled with nutritional factors (low BC and toxic tall fescue) resulted in overall lower productivity in cows.

  13. Influence of palm fatty acid distillate on rumen degradability and protozoa population in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Vilas Boas Soares

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil and fat as energy sources at low cost are relevant in ruminant nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD on the degradability and ciliate protozoa population in buffalo. Four rumen fistulated buffaloes were fed a basal diet in a Latin square (4x4 design trial. Treatments were designed with four of different levels of PFAD added directly into the rumen: 0; 200; 420 and 500 g/animal/d. High levels of PFAD (420 and 500 g/d promoted higher degradation of the soluble fraction and lower in potentially degradable fraction of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fibre (NDF with lower values of potential and effective degradability in two evaluated grasses, bermudagrass and brachiariagrass. Significant decreases in the total number of protozoa/mL of rumen content, Entodinium and ciliates belonging to subfamily Diplodiniinae were observed at higher level of PFDA addition in the rumen. Also, Epidinium and Holotrich ciliates disappeared from the rumen. Significant correlations were observed of the ciliate concentration and composition as a function of dietary lipids content. Entodinium composition increased from 68.0% to 99.6% and Diplodiniinae reduced from 30.4% to 0.4% with increasing PFAD level indicating higher fat toxicity effect on the Diplodiniinae ciliates than Entodinium species and direct action of the larger ciliates on the fibre degradation.

  14. Subsurface Band Application of Poultry Litter and Its Influence on Phosphorus Concentration and Retention after Runoff from Permanent Pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Way, Thomas R; Torbert, H Allen; Armstrong, Shalamar D

    2015-11-01

    Excessive phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields is a major cause of eutrophication to rivers, lakes, and streams. To mitigate P loss after poultry litter (PL) applications, technology is being developed to apply litter below the soil surface. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate the effects of subsurface PL banding on soil P under pasture management. Treatments consisted of surface-broadcasted or subsurface-banded PL (38 cm apart) at 9 Mg ha, surface-broadcasted commercial fertilizer (CF; urea and triple superphosphate blend) at N (330 kg N ha) and P (315 kg N ha) application rates equivalent to PL, and a nonfertilized control. Runoff events lasting 40 min were simulated in bermudagrass ( L.) pastures on common soil types of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. One day later, Mehlich-1 and water-soluble P concentrations in soil were measured at depths of 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 10 cm to determine P distribution and movement. The greatest P concentrations were observed at the shallow depth for all treatments. Phosphorus measurements at the point of application for PL bands were greater than for the surface-applied treatments (PL and CF) and control. Measurements between subsurface PL bands were slightly higher than the control but were statistically similar, suggesting that this application method can abate short-term P movement. Results obtained from this study show that subsurface band applying PL could increase P retention and reduce movement by precluding contact between surface water and litter nutrients. PMID:26641345

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Common Savannahgrass on a Range of Soils Subjected to Different Stresses I: Productivity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Springer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass growth, performance and quality are affected by abiotic stress factors and are of primary concern for persons managing turfgrass areas under seasonal tropical climates. Under these conditions, common Savannahgrass (SG may have a performance advantage over imported hybrid turfgrasses. A greenhouse study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the performance of tropical turfgrasses exposed to water and compaction related stresses across a range of soils, with or without the addition of a surface sand layer. Turfgrass productivity and quality was monitored over a four-month growth period. Clipping yield (CY was lower at the higher compaction effort for all turfgrasses, but across all stresses, drought (D and waterlogging (WL resulted in lower CY. Values were significantly lower under D. SG had the highest clipping yield across all soils. The chlorophyll index (CI was lower for all turfgrasses under water-induced stress compared to compaction stresses. SG had a significantly higher CI across all stress treatments. Correlation analysis showed a positive (r² = 0.420 and significant (p < 0.05 relationship between CY and CI. Similar to CI, stress type influenced turfgrass visual quality (VQ, with D stress, resulting in the lowest VQ rating among turfgrasses. Bermudagrass (BG had the lowest VQ across all stress treatments, whilst, comparatively, Zoysiagrass (ZG had significantly higher VQ under high compaction (HC, low compaction (LC and WL stress. Overall, SG showed a higher level of tolerance to applied stresses and warrants greater attention as a potential turfgrass under tropical conditions.

  16. Influence of palm fatty acid distillate on rumen degradability and protozoa population in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Franzolin

    Full Text Available Oil and fat as energy sources at low cost are relevant in ruminant nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD on the degradability and ciliate protozoa population in buffalo. Four rumen fistulated buffaloes were fed a basal diet in a Latin square (4x4 design trial. Treatments were designed with four of different levels of PFAD added directly into the rumen: 0; 200; 420 and 500 g/animal/d. High levels of PFAD (420 and 500 g/d promoted higher degradation of the soluble fraction and lower in potentially degradable fraction of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fibre (NDF with lower values of potential and effective degradability in two evaluated grasses, bermudagrass and brachiariagrass. Significant decreases in the total number of protozoa/mL of rumen content, Entodinium and ciliates belonging to subfamily Diplodiniinae were observed at higher level of PFDA addition in the rumen. Also, Epidinium and Holotrich ciliates disappeared from the rumen. Significant correlations were observed of the ciliate concentration and composition as a function of dietary lipids content. Entodinium composition increased from 68.0% to 99.6% and Diplodiniinae reduced from 30.4% to 0.4% with increasing PFAD level indicating higher fat toxicity effect on the Diplodiniinae ciliates than Entodinium species and direct action of the larger ciliates on the fibre degradation.

  17. Grass Lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  18. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L. Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton and oat (Avena sativa straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost.Três formulações de composto, à base de palhas de Cynodom dactylon (L. Pers. (cultivares Coast-cross e Tyfton e Aveia-Avena sativa, foram testadas no cultivo das linhagens ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03 e ABI-06/04 de A. bisporus. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial, inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos (4 linhagens de A. bisporus x 3 tipos de composto e 8 repetições. Cada unidade experimental constou de uma caixa com 1212,5 kg de composto fresco úmido. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. De acordo com os resultados obtidos verificou-se que a produção de cogumelos foi influenciada pela linhagem e/ou pelo tipo de composto. Também verificou-se que o teor de proteína bruta, cinzas e fibra bruta de basidiomas variou com a linhagem de A. bisporus e com o tipo de palha utilizada na formulação do composto.

  19. Evaluación de seis abonos verdes en un vertisol ústico en condiciones del Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla C. C. R.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Sede Palmira, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, se evaluaron seis tratamientos con tres repeticiones. (Cajanus cajan guandul arbóreo y arbustivo; Canavalia ensiformis, fríjol Canavalia; Cynodon niemfuensis, pasto estrella; Zea mays, Maíz y Cucúrbita moschata, zapallo. El pasto estrella y el zapallo fueron cultivos previos al ensayo; los otros materiales se sembraron por semilla a 50 cm en cuadro y se incorporaron al suelo a los 150 días cuando se cosechó el maíz (choclo. Maíz y canavalia aportaron mayor biomasa al suelo (10.068 y 9.748 kg/ha, respectivamente. C. cajan arbóreo y C. ensiformis aportaron las mayores cantidades de nitrógeno (254 y 213 kg/ha. El maíz y el pasto estrella, por sus altos contenidos de lignina, se descompusieron más lentamente. En casi todos los tratamientos se presentó incremento de la población microbiana, predominando la población de bacterias, seguida por hongos, fijadores de nitrógeno de vida libre y luego la población de actinomicetos. ABSTRACT Evaluation of six green manure materials in a Ustic Vertisol Soil of Cauca Valley, Colombia. This research was realized in the Experimental Center of the National University in Palmira. A design of a Randomized Completed Blocks, with six treatments and three repeticions was used. The treatments were two accesions of guandul (tree and shrub Cajanus cajan, Canavalia Canavalia ensiformis Corn Zea mays, Star grass Cynodon niemfuensis and Ramkin Cucúrbita moschata. The plot size was 20 m x 10 m. The materials were incorporated with tractor and disk plough when the maiz was colected as ear. The results showed that corn and Canavalia had the higher yields of fitomass (10068 and 9748 kg/ha, respectively. The legumes C. cajan (tree and C. ensiformis showed higher yileds of Nitrogen (254 and 213 kg/ha and biomolecules. Z. mays and C. nlemfuensis were the treatments with lower

  20. Comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros em três sistemas de produção em pastagem de Tifton 85 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6014 Intake behavior of lambs in three production systems on Tifton 85 pasture - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6014

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    Sergio Rodrigo Fernandes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros em pastagem de Tifton-85 (Cynodon spp. em três sistemas de produção: cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias de idade e mantidos em pastagem; cordeiros mantidos com suas mães em pastagem; e cordeiros mantidos com suas mães em pastagem e suplementados em creep feeding. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, utilizando quatro cordeiros-teste por repetição. Na pastagem, avaliou-se a altura, a massa, a composição morfológica e bromatológica da forragem. Na avaliação do comportamento ingestivo registrou-se, do nascer ao pôr do sol, o tempo despendido nas atividades de pastejo, ruminação, ócio, amamentação e alimentação no creep feeding. Avaliou-se, também, a taxa de bocados ao pastejo. Os cordeiros permaneceram maior tempo em pastejo, e os suplementados despenderam menor (p creep feeding alterou (p The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake behavior of lambs on Tifton 85 pasture (Cynodon spp. in three production systems: sixty-days-old weaned lambs kept on pasture; lambs kept with their mother on pasture; lambs kept with their mother on pasture in creep feeding. Systems were allocated in a completely randomized blocks design with three replicates and four lambs per replicate. Pasture sward surface height, forage dry matter, and morphological and nutritional characters were assessed. Intake behavior was observed from dawn to dusk. The study assessed the time animals spent in the following activities: grazing, ruminating, idling, suckling, and staying in creep feeding. Bite rate was also evaluated. Lambs spent most of their time grazing, but the supplemented ones spent less time (p creep feeding altered (p < 0.05 distribution of grazing and rumination, indicating a substitutive effect of pasture by concentrate. Sheep production systems affected the intake behavior of lambs, but did not affect the bite rate.

  1. Suplementação com sal mineral proteinado para bovinos de corte mantidos em pastagem de estrela roxa no final do verão - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2145 Protein mineral salt supplementation for steers on star grass pasture at the end of the summer - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2145

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    Ulysses Cecato

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação protéica (189 gramas/animal/dia, em comparação ao sal mineral (76 gramas/animal/dia, sobre o desempenho de bovinos de corte, mantidos em pastagem de grama estrela roxa (Cynodon plectostachyrus Pilger, no final do verão (fevereiro a maio. Foram utilizados 60 novilhos, com peso inicial médio de 299kg e quatro piquetes de grama estrela roxa. Considerando os primeiros 28 dias (período de adaptação, na análise estatística (fevereiro a maio, não foi observada diferença no GMD dos animais. Por outro lado, desconsiderando-se esse período de adaptação (março a maio, a suplementação protéica resultou em maior GMD (0,43kg/dia, quando comparada à suplementação mineral (0,34kg/dia. A disponibilidade e qualidade da forragem foram semelhantes para os diferentes tratamentos, com valores médios de 5.344kg MS/ha, 649kg de FOL/ha, 4,6% de PB, 2,8% de PBD, 79,4% de FDN, 48,3% de FDA e 53,1% de DIVMS.This work was carried out to study the effect of protein supplements (189 grams/animal/day compared to mineral salt (76 grams/animal/day on performance of steers on star grass pasture (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger at the end of the summer (February to May. Sixty steers of 299kg body weight and four pastures of star grass were used. Considering the first 28 days (adaptation period in the statistical analysis (from February to May there was no difference in ADG of the animals. However, discounting this period of adaptation (from March to May, the protein supplements resulted in superior ADG (0.43kg a day when compared to mineral supplement (0.34kg a day. The quality and availability of the pasture were similar to the different treatments, with average levels of 5344kg DM/ha, 649kg of LEA/ha, 4.6% of CP, 2.8% of DCP, 79.4% of NDF, 48.3% of ADF, and 53.1% of IVDMD.

  2. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among el