WorldWideScience

Sample records for bermuda

  1. Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Bermuda's population characteristics, history, government, political situation, economy, and foreign relations were briefly described. Bermuda, a parliamentary British colony, is situated on a group of island in the Atlantic Ocean, about 650 miles east of North Carolina. Bermuda was discovered by the Spaniards in 1503; however, it was the British who founded the 1st settlement on the islands in 1612. The current population size is 56,652, and the annual rate of growth is 0.3%. About 2/3 of the population is of African descent, and the remaining inhabitants are of British, American, Portuguese, or Caribbean descent. The literacy rate is 98%, and school enrollment is universal and compulsory for 12 years. The infant mortality rate is 7.1/1000 live births and life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Although Bermuda is a British colony, it was granted considerable internal autonomy in 1968. A governor, appointed by the British Crown, is in charge of external affairs, defense, and the country's internal security. Under the constitution, adopted in 1968, the internal affairs of the country are conducted by an elected bicameral legislative body and a premier who represents the majority party in the lower legislative house. The current premier is John W. D. Swan of the United Bermuda Party (UBP). The UBP is supported mainly by the white minority and by a few blacks. The Progressive Labor Party (PLP) is supported primarily by the black majority. The UBP has retained power since it was established in 1965, but at each election, its winning margin decreased. Although there is universal suffrage, only a small proportion of the public participates in elections. Despite the fact that the governor was assassinated in 1972 and there was civil unrest in 1977, the country is politically stable. This political stability is due in part to the government's efforts since the 1950s to promote racial equality, to the government's willingness to recognize labors' right

  2. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  3. Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅骧

    2004-01-01

    The Bernmda Triangle is also called Devil's Triangle. It is an imaginary area in the Atlantic Ocean. It extends more than one-million square kilometers between the island of Bermuda, the coast of southern Florida

  4. Bermuda- roskakorin kannen hitsausjigin suunnittelu

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli suunnitella hitsausjigi, eli työkappaleiden hitsausta helpottava kiinnitysratkaisu. Työ on jaettu kahteen osa-alueeseen, joista ensimmäinen käsittelee yleisimpiä hitsausmenetelmiä, joista erityisesti työssä käytettävää TIG- hitsausmenetelmää. Työn toinen osa keskittyy jigin suunnitteluun. Jigi suunniteltiin Bermuda- roskakorin kannen reunojen hitsausta varten. Työn toimeksiantajana oli Leimec Oy, joka valmistaa Bermuda- roskakoreja. Jigin valmistus ja käyttö on t...

  5. Thaliacea of the Bermuda area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1975-01-01

    A large number of samples of Salpidae, Doliolidae and Pyrosomatidae, collected by the U. S. Ocean Acre Project, are studied. A new record for the Bermuda area of Doliopsis rubescens (Vogt, 1817) is given. Dominant species are Iasis zonaria (Pallas, 1766), Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804, and Salpa asp

  6. A Bermuda Triangle of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelsas, John

    2006-01-01

    The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…

  7. 78 FR 52099 - Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex-Grano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 51 Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex- Grano AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Type) and the United States Standards for Grades of...

  8. A new view of Bermuda's mosses

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper (Olson, 2008) discussed the finding of Pireella cymbifolia (Sull.) Cardot in Bermuda, but also commented on the lack of research on the island. Fortunately further work on Bermuda bryophytes has continued over the years, and we now have a new moss list for the island.

  9. Bermuda kolmnurk uputab ajakirjandust / Tiina Kangro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangro, Tiina, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Teadusajakirjanduses ilmuvate uudiste paikapidavusest ja nn. halvast ajakirjandusest. Autor analüüsib 2010. aasta augustis ilmunud uudist, milles teatati, et teadlased on lahendanud Bermuda kolmnurga saladuse, kuigi taoline artikkel oli ilmunud ka juba 2003. aastal

  10. A Semester of Geology in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Harold R.

    1982-01-01

    Described is a nine-week undergraduate semester program (12 credit hours) conducted at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research which included three courses: introductory oceanography, sedimentology, and independent field study. Brief descriptions of sample student projects are included. (DC)

  11. Bermuda Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bermuda Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  12. Bermuda 1 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  13. Bermuda 3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  14. Bermuda Bio Optics Project. Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Norm

    2003-01-01

    The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) is a collaborative effort between the Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). This research program is designed to characterize light availability and utilization in the Sargasso Sea, and to provide an optical link by which biogeochemical observations may be used to evaluate bio-optical models for pigment concentration, primary production, and sinking particle fluxes from satellite-based ocean color sensors. The BBOP time-series was initiated in 1992, and is carried out in conjunction with the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. The BATS program itself has been observing biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, particle flux and elemental cycles) in the mesotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea since 1988. Closely affiliated with BBOP and BATS is a separate NASA-funded study of the spatial variability of biogeochemical processes in the Sargasso Sea using high-resolution AVHRR and SeaWiFS data collected at Bermuda (N. Nelson, P.I.). The collaboration between BATS and BBOP measurements has resulted in a unique data set that addresses not only the SIMBIOS goals but also the broader issues of important factors controlling the carbon cycle.

  15. Landward-advancing Quaternary eolianites of Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Mark P.; Bristow, Charlie S.

    2015-12-01

    The landscape of Bermuda is dominated by Quaternary carbonate cemented dunes, or "eolianites", which form the islands' topography. Sections through the dunes are revealed in extensive natural and man-made rock faces, which expose the dune stratigraphy as well as the preserved morphology. An analysis of 3751 foreset measurements confirms the conclusion reached by earlier researchers that Bermuda's dunes advanced sub-perpendicularly to the coast in a landward direction away from source beaches. Dune orientation, being multi-directional, is not consistent with northeast net sand transportation predicted by a drift potential analysis of modern wind data. The putative predisposition of Bermuda's carbonate dunes to rapid cementation is supposed to have curtailed their landward advance such that younger dunes developed as static ridges at the seaward margin of their lithified predecessors. Geological mapping has revealed, however, that in many cases young dunes did advance inland onto interior terrain, overstepping older dune ridges. Molds of large trees, preserved within the dunes, and a sharp contact of steep slip-face dune foresets on palaeosols evoke the encroachment of landward-advancing precipitation ridges into a forested landscape. The internal structure of the dunes, featuring thick sets of slip-face foresets truncated by sub-horizontal planar bounding surfaces, uphold the ascendancy of sand transportation processes over those of sand retention and vertical accretion. Although meteoric cementation was responsible for the ultimate preservation of eolianite ridges which dominate Bermuda's landscape, it took effect too slowly to influence the behaviour of the carbonate dunes at the time of their emplacement.

  16. 'Boilers' along the southeast coast of Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Along the south shore of Bermuda, waves break continuously along algal/vermetid reefs (composed of algae and molluscs, not coral), forming 'boilers.' Boilers are named because the continuous breaking of waves makes it look as if the sea is boiling. This photograph taken from the International Space Station shows the eastern half of the main islands of Bermuda. Land use is about 6 percent cropland, 55 percent developed and 34 percent rural. Reflective white-colored areas are buildings and other developments surrounded by green areas of vegetation. St. David's Island is also home to the airport, with runways built out into Castle Harbour. Hurricane Erin passed northeast of Bermuda early on September 10 with 115 mile-per-hour winds (a Category 3 storm on the Saffir-Simpson Scale), but causing very minimal damage. Astronauts aboard Space Station Alpha photographed the area on September 14, 2001. By then, the skies had cleared and Erin had become an extratropical low near Newfoundland. Image ISS003-E-5735, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  17. Naise võim Bermudas : kubjas kukutati / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritanniale kuuluva Bermuda saare parlamendivalimised vallandasid sündmuste ahela, mis võivad muuta asumaa poliitikat. Ametist tagandati peaminister Jennifer Meredith Smith ja uueks peaministriks sai senine tööminister William Alexander Scott

  18. Local influences on the composition of precipitation on Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, James N.; Tokos, Joseph J.; Knap, Anthony H.; Keene, William C.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of atmospheric biogeochemical cycles in marine areas depends heavily on the collection and analysis of precipitation samples. However, collection of marine precipitation is difficult due to constraints on sampling locations. For example, the island of Bermuda has been used to characterize the composition of precipitation over the western north Atlantic Ocean. However, Bermuda is a small, heavily populated island and the possibility exists that local processes can influence t...

  19. The failure of early Bermuda, 1612-1630

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Bermuda, settled in l6l2, was the second successful English colony founded in the New World. The islands appeared to provide investors in England with an excellent opportunity to make a profit, but the colony failed to generate the anticipatcd profits because the investors failed to allow sufficient incentive for the colonists to produce high quality cash crops. Little research has been conducted on the early history of Bermuda, and the little that has been done has focused on ...

  20. 77 FR 27115 - Newport to Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Newport to Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI AGENCY... Special Local Regulation for the biennial Newport to Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, from... Guard will enforce the special local regulation for the biennial Newport/Bermuda Regatta,...

  1. Development of BERMUDA: a radiation transport code system, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation transport code system BERMUDA has been developed for one-, two- and three-dimensional geometries. The time-independent transport equation is numerically solved using a direct integration method in a multigroup model, to obtain spatial, angular and energy distributions of neutron, gamma rays or adjoint neutron flux. As to group constants, a library with an any structure of energy groups is capable to be produced from a data base JSSTDL, or by a processing code PROF-GROUCH-G/B, selecting objective nuclear data through a retrieval system EDFSRS. Validity of the present code system has been tested by analyzing the shielding benchmark experiments. The test has shown that accurate results are obtainable with this system especially in deep penetration calculation. Described are the devised calculation method and the results of validity tests. Input data specification, job control languages and output data are also described as a user's manual for the following four neutron transport codes: BERMUDA-1DN : sphere, slab(S20), BERMUDA-2DN : cylinder (S8), BERMUDA-2DN-S16 : cylinder (S16), and BERMUDA-3DN : rectangular parallelpiped (S8). (J.P.N.)

  2. The Bermuda Bio-Optics Program (BBOP). Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The Bermuda Bio-Optics Project (BBOP) is a collaborative effort between the Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). This research program is designed to characterize light availability and utilization in the Sargasso Sea, and to provide an optical link by which biogeochemical observations may be used to evaluate bio-optical models for pigment concentration, primary production, and sinking particle fluxes from satellite-based ocean color sensors. The BBOP time-series was initiated in 1992, and is carried out in conjunction with the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. The BATS program itself has been observing biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, particle flux at and elemental cycles) in the mesotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea since 1988. Closely affiliated with BBOP and BATS is a separate NASA-funded study of the spatial variability of biogeochemical processes in the Sargasso Sea using high-resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data collected at Bermuda. The collaboration between BATS and BBOP measurements has resulted in a unique data set that addresses not only the SIMBIOS goals but also the broader issues of important factors controlling the carbon cycle.

  3. Managing Adaptive Challenges: Learning with Principals in Bermuda and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia; Hoffman, Alexander M.; Barbaro, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed eight principals from Bermuda and Florida about how they identify and manage their most pressing challenges. Their challenges are composed of both adaptive and technical work, requiring leaders to learn to diagnose and manage them. Challenges focused on change and were traced to accountability contexts, yet accountability was not…

  4. Back to Bermuda: how is science best served?

    OpenAIRE

    Church, Deanna M.; Hillier, LaDeana W.

    2009-01-01

    The independent announcements of two bovine genome assemblies from the same data suggest it is time to revisit the spirit of the Bermuda and Fort Lauderdale agreements and determine the policies for data release and distribution that will best serve both the producers of the data and the users.

  5. Microbial Metal Tolerance in Bermuda Carbonate Sediments †

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, Mark E.; Jones, Galen E.

    1982-01-01

    The recovery of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from Bermuda carbonate sediments on metal-supplemented media varied as much as 44-fold over a 15-cm depth. Distributional relationships with sulfate-reducing bacteria and sediment character indicated that metal tolerance was a function of metal bioavailability.

  6. Distribution, Hosts, and Morphological Characteristics of Tylenchulus palustris in Florida and Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, Roberta L.; Inserra, R. N.; Esser, R. P.; Langdon, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the geographical distribution and hosts of Tylenchulus palustris were conducted over a 3-year period in Florida and Bermuda. Tylenchulus palustris was found on Aster elliottii and Liquidambar styraciflua roots in swamps of northern and central Florida. It was detected also on Borrichia arborescens and B. frutescens roots in tidal marshes of northern Florida and coastal rocklands of southern Florida and Bermuda. Posterior bodies of T. palustris swollen females from Bermuda did not d...

  7. Degradation of Bermuda and Orchard Grass by Species of Ruminal Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, Danny E.; Rigsby, Luanne L.

    1985-01-01

    Fiber degradation in Bermuda grass and orchard grass was evaluated gravimetrically and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy after incubation with pure cultures of rumen bacteria. Lachnospira multiparus D-32 was unable to degrade plant cell wall components. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 49 degraded 6 and 14.9% of the fiber components in Bermuda grass and orchard grass, respectively, and Ruminococcus albus 7 degraded 11.4% orchard grass fiber but none in Bermuda grass. Both B. fibrisolv...

  8. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  9. 33 CFR 100.119 - Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI 100.119 Section 100.119 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all...

  10. Valuación de Swaptions Bermuda basada en el modelo LIBOR adaptado a vectores frontera

    OpenAIRE

    Igor P. Rivera; Enzo D'Antonio di Vito; Andrés Fundia

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the computation of the price of a type of Bermuda Swaptions based on the Libor Model (LMM) interest rate vector Monte Carlo algorithm adapted to value American options, which are exercised at the boundary or exercise early. This approach has the advantage of being quickly to implement and get reasonable estimations of the value of Bermuda swaptions

  11. Bermuda Contribution to a North Atlantic Aerobiology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of this project, a 6-month effort that commenced October 1 2002 (with no-cost extension until September 30 2003) was to collect a weekly time series of marine aerosol samples at Bermuda for the enumeration, culture and characterization of microbes, particularly those associated with soil dust and other aerosol particles originating from North Africa, North America, and Asia. Such airborne microbes may play important roles as pathogens, and also in the large-scale biogeochemical exchange between land, atmosphere and ocean.

  12. Anomalous MIS 7 sea level recorded on Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Mark; Wainer, Karine; Bristow, Charlie; Thomas, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Three new U-series ages from coral fragments found in the Belmont Formation of Bermuda fall in a range of ∼198 ka to ∼196 ka. These late MIS 7 ages are consistent with those of ∼201 ka and ∼199 ka measured in a previous study. The disputed interpretation of the Belmont Formation as a unit that is allostratigraphically distinct from subsequent MIS 5e deposits, of the Rocky Bay Formation, is vindicated by a minimum age of 196 ± 3 ka for the total of 6 coral fragments it has yielded. Emergent ma...

  13. BERMUDA-1DG: a one-dimensional photon transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-dimensional photon transport code BERMUDA-1DG has been developed for spherical and infinite slab geometries. The purpose of development is to equip the function of gamma rays calculation for the BERMUDA code system, which was developed by 1983 only for neutron transport calculation as a preliminary version. A group constants library has been prepared for 30 nuclides, and it now consists of the 36-group total cross sections and secondary gamma ray yields by the 120-group neutron flux. For the Compton scattering, group-angle transfer matrices are accurately obtained by integrating the Klein-Nishina formula taking into account the energy and scattering angle correlation. The pair production cross sections are now calculated in the code from atomic number and midenergy of each group. To obtain angular flux distribution, the transport equation is solved in the same way as in case of neutron, using the direct integration method in a multigroup model. Both of an independent gamma ray source problem and a neutron-gamma source problem are possible to be solved. This report is written as a user's manual with a brief description of the calculational method. (author)

  14. Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. PMID:25868316

  15. Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery between 20110607 and 20110627

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants,...

  16. Ergot fungus Claviceps cynodontis found on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) in the Americas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2005), s. 1-6. ISSN 0706-0661 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : claviceps cynodontis * ergot * bermuda grass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.066, year: 2005

  17. Bermuda: Detailed Assessment Report on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    In the case of Bermuda, application of risk-based approaches seems particularly relevant not only to the insurance sector, but also to other types of financial and nonfinancial activities. The legal framework for investigation and prosecution of money laundering (ML) is well developed, and law enforcement and prosecutorial staff are highly motivated and professional. Bermuda’s Financial Investigation Unit (FIU) should be more adequately funded, staffed, and provided with additional technica...

  18. Bermuda-Put-Optionen nach Geske und Johnson: Konvergenzanalyse und Zusammenhang mit amerikanischen Put-Optionen

    OpenAIRE

    Boldin, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Der Idee von Geske und Johnson folgend wird der Preis einer amerikanischen Put-Option durch den Preis einer n-Bermuda-Put-Option approximiert. Die Problematik der Berechnung von der in der analytischen Bewertungsformeln von Geske und Johnson auftretenden multidimensionalen Normalverteilungsfunktionen wird hierbei durch die Early-Exercise-Prämie-Darstellung (EEP-Darstellung) für den Preis einer n-Bermuda- Put-Option umgangen. Es wird gezeigt, dass der Fehlerterm in der EEP-Darstellung von der ...

  19. Temperature microstructure on the Bermuda slope with application to the mean flow

    OpenAIRE

    Wunsch, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The oceanic conditions in the immediate vicinity of Bermuda have been studied with hydrographic data, parachute drogues, and moored current meters. The island was found to be a source of temperature and salinity microstructure with a marked azimuthal asymmetry. On one cruise, the area of most intense mixing was associated with a very strong jet across the north shore of Bermuda. The jet is depicted by the very marked deepening of the isotherms of the main thermocline as the island is approach...

  20. From instability to volatility: Bermuda's shift from tourism to international business dependency

    OpenAIRE

    De Shields, Shawn; Riley, Cordell W.

    2006-01-01

    Bermuda has relied on tourism as a primarily source of economic activity ever since the 1920s. At the close of 2003, the World Bank positioned this small country behind only Luxemburg and the United States as the third richest country in the world. However, by 1995 Britain's oldest colony experienced an economic dependency shift from tourism to international business. This article examines how this shift has impacted on the residents of Bermuda, economically and socially and points out the da...

  1. Using Molecular-Assisted Alpha Taxonomy to Better Understand Red Algal Biodiversity in Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth N. Cianciola; Thea R. Popolizio; Craig W. Schneider; Lane, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-assisted alpha taxonomy has recently become an effective practice in reassessing biodiversity and floristics for a variety of different organisms. This paper presents a series of examples that have been drawn from biodiversity work being carried out on the marine red algae of Bermuda. Molecular sequencing of DNA from Bermuda samples has already begun to greatly alter the makeup of the flora as it was known just decades ago, and will help set a new database for future comparison as c...

  2. Stratospheric versus pollution influences on ozone at Bermuda: Reconciling past analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qinbin; Jacob, Daniel James; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Liu, Hongyu; Martin, Randall; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    Conflicting interpretations of the spring ozone maximum observed at Bermuda (32°N, 65°W) have fueled the debate on stratospheric influence versus tropospheric production as sources of tropospheric ozone. We use a global three-dimensional (3-D) model of tropospheric ozone-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry driven by assimilated meteorological observations to reconcile these past interpretations. The model reproduces the observed seasonal cycle of surface ozone at Bermuda and captures the springtime day...

  3. Asthma and climatic conditions: experience from Bermuda, an isolated island community.

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, M. J.; Cordon, I

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective study of patients attending the emergency department with acute asthma was performed in Bermuda. Climatic data (barometric pressure, rainfall, humidity, and wind strength and direction) were obtained and compared with frequency of exacerbations of asthma. Three factors--namely, relative humidity, average daily temperature, and northeasterly winds--were found to be related to worsening asthma. Owing to Bermuda's lack of pollution and aeroallergens it was thought that these weat...

  4. BERMUDA-2DN: a two-dimensional neutron transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional neutron transport code BERMUDA-2DN has been developed from the one-dimensional code PALLAS-TS (BERMUDA-1DN). The purpose of the present code is to analyze the fusion blanket neutronics experiments for plane or cylindrical assemblies, and to establish a basis of an accurate shielding analysis system for fusion and fission reactors. The time-independent transport equation is solved for two-dimensional, cylindrical, multi-regional geometry using the direct integration method in a multigroup model. In addition, group-angle transfer matrices are accurately obtained from the double-differential cross section data, without the Legendre polynomial expansion, but with the energy and scattering angle correlation. As to group constants, user is able to choose a 120-group or a 46-group library. For angular discrete ordinates, a set of 40 points is fixed over the hemisphere drawn by unit direction vectors. Not only latitudes but also longitudes (as the boundaries of the angular regions on the unit sphere) are taken into account for the calculation of the group-angle transfer matrices. For the fixed point source located at the origin of (r,z) coordinates, the uncollided flux is obtained at each spatial mesh point using the usual point kernel. The transport equation is solved for the first collision source from the uncollided flux plus the slowing down source from upper groups. Thus, the angular flux distribution is obtained as the sum of the solution and the uncollided flux values. At an intense D-T neutron source FNS, measurements were performed on the angular dependence of leakage spectra from Li2O slab assemblies. The present code has been tested by analyzing the measured spectra. The results have shown to represent fairly well the observed values. (author)

  5. Bermuda as an evolutionary life raft for an ancient lineage of endangered lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Brandley

    Full Text Available Oceanic islands are well known for harboring diverse species assemblages and are frequently the basis of research on adaptive radiation and neoendemism. However, a commonly overlooked role of some islands is their function in preserving ancient lineages that have become extinct everywhere else (paleoendemism. The island archipelago of Bermuda is home to a single species of extant terrestrial vertebrate, the endemic skink Plestiodon (formerly Eumeces longirostris. The presence of this species is surprising because Bermuda is an isolated, relatively young oceanic island approximately 1000 km from the eastern United States. Here, we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using a relaxed molecular clock to demonstrate that the island of Bermuda, although no older than two million years, is home to the only extant representative of one of the earliest mainland North American Plestiodon lineages, which diverged from its closest living relatives 11.5 to 19.8 million years ago. This implies that, within a short geological time frame, mainland North American ancestors of P. longirostris colonized the recently emergent Bermuda and the entire lineage subsequently vanished from the mainland. Thus, our analyses reveal that Bermuda is an example of a "life raft" preserving millions of years of unique evolutionary history, now at the brink of extinction. Threats such as habitat destruction, littering, and non-native species have severely reduced the population size of this highly endangered lizard.

  6. The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) Years 9-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritorena, S.; Siegel, D. A.; Nelson, Norm B.

    2004-01-01

    The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) is a collaborative effort between the Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). This research program is designed to characterize light availability and utilization in the Sargasso Sea, and to provide an optical link by which biogeochemical observations may be used to evaluate bio-optical models for pigment concentration, primary production, and sinking particle fluxes from satellite-based ocean color sensors. The BBOP time-series was initiated in 1992, and is carried out in conjunction with the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. The BATS program itself has been observing biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, particle flux and elemental cycles) in the mesotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea since 1988. Closely affiliated with BBOP and BATS is a separate NASA-funded study of the spatial variability of biogeochemical processes in the Sargasso Sea using high-resolution AVHRR and SeaWiFS data collected at Bermuda. The collaboration between BATS and BBOP measurements has resulted in a unique data set that addresses not only the SIMBIOS goals but also the broader issues of important factors controlling the carbon cycle.

  7. Magnetic Properties of Bermuda Rise Sediments Controlled by Glacial Cycles During the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roud, S.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments from ODP site 1063 (Bermuda Rise, North Atlantic) contain a high-resolution record of geomagnetic field behavior during the Brunhes Chron. We present rock magnetic data of the upper 160 mcd (Bermuda rise sediments deposited during the late Pleistocene. Hematite concentration is interpreted to reflect primary terrigenous input that is likely derived from the Canadian Maritime Provinces. A close correlation between HIRM and magnetic foliation suggests that changes in sediment composition (terrigenous vs. marine biogenic) were accompanied by changes in the depositional processes at the site.

  8. Employer-Based Health Insurance and Seniors: The Case of Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Neena L.; Penning, Margaret J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the importance of economic factors in physician and other health service utilization among older adults living in Bermuda. Using data from a national survey of 500 Bermudian elders, findings reveal economic factors to be unrelated to the use of physician services directly, but to be significant determinants of the use of other health…

  9. Far from Home: An Experimental Evaluation of the Mother-Child Home Program in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, Sandra; McCartney, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Effects of the Mother-Child Home Program (MCHP) were evaluated with a broad range of measures on cognition, social behavior, and emotion. Findings indicated that children in Bermuda scored above U.S. norms on cognitive tests and were functioning well in the preschool period. The MCHP had few demonstrable effects on any segment of the sample. (RH)

  10. Jelly Jam, the People Preserver. An Environmental Self-Teaching Activity Book. Bermuda Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Judi

    Designed for students in grades 2 through 4, this self-teaching, interdisciplinary reading and activity program approaches the environmental conditions, the state of natural resources, and the problems of pollution in Bermuda. A caring little animal named Jelly Jam is used to help children understand how air, water, and land pollution affect their…

  11. Vernon Bermuda Workshop: A Course in Sub-tropical Island Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, educators in central Connecticut developed the Vernon Bermuda Workshop as a means of introducing middle- and high-school students to subtropical island ecology. Each year, after months of classroom preparation, approximately 20 top students spend one week at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (St. George's, Bermuda) studying the local flora and fauna in both the field and laboratory. The curriculum includes an additional array of activities, ranging from historical and ecological tours to spelunking, and culminates in a series of field-observation-related presentations. I am responsible for the meteorological and oceanographic components of the curriculum. In the field, my students collect time-series of biophysical variables over the course of a day, which they use to interpret diurnal patterns and interactions amongst the variables. I also add remote-sensing and phytoplankton biology components to the curriculum - in previous years, my students have studied time-series of Sea WIFS imagery collected at Bermuda during our trip. I have been an Instructor for this Workshop since 2003. The Workshop provides an outreach activity for GSFC Code 616.

  12. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  13. The negative effects of cadmium on Bermuda grass growth might be offset by submergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuduan; Huang, Huang; Zhu, Mingyong; Zhang, Kerong; Xu, Huaqin; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-10-01

    Revegetation in the water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) could stabilize riverbanks, maintain local biodiversity, and improve reservoir water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR). However, submergence and cadmium (Cd) may seriously affect the survival of transplantations. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is a stoloniferous and rhizomatous prostrate weed displaying high growth rate. A previous study has demonstrated that Bermuda grass can tolerate deep submergence and Cd stress, respectively. In the present study, we further analyzed physiological responses of Bermuda grass induced by Cd-and-submergence stress. The ultimate goal was to explore the possibility of using Bermuda grass for revegetation in the WLFZ of China's TGRR and other riparian areas. The Cd-and-submergence-treated plants had higher malondialdehyde contents and peroxidase than control, and both increased with the Cd concentration increase. All treated plants catalase activity increased with the experimental duration increases, and their superoxide dismutase also gradually increased with the Cd concentration from 1 day to 15 days. Total biomass of the same Cd-and-submergence plants increased along the experimental duration as well. Plants exposed to Cd-and-submergence stress showed shoot elongation. The heights of all treated plants were taller than those of the control. Leaf chlorophyll contents, maximum leaf length, and soluble sugars contents of all the Cd-and-submergence-treated plants were more than those of the untreated control. Although Cd inhibits plants growth, decreases chlorophyll and biomass content, and with the submergence induced the leaf and shoot elongation, more part of the Cd-and-submergence stress plants appeared in the air, exhibited fast growth with maintenance of leaf color, which guaranteed the plants' photosynthesis, and ensured the total biomass and carbohydrate sustainability, further promoting Cd-and-submergence tolerance. The results imply that the negative

  14. VOLUNTARY INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS (CYNODON DACTYLON) EMPLOYED AS SOLE FEED FOR RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, S.V.; Pathak, N.N.; Randhe, S.R.; Deshmukh, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    Abstract not available. Deshmukh, S.; Pathak, N.; Randhe, S.; Deshmukh, S. (1993). VOLUNTARY INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS (CYNODON DACTYLON) EMPLOYED AS SOLE FEED FOR RABBITS. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10561.

  15. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS AND COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS PRETREATED USING DIFFERENT CHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiele Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of biomass feedstock and pretreatment method on the enzyme requirement during hydrolysis, swichgrass and coastal Bermuda grass pretreated using H2SO4, NaOH, and Ca(OH2 at the optimal conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using two enzyme combinations: NS 50013 + NS 50010 and Cellic CTec + Cellic HTec. The enzyme loadings were optimized, and correlations between feedstock property, pretreatment strategy, and enzyme usage were evaluated. The results show that pretreatment methods resulting in greater lignin contents in the pretreated biomass were generally associated with higher enzyme requirements. More sugars could be recovered from alkaline-pretreated biomass during enzymatic hydrolysis due to the better carbohydrate preservation achieved at mild pretreatment temperatures. The cellulase enzyme, Cellic CTec, was more efficient in catalyzing the hydrolysis of coastal Bermuda grass, a feedstock more digestible than the pretreated swichgrass, following pretreatment with NaOH or Ca(OH2.

  16. Ecotoxicological assessment of diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) pond habitat, prey and eggs in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outerbridge, Mark E; O'Riordan, Ruth; Fort, Douglas J; Davenport, John

    2016-01-15

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons, PAH and various trace metal residues were extracted and analyzed from fresh whole diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) eggs, whole brackish-water gastropods (terrapin prey) and benthic sediment from anchialine pond environments in Bermuda inhabited by terrapins. Gastropods and terrapin eggs showed higher concentrations of trace metals and organic contaminants than sediments. Conversely, PAHs were mostly found within the sediment and smaller amounts detected in gastropods and terrapin eggs. Results indicated that contaminants in prey were transferred to terrapin eggs, and that concentrations of several contaminants exceeded potentially toxic concentrations for aquatic vertebrates. Necropsy of unhatched eggs from nests that had yielded viable hatchlings showed significantly compromised embryonic development. Bermudian diamondback terrapins reside and feed in brackish wetland habitats characterized by widespread, multifactorial contamination. This study suggests that environmental contamination plays a role in the recorded low hatching success in terrapin eggs in Bermuda. PMID:26707979

  17. Bermuda; Assessment of the Supervision and Regulation of the Financial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of Financial Sector Supervision and Regulation for Bermuda. The Bermudian authorities have made impressive progress in developing and implementing a risk-focused approach to supervision across the range of their sectoral supervisory responsibilities. Full rollout of the risk-based regulatory system to all market segments is, however, required for achievement of comprehensive oversight of the market. To support the introduction of a formal risk-based superviso...

  18. Quantifying the relationship between atmospheric transport and the chemical composition of precipitation on Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Jennie L.; Galloway, James N.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to investigate the influence of different atmospheric flow patterns on thecomposition of precipitation on the island of Bermuda, a cluster analysis of atmospherictrajectories was performed to identify periods of similar transport. The cluster analysistechnique represents a relatively objective alternative to the more subjective method ofclassifying trajectories according to compass sector. Data were stratified into two broadseasons, defined as a warm (April-September) and a cool ...

  19. High resolution isotope study of the latest deglaciation based on Bermuda Rise cores

    OpenAIRE

    Keigwin, LD; Corliss, BH; Druffel, ERM; Laine, EP

    1984-01-01

    A stable isotope and 14C investigation of carbonates from three late Quaternary cores with high rates of sedimentation from the northeastern Bermuda Rise has produced the highest resolution record of the glacial maximum to Holocene stable isotope change yet obtained from an open ocean location. The record includes a three-step "termination" and the first direct evidence of an early deglacial meltwater "spike" in the open sea. © 1984.

  20. Toward health reform for seniors in Bermuda: historical constraints on political possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Alan; Nadash, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, as the United States moved toward health care reform, the government of Bermuda implemented its FutureCare program to make health care for seniors more affordable. This article investigates how preferences for reform and its eventual design were shaped by the country's social history and commitment to free market values. Data derive from 36 in-depth interviews with key stakeholders deemed knowledgeable about health care financing and delivery in Bermuda, including government officials, provider representatives, insurance executives, and consumer advocates. Data also derive from a variety of documentary sources. Results indicate that although a clear need for health care and the ability to finance it for seniors exists in Bermuda, the scope of reform was circumscribed by preferences for prior policy decisions, creating a favorable tax and business environment for international corporations and a minimalist social welfare state for addressing racial and economic inequality. This suggests that widespread agreement on the challenges in meeting the health and long-term care needs of the elderly does not necessarily lead to equally commensurable solutions to addressing it. PMID:21207307

  1. Origin of Bermuda's clay-rich Quaternary paleosols and their paleoclimatic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwitz, S.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Mahan, S.; Vaughn, B.

    1996-01-01

    Red clayey paleosols that are chiefly the product of aerosolic dust deposition are interbedded in the Quaternary carbonate formations of the Bermuda oceanic island system. These paleosols provide a basis for reconstructing Quaternary atmospheric circulation patterns in the northwestern Atlantic. Geochemical analyses were performed on representative paleosol samples to identify their parent dust source. Fine-grained fractions were analyzed by energy-dispersive X ray fluorescence to determine trace element (Zr, Y, La, Ti, and Nb) concentrations and to derive geochemical signatures based on immobile element ratios. These ratios were compared with geochemical signatures determined for three possible sources of airborne dust: (1) Great Plains loess, (2) Mississippi River Valley loess, and (3) Saharan dust. The Zr/Y and Zr/La ratios provided the clearest distinction between the hypothesized dust sources. The low ratios in the paleosol B horizons most closely resemble Saharan dust in the Bermuda paleosols have a predominantly Saharan aerosolic dust signature. Saharan dust deposition on Bermuda during successive Quaternary glacial periods is consistent with patterns of general circulation models, which indicate that during glacial maxima the northeast summer trade winds were stronger than at present and reached latitudes higher than 30 ?? N despite lower-than-present sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic.

  2. 百慕大保险市场结构研究%Study on the Structure of Bermuda Insurance Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 王晓曦

    2015-01-01

    百慕大与美国以及欧洲保险市场并称为世界三大保险市场,在全球保险以及再保险市场具有举足轻重的地位。论文对百慕大保险市场现状和结构进行研究,首先回顾了百慕大保险市场的发展历程,而后阐述了百慕大保险市场监管和税收方面优势和特征以及这些优势对保险公司组建的积极影响,进而利用翔实地统计数据分析了百慕大保险市场的公司数量、公司类型和公司规模。对于百慕大保险市场在全球再保险市场中的地位和作用以及百慕大保险市场经营绩效和信用评级状况,论文也给予了详细论述。%Bermuda insurance market, US insurance market and the European insurance are the three most important insurance markets in the world. This article provides an economic review and statistical analysis of the Bermuda in-surance market. It begins with a brief history of the Bermuda market to set the stage for the subsequent discussions. The discussion then turns to the Bermuda regulatory and tax systems and their effects on company formation in Ber-muda. The advantages of Bermuda as an insurance domicile are then outlined. The statistical analysis provides an overview of the structure of the Bermuda market in terms of the number, type, and size of firms. The role of Ber-muda insurers in the global reinsurance market is discussed and analyzed. The article also analyzes the performance and the financial ratings of Bermuda ( re) insurance companies.

  3. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  4. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Three Plants of Pigweed, Bermuda grass and Burdock via Artemia Salina Test

    OpenAIRE

    parisa sadighara; tahere aliesfahani; mahdie jafari; atousa ziaei; tahere farkhondeh

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Pigweed is a weed which grows in the pastures of Iran. Local people use the plant leaves to cook traditional food. Bermuda grass with its rapid growth and distribution is regarded a real threat to prairies and it can lead to tremors syndrome in cattle and sheep. Burdock which also grows in many parts of Iran is used as a medicinal herb. In this study, the cytotoxicity potential of the three plants was assessed via Artemia Salina test. Methods: Pigweed, Bermuda grass and burdock ...

  5. Cloning and functional identification of stress-resistant BeDREB genes from Bermuda grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yongli; WANG Zizhang; LIU Qiang; ZHANG Shuping

    2006-01-01

    Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB)proteins,specifically binding to the dehydration-responsive element (DRE),have been identified as a group of important transcription activators of plants which regulate the expression of genes in response to drought,high-salt and low- temperature stresses.Two DREB-like genes from Bermuda grass that are induced by low-temperature or high-salt stresses were cloned using RT-PCR and RACE methods,and were named BeDREB1 and BeDREB2,respectively (GenBank accession No:AY462117 and AY462118).They contained an ORF of 753 bp encoding 251 amino acids,showing the typical characteristics of the DREB gene family.Interestingly,these two genes isolated from Bermuda grass induced either by low-temperature stress or high-salt stress shared 97.8% homology.Furthermore,it was demonstrated that both BeDREB1 and BeDREB2 could bind to the wild-type DRE element to activate the transcription of the reporter gene HIS3,driven by a promoter carrying DRE cis-element in yeast strain 4721,in the presence of 3-AT.RT-PCR showed that BeDREB1 and BeDREB2 genes could be greatly induced by low-temperature and high-salt stresses,respectively.Their expressions were changed following the inducible time.In conclusion,all results indicate that BeDREB1 and BeDREB2 genes isolated from treated Bermuda grass are new members'of the DREB transcription activator family,which may play very important roles in signal transduction related to stresses.

  6. Valoración de opciones de compra bermuda con precios de ejercicio variables

    OpenAIRE

    Leguey Galán, Santiago; Llerena Garrés, Francesc

    1998-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se obtiene una fórmula para valorar opciones de compra bermuda con precios de ejercicio variables sobre un activo subjayente que no paga dividendos y cuya dinámica viene descrita por un proceso browniano geométrico o lognormal. En el marco teórico planteado la fórmula de Black-Scholes para opciones de compra europeas resulta ser un caso particular de la expresión obtenida. La discretización del conjunto de oportunidades de ejercicio permite aproximar el valor de una opc...

  7. Deglacial diatom productivity and surface ocean properties over the Bermuda Rise, northeast Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Isabelle M.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Abrantes, Fatima G.

    2009-12-01

    Diatom assemblages document surface hydrographic changes over the Bermuda Rise. Between 19.2 and 14.5 ka, subtropical diatom species and Chaetoceros resting spores dominate the flora, as in North Atlantic productive regions today. From 16.9 to 14.6 ka, brackish and fresh water diatoms are common and their contribution is generally coupled with total diatom abundance. This same interval also contains rare grains of ice-rafted debris. Coupling between those proxies suggests that successive discharge of icebergs might have stimulated productivity during Heinrich event 1 (H1). Iceberg migration to the subtropics likely created an isolated environment involving turbulent mixing, upwelled water, and nutrient-rich meltwater, supporting diatom productivity in an otherwise oligotrophic setting. In addition, the occurrence of mode water eddies likely brought silica-rich waters of Southern Ocean origin to the euphotic zone. The persistence of lower-salinity surface water beyond the last ice rafting suggests continued injection of fresh water by cold-core rings and advection around the subtropical gyre. These results indicate that opal productivity may have biased estimates of meridional overturning based on 231Pa/230Th ratios in Bermuda Rise sediments during H1.

  8. The Bermuda Triangle mysteries: an explanation based on the diffraction of heat waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njau, E.C. [Dar es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania, United Republic of). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    Studies based on actual meteorological records [E.C. Njau, Nuovo Cimento 15C, 17-23 (1992)] as well as analytical methods [E.C. Njau, Proc. Ind. Natn. Sci. Acad., 61A (4) (1995); Renewable Energy 4, 261-263 (1994)] have established the continuous existence of a series of large-scale, Eastward-moving heat waves along the Earth`s surface, whose individual crests and troughs are stretched approximately along the geographical North-South direction. In moving across the American continent, these waves encounter a line of physical barriers formed by the lofty Rocky and Andes ranges of mountains, which is continuous except for a significant gap or opening between Colombia and Mexico. This line of physical barriers consistently maintains a maximum height of 3000-4000 m between latitudes 40{sup o}S and 55{sup o}N except for a significant opening or slit located between Mexico and Colombia where the maximum height hardly exceeds 600 m. The Eastward-moving heat waves are thus incident obliquely on an approximately single-slit barrier when crossing the American continent and those parts of the waves which filter through this single slit essentially form some kind of single-slit diffraction (heat) patterns in, around and past the Bermuda Triangle. These diffraction heat patterns give rise to corresponding weather and ocean patterns which, to a large extent, account for the mysteries already noted in the Bermuda region. (Author)

  9. Population Structure of Montastraea cavernosa on Shallow versus Mesophotic Reefs in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Marchini, Chiara; Chequer, Alex D; Goffredo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems remain largely unexplored with only limited information available on taxonomic composition, abundance and distribution. Yet, mesophotic reefs may serve as potential refugia for shallow-water species and thus understanding biodiversity, ecology and connectivity of deep reef communities is integral for resource management and conservation. The Caribbean coral, Montastraea cavernosa, is considered a depth generalist and is commonly found at mesophotic depths. We surveyed abundance and size-frequency of M. cavernosa populations at six shallow (10m) and six upper mesophotic (45m) sites in Bermuda and found population structure was depth dependent. The mean surface area of colonies at mesophotic sites was significantly smaller than at shallow sites, suggesting that growth rates and maximum colony surface area are limited on mesophotic reefs. Colony density was significantly higher at mesophotic sites, however, resulting in equal contributions to overall percent cover. Size-frequency distributions between shallow and mesophotic sites were also significantly different with populations at mesophotic reefs skewed towards smaller individuals. Overall, the results of this study provide valuable baseline data on population structure, which indicate that the mesophotic reefs of Bermuda support an established population of M. cavernosa. PMID:26544963

  10. Sea-level records at ~80 ka from tectonically stable platforms: Florida and Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Halley, R.B.; Shinn, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Studies from technically active coasts on New Guinea and Barbados have suggested that sea level at ???80 ka was significantly lower than present, whereas data from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America indicate an ???80 ka sea level close to that of the present. We determined ages of corals from a shallow submerged reef off the Florida Keys and an emergent marine deposit on Bermuda. Both localities are on tectonically stable platforms distant from plate boundaries. Uranium-series ages show that corals at both localities grew during the ???80 ka sea-level highstand, and geologic data show that sea level at that time was no lower than 7-9 m below present (Florida) and may have been 1-2 m above present (Bermuda). The ice-volume discrepancy of the 80 ka sea-level estimates is greater than the volume of the Greenland or West Antarctic ice sheets. Comparison of our ages with high-latitude insolation values indicates that the sea-level stand near the present at ???80 ka could have been orbitally forced.

  11. Population Structure of Montastraea cavernosa on Shallow versus Mesophotic Reefs in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Goodbody-Gringley

    Full Text Available Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems remain largely unexplored with only limited information available on taxonomic composition, abundance and distribution. Yet, mesophotic reefs may serve as potential refugia for shallow-water species and thus understanding biodiversity, ecology and connectivity of deep reef communities is integral for resource management and conservation. The Caribbean coral, Montastraea cavernosa, is considered a depth generalist and is commonly found at mesophotic depths. We surveyed abundance and size-frequency of M. cavernosa populations at six shallow (10m and six upper mesophotic (45m sites in Bermuda and found population structure was depth dependent. The mean surface area of colonies at mesophotic sites was significantly smaller than at shallow sites, suggesting that growth rates and maximum colony surface area are limited on mesophotic reefs. Colony density was significantly higher at mesophotic sites, however, resulting in equal contributions to overall percent cover. Size-frequency distributions between shallow and mesophotic sites were also significantly different with populations at mesophotic reefs skewed towards smaller individuals. Overall, the results of this study provide valuable baseline data on population structure, which indicate that the mesophotic reefs of Bermuda support an established population of M. cavernosa.

  12. The cyclopoid copepod Pseudomyicola spinosus (Raffaele & Monticelli) from marine pelecypods, chiefly in Bermuda and the West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humes, Arthur G.

    1968-01-01

    The myicolid copepod Pseudomyicola spinosus is reported from 22 new hosts (pelecypods) in Bermuda and the West Indies, from 1 new host (a pelecypod) in Madagascar, and from an ascidian (Pyuridae) in Curaçao (probably an accidental association). P. spinosus is redescribed, based on specimens from Iso

  13. Function-Based Intervention for an Adolescent with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Bermuda: Moving across Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Amina M.; Umbreit, John; Liaupsin, Carl J.; Bartley, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Saida, a 16-year-old girl in Bermuda, attended a special alternative high school program for students with serious behavior problems. She had been receiving special education for her behavioral problems since the age of 5. Saida regularly used profanity in response to teacher directives, particularly in social studies class. A functional…

  14. Milk production in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1996-09-01

    Milk yield and quality were measured on 139 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue for 4 yr to evaluate interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis for these traits with forage environment. Milk yield was estimated by method of milking machine, and milk fat, protein, and somatic cell counts were evaluated in a commercial dairy laboratory. Monthly estimates were made beginning on an average d 61 of lactation and continued monthly for six estimates in 3 yr and five estimates in 1 yr. Data were averaged over month within year, and the model included sire breed, sire in sire breed, dam breed, forage, and age averages. Somatic cell counts were transformed using natural logarithms prior to analyses. Forage effects for milk yield were dissimilar among sire breed x dam breed subclasses (P Angus on bermuda grass (P Brahman. Milk fat was reduced on tall fescue compared to bermuda grass by an average of .6% (P Brahman. Heterosis and maternal breed effects for milk fat were not important. There was little evidence of direct and maternal breed effects or heterosis for milk protein or somatic cell counts. These data suggest that heterosis for milk yield is larger on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue and that grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue is detrimental to milk fat. PMID:8880406

  15. Depth, temperature, oxygen and salinity profile data from repetitive occupation of a hydrographic station off St. George's, Bermuda from 1954 through 1984 (NODC Accession 0000650)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the PANULIRUS and other platforms from repetitive occupations of a hydrographic station off St. George's, Bermuda....

  16. Gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto avoid ovipositing in Bermuda grass hay infusion and it’s volatiles in two choice egg-count bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Eneh, Lynda K.; Okal, Michael N; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Fillinger, Ulrike; Lindh, Jenny M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of mosquito species in the Culex and Aedes genera prefer to lay eggs in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) hay infusions compared to water alone. These mosquitoes are attracted to volatile compounds from the hay infusions making the infusions effective baits in gravid traps used for monitoring vectors of arboviral and filarial pathogens. Since Bermuda grass is abundant and widespread, it is plausible to explore infusions made from it as a potential low cost bait for outdoor ...

  17. Geotechnical properties of sediments from North Pacific and Northern Bermuda Rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of geotechnical properties for the Sub-seabed Disposal Program have been oriented toward sediment characterization related to effectiveness as a containment media and determination of detailed engineering behavior. Consolidation tests of the deeper samples in the North Pacific clays indicate that the sediment column is normally consolidated. The in-situ coefficient of permeability (k) within the cored depth of 25 meters is relatively constant at 10-7 cm/sec. Consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests indicate stress-strain properties characteristic of saturated clays with effective angles of friction of 350 for smectite and 310 for illite. These results are being used in computer modeling efforts. Some general geotechnical property data from the Bermuda Rise are also discussed

  18. Depleted Uranium Toxicity, Accumulation, and Uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (Purple Threeawn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Afrachanna D; Wynter, Michelle; Medina, Victor F; Bednar, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) in western Arizona is a testing range where Depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been historically fired. A portion of the fired DU penetrators are being managed under controlled conditions by leaving them in place. The widespread use of DU in armor-penetrating weapons has raised environmental and human health concerns. The present study is focused on the onsite management approach and on the potential interactions with plants local to YPG. A 30 day study was conducted to assess the toxicity of DU corrosion products (e.g., schoepite and meta-schoepite) in two grass species that are native to YPG, Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea). In addition, the ability for plants to uptake DU was studied. The results of this study show a much lower threshold for biomass toxicity and higher plant concentrations, particularly in the roots than shoots, compared to previous studies. PMID:27016940

  19. Temporal patterns and behavioral characteristics of aggregation formation and spawning in the Bermuda chub ( Kyphosus sectatrix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Richard S.; Kadison, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Reef fish spawning aggregations are important life history events that occur at specific times and locations and represent the primary mode of reproduction for many species. This paper provides detailed descriptions of aggregation formation and mass spawning of the Bermuda chub ( Kyphosus sectatrix). Spawning coloration and gamete release of K. sectatrix were observed and filmed at the Grammanik Bank, a deep spawning aggregation site used by many different species located on the southern edge of the Puerto Rican shelf 10 km south of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Underwater visual surveys using technical Nitrox and closed circuit re-breathers were conducted from December 2002 to March 2013 and documented spatial and temporal patterns of movement and aggregation formation along 1.5 km of mesophotic reef. The largest aggregations of K. sectatrix (>200 fish) were observed on the Grammanik Bank January to March from 0 to 11 d after the full moon with peak abundance from 60 to 80 d after the winter solstice across all survey years. Aggregation formation of K. sectatrix coincided with the spawning season of Nassau ( Epinephelus striatus) and yellowfin ( Mycteroperca venenosa) groupers. These spatial and temporal patterns of aggregation formation and spawning suggest that K. sectatrix, an herbivore, may also be a transient aggregating species. On several occasions, chubs were observed both pair spawning and mass spawning. Color patterns and behaviors associated with aggregation and spawning are described and compared to spawning characteristics observed in other species, many of which are similar but others that appear unique to K. sectatrix. This represents the first report of a kyphosid species aggregating to spawn and illuminates a portion of the poorly understood life history of the Bermuda chub.

  20. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  1. Mapping of IgE-binding regions on recombinant Cyn d 1, a major allergen from Bermuda Grass Pollen (BGP)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalla Prem L; Tiwari Ruby; Singh Mohan B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon; subfamily Chloridoideae) is an important source of seasonal aeroallergens in warm tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. Improved approaches to diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases require a thorough understanding of the structure and epitopes on the allergen molecule that are crucial for the antigen-antibody interaction. This study describes the localization of the human IgE-binding regions of the major group 1 pollen allergen Cy...

  2. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Rojas-Contreras, A.; Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-07-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  3. Elemental patterns in red hind (Epinephelus guttatus) otoliths from Bermuda and Puerto Rico reflect growth rate, not temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Sadovy, Y; Severin, KP

    1994-01-01

    Sodium, sulfur, calcium, and strontium concentrations were measured (with an electron microprobe across sectioned wild red hind (Epinephelus guttatus) otoliths from Puerto Rico and Bermuda. A single inverse relationship between strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios and log body growth rate describes the data from both localities. Patterns in Sr/Ca ratios have been used to infer temperature histories of individual fish; our data indicate that there is not a single Sr/Ca-temperature relationship cap...

  4. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Three Plants of Pigweed, Bermuda grass and Burdock via Artemia Salina Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa sadighara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pigweed is a weed which grows in the pastures of Iran. Local people use the plant leaves to cook traditional food. Bermuda grass with its rapid growth and distribution is regarded a real threat to prairies and it can lead to tremors syndrome in cattle and sheep. Burdock which also grows in many parts of Iran is used as a medicinal herb. In this study, the cytotoxicity potential of the three plants was assessed via Artemia Salina test. Methods: Pigweed, Bermuda grass and burdock were collected from Ghaemshahr in the North of Iran. The leaves were dried and the essence of the three plants was extracted. The larvaes were hatched from cysts of Artemia salina at 26˚C in filtered seawater. The plant extracts with different concentration (10,100 and 1000ppm were added to the solution larvaes. Results: The LC50 values (the concentration which needed to die half the larvaes were measured for pigweed, Bermuda grass and burdock at 1640, 990, and 840 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that compared to the two other species, there is more priority for burdock to be studied in further studies for identification and assessment of toxicity

  5. Bermuda grass sod production as related to nitrogen rates Produção de tapetes de grama bermuda em função de doses de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Paulo de Lima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Of all nutrients, N has the strongest effect on grass growth and an adequate N fertilization can reduce the time required for the formation of high-quality mats. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of N fertilization on Bermuda grass sod production and quality. The experiment was conducted in an area of commercial sod production, in Capela do Alto, state of São Paulo. Cynodon dactylon (Pers L., known as Bermuda grass, was evaluated in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of five N rates: 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1. Increasing N applications to Bermuda grass increased the soil cover rate, reducing the time required for mat formation. The accumulation of rhizome + root + stolon dry matter was highest at a rate of 354 kg ha-1 N and the mat resistance to breakage at a rate of 365 kg ha-1 N. Nitrogen rates between 354 and 365 kg ha-1 increased mat resistance and consequently the suitability for postharvest handling, tending to improve the efficiency in the area.O N é o nutriente que proporciona as maiores respostas no crescimento das gramas, e a adubação nitrogenada adequada pode proporcionar a formação do tapete com boa qualidade em menor tempo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adubação nitrogenada na produção e qualidade de tapetes de grama-bermuda. O experimento foi instalado e conduzido em área de produção comercial de grama, localizada na cidade de Capela do Alto, SP. A grama utilizada foi a Cynodon dactylon (Pers L., conhecida como grama-bermuda. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por cinco doses de N: 0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 kg ha-1. O aumento das doses de N aumentou a taxa de cobertura do solo pela gramabermuda, reduzindo o tempo para formação do tapete. O máximo acúmulo de matéria seca de rizomas + estolões + ra

  6. Feedbacks and responses of coral calcification on the Bermuda reef system to seasonal changes in biological processes and ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential impact of ocean acidification on ecosystems such as coral reefs, surprisingly, there is very limited field data on the relationships between calcification and seawater carbonate chemistry. In this study, contemporaneous in situ datasets of seawater carbonate chemistry and calcification rates from the high-latitude coral reef of Bermuda over annual timescales provide a framework for investigating the present and future potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2 levels and ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems in their natural environment. A strong correlation was found between the in situ rates of calcification for the major framework building coral species Diploria labyrinthiformis and the seasonal variability of [CO32-] and aragonite saturation state Ωaragonite, rather than other environmental factors such as light and temperature. These field observations provide sufficient data to hypothesize that there is a seasonal "Carbonate Chemistry Coral Reef Ecosystem Feedback" (CREF hypothesis between the primary components of the reef ecosystem (i.e., scleractinian hard corals and macroalgae and seawater carbonate chemistry. In early summer, strong net autotrophy from benthic components of the reef system enhance [CO32-] and Ωaragonite conditions, and rates of coral calcification due to the photosynthetic uptake of CO2. In late summer, rates of coral calcification are suppressed by release of CO2 from reef metabolism during a period of strong net heterotrophy. It is likely that this seasonal CREF mechanism is present in other tropical reefs although attenuated compared to high-latitude reefs such as Bermuda. Due to lower annual mean surface seawater [CO32-] and Ωaragonite in Bermuda compared to tropical regions, we anticipate that Bermuda corals will experience seasonal periods

  7. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  8. Parrotfish sex ratios recover rapidly in Bermuda following a fishing ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Shay; Luckhurst, Brian E.; Box, Stephen J.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2016-06-01

    Parrotfishes are an ecologically and commercially important teleost group whose grazing contributes to maintaining coral-dominated states on hermatypic reefs. However, overfishing has skewed sex ratios of Atlantic parrotfishes because fishing has disproportionate impacts on larger individuals, and males are generally larger than females. Whether protection from fishing may allow sex ratios to return to equilibrium is unknown, as fishing can induce irreversible ecological and/or evolutionary shifts. Bermuda banned trap fishing in 1990, creating a unique opportunity to analyse long-term responses of Atlantic parrotfishes to release from fishing. We found that sex ratios of four common parrotfishes were initially skewed, with male proportions ranging from 0.04 to 0.18. However, male proportions rebounded within 3-4 yr, equilibrating at values ranging from 0.36 to 0.54, similar to those reported at unfished sites in the region. Our results are encouraging for regional efforts to recover lost grazing function by restoring overfished herbivore populations.

  9. Environmental assessment of metal exposure to corals living in Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Goodkin, N.F.; Jones, R.; Lamborg, C.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Hughen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination in Castle Harbour, Bermuda, has been linked to the dissolution and leaching of contaminants from the adjacent marine landfill. This study expands the evidence for environmental impact of leachate from the landfill by quantitatively demonstrating elevated metal uptake over the last 30 years in corals growing in Castle Harbour. Coral Pb/Ca, Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios and total Hg concentrations are elevated relative to an adjacent control site in John Smith's Bay. The temporal variability in the Castle Harbour coral records suggests that while the landfill has increased in size over the last 35 years, the dominant input of metals is through periodic leaching of contaminants from the municipal landfill and surrounding sediment. Elevated contaminants in the surrounding sediment suggest that resuspension is an important transport medium for transferring heavy metals to corals. Increased winds, particularly during the 1990s, were accompanied by higher coral metal composition at Castle Harbour. Coupled with wind-induced resuspension, interannual changes in sea level within the Harbour can lead to increased bioavailability of sediment-bound metals and subsequent coral metal assimilation. At John Smith's Bay, large scale convective mixing may be driving interannual metal variability in the coral record rather than impacts from land-based activities. Results from this study provide important insights into the coupling of natural variability and anthropogenic input of contaminants to the nearshore environment.

  10. Low-frequency storminess signal at Bermuda linked to cooling events in the North Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstum, Peter J.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Kingston, Andrew W.; Williams, Bruce E.; Scott, David B.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Little, Shawna N.; Patterson, William P.

    2015-02-01

    North Atlantic climate archives provide evidence for increased storm activity during the Little Ice Age (150 to 600 calibrated years (cal years) B.P.) and centered at 1700 and 3000 cal years B.P., typically in centennial-scale sedimentary records. Meteorological (tropical versus extratropical storms) and climate forcings of this signal remain poorly understood, although variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are frequently hypothesized to be involved. Here we present records of late Holocene storminess and coastal temperature change from a Bermudian submarine cave that is hydrographically circulated with the coastal ocean. Thermal variability in the cave is documented by stable oxygen isotope values of cave benthic foraminifera, which document a close linkage between regional temperature change and NAO phasing during the late Holocene. However, erosion of terrestrial sediment into the submarine cave provides a "storminess signal" that correlates with higher-latitude storminess archives and broader North Atlantic cooling events. Understanding the driver of this storminess signal will require higher-resolution storm records to disentangle the contribution of tropical versus extratropical cyclones and a better understanding of cyclone activity during hemispheric cooling periods. Most importantly, however, the signal in Bermuda appears more closely correlated with proxy-based evidence for subtle AMOC reductions than NAO phasing.

  11. Marine bacterioplankton community turnover within seasonally hypoxic waters of a subtropical sound: Devil's Hole, Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Rachel J; Nelson, Craig E; Carlson, Craig A; Denman, Carmen C; Andersson, Andreas J; Kledzik, Andrew L; Vergin, Kevin L; McNally, Sean P; Treusch, Alexander H; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Understanding bacterioplankton community dynamics in coastal hypoxic environments is relevant to global biogeochemistry because coastal hypoxia is increasing worldwide. The temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton communities were analysed throughout the illuminated water column of Devil's Hole, Bermuda during the 6-week annual transition from a strongly stratified water column with suboxic and high-pCO2 bottom waters to a fully mixed and ventilated state during 2008. A suite of culture-independent methods provided a quantitative spatiotemporal characterization of bacterioplankton community changes, including both direct counts and rRNA gene sequencing. During stratification, the surface waters were dominated by the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the suboxic bottom waters, cells from the order Chlorobiales prevailed, with gene sequences indicating members of the genera Chlorobium and Prosthecochloris--anoxygenic photoautotrophs that utilize sulfide as a source of electrons for photosynthesis. Transitional zones of hypoxia also exhibited elevated levels of methane- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria relative to the overlying waters. The abundance of both Thaumarcheota and Euryarcheota were elevated in the suboxic bottom waters (> 10(9) cells l(-1)). Following convective mixing, the entire water column returned to a community typical of oxygenated waters, with Euryarcheota only averaging 5% of cells, and Chlorobiales and Thaumarcheota absent. PMID:24589037

  12. Forage yield in pastures with bermuda grass mixed with different legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nunes Assis dos Anjos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three grazing systems with Coastcross-1 bermuda grass (CC + 100 kg N ha-1 year-1 + common vetch; CC + 100 kg N ha-1 year-1 + arrowleaf clover; and CC + 200 kg N ha-1 year-1 were evaluated. Thirteen grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (313 days, with two, five, four and two cycles respectively in winter, spring, summer and fall. Lactating Holstein cows were used in the evaluation. Daily accumulation rate, forage production, rate of forage disappearance, agronomic intake, grazing efficiency, herbage allowance and stocking rate were evaluated. Mean rates of forage yield and stocking rate were 20.8; 17.6 and 19.7 t DM ha-1 and 7.0; 6.8 to 6.8 animal units ha-1 day-1 for the respective forage systems. The mixture Coastcross-1 plus common vetch, fertilized with 100 kg N ha-1 year-1 and Coastcross-1 fertilized with 200 kg N ha-1 year-1 provided greater productivity and better distribution of forage throughout the seasons.

  13. The effects of temporal variability of mixed layer depth on primary productivity around Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, W. Paul; Meyers, Mark B.; Walsh, John J.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-01-01

    Temporal variations in primary production and surface chlorophyll concentrations, as measured by ship and satellite around Bermuda, were simulated with a numerical model. In the upper 450 m of the water column, population dynamics of a size-fractionated phytoplankton community were forced by daily changes of wind, light, grazing stress, and nutrient availability. The temporal variations of production and chlorophyll were driven by changes in nutrient introduction to the euphotic zone due to both high- and low-frequency changes of the mixed layer depth within 32 deg-34 deg N, 62 deg-64 deg W between 1979 and 1984. Results from the model derived from high-frequency (case 1) changes in the mixed layer depth showed variations in primary production and peak chlorophyll concentrations when compared with results from the model derived from low-frequency (case 2) mixed layer depth changes. Incorporation of size-fractionated plankton state variables in the model led to greater seasonal resolution of measured primary production and vertical chlorophyll profiles. The findings of this study highlight the possible inadequacy of estimating primary production in the sea from data of low-frequency temporal resolution and oversimplified biological simulations.

  14. EFFECT OF OZONE AND AUTOHYDROLYSIS PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC DIGESTIBILITY OF COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Myoung Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal Bermuda grass (CBG has been shown to have potential as a biomass feedstock for sugar production. In this study, the effectiveness of ozone pretreatment for CBG to improve the sugar recovery via enzyme hydrolysis was investigated. Raw CBG and autohydrolysis-treated CBG were pretreated with ozone at ozone consumption of 1.8 to 26.4 % (w/w at room temperature. Lignin degradation and hemicellulose solubilization increased with increased ozone consumption. At 26.4% ozone consumption by weight on CBG the amount of lignin in the CBG was reduced by 34%. Autohydrolysis of CBG increased the reactivity of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin with ozone. The maximum total sugar recovery after enzymatic hydrolysis was 32% for a 14.0% consumption of ozone on raw CBG. For CBG samples pretreated with autohydrolysis followed by a 3.1% ozone consumption pretreatment the maximum total sugar recovery after enzyme hydrolysis was 40.1%. Autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by enzyme hydrolysis yielded a 36.4% sugar recovery, indicating that the application and benefits of ozone after autohydrolysis with the conditions studied herein are marginally better than autohydrolysis alone.

  15. Dissolved organic matter in anoxic pore waters from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Hatcher, P.G.; Spiker, E. C.; Szeverenyi, N.M.; Maciel, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter and dissolved inorganic chemical species in anoxic pore water from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda sediments were studied to evaluate the role of pore water in the early diagenesis of organic matter. Dissolved sulphate, titration alkalinity, phosphate, and ammonia concentration versus depth profiles were typical of many nearshore clastic sediments and indicated sulphate reduction in the upper 100 cm of sediment. The dissolved organic matter in the pore water was made up predominantly of large molecules, was concentrated from large quantities of pore water by using ultrafiltration and was extensively tudied by using elemental and stable carbon isotope analysis and high-resolution, solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that this material has a predominantly polysaccharide-like structure and in addition contains a large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups (e.g., carboxyl groups). The 13C nulcear magnetic resonance spectra of the high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter resemble those of the organic matter in the surface sediments of Mangrove Lake. We propose that this high-molecular-weight organic matter in pore waters represents the partially degraded, labile organic components of the sedimentary organic matter and that pore waters serve as a conduit for removal of these labile organic components from the sediments. The more refractory components are, thus, selectively preserved in the sediments as humic substances (primarily humin). ?? 1986.

  16. Centre of Excellence in Observational Oceanography: Nippon Foundation and POGO Supported Programme at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, F. G.; Sathyendranath, S.; Frouin, R.; Knap, T.

    2008-05-01

    Building on previous experience in capacity building for ocean observations, the Nippon Foundation (NF) and the Partnership for Observations of the Global Oceans (POGO) have announced a new Centre of Excellence (C of E) at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS). The goals of the C of E are to expand the world-wide capacity and expertise to observe the oceans and to expand capacity-building projects and promote international collaboration and networking in ocean sciences. Over the past 104 years, BIOS has built a global reputation in blue-water oceanography, coral reef ecology, and the relationships between ocean health and human health coupled with high quality education programmes that provide direct, hands-on experience with BIOS-based research. The C of E at BIOS will build upon this model to establish a new, graduate-level education and training programme in operational oceanography. The 10 month Programme will offer course modules in ocean disciplines with a focus on observatory sciences complemented by hands-on training in observational methods and techniques based on the multi-disciplinary expertise of BIOS and BIOS-affiliated scientists who direct ongoing, ocean observational programmes such as: - Hydrostation S, since 1954; - Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study, since 1988; - Oceanic Flux Program sediment trap time-series, since 1978; - Bermuda Test-Bed and Science Mooring, since 1994; - Bermuda Microbial Observatory, since 1997; - Bermuda Bio-Optics Program, since 1992; - Atmospheric chemistry and air-sea fluxes, since 1990 Additional areas of BIOS research expertise will be incorporated in the C of E to broaden the scope of education and training. These include the nearshore observational network of the BIOS Marine Environmental Program and the environmental air-water chemistry network of the Bermuda Environmental Quality Program. A key resource of the C of E is the newly acquired 168 ft. research vessel, the RV Atlantic Explorer, which was

  17. Bermuda; Assessment of the Supervision and Regulation of the Financial Sector—Volume II—Detailed Assessment of Observance of Standards and Codes

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents key findings of the Detailed Assessment of the Observance of Standards and Codes in the Financial Sector of Bermuda. The small number of licensed deposit-taking institutions in Bermuda are part of the broader financial intermediation sector. Typically, some 50 percent to 60 percent of the banks’ income is fee based. The value of client assets and the volume of their activities are the main generators of this income. Efforts to reduce employee and occupancy costs that ref...

  18. 百慕大投资基金监管法律制度解析%Analysis of Bermuda Legal Regime of Investment Fund Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛彦国

    2015-01-01

    Bermuda is the preferred domicile to a wide range of hedge funds, private equity funds, trust funds and mutual funds. The relevant laws of Bermuda investment fund regulation include Monetary Authority Act, Invest-ment Funds Act, Companies Act, Limited Partnership, Exempted Partnerships Act and Partnership Act, etc. The Bermuda Monetary Authority is the principal regulator of investment fund in Bermuda. There are three main structures used for investment fund formation in Bermuda:company,partnership and unit trust. Bermuda investment fund regu-lation includes investment fund regulation and fund related parties regulation. Bermuda investment fund should meet regulation requirement,ongoing. In addition,there are regulation requirement for funds not domiciled in Bermuda too.%百慕大是众多对冲基金、私募股权基金、信托基金和共同基金的理想设立地。与百慕大投资基金监管有关的法律主要包括《金融监管局法》、《投资基金法》、《公司法》、《有限合伙企业法》、《豁免合伙企业法》和《合伙企业法》等。百慕大金融管理局是百慕大投资基金的主要监管机构。百慕大投资基金的组织形式主要有三种:公司、合伙和单位信托;监管包括对基金的监管和对基金有关当事人的监管。百慕大投资基金还要符合持续性监管要求,此外,对境外投资基金也有一定监管要求。

  19. Processes controlling the concentrations of SO=4, NO-3, NH+4, H+, HCOOT and CH3COOT in precipitation on Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, J.N.; Keene, W. C.; ARTZ, R. S.; John M Miller; Church, T.M.; KNAP, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The composition of precipitation on Bermuda can be characterized as a slightly acidic, dilute seawater solution. The acidity of the solution is controlled by H2SO4, HNO3, HCOOH and CH3COOH in a 67:20:8:3 mixture, respectively. CaCO3 and NH3 have reduced the potential acidity of the solution by 24% and 13%, respectively. The concentrations of non-sea-salt (nss) SO=4 and NO-3 in precipitation on Bermuda are about a factor of three greater than those in remote marine areas of the world. These d...

  20. A new library of gamma rays group constants for BERMUDA based on JENDL-3.2 nuclear data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In gamma rays transport codes BERMUDA-1DG, -2DG, -2DG-S16 and -3DG, a library for gamma rays group constants, J439B.BERM41G.DATA, is currently used. Secondary gamma rays production matrix in this library is prepared for 20 nuclides based on nuclear data file JENDL-3. In 1994, JENDL-3.2, a newly revised version of JENDL-3 nuclear data file, became available by the effort of Nuclear Data Center of JAERI. A new group constants library, 'J439B.BERMJ3G.DATA', has been developed based on JENDL-3.2, for use in BERMUDA gamma rays transport calculations. Processing code is PROF-GROUCH-G/B system. One nuclide, 11B, has been removed out of 20 nuclides in BERM41G and eleven nuclides, 3He, F, P, S, K, V, Co, Cu, Nb, Ta and W, have been newly added so that total 30 nuclides data are included in the new library. Moreover, microscopic total cross sections σt for 30 nuclides processed from PHOTX data have been added for each energy group and also for each energy 'grid' which is made by dividing an energy group into ten subgroups with equal energy width. In the present report, described mainly are the outline of new library and know-how to use the processing system. As no user manual has been prepared for PROF-GROUCH-G/B yet, the present report is also useful as a manual for the option to develop gamma rays group constants for BERMUDA in PROF-GROUCH-G/B code system. (author)

  1. Mapping of IgE-binding regions on recombinant Cyn d 1, a major allergen from Bermuda Grass Pollen (BGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla Prem L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon; subfamily Chloridoideae is an important source of seasonal aeroallergens in warm tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. Improved approaches to diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases require a thorough understanding of the structure and epitopes on the allergen molecule that are crucial for the antigen-antibody interaction. This study describes the localization of the human IgE-binding regions of the major group 1 pollen allergen Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass. Methods A cDNA library was constructed from Bermuda grass pollen (BGP using a Lambda gt11 expression vector. The gene encoding the Cyn d 1 allergen was isolated by screening the library with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against grass group 1 allergen. In order to characterize the IgE epitopes on Cyn d 1, seven overlapping fragments and three deletion mutants were cloned and over-expressed in E. coli. The recombinant fragments and deletion mutants were evaluated for their comparative IgE reactivity with sera of non atopic individuals and grass pollen allergic patients by ELISA and a dot-blot assay. Results Analysis of IgE binding regions by overlapping fragments and deletion mutants identified two major allergenic regions corresponding to amino acids 120–170 and 224–244. Deletion of either or both regions led to a significant reduction in IgE binding, emphasizing the importance of the C-terminal region on Cyn d 1 in epitope-IgE interaction. Conclusion Anti-Cyn d 1 IgE antibodies from allergic human sera recognize two epitopes located at the C-terminal end of the molecule. These data will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for BGP hypersensitivity.

  2. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, R. H. R.; Doney, S. C.; Jenkins, W. J.; Lott, III, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR) estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2&...

  3. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, R. H. R.; Doney, S. C.; Jenkins, W. J.; D. E. Lott, III

    2011-01-01

    We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR) estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2...

  4. Testes de vigor para avaliação da qualidade de sementes de grama-bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    Lemes, Elisa Souza; Oliveira, Sandro de; Almeida, Andreia da S.; Meneghello, Geri Eduardo; Gewehr, Ewerton; Tunes, Lilian Madruga de

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar uma metodologia para condução do teste de envelhecimento acelerado capaz de ranquear de forma eficiente o potencial fisiológico de lotes de sementes de grama-bermuda. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se oito tratamentos (lotes) com quatro repetições. A avaliação inicial dos lotes consistiu na determinação do teor de água e nos testes de germinação e emergência de plântulas. Em seguida, as sementes foram submetidas aos ...

  5. Organic geochemistry and pore water chemistry of sediments from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Neumann, A.C.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Gerchakov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Mangrove Lake, Bermuda, is a small coastal, brackish-water lake that has accumulated 14 m of banded, gelatinous, sapropelic sediments in less than 104 yr. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that Mangrove Lake's sedimentary environment has undergone three major depositional changes (peat, freshwater gel, brackish-water gel) as a result of sea level changes. The deposits were examined geochemically in an effort to delineate sedimentological and diagenetic changes. Gas and pore water studies include measurements of sulfides, ammonia, methane, nitrogen gas, calcium, magnesium, chloride, alkalinity, and pH. Results indicate that sulfate reduction is complete, and some evidence is presented for bacterial denitrification and metal sulfide precipitation. The organic-rich sapropel is predominantly algal in origin, composed mostly of carbohydrates and insoluble macromolecular organic matter called humin with minor amounts of proteins, lipids, and humic acids. Carbohydrates and proteins undergo hydrolysis with depth in the marine sapropel but tend to be preserved in the freshwater sapropel. The humin, which has a predominantly aliphatic structure, increases linearly with depth and composes the greatest fraction of the organic matter. Humic acids are minor components and are more like polysaccharides than typical marine humic acids. Fatty acid distributions reveal that the lipids are of an algal and/or terrestrial plant source. Normal alkanes with a total concentration of 75 ppm exhibit two distribution maxima. One is centered about n-C22 with no odd/even predominance, suggestive of a degraded algal source. The other is centered at n-C31 with a distinct odd/even predominance indicative of a vascular plant origin. Stratigraphic changes in the sediment correlate to observed changes in the gas and pore water chemistry and the organic geochemistry. ?? 1982.

  6. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  7. Soil genesis on the island of Bermuda in the Quaternary: the importance of African dust transport and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Skipp, Gary; Herwitz, Stanley R.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of terra rossa, red or reddish-brown, clay-rich soils overlying high-purity carbonate substrates, has intrigued geologists and pedologists for decades. Terra rossa soils can form from accumulation of insoluble residues during dissolution of the host limestones, addition of volcanic ash, or addition of externally derived, long-range-transported (LRT) aeolian particles. We studied soils and paleosols on high-purity, carbonate aeolianites of Quaternary age on Bermuda, where terra rossa origins have been debated for more than a century. Potential soil parent materials on this island include sand-sized fragments of local volcanic bedrock, the LRT, fine-grained (N/YbN, GdN/YbN that can be distinguished from African dust and lower Mississippi River valley loess. Bermuda soils have Sc-Th-La, Cr-Ta-Nd, and Eu/Eu*, LaN/YbN, GdN/YbN that indicate derivation from a combination of LRT dust from Africa and local volcanic bedrock. Our results indicate that soils on islands in a very broad latitudinal belt of the western Atlantic margin have been influenced by African LRT dust inputs over much of the past –500 ka.

  8. Differences in Academic Achievement of Students Involved in Extracurricular Activities in Seventh-Day Adventist Schools in the United States and Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Anderson P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in the academic performance of students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11 in Seventh-day Adventist schools in the United States and Bermuda based on their level of involvement in school music organizations--band or choir--and school sports--varsity or intramural--as measured by standardized achievement and ability tests.…

  9. The Multilateral Disarmament Process. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (16th, Warwick, Bermuda, June 21-26, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    This is a report of a conference held in Bermuda in 1981 to discuss a multilateral approach to disarmament. The conference was an informal, off-the-record exchange of ideas and opinions among 24 diplomats and scholars from 18 countries and two international agencies. Participants considered current disarmament concepts, assessed UN disarmament…

  10. The C-13 Suess effect in the world surface oceans and its implications for oceanic uptake of CO2 : Analysis of observations at Bermuda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacastow, RB; Keeling, CD; Lueker, TJ; Wahlen, M; Mook, WG

    1996-01-01

    Surface ocean water delta(13)C measurements near Bermuda are examined in an attempt to find the annual decrease caused by the addition of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere. We refer to this trend as the surface ocean C-13 Suess effect. Interannual variability, which may be related to the El Nino -

  11. Timing and warmth of the Last Interglacial period: new U-series evidence from Hawaii and Bermuda and a new fossil compilation for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Steinke, Bree

    2002-07-01

    The timing and duration of the Last Interglacial period have been controversial, with some studies suggesting a relatively short duration that is orbitally forced and others suggesting a long duration that is at most only partly related to orbital forcing. New, high-precison thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) U-series ages of Last Interglacial corals from Hawaii and Bermuda test these competing hypotheses. Waimanalo Formation corals from slowly uplifting Oahu, Hawaii range in age from ˜134 to ˜113 ka, with most ages between ˜125 and ˜115 ka. Combined with published U-series ages from nearby Lanai, the data suggest a long Last Interglacial period that may have occurred from ˜136 to at least 115 ka. The results indicate that orbital forcing may not have been the only control on ice sheet growth and decay, because sea level would have been high at times of relatively low Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. On tectonically stable Bermuda, deposits from the ˜200 ka (penultimate interglacial period), ˜120 ka (peak Last Interglacial period) and ˜80 ka (late Last Interglacial period) high sea stands have been newly dated. Fossil corals on Bermuda are derived from patch reefs that likely were "catch-up" responses to sea level rise. It is expected that U-series ages of Last-Interglacial corals on Bermuda should overlap with, but not be as old as the range of corals on Oahu. Last-Interglacial corals on Bermuda give a range of ˜125-113 ka, which supports this hypothesis. A large number of emergent marine deposits on Hawaii, Bermuda and along coastal North America have now been dated to the Last Interglacial period. Both Oahu and Bermuda have marine invertebrate faunas with a number of extralimital southern species of mollusks, suggesting warmer-than-present waters during the Last Interglacial period. Warmer waters are also suggested for Last-Interglacial localities around most of North America, from Florida to Canada and Greenland and Baja California to

  12. Getting the Lead Out of Bermuda; The Legacy of a Forty Year Record in the North Atlantic Using a Transient Experiment in the Atmosphere and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, T. M.; Alleman, L. Y.; Veron, A. J. J.; Boyle, E. A.; Zurbrick, C.; Patterson, C. C.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Some forty years ago, Schaule and Patterson established the first accurate profile of lead in waters off Bermuda. In evidence was a massive environmental insult from lead emissions being carried seaward by the atmosphere over the Sargasso Sea. Further documentation was possible using contiguous time series in the atmosphere on Bermuda, surface sea water nearby and recorded in local corals. Lead had then an overwhelming source from the combustion of gasoline, primarily in the USA and secondarily in Europe. These were carried to Bermuda on seasonally alternating temperate and trade winds from the west and east, respectively. The anthropogenic sources were well distinguished based on the unique radiogenic nature of stable lead isotopes in the gasoline being used by these countries. Subsequently, decreasing use in the west (USA) followed by that in the east (Europe) was isotopically evident. As such, the two signatures were subjected to transient mixing in the atmosphere and subsequently with depth in ocean. A transient experiment uses data during 1996-1998, a period of transition in leaded gasoline use in the USA and Europe. Here are complimentary records of lead concentration and stable isotopes in atmospheric deposition and surface waters. The results allow an isotopic mass balance, indicating much of the lead in Bermuda surface water at that time may not have been deposited locally. As such, it may be presumed to reflect easterly advection of some lead at the surface under limited scavenging via the prevailing subtropical gyre circulation. These annual circulation periods are consistent with both physical data and another lead isotopic mass balance in the east. Going forward, Bermuda time series of trace elements and isotopes such as lead could continue to record climatological (e.g. NAO) transients in atmospheric scavenging, potential impact on surface ecosystems, and changes in mixing into deeper waters of the Sargasso Sea and points further afield.

  13. Multiple driving factors explain spatial and temporal variability in coral calcification rates on the Bermuda platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venti, A.; Andersson, A.; Langdon, C.

    2014-12-01

    Experimental studies have shown that coral calcification rates are dependent on light, nutrients, food availability, temperature, and seawater aragonite saturation ( Ω arag), but the relative importance of each parameter in natural settings remains uncertain. In this study, we applied Calcein fluorescent dyes as time indicators within the skeleton of coral colonies ( n = 3) of Porites astreoides and Diploria strigosa at three study sites distributed across the northern Bermuda coral reef platform. We evaluated the correlation between seasonal average growth rates based on coral density and extension rates with average temperature, light, and seawater Ω arag in an effort to decipher the relative importance of each parameter. The results show significant seasonal differences among coral calcification rates ranging from summer maximums of 243 ± 58 and 274 ± 57 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1 to winter minimums of 135 ± 39 and 101 ± 34 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1 for P. astreoides and D. strigosa, respectively. We also placed small coral colonies ( n = 10) in transparent chambers and measured the instantaneous rate of calcification under light and dark treatments at the same study sites. The results showed that the skeletal growth of D. strigosa and P. astreoides, whether hourly or seasonal, was highly sensitive to Ω arag. We believe this high sensitivity, however, is misleading, due to covariance between light and Ω arag, with the former being the strongest driver of calcification variability. For the seasonal data, we assessed the impact that the observed seasonal differences in temperature (4.0 °C), light (5.1 mol photons m-2 d-1), and Ω arag (0.16 units) would have on coral growth rates based on established relationships derived from laboratory studies and found that they could account for approximately 44, 52, and 5 %, respectively, of the observed seasonal change of 81 ± 14 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1. Using short-term light and dark incubations, we show how the covariance of light

  14. Uso de índices de reflectância das folhas para avaliar o nível de nitrogênio em grama-bermuda Leaves reflectance index of the bermuda grass to evaluate the nutritional status in nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Claudinei Paulo de Lima; Clarice Backes; Dirceu Maximino Fernandes; Alessandro José Marques Santos; Leandro José Grava de Godoy; Roberto Lyra Villas Bôas

    2012-01-01

    A reflectância da folha em determinados comprimentos de onda pode ser uma alternativa para estimar a concentração de nitrogênio (N) na planta, devido à relação entre o teor de clorofila e de N no tecido foliar. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar índices da cor verde em grama-bermuda para predizer o nível de N na planta. O experimento foi conduzido em área comercial de produção de grama-bermuda, localizada na cidade de Capela do Alto/SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos...

  15. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkus Kristen A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  16. DOSES DE LODO DE ESGOTO SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DA GRAMA BERMUDA (Cynodon dactylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOBILE, Fabio Olivieri de

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Population growth occurred rapidly, resulting in cities with poor infrastructure on the sanitation sector. So, there was the introduction of sanitary treatment, causing difficulty in choosing alternatives for the proper disposal of sewage sludge, rich in essential nutrients for the plants. The experiment was conducted to determine the best dose of sewage sludge to Grass Cynodon dactylon. It was conducted in greenhouse in the University Center of Educational Foundation of Barretos-SP. The experimental design was a randomized block, with four replicates of six plots, four with the application of sewage sludge doses (50, 100, 150 and 200%, a portion with 0%, , and the last installment using only mineral fertilizer. A total of 20 experimental units. The doses which took sewage sludge were D50%: 0,12 g, D100%: 0,24 g, D150%: 0,48 g, D200%: 0,72 g. For mineral fertilizer the dose applied was DAD: 1, 5g. All vessels were treated with lime prior to incorporation of sewage sludge, the dosage used was 6,25 g (2.5 t ha-1 . Each vessel contained 5 kg of soil. Initially the growth of grasses occurred more rapidly, after 43 days all plants started to show significant reductions in plant height. With increasing doses of sewage sludge there was greater root development, and constancy in the shoot. The uptake of K by grasses was relatively minor, what makes it possible to conclude that the material has a lack for the referred element. O crescimento populacional ocorreu de forma rápida, resultando em cidades com pouca infra-estrutura em saneamento básico. Deste modo, surgiram estações de tratamento de esgoto e a dificuldade de alternativas para o descarte adequado do lodo de esgoto, rico em nutrientes essenciais para as plantas. O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a melhor dose de lodo de esgoto para grama Bermuda Cynodon dactylon. Conduzido em casa de vegetação no Centro Universitário da Fundação Educacional de Barretos-SP. O

  17. Carbonate Sedimentation Rates Today and in the Past: Holocene of Florida Bay, Bahamas, and Bermuda vs. Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of the Jura Mountains (Switzerland and France)

    OpenAIRE

    Strasser, André; Samankassou, Elias

    2005-01-01

    Lagoonal to intertidal sediments from the Holocene in Florida Bay, on the Bahamas, and in Bermuda are compared to similar facies in the Kimmeridgian and Berriasian of the Swiss and French Jura Mountains. Dating by 14C permits the estimation of sediment accumulation rates in the Holocene. In the ancient outcrops, the timing is given by cyclostratigraphic analysis. Elementary depositional sequences formed in tune with the 20-ka precession cycle, although much of this time may have been spent in...

  18. Iron profiles and speciation of the upper water column at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site: a model based sensitivity study

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, L.; C. Völker; Oschlies, A.; H. Burchard

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of the biogeochemistry and speciation of iron is coupled with the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and a NPZD-type ecosystem model. The model is able to simulate the temporal patterns and vertical profiles of dissolved iron (dFe) in the upper ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site reasonably well. Subsurface model profiles strongly depend on the parameter values chosen for the loss processes for iron, colloidal aggregation and scavenging onto particl...

  19. Long-term trends in aerosol and precipitation composition over the western North Atlantic Ocean at Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, W. C.; Moody, J. L.; Galloway, J. N.; Prospero, J. M.; Cooper, O. R.; Eckhardt, S.; Maben, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1980s, emissions of SO2 and NOx (NO + NO2) from anthropogenic sources in the United States (US), Canada, and Europe have decreased significantly suggesting that the export of oxidized S and N compounds from surrounding continents to the atmosphere overlying the North Atlantic Ocean (NAO) has also decreased. The chemical compositions of aerosols and precipitation sampled daily on Bermuda (32.27° N, 64.87° W) from 1989 to 1997 and from 2006 to 2009 were evaluated to quantify the magnitudes, significance, and implications of associated tends in atmospheric composition. The chemical data were stratified based on FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) retroplumes into four discrete transport regimes: westerly flow from eastern North America (NEUS/SEUS); easterly trade-wind flow from northern Africa and the subtropical NAO (Africa); long, open-ocean, anticyclonic flow around the Bermuda High (Oceanic); and transitional flow from the relatively clean open ocean to the polluted eastern North America (North). Based on all data, annual average concentrations of non-sea-salt (nss) SO42- associated with aerosols and annual volume-weighted-average (VWA) concentrations in precipitation decreased significantly (by 22% and 49%, respectively) whereas annual VWA concentrations of NH4+ in precipitation increased significantly (by 70%). Corresponding trends in aerosol and precipitation NO3- and of aerosol NH4+ were insignificant. Nss SO42- in precipitation under NEUS/SEUS and Oceanic flow decreased significantly (61% each) whereas corresponding trends in particulate nss SO42- under both flow regimes were insignificant. Trends in precipitation composition were driven in part by decreasing emissions of SO2 over upwind continents and associated decreases in anthropogenic contributions to nss SO42- concentrations. Under NEUS/SEUS and Oceanic flow, the ratio of anthropogenic to biogenic contributions to nss SO42- in the column scavenged by precipitation were relatively

  20. The interaction of ocean acidification and carbonate chemistry on coral reef calcification: evaluating the carbonate chemistry Coral Reef Ecosystem Feedback (CREF hypothesis on the Bermuda coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential impact of ocean acidification on ecosystems such as coral reefs, surprisingly, there is very limited field data on the relationships between calcification and carbonate chemistry. In this study, contemporaneous in situ datasets of carbonate chemistry and calcification rates from the high-latitude coral reef of Bermuda over annual timescales provide a framework for investigating the present and future potential impact of rising pCO2 and ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems in their natural environment. A strong correlation was found between the in situ rates of calcification for the major framework building coral species Diploria labyrinthiformis and the seasonal variability of [CO32-] and Ωaragonite, rather than other environmental factors such as light and temperature. These field observations also provide sufficient data to hypothesize that there is a seasonal "Carbonate Chemistry Coral Reef Ecosystem Feedback" (CREF hypothesis between the primary components of the reef ecosystem (i.e. scleractinian hard corals and macroalgae and carbonate chemistry. In early summer, strong net autotrophy from benthic components of the reef system enhance [CO32-] and Ωaragonite conditions, and rates of coral calcification due to the photosynthetic uptake of CO2. In late summer, rates of coral calcification are suppressed by release of CO2 from reef metabolism during a period of strong net heterotrophy. It is likely that this seasonal CREF mechanism is present in other tropical reefs although attenuated compared to high-latitude reefs such as Bermuda. Due to lower annual mean surface seawater [CO32-] and Ωaragonite in Bermuda compared to tropical regions, we anticipate that Bermuda corals will experiences seasonal periods of zero net calcification within the next decade at [CO

  1. Modeling Biogeochemical-Physical Interactions and Carbon Flux in the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; McClain, Charles R.; Christian, James R.

    2001-01-01

    An ecosystem-carbon cycle model is used to analyze the biogeochemical-physical interactions and carbon fluxes in the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site for the period of 1992-1998. The model results compare well with observations (most variables are within 8% of observed values). The sea-air flux ranges from -0.32 to -0.50 mol C/sq m/yr, depending upon the gas transfer algorithm used. This estimate is within the range (-0.22 to -0.83 mol C/sq m/yr) of previously reported values which indicates that the BATS region is a weak sink of atmospheric CO2. The overall carbon balance consists of atmospheric CO2 uptake of 0.3 Mol C/sq m/yr, upward dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) bottom flux of 1.1 Mol C/sq m/yr, and carbon export of 1.4 mol C/sq m/yr via sedimentation. Upper ocean DIC levels increased between 1992 and 1996 at a rate of approximately 1.2 (micro)mol/kg/yr, consistent with observations. However, this trend was reversed during 1997-1998 to -2.7 (micro)mol/kg/yr in response to hydrographic changes imposed by the El Nino-La Nina transition, which were manifested in the Sargasso Sea by the warmest SST and lowest surface salinity of the period (1992-1998).

  2. Deep Ocean Circulation at the Bermuda Rise during the Last 150ka: A New Centennial-Resolution Nd Isotope Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. L.; Piotrowski, A. M.; Curry, W. B.; Keigwin, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    Today the Deep Western Boundary Current in the NW Atlantic basin transports an average of 28.7 Sv (Toole et al., 2011), making it a crucial part of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, and linking ocean heat transport and carbon storage with northern hemisphere climate. Greenland ice cores have provided high resolution archives for northern hemisphere climate change over the past glacial cycle. However, accurate comparison between changes in climate and ocean dynamics is hampered by generally low marine sedimentation rates relative to ice accumulation. Here we present an ultra-high resolution Nd isotope record, with an average of 164 years between samples, reconstructing past changes in ocean circulation from MIS 6 to the present. The Nd isotope measurements were made on uncleaned planktonic foraminifera, recording bottom water composition changes (Roberts et al., 2010; Roberts et al., 2012), on a high sedimentation rate core (average 24 cm/kyr) taken from the Bermuda Rise (33°N, 57°W, 4500m) to the west of the Deep Western Boundary Current. Such high resolution allows for detailed reconstruction of millennial and centennial-scale deep ocean circulation events and statistical comparison with Greenland and Antarctic ice core records as well as other terrestrial climate records.

  3. On-site hydrolytic enzymes production from fungal co-cultivation of Bermuda grass and corn cob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Gracida, Jorge; Huizache-Peña, Nelson; Elizondo-García, Norberto; Salazar-Martínez, José; García Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) is used to produce industrial enzymes. The objective of this study was to use a co-culture of Aspergillus niger GS1 and Trichoderma reesei, grown on a mixture of Bermuda grass and corn cob to obtain fermented forage (FF) rich in hydrolytic enzymes, as a value added ingredient for animal feed. FPase, amylase and xylanase productivities (dry matter, DM) were 8.8, 181.4, and 42.1Ug(-1)h(-1), respectively (1U=reducing sugars released min(-1)), after 12-16h of SSF with C/N=60. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased 1.6-, 2.7- and 1.9-fold (DM), respectively. In vitro ruminal and true digestibility of DM was improved 2.4- and 1.4-fold. Ruminal digestion of FF reduced 1.32-fold the acetate:propionate ratio, which may reduce the environmental impact of ruminants feeding. On-site hydrolytic enzymes productivity using SSF without enzymes extraction could be of economic potential for digestibility improvement in animal feed. PMID:27130226

  4. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Stanley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2 m−2 yr−1. This is comparable to previous AOUR-based estimates of export production at the BATS site but is several times larger than export estimates derived from sediment traps or 234Th fluxes. We compare AOUR determined in this study to AOUR measured in the 1980s and show AOUR is significantly greater today than decades earlier because of changes in AOU, rather than changes in ventilation rates. The changes in AOU may be a methodological artefact associated with problems with early oxygen measurements.

  5. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Stanley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2 m−2 yr−1. This is comparable to previous AOUR-based estimates of export production at the BATS site but is several times larger than export estimates derived from sediment traps or 234Th fluxes. We compare AOUR determined in this study to AOUR measured in the 1980s and show AOUR is significantly greater today than decades earlier because of changes in AOU, rather than changes in ventilation rates. The changes in AOU are likely a methodological artefact associated with problems with early oxygen measurements.

  6. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  7. Estimating the potential impacts of large mesopredators on benthic resources: integrative assessment of spotted eagle ray foraging ecology in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ajemian

    Full Text Available Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS, an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted.

  8. Estimating the potential impacts of large mesopredators on benthic resources: integrative assessment of spotted eagle ray foraging ecology in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajemian, Matthew J; Powers, Sean P; Murdoch, Thaddeus J T

    2012-01-01

    Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays) may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS), an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex) to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata) representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted. PMID:22802956

  9. Water quality, isoscapes and stoichioscapes of seagrasses indicate general P limitation and unique N cycling in shallow water benthos of Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J. W.; Manuel, S. A.; Coates, K. A.; Kenworthy, W. J.; Boyer, J. N.

    2015-10-01

    Striking spatial patterns in stable isotope ratios (isoscapes) and elemental ratios (stoichioscapes) of seagrass leaves and the water column nutrients indicate general P-limitation of both water column and benthic primary productivity on the Bermuda Platform, and they highlight the role of the Bermuda Islands as a source of N and P. We found consistent differences among the four seagrass species (Syringodium filiforme, Thalassia testudinum, Halodule sp. and Halophila decipiens) in the N, P, δ13C and δ15N of leaf tissues. The δ15N of seagrass leaves was especially variable, with values from -10.1 to 8.8 ‰, greatly expanding the reported range of values for all seagrass species globally. Spatial patterns from both the water column and the seagrass leaves indicated that P availability was higher near shore, and δ15N values suggest this was likely a result of human waste disposal. Spatially contiguous areas of extremely depleted seagrass 15N suggest unique N sources and cycling compared to other seagrass-dominated environments. Seagrass N : P values were not as far from the stoichiometric balance between N and P availability as in the water column, and there were no strong relationships between the water column N : P and the seagrass N : P. Such isoscapes and stoichioscapes provide valuable ecogeochemical tools to infer ecosystem processes as well as provide information that can inform food web and animal movement studies.

  10. Comparative physiological and proteomic analyses reveal the actions of melatonin in the reduction of oxidative stress in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Xin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-08-01

    The fact of melatonin as an important antioxidant in animals led plant researchers to speculate that melatonin also acts in the similar manner in plants. Although melatonin has significant effects on alleviating stress-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS), the involvement of melatonin in direct oxidative stress and the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear in plants. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin significantly alleviated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-modulated plant growth, cell damage, and ROS accumulation in Bermuda grass. Additionally, 76 proteins significantly influenced by melatonin during mock or H2O2 treatment were identified by gel-free proteomics using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation). Metabolic pathway analysis showed that several pathways were markedly enhanced by melatonin and H2O2 treatments, including polyamine metabolism, ribosome pathway, major carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, redox, and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study provides more comprehensive insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of melatonin in Bermuda grass responses to direct oxidative stress. This may relate to the activation of antioxidants, modulation of metabolic pathways, and extensive proteome reprograming. PMID:25958881

  11. An international comparison of the association among literacy, education, and health across the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Norway, and Bermuda: implications for health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kunkel, Suzanne R

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between education and health is well-established, but theoretical pathways are not fully understood. Economic resources, stress, and health behaviors partially explain how education influences health, but further study is needed. Previous studies show that health literacy mediates the education-health relationship, as do general literacy skills. However, little is known whether such mediation effects are consistent across different societies. This study analyzed data from the International Assessment of Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey conducted in Canada, the United States, Italy, Norway, Switzerland, and Bermuda to investigate the mediation effects of literacy on the education-health relationship and the degree of such mediation in different cultural contexts. Results showed that literacy skills mediated the effect of education on health in all study locations, but the degree of mediation varied. This mediation effect was particularly strong in Bermuda. This study also found that different types of literacy skills are more or less important in each study location. For example, numeracy skills in the United States and prose (reading) literacy skills in Italy were stronger predictors of health than were other literacy skills. These findings suggest a new direction for addressing health disparities: focusing on relevant types of literacy skills. PMID:25749096

  12. Improving the Quality of Basic Education, Volume 6. Country Papers: Antigua, Bermuda, India, St. Kitts, Nevis, Turks & Caicos Islands. Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers (11th, Barbados, October 29-November 2, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth Inst., London (England).

    Commonwealth Ministries of Education were asked to report on how they are undertaking the improvement of the quality of basic education in their respective countries. The papers in this volume focus on: (1) Antigua; (2) Bermuda; (3) India; (4) St. Kitts and Nevis; and (5) Turks and Caicos Islands. Charts and statistical data support each country's…

  13. Impacts of Primo MAXX Growth Regulator on the Growth of Bermuda Grass%生长调节剂Primo MAXX对狗牙根草坪草生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战胜; 陈勇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究生长调节剂Primo MAXX对狗牙根草坪草生长的影响,为华南地区Primo MAXX在狗牙根草坪上的应用提供依据.[方法]采用单因素随机区组试验设计,研究不同浓度的Primo MAXX对狗牙根草坪草自然生长高度、叶色及地上部鲜重的影响.[结果]不同浓度的Primo MAXX对狗牙根的生长高度有较好的抑制作用,且各浓度之间差异不显著;适量施用Primo MAXX可以丰富草坪色彩;施药后35 d狗牙根茎变粗.[结论]在华南地区狗牙根草坪上使用有效剂量为150~300 g/hm2的Primo MAXX较为适宜.%[ Objective ] The aim was to investigate effects of primo MAXX growth regulator on growth of Bermuda grass, to provide basis for the application of Primo MAXX in Bermuda meadow. [ Method] The height, leaf color and the aerial part' s fresh weight of Bermuda grass treated with different concentrations were researched using single factor random block test. [ Result ] Primo MAXX application effectively reduced the height in all treatment without significant difference; appropriate application of Primo MAXX can enrich the color; and 35 days after application, Bermuda grass roots thickened. [ Conclusion] The application of 150 -300 g/hm2 effective dose of Primo MAXX to Bermuda grass in southern China is more appropriate.

  14. C : N : P stoichiometry at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P availability determine the strength of the ocean's carbon (C uptake, and variation in the N : P ratio in inorganic nutrients is key to phytoplankton growth. A similarity between C : N : P ratios in the plankton biomass and deep-water nutrients was observed by Alfred C. Redfield around 80 years ago and suggested that biological processes in the surface ocean controlled deep ocean chemistry. Recent studies have emphasized the role of inorganic N : P ratios in governing biogeochemical processes, particularly the C : N : P ratio in suspended particulate organic matter (POM, with somewhat less attention given to exported POM and dissolved organic matter (DOM. Herein, we extend the discussion on ecosystem C : N : P stoichiometry but also examine temporal variation of stoichiometric relationships. We have analysed elemental stoichiometry in the suspended POM and total (POM + DOM organic matter (TOM pools in the upper 100 m, and in the exported POM and sub-euphotic zone (100–500 m inorganic nutrient pools from the monthly data collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site located in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean. C : N : P ratios in the TOM pool were more than twice that in the POM pool. Observed C : N ratios in suspended POM were approximately equal to the canonical Redfield Ratio (C : N : P = 106 : 16 : 1, while N : P and C : P ratios in the same pool were more than twice the Redfield Ratio. Average N : P ratios in the subsurface inorganic nutrient pool were ~ 26 : 1, squarely between the suspended POM ratio and the Redfield ratio. We have further linked variation in elemental stoichiometry with that of phytoplankton cell abundance observed at the BATS site. Findings from this study suggest that the variation elemental ratios with depth in the euphotic zone was mainly due to different growth rates of cyanobacterial cells. These time-series data have also allowed us to examine the

  15. Comparison of surface and column measurements of aerosol scattering properties over the western North Atlantic Ocean at Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, R. P.; Voss, K. J.; Terman, P. A.; Keene, W. C.; Moody, J. L.; Welton, E. J.; Holben, B. N.

    2014-07-01

    Light scattering by size-resolved aerosols in near-surface air at Tudor Hill, Bermuda, was measured between January and June 2009. Vertical distributions of aerosol backscattering and column-averaged aerosol optical properties were characterized in parallel with a micro-pulse lidar (MPL) and an automated sun-sky radiometer. Comparisons were made between extensive aerosol parameters in the column, such as the lidar-retrieved extinction at 400 m and the aerosol optical depth (AOD), and scattering was measured with a surface nephelometer. Comparisons were also made for intensive parameters such as the Ångström exponent and calculations using AERONET(Aerosol Robotic Network)-derived aerosol physical parameters (size distribution, index of refraction) and Mie theory, and the ratio of submicron scattering to total scattering for size-segregated nephelometer measurements. In these comparisons the r2 was generally around 0.50. Data were also evaluated based on back trajectories. The correlation between surface scattering and lidar extinction was highest for flows when the surface scattering was dominated by smaller particles and the flow had a longer footprint over land then over the ocean. The correlation of AOD with surface scatter was similar for all flow regimes. There was also no clear dependence of the atmospheric lapse rate, as determined from a nearby radiosonde station, on flow regime. The Ångström exponent for most flow regimes was 0.9-1.0, but for the case of air originating from North America, but with significant time over the ocean, the Ångström exponent was 0.57 ± 0.18. The submicron fraction of aerosol near the surface (Rsub-surf) was significantly greater for the flows from land (0.66 ± 0.11) than for the flows which spent more time over the ocean (0.40 ± 0.05). When comparing Rsub-surf and the column-integrated submicron scattering fraction, Rsub-col, the correlation was similar, r2 = 0.50, but Rsub-surf was generally less than Rsub

  16. Mass-dependent sulfur isotope fractionation during reoxidative sulfur cycling: A case study from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, André; Bui, Thi Hao; Rough, Mikaella; Mucci, Alfonso; Canfield, Donald E.; Wing, Boswell A.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple sulfur isotope composition of porewater sulfate from the anoxic marine sapropel of Mangrove Lake, Bermuda was measured in order to establish how multiple sulfur isotopes are fractionated during reoxidative sulfur cycling. The porewater-sulfate δ34S and Δ33S dataset exhibits the distinct isotopic signatures of microbial sulfate reduction and sulfur reoxidation. We reproduced the measurements with a simple diagenetic model that yielded fractionation factors for net sulfate removal of between -29.2‰ and -32.5‰. A new approach to isotopic modeling of the sulfate profiles, informed by the chemistry of sulfur intermediate compounds in Mangrove Lake, reveals that sulfate reduction produces a relatively small intrinsic fractionation and that an active reoxidative sulfur cycle increases the fractionation of the measured values. Based on the model results, the reoxidative cycle of Mangrove Lake appears to include sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur followed by the disproportionation of the elemental sulfur to sulfate and sulfide. This model also indicates that the reoxidative sulfur cycle of Mangrove Lake turns over from 50 to 80% of the sulfide produced by microbial sulfate reduction. The Mangrove Lake case study shows how sulfur isotope fractionations can be separated into three different "domains" in Δ33S-δ34S space based on their ability to resolve reductive and reoxidative sulfur transformations. The first domain that differentiates reductive and reoxidative sulfur cycling is well illustrated by previous studies and requires 34S-32S fractionations more negative than ≈-70‰, beyond the fractionation limit of microbial sulfate reduction at earth surface temperatures. The second domain that distinguishes reductive and reoxidative processes is between 34S-32S fractionations of -40‰ and 0‰, where the 33S-32S fractionations of sulfate reduction and reoxidation are significantly different. In the remaining domain (between 34S-32S fractionations

  17. C : N : P stoichiometry at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Baer, S. E.; Riebesell, U.; Martiny, A. C.; Lomas, M. W.

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability, in addition to other macro- and micronutrients, determine the strength of the ocean's carbon (C) uptake, and variation in the N : P ratio of inorganic nutrient pools is key to phytoplankton growth. A similarity between C : N : P ratios in the plankton biomass and deep-water nutrients was observed by Alfred C. Redfield around 80 years ago and suggested that biological processes in the surface ocean controlled deep-ocean chemistry. Recent studies have emphasized the role of inorganic N : P ratios in governing biogeochemical processes, particularly the C : N : P ratio in suspended particulate organic matter (POM), with somewhat less attention given to exported POM and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Herein, we extend the discussion on ecosystem C : N : P stoichiometry but also examine temporal variation in stoichiometric relationships. We have analyzed elemental stoichiometry in the suspended POM and total (POM + DOM) organic-matter (TOM) pools in the upper 100 m and in the exported POM and subeuphotic zone (100-500 m) inorganic nutrient pools from the monthly data collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site located in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean. C : N and N : P ratios in TOM were at least twice those in the POM, while C : P ratios were up to 5 times higher in TOM compared to those in the POM. Observed C : N ratios in suspended POM were approximately equal to the canonical Redfield ratio (C : N : P = 106 : 16 : 1), while N : P and C : P ratios in the same pool were more than twice the Redfield ratio. Average N : P ratios in the subsurface inorganic nutrient pool were ~ 26 : 1, squarely between the suspended POM ratio and the Redfield ratio. We have further linked variation in elemental stoichiometry to that of phytoplankton cell abundance observed at the BATS site. Findings from this study suggest that elemental ratios vary with depth in the euphotic zone, mainly due to different

  18. 《大学英语》课程中”The Bermuda Triangle Phenomenon”课堂教学设计案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温柔新; 林昊

    2015-01-01

    在任务型教学法基本理念的指导下,对《新视"大学英语院读写教程3》中的第十单元Section A:The Bermuda Triangle Phenomenon进行课堂设计.围绕教学目的,设计出由浅入深、环环相扣的任务链.使学生通过对目标语言的使用来完成学习任务,最终达到学习语言和掌握语言的目的,充分体现了学生的主体性以及注重协作学习的理念.

  19. 《大学英语》课程中“The Bermuda Triangle Phenomenon”课堂教学设计案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温柔新; 林昊

    2015-01-01

    在任务型教学法基本理念的指导下,对《新视野大学英语:读写教程3》中的第十单元Section A: The Bermuda Triangle Phenomenon进行课堂设计。围绕教学目的,设计出由浅入深、环环相扣的任务链。使学生通过对目标语言的使用来完成学习任务,最终达到学习语言和掌握语言的目的,充分体现了学生的主体性以及注重协作学习的理念。

  20. New Chemical, Bio-Optical and Physical Observations of Upper Ocean Response to the Passage of a Mesoscale Eddy off Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, J. D.; Jannasch, H. W.; Dickey, T.; McGillicuddy, D.; Brzekinski, M.; Sakamoto, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    A mesoscale eddy advected across the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site over a 30-day period centered on July 14, 1995. Temperature and current measurements along with biogeochemical measurements were used to characterize the biological response of the upper ocean associated with the introduction of nitrate into the euphoric layer due to the doming of isotherms associated with the eddy. Complementary shipboard data showed an anomalous water mass, which extended from a depth of approximately 50 to 1000 m, manifesting as a cold surface expression and warm anomaly at depth. Although mesoscale eddies are frequently observed in the Sargasso Sea, the present observations are particularly unique because of the high-temporal-resolution measurements of the new instrumentation deployed on the mooring. Analyzers that measure nitrate plus nitrite were placed at depths of 80 and 200 m and bio-optical sensors were located at depths of 20, 35, 45, 71, and 86 m. Peak nitrate values of nearly 3.0 microns at 80 m and chlorophyll alpha values of 1.4 mg/cu m at 71 m were observed, as well as a 25- to 30-meter shoaling of the 1% light level depth. A Doppler shift from the inertial period (22.8 hours) to 25.2 hours was observed in several time series records due to the movement of the eddy across the mooring. Inertial pumping brought cold, nutrient-rich waters farther into the euphotic zone than would occur solely by isothermal lifting. Silicic acid was depleted to undetectable levels owing to the growth of diatoms within the eddy. The chlorophyll alpha values associated with the eddy appear to be the largest recorded during the 8 years of the ongoing U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) program.

  1. 海水胁迫对狗牙根种子萌发的影响%The Effect of Seawater Stress on Seed Germination of Bermuda Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵世光; 孙鑫; 张雷; 郑霞; 梅景; 张辉

    2013-01-01

    To study the saline toleration of Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)Pers.] seeds,the seeds were treated with seawater of different concentrations; and then the seeds germination and seedlings growth were observed.The result showed that the germination rate and germination index under the seawater concentration of 5%,the germination vigor and simplified vigor index under the seawater concentration of 15% had no significant difference from the control group.The semi-lethal salt concentration reached to 20%~30%.It was indicated that the Bermuda grass seeds had well toleration to saline.The low concentration of the seawater could stimulate the growth of the radicles and leaves,the inhibition on the roots were greater than on the leaves when under higher concentration of seawater.%为研究狗牙根[Cynodon dactylon (L.)Pers.]种子对盐碱的耐受性,采用不同浓度的海水处理狗牙根种子,观察其萌发和幼苗生长情况.结果表明,狗牙根种子的发芽率和发芽指数在低于5%海水处理、发芽势和简化活力指数在低于15%海水处理时,均与对照组差异不显著;其耐盐半致死浓度为20%~30%,说明狗牙根种子对盐碱具有一定的耐受性.低浓度海水可以刺激狗牙根幼苗根、叶的生长,而较高浓度海水对狗牙根幼苗根的抑制程度大于叶.

  2. PENGARUH KEPERCAYAAN DAN KESADARAN MASYARAKAT TERHADAP PROGRAM TANGGUNG JAWAB SOSIAL DAN LINGKUNGAN (TJSL) PADA ASOSIASI PERUSAHAAN Studi Pada Perusahaan PetroChina Internasional (Bermuda) Ltd – Sorong, Papua Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Teljoarubun, Nancy Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the public perceived, trust and community awareness about the activities of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Company PetroChina International (Bermuda) Ltd. CSR is a moral responsibility to society, especially for native people that are in the vicinity of the Company's operations. Through these responsibilities, the Company is required to take into account the consequences of its presence on the local community through various social act...

  3. DNA-based molecular fingerprinting of eukaryotic protists and cyanobacteria contributing to sinking particle flux at the Bermuda Atlantic time-series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amacher, Jessica; Neuer, Susanne; Lomas, Michael

    2013-09-01

    We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to examine the protist and cyanobacterial communities in the euphotic zone (0-120 m) and in corresponding 150 m particle interceptor traps at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) in a two-year monthly time-series from May 2008 to April 2010. Dinoflagellates were the most commonly detected taxa in both water column and trap samples throughout the time series. Diatom sequences were found only eight times in the water column, and only four times in trap material. Small-sized eukaryotic taxa, including the prasinophyte genera Ostreococcus, Micromonas, and Bathycoccus, were present in trap samples, as were the cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Synechococcus was usually overrepresented in trap material, whereas Prochlorococcus was underrepresented compared to the water column. Both seasonal and temporal variability affected patterns of ribosomal DNA found in sediment traps. The two years of this study were quite different hydrographically, with higher storm activity and the passing of a cyclonic eddy causing unusually deep mixing in winter 2010. This was reflected in the DGGE fingerprints of the water column, which showed greater phylotype richness of eukaryotes and a lesser richness of cyanobacteria in winter of 2010 compared with the winter of 2009. Increases in eukaryotic richness could be traced to increased diversity of prasinophytes and prymnesiophytes. The decrease in cyanobacterial richness was in turn reflected in the trap composition, but the increase in eukaryotes was not, indicating a disproportionate contribution of certain taxa to sinking particle flux.

  4. Direct comparison of {sup 210}Po, {sup 234}Th and POC particle-size distributions and export fluxes at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gillian, E-mail: gstewart@qc.cuny.ed [Queens College, CUNY Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Moran, S. Bradley, E-mail: moran@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Lomas, Michael W., E-mail: Michael.Lomas@bios.ed [Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, GE01 (Bermuda); Kelly, Roger P., E-mail: rokelly@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Particle-reactive, naturally occurring radionuclides are useful tracers of the sinking flux of organic matter from the surface to the deep ocean. Since the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) began in 1987, the disequilibrium between {sup 234}Th and its parent {sup 238}U has become widely used as a technique to measure particle export fluxes from surface ocean waters. Another radionuclide pair, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, can be used for the same purpose but has not been as widely adopted due to difficulty with accurately constraining the {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb radiochemical balance in the ocean and because of the more time-consuming radiochemical procedures. Direct comparison of particle flux estimated in different ocean regions using these short-lived radionuclides is important in evaluating their utility and accuracy as tracers of particle flux. In this paper, we present paired {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U and {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb data from oligotrophic surface waters of the subtropical Northwest Atlantic and discuss their advantages and limitations. Vertical profiles of total and particle size-fractionated {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th activities, together with particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, were measured during three seasons at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Both {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th reasonably predict sinking POC flux caught in sediment traps, and each tracer provides unique information about the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump.

  5. Re-description of Echiniscus cavagnaroi Schuster & Grigarick, 1966 (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada: Echiniscoidea: Echiniscidae) from type material, with new records from Hawaii and Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Harry A

    2016-01-01

    The description of Echiniscus cavagnaroi Schuster & Grigarick, 1966 (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada: Echiniscoidea: Echiniscidae) is emended with new morphometric measurements of the holotype and eleven paratypes. The length of Cirrus A in the holotype (25.2 μm) was only half the 50 μm reported in the original description. Moreover, the largest values for Cirrus A length and Cirrus A to body length ratio for any specimen (40.6 μm, 21%) were also lower than in the original description. Variation in the presence or absence of spines was considerably greater than originally described. Spines C, Dd and E were not present on all specimens (C present in 67%, Dd in 67%, E in 50%). The length of spines Dd and E, when present, varied greatly among specimens. The geographical range of E. cavagnaroi is expanded by new records from the Hawaiian Islands and Bermuda. The species has been reported from southern China; however, the published description of these specimens differs markedly from type specimens in several respects. The presence of E. cavagnaroi sensu stricto in China needs to be confirmed. The high variability in presence or absence and length of spines in Echiniscus cavagnaroi underscores the importance of assessing variability in these characteristics when identifying unknown specimens or describing new species in the genus. This requires using as many specimens as possible and fully reporting variability. PMID:27395245

  6. Iron profiles and speciation of the upper water column at the Bermuda Atlantic time-series Study site: a model based sensitivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Weber

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model of the biogeochemistry and speciation of iron is coupled with the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM and a NPZD-type ecosystem model. The model is able to simulate the temporal patterns and vertical profiles of dissolved iron (dFe in the upper ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site reasonably well. Subsurface model profiles strongly depend on the parameter values chosen for the loss processes for iron, colloidal aggregation and scavenging onto particles. Current estimates for these parameters result in depletion of dFe. A high stability constant of iron-binding organic ligands is required to reproduce the observed degree of organic complexation below the mixed layer. A solubility of atmospherically deposited iron higher than 2% lead to dFe concentrations incompatible with observations. Despite neglecting ultraviolet radiation, the model produces diurnal variations and mean vertical profiles of H2O2 and iron species that are in good agreement with observations.

  7. The 3He flux gauge in the Sargasso Sea: a determination of physical nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone at the Bermuda Atlantic time series site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, R. H. R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Doney, S. C.; Lott, D. E., III

    2015-03-01

    We provide a new determination of the annual mean physical supply of nitrate to the euphotic zone in the western subtropical North Atlantic based on a three year time-series of measurements of tritiugenic 3He from 2003 to 2006 in the surface ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. We combine the 3He data with a sophisticated noble gas calibrated air-sea gas exchange model to constrain the 3He flux across the sea-air interface, which must closely balance the upward 3He flux into the euphotic zone. The product of the 3He flux and the observed subsurface nitrate-3He relationship provides an estimate of the minimum rate of new production in the BATS region. We also applied the gas model to an earlier time series of 3He measurements at BATS in order to recalculate new production fluxes for the 1985 to 1988 time period. The observations, despite an almost three-fold difference in the nitrate-3He relationship, yield a roughly consistent estimate of nitrate flux. In particular, the nitrate flux from 2003-2006 is estimated to be 0.65 ± 0.3 mol m-2 y-1, which is ~ 40% smaller than the calculated flux for the period from 1985 to 1988. The difference between the time periods, which is barely significant, may be due to a real difference in new production resulting from changes in subtropical mode water formation. Overall, the nitrate flux is larger than most estimates of export fluxes or net community production fluxes made locally for BATS site, which is likely a reflection of the larger spatial scale covered by the 3He technique and potentially also by decoupling of 3He and nitrate during obduction of water masses from the main thermocline into the upper ocean.

  8. Neonatal aerosol exposure to Bermuda grass allergen prevents subsequent induction of experimental allergic feline asthma: evidence for establishing early immunologic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M C; Lee-Fowler, T M; Liu, H; Cohn, L A; Reinero, C R

    2014-07-15

    Allergic asthma is increasing in industrialized countries, especially in children. Rodent and human studies suggest an opportunity to "prevent" asthma in the perinatal period. The aims of this study were to create a more "natural" model of feline asthma by exposing offspring of asthmatic queens to Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) by inhalation only, and to investigate maternal-fetal-infant interactions in the development of asthma. Kittens from asthmatic queens were divided into four groups: maternal exposure to aerosolized BGA during the third trimester, neonatal exposure to aerosolized BGA in the first three months of life, both maternal and neonatal exposure, or saline control. Kittens failing to achieve an asthmatic phenotype based on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis by 6 months underwent traditional sensitization: adjuvanted allergen injection, intranasal allergen, and aerosol challenges. BALF was collected at 3, 4 and 6 months, and after sensitization at 8 months, and analyzed for eosinophil counts and BGA-specific IgG and IgA. Intradermal testing (IDT) was performed at 6 and 7 months. At six months none of the kittens had airway eosinophilia, BGA-specific IgG or IgA, and were non-responsive to IDT. After sensitization, kittens receiving neonatal aerosolization failed to develop airway eosinophilia as seen in the controls. Kittens exposed to BGA aerosols, either in-utero or neonatally, continued to lack IDT response. Chronic exposure to BGA aerosols failed to induce asthma in kittens, and instead tolerized the kittens to BGA. This is the first evidence that neonatal intervention could potentially "prevent" allergic asthma in cats. PMID:24704287

  9. 百慕大可转债的最优转换策略%The Optimal Conversion Strategies for Bermuda Convertible Bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽平

    2014-01-01

    本文研究一个可以在 n 个离散时点上进行转换的百慕大可转换公司债券(简称可转债)模型。采用基于公司价值的可转债定价模型,在公司风险资产的价值遵循几何 Brown 运动,且股价具有稀释效应的情形下,对百慕大可转债的最优转换策略进行分析。研究结果表明,存在一个非负的常数临界值,当公司风险资产价值高于这个临界值时,可转债应转换;否则,不转换。%This paper is concerned with the model of Bermuda convertible corporate bonds(convertible bonds for short)with n discrete conversion times. By use of the pricing model of convertible bonds based on the companyˊs value,the optimal conversion strategies for Bermudian convertible bonds are analyzed in the case when the value of the company ˊs risk asset follows a geometric Brownian motion and the stocks have dilution effect. Results confirm that there is a non-negative constant threshold. Moreover,when the companyˊs risk asset value is higher than this threshold,convertible bonds should be converted;otherwise,they should not be converted.

  10. The 3He flux gauge in the Sargasso Sea: a determination of physical nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, R. H. R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Doney, S. C.; Lott, D. E., III

    2015-09-01

    Significant rates of primary production occur in the oligotrophic ocean, without any measurable nutrients present in the mixed layer, fueling a scientific paradox that has lasted for decades. Here, we provide a new determination of the annual mean physical supply of nitrate to the euphotic zone in the western subtropical North Atlantic. We combine a 3-year time series of measurements of tritiugenic 3He from 2003 to 2006 in the surface ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site with a sophisticated noble gas calibrated air-sea gas exchange model to constrain the 3He flux across the sea-air interface, which must closely mirror the upward 3He flux into the euphotic zone. The product of the 3He flux and the observed subsurface nitrate-3He relationship provides an estimate of the minimum rate of new production in the BATS region. We also apply the gas model to an earlier time series of 3He measurements at BATS in order to recalculate new production fluxes for the 1985 to 1988 time period. The observations, despite an almost 3-fold difference in the nitrate-3He relationship, yield a roughly consistent estimate of nitrate flux. In particular, the nitrate flux from 2003 to 2006 is estimated to be 0.65 ± 0.14 mol m-2 yr-1, which is ~40 % smaller than the calculated flux for the period from 1985 to 1988. The difference in nitrate flux between the time periods may be signifying a real difference in new production resulting from changes in subtropical mode water formation. Overall, the nitrate flux is larger than most estimates of export fluxes or net community production fluxes made locally for the BATS site, which is likely a reflection of the larger spatial scale covered by the 3He technique and potentially also by the decoupling of 3He and nitrate during the obduction of water masses from the main thermocline into the upper ocean. The upward nitrate flux is certainly large enough to support observed rates of primary production at BATS and more generally

  11. Isotopic composition of skeleton-bound organic nitrogen in reef-building symbiotic corals: A new method and proxy evaluation at Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. T.; Sigman, D. M.; Cohen, A. L.; Sinclair, D. J.; Sherrell, R. M.; Weigand, M. A.; Erler, D. V.; Ren, H.

    2015-01-01

    The skeleton-bound organic nitrogen in reef-building symbiotic corals may be a high-resolution archive of ocean nitrogen cycle dynamics and a tool for understanding coral biogeochemistry and physiological processes. However, the existing methods for measuring the isotopic composition of coral skeleton-bound organic nitrogen (hereafter, CS-δ15N) either require too much skeleton material or have low precision, limiting the applications of this relatively new proxy. In addition, the controlling factors on CS-δ15N remain poorly understood: the δ15N of source nitrogen and the internal nitrogen cycle of the coral/zooxanthellae symbiosis may both be important. Here, we describe a new ("persulfate/denitrifier"-based) method for measuring CS-δ15N, requiring only 5 mg of skeleton material and yielding a long-term precision better than 0.2‰ (1σ). Using this new method, we investigate CS-δ15N at Bermuda. Ten modern Diploria labyrinthiformis coral cores/colonies from 4 sampling sites were measured for CS-δ15N. Nitrogen concentrations (nitrate + nitrite, ammonium, and dissolved organic nitrogen) and δ15N of plankton were also measured at these coral sites. Among the 4 sampling sites, CS-δ15N shows an increase with proximity to the island, from ∼3.8‰ to ∼6.8‰ vs. atmospheric N2, with the northern offshore site having a CS-δ15N 1-2‰ higher than the δ15N of thermocline nitrate in the surrounding Sargasso Sea. Two annually resolved CS-δ15N time series suggest that the offshore-inshore CS-δ15N gradient has persisted since at least the 1970s. Plankton δ15N among these 4 sites also has an inshore increase, but of only ∼1‰. Coral physiological change must explain the remaining (∼2‰) inshore increase in CS-δ15N, and previous work points to the coral/zooxanthellae N cycle as a control on host tissue (and thus carbonate skeletal) δ15N. The CS-δ15N gradient is hypothesized to result mainly from varying efficiency in the internal nitrogen recycling of the

  12. 匍匐翦股颖和狗牙根原生质体融合研究%Study on Protoplast Fusion of Creeping Bentgrass and Bermuda Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雪莲; 陈平; 佘伟标; 黄黉

    2009-01-01

    After several generations of successive transferation and suspension culture, the best sus- pended cell materials of Creeping Bentgrass and Bermuda grass were selected. Their cell wall were re- moved and carried on the protoplast fusion. The objective of this research was to find a new method to im- prove turf quality. The results indicated that. (1) The optimal enzymolysis solution involved 1.5% cellu- lases, 0.1% pectolase, and 0.7M mannitol; and 10 hours was the best enzymolysis time. In addition, pre- treatment of the protoplast in sugar solution before the enzymolysis had better effect. (2) The fusion agents included 30% PEG4000,15mmol/L CaCl2·2H2O,0.5mmol/L KH2PO4·H2O and 0.5mol/L mannitol, and pH 7.5 . Before fusion, adjusted the protoplast volume density to 2×105/mL. (3) The cell fu- sion rates of the two turf materials was 50%, 30min of fusion time would be better to reduce coenocytia, the hybrid cells seemed to be monstrous but with high vitality.%以匍匐翦股颖克罗米和狗牙根新农1号为材料,通过愈伤诱导、继代和悬浮培养,进而细胞融合来探讨草坪草品种改良的新方法.结果表明:(1)匍匐翦股颖和狗牙根原生质体融合时酶解液的最佳组合为:1.5%纤维素酶、0.1%果胶酶、0.7M甘露醇,10h酶解时间,且酶解前应用高渗溶液预处理效果更佳;(2)细胞融合时,原生质体密度2×106个/mL,融合剂由30%的PEG4000、15mmol/L CaCl2·2H2O、0.5mmol/L KH2PO4·H2O、0.5mol/L甘露醇组成,并调pH至7.5效果较好;(3)匍匐翦股颖和狗牙根细胞PEG融合率约为5%,以30min融合时间效果较好,产生的多核融合体少,杂种细胞多呈条形,具有较强的活力.

  13. The Bermuda Triangle of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Yves

    The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…

  14. MONOGENEA OF EXOTIC FISHES I.DESCRIPTION OF Salsuginus bermudae FROM Gambusia affinis FOR THE FIRST TIME IN CHINA%外来鱼类单殖吸虫研究Ⅰ.食蚊鱼寄生百慕大伴盐虫Salsuginus bermudae首次在我国检出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊向英; 丁雪娟

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a newly recorded monogenean in China, Salsuginus bermudae Rand & Wiles, 1987, found on the gills of an exotic fish, Gambusia affinis Baird and Girard, from Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. The shape of our specimens basically agrees with the original description except for the dimensions of the whole worms, the shape of the connective bars and the number of the marginal hooks.%记录采自广东广州食蚊鱼Gambusia-affinis鳃上的1种单殖吸虫——百慕大伴盐虫Salsuginus bermudae Rand & Wiles,1987.所获标本与Rand & Wiles的原始描述基本一致,但在量度、边缘小钩数量、联结片的结构上略有差异.伴盐虫属及百慕大伴盐虫均为我国首次报道.

  15. Produção de forragem em pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém Forage production on bermudagrass sod seeding with oat and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Elgalise Techio Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar dois sistemas forrageiros manejados com vacas da raça Holandesa. Os sistemas foram constituídos por pastagem de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. "Coastcross" sobre-semeada com aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. "Comum" e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. "Comum" e aveia e azevém em cultivo estreme. Foram conduzidos oito pastejos (de 09/06/04 a 13/10/04 e de 02/08/05 a 29/10/05, sendo avaliada a massa de forragem pré e pós-pastejo, a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (MS, a produção total de forragem, a oferta de forragem, a composição botânica, a biomassa total de lâminas foliares e carga animal. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 para os referidos parâmetros. A produção total de MS, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS e a carga animal foram de 8467,9; 7105,7kg de MS ha-1; 54,1 e 69,2kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 1050,8 e 925,5kg de peso vivo ha-1, para a pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém e para a pastagem anual, respectivamente. Houve maior participação de lâminas foliares de aveia na pastagem constituída por aveia e azevém (P0,05 entre os sistemas forrageiros quanto à produção total de biomassa de lâminas foliares. Estes resultados indicam que o sistema forrageiro constituído por bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém, utilizada no período hibernal, pode ser usada em condições climáticas similares às do presente estudo.This study was aimed at comparing two pasture-based systems grazed by Holstein cows. The systems were sod seeding of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. Common and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Common in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. Coastcross and oat and ryegrass mixture in extreme cultivation. From 06/09/04 to 10/13/04 and 08/02/05 to 10/29/05, in eight grazing periods, the pregraze and postgraze herbage mass, dry matter (DM daily acumulation rate, total dry matter production

  16. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. PMID:25565366

  17. Effects of Pruning Frequency on the Spring Succession of the Bermuda Lawn with Cross-Sowing of Perennial Ryegrass%修剪频率对狗牙根草坪交播多年生黑麦草春季演替的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴文; 郑鑫; 高起荣

    2015-01-01

    在长江中下游气候过渡带地区,暖季型草坪交播冷季型草坪草是延长草坪全年绿色的技术保障。本研究以建植3年的杂交狗牙根328为基础草坪,在秋季交播多年生黑麦草,测定了春季返青演替阶段修剪频率对交播草坪演替的影响。试验结果表明,狗牙根草坪交播多年生黑麦草,春季采用的修剪频率会促进狗牙根的生长,从而加速了草种的演替。%In the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, a climate transition zone, cross-sowing of cool-season turfgrass for the warm-season lawn is a technical support for extending green period all the year round. In the study the basic lawn, a 3-year-old lawn established with hybrid 328 Bermuda grass, was cross-sown with perennial ryegrass in autumn. The effects of pruning frequency on the succession of the cross-sown lawn were measured in spring green-up succession period. The results showed that the pruning frequency adopted in spring for the Bermuda lawn with cross-sowing of perennial ryegrass could promote growth of Bermuda grass and speed up the succession of the grass species.

  18. Crescimento de folhas do capim-bermuda tifton 85 submetido à adubação nitrogenada após o corte Leaf growth of tifton 85 bermudagrass submitted to nitrogen fertilization after cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Monica Premazzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de doses e épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio após o corte no fator de correção de área foliar, na taxa de alongamento de folhas e no comprimento e área da lâmina foliar do capim-bermuda tifton 85 (Cynodon spp foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. Ambos os experimentos foram estabelecidos em vasos com capacidade para 7 kg de terra, com solo classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, para avaliação de quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 80, 160 e 240 mg kg-1 de solo e duas épocas de aplicação (imediatamente após o corte e sete dias após o corte das plantas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Com o fornecimento de nitrogênio, observou-se diminuição no fator de correção de área foliar. O nitrogênio proporciona variação positiva no comprimento foliar, na área da lâmina foliar e na taxa de alongamento da folha, variações que ocorreram em maior grandeza entre a não-aplicação de nitrogênio e a dose de 80 mg kg-1 de solo.With the objective of evaluating the influence of nitrogen rates and application time after cutting on correction factor for leaf area, on leaf elongation rate and on blade leaf length and area of tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse. Both experiments were established in pots with capacity for 7 kg of soil classified as Entisol, in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme, for evaluation of four nitrogen rates (0, 80, 160 and 240 mg kg-1 of soil and two application times (immediately after cutting and seven days after cutting of the plants. It was used a complete randomized block design, with four replications. As nitrogen was supplied, it was observed a decrease in the correction factor for leaf area. There is a predominance of positive effects of nitrogen on leaf length, on leaf blade area and on leaf elongation rate

  19. Effect of low temperature on phytohormones and carbohydrates metabolism in Ber-muda grass%低温胁迫对狗牙根激素和碳水化合物代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 娄燕宏; 杨知建; 向佐湘; 徐庆国; 胡龙兴

    2016-01-01

    以杂交狗牙根品种天堂419,天堂328,老鹰草,运动百慕大和普通狗牙根品种保定狗牙根为试验材料,分析了人工模拟昼夜温度为适温(30℃/25℃)、亚适温(18℃/10℃)、冷害(8℃/4℃)和冻害(4℃/-4℃)等4种梯度降温冷驯化条件下,低温胁迫对狗牙根叶片细胞膜稳定性、叶绿素含量、内源激素(ABA、IAA,GA3和 tZR)以及可溶性糖、淀粉、果聚糖、总非结构性糖等碳水化合物代谢的影响。结果表明:随着温度的降低,狗牙根叶片的电导率显著升高,叶绿素含量下降,内源激素 ABA 含量升高,而 IAA,GA3和 tZR 含量均下降;碳水化合物中可溶性糖、果糖和总非结构性糖含量在5个品种中均呈不同程度的升高,但不同品种在冷驯化过程中不同温度处理下其变化差异较大,如天堂328、老鹰草和运动百慕大的淀粉含量下降;天堂419的淀粉含量变化不大,而保定狗牙根的淀粉含量则呈上升趋势。综合分析各生理指标的变化,5个狗牙根品种的抗寒能力强弱为:保定狗牙根最弱,而天堂419,老鹰草、天堂328和运动百慕大耐寒能力依次较强。低温胁迫下积累或维持较高的内源激素 ABA、GA3、IAA、tZR和碳水化合物可溶性糖和果聚糖可能是耐寒性较强的主要原因,这些代谢物的积累或维持有助于狗牙根细胞内渗透平衡和细胞膜稳定性的维持,延缓叶片的枯黄衰老和诱导抗性相关基因或蛋白的表达从而提高了狗牙根品种的抗寒能力。%To investigate the effects of modulated cold acclimation on the leaf membrane stability,chlorophyll content,endogenous hormones (ABA,IAA,GA3 ,tZR),and carbohydrate (soluble sugars,starch,fructan, total nonstructural carbohydrates)metabolism,five Bermuda grass cultivars,Tifway,Tifgreen,Tifsport, Tifeagle and Baoding were selected and treated under a range of temperatures

  20. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  1. The Bermuda Agreement on Telecommunications 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, R.

    2012-01-01

    The end of the Second World War saw global telecommunications governance renegotiated. The dominant British Imperial (later Commonwealth) network experienced multiple changes: the tightly integrated and collaborative imperial governance system fell away as the governing partners increasingly pursued their own, rather than a collective agendas and as the ‘imperial’ company, Cable and Wireless', dominance gave way to a competition and interconnection based regime as American firms and their net...

  2. Multibeam collection for BermudaCaves2009: Multibeam data collected aboard Endurance from 2009-09-05 to 2009-09-30, departing from Flatts Village, Bermuda and returning to Flatts Village, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for RC2511: Multibeam data collected aboard Robert Conrad from 1984-09-13 to 1984-10-14, departing from Bermuda and returning to Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K; Seward, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

  5. Business culture in the Caribbean region: differences and similarities between Jamaica, Barbados and Bermuda.

    OpenAIRE

    MUJURU, SHEPHERD

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has led to the creation of extensive business networks and collaboration around the world, which business organizations should not ignore if they are to survive and grow in these volatile markets of the 21st century. However, cultural diversity is one of many barriers limiting the smooth foreign market entry for business organizations, executive managers and other in-ternational employees. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate specific business cultural elements of thr...

  6. Appendix to the contribution by G.B. Engelen on the origin of the Bermuda Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmelen, R.W. van

    1964-01-01

    The basic concepts of the contribution, according to the undation theory as it stands presently are as follows. The earth’s surface is not a pure ellipsoid of rotation, but a geoid which shows extensive bulges and depressions (geo-undations). The physico-chemical processes disturb the theostatic and

  7. Bermuda: Bidirectional de novo assembly of transcripts with new insights for handling uneven coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Qingming; Wang, Sheng; Jian PENG; Ma, Jianzhu; Xu, Jinbo

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: RNA-seq has made feasible the analysis of a whole set of expressed mRNAs. Mapping-based assembly of RNA-seq reads sometimes is infeasible due to lack of high-quality references. However, de novo assembly is very challenging due to uneven expression levels among transcripts and also the read coverage variation within a single transcript. Existing methods either apply de Bruijn graphs of single-sized k-mers to assemble the full set of transcripts, or conduct multiple runs of assembl...

  8. Lessons in "Letting Go": Exploring Constraints on the Culturally Relevant Teaching of Mathematics in Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lou Edward

    2008-01-01

    Culturally relevant pedagogy has been highly regarded in its ability to impact the mathematics education outcomes of Black children as it is framed from the "wisdom-of-practice" of exemplary teachers, and recasts teaching as an intellectual, cultural, political, and social endeavor. This study illuminates the challenges in drawing potential by…

  9. Population Structure of Montastraea cavernosa on Shallow versus Mesophotic Reefs in Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    Gretchen Goodbody-Gringley; Chiara Marchini; Alex D Chequer; Stefano Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems remain largely unexplored with only limited information available on taxonomic composition, abundance and distribution. Yet, mesophotic reefs may serve as potential refugia for shallow-water species and thus understanding biodiversity, ecology and connectivity of deep reef communities is integral for resource management and conservation. The Caribbean coral, Montastraea cavernosa, is considered a depth generalist and is commonly found at mesophotic depths. We ...

  10. Insurance Supervision in Bermuda Areas%百慕大地区的保险监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗伟

    2001-01-01

    @@ 一、百慕大保险市场 近三十年来,百慕大地区的经济一直保持繁荣发展.旅游业和国际商业是百慕大的支柱产业,而保险业占据了国际商业的主要部分.世界闻名的百慕大保险市场是从一个自保市场发展而成的.在20世纪70年代至90年代,自保市场在百慕大获得长足发展,直到今天还在继续扩张.百慕大地区为专业自保公司提供优惠政策和良好的市场环境,尽力吸引更多的专业自保公司选择百慕大作为公司注册地.作为全球久负盛名的离岸金融中心,百慕大的优势在于:

  11. Teacher-Perceived Barriers to Integrating Instructional Technology in a Bermuda Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Young, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to identify, classify, and interpret, through the lived experiences of teachers, the subjective barriers to the use of new communications technology in the classroom. Three questions guided this study: (a) What in the teacher's experience prevented him or her in the adoption and active use…

  12. The Bermuda Triangle of American Education: Pure Traditionalism, Pure Progressivism, and Good Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrow, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    The pendulum has been swinging back and forth between traditional and progressive educational approaches for more than 100 years, but we still haven't figured out how to reduce the learning gap. In this first article in a two-part series, Mr. Pogrow suggests fundamental policy changes and argues for finding ways to combine the best of the…

  13. The Un-mystery of the Bermuda Triangle%百慕大三角揭密

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael McNamara; 田金美

    2005-01-01

    “百慕大三角”是指西起佛罗里达州、北至百慕大群岛、南抵波多黎各的一片大西洋三角海域。它是当今世界上最神秘的地方之一,可事实上百慕大三角并不神秘。

  14. 渝黔高速"百慕大"%The "Bermudas" in Yu-Qian Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周安乐

    2006-01-01

    @@ 我刊于今年第5期发表了"高速路上的'百慕大'"一文,很多读者对此表示关注. 近日,交通部专家破解了这段高速公路车祸频发之谜,并指出其根本原因所在:

  15. Salapärane spioonikolmnurk Moskva-Washington-Bermuda / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Briti agentidena esinenud detektiivid petsid audiitorfirmast KMPG välja saladokumente, niidid viivad Venemaale. Vt. samas: Spiooniskandaal Hewlett-Packardis. Kommenteerib ekskriminaalpolitseinik Koit Pikaro

  16. Multibeam collection for A129L3: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis II from 1993-03-24 to 1993-04-02, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. Multibeam collection for AII4L2: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis II from 1986-05-17 to 1986-06-18, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  18. Multibeam collection for AT07L35: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2003-05-26 to 2003-06-17, departing from Bermuda and returning to Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  19. Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves 2009 on the R/V Endurance between 20090905 and 20090930

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-water marine caves are one of the Earth's last largely unexplored frontiers of undiscovered fauna (animal life). More than 150 limestone caves are known to...

  20. A Bermuda Triangle?
    Balancing Protection, Participation and Proof in Criminal Proceedings affecting Child Victims and Witnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarieke Beijer; Ton Liefaard

    2011-01-01

    Since the adoption of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child in 1989, the right to participation has been recognised internationally as one of the general principles of children's legal status. It adds a new dimension to the existing and already problematic balance between the protection of the child victim and witness on the one hand and the fairness of the criminal proceedings on the other. In this article, we focus on the position of the child victim and witness in criminal proceedin...

  1. A Bermuda Triangle?Balancing Protection, Participation and Proof in Criminal Proceedings affecting Child Victims and Witnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarieke Beijer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the adoption of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child in 1989, the right to participation has been recognised internationally as one of the general principles of children's legal status. It adds a new dimension to the existing and already problematic balance between the protection of the child victim and witness on the one hand and the fairness of the criminal proceedings on the other. In this article, we focus on the position of the child victim and witness in criminal proceedings and the complexity of the different roles he or she plays in this specific legal context, especially in child abuse cases: the child victim and witness that needs to be protected, the child as a vital source of information to the judicial authorities and the child as a person under the age of eighteen who has the right to participate. After having explored the meaning of the right to participate and its consequences for the way criminal proceedings should be conducted, we will address the position of the child witness in Europe and the United States of America. The rules and regulations regarding child witnesses in these two regions are based on different premises as do their assumptions on how to acquire the most reliable testimony. This article aims to clarify these premises in order to define the biggest challenges regarding the implementation of the right to participation of child victims and witnesses in criminal proceedings.

  2. Library holdings for Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves 2009 on the R/V Endurance between 20090905 and 20090930

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  3. Qualitative and quantitative changes in exoskeletal proteins synthesized throughout the molt cycle of the Bermuda land crab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the premolt period in Crustacea, a single layer of epidermal cells that underlies the exoskeleton is thought to be responsible for the degradation of the old exoskeleton and synthesis of a new one. In order to identify molt-specific proteins and their temporal appearance, they cultured epidermis and associated integumentary tissue from the gill chambers of crab in vitro in the presence of one of three radiolabeled amino acids. Autoradiographs of [35S]Met-labeled tissues indicate a low level of synthesis in epidermal cells of intermolt animals; synthesis increases during premolt and stage B of postmolt. Label is also found in the innermost layer of the old exoskeleton while it is being degraded and in new exoskeletal layers during their synthesis. Fluorographs of gels of integumentary proteins show marked quantitative changes in 44 and 56 kD proteins late in premolt. Qualitative changes include synthesis of 46 and 48 kD proteins during late premolt and three proteins (all of ∼ 170 kD) detectable only in postmolt. Solubilized gel slices of [3H]Leu-labeled proteins indicate maximum synthesis at an earlier premolt stage than seen in Met-labeled proteins. Other proteins of 20, 24, 29, 32, and 96 kD are synthesized in a stage-dependent manner while [3H]Tyr labels small proteins that appear only in late premolt

  4. 百慕大三角--虚构之谜%Bermuda Triangle--the Enigma of Fabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂建华

    2001-01-01

    @@ 百慕大群岛、波多黎各岛和佛罗里达半岛以西墨西湾中的部分所构成的三角形海域,就是传言所指的百慕大三角区,它的传闻与沉船、死亡和神秘力量联系在一起.各种流行的出版物称:16世纪初西班牙和英国的冒险家从美洲掠夺珍宝,从佛罗里达半岛起航经百慕大返回本土时,常常遭遇莫名其妙的海难.遇难的船只据称有300多艘,其中最有名的有如"艾伦·奥斯汀"号弃船事件和1945年第19飞行大队的失踪事件.

  5. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Malkus Kristen A; Tsika Elpida; Ischiropoulos Harry

    2009-01-01

    Abstract While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with o...

  6. Exploration of Bermuda Triangle in Obstetrics%探索产科领域的百慕大之谜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵勇; 姚珍薇

    2005-01-01

    妊娠肝内胆汁淤积症(ICP)往往在妊娠晚期发生胎儿猝死,但机制尚不清楚.孕妇和胎儿体内高浓度胆汁酸水平是ICP的显著临床特点.胆汁酸对实验动物心肌细胞具有毒性作用.深入研究胆汁酸对胎儿心脏的毒性作用,有可能揭示胎儿死亡之谜.

  7. My View on the Secrete of Bermudas%百慕大三角揭秘之管见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建春

    2001-01-01

    @@ 位于北纬30°的百慕大三角,和北纬30°一样神秘.而百慕大三角不仅神秘,且被张扬得使世人谈虎色变.不要说制服它、利用它,就是了解它,也只是一鳞半爪、九牛一毛.2000年,科学家们对百慕大三角有了较一致的看法,即百慕大三角作崇的罪魁祸首是旋涡形成的巨大凹面汇聚太阳光,将由此过往的飞机、船只瞬间化为乌有.由旋涡形成的巨大凹面汇聚太阳光这一点人们并无异议,但也存在一些疑点.

  8. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bisaggio Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus (Kyphosidae, off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

  9. Experiments on Root Tensile Strengths of Bermuda Grass%狗牙根根系抗拉强度试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇晓雷; 杨平; 王磊

    2015-01-01

    针对目前国内常用植草护坡这一高速公路边坡防护措施,分析了狗牙根护坡的力学机理.对狗牙根根系进行室内抗拉强度试验,结果表明,狗牙根根系的力学护坡效果与其根系抗拉强度有紧密关系.建立了狗牙根根系直径与抗拉强度的相互关系,对生态边坡的设计和施工具有一定的借鉴作用.

  10. 狗牙根抗寒性研究进展%Research progress of cold resistance in Bermuda grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代会平; 杨知建; 胡勇

    2007-01-01

    狗牙根Cynodon dactylon作为最重要、应用最广的暖季型草坪草种之一,低温是其最大限制因素.综述了国内外狗牙根抗寒性的相关研究,包括低温胁迫下其形态结构和生理生化变化、抗寒性测定方法以及增强抗寒性的措施等,并提出了今后的研究建议.

  11. 野生狗牙根引种试验初报%Preliminary Study on Introduction of Wild Bermuda Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏辉; 黎可华; 李志东; 周尔卫; 梁锦钧; 廖伟青

    2008-01-01

    采用坪用质量观测结合抗逆性生化测定的评价方法,对经多年反复筛选驯化的华南野生狗牙根的3份草种:狗牙根1号、4号和5号与引进杂交天堂419为对照,进行小区比较试验,试验结果表明:野生狗牙根除密度和质地比419稍差外,其余的盖度、均一性、绿期、耐践踏性无显著差异,而抗逆性极显著强.适应性广,特别是狗牙根4号和1号是具有城市草坪使用价值的优良乡土草种,可在园林草坪试用;狗牙根5号是个抗逆性强的变异草种,可在城郊公路、堤围草坪建植护坡,并可作为育种的优质种质资源加以利用.

  12. Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane: isolation of the causal bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M J; Gillaspie, A G; Harris, R W; Lawson, R H

    1980-12-19

    A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by both strains. PMID:17817853

  13. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) are the major contributors to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation of the population. Especially hazardous are the decay products of U: 210Pb, 210Po and 226Ra in soils, water and plants. The most important exposure route to 210Pb and 210Po is through wild gathered food. Some studies show that 210Po and also some other NORs accumulate from uranium-rich grounds in mushrooms. In berries the levels are usually lower. In Finland, Sweden and Norway there are sites enriched in NORs. In these areas e.g. the 210Po levels in certain edible mushroom species may be as high as a few hundred Bq/kg, leading to effective doses of several mSv/year among certain consumer groups. The intake of wild forest products varies greatly among the population, but the public should be informed of the exposure risk and ways to minimize it. In this study, NORs and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mushrooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sampling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO standards were used when applicable, to make all stages of the work harmonized between partners. For the analytical work, samples will be sent to partners with suitable analytical facilities. The analyses will be done during the year 2013 and the results reported in the final report and in scientific publications. (Author)

  14. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Brunfeldt, M.; Rasilainen, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Skipperud, L.; Valle, L.; Popic, J.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Life Science, Aas (Norway); Roos, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Sundell-Bergman, S.; Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) are the major contributors to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation of the population. Especially hazardous are the decay products of U: {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and {sup 226}Ra in soils, water and plants. The most important exposure route to {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po is through wild gathered food. Some studies show that {sup 210}Po and also some other NORs accumulate from uranium-rich grounds in mushrooms. In berries the levels are usually lower. In Finland, Sweden and Norway there are sites enriched in NORs. In these areas e.g. the {sup 210}Po levels in certain edible mushroom species may be as high as a few hundred Bq/kg, leading to effective doses of several mSv/year among certain consumer groups. The intake of wild forest products varies greatly among the population, but the public should be informed of the exposure risk and ways to minimize it. In this study, NORs and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mushrooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sampling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO standards were used when applicable, to make all stages of the work harmonized between partners. For the analytical work, samples will be sent to partners with suitable analytical facilities. The analyses will be done during the year 2013 and the results reported in the final report and in scientific publications. (Author)

  15. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim Report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Brunfeldt, Minna; Rasilainen, Tiina;

    is through wild gathered food. Some studies show that 210Po and also some other NORs accumulate from uranium-rich grounds in mushrooms. In ber-ries the levels are usually lower. In Finland, Sweden and Norway there are sites enriched in NORs. In these areas e.g. the 210Po levels in certain edi-ble mushroom...... and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups...... will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mush-rooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sam-pling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO...

  16. Effect of Chistosan on Bermuda grass germination%壳聚糖对狗牙根种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹国勇; 刘晚苟

    2004-01-01

    用不同浓度的壳聚糖柠檬酸溶液处理狗牙根Cynodon dactylon种子,研究壳聚糖对狗牙根种子萌发的影响.结果表明:适当浓度的壳聚糖溶液(2.0%)能提高狗牙根种子活力,促进幼苗生长,提高发芽率和发芽势,呼吸速率也随浓度的增大而明显提高.因此壳聚糖处理有利于狗牙根种子的萌发.

  17. Energy Security - A Bermuda Triangle for EU -US -China Relations?%能源安全:欧美中三角关系中的一大难题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白小川; 洪建军; 徐力源

    2007-01-01

    本文认为,关于能源安全,国际关系理论两大流派建构主义和现实主义有着不同的解释.美国和中国似乎仍在推行现实主义的强权政治,而被边缘化的欧盟虽然推出了多边议程,但也可能将被迫遵循现实主义路线.文章主张,可通过将美、中、欧三方(或还包括其他国家)融入一个多边主义机制框架内,以克服它们之间的政策分歧,加强全球能源安全.这样做也有助于美、中、欧三方更好地协调能源政策,应对气候变化、发展和全球秩序等问题.

  18. The Conference of the University/Urban Schools National Task Force: What Works in Urban Schools. Proceedings. (2nd, Bermuda, March 26-27, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossone, Richard M., Ed.

    This report summarizes the proceedings and presents the papers discussed at a national conference on effective aspects of urban education. The first paper discusses the development of the San Francisco (California) Redesign Program, a five year master plan for educational reform which aimed to improve the physical educational environment,…

  19. Environmental Problems: A Global Security Threat. Report of the United Nations of the Next Decade Conference (24th, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda, June 18-23, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The world's political structure and many economic practices are out of harmony with nature. This disharmony threatens environmentally sustainable growth and human survival. United Nations (UN) conference participants discussed the degree of political acceptance of concepts such as environmental security and sustainable development. Their reading…

  20. A Bermuda Triangle of Policy? "Bad Jobs", Skills Policy and Incentives to Learn at the Bottom End of the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Ewart; James, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A focus of Government policy has been the need to ensure that those at the lower end of the labour market invest in their human capital through re-engaging with learning, which has been assumed to enable progress into better-paid employment. This article explores the problems created by "bad jobs" and the evidence for the existence of a set of…

  1. Response of bermuda grass to abiotic stress%狗牙根抗非生物胁迫的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    产祝龙; 施海涛; 王艳平

    2013-01-01

    狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)是暖季型草坪草中应用最广泛的草种之一,具有抗性强,生长快、建坪迅速等优点.狗牙根分布广泛,对不同逆境的抗性具有差异性.本文综述了冷害、干旱、渍害、盐分等胁迫对狗牙根生理生化以及分子水平的影响,总结了近10年来相关的研究进展,并对今后有可能深入的研究内容提出了意见和建议.

  2. Invasion genetics of the Bermuda buttercup (Oxalis pes-caprae): complex intercontinental patterns of genetic diversity, polyploidy and heterostyly characterize both native and introduced populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Victoria; Barrett, Spencer C H; Castro, Sílvia; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Navarro, Luis; Loureiro, João; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2015-05-01

    Genetic diversity in populations of invasive species is influenced by a variety of factors including reproductive systems, ploidy level, stochastic forces associated with colonization and multiple introductions followed by admixture. Here, we compare genetic variation in native and introduced populations of the clonal plant Oxalis pes-caprae to investigate the influence of reproductive mode and ploidy on levels of diversity. This species is a tristylous geophyte native to South Africa. Invasive populations throughout much of the introduced range are composed of a sterile clonal pentaploid short-styled form. We examined morph ratios, ploidy level, reproductive mode and genetic diversity at nuclear microsatellite loci in 10 and 12 populations from South Africa and the Western Mediterranean region, respectively. Flow cytometry confirmed earlier reports of diploids and tetraploids in the native range, with a single population containing pentaploid individuals. Introduced populations were composed mainly of pentaploids, but sexual tetraploids were also found. There was clear genetic differentiation between ploidy levels, but sexual populations from both regions were not significantly different in levels of diversity. Invasive populations of the pentaploid exhibited dramatically reduced levels of diversity but were not genetically uniform. The occurrence of mixed ploidy levels and stylar polymorphism in the introduced range is consistent with multiple introductions to the Western Mediterranean. This inference was supported by variation patterns at microsatellite loci. Our study indicates that some invasive populations of Oxalis pes-caprae are not entirely clonal, as often assumed, and multiple introductions and recombination have the potential to increase genetic variation in the introduced range. PMID:25604701

  3. Preliminary Screening of Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon) for Salt-Tolerance%狗牙根耐盐性材料初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞; 黄春琼; 张绪元; 刘国道

    2010-01-01

    狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)是暖季型草坪草中得分最高,应用最广泛的草种之一,具有耐盐碱,生长快、建坪迅速等优点.本试验采用荷格伦特营养液培养法,依次用20、26、31 g/L的NaCl营养液对403份狗牙根材料进行耐盐处理30d.筛选出在26g/L的NaCI溶液中存活的耐盐种质21份,再对这些耐盐种质进行不同盐质量分数梯度(20、22、25、28和30g/L)复选,初步筛选出较耐盐种质11份,次耐盐种质10份,这些材料为培育耐盐狗牙根品系提供了优良亲本.

  4. Comparison of leaf structure of Bermuda grass grown under two habitats%两种生境下狗牙根叶片结构的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周存宇; 费永俊; 杨朝东; 杨敏; 柯林

    2010-01-01

    通过对生长在田园土和植被砼2种生境下的5种狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)叶片的横切面进行观察,比较了其叶片厚度、上表皮厚度、下表皮厚度和主脉中维管束鞘("花环"结构)的直径.结果表明:除南京狗牙根外,与田园土生境相比,其他4个品种狗牙根在植被砼生境下的叶片厚度都有所增加;除040459/680外,与田园土生境相比,其他4个品种狗牙根在植被砼生境下的叶片上、下表皮厚度都有增加;主脉中"花环"结构直径在2种生境间的变化无明显规律.

  5. 百慕大群岛:无水资源不断水%Bermuda: No Water Resources, but No Water Supply Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少才

    2010-01-01

    @@ 提起百慕大,人们自然就会联想起神秘的百慕大魔鬼三角区,"三角区"是海域,而百慕大是地名,它的全名是百慕大群岛,是英国的海外领土,面积54平方公里,人口 6.65万(2008年估计),黑人占54.8%,白人占34.1%,混血人占6.4%,位于大西洋之中,其首府是哈密尔顿.百慕大经济繁荣,主要以金融业为主,其次是旅游业,人均GDP居世界前列.

  6. 狗牙根SRAP-PCR反应体系的优化%The Optimization of SRAP-PCR System of Bermuda Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春琼; 周少云; 刘国道; 白昌军

    2009-01-01

    本研究以狗牙根幼叶为为试材,采用单因子试验和正交设计试验2种方法,对SRAP-PCR反应体系进行优化试验,结果表明狗牙根25μL SRAP-PCR最佳反应体系为:1.5 mmol/L Mg~(2+)、0.25 mmol/L dNTP、0.4 μmol/L引物、1.5 U Taq酶和80 ng模板DNA,最佳退火温度为50.6℃.运用该体系对30份狗牙根种质进行验证,电泳结果显示扩增条带清晰、多态性高,证明该体系稳定可靠,这一优化体系的建立为今后利用SRAP标记技术对狗牙根进行分子生物学研究提供了帮助.

  7. Preliminary report of study on the Sichuan wild resources of Bermuda grass%四川野生狗牙根资源研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳宇

    2000-01-01

    通过在成都犀浦四川省燎原草业公司草坪试验基地进行的试验,研究了来源于四川省不同生态环境条件下的野生狗牙根资源材料的坪用性状及单株茎、叶、根等性状.比较了不同种质资源间存在的变异,初步得出97005和98017是两种坪用性状较为优秀的狗牙根资源材料.

  8. "中国百慕大"——黑竹沟探秘%An Exploration of Heizhugou Primitive Forest-Bermuda in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天社

    2002-01-01

    @@ 在天府之国的四川,有一处被誉为"中国百慕大"的原始森林,她就是黑竹沟.峨边黑竹沟位于风光秀丽的峨眉山西南约113公里处,跨斯合镇、勒马乡和金岩乡,面积约185平方公里,是四川盆地与川西高原山地的过渡地带,境内重峦叠嶂、曲漳幽深、雨水充沛、迷雾缭绕,给人一种阴气沉沉的感觉.

  9. 试解"中国地质百慕大"之谜%Attempt to Explain the Enigma of "Chinese Geological Bermuda"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗志立; 姚军辉; 孙玮; 赵锡奎; 刘树根

    2006-01-01

    青藏高原东部三角形的松潘-甘孜褶皱区,全区几乎被巨厚的三叠系浊流沉积覆盖,掩盖了许多地质信息,成为国内一块神秘的土地.由于地质构造特殊性,造成了许多地质问题的多解性和专家认识的不确定性,许志琴(1991)称此区为"中国地质百慕大".从古板块演化、"峨眉地慢柱"、"峨眉地裂运动"和沉积盆地学等方面探讨该问题,试图揭开该区地质上的神秘面纱,并提出国内地学界最感兴趣的几个基础地质问题.

  10. 7份新疆狗牙根材料品比试验%Verieties Comparison Experiment on Native Bermuda grass Resource in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚丽; 阿不来提·阿不都热依木; 李培英; 孙宗玖

    2006-01-01

    通过对7份新疆狗牙根材料的品比试验,对其生物学特性(生育期、形态特征、生物量)、坪用性(质地、盖度、颜色、均一性、耐践踏性、杂草状况、绿色期)、对环境的适应性(越夏、抗病虫害、越冬率)等方面进行研究.结果表明:供试新疆狗牙根草坪草坪用性综合评价为:新疆狗牙根C1最好,其次为新疆狗牙根C2,新疆狗牙根C5坪用性较差;从生物学特性上看,新疆狗牙根C1植株低矮、叶片细小、密度大、茎短且细、绿色期长,很适合于草坪草种的选择,而新疆狗牙根C5植株高大,叶片长而宽,茎长且粗,草产量高,根茎粗,适宜做牧草以及用于建植固土护坡等草坪,其他狗牙根材料居中,可用于牧草和草坪兼用.

  11. Effects of roots of bermuda grass on the stability of slopes%狗牙根根系形态对边坡稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇晓雷; 杨平

    2013-01-01

    基于野外调查和室内试验,将根土复合体看作由土体、根系所联系起来的有机体,运用非线性有限元计算方法分析在雨水侵蚀力和坡面径流侵蚀力作用下,狗牙根根系须根数量和长度对边坡表层土体稳定性的影响.结果表明:根系的存在能有效提高边坡表层土体整体稳定性,边坡表层总应力和水平应力随着狗牙根须根数量的增多和须根长度的增大而逐渐增大,边坡土体水平位移量、竖向位移量、总位移量随着狗牙根须根数量的增多和须根长度的增大而逐渐减小.因此,选择合适根系分布形态的护坡植物对稳定边坡表层土体具有十分重要的意义.

  12. A Bermuda Triangle? A Case Study of the Disappearance of Competence-Based Vocational Training Policy in the Context of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Inge; Dutson, Judith

    1995-01-01

    Observations of job training of special needs students were analyzed in terms of operational demands, staffing levels, resources, and trainee interaction. The competence approach often disappeared in the face of more pressing concerns; it serves to legitimate a political response rather than solve an educational problem. (SK)

  13. 狗牙根白化病植原体16S rDNA序列%Association of phytoplasma with Bermuda grass white-leaf disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭卫军; 陈勇; 张武; 韩承晾; 谭志远; 张巨明

    2008-01-01

    [目的]狗牙根(草坪草的一种)白化病是狗牙根的一种重要病害,在全世界均有分布.为了确定中国大陆狗牙根白化病病原,进一步与世界其他地区的病原相比有无特异性.[方法]采用植原体16S rDNA PCR扩增、序列分析、Southern分子杂交等技术对狗牙根健康植株及白化病患病植株进行研究.[结果]仅白化病植株扩增获得1.3 kb的特异片段,序列分析表明特异片段与CandidatusPhytoplasm Cynodontis有99%同源性.Southern杂交有特异条带,大小在预期范围之内.证实了在中国大陆发生的狗牙根健株型白化病病原含有植原体.[结论]大陆狗牙根白化病病原中含有植原体,为该病病原的进一步鉴定与防治奠定了基础.

  14. Effect of Bermuda Grass on Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil%狗牙根对石油污染土壤的修复效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继朝; 崔岩山; 张燕平; 邹树增

    2009-01-01

    为了研究狗牙根对中原油田地区土壤石油污染的修复效果,通过盆栽实验,设置4组处理,对照组(即不种植狗牙根组)、种植狗牙根组、种植狗牙根并添加尿素组、种植狗牙根并添加有机肥组,分别在15,30,60,90,120 d取样分析.结果表明:经过120 d后,对照组的土壤石油污染去除率为25.40%;种植狗牙根组的土壤石油污染去除率为58.67%,是对照组的2.3倍;添加尿素可以有效的增加狗牙根对石油的去除率,当尿素:土为1:2000时,石油污染去除率达到69.43%;土壤石油污染去除率随着有机肥的增加而增加,施加有机肥水平为12 g/kg时,土壤石油污染去除率达到83.97%,是狗牙根组去除率的1.4倍.因此,种植狗牙根对土壤石油污染修复有较好的作用,合理施肥对狗牙根修复土壤石油污染影响显著.

  15. Bondarev and His Bermuda Triangle%苏联解体后的邦达列夫及其新作《百慕大三角》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敬咏

    2002-01-01

    邦达列夫是一位不断创新成绩卓著的俄罗斯作家.他的小说新作通过一个家庭两代人的生活境遇,将家庭变故与社会现实结合在一起,用纪实手法刻画了解体前后苏联社会的各种人物形象,对1993年十月"白宫事件"以及戈尔巴乔夫和叶利钦所进行的苏联和俄罗斯的"改革"进行彻底的反思,体现了作者对当代社会现实的立场.

  16. 美国South Bermuda污水厂的升级改造%Upgrading Reconstruction of U. S. South Bermuda Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱石清; 唐建国; 周骅; 张善发; 高允础; 徐月江; 黄鸣; 徐鸿德

    2006-01-01

    美国South Bermuda污水厂经过工艺升级改造,污水处理量大为增加(从3.19×104m3/d增至5×104m3/d),而新建处理设施的占地面积较小.在升级改造中采用了以在线活性污泥模型ASM2D为基础的生物工艺智能优化系统(BIOS),实现了出水达标排放和曝气节能的双重目的.

  17. 6份新疆狗牙根抗旱性比较%Comparisons of Drought Resistance of Six Xinjiang Bermuda Grass Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿力木·沙比尔; 阿不来提·阿不都热依木; 齐曼·尤努斯

    2008-01-01

    在连续干旱胁迫下测定6份新疆狗牙根(新农1号狗牙根、新农2号狗牙根、喀什狗牙根、C2、C3以及C5)的土壤含水量、叶绿素含量、叶片相对含水量和相对电导度等抗旱指标,比较6份新疆狗牙根的抗旱性能.研究结果表明:供试材料在连续干旱胁迫下,叶片相对含水量呈下降趋势,新农1号狗牙根、新农2号狗牙根、喀什狗牙根、C2、C3、C5分别下降18.63%,19.1%,8.39%,17.91%,11.16%,5.58%;叶绿素含量在于早胁迫早期下降,胁迫3~30 d,新农1号狗牙根、新农2号狗牙根,喀什狗牙根、C2、C3、C5分别下降10.03,11.91,6.74,15.27,11.07,14.12 mg/g,干旱胁迫后期上升,胁迫30~60d,新农1号狗牙根、新农2号狗牙根、喀什狗牙根、C2、C3、C5分别上升11.98,18.48,4.68,16.27,10.16,1.62 mg/g;电导度上升,新农1号狗牙根、新农2号狗牙根、喀什狗牙根、C2、C3、C5分别上升32.69%,40.66%,29.67%,48.16%,32.36%,38.83%;复水后均能恢复到原来的水平.综合分析可知、6份新疆狗牙根对干旱胁迫的适应性由强到弱依次为:喀什狗牙根>C2>新农1号狗牙根>C5>新农2号狗牙根>C2.

  18. 77 FR 65580 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ..., Bermuda; and Motorola Mobility International of Hamilton, Bermuda (collectively, (``Motorola''). 77 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers,...

  19. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, primary productivity, pigments, pCO2 and other measurements collected using bottle and CTD from multiple platforms in the North Atlantic during 1988 to 2006 (NODC Accession 0032053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, biological, and physical profile data collected as part of the Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) for the period 1988-December 2006 at Bermuda...

  20. Oceanographic profile temperature, oxygen, nitrate+nitrite and other measurements collected using bottle from various platforms in the North Atlantic ocean from 1988 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0000990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profile data collected as part of the Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) from Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS; formerly BBSR)

  1. Multibeam collection for EW0310: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2003-11-14 to 2003-11-20, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Newark, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Precision Sound Velocity Profiles in the Ocean - Volume 5: Sound speed and temperature of Bermuda Waters in Autumn and Winter from October 1964 to March 1966 (NODC Accession 7000472)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A collection of high-resolution, precision simultaneous sound speed and temperature profiles to 2200 m depth, and their envelopes for each station is presented for...

  3. Oceanographic Data collected during the Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves expedition on the RV Endurance in the North Atlantic Ocean between September 5, 2009 - September 30, 2009 (NODC Accession 0111205)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-water marine caves are one of the Earth's last largely unexplored frontiers of undiscovered fauna (animal life). More than 150 limestone caves are known to...

  4. 狗牙根新品种(系)在川西南的适应性研究%Research on the Adaptability of the New Varieties of Bermuda Grass In South-western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初秀娟; 张新全; 刘伟; 易杨杰

    2009-01-01

    2007~2008 年,在四川西南的雅安、洪雅、双流 3 个地区,以国外引进品种Tifway和南京狗牙根为对照,对川西南地区的 5 个狗牙根新品种(系)进行了适应性评价.结果表明:与对照品种Tifway和南京相比,大部分参试新品种(系)均表现良好,其中川南狗牙根、Sau2011 和 Sau9936 表现出较好的观赏坪用价值和适应性.大部分材料在西南地区具有重大的推广价值.

  5. Produção e valor nutritivo da grama bermuda Florakirk [Cynodon dactylon (L. pers.] em diferentes idades de crescimento Yield and nutritive value of Florakirk bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. pers.] at different plant ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Campmany Vieira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Itapetininga/SP, numa pastagem de Florakirk (Cynodon dactylon formada há um ano, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção, composição químico-bromatológica e digestibilidade do cultivar em função da sua idade de crescimento. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 6 tratamentos (idades de crescimento definidas por cortes realizados aos 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 dias após o corte de uniformização e 4 repetições. A produção de matéria seca da parte aérea aumentou de forma quadrática (PThis research was conducted in Itapetininga, SP, Brazil, using a one year-old pasture, with the objective of evaluating the effect of plant age on yield, chemical and mineral composition, and digestibility of Florakirk bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon. The experimental design consisted of randomized complete blocks, with six treatments replicated four times. Treatments consisted of six cutting ages (20-70 days at ten-day intervals. Dry matter yield increased quadratically (P0.05 in S concentration between 20 and 60 days. A larger variation for macronutrient concentrations was observed than for micronutrient (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations with increasing plant age. There was no influence of age on B concentration. The best association of nutritive value and yield was observed at 40 days. Occurrence of the spittlebug and foliar diseases was observed, which probably retarded the vegetative and maturity processes.

  6. The Effects of Drought Stress on the Protecting Enzymes of Three Xinjiang Bermuda Grass New Varieties%干旱胁迫对3份新疆狗牙根新品系保护酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿力木·沙比尔; 阿不来提·阿不都热依木; 齐曼·尤努斯; 阿力甫·提力娃; 伊斯拉·依达吾提

    2010-01-01

    [目的]在水分胁迫及复水条件下,研究3份新疆狗牙根新品系叶片活性酶的变化.[方法]测定3份新疆狗牙根新品系叶片的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性变化.[结果]3份新疆狗牙根新品系超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性持续升高, 过氧化物酶(POD)活性先升高后降低,过氧化氢酶(CAT) 活性在胁迫前期(3~30 d)变化平缓,而随后持续升高,复水后呈降低的变化趋势.[结论]虽然干旱胁迫会导致3份新疆狗牙根新品系内形成较多自由基,使细胞膜系统受到一定破坏,但3份新疆狗牙根新品系体内的保护酶防御系统可以被有效调动以清除和防御自由基的伤害,从而保护细胞免受更大的损伤.

  7. Multibeam collection for AT3L2: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 1997-06-23 to 1997-07-02, departing from Bermuda and returning to Ponta Delgada, Azores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Biological, chemical, in situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences at OceanSITES site BATS from 1988-10-20 to 2012-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0130027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological, chemical, in situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including BACTERIA, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, DISSOLVED INORGANIC...

  9. Study on optimized conditions of Bermuda grass cellulose degradation by dilute sulfuric acid%稀硫酸降解狗牙根中纤维素工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊红; 殷祥贞

    2010-01-01

    生物乙醇是生物质液体燃料的主要形式,富含纤维素的生物质原料经过降解与发酵,可以制备生物乙醇.文章以常见的植物狗牙根为原料,选用稀硫酸对其纤维素进行降解和实验分析.结果表明:1.5%的硫酸,固液比为1:10,120℃下预处理100 min,还原糖得率可达14.05%.

  10. 用野生狗牙根草绿化湖南高速公路石方边坡的试验研究%Experimental Study of Wild Bermuda Grass Utilized in Afforestation of Stony Slope of Freeway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迎辉; 罗怀斌; 朱开明; 廖菊阳

    2004-01-01

    开发利用野生植物资源绿化高速公路边坡,具有广阔的市场前景.野生狗牙根草具有生长快、抗性强的特点,采取挂网式等技术措施,对湖南潭邵高速公路的部分石方边坡用野生狗牙根草进行绿化试验,结果表明,与传统的石方边坡客土喷播草种方法相比,不但成本低,而且坡面覆盖快,水土保持和绿化效果好.

  11. Multibeam collection for EW0106: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2001-05-31 to 2001-06-29, departing from San Juan, Puerto Rico and returning to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for KN180L01: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2004-10-25 to 2004-11-10, departing from Woods Hole, MA and returning to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for EW0107: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2001-07-02 to 2001-07-10, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Ponta Delgada, Azores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. 遮阴对四川野生狗牙根生理特性的影响%Effects of Shade Stress on Physiological Indices of Native Bermuda Grass in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏萍; 干友民; 张国珍; 王钦

    2005-01-01

    以5份野生狗牙根为试材,以国外引进的Jackpot为对照,测定在遮阴胁迫下叶片叶绿素含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性及过氧化物酶(POD)活性等生理指标.结果表明:供试材料在遮阴下,叶绿素含量变化趋势各材料不一,SOD、POD活性变化趋势一致,均在T1处理(透光70%)下达到最高,随着遮阴度的增加,酶活降低.初步表明,四川野生狗牙根能耐受30%的轻度遮阴,以野生材料J7耐阴能力最优.

  15. 应用分形维数研究狗牙根根系边坡固坡效应%A study on slope protection effect using the root system of bermuda grass based on fractal dimension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇晓雷; 杨平

    2016-01-01

    植物根系形态非常复杂,很难定量确定根系对边坡土体的防护作用.笔者选择常见护坡植物狗牙根为研究对象,根据自主研发的分形维数计算软件确定狗牙根根系分形维数,提出基于根系分形特征的固土机理数值分析方法,将根土复合体当作由土体、根系所联系起来的有机体,研究在雨水侵蚀力和坡面径流侵蚀力作用下,不同根系分形特征对土体位移场的影响.根据根系分形维数与表层位移关系曲线,建立分形维数与边坡土体稳定性的相互关系,明确边坡植入狗牙根根系对表层土体稳定性影响,研究结果表明,分形维数与数值计算相结合,能够反映植物根系形态对边坡表层土体位移的影响,对于植物生态边坡的设计与施工具有现实的指导意义.

  16. Comparison of Microstructure of Bermuda Grass in Different Substrates%狗牙根草在不同基质上生长的显微结构比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄权军; 任小军

    2007-01-01

    采用光学显微镜观察,研究狗牙根草生长在2种不同基质上(混凝土基质和常规基质)的显微结构差别.从植物根的5个对比项来测定细胞的组织,记录数据并进行统计学上的方差分析,从而得出土壤基质对植物形态学影响的程度.结果表明生长在2种不同基质上的同一种狗牙根草的组织间差异极其著.

  17. Multibeam collection for AT07L36: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2003-06-21 to 2003-07-08, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Woods Hole, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  18. Multibeam collection for KN180L02: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2004-11-14 to 2004-12-17, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Woods Hole, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  19. Multibeam collection for KN207-02: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2012-05-09 to 2012-06-11, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Ponta Delgada, Azores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Study on the technology of production of fermented ethanol from Bermuda grass's saccharification liquid%狗牙根糖化液发酵制备乙醇的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊红; 王福梅; 程慧; 赵奇

    2013-01-01

    禾本科狗尾草属植物——狗牙根,纤维素含量非常丰富,纤维素经过稀酸、纤维素酶和木聚糖酶处理后,接种嗜鞣管囊酵母发酵可得到生物乙醇.试验以乙醇得率为指标,研究了葡萄糖、酵母膏、蛋白胨、接种量、温度、时间、pH等因素对乙醇得率的影响,通过正交试验,得到最佳的试验组合,最后用狗牙根糖化液代替葡萄糖进行发酵,生产制备生物乙醇.结果表明,在以葡萄糖为原料的乙醇生产过程中的最佳条件是:100 mL的培养基中,葡萄糖20 g、酵母膏1.5 g、蛋白胨0.5g、接种量13 mL、温度30℃、时间60 h、pH5.5、硫酸铵1g、磷酸二氢钾0.2 g、硫酸镁0.1g,乙醇的最高产率为43.35%;狗牙根糖化液最终乙醇得率为7.04%.

  1. Multibeam collection for EW9210: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1992-09-29 to 1992-11-09, departing from Bridgetown, Barbados and returning to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for KN207-01: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2012-04-21 to 2012-05-04, departing from Woods Hole, MA and returning to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Assessment of the Quality and Spring Transition of Bermuda Grass Turf%冬季盖播黑麦草对狗牙根草坪质量和返青的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昌平; 邓斌; 杨烈

    2014-01-01

    冬季在狗牙根草坪上盖播黑麦草是常见的维护草坪四季常绿的一种措施,但尚不清楚盖播播量对草坪质量的影响.在本研究中,高播量(150g/m2)下草坪前期生长更为迅速,草坪密度更高,草坪质地更为细腻.1月到3月,不同播量的草坪的质量相近.4月后,高播量草坪由于黑麦草个体间强烈竞争造成单株生长受阻,弱小,对环境胁迫抗性低,逐步消退,使得草坪密度、色泽和均一性急剧下降,草坪总体质量骤然降低;平常播量(50g/m2)下黑麦草个体间竞争相对较小,黑麦草草坪草生长受环境影响相对较小,草坪质量基本保持平稳.未盖播草坪总体外观质量前期逐步下降,1月到2月达到最低点,3月开始逐步上升,4月到5月后草坪质量逐步赶上并超过盖播草坪.总体而言,盖播提高了冬春季节草坪的综合外观质量和功能.但是盖播严重阻碍了狗牙根返青和生长,高播量都显著降低了狗牙根草坪枝条密度、草坪质量、地上部和地下部生长,平常播量甚至造成狗牙根草坪完全消亡.黑麦草的生长状况受播量影响较大,高播量下草坪枝条数高,但生长高度下降,生物产量低,对狗牙根草坪的竞争力弱.

  4. Multibeam collection for RC2503: Multibeam data collected aboard Robert Conrad from 1984-02-26 to 1984-03-10, departing from Norfolk, VA and returning to Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for KN200-06: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2011-05-15 to 2011-06-12, departing from Pointe A Pitre, Guadeloupe and returning to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Multibeam collection for RC2510: Multibeam data collected aboard Robert Conrad from 1984-08-09 to 1984-09-08, departing from St. John's, Newfoundland and returning to Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. 土壤含水量对狗牙根叶片生理生态指标的影响%Effects of Soil Water Contents on the Ecophysiological Characteristics of Bermuda Grass Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾国梅; 张红燕; 韩京成; 黄应平

    2009-01-01

    采用盆栽控水试验,研究了不同土壤含水量(水淹,23%,18%,13%,8%)对我国雅砻江库区重要植物物种狗牙根叶片光合色素、SOD活性、POD活性、脯氨酸和MDA含量变化的影响.结果表明:与对照(23%)相比,狗牙根受到淹水胁迫时叶绿素a,b的含量和光合效率有所下降,丙二醛含量有所升高,但是抗氧化酶活性以及脯氨酸含量的增大提高了植物对淹水胁迫的抵抗力.随着土壤含水量的减少,叶绿素a和b的含量、光合速率、SOD、POD活性和丙二醛含量先升高,随后逐渐降低.SOD和POD活性在8%时存在最低值,分别为33.10 U/gFW和3.87 U/gFW.Carot-enoid/Chlorophyll(Car/Chl)比值在18%时达到最低值0.22.然后增大.脯氨酸(Pro)含量随胁迫程度呈明显的增大趋势,并在8%达到最大值0.31 μg/gFW,说明干旱条件时狗牙根通过提高类胡萝卜素和脯氨酸含量来改善渗透调节能力,增强对干旱胁迫的抵抗能力和适应力.但严重的干旱胁迫(8%)导致了植物叶片的损伤.

  8. 百慕大魔鬼三角区可能蕴含着丰富的天然气水合物%Bermuda Devil Delta Region is Possibly Containing the Rich Natural Gas Hydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚庆忠; 徐杨可

    2007-01-01

    百慕大三角区海域是个令人望而生畏的地方,相传经过这里的轮船、飞机会神秘地失踪.现尝试用海底天然气水合物气化来解释发生在这里的奇异事件,并对这种模式的可能性进行了探讨,认为百慕大三角区海域极有可能蕴藏着丰富的天然气水合物.

  9. Multibeam collection for KN182L02: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2005-05-02 to 2005-05-26, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Miami, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for KN193-06: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2008-06-29 to 2008-07-12, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Norfolk, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Cloning and Functional Identification of Stress-resistant BeDREB Genes from Bermuda grass%草坪草狗牙根中抗逆基因BeDREB的克隆及功能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢永丽; 王自章; 刘强; 张淑平

    2005-01-01

    DREB(dehydration-responsive element-binding protein)蛋白是一类在植物中所特有的,能与DRE(dehydration-responsive element)顺式作用元件特异性结合的转录因子,调控与干旱、高盐以及低温等逆境胁迫应答有关基因的表达.根据狗牙根近缘植物的DREB转录因子的AP2/EREBP保守结构域的基因序列,通过RT-PCR和RACE的方法分别从冷诱导和盐诱导的狗牙根cDNA中扩增到了2个似DREB基因,分别命名为BeDREB1和BeDREB2,并已提交NCBI GenBank,其登录号分别为AY462117和AY462118.这两个基因的编码框均为753个碱基,编码251个氨基酸,具有DREB转录因子的典型特征.两种逆境胁迫下扩增的基因序列同源性很高,达到了97.8%.利用酵母单杂交真核转录激活的方法进行了功能鉴定,证明BeDREB1和BeDREB2蛋白均可以与DRE顺式作用元件结合,激活下游报告基因HIS3的表达.RT-PCR结果显示,BeDREB1基因受冷胁迫诱导表达,而BeDREB2受盐胁迫的诱导表达,且随着诱导时间的不同,表达量也在发生变化.上述结果表明,从狗牙根中克隆到的BeDREB1和BeDREB2基因属于DREB转录因子家族的新成员,在狗牙根中分别与冷胁迫和盐胁迫的信号转导有关.

  12. Multibeam collection for AT05L04: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2001-08-04 to 2001-08-30, departing from Ponta Delgada, Azores and returning to Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for KN188-02: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2007-03-02 to 2007-03-22, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Woods Hole, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for MGL1304: Multibeam data collected aboard Marcus G. Langseth from 2013-03-31 to 2013-04-08, departing from Galveston, TX and returning to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Multibeam collection for AT05L03: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2001-06-26 to 2001-07-29, departing from Bermuda and returning to Ponta Delgada, Azores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Multibeam collection for EW0309: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2003-10-22 to 2003-11-09, departing from Bridgetown, Barbados and returning to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. 常温贮藏下新农1号狗牙根种子劣变的研究%Study on seed deterioration of Xinnong No. 1 Bermuda grass stored at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培英; 孙宗玖; 阿不来提; 张建春

    2007-01-01

    对常温贮藏下新农1号狗牙根Cynodon dactylon cv.Xinnong No.1种子劣变进行研究,结果表明:随贮藏年限增加,新农1号狗牙根种子的发芽指数(GI)、发芽势(GE)、活力指数(Ⅵ)、发芽率(G)、电导率及可溶性糖均表现先逐渐增大,达到最大值时下降的趋势;经相关分析,种子发芽指数、发芽率、活力指数三者间呈显著相关,可以衡量种子的老化程度,而电导率与种子的老化程度相关不显著;综合各项指标,新农1号狗牙根的贮藏年限最好不要超出4年,以2~3年最好.

  18. Assessment of turf quality of native Bermuda grass accessions collected in Panxi region of Sichuan Province%四川攀西地区野生狗牙根坪用价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赞; 毛凯; 吴彦奇; 高洪文; 韩建国

    2005-01-01

    以四川攀西地区12份野生狗牙根Cynodon dactylon为研究材料,以四川省夹江、海南省兴隆和国外品种Tifway 3份材料作为对照,通过小区引种试验,对其坪用价值进行评定.结果表明:C10在运动草坪中表现已超过商业品种Tifway,极有开发价值; C10适合于用作观赏草坪; C01,C05和C10适合用作游憩草坪;C05,C01和C08在水保草坪中具有一定开发价值.

  19. Multibeam collection for AT05L04a: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2001-08-30 to 2001-08-30, departing from Ponta Delgada, Azores and returning to Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Multibeam collection for MGL1305: Multibeam data collected aboard Marcus G. Langseth from 2013-04-11 to 2013-05-19, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Ponta Delgada, Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. Multibeam collection for AT05L07: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2001-09-03 to 2001-09-05, departing from Bermuda and returning to Woods Hole, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Impacts of Primo MAXX Growth Regulator on the Growth of Bermuda Grass%生长调节剂Primo MAXX对狗牙根草坪草生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战胜; 张海娟; 陈勇

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究生长调节剂Primo MAXX对狗牙根草坪草生长的影响,为华南地区Primo MAXX在狗牙根草坪上的应用提供依据.[方法]采用单因素随机区组试验设计,研究不同浓度的Primo MAXX对狗牙根草坪草自然生长高度、叶色及地上部鲜重的影响.[结果]不同浓度的Primo MAXX对狗牙根的生长高度有较好的抑制作用,且各浓度之间差异不显著;适量施用Primo MAXX可以丰富草坪色彩;施药后35 d狗牙根茎变粗.[结论]在华南地区狗牙根草坪上使用有效剂量为150~300 g/hm2的Primo MAXX较为适宜.

  3. Multibeam collection for AT3L60: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2000-11-11 to 2000-12-16, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Woods Hole, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. 狗牙根草茎建植堤防护坡技术研发与应用%Technology and application of planting bermuda grass for river bank revetment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏现玉

    2013-01-01

    针对2007年汛期淮北大堤新植草皮护坡成坪前水毁严重问题,避免草皮护坡修复中产生二次损毁,开展经济、速成型草皮护坡专项研究,开发出“狗牙根草茎建植堤防护坡技术”,应用效益显著.利用该技术建植的草皮,可广泛用于堤防护坡,对砂性土质堤防应用效果更为明显.

  5. 壳聚糖对狗牙根种子愈伤组织诱导和分化的影响%The Influence of Chitosan on the Induction and Differentiation of Bermuda grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪; 姜茜; 郑丽屏; 蔡平

    2008-01-01

    [目的]为优化狗牙根的组织培养体系.[方法]以普通狗牙根的成熟种子作外植体,研究了直接添加壳聚糖和用壳聚糖水溶液浸种对愈伤组织诱导和植株分化的影响.[结果]结果表明,N6培养基较适合用于诱导狗牙根种子的愈伤组织;壳聚糖的直接添加和浸种均能够显著提高愈伤组织的诱导率.其中,在N6培养基中,直接添加2g/L壳聚糖时狗牙根种子出愈率最高,为88.00%.MS培养基较适合用于狗牙根种子愈伤组织的分化,添加1 g/L壳聚糖时愈伤组织分化率最高,为35.00%.

  6. 一种用于复合材料整体结构填充区的增强芯材%A Reinforced Core-Material Used in Bermuda Triangel of Integral Structure of Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宪珠; 常海峰; 孙占红

    2010-01-01

    介绍了可添加于整体结构填充区的ZXC190、ZXC195增强芯材以及添加这种增强芯材接头试验件的制造工艺与拉伸强度试验方法,给出了试验件的拉伸初始损伤载荷和破坏载荷.试验结果表明:ZXC190、ZXC195增强芯材与单向带预浸料相比,其接头试验件沿腹板方向的拉伸强度有大幅度提高.

  7. Multibeam collection for EW9609: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1996-11-23 to 1996-11-29, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Tampa, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Establishment and management of Xinnong No.1 Bermuda grass in football field turf%"新农一号"狗牙根足球场草坪的建植与管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亚里坤·努尔; 阿不来提

    2008-01-01

    通过总结"新农一号"狗牙根在新疆托克孙县建植足球场草坪的成功经验,探索了我国西北干旱、半干旱地区利用"新农一号"狗牙根建植运动场草坪的建植和养护管理技术.初步形成了适合该地区运动场草坪的建植和养护管理技术规范.对同等地区运动场草坪的建植及养护管理具有指导性意义.

  9. Trouble in paradise - is gaming the way forward?

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Cordell W.

    2013-01-01

    From the late 1800s, when Princess Louise made Bermuda synonymous with winter tourism, to the 1930s, with the advent of air travel, forcing Bermuda to become a summer destination due to the guaranteed sunshine of distant Caribbean neighbours, Bermuda has always encountered and overcame challenges as it staked out its spot in an increasingly global world. Tourism arrivals steadily grew until 1980, the year that more than 600,000 visitors, (490,000 of them air visitors) came to Bermuda – then a...

  10. GI Locator Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DHEKELIA ÅLAND ISLANDS ALBANIA ALGERIA AMERICAN SAMOA ANDORRA ANGOLA ANGUILLA ANTIGUA ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA ARGENTINA ARMENIA ARUBA ... BENIN BERMUDA BHUTAN BOLIVIA BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BOTSWANA BRAZIL BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS BRUNEI ...

  11. Find an ENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba ... Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Terr British Virgin Islands Brunei- ...

  12. 7 CFR 319.37-9 - Approved packing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Bermuda that such sand was free from soil. Excelsior. Exfoliated vermiculite. Ground cork. Ground peat...—wood or cork. Sphagnum moss. Stockosorb superabsorbent polymer Vegetable fiber when free of...

  13. 78 FR 39784 - Invesco Advisers, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Ltd. is a global money management company organized under the laws of Bermuda. Invesco, a Delaware... against any risk of abuse. Applicants, on behalf of the Funds, represent that any transactions...

  14. Chemical and phytoplankton abundance data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the OCEANUS cruises OC404-01 and OC404-04 as part of the EDDIES project from 2004-06-12 to 2004-08-11 (NODC Accession 0078142)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PI: Nick Bates of: Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR) dataset: pigments chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin sampled from Niskin bottles platform: R/V Oceanus...

  15. Chemical and phytoplankton abundance data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the OCEANUS cruise OC415-01 as part of the EDDIES project from 2005-06-20 to 2005-07-14 (NODC Accession 0078141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PI: Nick Bates of: Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR) dataset: Niskin bottle chlorophyll, Phaeo and oxygen dates: 20 June 2005 to 14 July 2005 location:...

  16. Biological, chemical and other data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the WEATHERBIRD II cruises UNKNOWN as part of the EDDIES project from 2004-06-24 to 2005-08-25 (NODC Accession 0081718)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PI: Nick Bates of: Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR) dataset: Niskin bottle and CTD data; nutrients, oxygen, DIC, POC, PON platform: R/V Weatherbird II...

  17. Biological data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the OCEANUS cruises WB0409, WB0413, WB0506, and WB0508 as part of the EDDIES project from 2004-06-24 to 2005-08-24 (NODC Accession 0086459)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PI: Nick Bates of: Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR) dataset: Primary Production data platform: R/V Weatherbird II Methodology: see Chapter 18: Primary...

  18. Depth anomalies in the Arabian Basin, NW Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajay, K.K.; Chaubey, A.K.

    ). Mostly negative depth anomalies (swells) correlate with hotspots such as Iceland, the Azores, Cape Verde and Bermuda in the North Atlantic Ocean. The negative depth anomalies are often about a kilometre shallower than the neighbouring seafloor...

  19. On the doubtful records of Alvania platycephala, Alvania pagodula and Alvania didyma, with the description of two new rissoid species (Mollusca; Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.J.; Moolenbeek, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two new species of Alvania are described from Bermuda. Both species have been wrongly identified in the past. The generic classification is discussed but a definitive statement based only on conchological characters seems impossible.

  20. Bermudskii sekret dlja investorov / Virkko Lepassalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Puidutööstuse Viisnurk ja paljude teiste ettevõtete omanikeringi kuuluv Bank of Bermuda on kasutanud osavalt Eesti seadusandlust. Kommenteerivad: Joakim Helenius, Leonid Tsingisser. Vt. ka: Zakon na ruku serõm kardinalam lk. 6

  1. Kanadas auhinnati Pikkovi "Bermudat"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    pPIK mare 2010

    1999-01-01

    Ottawas 21.-24.okt. toimunud tudengite rahvusvahelisel animafilmide festivalil sai Ülo Pikkovi "Bermuda" festivali direktori auhinna ja žürii eripreemia helikujunduse eest. Osalesid veel eesti filmid "Päevavalgus" (Mait Laas) ja "Kaerajaan" (Mikk Rand)

  2. Line W Hydrography including pressure, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved chlorofluorocarbons from bottle and CTD casts from the R/V CAPE HATTERAS in the Northwest Atlantic from September 6th, 2004 to September 11th, 2004 (NODC Accession 0063575)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents one of a series of hydrographic sections conducted along Line W from the continental shelf south of New England toward Bermuda. A total of...

  3. Line W Hydrography including pressure, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved chlorofluorocarbons from bottle and CTD casts from the R/V OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic from April 30th, 2004 to May 5th, 2004 (NODC Accession 0063574)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represent one of a series of hydrographic sections conducted along Line W from the continental shelf south of New England toward Bermuda. A total of 54...

  4. Line W Hydrography including pressure, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved chlorofluorocarbons from bottle and CTD casts from the R/V OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic from April 9th, 2007 to April 13th, 2007 (NODC Accession 0063580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents one of a series of hydrographic sections conducted along Line W from the continental shelf south of New England toward Bermuda. A total of...

  5. Line W Hydrography including pressure, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved chlorofluorocarbons from bottle and CTD casts from the R/V OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic from October 13th, 2005 to October 17th, 2005 (NODC Accession 0063577)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represent one of a series of hydrographic sections conducted along Line W from the continental shelf south of New England toward Bermuda. A total of 16...

  6. Line W Hydrography including pressure, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved chlorofluorocarbons from bottle and CTD casts from the R/V OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic from October 19th, 2006 to October 24th, 2006 (NODC Accession 0063579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents one of a series of hydrographic sections conducted along Line W from the continental shelf south of New England toward Bermuda. A total of...

  7. Line W Hydrography including pressure, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved chlorofluorocarbons from bottle and CTD casts from the R/V OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic from April 5th, 2006 to April 14th, 2006 (NODC Accession 0063578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represent one of a series of hydrographic sections conducted along Line W from the continental shelf south of New England toward Bermuda. A total of 17...

  8. Line W Hydrography including pressure, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved chlorofluorocarbons from bottle and CTD casts from the R/V OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic from May 10th, 2008 to May 19th, 2008 (NODC Accession 0063581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents one of a series of hydrographic sections conducted along Line W from the continental shelf south of New England toward Bermuda. A total of...

  9. Seitse paika, mis peidavad mõistatusi / Till Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Till

    2009-01-01

    Kayaikhtiyo stuupa Birmas, Nazca Peruus, püramiidid Egiptuses, Meoto-Iwa Jaapanis, Stonehenge Inglismaal, Machu Picchu Peruus ja Bermuda kolmnurk Sargasso meres on paigad, mille lahtiseletamise üle on murdnud pead mitu põlvkonda inimesi

  10. Line W Hydrography including pressure, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, sulfur hexafluoride, and dissolved chlorofluorocarbons from bottle and CTD casts from the R/V OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic from August 31st, 2009 to September 7th, 2009 (NODC Accession 0068682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represent one of a series of hydrographic sections conducted along Line W from the continental shelf south of New England toward Bermuda. A total of 26...

  11. Priit Pärn tõi Leipzigist Hõbetuvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Leipzigi rahvusvahelisel dokumentaal- ja animafilmide festivalil sai Priit Pärna "Porgandite öö" Hõbetuvi. Eestit esindasid veel "Kaerajaan" (Mikk Rand), "Bermuda" (Ülo Pikkov), "Vioola" (Priit Tender) ja "Armastuse võimalikkusest" (Janno Põldma)

  12. Eesti filmid jahivad Suurt Suudlust / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    1999-01-01

    Tampere 29. rahvusvahelisel lühifilmifestivalil osalevad Priit Pärna "Porgandite öö" ja Ülo Pikkovi "Bermuda" ning eriprogrammis näidatakse Mark Soosaare dokumentaalfilmi "Isa, poeg ja püha Toorum"

  13. Line W Hydrography including pressure, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved chlorofluorocarbons from bottle and CTD casts from the R/V ENDEAVOR in the Northwest Atlantic from October 1st, 2007 to October 7th, 2007 (NODC Accession 0063743)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents one of a series of hydrographic sections conducted along Line W from the continental shelf south of New England toward Bermuda. A total of...

  14. Line W Hydrography including pressure, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved chlorofluorocarbons from bottle and CTD casts from the R/V OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic from April 26th, 2005 to May 3rd, 2005 (NODC Accession 0063576)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents one of a series of hydrographic sections conducted along Line W from the continental shelf south of New England toward Bermuda. A total of...

  15. Response of lead cycling in the surface Sargasso Sea to changes in tropospheric input

    OpenAIRE

    Veron, Alain J.; Church, Thomas M.; Flegal, A. Russell; Patterson, Clair C.; Erel, Yigal

    1993-01-01

    Lead and its stable isotopes have been analyzed in surface water samples (0–600 m) and trapped particles collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Station (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study) in April and November 1989. These results are compared with wet atmospheric lead deposition as determined from precipitation continuously collected in Bermuda since August 1988 as pan of the Atmosphere-Ocean Chemistry Experiment program. Despite an expected seasonal variability, lead concentrations i...

  16. Shipboard and satellite observations of upper ocean velocity and transport variability in the gulf stream

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, David Michael

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler velocities are combined with velocity profiles generated from XBT measurements to produce estimates of the flow field between Bermuda and the eastern coast of the United States. Repeated shipboard measurements along an ascending GEOSAT subtrack between Bermuda and Cape Cod allow study of rapid Gulf Stream Variability along the track, and comparison of sea surface and velocity measurements with those computed from the GEOSAT altimeter. The shipboard data were taken during two ...

  17. Serial Observations of Drift Currents in the Central North Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Stommel, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Between October 21, 1953 and February 9, 1954 a series of nearly continuous observations of wind-drift currents was made in the open ocean off Bermuda by means of drifting wireless- telemetering buoys. A rough plot of the position of each of these buoys relative to Bermuda was obtained by means of a mobile radio-direction-finding station.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1954.tb01114.x

  18. Predição da composição química de bermudas (Cynodon spp. pela espectroscopia de reflectância no infravermelho proximal Prediction of chemical composition of Cynodon spp. by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Serena Fontaneli

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversos cultivares de Cynodon dactylon têm sido cultivados no Rio Grande do Sul para alimentação do rebanho leiteiro, na forma de pastejo ou feno. A rápida determinação do valor nutritivo dessas forrageiras pode ser útil para seu manejo e para o planejamento da dieta dos animais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver curvas de calibração para análise do valor nutritivo de quatro cultivares de Cynodon (Tifton 68, Tifton 85, Florakirk, Coastcross, utilizando o método de reflectância no infravermelho proximal (NIRS. Foram utilizadas 129 amostras de forragem verde, coletadas e analisadas entre 1998 e 2001. Os coeficientes de determinação para proteína bruta, fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro, fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido, matéria seca, cálcio, fósforo, potássio e magnésio foram, respectivamente: 0,98; 0,97; 0,99; 1; 0,92; 0,97; 0,99 e 0,72%. Os erros-padrão de calibração foram de 0,38; 0,60; 0,35; 0,14; 0,02; 0,01; 0,05 e 0,01%, respectivamente. As equações obtidas foram consideradas de excelente resolução para todos os parâmetros estimados, o que indica a acurácia do método para a espécie avaliada.Many Cynodon dactylon cultivars have been cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul state to be used as pasture or hay to feed dairy cattle. Quick determination of the nutritional value of these forages would be valuable for management and diet planning. This work had the objective to develop calibration curves for analysis of the nutritional value of four Cynodon cultivars (Tifton 68, Tifton 85, Florakirk, Coastcross, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS. A total of 129 fresh samples of green pasture were collected and analyzed from 1998 to 2001. The determination coefficients for crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, dry matter, calcium, phosphorus, potash and magnesium were, respectively, .98, .97, .99, 1, .92, .97, .99 and .72%. The calibration standard error for the same parameters were .38, .60, .35, .14, .02, .01, .05 and .01%, respectively. Obtained equations were considered of excellent resolution for all estimated parameters, indicating the accuracy of the method for the species studied.

  19. 三峡库区狗牙根根系固坡抗蚀效应研究%Effect of Root System of Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. ) on Slope Reinforcement and Soil Erosion Resistance in Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌芸; 祝亚军; 何丙辉

    2010-01-01

    研究了三峡库区嘉陵江岸的野生狗牙根(Cynodondactylon(L)Pers.)根系在土壤表层(0-30 cm)的分布特征,并从土壤理化性质和抗剪强度方面分析了其固坡抗蚀效应.研究结果表明:(1)样本的根系密度(RSD,root systemdensity)与根系生物量呈较显著的正线性相关(R2>=0.874 7),且90%总根数和86%的总根量均集中分布在0-30咖的表土层;(2)狗牙根根系改变了土壤结构.土壤容重与根系生物量呈极显著的负线性相关(R2>=0.977 8).总孔隙度与根系生物量呈极显著的正线性相关(R2>=0.980 5);(3)狗牙根根系提高了土壤团聚体和有机质含量,土壤团聚体、有机质含量均与根系生物量呈极显著的正线性相关(R2>=0.947 7,0.952 7);(4)根系增强了土体的抗剪强度.根系密度越大则抗剪强度增量越大;(5)根系对土体抗剪强度的增强主要是通过粘聚力来实现;(6)根系主要是通过增强土体的抗剪强度来实现其固坡抗蚀效应.

  20. 干旱胁迫与复水对3份新疆狗牙根新品系渗透调节物质的影响%Effects of Drought Stress and Rewater on Infiltrate Adjusting Subjects of Three Xinjiang Bermuda Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿力木·沙比尔; 阿不来提·阿不都热依木; 齐曼·尤努斯; 阿力甫·提力娃

    2009-01-01

    在水分胁迫及复水条件下,研究了干旱胁迫对3份新疆狗牙根品系叶片可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白和脯氨酸含量的动态变化,并探讨了这些生理指标与其抗旱性的关系.结果表明,3份新疆狗牙根新品系叶片中的脯氨酸含量均成倍增长,可溶性糖含量呈现先增后减再增的趋势,可溶性蛋白含量先减后增,说明3份新疆狗牙根品系叶片中上述渗透调节物质代谢的水平和途径发生了一系列的适应性变化.

  1. 不同质地的坪床对土壤物理性状及草坪质量的影响%Impact of turf beds with different soil texture on the soil physical properties and quality of Bermuda turf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓露; 于玉红; 王亮; 杨志民

    2009-01-01

    The advantage resource,Yangtze River washed sand (including coarse sand and fine sand) in Nanjing,was used with the local garden soil as the turf bed materials to screening the proper turf bed formula through measuring soil density,total porosity,infiltration rate and soil water content. The results showed that (1) the bulk density of high sand content was significantly higher than the control,but total porosity was significantly lower,with the increase of pressing with field roller,the bulk density among treatments appeared different gradually and the total porosity was significantly lower,then soil aeration was improved,in which, the best sand content i was from 50% to 75%; (2) the soil stable infiltration increased and the water capacity decreased gradually with the sand content increasing. The best sand content was from 50% to 75% because it not only met the generally accepted international permeability standard,but also performed relatively better capacity for holding water and soil nutrients; (3) the turf quality tended to raise first and then declined as the sand content increasing,50% of sand content performed the best and it was followed by the formula of 25% coarse sand + 75% fine sand.%以暖季型草坪草杂交狗牙根品种百慕大T-419建植草坪,以南京地区优势资源"长江水洗沙"(包括粗沙和细沙)与本地田园土组合配比为坪床基质,测定土壤容重、总孔隙度、入渗率以及含水量等指标,分析不同质地土壤物理性状差异,结合草坪质量综合评判,筛选出适宜的坪床配比.结果表明:(1)高含沙量的坪床土壤容重显著高于全土对照,土壤总孔隙度显著低于全土对照,随着滚压次数的增加,各处理间的土壤容重逐渐表现出差异性,土壤总孔隙度显著降低,进而使土壤的通气性得到了改善,其中50%~75%的含沙量的处理改善效果最好;(2)土壤稳定入渗率随着含沙量的增加而逐渐增大,而土壤持水性随着含沙量的增加而逐渐降低,其中50%~75%含沙量的处理既符合国际上普遍接受的渗透率标准,又具有相对较好的保水保肥能力;(3)随着含沙量的增加,草坪质量呈先上升后下降的趋势,其中以50%含沙量的处理草坪质量表现最好,其次为25%粗沙含量和75%细沙含量的处理.

  2. Going out of Bermuda and Building New China——To Avoid the Collapse of the Soviet Union and Build Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in All Aspects%冲出"百慕大"建设新华夏——避免苏联剧变灾难,全面构建中国特色社会主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高放

    2009-01-01

    社会主义苏联模式的病源病根在于斯大林实行个人集权制、职务终身制和指定接班制,以致他推行的急于求成的过"左"路线长期难以纠正,六次错过了自我进行体制内改革的机会,苏共自己培植的高薪特权官僚集团阻碍体制内改革,结果先"左"后右、内外夹攻合葬了苏联模式社会主义.只有进行体制内改革,才能冲出"百慕大"危险区、死亡区,取得全面建设中国特色社会主义的圆满成功.

  3. The effect of different establishment methods of Bermuda grass in summer and overseeding with perennial ryegrass in autumn on turf stands%夏季狗牙根草坪不同建植方法及秋季交播黑麦草对成坪效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文恩; 张俊卫; 傅强; 包满珠

    2005-01-01

    以狗牙根Cynodon dactylon种子和营养体为材料,在武汉地区,对5种不同建植方法建成的草坪从盖度变化、成坪时间、均一性、建植成本及秋季交播多年生黑麦草Lolium perenne后翌年狗牙根的草坪质量等方面进行综合比较.结果表明:采用夏季建植狗牙根草坪并于秋季交播多年生黑麦草的方法来建植四季常绿草坪,狗牙根采用撒茎覆沙法效果最佳,其他方法依次为开沟埋茎法、间铺草皮法、穴植草茎法;种子直播法在翌年需重新建坪.

  4. Upper and lower mesophotic coral reef fish communities evaluated by underwater visual censuses in two Caribbean locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, H. T.; Goodbody-Gringley, G.; Jessup, M. E.; Shepherd, B.; Chequer, A. D.; Rocha, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Despite more than 60 yr of coral reef research using scuba diving, mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) between 30 and 150 m depth remain largely unknown. This study represents the first underwater visual census of reef fish communities in the Greater Caribbean on MCEs at depths up to 80 m in Bermuda and 130 m in Curaçao. Sampling was performed using mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers. Quantitative data on reef fish communities were obtained for four habitats: coral reefs (45-80 m), rhodolith beds (45-80 m), ledges (85-130 m) and walls (85-130 m). A total of 38 species were recorded in Bermuda and 66 in Curaçao. Mesophotic reef fish communities varied significantly between the two localities. MCEs in Bermuda had lower richness and abundance, but higher biomass than those in Curaçao. Richness, abundance and biomass increased with depth in Bermuda, but decreased in Curaçao. A high turnover of species was found among depth strata and between Bermuda and other Caribbean upper MCEs (45-80 m), indicating that depth was an important driver of community structure at all localities. However, local and evolutionary factors (habitat and endemism) are likely the main factors shaping communities in isolated locations such as Bermuda. High fishing pressure is evident in both localities, as total biomass of apex predators was generally low, and thus may be driving a "refugia" scenario in Bermuda, as the abundance and biomass of macro-carnivores increased with depth and distance from the coast.

  5. Comparison of diatom records of the Heinrich event 1 in the Western North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Isabelle M; Abrantes, Fatima G [LNEG-Marine Geology Unit, Estrada da Portela - Alfragide, Apartado 7586 - 2720-866 Amadora (Portugal); Keigwin, Lloyd D, E-mail: igil@whoi.ed [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, McLean 207A, MS08, Woods Hole - Ma. 02543 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Heinrich event 1 (H1) is a climate event resulting from the release into the North Atlantic of a huge volume of sea ice and icebergs from the northern hemisphere ice sheets. We present here high-resolution diatom records from the Bermuda Rise (Sargasso Sea) and the Laurentian Fan (South of Newfoundland) to assess its impacts on North Atlantic surface circulation and its timing. The event is composed of three phases: the two first correspond to major pulses of Ice Rafted Debris (IRD) and the third phase relates to its immediate aftermath. At both sites, diatom abundances start to rise at 16.8 ka. This increase is marked by diatom species thriving in cold environments over the Laurentian Fan, while brackish and fresh water diatom species characterize this increase over the Bermuda Rise. This last record implies icebergs migration to subtropical latitudes and nutrient-rich meltwater to support such diatom productivity. During the second phase of the event, both sites record maximum diatom abundances, when sea ice conditions are dominant over the Laurentian Fan and the contribution of brackish-fresh water diatoms culminates over the Bermuda Rise. The persistence of lower salinity related diatom species over the Bermuda Rise suggests a continuous injection of cold fresh water by cold-core rings, as observed nowadays. The last phase witnesses the persistence of low salinity water over the Laurentian Fan, while a decrease towards the disappearance of diatoms in the sediment occurs over the Bermuda Rise. Regarding the relationship between IRD and diatom abundance, it appears that a critical amount of icebergs is necessary to stimulate diatom productivity. The disturbances induced by H1 appear to end {approx}14.6 ka over the Bermuda Rise, while over the Laurentian Fan, the high diatom production persists until 14.1 ka and the salinity anomaly until 13.8 ka.

  6. Comparison of diatom records of the Heinrich event 1 in the Western North Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich event 1 (H1) is a climate event resulting from the release into the North Atlantic of a huge volume of sea ice and icebergs from the northern hemisphere ice sheets. We present here high-resolution diatom records from the Bermuda Rise (Sargasso Sea) and the Laurentian Fan (South of Newfoundland) to assess its impacts on North Atlantic surface circulation and its timing. The event is composed of three phases: the two first correspond to major pulses of Ice Rafted Debris (IRD) and the third phase relates to its immediate aftermath. At both sites, diatom abundances start to rise at 16.8 ka. This increase is marked by diatom species thriving in cold environments over the Laurentian Fan, while brackish and fresh water diatom species characterize this increase over the Bermuda Rise. This last record implies icebergs migration to subtropical latitudes and nutrient-rich meltwater to support such diatom productivity. During the second phase of the event, both sites record maximum diatom abundances, when sea ice conditions are dominant over the Laurentian Fan and the contribution of brackish-fresh water diatoms culminates over the Bermuda Rise. The persistence of lower salinity related diatom species over the Bermuda Rise suggests a continuous injection of cold fresh water by cold-core rings, as observed nowadays. The last phase witnesses the persistence of low salinity water over the Laurentian Fan, while a decrease towards the disappearance of diatoms in the sediment occurs over the Bermuda Rise. Regarding the relationship between IRD and diatom abundance, it appears that a critical amount of icebergs is necessary to stimulate diatom productivity. The disturbances induced by H1 appear to end ∼14.6 ka over the Bermuda Rise, while over the Laurentian Fan, the high diatom production persists until 14.1 ka and the salinity anomaly until 13.8 ka.

  7. Primer registro de Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae para Venezuela First record of Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joany Mariño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Venezuela el aeolidaceo Dondice parguerensis Brandon y Cutress, 1985, parásito de los cnidarios Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 y Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774, hasta ahora sólo conocido de Puerto Rico, Panamá y Bermudas.The presence of the aeolidacean Dondice parguerensis Brandon and Cutress, 1985, parasite of the cnidaria Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 and Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774 is recorded for the first time in Venezuela. It was previously recorded in Puerto Rico, Panama and Bermuda.

  8. The Copenhagen Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden.......I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden....

  9. 百慕大投资基金监管法律制度解析%The Analysis on Bermuda’s Legal Regime of the Regulation on the Investment Funds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛彦国

    2015-01-01

    Bermuda is the preferred domicile for a wide range of hedge funds, private equity funds, trust funds and mutual funds. The relevant laws of the regulation on Bermuda investment fund include Monetary Authority Act, Investment Funds Act, Companies Act, Limited Partnership Act, Exempted Partnerships Act and Partnership Act etc. The Bermuda Monetary Authority is the principal regulator of investment fund in Bermuda. There are three main structures used for the investment fund in Bermuda:company, partner-ship and unit trust. The regulations on the investment funds in Bermuda includes the regulation on the investment fund and related par-ties. Bermuda investment fund should also meet the requirement of the continuous regulation. In addition, there are regulation require-ment for funds not domiciled in Bermuda, too.%百慕大是众多对冲基金、私募股权基金、信托基金和共同基金的理想设立地。与百慕大投资基金监管有关的法律主要包括《金融监管局法》、《投资基金法》、《公司法》、《有限合伙企业法》、《豁免合伙企业法》和《合伙企业法》等。百慕大金融管理局是百慕大投资基金的主要监管机构。百慕大投资基金的组织形式主要有三种院公司、合伙和单位信托。百慕大投资基金监管包括对基金的监管和对基金有关当事人的监管。百慕大投资基金还要符合持续性监管要求,此外,百慕大对于境外投资基金也有一定监管要求。

  10. Kuus uut Eesti filmi korraga ekraanil / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo

    1998-01-01

    21. mail esilinastuvad kinos Sõprus 'Just märried', rezh. Peep Pedmanson; 'Päevavalgus', rezh. Mait Laas; 'Primavera', rezh. Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer; 'Vares ja hiired', rezh. Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; 'Bermuda', rezh. Ülo Pikkov; 'Tom ja Fluffy', rezh. Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits

  11. 7 CFR 51.2853 - One type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One type. 51.2853 Section 51.2853 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Onions (Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2853 One type. One type means that the onions are within the same general color category. Metric...

  12. 8 CFR 212.1 - Documentary requirements for nonimmigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) pursuant to section 101(a)(15)(E) of the Act, shall be in possession of a... with the treaty concluded on February 3, 1944, between the United States and Mexico regarding the... classes: (a) Citizens of Canada or Bermuda, Bahamian nationals or British subjects resident in...

  13. 8 CFR 1212.1 - Documentary requirements for nonimmigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) pursuant to section 101(a)(15)(E) of the Act, shall be in possession of a... with the treaty concluded on February 3, 1944, between the United States and Mexico regarding the... nationality with nationals of Canada or with British subjects in Bermuda, Bahamian nationals or...

  14. Changes in partitioning of carbon amongst photosynthetic pico-and nano-plankton groups in the Sargasso Sea in response to changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, J.R.; Aucan, Jérôme; Goldberg, S.R.; M. W. Lomas

    2013-01-01

    Picophytoplankton carbon biomass at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site from June 2004 to December 2010 was estimated from the direct calibration of cellular carbon content and forward light scatter (via flow cytometry). Seasonality and interannual dynamics of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and small eukaryotic algae (

  15. 78 FR 32477 - ASA Gold and Precious Metals Limited; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    .... ASA also seeks relief to exercise in South Africa, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, Canada, or Australia... COMMISSION ASA Gold and Precious Metals Limited; Notice of Application May 22, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... Metals Limited (``ASA''), a Bermuda closed-end management investment company registered under section...

  16. A simple scenario for stygobitization in Stenobermuda Schultz, 1978 (Isopoda Asellota Stenetriidae), with description of a new species from Andros Island, Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Lazare Botosaneanu; Thomas M Iliffe

    1997-01-01

    Description of a new stygobitic and troglomorphic species of Stenobermuda from a Blue Hole in the Bahamas, is an opportunity for speculation about hypogean colonization by this and by another cave-dwelling species from Bermuda, starting from populations of a widely distributed Western Atlantic shallow water marine species.

  17. A Skeptic's Bookshelf: Scientific Responses to Pseudoscience. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1984-01-01

    Lists nontechnical books and articles on the various claims of "paranormal" events. Includes general references and materials on: astrology; unidentified flying objects (UFO's); ancient astronauts; lunacy and the moon; Velikovsky and "Worlds in Collision"; the Bermuda triangle; Sirius B and the Dogon; the Tunguska event; creationism; and…

  18. Scientific Responses to Pseudoscience Related to Astronomy. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    Provided is a list of 92 references. Categories include general references, debunking astrology, identifying U.F.O.s, ancient astronauts, Velikovsky and worlds in collision, lunacy and the moon, Sirius B and the Dogon tribe, the face and pyramids on mars, the Tunguska Event, and the Bermuda Triangle. (CW)

  19. Biogeochemistry of aragonite mud and oolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterer, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Amino acids were determined on an analyzer similar to that described by Hare (1969) in carbonate mud samples from locations in the Bahamas, Bermuda, Persian Gulf, and Florida Bay, and in oolites from the Gulf of Suez, the Abu Dhabi coast, the Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas. A histogram, tables, and chromatograms of the results are given.

  20. 7 CFR 51.3209 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 51.3209 Section 51.3209 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3209 Damage. Damage unless... larger onions; (d) Sunburn when dark green in color and affecting an area equivalent to that of a...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3210 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.3210 Section 51.3210 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3210 Serious damage. Serious..., shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Seedstems when more than 1/2 inch in diameter; (b) Dry...

  2. Multifilm kui tõsine asi / Marko Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marko

    1998-01-01

    Esilinastus 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  3. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the...

  4. Micrallecto uncinata n. gen., n.sp., a parasitic copepod from a remarkable host, the pteropod Pneumoderma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1971-01-01

    A new genus and species of copepod crustacean parasite, Micrallecto uncinata, is described from Pneumoderma pygmaeum (Tesch, 1903), a gymnosome pteropod (Mollusca) collected West of Bermuda. The parasite probably belongs to the family Splanchnotrophidae and is the first copepod associate reported fr

  5. Evaluation of Warm Season Turfgrass under Different Irrigation Regimes in Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Hassan ALSHEHHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrasses play a very important role in enhancing quality of life in modern urban living. Water quantity is the most important challenge worldwide in establishing and maintaining quality turf. The present study was aimed to test the performance of three warm season turfgrasses under four water levels for plantation in arid zones. Pits (48 measuring 1m length x 1m width x 0.6 m depth were planted with four replications of Common Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, Tifway Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis and Seashore Paspalum grass (Paspalum vaginatum in complete randomized design (CRD. Irrigation was done daily with 15 l/plot during the first 4 weeks (establishment period and four irrigation levels (5, 10, and 15, 20 l/lot were maintained in the following 8 weeks (treatment period. Physical parameters (canopy temperatures, ambient temperature, leaf area, shoot production and relative water content were measured once in two week as well as the visual quality (shoot color, shoot density and shoot uniformity was assessed, however, chlorophyll analysis was done in the end of the study. It was found that temperature has significant effect on performance of turfgrasses. Canopy temperature was higher than ambient temperature in the three turfgrasses but it has different level in each variety. Five liter of water per day per square meter gave acceptable turf quality when ambient temperature ranged from 20 to 33�C. Seashore paspalum performed best followed by Tifway Bermuda grass and common Bermuda grass respectively.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of SAR11 populations in the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the northwestern Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Craig A; Morris, Robert; Parsons, Rachel;

    2009-01-01

    Bacterioplankton belonging to the SAR11 clade of a-proteobacteria were counted by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) over eight depths in the surface 300 m at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site from 2003 to 2005. SAR11 are dominant heterotrophs in oligotrophic systems; thus...

  7. Marine bacterioplankton community turnover within seasonally hypoxic waters of a subtropical sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, Rachel J.; Nelson, Craig E.; Carlson, Craig A.;

    2015-01-01

    , Bermuda during the 6-week annual transition from a strongly stratified water column with suboxic and high-pCO2 bottom waters to a fully mixed and ventilated state during 2008. A suite of culture-independent methods provided a quantitative spatiotemporal characterization of bacterioplankton community...

  8. Intercalibration of selected anthropogenic radionuclides for the GEOTRACES Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenna, Timothy C.; Masqué, Pere; Mas, Jose Luis;

    2012-01-01

    As part of the GEOTRACES Program, six laboratories participated in an intercalibration exercise on several anthropogenic radionuclides of interest. The effort was successful for 239,240Pu activity, 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio, and 137Cs activity measured in filtered seawater samples from the Bermuda...

  9. Diving investigations of Bermuda’s deep water caves

    OpenAIRE

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed gas rebreathers allowed divers to explore the shelf edge of the Bermuda sea mount at depths from 60 to 136 m to search for potential refugia of anchialine taxa during Pleistocene periods of sea level regression. Divers discovered karst and sea level features including a remnant natural bridge cave, drowned coral reefs, wave-cut notches and high relief escarpments.

  10. Pig genome sequence - analysis and publication strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archibald, Alan L.; Bolund, Lars; Churcher, Carol;

    2010-01-01

    preferentially selected for sequencing. In accordance with the Bermuda and Fort Lauderdale agreements and the more recent Toronto Statement the data have been released into public sequence repositories (Genbank/EMBL, NCBI/Ensembl trace repositories) in a timely manner and in advance of publication. CONCLUSIONS...

  11. Satellite Analysis of Ocean Biogeochemistry and Mesoscale Variability in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. A.; Micheals, A. F.; Nelson, N. B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of spatial variability on the time-series of biogeochemical measurements made at the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Originally the study was planned to use SeaWiFS as well as AVHRR high-resolution data. Despite the SeaWiFS delays we were able to make progress on the following fronts: (1) Operational acquisition, processing, and archive of HRPT data from a ground station located in Bermuda; (2) Validation of AVHRR SST data using BATS time-series and spatial validation cruise CTD data; (3) Use of AVHRR sea surface temperature imagery and ancillary data to assess the impact of mesoscale spatial variability on P(CO2) and carbon flux in the Sargasso Sea; (4) Spatial and temporal extent of tropical cyclone induced surface modifications; and (5) Assessment of eddy variability using TOPEX/Poseidon data.

  12. Russia joins Kazakh/Omani pipeline venture group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia has agreed to become a founding partner in a joint venture pipeline project formed by Kazakhstan and Oman. The agreement, signed in Bermuda July 24, is related to Chevron Corp.'s further development of supergiant Tengiz and Korolev fields along the Caspian Sea coast in Kazakhstan. Azerbaijan last month signed an agreement to become a founding member of the group, accepting terms agreed to by original joint venturers Kazakhstan and Oman. Azerbaijan's new government still must formally ratify its agreement. In addition, Chevron in June signed a memorandum of understanding to join the group at a future date. This paper reports that each of the founding members holds an equal interest in Caspian Pipeline Consortium Ltd., which will operate as a limited liability company incorporated in Bermuda

  13. Mrpho-physical Factors Affecting Consumption and Coefficient of Utilization of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashfaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The selected plants in order of preference on the basis of consumption were Sorghum > Maize > Bermuda grass > Tomato > Cotton (NIAB-98 > Alfalfa > Rice >Castor oil > Okra > Cattail > Cotton (CIM-446 > Horse purslane > Rape seed > Winter cherry> Calotrope. The order of the preference on the basis of Coefficient of Utilization (CU was Sorghum > Bermuda grass > Maize > Cotton (NIAB-98 > Tomato > Winter cherry > Castor oil > Alfalfa > Okra > Rice > Cotton (CIM-446 > Horse purslane > Calotrope > Rape seed > Cattail. None of the plants was found completely resistant to H. armigera. The correlation between food consumption and CU was significantly positive. Moisture content showed positive while thickness of leaf lamina played negative role both for consumption and CU. Moisture percentage alone contributed 50.8% and 40.5% role towards resistance in term of consumption and CU, respectively. The cumulative effect of all the morpho-physical plant factors was 80.1% for consumption and 57.8% for CU.

  14. 浅谈with引导的独立结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2006-01-01

    @@ (第二版)精读第一册第六单元In-Class Reading中有这样一个句子:It is a large,triangular area of the ocean with the island of Bermuda at its northern tip.句中with the island of Bermuda atits northern tip是用with引导的独立结构.此类结构成分复杂,作用繁多.对于英语学习者来说,它既是学习的重点,又是学好英语所必须解决的一个难点.下面,笔者结合几个典型的例句来谈谈with引导的独立结构的构成及其句法作用.

  15. Sponge-associated Haplosyllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Syllinae) from the Caribbean Sea, with the description of four new species.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattig, Patricia; Martin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    [EN]The present paper reports results from the study of a wide collection of specimens of the genus Haplosyllis (Polychaeta: SylLidae: Syllinae) obtained mainly from sponges of different Caribbean regions (Barbados, Bahamas, Belize, Bermudas, Colombia and Venezuela). Four new species are herein described and illustrated. H. aplysillicola n. sp., the mosl common Caribbean species, found only in species of genus Aplysina; H. chaerafllsorata n. sp., found inside the sponge Verongula rig...

  16. Eripalgeline universum Polymeri kultuuritehases / Marian Kivila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivila, Marian

    2008-01-01

    23. V toimunud rahvusvahelise tegevuskunstifestivali "Diverse Universe IV" performance''i-programmist Non Grata Kunstikonteineris Kultuuritehases Polymer. Sandra Jõgeva ja rühmituse Cnopt, rühmituse Non Grata, korealase Kim Baek-Ki ning sakslaste Micha Stegeri ja Andreas Stadleri, poolakate Marta Zioleki ja Agata Siniarska, ameeriklase Travis McCoy Fulleri, Russ Butleri (Bermuda), rühmituse HorseCow (Sacramento) performance'itest. Lühidalt Non Grata videonäitusest

  17. Characterization of Trichodesmium spp. by Genetic Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Orcutt, K.M.; Rasmussen, U.; Webb, E.A.; Waterbury, J B; K. Gundersen; Bergman, B

    2002-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Trichodesmium spp. from natural populations (off Bermuda in the Sargasso Sea and off North Australia in the Arafura and Coral Seas) and of culture isolates from two regions (Sargasso Sea and Indian Ocean) was investigated. Three independent techniques were used, including a DNA fingerprinting method based on a highly iterated palindrome (HIP1), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of a hetR fragment, and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the 16...

  18. Complete genome sequence of Croceibacter atlanticus HTCC2559T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kang, Ilnam; Ferriera, Steve; Giovannoni, Stephen J; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2010-09-01

    Here we announce the complete genome sequence of Croceibacter atlanticus HTCC2559(T), which was isolated by high-throughput dilution-to-extinction culturing from the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series station in the Western Sargasso Sea. Strain HTCC2559(T) contained genes for carotenoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, and several macromolecule-degrading enzymes. The genome confirmed physiological observations of cultivated Croceibacter atlanticus strain HTCC2559(T), which identified it as an obligate chemoheterotroph. PMID:20639333

  19. Lead Precipitation Fluxes at Tropical Oceanic Sites Determined From ^(210)Pb Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Settle, D. M.; Patterson, C C; Turekian, K K; Cochran, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of lead, ^(210)Pb, and ^(210)Po were measured in rain selected for least influence by local sources of contamination at several tropical and subtropical islands (Enewetak; Pigeon Key, Florida; and American Samoa) and shipboard stations (near Bermuda and Tahiti). Ratios expressed as ng Pb/dpm ^(210)Pb in rain were 250–900 for Pigeon Key (assuming 12% adsorption for ^(210)Pb and no adsorption for lead), depending on whether the air masses containing the analyzed rain came from th...

  20. Decade time scale variability of ventilation in the North Atlantic: High-precision measurements of bomb radiocarbon in banded corals

    OpenAIRE

    Druffel, Ellen R. M.

    1989-01-01

    The first high-precision radiocarbon measurements for the upper ocean are presented for banded corals from two sites in the North Atlantic Ocean. The striking dissimilarities between the post-1950 records at Bermuda in the Sargasso Sea and the Florida Straits in the Gulf Stream illustrate the different mixing processes in the upper ocean at each site. Convective overturn associated with 18° degree water formation during late winter in the northern Sargasso Sea facilitates storage of considera...

  1. Decade time scale variability of ventilation in the North Atlantic: High-precision measurements of bomb radiocarbon in banded corals

    OpenAIRE

    Druffel, ER

    1989-01-01

    The first high-precision radiocarbon measurements for the upper ocean are presented for banded corals from two sites in the North Atlantic Ocean. The striking dissimilarities between the post-1950 records at Bermuda in the Sargasso Sea and the Florida Straits in the Gulf Stream illustrate the different mixing processes in the upper ocean at each site. Convective overturn associated with 18 ø degree water formation during late winter in the northern Sargasso Sea f...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Croceibacter atlanticus HTCC2559T▿ ▿Published ahead of print on 16 July 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kang, Ilnam; Ferriera, Steve; Giovannoni, Stephen J.; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2010-01-01

    Here we announce the complete genome sequence of Croceibacter atlanticus HTCC2559T, which was isolated by high-throughput dilution-to-extinction culturing from the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series station in the Western Sargasso Sea. Strain HTCC2559T contained genes for carotenoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, and several macromolecule-degrading enzymes. The genome confirmed physiological observations of cultivated Croceibacter atlanticus strain HTCC2559T, which identified it as an obliga...

  3. Sargasso Sea phosphorus biogeochemistry: an important role for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP)

    OpenAIRE

    M. W. Lomas; A. L. Burke; Lomas, D. A.; D. W. Bell; Shen, C.; Dyhrman, S. T.; Ammerman, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in the subtropical North Atlantic are some of the lowest in the global ocean and have been hypothesized to constrain primary production. Based upon data from several transect cruises in this region, it has been hypothesized that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) supports a significant fraction of primary production in the subtropical North Atlantic. In this study, a time-series of phosphorus biogeochemistry is presented for the Bermuda Atlantic Time-...

  4. Comparison of techniques for determination of soluble sugars used in feed for ruminant nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Cândida Camila dos Reis; Douglas Sampaio Henrique; Edimara Schervinski; Juliano Zanela; Leonel Vinicius Constantino; Rafael Dallo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate different techniques for determination of soluble sugars (fraction CA) in foods used for ruminant nutrition. Feed analyzed were: sugar-cane, bermuda grass, corn meal and soybean meal. Dry matter (DM), ash, ether extract (EE) and crude protein (CP) were determined to make possible the calculation of total carbohydrates concentration in the samples. The soluble carbohydrate fraction were determined in 15 repetitions of each sample by two different analytical techniqu...

  5. Ozone in the Atlantic Ocean marine boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Boylan; Detlev Helmig; Samuel Oltmans

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In situ atmospheric ozone measurements aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the 2008 Gas-Ex and AMMA research cruises were compared with data from four island and coastal Global Atmospheric Watch stations in the Atlantic Ocean to examine ozone transport in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Ozone measurements made at Tudor Hill, Bermuda, were subjected to continental outflow from the east coast of the United States, which resulted in elevated ozone levels above 50 ppbv. Ozone measurem...

  6. Temporal dynamics of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Malmstrom, Rex R.; Coe, Allison; Kettler, Gregory Carl; Martiny, Adam C.; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Zinser, Erik R.; Chisholm, Sallie

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of Prochlorococcus populations, and how these populations co-vary with the physical environment, we followed monthly changes in the abundance of five ecotypes—two high-light adapted and three low-light adapted—over a 5-year period in coordination with the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) programs. Ecotype abundance displayed weak seasonal fluctuations at HOT and strong seasonal fluctuations at BATS. F...

  7. Genetic diversification in the Tropical Western Atlantic Ocean: Phylogeography of the gastropod Bulla occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Aarø, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The region under study is the Tropical Western Atlantic (TWA) which includes the Caribbean Sea with adjacent coastlines, the Gulf of Mexico, Bermuda and the coast of South America down to the tropical/temperate transitional zone near Uruguay. There are several examples of genetic breaks within the Caribbean that have been attributed to oceanographic factors, transient allopatry, as well as ecological factors, but no common biogeographical pattern has been found and mechanisms behind div...

  8. Meta-omic signatures of microbial metal and nitrogen cycling in marine oxygen minimum zones

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Jennifer B.; Cecilia Batmalle Kretz; Sangita eGanesh; Piyush eRanjan; Seston, Sherry L.; Kristen N Buck; Landing, William M.; Morton, Peter L.; Moffett, James W.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.; Vergin, Kevin L.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential cofactors for microbial metalloenzymes, but little is known about the metalloenyzme inventory of anaerobic marine microbial communities despite their importance to the nitrogen cycle. We compared dissolved O2, NO3-, NO2-, Fe and Cu concentrations with nucleic acid sequences encoding Fe and Cu-binding proteins in 21 metagenomes and 9 metatranscriptomes from Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific oxygen minimum zones and 7 metagenomes from the Bermuda A...

  9. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) for the Brazilian Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Carlos E. L.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Marcos B Lucena; Moysés C Barbosa; Rocha, Claudia R.; Luiz A Rocha

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that ma...

  10. Kernel Density Estimation of Tropical Cyclone Frequencies in the North Atlantic Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy A. Joyner; Robert V. Rohli

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has identified specific areas of frequent tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic basin. This study examines long-term and decadal spatio-temporal patterns of Atlantic tropical cyclone frequencies from 1944 to 2009, and analyzes categorical and decadal centroid patterns using kernel density estimation (KDE) and centrographic statistics. Results corroborate previous research which has suggested that the Bermuda-Azores anticyclone plays an integral role in the directio...

  11. Fermentation products and plant cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by monocentric and polycentric anaerobic ruminal fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Borneman, W. S.; Akin, D. E.; Ljungdahl, L G

    1989-01-01

    Five anaerobic fungal isolates from the bovine rumen were grown on Coastal Bermuda grass (CBG) leaf blades and monitored over a 9-day period for substrate utilization, fermentation products, cellulase, and xylanase activities. Two of the fungal isolates showed monocentric growth patterns; one (isolate MC-1) had monoflagellated zoospores and morphologically resembled members of the genus Piromyces; the other (isolate MC-2) had multiflagellated zoospores and resembled members of the genus Neoca...

  12. An Integrated Assessment of the Introduction of Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles complex) to the Western Atlantic Ocean.

    OpenAIRE

    Hare, Jonathan A.; Whitfield, Paula E.

    2003-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles complex) are venomous coral reef fishes from the Indian and western Pacific oceans that are now found in the western Atlantic Ocean. Adult lionfish have been observed from Miami, Florida to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and juvenile lionfish have been observed off North Carolina, New York, and Bermuda. The large number of adults observed and the occurrence of juveniles indicate that lionfish are established and reproducing along the southeast United States co...

  13. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen R. Kaffka; John Maas; James D. Oster; Máximo F. Alonso; Dennis L. Corwin

    2013-01-01

    Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV). We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dac...

  14. Genome sequence of the novel marine member of the Gammaproteobacteria strain HTCC5015.

    KAUST Repository

    Thrash, J Cameron

    2010-07-01

    HTCC5015 is a novel, highly divergent marine member of the Gammaproteobacteria, currently without a cultured representative with greater than 89% 16S rRNA gene identity to itself. The organism was isolated from water collected from Hydrostation S south of Bermuda using high-throughput dilution-to-extinction culturing techniques. Here we present the genome sequence of the unique Gammaproteobacterium strain HTCC5015.

  15. Suur esilinastamine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer. Aut. : M.R

  16. Børn og barndom på fritidshjem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    spændstig treenighed - eller måske som en anden Bermuda-trekant får det hele til at forsvinde. Børnene indgår i løbende forhandlinger om hvad det vil sige at være barn på institution. I disse forhandlinger kan det ske, at børnene provokatorisk forholder sig til institutionens institutionsagtighed, leger med...

  17. Kuus uut Eesti filmi korraga ekraanil / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  18. Esilinastuvad eesti animafilmid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  19. Soho中的移动成像准则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    第十届Rushes Soho Shorts Festival在伦敦中心区掀起了一股热潮。作品筛选在投稿的各大知名公司中如火如茶的展开.其中包括Aardman Animations、Bermuda Shorts,Slinky Pictures、Picasso Pictures,Film38和Williams Murray Hamm。

  20. 百慕大群岛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐乐

    2007-01-01

    百慕大群岛(the Bermuda Islands)位于大西洋中西部,面积54平方公里。人口6万,是世界上人口最稠密的地区之一,群岛上60%的居民为黑人和黑白混种人,40%为白种人。英语为通用语言。

  1. TMT逃离中国

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡伟

    2002-01-01

    @@ 电信、媒体和科技(Telecom、Media和Technology,缩写为TMT)等新经济中发迹的新贵,他们又不想去加勒比海晒太阳,持有或准备持有开曼(Cayman)、维尔京(BVI)和百幕大(Bermuda)这种自由岛永久居民身份,他们想干什么?

  2. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  3. Biology and ecology of the invasive lionfishes, Pterois miles and Pterois volitans

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Jr., J. Glenn; Akins, J. L.; Barse, A.; Cerino, D.; Freshwater, D W; Green, S J; R. C. Muñoz; Paris, C.; Whitfield, P. E.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes, Pterois miles and P. volitans, are now established along the U.S. southeast coast, Bermuda, Bahamas, and are becoming established in the Caribbean. While these lionfish are popular in the aquarium trade, their biology and ecology are poorly understood in their native range. Given the rapid establishment and potential adverse impacts of these invaders, comprehensive studies of their biology and ecology are warranted. Here we provide a synopsis of lionfish biology a...

  4. Small-scale shear measurements during the Fine and Microstructure Experiment (Fame)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargett, A.E.; Osborn, T.R.

    1981-03-20

    The turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate e is estimated from measurements of small-scale shear taken with a vertical profiler during the Fine and Microstructure Experiment (Fame). Typical profiles of e are presented for the different oceanographic regions sampled, the Gulf Stream, a mid-Sargasso site, and locations withoutin and with the 100 fathom (approx.2000 m) contour about the island of Bermuda. Heavily averaged values of e are presented as a funtion of mean Vaeisaela frequency N-bar, a fundamental scaling parameter for the oceanic internal wave field. A dependence of e-barproportionalN-bar is found for an ensemble of stations near Bermuda: functional dependence for an ensemble of stations at the mid-Sargasso site is less clear, with results exhibiting an undersirable sensitivity to infrequent large events. Dissipation is found to increase as the island of Bermuda is approached from any direction: the density of measurements is insufficient to determine any azimuthal variation resulting from the anisotropic mean flow field about the island at the time. A set of three profiles across the Gulf Stream suggests that this is not a region of abnormally high dissipation, a conclusion supported by previous and concurrent measurements of temperature finestructure and microstructure.

  5. Influence of synoptic patterns on surface ozone variability over the eastern United States from 1980 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L.; Mickley, L. J.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the effect of synoptic-scale weather patterns on observed maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) surface ozone over the eastern United States during 1980-2012 in summer (June-August, JJA). Zonally averaged, the relative standard deviation (SD) of daily MDA8 JJA ozone shows a bimodal structure, with peaks at 28-32 and 40-45° N, and we show that those regions are most influenced by the variability in daily weather. We apply empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) to understand the causes of this structure. The first three leading EOF patterns explain 53 % of the total variance in detrended surface ozone, displaying (1) a widespread response of ozone in the eastern United States associated with north-south movement of jet wind latitude, (2) a north-south pattern linked to the Bermuda High system when its west boundary is located along the east coast, and (3) an east-west pattern characteristic of a westward extension of the Bermuda High and an enhanced Great Plains low level jet (GPLLJ). The northern peak of ozone relative SD can be explained by polar jet activity, while the southern peak appears related to variability in the Bermuda High and GPLLJ. We define a new metric polar jet frequency as the total number of days the jet traverses the Midwest and northeast each summer. In the Midwest and northeast, we find that the correlation coefficient r between detrended mean JJA MDA8 ozone and the polar jet frequency ranges between -0.76 and -0.93 over 1980-2012 depending on the time period selected, suggesting that polar jet frequency could provide a simple metric to predict ozone variability in future climate regimes. In the southeast, the influence of the Bermuda High on mean JJA MDA8 ozone depends on the location of its west edge. For those summers when the average position of the west edge is located west of ~ 85.4° W, a westward shift in the Bermuda High west edge increases ozone in the southeast by ~ 1 ppbv deg-1 in longitude. For all summers, a northward

  6. The Oceanic Flux Program: A three decade time-series of particle flux in the deep Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. C.; Conte, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), 75 km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running time-series of its kind. Initiated in 1978, the OFP has produced an unsurpassed, nearly continuous record of temporal variability in deep ocean fluxes, with a >90% temporal coverage at 3200m depth. The OFP, in conjunction with the co-located Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) time-series, has provided key observations enabling detailed assessment of how seasonal and non-seasonal variability in the deep ocean is linked with the overlying physical and biogeochemical environment. This talk will focus on the short-term flux variability that overlies the seasonal flux pattern in the Sargasso Sea, emphasizing episodic extreme flux events. Extreme flux events are responsible for much of the year-to-year variability in mean annual flux and are most often observed during early winter and late spring when surface stratification is weak or transient. In addition to biological phenomena (e.g. salp blooms), passage of productive meso-scale features such as eddies, which alter surface water mixing characteristics and surface export fluxes, may initiate some extreme flux events. Yet other productive eddies show a minimal influence on the deep flux, underscoring the importance of upper ocean ecosystem structure and midwater processes on the coupling between the surface ocean environment and deep fluxes. Using key organic and inorganic tracers, causative processes that influence deep flux generation and the strength of the coupling with the surface ocean environment can be identified.

  7. Fecal Pellet Flux in the Mesopelagic Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koweek, D.; Shatova, O.; Conte, M. H.; Weber, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), located 75km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running sediment trap time-series of its kind, continually collecting deep sea particle flux since 1978. Recent application of digital microphotography to the size-fractionated OFP sediment trap material has generated a wealth of new quantitative visual information on particle flux composition, its changes with depth, and its temporal variability. We examined the fecal pellet flux at 1500m depth using image analysis of digital archives, in conjunction with data on the overlying surface ocean from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) and the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) programs, to investigate the role of mesoscale physical forcing on mesopelagic particle flux variability. During 2007, a productive cyclonic eddy, a mode water eddy and an anticyclonic eddy passed over the OFP site. Fecal pellet flux was enhanced during passage of both the cyclonic and mode water eddies. Total mass flux (TMF) was also enhanced during the productive cyclonic eddy, but was not influenced by the passage of the mode water eddy. No increase in fecal pellet flux or TMF was apparent during passage of the anticyclonic eddy despite indications of increased zooplankton abundance from ADCP backscatter intensity. Fecal pellet size frequency distributions indicate the presence of two, and sometimes three, distinct size classes. No seasonal trend in mean size of fecal pellets was observed for any size class, implying that the size distribution of the zooplankton populations producing the pellets is relatively constant throughout the year. We also investigated fecal pellet flux changes with depth at 500, 1500 and 3200m. Fecal pellet flux, and the fecal pellet contribution to TMF, were greatest at 500m and decreased with depth. The use of quantitative image analysis holds great potential as a powerful analytical tool in studies of marine particulate flux.

  8. Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Janet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum, Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  9. Combined Atmospheric and Ocean Profiling from an Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    OpenAIRE

    Hair Johnathan; Hostetler Chris; Hu Yongxiang; Behrenfeld Michael; Butler Carolyn; Harper David; Hare Rich; Berkoff Timothy; Cook Antony; Collins James; Stockley Nicole; Twardowski Michael; Cetinić Ivona; Ferrare Richard; Mack Terry

    2016-01-01

    First of its kind combined atmospheric and ocean profile data were collected by the recently upgraded NASA Langley Research Center’s (LaRC) High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1) during the 17 July – 7 August 2014 Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research Experiment (SABOR). This mission sampled over a region that covered the Gulf of Maine, open-ocean near Bermuda, and coastal waters from Virginia to Rhode Island. The HSRL-1 and the Research Scanning Polarimeter from NASA Goddard Institute for Spac...

  10. Episodic inputs of atmospheric nitrogen to the Sargasso Sea: Contributions to new production and phytoplankton blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Anthony F.; Siegel, David A.; Johnson, Rodney J.; Knap, Anthony H.; Galloway, James N.

    1993-06-01

    Atmospheric wet deposition rates of nitrate and ammonia on Bermuda collected in the Atmosphere Ocean Chemistry Experiment (AEROCE) are compared with the synoptic measurements of carbon and nitrogen cycling from the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) station, 75 km southeast of Bermuda. Measurable deposition events were found on 23.8% of the days between October 1, 1988 and June 30, 1991. However, only a few of these events significantly contributed to the standing stocks of nitrogen and phytoplankton or rates of primary production. For 1.7% of the days each year, the atmospheric nitrogen deposition would have equaled the sinking particulate nitrogen flux as estimated by sediment traps. For only 0.2% of the time, would adequate nitrogen be deposited to a 20 m mixed layer to change the surface concentrations of particulate organic nitrogen by 10%. The results are dramatically different if all of the deposition remains confined to the upper l m of the water column enabling intense, surface phytoplankton blooms to occur. The occurrence of these near-surface blooms may be an important signal in the interpretation of satellite ocean color imagery, particularly when the satellite data are used to infer whole water-column phytoplankton stocks or productivity. Numerical simulations of the evolution of the near-surface mixed layer after a rainfall event indicate that low salinity surface waters would be mixed to the upper 10 m or so within 2-4 hours, except for wind speeds less than approximately 5m s-1. Thus, wet deposition induced surface algae blooms should only be observed under relatively calm meteorological conditions. In summary, wet deposition of nitrogen is a relatively unimportant process in affecting upper ocean nitrogen cycling for the Sargasso Sea off Bermuda, although in oceans with lower productivity and areas where deposition may increase with future industrial development, episodic deposition events may

  11. Deep sequencing of the viral phoH gene reveals temporal variation, depth-specific composition, and persistent dominance of the same viral phoH genes in the Sargasso Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Dawn B.; Parsons, Rachel J; Damitu Beyene; Peter Salamon; Mya Breitbart

    2015-01-01

    Deep sequencing of the viral phoH gene, a host-derived auxiliary metabolic gene, was used to track viral diversity throughout the water column at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the summer (September) and winter (March) of three years. Viral phoH sequences reveal differences in the viral communities throughout a depth profile and between seasons in the same year. Variation was also detected between the same seasons in subsequent years, though these differences were not a...

  12. Early life stages of cephalopods in the Sargasso Sea: distribution and diversity relative to hydrographic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Diekmann, Rabea; Piatkowski, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of early life stages of cephalopods was studied during a cruise of the German R.V. "Poseidon" to the Sargasso Sea in March 1993, covering an area south-east of Bermuda from 24°N to 31°N and 61°W to 65°W. Hydrographic measurements were carried out by conductivity, temperature and depth casts and/or expendable bathythermographs. The subtropical convergence zone was detected at a latitude of approximately 27°20′N and divided the Sargasso Sea into a northern and a southern area. ...

  13. Diversity and distribution of single-stranded DNA phages in the North Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Kimberly P; Parsons, Rachel; Symonds, Erin M.; Breitbart, Mya

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of marine phages is highly biased toward double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages; however, recent metagenomic surveys have also identified single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages in the oceans. Here, we describe two complete ssDNA phage genomes that were reconstructed from a viral metagenome from 80 m depth at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the northwestern Sargasso Sea and examine their spatial and temporal distributions. Both genomes (SARssφ1 and SARssφ2) exhibited si...

  14. Antineoplastic agents, 301. An investigation of the Amaryllidaceae genus Hymenocallis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, G R; Pettit, G R; Groszek, G; Backhaus, R A; Doubek, D L; Barr, R J; Meerow, A W

    1995-05-01

    Seven species (and one cultivated variety) of Hymenocallis (Amaryllidaceae) and the related Pancratium maritima, representing a broad geographical selection, were investigated as sources of pancratistatin [1] now undergoing preclinical development as an anticancer agent. Pancratistatin [1] was found to be a constituent of H. speciosa (Singapore), H. variegated (Singapore), H. pedalis (Seychelles), H. expansa (Bermuda), H. sonoranensis (Mexico), and P. maritimum (Israel). Only two species of Hymenocallis failed to yield one or more of the related cell-growth inhibitory isocarbostyrils such as narciclasine [3a], 7-deoxynarciclasine [3b], and 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine [2]. PMID:7623049

  15. INTERF: the reaction rates and spectra editing code for analysis of fusion neutronics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction rates and spectra editing code INTERF has been developed for transport calculation codes as a part of the analysis system for fusion neutronics experiments. This code can provide the ratio of calculation to experiment value for reaction rate (C/E), spectra, reaction rate distributions, contour distributions, etc. from results of transport calculation. The transport calculation codes that INTERF can process are the ANISN, DOT3.5, BERMUDA-2DN, MCNP and MORSE-DD codes. In this report, the concept, functions, input data, and input/output files in INTERF are described and the examples of input data for usage of INTERF are shown. (author)

  16. Paratyphoid Blamed On Ulster: A Nursing Odyssey

    OpenAIRE

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra Rachel

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: The aim of the Modicum mission from the United States was to determine the fate of the Western World, the Second Front and the Manhattan Project plans for development of atomic weapons. The Modicum mission was appointed in March 1942 by Franklin Delano Roosevelt as President and Commander-in-Chief of the US forces. The journey via the Anglican Cathedral in Bermuda, to Gander, to London, to Ulster was eventful. There was a clay-pigeon shooting contest in Gander. Generals Marshall, Eis...

  17. Six cyclopic ships with the death of one of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-09-01

    Given the knowledge of cyclopic humans and animals and their lethal nature, and given the negative way in which the cyclops is portrayed in mythology and in art, it is unusual that six naval ships--four English and two American--were named "Cyclops." However, there are also important positive attributes of the Cyclopes in Greek mythology, which explain the reasons the ships were given this name. One ship, the USS "Cyclops," with 306 men aboard, was lost at sea in the "Bermuda Triangle" in 1918 without a trace and no wreckage has ever been found. PMID:20856016

  18. The summer 2012 Greenland heat wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Risi, Camille;

    2015-01-01

    in Bermuda Island, South Greenland coast (Ivittuut), and northwest Greenland ice sheet (NEEM), as well as remote sensing observations (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument on board MetOp-A), depicting propagation of similar surface and midtropospheric humidity and δD signals....... At Ivittuut, surface air temperature, humidity, and δD increases are observed. At NEEM, similar temperature increase is associated with a large and long-lasting ∼100‰δD enrichment and ∼15‰ deuterium excess decrease, thereby reaching Ivittuut level. We assess the simulation of this event in two isotope...

  19. Composição química e digestibilidade in vitro de lâminas foliares e colmos de gramíneas forrageiras, em função do nível de inserção no perfilho, da idade e da estação de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paciullo Domingos Sávio Campos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lâminas foliares e segmentos de colmo das gramíneas forrageiras capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora e capim-bermuda Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp foram analisados quanto aos teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose, hemicelulose e lignina e aos coeficientes de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, em duas estações de crescimento: verão e outono. As lâminas, amostradas no momento da exposição da lígula e 20 dias após, situavam-se nas posições inferior e superior do perfilho. Os segmentos de colmo avaliados foram os situados imediatamente abaixo da lâmina da posição superior. O colmo de capim-bermuda Tifton 85 apresentou 8,5 unidades percentuais a menos de FDA que os das outras duas gramíneas, que não diferiram entre si. Os teores médios de PB de lâminas foliares exibiram pequena variação entre as espécies e diminuíram de 18,8 para 14,6%, após 20 dias de expansão, e de 18,9 para 14,5%, entre as lâminas das posições inferior e superior do perfilho. Lâminas da posição superior apresentaram mais elevados teores de FDN e lignina, independente da espécie, da estação e da idade. Os coeficientes de DIVMS reduziram a partir do momento da expansão da lâmina foliar e foram maiores em lâminas situadas no nível inferior e colhidas no outono. Entre as espécies, a DIVMS não variou em lâminas recém-expandidas, mas foi mais elevada em capim-bermuda Tifton 85 e mais baixa em capim-braquiária em lâminas com 20 dias após completa expansão. A DIVMS do colmo foi mais baixa em capim-braquiária (56,9% e mais elevada em capim-bermuda Tifton 85 (59,6% e capim-gordura (60,5%, que não diferiram entre si.

  20. A new species of Odaginiceps Fiers, 1995 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Tetragonicipitidae from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süphan Karaytuğ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Male and female of Odaginiceps korykosensis sp. n. (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Tetragonicipitidae, collected in the intertidal zone of Kızkalesi beach along the Mediterranean coast of Turkey (Mersin Province, are described. The new species is the fifth member of the genus and can easily be distinguished from the other species by the presence of four setae/spines on the second endopodal segment of P4 and by the structure of the caudal rami. Previously, representatives of the genus Odaginiceps have been reported from Gulf of Mexico, off Bermuda and Kenya. Odaginiceps korykosensis sp. n. is the first record of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Use of Industrial Waste and Bye-Products as a P Source for Improving Crop Production II. Effect of Source and Rate of P Application on Growth and P Uptake by Six Crop Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Alam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiments were conducted to compare DCP, an industrial bye-product, against standard fertilizer SSP for growth and P uptake behaviour and to evaluate the performance of DCP as a P fertilizer source for several crop species. Single superphosphate and DCP were applied @ 0, 22, 44, 88, and 176 mg P kg -1 to a loam soil (Lyallpur III series, typic ustocrept. The first crop series grown were wheat, lentil and chickpea while the second series contained sorghum, maize and mungbean and in third series bermuda grass, brassica and berseeem were used. After each crop harvest soil samples were drawn for P analysis and the same P rates from two sources were applied to respective pots. Plants were grown for various time periods before harvesting and P uptake was estimated. Rate of P application increased DMY and P uptake, but the P rate required for maximum DMY varied depending on crop requirements. Brassica, bermuda grass and mungbean were less responsive to applied P while berseem, maize and sorghum responded more to P application. The behaviour of the two sources for DMY and P uptake by the six crop species were mostly alike. However, for crops that responded more to P application, DCP proved similar or sometimes superior to SSP. The amount of residual P after each crop harvest was significantly higher in DCP as compared to SSP applied treatment.

  2. Global pilot study for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using PUF disk passive air samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed at global background sites, to test logistical issues associated with a global monitoring network for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). α-HCH, exhibited relatively high and uniform concentrations (17-150 pg/m3) at temperate and arctic sites with elevated concentrations associated with trans-Pacific inflow. Concentrations were much lower (3) in Bermuda, Chile and Cape Grim. Concentrations for γ-HCH, the main component of lindane, were spatially similar to the α-HCH pattern but lower in magnitude (typically, 3). Chlordane concentrations (sum of cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane and trans-nonachlor) were also low (3). Dieldrin concentrations were in the range 2-25 pg/m3 at most sites but elevated in Bermuda. Back trajectories suggest that advection from Africa and the US may contribute. Endosulfan, a popular current-use pesticide, exhibited highest concentrations ranging from tens to hundreds of pg/m3. There was good agreement between duplicate samplers at each site and PUF disk-derived air concentrations agreed with high volume data. Few logistical/analytical problems were encountered in this pilot study. - Seasonal sampling of ambient POPs at global background sites is logistically feasible and highlights spatial difference in compound distribution

  3. Global pilot study for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using PUF disk passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harner, Tom [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4 (Canada)]. E-mail: tom.harner@ec.gc.ca; Pozo, Karla [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4 (Canada); Gouin, Todd [Canadian Environmental Modelling Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada); Macdonald, Anne-Marie [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4 (Canada); Hung, Hayley [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4 (Canada); Cainey, Jill [Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, Tasmania 7330 (Australia); Peters, Andrew [Bermuda Biological Station for Research (Bermuda)

    2006-11-15

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed at global background sites, to test logistical issues associated with a global monitoring network for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). {alpha}-HCH, exhibited relatively high and uniform concentrations (17-150 pg/m{sup 3}) at temperate and arctic sites with elevated concentrations associated with trans-Pacific inflow. Concentrations were much lower (<5 pg/m{sup 3}) in Bermuda, Chile and Cape Grim. Concentrations for {gamma}-HCH, the main component of lindane, were spatially similar to the {alpha}-HCH pattern but lower in magnitude (typically, <10 pg/m{sup 3}). Chlordane concentrations (sum of cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane and trans-nonachlor) were also low (<10 pg/m{sup 3}). Dieldrin concentrations were in the range 2-25 pg/m{sup 3} at most sites but elevated in Bermuda. Back trajectories suggest that advection from Africa and the US may contribute. Endosulfan, a popular current-use pesticide, exhibited highest concentrations ranging from tens to hundreds of pg/m{sup 3}. There was good agreement between duplicate samplers at each site and PUF disk-derived air concentrations agreed with high volume data. Few logistical/analytical problems were encountered in this pilot study. - Seasonal sampling of ambient POPs at global background sites is logistically feasible and highlights spatial difference in compound distribution.

  4. Co-sensitization of natural dyes for improved efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Ashok; Subalakshmi, K.; Senthilselvan, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new approach of co-sensitized DSSC based on natural dyes is investigated to explore the possible way to improve the power conversion efficiency. To realize this purpose 10 DSSC devices were fabricated using mono-sensitization and co-sensitization of ethanolic extracts of natural dye sensitizers obtained from Cactus fruit, Jambolana fruit, Curcumin and Bermuda grass. The optical absorption spectrum of the mono and hybrid dye extracts were studied by UV-Visible absorption spectrum. It shows the characteristic absorption peaks in visible region corresponds to the presence of natural pigments of anthocyanin, betacyanin and chlorophylls. Absorption spectrum of hybrid dyes reveals a wide absorption band in visible region with improved extinction co-efficient and it is favorable for increased light harvesting nature. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC devices were calculated using J-V curve and the maximum efficiency achieved in the present work is noted to be ~0.61% for Cactus-Bermuda co-sensitized DSSC.

  5. Study on shielding design methods for fusion reactors using benchmark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a series of engineering benchmark experiments have been performed on the critical issues of shielding designs for DT fusion reactors. Based on the experiments, calculational accuracy of shielding design methods used in the ITER conceptual design, discrete ordinates code DOT3.5 and Monte Carlo code MCNP-3, have been estimated, and difficulties on calculational methods have been revealed. Furthermore, the feasibility for shielding designs have been examined with respect to a discrete ordinates code system BERMUDA which is developed to attain high accuracy of calculation. As for neutron streaming in an off-set narrow gap experimental assembly made of stainless steel, DOT3.5 and MCNP-3 codes reproduced the experiments within the accuracy presumed in the ITER conceptual design. DOT3.5 and MCNP-3 codes are available for secondary γ ray nuclear heating in a type 316L stainless steel assembly and neutron streaming in a multi-layered slit experimental assembly, respectively. Moreover, BERMUDA-2DN code is an effective tool as to neutron deep penetration in a type 316L stainless steel assembly and the neutron behavior in a large cavity experimental assembly. (author)

  6. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Kaffka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV. We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. growth, quality, and use by cattle. Simulations based on field measurements and a related container study indicate that although soil chemical composition is affected by irrigation water quality, irrigation timing and frequency can be used to mitigate salt and trace mineral accumulation. Bermuda grass yields of up to 12 Mg dry matter (DM·ha−1 were observed at the field site and predicted by the model. Forage yield and quality supports un-supplemented cattle stocking rates of 1.0 to 1.2 animal units (AU·ha−1. However, a balance must be achieved between stocking rate, desired average daily gain, accumulation of salts in the soil profile, and potential pollution of ground water from drainage and leaching. Using available weather data, crop-specific parameter values and field scale measurements of soil salinity and nitrogen levels, the model can be used by farmers growing forages on saline soils elsewhere, to sustain forage and livestock production under similarly marginal conditions.

  7. Shifts in coral reef biogeochemistry and resulting acidification linked to offshore productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakel, Kiley L; Andersson, Andreas J; Bates, Nicholas R; Noyes, Timothy J; Collins, Andrew; Garley, Rebecca

    2015-11-24

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) has acidified open-ocean surface waters by 0.1 pH units since preindustrial times. Despite unequivocal evidence of ocean acidification (OA) via open-ocean measurements for the past several decades, it has yet to be documented in near-shore and coral reef environments. A lack of long-term measurements from these environments restricts our understanding of the natural variability and controls of seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry and biogeochemistry, which is essential to make accurate predictions on the effects of future OA on coral reefs. Here, in a 5-y study of the Bermuda coral reef, we show evidence that variations in reef biogeochemical processes drive interannual changes in seawater pH and Ωaragonite that are partly controlled by offshore processes. Rapid acidification events driven by shifts toward increasing net calcification and net heterotrophy were observed during the summers of 2010 and 2011, with the frequency and extent of such events corresponding to increased offshore productivity. These events also coincided with a negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, which historically has been associated with extensive offshore mixing and greater primary productivity at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Our results reveal that coral reefs undergo natural interannual events of rapid acidification due to shifts in reef biogeochemical processes that may be linked to offshore productivity and ultimately controlled by larger-scale climatic and oceanographic processes. PMID:26553977

  8. Study on shielding design methods for fusion reactors using benchmark experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment)

    1992-02-01

    In this study, a series of engineering benchmark experiments have been performed on the critical issues of shielding designs for DT fusion reactors. Based on the experiments, calculational accuracy of shielding design methods used in the ITER conceptual design, discrete ordinates code DOT3.5 and Monte Carlo code MCNP-3, have been estimated, and difficulties on calculational methods have been revealed. Furthermore, the feasibility for shielding designs have been examined with respect to a discrete ordinates code system BERMUDA which is developed to attain high accuracy of calculation. As for neutron streaming in an off-set narrow gap experimental assembly made of stainless steel, DOT3.5 and MCNP-3 codes reproduced the experiments within the accuracy presumed in the ITER conceptual design. DOT3.5 and MCNP-3 codes are available for secondary {gamma} ray nuclear heating in a type 316L stainless steel assembly and neutron streaming in a multi-layered slit experimental assembly, respectively. Moreover, BERMUDA-2DN code is an effective tool as to neutron deep penetration in a type 316L stainless steel assembly and the neutron behavior in a large cavity experimental assembly. (author).

  9. Effect of nitrogen and shading on yield and quality of grasses grown under young slash pines. [Bahiagrass, Bermudagrass, Dallisgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.H.; Hughes, R.H.; Lewis, C.E.; Monson, W.G.

    Tifhi-1 bahiagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, and prostrate dallisgrass were planted in 1962, under a stand of 5-year-old slash pines spaced 3 m apart and averaging 5.2 m high. The authors applied N at 56, 112, 224, 336, and 448 kg/ha, and enough P and K to give a 2:1:1 ratio of N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/:K/sub 2/O. Grass yields were taken every 6 weeks. In 1963, all grasses responded to N; maximum yields of bahia-, bermuda-, and dallisgrass were produced at 224, 336, and 112 kg/ha of N, respectively. N response was the same in 1964, except that bermudagrass produced maximum yields at only 222 kg/ha. No N response was seen in 1965; bahia- outyielded bermuda- and dallisgrass. In 1966, there were no differences among grasses, and no N response. In 1963, grass yields under the trees were as high as yields in the open. Yield decreased linearly as tree basal area increased. Crude protein content and dry matter digestibility increased with increased N rates; differences among grasses were small. Grass yields were higher than native range yields previously reported, however, the range yields were taken under different conditions of shading and fertilization. Quality of native range herbage and the grasses in this study was about the same, but quality of the improved grasses was depressed by infrequent cutting.

  10. On Narrative Characteristics of Short Stories by Macao Writer Tao Li%澳门作家陶里短篇小说叙事特点分析——以小说集《百慕她的诱惑》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎恩

    2012-01-01

    As one of the representative writers in Macao, Tao Li, in his work The Temptation of Bermuda, applies the technique of fantasy to the people and things in real life deforming aesthetically so as to form a style of being ridiculous but meaningful. This paper, taking The Temptation of Bermuda as an example, analyzes the narrative characteristics and deep meaning of it so as to help the readers to unscramble Tao Li' s works.%陶里作为澳门文学的中坚作家,其短篇小说集《百慕她的诱惑》以虚幻的笔法将现实生活中的人和事进行审美变形,使得作品显现出荒诞不经却有意味深长的风格。以小说《百慕她的诱惑》为例,从"反自然感觉的城市"的构建、流浪的欲望幽灵之描写以及交错、混乱的时空这三个方面作为切入点,剖析其叙事的特点及深层涵义,以此展开对陶里小说创作的解读。

  11. Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta no litoral nordeste do Brasil Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta in the northeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigara Miranda Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relata a primeira ocorrência de Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta para o litoral nordeste do Brasil e o segundo registro para o litoral brasileiro. O material foi coletado ao longo do litoral da Bahia (08º20'07"-18º20'07''S e 30º20'37"-46º36'59"W. A distribuição de B. composita foi ampliada no litoral do Brasil, uma vez que esta era conhecida apenas para a região sudeste, especificamente para Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro. No Atlântico Americano, B. composita apresenta limite norte de distribuição nas Bermudas e limite sul, no Rio de Janeiro.This study reports the first occurrence of Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta to the northeastern coast of Brazil and the second record for the Brazilian coast. The material was collected along the coast of Bahia (08º20'07"-18º20'07''S and 30º20'37"-46º36'59"W. The distribution of B. composita was expanded along the coast of Brazil, since this was known only to the Southeast, specifically to Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro. In American Atlantic, B. composita presents northern limit of distribution in Bermuda and southern limit at Rio de Janeiro.

  12. 白三叶和狗牙根混播群落3年间地上生物量和种间竞争的动态%Three year study of above-ground biomass and interspecific competition of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宏; 陈明新; 蔡化; 王凤; 张鹤山; 刘洋

    2011-01-01

    . During the trial, white clover was the main grass in the early period of the each year. And in this period of time white clover and bermuda grass occupied different ecological niches and showed a symbiotic relationship with the competitive ability of white clover stronger than that of bermuda grass. Then,bermuda grass gradually became the main grass in all mixed grassland and the 2 forage grasses showed antagonistic action and the competitive ability of bermuda grass was stronger than that of white clover. At last, Bermuda grass became the dominant species of the mixed community.

  13. Evaluation of exposure to organophosphate, carbamate, phenoxy acid, and chlorophenol pesticides in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Martin S; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean for both household and agricultural purposes. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds can cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure of pregnant women residing in 10 Caribbean countries to the following commonly used classes of pesticides in the Caribbean: organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, phenoxy acids, and chlorophenols. Out of 438 urine samples collected, 15 samples were randomly selected from each Caribbean country giving a total of 150 samples. Samples were analyzed for the following metabolites: six OP dialkylphosphate metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP)]; two carbamate metabolites [2-isopropoxyphenol (2-IPP) and carbofuranphenol]; one phenoxy acid 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); and five chlorophenols [2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)]. OP metabolites were consistently detected in ≥60% of the samples from Antigua and Barbuda, Bermuda, and Jamaica. Of the carbamate metabolites, 2-IPP was detected in seven of the 10 Caribbean countries with a detection frequency around 30%, whereas carbofuranphenol was detected in only one sample. The detection frequency for the phenoxy acid 2,4-D ranged from 20% in Grenada to a maximum of 67% in Belize. Evidence of exposure to chlorophenol pesticides was also established with 2,4-DCP by geometric means ranging from 0.52 μg L(-1) in St Lucia to a maximum of 1.68 μg L(-1) in Bermuda. Several extreme concentrations of 2,5-DCP were detected in four Caribbean countries-Belize (1100 μg L(-1)), Bermuda (870 μg L(-1)), Jamaica (1300 μg L(-1)), and St Kitts and Nevis (1400 μg L(-1

  14. 路堑边坡植被防护固土效果室内外试验%Solidify effect of cut slope ecology protection with indoor and outdoor tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永杰; 王桂尧; 王玲; 王前; 王乐; 郑东书

    2012-01-01

    The indoor protection anti-scouring tests are done with three planting methods and two grasses.Three building ways are the geocell,three dimensional nets and wire netting.Two grasses are festuca and bahia.Through the indoor slope simulation washout test,the solidify effect of geocell is the best to three different grasses.And the wire netting is the worst.The soil erosion quality reduces with the addition of slope angle under the same raining intensity.The anti-scouring ability of bahia is better than festuca.The evergreen time of bahia is three hundred days,which is fourty days less than festuca.The outdoor test results show that the root grown speed of festuca is higher than white clover during one hundred days after planting.But later the root grown speed of white clover is higher than festuca.It is the same with bahia and bermuda grass.First is bahia,then it is bermuda grass.During the test,the plant height of festuca and bermuda grass is bigger than white clover and bahia.%选取土工格室、三维网垫和铁丝网3种建植方式以及高羊茅与百喜草两种草种进行室内边坡模拟建植与防护抗冲刷试验.试验结果表明,不同草种对应的固土效果均为土工格室最好,铁丝网最差;相同降雨强度下边坡冲刷量随坡角的增大而减小;百喜草抗冲刷能力优于高羊茅,百喜草常青期约300d左右,较高羊茅少40d.现场植被生长试验表明,播种后100d内,高羊茅根系生长速度大于白三叶,此后,白三叶根系生长速度超过高羊茅,且根系长度比高羊茅大,高羊茅株高一直大于白三叶;试验前三个月,百喜草根系长势强于狗牙根,此后狗牙根根系长于百喜草,百喜草株高一直低于狗牙根.

  15. The Great Diadema antillarum Die-Off: 30 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    In 1983-1984, the sea urchin Diadema antillarum suffered mass mortality throughout the Caribbean, Florida, and Bermuda. The demise of this herbivore contributed to a phase shift of Caribbean reefs from coral-dominated to alga-dominated communities. A compilation of published data of D. antillarum population densities shows that there has been moderate recovery since 1983, with the highest rates on islands of the eastern Caribbean. On the average the current population densities are approximately 12% of those before the die-off, apparently because of recruitment limitation, but the exact factors that are constraining the recovery are unclear. Scattered D. antillarum cohorts in some localities and aggregation of settled individuals in shallow water have created zones of higher herbivory in which juvenile coral recruitment, survivorship, and growth are higher than they are in alga-dominated areas. Unlike other stressors on Caribbean coral reefs, recent changes in D. antillarum populations progress toward aiding the recovery of coral cover.

  16. Pelagic Sargassum: has its biomass changed in the last 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.N.; Stoner, A.W.

    1984-10-01

    The quantity and distribution of Sargassum in the Sargasso Sea, as estimated by various investigators, is reviewed. There has apparently been no significant change in the biomass of Sargassum from 1933 to 1981, except for an area northeast of the Antilles (20 to 25/sup 0/N, 62 to 68/sup 0/W), where measurements made in November 1977 and November 1980 were about 0.1% of values measured in February and March 1933. Because of the lack of change in the Bermuda, Bahamas, or Gulf Stream regions, the effect does not appear to be due to pollution or to broad climatic changes; it is most likely due to a seasonal change in Sargassum abundance or to a longterm shift of currents defining the southwestern boundary of the Sargasso Sea.

  17. Maritime solar technology. Maritime Solartechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkrodt, W.

    1990-01-01

    Maritime solar technology makes use of a model which has functioned perfectly for some 3 billion years. Life on Earth started in the 'original soup' of the oceans in the form of huge expanses of floating colonies of algae and seaweeds. They have used sun light for photosynthesis to sustain their life processes and to produce biomass. There still are such expanses of ocean colonized, for instance, by bladder kelp which keeps afloat through enclosed air bubbles. If we had films with an internal photovoltaic coat, floating on the Sargasso sea between the Bermuda and Bahama islands instead of those immeasurable expanses of floating seaweeds, the electric power produced thereby would be enough to supply the whole planet. (orig.).

  18. Changes in partitioning of carbon amongst photosynthetic pico- and nano-plankton groups in the Sargasso Sea in response to changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, John R.; Aucan, Jerome P.; Goldberg, Stacey R.; Lomas, Michael W.

    2013-09-01

    Picophytoplankton carbon biomass at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site from June 2004 to December 2010 was estimated from the direct calibration of cellular carbon content and forward light scatter (via flow cytometry). Seasonality and interannual dynamics of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and small eukaryotic algae (algae, respectively. Thus, shifts in algal community structure are inferred to be associated with changes in light intensity and implied nutrient supply via mixing (i.e., patterns in upper ocean stability). These observed changes in phytoplankton biomass partitioning were correlated with the important ocean carbon cycle parameters of export flux, mesopelagic transfer efficiency, and elemental stoichiometry. Importantly, interannual relationships between these parameters and algal biomass were detected only when QC was considered as variable.

  19. Deep sequencing of the viral phoH gene reveals temporal variation, depth-specific composition, and persistent dominance of the same viral phoH genes in the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Dawn B; Parsons, Rachel J; Beyene, Damitu; Salamon, Peter; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-01-01

    Deep sequencing of the viral phoH gene, a host-derived auxiliary metabolic gene, was used to track viral diversity throughout the water column at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the summer (September) and winter (March) of three years. Viral phoH sequences reveal differences in the viral communities throughout a depth profile and between seasons in the same year. Variation was also detected between the same seasons in subsequent years, though these differences were not as great as the summer/winter distinctions. Over 3,600 phoH operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% sequence identity) were identified. Despite high richness, most phoH sequences belong to a few large, common OTUs whereas the majority of the OTUs are small and rare. While many OTUs make sporadic appearances at just a few times or depths, a small number of OTUs dominate the community throughout the seasons, depths, and years. PMID:26157645

  20. Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, E R; Lee, L C

    1990-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on the Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes was held at the Hamilton Princess Hotel, Hamilton, Bermuda on March 27–31, 1989. Topics discussed ranged from solar flux ropes, such as photospheric flux tubes, coronal loops and prominences, to flux ropes in the solar wind, in planetary ionospheres, at the Earth's magnetopause, in the geomagnetic tail and deep in the Earth's magnetosphere. Papers presented at that conference form the nucleus of this book, but the book is more than just a proceedings of the conference. We have solicited articles from all interested in this topic. Thus, there is some material in the book not discussed at the conference. Even in the case of papers presented at the conference, there is generally a much more detailed and rigorous presentation than was possible in the time allowed by the oral and poster presentations.

  1. Global monthly sea surface nitrate fields estimated from remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and modeled mixed layer depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Lionel; Pahlow, Markus; Oschlies, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Information about oceanic nitrate is crucial for making inferences about marine biological production and the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. While there are no optical properties that allow direct estimation of inorganic nitrogen, its correlation with other biogeochemical variables may permit its inference from satellite data. Here we report a new method for estimating monthly mean surface nitrate concentrations employing local multiple linear regressions on a global 1° by 1° resolution grid, using satellite-derived sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and modeled mixed layer depth. Our method is able to reproduce the interannual variability of independent in situ nitrate observations at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series, the Hawaii Ocean Time series, the California coast, and the southern New Zealand region. Our new method is shown to be more accurate than previous algorithms and thus can provide improved information on temporal and spatial nutrient variations beyond the climatological mean at regional and global scales.

  2. Carbon isotope fractionation of sapropelic organic matter during early diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, E. C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Study of an algal, sapropelic sediment from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda shows that the mass balance of carbon and stable carbon isotopes in the major organic constituents is accounted for by a relatively straightforward model of selective preservation during diagenesis. The loss of 13C-enriched carbohydrates is the principal factor controlling the intermolecular mass balance of 13C in the sapropel. Results indicate that labile components are decomposed leaving as a residual concentrate in the sediment an insoluble humic substance that may be an original biochemical component of algae and associated bacteria. An overall decrease of up to about 4??? in the ?? 13C values of the organic matter is observed as a result of early diagenesis. ?? 1984.

  3. Shallow Remineralization in the Sargasso Sea Estimated from Seasonal Variations in Oxygen and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, S.; Ennyu, A.; Najjar, R. G.; Bates, N.

    1998-01-01

    A diagnostic model of the mean annual cycles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and oxygen below the mixed layer at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site is presented and used to estimate organic carbon remineralization in the seasonal thermocline. The model includes lateral and vertical advection as well as vertical, diffusion. Very good agreement is found for the remineralization estimates based on oxygen and DIC. Net remineralization averaged from mid-spring to early fall is found to be a maximum between 120 and 140 in. Remineralization integrated between 100 (the compensation depth) and 250 m during this period is estimated to be about 1 mol C/sq m. This flux is consistent with independent estimates of the loss of particulate and dissolved organic carbon.

  4. Etheliaceae fam. nov. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), with a clarification of the generitype of Ethelia and the addition of six novel species from warm waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Kyatt R; Saunders, Gary W; Schneider, Craig W; Lane, Christopher E

    2015-12-01

    Based upon COI-5P, LSU rDNA, and rbcL sequence data and morphological characteristics, six new members of the noncalcified crustose genus of red algae Ethelia are described in a new family, Etheliaceae (Gigartinales), sister to the recently described Ptilocladiopsidaceae. The novel species are described from subtropical to tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Ocean basins; E. mucronata sp. nov. and E. denizotii sp. nov. from southern and northern Western Australia respectively, E. wilcei sp. nov. from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands of Australia, E. suluensis sp. nov. from the Philippines, E. umbricola sp. nov. from Bermuda and E. kraftii sp. nov. from Lord Howe Island, Australia. The generitype, Ethelia biradiata, originally reported from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, is added to the Western Australian flora. PMID:26987010

  5. Influence of Atmospheric Processes on the Solubility and Composition of Iron in Saharan Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Amelia F; Feng, Yan; Lai, Barry; Landing, William M; Shelley, Rachel U; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Violaki, Kalliopi; Ingall, Ellery D

    2016-07-01

    Aerosol iron was examined in Saharan dust plumes using a combination of iron near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical techniques. Aerosol samples were collected at three sites located in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and Bermuda to characterize iron at different atmospheric transport lengths and time scales. Iron(III) oxides were a component of aerosols at all sampling sites and dominated the aerosol iron in Mediterranean samples. In Atlantic samples, iron(II and III) sulfate, iron(III) phosphate, and iron(II) silicates were also contributors to aerosol composition. With increased atmospheric transport time, iron(II) sulfates are found to become more abundant, aerosol iron oxidation state became more reduced, and aerosol acidity increased. Atmospheric processing including acidic reactions and photoreduction likely influence the form of iron minerals and oxidation state in Saharan dust aerosols and contribute to increases in aerosol-iron solubility. PMID:27286140

  6. A Comparison Between Structure from Motion and Direct Survey Methodologies on the Warwick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojakowski, Piotr; Bojakowski, Katie Custer; Naughton, Perry

    2015-08-01

    Structure from Motion, the process of turning two-dimensional digital images into a three-dimensional digital model, is recognized as an emerging method in archaeological research. While some of the previous studies of Structure from Motion applied to underwater projects showed promise as an information rich and affordable survey method, the issue of accuracy remains. This study examined the efficacy of this new technology as a post-processing analytical tool on the early seventeenth-century shipwreck site, Warwick, from Bermuda. Using original digital images from the archaeological excavations, Structure from Motion was tested for suitability and accuracy, and the results compared against the Direct Survey Method. The outcome was an interdisciplinary effort that allowed for a better understanding of the process and the resulting limitations of Structure from Motion for underwater surveys and excavations.

  7. U-series evidence for two high Last Interglacial sea levels in southeastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedoui, Younes; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Kallel, Nejib; Montacer, Mabrouk; Ismaı̈l, Hedi Ben; Davaud, Eric

    2003-02-01

    Pleistocene raised marine deposits in southeastern Tunisia consist of a siliciclastic unit that culminates at +3 m asl, overlain by a carbonate-rich unit with Strombus bubonius that culminates at +5 m asl. 234U/ 238U ratios on fossil Ostraea shells from both units are compatible with a marine origin from the uranium incorporated into the shells and show narrowly clustered 230Th-ages, respectively, between 147 and 110 ka and 141 and 100 ka. The two units were therefore developed during Marine Isotopic Substage 5e (MISs 5e, Last Interglacial). Their heights are comparable to those of contemporaneous marine deposits found in many tectonically stable areas of the world such as in the Bahamas and in Bermuda and can therefore be used as indicators of eustatic changes during the Last Interglacial. It is argued that on the basis of this evidence, the Last Interglacial was characterised by two eustatic maxima.

  8. A Course in Science and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard

    2009-04-01

    A new course at Hockaday, Science and Pseudoscience, examines what we know, how we know it, and why we get fooled so often and so easily. This is a course in which we measure things we thought we understood and use statistical analysis to test our understanding. We investigate extraordinary claims through the methods of science, asking what makes a good scientific theory, and what makes scientific evidence. We examine urban myths, legends, bad science, medical quackery, and plain old hoaxes. We analyze claims of UFOs, cold fusion, astrology, structure-altered water, apricot pit cures, phlogiston and N-rays, phrenology and orgonomy, ghosts, telekinesis, crop circles and the Bermuda Triangle -- some may be true, some are plainly false, and some we're not really sure of. We develop equipment and scientific techniques to investigate extra-sensory perception, precognition, and EM disturbances.

  9. World-systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Amanda M.

    2007-12-01

    Jamaica sloops were vernacular watercraft designed, built, and utilized by Caribbean colonists beginning in the late-17th century. Despite their popularity, no design or construction records or even a specific definition of their form survive, and many sources simply describe them as an early version of the Bermuda sloop. Vernacular Jamaica sloops were a unique adaptation by English colonists to combat the effects of piracy, and their design was specific to the economic, geographic, and political circumstances of colonial Jamaica. This article proposes a set of characteristics that can be used to define vernacular Jamaica sloops, firstly to distinguish them from the eighteenth-century naval Jamaica-class sloops but also to better understand them as a social response to external stimuli within the complex relationship between maritime economy, piracy and colonial control executed through the navy.

  10. Prisoners' bodies: methods and advances in convict medicine in the transportation era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasier, Angeline

    2010-01-01

    Recent historical research looks upon the plight of Australian convicts not as victims of a harsh penal system, but as workers whose health had to be judiciously maintained. What then can be said for the medical treatments provided for convict patients during this chapter in Australia's past? Did convicts receive medical treatments with the same measure of importance and urgency as the free populace, or were prisoners' bodies considered with such a measure of insignificance that they provided veritable opportunities for advances in medicine? This article will provide general insight into prison medicine in Australia during the transportation era and how some convicts were subjected to experimental medical practices. It will also place these techniques into a wider global context by considering experimental practices involving convict patients in establishments in other places, such as Wakefield and Bermuda. PMID:21553693

  11. Improving oiled shoreline cleanup with COREXIT 9580

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, NJ (United States); Canevari, G.P. [G.P. Canevari Associates, Cranford, NJ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The cleanup of oiled shorelines has generally been by mechanical, labor-intensive means. The use of a chemical shoreline cleaner to assist in water-flushing oil from the surfaces can result in more complete and more rapid cleaning. Not only is the cleaning process more efficient, but it can also be less environmentally damaging since there is potentially much less human intrusion and stress on the biological community. This paper describes research and applications of COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner for treatment of oiled shorelines, including four recent applications in Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Texas and Nova Scotia. Research work on shoreline vegetation, such as mangroves, has also demonstrated the potential use of this product to save and restore oiled vegetation.

  12. A new species and a new record of Diatrypaceae from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Santiago; Dörge, Dorian; Weisenborn, Jascha; Piepenbring, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Based on opportunistic collections of fungi in Panama, two species of Diatrypaceae (Xylariales) are described and illustrated. One of them, Eutypella semicircularis, found twice on branches probably belonging to Alnus acuminata, is new to science. It differs from known species of Eutypella and Peroneutypa with strongly allantoid or semicircular ascospores, such as E. crustata and P. curvispora, in having larger ascospores that sometimes almost form a circle and broader stromata, among other differences. Molecular data of the ITS rDNA region show that the new species is a sister taxon of Eutypella cerviculata, the type species of the genus Eutypella. Diatrype bermudensis on stems of Guadua angustifolia is reported from Panama for the first time, being known up to now apparently only from Bermuda. PMID:23360976

  13. Modeling Oceanic Primary Production: Photoacclimation and Nutrient Effects on Light-saturated Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Maranon, Emilio; Siegel, David A.; Hooker, Stanford B.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe a new model (the 'PhotoAcc' model) for estimating changes in the light-saturated rate of chlorophyll-normalized phytoplankton carbon fixation (Pbmax). The model is based on measurements conducted during the Atlantic Meridional Transect studies and the Bermuda Time Series program. The PhotoAcc model explained 64% to 82% of the observed variability in Pbmax for our data set, whereas none of the previously published Pbmax models described over the past 44 years explained any of the variance. The significance of this result is that a primary limiting factor for extracting ocean carbon fixation rates from satellite measurements of near surface chlorophyll has been errors in the estimate of Pbmax. Our new model should thus result in much improved calculations of oceanic photosynthesis and thus the role of the oceans in the global carbon cycle.

  14. Une première expérience d'écriture collaborative – Enjeux et défis de co-création des textes selon la perspective des membres d'un groupe nouvellement constitué

    OpenAIRE

    Kotuła, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Le présent article se focalise sur la problématique de l'écriture collaborative assistée par ordinateur. Nous présentons les résultats d'une recherche que nous avons menée sur un groupe de 36 élèves apprenant le français dans un lycée d'enseignement général en Pologne Les sujets ont été assignés aléatoirement à 12 groupes contenant trois apprenants chacun. Leur tâche consistait à écrire une histoire d'aventure en prenant comme point de départ le jeu vidéo Bermuda Escape auquel les élèves ont ...

  15. Interfacial chemistry of zinc anodes for reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Cramer, S.D.; Holcomb, G.R. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center; McGill, G.E.; Cryer, C.B. [Oregon Dept. of Transportation, Salem, OR (United States); Stoneman, A. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Carter, R.R. [California Dept. of Transportation, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Thermally-sprayed zinc anodes are used in both galvanic and impressed current cathodic protection systems for reinforced concrete structures. The Albany Research Center, in collaboration with the Oregon Department of Transportation, has been studying the effect of electrochemical aging on the bond strength of zinc anodes for bridge cathodic protection systems. Changes in anode bond strength and other anode properties can be explained by the chemistry of the zinc-concrete interface. The chemistry of the zinc-concrete interface in laboratory electrochemical aging studies is compared with that of several bridges with thermal-sprayed zinc anodes and which have been in service for 5 to 10 years using both galvanic and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The bridges are the Cape Creek Bridge on the Oregon coast and the East Camino Undercrossing near Placerville, CA. Also reported are interfacial chemistry results for galvanized steel rebar from the 48 year old Longbird Bridge in Bermuda.

  16. Aggregation and cnidae development as early defensive strategies in Favia fragum and Porites astreoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, H. E.; Goodbody-Gringley, G.

    2014-12-01

    To survive, corals possess a variety of active and passive defenses. This study examined the effectiveness of aggregation and cnidae development as defensive strategies in enhancing post-settlement survival and growth of two brooding corals, Favia fragum and Porites astreoides, in Bermuda. Growth and survival of solitary and aggregated spat were monitored over seven weeks; cnidae were extracted from surviving spat. F. fragum aggregated spat had higher mortality, slower growth, and more cnidae than solitary spat. On the other hand, aggregation proved beneficial for P. astreoides spat, which had significantly lower mortality, faster growth, and fewer cnidae. Aggregated and solitary F. fragum spat displayed negative correlations between cnidae density and growth, suggesting a trade-off between defense and growth; however, P. astreoides spat did not demonstrate such a trade-off. These differing responses suggest that early patterns of survivorship and defensive strategies are highly species specific and complex.

  17. Mass-dependent sulfur isotope fractionation during reoxidative sulfur cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellerin, André; Bui, Thi Hao; Rough, Mikaella;

    2015-01-01

    The multiple sulfur isotope composition of porewater sulfate from the anoxic marine sapropel of Mangrove Lake, Bermuda was measured in order to establish how multiple sulfur isotopes are fractionated during reoxidative sulfur cycling. The porewater-sulfate d34S and D33S dataset exhibits the...... distinct isotopic signatures of microbial sulfate reduction and sulfur reoxidation. We reproduced the measurements with a simple diagenetic model that yielded fractionation factors for net sulfate removal of between 29.2 0/00 and 32.5 0/00. A new approach to isotopic modeling of the sulfate profiles......, informed by the chemistry of sulfur intermediate compounds in Mangrove Lake, reveals that sulfate reduction produces a relatively small intrinsic fractionation and that an active reoxidative sulfur cycle increases the fractionation of the measured values. Based on the model results, the reoxidative cycle...

  18. Carbon dioxide seasonal cycle in the sea euphotic zone - a study in the Sargasso Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1750 and 1990, the human activities (mainly fossil carbon combustion and deforestation) have lead to an increase of the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, the carbon dioxide actively takes part to the greenhouse effect and then to the energetic balance of the climatic system. The study which is carried out consists of the forecasting of the CO2 future concentrations in the atmosphere (from 10, 100 years). The chosen site (BATS: Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study) is located in the Sargasso Sea. The factors leading to seasonal variations have been determined. Several bio-geochemical models have been developed in order to on the one hand simulate the seasonal dynamics of the mixture layer observed in the Bats site and on the other hand explain the main characteristics of the observed phytoplankton seasonal cycle, of its nutriments and of the dissolved oxygen. (O.M.)

  19. Risk management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If nuclear fuel is the answer to the future energy crisis, more must be done in the area of protecting financial interests. This paper discusses what has been done in the area of insurance to protect the owner, processor, vendors, etc. What is available in the insurance market is reviewed; the Nuclear Energy Liability Property Insurance Association is virtually the only nuclear insuror, except for the mutual company Nuclear Mutual Limited in Bermuda. Methods being used today to insure each phase of the processing for nuclear fuel are reviewed next. There are basically three (overlapping) types of primary insurance for the fuel cycle: conventional insurance, nuclear insurance pools, and Price-Anderson indemnification. There is no clearcut assumption of risk because the contract between owner, converter, fabricator or reprocessor is usually completed before insurance is considered. The need to educate the insurors about nuclear matters is emphasized

  20. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  1. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  2. Deep sequencing of the viral phoH gene reveals temporal variation, depth-specific composition, and persistent dominance of the same viral phoH genes in the Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn B. Goldsmith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep sequencing of the viral phoH gene, a host-derived auxiliary metabolic gene, was used to track viral diversity throughout the water column at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site in the summer (September and winter (March of three years. Viral phoH sequences reveal differences in the viral communities throughout a depth profile and between seasons in the same year. Variation was also detected between the same seasons in subsequent years, though these differences were not as great as the summer/winter distinctions. Over 3,600 phoH operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% sequence identity were identified. Despite high richness, most phoH sequences belong to a few large, common OTUs whereas the majority of the OTUs are small and rare. While many OTUs make sporadic appearances at just a few times or depths, a small number of OTUs dominate the community throughout the seasons, depths, and years.

  3. Remote detection of water property changes from a time series of oceanographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Henry-Edwards

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A water mass analysis method based on a constrained minimization technique is developed to derive water property changes in water mass formation regions from oceanographic station data taken at significant distance from the formation regions. The method is tested with two synthetic data sets, designed to mirror conditions in the North Atlantic at the Bermuda BATS time series station.

    The method requires careful definition of constraints before it produces reliable results. It is shown that an analysis of the error fields under different constraint assumptions can identify which properties vary most over the period of the observations. The method reproduces the synthetic data sets extremely well if all properties other than those that are identified as undergoing significant variations are held constant during the minimization.

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of trampling resistance of wild zoysia%野生结缕草耐践踏性综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡利珍; 关贤交; 杨知建; 谷德平; 谢丹; 钟小军

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]In order to assess the development value of wild zoysia as recreation and sport tuff,its comprehensive performance after being trampled was studied.[Method]In this experiment,hybrid bermuda grass,a popular grass species for playground in Hunan,was used as the control.The effects of different trampling intensity on the appearance quality (color,coverage,density,texture,uniformity),growth and development (biomass,relative growth rate of plant height) and physiological metabolism (relative water content,relative plasma membrane permeability,root activity,soluble sugar content)of wild zoysia and hybrid bermuda grass were studied.[Result]The mean values of coverage,leaf width,density,uniformity,aboveground/underground biomass,leaf relative moisture content and offspring system energy of wild zoysia under different trampling treatments were greater than those of hybrid bermuda grass.However,the mean values of chlorophyll content,relative growth rate of plant height,leaf injury rate and soluble sugar content of wild zoysia were lower than those of hybrid bermuda grass.[Conclusion]Wild zoysia performed better trampling tolerance and it can be used for recreation and sport turf.%[目的]研究野生结缕草被践踏后的综合表现,探索其作为运动场草坪和游憩草坪的开发价值.[方法]以目前湖南省常用的草坪草杂交狗牙根为对照,研究不同践踏强度对野生结缕草和杂交狗牙根外观质量(色泽、盖度、密度、质地、均一性)、生长发育(生物量和植株高度相对生长率)和生理代谢(叶片相对含水量、质膜相对透性、根系活力、可溶性糖含量)的影响.[结果]不同践踏处理下野生结缕草的盖度、叶片宽度、密度、均一性、地上/地下生物量、叶片相对含水量、根系活力等8项指标的均值大于杂交狗牙根,而叶绿素含量、株高相对生长率、叶片细胞伤害率、可溶性糖含量等4项指标的均值小于杂交狗牙根.[

  5. 华人金融家%Chinese Financiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝仁

    2001-01-01

    @@ 大众银行有限公司 大众银行是马来西亚的第三大银行,总资产值已逾280亿(112亿美元),业务遍及海外--越南、柬埔寨、新西兰、香港.在香港,大众控制JGG金融.1999年,大众银行收购了香港上市公司Winton Holdings(Bermuda)Ltd的34.4%,活跃于当地的计程车融资市场.大众银行目前在越南设有3间分行.

  6. Golf  Fairway  Turf  Grass  Selection  Development%高尔夫球场球道草坪草的选用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩

    2012-01-01

      重点对南京钟山高尔夫球场进行分析与评估。结果表明,在亚热带特定的气候条件下,高尔夫球场草坪草的当选品种为速慕达,它比结缕草、早熟禾、本地野生狗牙根更能适应当地的高尔夫球运动。%  This paper was focused on analysis and evaluation of Nanjing Zijin Mountain golf course. The results showed that the golf course turf grass varieties for speed was elected Zoysia matrella in a subtropical specific climatic conditions, it was more adaptable to local golf than Zoysia japonica, bluegrass, local wild Bermuda grass.

  7. HYPOLIPEDEMIC EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON ON HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY AND DNA FRAGMENTATION ANALYSIS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEREMIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Selva Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of Ayurvedic herbal formulation Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass on histopathological study and DNA fragmentation analysis in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats. Four groups of rats were employed namely control, hypercholesterolemia rats (4% Cholesterol+1% cholic acid, Cynodon dactylon treatment in hypercholesteremic rats and Cynodon dactylon alone treated rats. Results of DNA fragmentation was found to be greater in High cholesterol diet fed groups. Lesser fragmentation was found in high cholesterol diet + Cynodon dactylon treated group when compared to the high cholesterol diet group. Cynodon dactylon alone treated group is comparably similar to that of normal group (lesser fragmentation. Histopathological study of thoracic aorta of Cynodon dactylon treated group shows decrease in atherogenicity compared to untreated high cholesterol diet fed rats. The data demonstrated that Cynodon dactylon formulation was associated with hypolipidemic effects on the experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats.

  8. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  9. FIELD SCALE MODELING TO ESTIMATE PHOSPHORUS AND SEDIMENT LOAD REDUCTIONS USING A NEWLY DEVELOPED GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE FOR SOIL AND WATER ASSESSMENT TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R. Mittelstet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Streams throughout the North Canadian River watershed in northwest Oklahoma, USA have elevated levels of nutrients and sediment. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to identify areas that likely contributed disproportionate amounts of Phosphorus (P and sediment to Lake Overholser, the receiving reservoir at the watershed outlet. These sites were then targeted by the Oklahoma Conservation Commission (OCC to implement conservation practices, such as conservation tillage and pasture planting as part of a US Environmental Protection Agency Section 319(h project. Conservation practices were implemented on 238 fields. The objective of this project was to evaluate conservation practice effectiveness on these fields using the Texas Best Management Evaluation Tool (TBET, a simplified Graphic User Interface (GUI for SWAT developed for field-scale application. TBET was applied on each field to predict the effects of conservation practice implementation on P and sediment loads. These predictions were used to evaluate the implementation cost (per kg of pollutant associated with these reductions. Overall the implemented practices were predicted to reduce P loads to Lake Overholser by nine percent. The ‘riparian exclusion’ and ‘riparian exclusion with buffer’ practices provided the greatest reduction in P load while ‘conservation tillage’ and ‘converting wheat to bermuda grass’ produced the largest reduction in sediment load. The most cost efficient practices were ‘converting wheat to bermuda grass’ or ‘native range’ and ‘riparian exclusion’. This project demonstrates the importance of conservation practice selection and evaluation prior to implementation in order to optimize cost share funds. In addition, this information may lead to the implementation of more cost effective practices and an improvement in the overall effectiveness of water quality programs."

  10. Controls on dissolved cobalt in surface waters of the Sargasso Sea: Comparisons with iron and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, R. U.; Sedwick, P. N.; Bibby, T. S.; Cabedo-Sanz, P.; Church, T. M.; Johnson, R. J.; Macey, A. I.; Marsay, C. M.; Sholkovitz, E. R.; Ussher, S. J.; Worsfold, P. J.; Lohan, M. C.

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved cobalt (dCo), iron (dFe) and aluminum (dAl) were determined in water column samples along a meridional transect (˜31°N to 24°N) south of Bermuda in June 2008. A general north-to-south increase in surface concentrations of dFe (0.3-1.6 nM) and dAl (14-42 nM) was observed, suggesting that aerosol deposition is a significant source of dFe and dAl, whereas no clear trend was observed for near-surface dCo concentrations. Shipboard aerosol samples indicate fractional solubility values of 8-100% for aerosol Co, which are significantly higher than corresponding estimates of the solubility of aerosol Fe (0.44-45%). Hydrographic observations and analysis of time series rain samples from Bermuda indicate that wet deposition accounts for most (>80%) of the total aeolian flux of Co, and hence a significant proportion of the atmospheric input of dCo to our study region. Our aerosol data imply that the atmospheric input of dCo to the Sargasso Sea is modest, although this flux may be more significant in late summer. The water column dCo profiles reveal a vertical distribution that predominantly reflects `nutrient-type' behavior, versus scavenged-type behavior for dAl, and a hybrid of nutrient- and scavenged-type behavior for dFe. Mesoscale eddies also appear to impact on the vertical distribution of dCo. The effects of biological removal of dCo from the upper water column were apparent as pronounced sub-surface minima (21 ± 4 pM dCo), coincident with maxima in Prochlorococcus abundance. These observations imply that Prochlorococcus plays a major role in removing dCo from the euphotic zone, and that the availability of dCo may regulate Prochlorococcus growth in the Sargasso Sea.

  11. Multi-decadal uptake of carbon dioxide into subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural climate variability impacts the multi-decadal uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (Cant into the North Atlantic Ocean subpolar and subtropical gyres. Previous studies have shown that there is significant uptake of CO2 into the subtropical mode water (STMW that forms south of the Gulf Stream in winter and constitutes the dominant upper-ocean water mass in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. Observations at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site near Bermuda show an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC of +1.51 ± 0.08 μmol kg−1 yr−1 between 1988 and 2011. It is estimated that the sink of CO2 into STMW was 0.985 ± 0.018 Pg C (Pg = 1015 g C between 1988 and 2011 (~70 % of which is due to uptake of Cant. However, the STMW sink of CO2 was strongly coupled to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with large uptake of CO2 into STMW during the 1990s (NAO positive phase. In contrast, uptake of CO2 into STMW was much reduced in the 2000s during the NAO neutral/negative phase. Thus, NAO induced variability of the STMW CO2 sink is important when evaluating multi-decadal changes in North Atlantic Ocean CO2 sinks.

  12. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaasi, A A; Parhar, R S; al-Mohanna, F A; Harfi, H A; Collison, K S; al-Sedairy, S T

    1998-03-01

    Aeroallergens and antigens in sandstorm dust, extracts of which were skin prick test (SPT) positive in allergic patients, were detected by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Fungi and bacteria isolated by agar settle plates and soil dilution and soil washing methods were enumerated and identified. Cat dander, Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chenopodium, Cladosporium, Bermuda grass, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rumex, cultivated rye, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detected by both methods. Viable microbes including 1892 +/- 325 colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria, and 869 +/- 75 cfu of fungi were isolated per gram of dust by the soil dilution method. Randomly selected microbial colonies on streaking and subculture were found to consist of between two and seven mixed colonies. Fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Mucor, Mycelia sterilia, Penicillium, Pythium, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and some yeasts were isolated. Actinomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were identified, but the bulk of unidentified bacterial isolates were mainly mixed colonies of rods, cocci, coccobacilli, and some filamentous types. Six-hour agar settle-plate counts during sandstorms were 100 and 40% higher for bacteria and fungi, respectively, than without sandstorms. The most abundant aeroallergens were those of Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bermuda grass, Cladosporium, cultivated rye, Prosopis, and cat dander. Pithecellobium dulce, Rumex crispus, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detectable for the first time in Riyadh. IgE reactivities of the dust in man were demonstrated by ELISA using sera from atopic, exposed, and normal subjects. These results indicate that sandstorm dust is a prolific source of potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments, and the methods mentioned here should be routinely used for quick sampling of the environment. PMID:9542605

  13. New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ziauddin; Franz, Bryan A; McClain, Charles R; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J; Werdell, Jeremy; Shettle, Eric P; Holben, Brent N

    2010-10-10

    We describe the development of a new suite of aerosol models for the retrieval of atmospheric and oceanic optical properties from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors, including aerosol optical thickness (τ), angstrom coefficient (α), and water-leaving radiance (L(w)). The new aerosol models are derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations and have bimodal lognormal distributions that are narrower than previous models used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group. We analyzed AERONET data over open ocean and coastal regions and found that the seasonal variability in the modal radii, particularly in the coastal region, was related to the relative humidity. These findings were incorporated into the models by making the modal radii, as well as the refractive indices, explicitly dependent on relative humidity. From these findings, we constructed a new suite of aerosol models. We considered eight relative humidity values (30%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, and 95%) and, for each relative humidity value, we constructed ten distributions by varying the fine-mode fraction from zero to 1. In all, 80 distributions (8 Rh×10 fine-mode fractions) were created to process the satellite data. We also assumed that the coarse-mode particles were nonabsorbing (sea salt) and that all observed absorptions were entirely due to fine-mode particles. The composition of the fine mode was varied to ensure that the new models exhibited the same spectral dependence of single scattering albedo as observed in the AERONET data. The reprocessing of the SeaWiFS data show that, over deep ocean, the average τ(865) values retrieved from the new aerosol models was 0.100±0.004, which was closer to the average AERONET value of 0.086±0.066 for τ(870) for the eight open-ocean sites used in this study. The average τ(865) value from the old models was 0.131±0.005. The comparison of monthly mean aerosol optical thickness retrieved from the SeaWiFS sensor with AERONET data over Bermuda and

  14. Relationship between coccolith Sr/Ca ratios and coccolithophore production and export in the Arabian Sea and Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Heather M.; Ziveri, Patrizia; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Conte, Maureen; Theroux, Susanna

    2007-03-01

    Coccolithophore CaCO 3 production can account for 20-80% of biogenic carbonate exported from the photic zone, and coccoliths are a dominant biogenic carbonate in many deep-sea sediments. A new method for picking individual coccoliths from sediment traps and sediments for analysis using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ion probe) allows us to make precise Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca determinations on coccoliths from single species even in samples where material is limited. There are large biological effects in Sr/Ca partitioning in coccoliths that have been related to variations in coccolithophore productivity. In sediment traps from the Sargasso Sea at Bermuda and Arabian Sea in the Somali Basin, we can identify Sr/Ca variations in several species that are consistent with inferred seasonal variations in coccolithophore productivity in surface waters. In the Arabian Sea, coccolith Sr/Ca ratios in Calcidiscus leptoporus and Helicosphaera carteri are lowest during the nonproductive intermonsoon. They are highest during the upwelling of southwest monsoon and during the nutrient entrainment from strong winds of the northeast monsoon. These Sr/Ca variations match seasonal trends in coccolith export flux. Furthermore, Sr/Ca variations in C. leptoporus are larger, and this species also has the greater variation in export flux between southwest monsoon and intermonsoon seasons. At Bermuda, a 1996 fall bloom, driven by passage of a warm mode water eddy, induced a large increase in Sr/Ca of C. leptoporus coincident with an increase of C. leptoporus export. Over an annual series for 2004, highest Sr/Ca ratios of C. leptoporus in the summer months match the typical summer peak in surface standing stock of this species and the stimulation of its productivity by mesoscale cyclonic eddies and eddy-eddy interactions. High Sr/Ca did not coincide with the highest export of C. leptoporus coccoliths, likely because cyclonic eddies, unlike mode-water eddies, are dominated by small phytoplankton

  15. 15 Years of Ocean Education and Outreach Activities by the College of Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuddenham, P.; Bishop, K.

    2012-04-01

    Since 1997 the College of Exploration has created ocean related interactive and engaging online and onsite education and outreach programs that have reached over 15,000 particpants in over 30 countries. Partners and funders have included in the USA the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Geographic, and many others. In the UK the Natural Environment Research Council and the National Oceanography Center, and in Europe Portugal's Ciencia Viva. The first online and onsite program was in partnership with the now Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences. With funding from NSF the project took the online Bermuda Atlanic Time Series (BATS) dataset and made it more accessible to teachers and students in a custom spreadsheet with easier to use macros and graphs. Online training and workshops helped teachers learn more about using BATS in the classroom. The next project in 1998 in partnership with the University of Southern California Sea Grant was an online workshop on El Nino. This was one of the first teacher professional development projecs offered online. Scientists with expertise in El Nino were able to meet and discuss with teachers. Over the past 15 years there have numerous programs, workshops and activities on topics such as Autosub Under Ice, Ocean Exploration then,now and the future, Ocean Observing Systems, Harmful Algal Blooms, Coral Reefs, and much more. These will be summarized. Every activity has been evaluated and assessed. The cumulative results of these evaluations will be presented along with the results of a recent survey of all participants over the past 15 years. Since 2002 the College of Exploration has played a key role in the development and promotion of the Ocean Literacy campaign, an effort to bring innovative approaches to promoting the ocean in K-12 education as well integrating the ocean into national standards and curriculum and promoting the ocean to the general public. A

  16. The alkenone temperature signal in western North Atlantic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, M. H.; Weber, J. C.; King, L. L.; Wakeham, S. G.

    2001-12-01

    Haptophyte algae-derived long-chain C 37-C 39 alkenones and alkyl alkenoates were analyzed in euphotic zone particulate matter collected over a 7 yr period at the Oceanic Flux Program/Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (OFP/BATS) site in the western Sargasso Sea. Surface water temperatures at the site range annually from 19 to 29°C. Alkenone concentrations ranged from 100 ng L -1 following the passage of storms. Highest seasonal concentrations occurred during the late winter and spring. Under stratified conditions, alkenone concentrations in the surface mixed layer (0-20 m) were generally 2 to 4 times higher than in the deep fluorescent maximum (75-110 m), consistent with Emiliania huxleyi concentration profiles (Haidar and Thierstein, 2001) and indicated that alkenone production primarily occurs within the upper euphotic zone in this region. Alkenone compound distributions and the temperature calibrations of C 37 and C 38 methyl and ethyl alkenone unsaturation (U 37K', U 38MeK, and U 38EtK, respectively) were remarkably similar to that observed in an E. huxleyi strain previously isolated from the same area (Conte et al., 1998), providing strong evidence that E. huxleyi is the predominant alkenone synthesizer and that characteristics exhibited by randomly isolated clones in culture are, in many cases, consistent with those of populations in the region of origin. The Bermuda calibration of U 37K' vs. water temperature (U 37K' = -1.9835 + 0.2004T - 0.0034T 2, r 2 = 0.95, n = 91) is nonlinear and falls along the same trendline as euphotic zone particulates from warm (> 15°C) waters of the eastern North Atlantic (Conte and Eglinton, 1993) and Mediterranean (Ternois et al., 1997). The combined North Atlantic temperature calibration (U 37K' = - 1.1365 + 0.1257T - 0.0018T 2, r 2 = 0.963, n = 134) differs significantly from published coretop sediment calibrations (Rosell-Melé et al., 1995; Müller et al., 1998) based on sea surface temperature maps (Levitus and Boyer, 1994

  17. Misrepresentations of Sargasso Sea temperatures by Arthur B. Robinson et al.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keigwin, Lloyd (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, MA); Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2010-10-01

    Keigwin (Science 274:1504-1508, 1996) reconstructed the sea surface temperature (SST) record in the northern Sargasso Sea to document natural climate variability in recent millennia. The annual average SST proxy used {delta}{sup 18}O in planktonic foraminifera in a radiocarbon-dated 1990 Bermuda Rise box core. Keigwin's Fig. 4B (K4B) shows a 50-year-averaged time series along with four decades of SST measurements from Station S near Bermuda, demonstrating that the Sargasso Sea is now at its warmest in more than 400 years, and well above the most recent box-core temperature. Taken together, Station S and paleo-temperatures suggest there was an acceleration of warming in the 20th century, though this was not an explicit conclusion of the paper. Keigwin concluded that anthropogenic warming may be superposed on a natural warming trend. In an unpublished paper circulated with the anti-Kyoto 'Oregon Petition,' Robinson et al. ('Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,' 1998) reproduced K4B but (1) omitted Station S data, (2) incorrectly stated that the time series ended in 1975, (3) conflated Sargasso Sea data with global temperature, and (4) falsely claimed that Keigwin showed global temperatures 'are still a little below the average for the past 3,000 years.' Keigwin's Fig. 2 showed that {delta}{sup 18}O has increased over the past 6000 years, so SSTs calculated from those data would have a long term decrease. Thus, it is inappropriate to compare present-day SST to a long term mean unless the trend is removed. Slight variations of Robinson et al. (1998) have been repeatedly published with different author rotations. Various mislabeled, improperly-drawn, and distorted versions of K4B have appeared in the Wall Street Journal, in weblogs, and even as an editorial cartoon-all supporting baseless claims that current temperatures are lower than the long-term mean, and traceable to Robinson's misrepresentation

  18. Impressões de pacientes, médicos e estudantes de medicina quanto a aparência dos médicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Leiko Yonekura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as impressões causadas em pacientes, estudantes de Medicina e médicos brasileiros por diferentes estilos de vestimenta e aparência adotados pelos médicos. MÉTODOS: Participaram da pesquisa 259 pacientes, 119 estudantes e 99 médicos, respondendo questões relativas a um painel de fotos de médico e médica vestidos nos seguintes estilos: roupa branca, avental branco, avental social, formal, informal, casual e centro cirúrgico. Eles ainda registraram seu grau de desconforto frente uma lista de 20 itens de aparência para profissionais de ambos os sexos. RESULTADO: A maioria das respostas dos voluntários envolveu o uso de roupa branca ou avental branco, e em muitas questões os percentuais de preferência referidos para esses estilos foram muito próximos. Médicos e estudantes preferiram profissionais em traje de centro cirúrgico para consultas de urgência, e o estilo informal para discutir problemas psicológicos com profissional masculino. Os pacientes escolheram mais frequentemente a roupa branca em resposta às questões. No tocante aos profissionais masculinos, os três grupos referiram elevado grau de incômodo para o uso de shorts e bermudas, muitos anéis, piercing facial, sandálias, cabelos de cor extravagante, cabelos compridos e brincos. Para o sexo feminino, níveis elevados de desconforto foram assinalados para shorts, blusas mostrando a barriga, piercing facial, bermudas,muitos anéis, cabelos de cor extravagante e maquiagem carregada. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes, médicos e estudantes de Medicina brasileiros desenvolvem melhor impressão inicial de médicos que utilizam trajes tradicionalmente associados com a profissão e de aparência mais convencional. O uso da vestimenta inteiramente branca parece ser opção satisfatória no Brasil.

  19. Initial responses of carbonate-rich shelf sediments to rising atmospheric pCO2 and “ocean acidification”: Role of high Mg-calcites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, John W.; Andersson, Andreas J.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2006-12-01

    Carbonate-rich sediments at shoal to shelf depths (MgCO 3. The only valid relationship that one can provisionally use for the metastable stabilities for Mg-calcite based on composition is that for the synthetically produced phases where metastable equilibrium has been achieved from both under- and over-saturation. Biogenic Mg-calcites exhibit a large offset in solubility from that of abiotic Mg-calcite and can also exhibit a wide range of solubilities for biogenic Mg-calcites of similar Mg content. This indicates that factors other than the Mg content can influence the solubility of these mineral phases. Thus, it is necessary to turn to observations of natural sediments where changes in the saturation state of surrounding waters occur in order to determine their likely responses to the changing saturation state in upper oceanic waters brought on by increasing pCO 2. In the present study, we investigate the responses of Mg-calcites to rising pCO 2 and "ocean acidification" by means of a simple numerical model based on the experimental range of biogenic Mg-calcite solubilities as a function of Mg content in order to bracket the behavior of the most abundant Mg-calcite phases in the natural environment. In addition, observational data from Bermuda and the Great Bahama Bank are also presented in order to project future responses of these minerals. The numerical simulations suggest that Mg-calcite minerals will respond to rising pCO 2 by sequential dissolution according to mineral stability, progressively leading to removal of the more soluble phases until the least soluble phases remain. These results are confirmed by laboratory experiments and observations from Bermuda. As a consequence of continuous increases in atmospheric CO 2 from burning of fossil fuels, the average composition of contemporary carbonate sediments could change, i.e., the average Mg content in the sediments may slowly decrease. Furthermore, evidence from the Great Bahama Bank indicates that the

  20. Winter- and summertime continental influences on tropospheric O3 and CO observed by TES over the western North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talbot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of tropospheric ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO, and the synoptic factors regulating these distributions over the western North Atlantic Ocean during winter and summer were investigated using profile retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES for 2004–2006. Seasonal composites of TES retrievals, reprocessed to remove the influence of the a priori on geographical and seasonal structure, exhibited strong seasonal differences. At the 681 hPa level during winter months of December, January and February (DJF the composite O3 mixing ratios were uniformly low (~45 ppbv, but continental export was evident in a channel of enhanced CO (100–110 ppbv flowing eastward from the US coast. In summer months June, July, and August (JJA O3 mixing ratios were variable (45–65 ppbv and generally higher due to increased photochemical production. The summer distribution also featured a channel of enhanced CO (95–105 ppbv flowing northeastward around an anticyclone and exiting the continent over the Canadian Maritimes around 50° N. Offshore O3-CO slopes were generally 0.15–0.20 mol mol−1 in JJA, indicative of photochemical O3 production. Composites for 4 predominant synoptic patterns or map types in DJF suggested that export to the lower free troposphere (681 hPa level was enhanced by the warm conveyor belt airstream of mid-latitude cyclones while stratospheric intrusions increased TES O3 levels at 316 hPa. A major finding in the DJF data was that offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios behind cold fronts could be enhanced up to >150 ppbv likely by lofting from the surface via shallow convection resulting from rapid destabilization of cold air flowing over much warmer ocean waters. In JJA composites for 3 map types showed that the general export pattern of the seasonal composites was associated with a synoptic pattern featuring the Bermuda High. However, weak cyclones and frontal troughs could enhance offshore 681 hPa CO

  1. Experimental research on influential factors of fiber-reinforced soil on steep slope greening%纤维加筋土陡坡绿化影响因素试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小庆; 洪柳; 徐光黎; 杨新; 蒋国武

    2014-01-01

    针对工程建设中出现的高陡边坡问题,开展了纤维加筋土对边坡绿化影响的研究。通过室外纤维加筋土模拟边坡绿化试验,对比了4种纤维含量,2种纤维长度和4级边坡坡率等因素影响下狗牙根的绿化效果。研究得出,纤维含量为0.2%的加筋土对植物初期生长有促进作用,长度为15 cm、含量为0.2%的纤维对植物的促进作用较其他配比的土样更为明显。对纤维加筋土边坡进行绿化不仅提高了边坡稳定性,还能修复因边坡开挖而破坏的生态环境。研究结果可供生产建设项目边坡绿化工作参考。%In view of the high and steep slope in engineering construction, research on the influences of fiber-reinforced soil on slope greening is carried out. Through the outdoor slope greening simulation experiments, the greening effect of Bermuda grass is compared under the influences of fiber content(0%, 0. 1%, 0. 2%, 0. 3%), fiber length(5cm, 15cm) and slope rate (1:0. 75, 1:1. 00, 1:1. 25, 1:1. 50). The results show that the soil with 0. 2% of fiber promotes the growth of Bermuda grass in the initial stage;the soil with 15 cm long, 0. 2% of fiber promotes the growth more obviously than the other soil samples. The greening of fiber-reinforced soil slope not only improves the slope stability, but also rehabilitates the eco-environmental damage due to slope excavation.

  2. Multi-decadal uptake of carbon dioxide into subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural climate variability impacts the multi-decadal uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (Cant into the North Atlantic Ocean subpolar and subtropical gyres. Previous studies have shown that there is significant uptake of CO2 into subtropical mode water (STMW of the North Atlantic. STMW forms south of the Gulf Stream in winter and constitutes the dominant upper-ocean water mass in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. Observations at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site near Bermuda show an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC of +1.51 ± 0.08 μmol kg−1 yr−1 between 1988 and 2011, but also an increase in ocean acidification indicators such as pH at rates (−0.0022 ± 0.0002 yr−1 higher than the surface ocean (Bates et al., 2012. It is estimated that the sink of CO2 into STMW was 0.985 ± 0.018 Pg C (Pg = 1015 g C between 1988 and 2011 (70 ± 1.8% of which is due to uptake of Cant. The sink of CO2 into the STMW is 20% of the CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic Ocean between 14°–50° N (Takahashi et al., 2009. However, the STMW sink of CO2 was strongly coupled to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, with large uptake of CO2 into STMW during the 1990s during a predominantly NAO positive phase. In contrast, uptake of CO2 into STMW was much reduced in the 2000s during the NAO neutral/negative phase. Thus, NAO induced variability of the STMW CO2 sink is important when evaluating multi-decadal changes in North Atlantic Ocean CO2 sinks.

  3. Airway allergy and skin reactivity to aeroallergens in Riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)

  4. Taxonomy of the Caribbean sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (Porifera, Demospongiae, Axinellida), with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Sven; Pulido, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a long history of taxonomic investigation in Caribbean sponges, there are still many undescribed species. Furthermore, field observations and corroborating morphological analyses are revealing that what was believed to be single, somewhat variable species, may consist of two or more species, often easier to distinguish once well characterized. This is the case for Dragmacidon reticulatum (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (Porifera, Demospongiae, Axinellida, Axinellidae), a rather well-known sponge, with an ample distribution and presence in rocky and reef environments of the tropical and subtropical Western Atlantic, with local records in the majority of the countries of the area, from Bermuda to Brazil. Field observations and a detailed review of material from different areas, including some type specimens, led us to the distinction of two different species in terms of external morphology, size of spicules, and skeletal architecture. The distinction was confirmed in the Bahamas and Santa Marta, Colombia, where the two species coexist. One of the species is Dragmacidon reticulatum sensu stricto, but for the other there is need to erect a new name, for which we propose Dragmacidon alvarezae n. sp. The purpose of the present work is to describe, illustrate and compare these two species. PMID:27395137

  5. México: país de desapariciones forzadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reveles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En nuestra maltrecha democracia, la desaparición forzada de los 43 estudiantes de la Normal Rural “Isidro Burgos” en Iguala, Guerrero, en la noche del 26 al 27 de sep-tiembre de 2014, visibilizó una violación cotidiana de derechos humanos. 43 dice mucho más que la mención de 130 mil ejecutados con violencia en México; es más contundente 43 que citar a millón y medio de desplazados; sacude más la conciencia 43 que la alusión a los no menos de 30 mil desaparecidos durante una absurda e inútil guerra al narcotráfico. Los 43 de Ayotzinapa fueron sacudida de conciencias para una energía social contenida durante años y que todavía busca los cauces que transformen esa indignación en acciones organizadas para un cambio radical y pacífico en México. Hay que sumar a esta barbarie a los otros 80 mil centroamericanos tragados por ese triángulo de las Bermudas de la violencia extrema en que se ha convertido la República Mexicana.

  6. Formation of heteroaromatic nitrogen after prolonged humification of vascular plant remains as revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicker, H; Hatcher, P G; González-Vila, F J

    2002-01-01

    In the search for the mechanisms involved in the immobilization of organic nitrogen in humified remains of vascular plants, the efforts of the present investigation were directed toward the examination of the transformation of nitrogenous compounds during the peat and coal stage by means of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. While accumulation of heteroaromatic-N is not detected in most of the studied peat layers, a clear shoulder in the chemical shift region of pyrrole- or indole-N is observed in the solid-state 15N NMR spectrum of material from the deepest (and thus oldest) peat layer underlying the sapropel from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda (10000 years). This points to the assumption that transformation of nitrogen occurs between an advanced stage of peatification and an early stage of coalification. The observed sudden alteration in nitrogen functionality indicates that continuous accumulation of newly synthesized or selectively preserved biogenic structures is not responsible for the presence of heteroaromatic-N in these fossilized deposits. It seems rather likely that abiotic conditions, occurring during advanced sediment maturation, have an effect on the observed N transformation. With increasing coalification, pyrrole-type-N becomes the dominant form in the macromolecular coal network. Pyridine-type-N was only detected in a coal of anthracite rank. PMID:11931432

  7. Modelling the spring ozone maximum and the interhemispheric asymmetry in the remote marine boundary layer 1. Comparison with surface and ozonesonde measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kuo-Ying; Pyle, John A

    2008-01-01

    Here we report a modelling study of the spring ozone maximum and its interhemispheric asymmetry in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL). The modelled results are examined at the surface and on a series of time-height cross sections at several locations spread over the Atlantic, the Indian, and the Pacific Oceans. Comparison of model with surface measurements at remote MBL stations indicate a close agreement. The most striking feature of the hemispheric spring ozone maximum in the MBL can be most easily identified at the NH sites of Westman Island, Bermuda, and Mauna Loa, and at the SH site of Samoa. Modelled ozone vertical distributions in the troposphere are compared with ozone profiles. For the Atlantic and the Indian sites, the model generally produces a hemispheric spring ozone maximum close to those of the measurements. The model also produces a spring ozone maximum in the northeastern and tropical north Pacific close to those measurements, and at sites in the NH high latitudes. The good agreement betw...

  8. Ocean circulation and biogeochemistry moderate interannual and decadal surface water pH changes in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Wang, Bo-Shian; You, Chen-Feng; Hughen, Konrad A.; Grumet-Prouty, Nancy; Bates, Nicholas R.; Doney, Scott C.

    2015-06-01

    The oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, lowering surface ocean pH, a concern for calcifying marine organisms. The impact of ocean acidification is challenging to predict as each species appears to respond differently and because our knowledge of natural changes to ocean pH is limited in both time and space. Here we reconstruct 222 years of biennial seawater pH variability in the Sargasso Sea from a brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis. Using hydrographic data from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study and the coral-derived pH record, we are able to differentiate pH changes due to surface temperature versus those from ocean circulation and biogeochemical changes. We find that ocean pH does not simply reflect atmospheric CO2 trends but rather that circulation/biogeochemical changes account for >90% of pH variability in the Sargasso Sea and more variability in the last century than would be predicted from anthropogenic uptake of CO2 alone.

  9. Lead isotopes in the western North Atlantic: Transient tracers of pollutant lead inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, Patterson and colleagues demonstrated that most lead in oceanic surface waters had an anthropogenic origin. Their discovery occurred during the phasing out of leaded gasoline in North America initiated in the previous decade. The corresponding decrease in anthropogenic lead emissions, verified by Pb/210Pb ratios, accounted for the systematic decline in lead concentrations in surface waters of the western Sargasso Sea. Subsequent changes in anthropogenic lead inputs to the western Sargasso Sea surface waters have been documented by measurements of lead concentrations, isotopic compositions (206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/206Pb), and Pb/210Pb ratios in precipitation and seawater for the period of 1981 to 1994. These data indicate the easterly trade winds are now the primary source of atmospheric lead in Bermuda, and they confirm that the decline of lead concentrations in the North Atlantic is associated with the phasing out of leaded gasoline in North America and western Europe over the past decade. Moreover, temporal variations in the relative contribution of industrial lead inputs from the two sides of the North Atlantic over that period can be quantified based on differences in their isotopic composition. The transient character of those isotopic signatures also allows calculations of pollutant lead penetration rates into the mixed layer and upper thermocline of the western Sargasso Sea

  10. Seasonality in the flux of natural radionuclides and plutonium in the deep Sargasso Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A record of radionuclide fluxes at a deep-ocean station near Bermuda was obtained from analysis of a 3-year collection of sediment-trap samples. The trap was placed at a depth of 3200 m, 1000 m above the sea floor, and the samples were recovered at 2-month intervals. Concentrations of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 231Pa, 210Pb, 210Po, and sup(239,240)Pu were measured in the trapped material. Most of the radionuclide activity was found in the 230Th and 231Pa, considering that most of their production occurs in the water column below the euphotic zone. Evidently the seasonal influence is transmitted downward by the varying particle flux so that radionuclide scavenging rates at depth, as well as at the surface, are affected. It is suggested that this could be brought about by seasonal variations in the flux of marine snow or in the rate of fecal-matter production in the deep-water column. (author)

  11. Environmental, biochemical and genetic drivers of DMSP degradation and DMS production in the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Naomi Marcil; Varaljay, Vanessa A; Toole, Dierdre A; Dacey, John W H; Doney, Scott C; Moran, Mary Ann

    2012-05-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is a climatically relevant trace gas produced and cycled by the surface ocean food web. Mechanisms driving intraannual variability in DMS production and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) degradation in open-ocean, oligotrophic regions were investigated during a 10-month time-series at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site in the Sargasso Sea. Abundance and transcription of bacterial DMSP degradation genes, DMSP lyase enzyme activity, and DMS and DMSP concentrations, consumption rates and production rates were quantified over time and depth. This interdisciplinary data set was used to test current hypotheses of the role of light and carbon supply in regulating upper-ocean sulfur cycling. Findings supported UV-A-dependent phytoplankton DMS production. Bacterial DMSP degraders may also contribute significantly to DMS production when temperatures are elevated and UV-A dose is moderate, but may favour DMSP demethylation under low UV-A doses. Three groups of bacterial DMSP degraders with distinct intraannual variability were identified and niche differentiation was indicated. The combination of genetic and biochemical data suggest a modified 'bacterial switch' hypothesis where the prevalence of different bacterial DMSP degradation pathways is regulated by a complex set of factors including carbon supply, temperature and UV-A dose. PMID:22324779

  12. Autonomous, high-resolution observations of particle flux in the oligotrophic ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Estapa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Observational gaps limit our understanding of particle flux attenuation through the upper mesopelagic because available measurements (sediment traps and radiochemical tracers have limited temporal resolution, are labor-intensive, and require ship support. Here, we conceptually evaluate an autonomous, optical proxy-based method for high-resolution observations of particle flux. We present four continuous records of particle flux collected with autonomous profiling floats in the western Sargasso Sea and the subtropical North Pacific, as well as one shorter record of depth-resolved particle flux near the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS and Oceanic Flux Program (OFP sites. These observations illustrate strong variability in particle flux over very short (~1-day timescales, but at longer timescales they reflect patterns of variability previously recorded during sediment trap time series. While particle flux attenuation at BATS/OFP agreed with the canonical power-law model when observations were averaged over a month, flux attenuation was highly variable on timescales of 1–3 days. Particle fluxes at different depths were decoupled from one another and from particle concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence in the immediately overlying surface water, consistent with horizontal advection of settling particles. We finally present an approach for calibrating this optical proxy in units of carbon flux, discuss in detail the related, inherent physical and optical assumptions, and look forward toward the requirements for the quantitative application of this method in highly time-resolved studies of particle export and flux attenuation.

  13. Lead precipitation fluxes at tropical oceanic sites determined from 210Pb measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of lead, 210Pb, and 210Po were measured in rain selected for least influence by local sources of contamination at several tropical and subtropical islands (Enewetak; Pigeon Key, Florida; and American Samoa) and shipboard stations (near Bermuda and Tahiti). Ratios expressed as ng Pb/dpm 210Pb in rain were 250--900 for Pigeon Key (assuming 12% adsorption for 210Pb and no adsorption for lead), depending on whether the air masses containing the analyzed rain came from the Caribbean or from the continent, respectively; about 390 for the northern Sargasso Sea downwind from emissions of industrial lead in North America; 65 for Enewetak, remote from continental emissions of industrial lead in the northern hemisphere; and 14 near Tahiti, a remote location in the southern hemisphere where industrial lead emissions to the atmosphere are much less than in the northern hemisphere. (The American Samoa sample yielded a higher ratio than Tahiti; the reason for this is not clear but may be due to local Pb sources). The corresponding fluxes of lead to the oceans, based on measured or modeled 210Pb precipitation fluxes, are about 4 ng Pb/cm2y for Tahiti, 10 for Enewetak, and 270 for the Sargasso Sea site, and between 110 to 390 at Pigeon Key

  14. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward DeLong

    2011-10-07

    Our overarching goals in this project were to: Develop and improve high-throughput sequencing methods and analytical approaches for quantitative analyses of microbial gene expression at the Hawaii Ocean Time Series Station and the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Station; Conduct field analyses following gene expression patterns in picoplankton microbial communities in general, and Prochlorococcus flow sorted from that community, as they respond to different environmental variables (light, macronutrients, dissolved organic carbon), that are predicted to influence activity, productivity, and carbon cycling; Use the expression analyses of flow sorted Prochlorococcus to identify horizontally transferred genes and gene products, in particular those that are located in genomic islands and likely to confer habitat-specific fitness advantages; Use the microbial community gene expression data that we generate to gain insights, and test hypotheses, about the variability, genomic context, activity and function of as yet uncharacterized gene products, that appear highly expressed in the environment. We achieved the above goals, and even more over the course of the project. This includes a number of novel methodological developments, as well as the standardization of microbial community gene expression analyses in both field surveys, and experimental modalities. The availability of these methods, tools and approaches is changing current practice in microbial community analyses.

  15. Real-time mapping of salt glands on the leaf surface of Cynodon dactylon L. using scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Meera; Pemaiah, Brindha; Natesan, Ravichandran; Padmavathy, Saralla R; Pachiappan, Jayaraman

    2015-02-01

    Salt glands are specialized organelles present in the leaf tissues of halophytes, which impart salt-tolerance capability to the plant species. These glands are usually identified only by their morphology using conventional staining procedures coupled with optical microscopy. In this work, we have employed scanning electrochemical microscopy to identify the salt glands not only by their morphology but also by their salt excretion behavior. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.) species was chosen for the study as they are known to be salt-tolerant and contain salt glands on leaf surfaces. Scanning electrochemical microscopy performed in sodium chloride medium in the presence and absence of potassium ferrocyanide as redox mediator, reveals the identity of salt glands. More insight into the ion expulsion behavior of these glands was obtained by mapping lateral and vertical variations in ion concentrations using surface impedance measurements which indicated five times higher resistance over the salt glands compared to the surrounding tissues and bulk solution. The protocol could be used to understand the developmental processes in plants grown in different soil/water conditions in order to improve salt tolerance of food crops by genetic engineering and hence improve their agricultural productivity. PMID:25460612

  16. Vector processing of the neutron transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the large computations in JAERI is the neutron transport ones used for reactor shielding and criticality analyses. The adaptability of vector processings has been investigated on the neutron transport codes under the assumption of future use of super-computer. Five codes have been tested. They are DOT3.5, TWOTRAN and ANISN based on finite difference method, and PALLAS-2DCY and BERMUDA on the direct integration method. It has been found that the gain from vectorization depends upon the numerical methods, geometries, and problems types to be solved. That is, the direct integration is rather suited for vector processing. But in the conventional finite difference method, the difference equation has an unvectorizable recurrence form in (r, z) and (r, -)-geometries. But by altering the interative process, the equation can be vectorized and some gains have been found to be achieved in a criticality problem. For each code, described are some views on vectorization, program restructurings, speedup ratio on F75 APU, numerical studies on the interative process, and so forth. (author)

  17. Worldwide occurrence and effects of antifouling paint booster biocides in the aquatic environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, I K; Albanis, T A

    2004-04-01

    Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to organotin compounds in antifouling products, after restrictions imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT) in 1987. Replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. This ban has led to an increase in alternative coating products containing the above biocides. The most commonly used biocides in antifouling paints are: Irgarol 1051, diuron, Sea-nine 211, dichlofluanid, chlorothalonil, zinc pyrithione, TCMS (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl) pyridine, TCMTB [2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole], and zineb. Since 1993, several studies have demonstrated the presence of these biocides in European coastal environment as a result of their increased use. More recently, the presence of these biocides was also revealed in waters from Japan, United States, Singapore, Australia and Bermuda. This paper reviews the currently available data on the occurrence of these biocides in the aquatic environment. Some data dealing with the environmental fate, partitioning, behaviour and risk assessment of antifouling paint booster biocides are also reported in order to discuss the detected levels of contamination. PMID:14749112

  18. Combined Atmospheric and Ocean Profiling from an Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Johnathan; Hostetler, Chris; Hu, Yongxiang; Behrenfeld, Michael; Butler, Carolyn; Harper, David; Hare, Rich; Berkoff, Timothy; Cook, Antony; Collins, James; Stockley, Nicole; Twardowski, Michael; Cetinić, Ivona; Ferrare, Richard; Mack, Terry

    2016-06-01

    First of its kind combined atmospheric and ocean profile data were collected by the recently upgraded NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1) during the 17 July - 7 August 2014 Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research Experiment (SABOR). This mission sampled over a region that covered the Gulf of Maine, open-ocean near Bermuda, and coastal waters from Virginia to Rhode Island. The HSRL-1 and the Research Scanning Polarimeter from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies collected data onboard the NASA LaRC King Air aircraft and flight operations were closely coordinated with the Research Vessel Endeavor that made in situ ocean optical measurements. The lidar measurements provided profiles of atmospheric backscatter and particulate depolarization at 532nm, 1064nm, and extinction (532nm) from approximately 9km altitude. In addition, for the first time HSRL seawater backscatter, depolarization, and diffuse attenuation data at 532nm were collected and compared to both the ship measurements and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (NASA MODIS-Aqua) satellite ocean retrievals.

  19. Postglacial change in sea level in the Western north atlantic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, A C

    1967-08-11

    Radioactive carbon determinations of the age of peat indicate that at Bermuda, southern Florida, North Carolina, and Louisiana the relative sea level has risen at approximately the same rate, 2.5 x 10(-3) foot per year (0.76 x 10(-3) meter per year), during the past 4000 years. It is proposed tentatively that this is the rate of eustatic change in sea level. The rise in sea level along the northeastern coast of the United States has been at a rate much greater than this, indicating local subsidence of the land. Between Cape Cod and northern Virginia, coastal subsidence of 13 feet appears to have occurred between 4000 and 2000 years ago and has continued at a rate of about 1 x 10(-3) foot per year since then. On the northeastern coast of Massachusetts, subsidence of 6 feet occurred between 4000 and 3000 years ago; since then sea level has risen at about the eustatic rate. Between 12,000 and 4000 years ago, sea level rose at an average of about 11 x 10(-3) foot per year. The part played by local subsidence or temporary departures from the average rate during this period is uncertain. PMID:17792852

  20. Combined Atmospheric and Ocean Profiling from an Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hair Johnathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First of its kind combined atmospheric and ocean profile data were collected by the recently upgraded NASA Langley Research Center’s (LaRC High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1 during the 17 July – 7 August 2014 Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research Experiment (SABOR. This mission sampled over a region that covered the Gulf of Maine, open-ocean near Bermuda, and coastal waters from Virginia to Rhode Island. The HSRL-1 and the Research Scanning Polarimeter from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies collected data onboard the NASA LaRC King Air aircraft and flight operations were closely coordinated with the Research Vessel Endeavor that made in situ ocean optical measurements. The lidar measurements provided profiles of atmospheric backscatter and particulate depolarization at 532nm, 1064nm, and extinction (532nm from approximately 9km altitude. In addition, for the first time HSRL seawater backscatter, depolarization, and diffuse attenuation data at 532nm were collected and compared to both the ship measurements and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (NASA MODIS-Aqua satellite ocean retrievals.

  1. Status of standard cross section library and future plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JSSTDL-300 multi-group cross section library with 300 neutron energy groups coupled with 104 group γ-ray cross sections was developed for general users in nuclear reactor physics and/or design, whose source data is the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.2. For the purpose of a standard or common use, several famous cross section libraries worldwide used, i.e., ABBN-25, GAM-123, VITAMIN-C/J(E+C), MGCL-137, BERMUDA-12 and FNS-125 for neutron, and LANL-12, -24-, -48, and CSEWG-94 for γ-ray, are consulted about setting the common energy group structure. Furthermore, in order to expand the applicability, the top energy is set on 20 MeV and the lowest energy is 10-5 eV. In the thermal neutron energy region, the JSSTDL-300 has about 20 energy groups. Besides, many utility codes for group collapsing and for data format transformation are provided for general users. (author)

  2. A prompt start: Implementing the framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Framework Convention on Climate Change is under active negotiation in the United Nations with the expectation it will be ready for Signature at the Rio Conference this June. Under the most optimistic projections, a Convention will not come into force and be an effective instrument for months, probably years. In recognition of the several institutional tasks that will be of crucial importance whatever the detailed content of the Convention a small group of high international organizations involved in the negotiations was convened at the Rockefeller Foundation's Conference Center at Bellagio in January. The discussions at Bellagio on the need for a Prompt Start on these institutional tasks benefitted from earlier meetings at Harvard in March and at Bermuda in May, 1991, that the co-organizers convened to discuss these and related aspects of the negotiations on a Climate Convention. Those meetings were attended by members of the academic community, officials from the United Nations, and representatives of governments involved in the negotiations

  3. Influence of Surface Seawater and Atmospheric Conditions on the Ccn Activity of Ocean-Derived Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Russell, L. M.; Frossard, A. A.; Keene, W. C.; Kieber, D. J.; Hakala, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean-derived aerosols are produced from direct injection into the atmosphere (primary production) and gas-to-particle conversion in the atmosphere (secondary production). These different production mechanisms result in a broad range of particle sizes that has implications for the impact of ocean-derived aerosol on climate. The chemical composition of ocean-derived aerosols is a result of a complex mixture of inorganic sea salt and organic matter including polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, microorganisms and their fragments, and secondary oxidation products. Both production mechanisms and biological processes in the surface ocean impact the ability of ocean-derived aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). In addition, CCN activity can be impacted by atmospheric processing that modifies particle size and composition after the aerosol is emitted from the ocean. To understand relationships between production mechanism, surface ocean biology, and atmospheric processing, measurements were made of surface ocean chlorophyll and dissolved organic matter; nascent sea spray aerosol freshly emitted from the ocean surface; and ambient marine aerosol. These measurements were made along the coast of California and in the North Atlantic between the northeast US and Bermuda. These regions include both eutrophic and oligotraphic waters and, thus, provide for observations over a wide range of ocean conditions.

  4. Marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Gulf of México, new records and redescription of Erylus trisphaerus (de Laubenfels, 1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Diana; Gómez, Patricia; Simões, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges usually constitute the most diverse group of the benthic community in coral reefs. Although they are reasonably well studied at the northern Gulf of Mexico (GMx), the southern GMx is poorly known and lacks records from many major reef systems that lie off the Mexican coast. The present taxonomic study is the first sponge account from Alacranes reef, the largest coral reef system in the GMx, and from the shallow reef banks of Sisal, both in the northwest Yucatan Peninsula. The 19 species herein described represent the first sponge fauna records from these reefs. Among these, seven species represent new record for GMx: Erylus formosus, Cliona flavifodina, Spirastrella aff. mollis, Strongylacidon bermuda, Topsentia bahamensis, Agelas tubulata and Chelonaplysilla aff. erecta. Twelve species are new records for the Southern GMx: Erylus trisphaerus, Cliona amplicavata, Chondrilla caribensis, Halichondria lutea, Hymeniacidon caerulea, Axinella corrugata, Dragmacidon reticulatum, Chalinula molitba, Amphimedon caribica, A. complanata, Hyatella cavernosa and Dysidea variabilis. Additionally, a redescription of Erylus trisphaerus is presented which had not been reviewed since its original description in 1953 off Western Florida, except that it was listed for north La Habana, Cuba.  PMID:25661604

  5. Formation of heteroaromatic nitrogen after prolonged humificiation of vascular plant remains as revealed by nuclear resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knicker, H.; Hatcher, P.G.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J. [Technical University of Munich, Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    In the search for the mechanisms involved in the immobilization of organic nitrogen in humidified remains of vascular plants, the efforts of the present investigation were directed toward the examination of the transformation of nitrogenous compounds during the peat and coal stage by means of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. While accumulation of heteroaromatic-N is not detected in most of the studied peat layers, a clear shoulder in the chemical shift region of pyrrole- or indole-N is observed in the solid-state N-15 NMR spectra of material from the deepest (and thus oldest) peat layer underlying the sapropel from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda (10,000 ears). This points to the assumption that transformation of nitrogen occurs between an advanced stage of peatification and an early stage of coalification. The observed sudden alteration in nitrogen functionality indicates that continuous accumulation of newly synthesized or selectively preserved biogenic structures is not responsible for the presence of heteroaromatic-N in these fossilized deposits. It seems rather that abiotic conditions, occurring during advanced sediment maturation, have an effect on the observed N transformation. With increasing coalification, pyrrole-type N becomes the dominant form in the macromolecular coal network. Pyridine-type-N was only detected in a coal of anthracite rank. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Holocene dynamics of the Florida Everglades with respect to climate, dustfall, and tropical storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Paul H.; Hansen, Barbara C. S.; Donovan, Joseph J.; Givnish, Thomas J.; Stricker, Craig A.; Volin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Aeolian dust is rarely considered an important source for nutrients in large peatlands, which generally develop in moist regions far from the major centers of dust production. As a result, past studies assumed that the Everglades provides a classic example of an originally oligotrophic, P-limited wetland that was subsequently degraded by anthropogenic activities. However, a multiproxy sedimentary record indicates that changes in atmospheric circulation patterns produced an abrupt shift in the hydrology and dust deposition in the Everglades over the past 4,600 y. A wet climatic period with high loadings of aeolian dust prevailed before 2800 cal BP (calibrated years before present) when vegetation typical of a deep slough dominated the principal drainage outlet of the Everglades. This dust was apparently transported from distant source areas, such as the Sahara Desert, by tropical storms according to its elemental chemistry and mineralogy. A drier climatic regime with a steep decline in dustfall persisted after 2800 cal BP maintaining sawgrass vegetation at the coring site as tree islands developed nearby (and pine forests covered adjacent uplands). The marked decline in dustfall was related to corresponding declines in sedimentary phosphorus, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon, suggesting that a close relationship existed between dustfall, primary production, and possibly, vegetation patterning before the 20th century. The climatic change after 2800 cal BP was probably produced by a shift in the Bermuda High to the southeast, shunting tropical storms to the south of Florida into the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Climate Extremes and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  8. Interannual variability of the spring atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau forced by the North Atlantic SSTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yangfan; Duan, Anmin; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Data analysis indicates that the interannual variability of the spring atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) depends largely on the intensity of the overlying subtropical westerly jet (WJ), which is closely related to the early spring (February-March-April) sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) tripole pattern over the North Atlantic, i.e., the SSTA tripole pattern with a warm core to the southeast of Newfoundland and two cold cores to the south of Iceland and southeast of Bermuda, respectively. Such an SSTA pattern can be regarded as a response to the atmospheric forcing of the preceding January-February-March North Atlantic Oscillation. Numerical experiment results from both linear baroclinic model with an idealized diabatic heating profile and an atmospheric general circulation model with prescribed SSTA forcing demonstrate that the warm core alone of the tripole pattern can stimulate a steady downstream Rossby wave train, which further intensifies the spring WJ over the TP. As a result, a positive anomaly of surface sensible heating occurs over most parts of the TP, whereas the precipitation and corresponding latent heating is characterized by a seesaw pattern with a positive/negative anomaly over the northern/southern TP. Meanwhile, the air column radiation cooling effect is enhanced to a certain degree over the plateau. Further analysis suggests that the early spring SSTA over the North Atlantic may exert a seasonal-lagged impact upon the East Asian summer monsoon by modulating the thermal forcing over the TP.

  9. Implementation of an Analytical Raman Scattering Correction for Satellite Ocean-Color Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinna, Lachlan I. W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Proctor, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Raman scattering of photons by seawater molecules is an inelastic scattering process. This effect can contribute significantly to the water-leaving radiance signal observed by space-borne ocean-color spectroradiometers. If not accounted for during ocean-color processing, Raman scattering can cause biases in derived inherent optical properties (IOPs). Here we describe a Raman scattering correction (RSC) algorithm that has been integrated within NASA's standard ocean-color processing software. We tested the RSC with NASA's Generalized Inherent Optical Properties algorithm (GIOP). A comparison between derived IOPs and in situ data revealed that the magnitude of the derived backscattering coefficient and the phytoplankton absorption coefficient were reduced when the RSC was applied, whilst the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital matter remained unchanged. Importantly, our results show that the RSC did not degrade the retrieval skill of the GIOP. In addition, a timeseries study of oligotrophic waters near Bermuda showed that the RSC did not introduce unwanted temporal trends or artifacts into derived IOPs.

  10. The Reclamation of Tailing Area Reclamation in The Mining Area with Forages, is it Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Purwantari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailings are what’s left over from mining. The rock where copper, gold, silver and other minerals found is ground up into fine particles so that the valuable material can be taken out and refined. The solid waste would affect the environment physically and biologically. Characteristics of tailing are high porosity with low water holding capacity, poor organic matter, poor macro and micro nutrients and no microorganism activity. Therefore, it takes time and requires strategy to manage and change them to a more productive area. Many technologies have been applied to rehabilitate tailing for agriculture. The technologies including the use of manure, compost, mulch, biosolid, chemical fertilizer, microorganism (bacteria, mycorhiza and phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remediate selected contaminants in the contaminated soil, sludge, sediment, water (ground, surface, waste water. Phytoremediation encompasses a number of different methods that can lead to contaminant degradation, removal or immobilization. Those methods including phytodegradation/rhizodegradation, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization and phytostabilization. The phytoextraction is inexpensive compared with the conventional technology. Some forages have been used for phytoremediation such as Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass, Vetiveria zizonoides (Vetiver grass, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, since they have been known as heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant.

  11. Middle Holocene humidity increase in Florida: climate or sea-level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Timme H.

    2014-11-01

    Florida climate in highly sensitive to both high and low latitude climate perturbations due to its latitudinal position surrounded by water masses that transport heat northward. A well-studied aspect is that middle Holocene conditions became significantly wetter in Florida, initiating widespread peat accumulation in the Everglades. This environmental change has been attributed to various climate forcings, such as migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), increases in tropical storm intensity, position of the Bermuda High, intensification of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and post glacial sea level rise (SLR). Discerning between these forcings is only possible with quantitative reconstructions from a transect of sites that are affected differentially. Application of a transfer function on a north-to-south gradient of pollen records from Florida lakes here shows that the pattern of increasing precipitation during the middle Holocene cannot be explained by SLR, but that ENSO intensification is an important contributing factor. Seasonal-resolved proxy records with improved age models are urgently needed to further solve these issues.

  12. The impact of meteorology on ozone in Houston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, B.K. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Davis, J.M.; Nychka, D. [National Institute of Statistical Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper compares the results from both a one-stage hierarchical clustering technique (average linkage) and a two-stage technique (average linkage then k-means) as part of an objective meteorological Classification scheme designed to better elucidate ozone`s dependence on meteorology in the Houston, Texas, area. When applied to twelve years of meteorological data (1981-1992), each technique identified seven statistically distinct meteorological regimes, the majority of which exhibited significantly different daily 1-hour maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations. While both clustering approaches proved successful, the two-stage approach did appear superior in terms of better segregation of the mean O{sub 3}, concentrations. Both approaches indicated that the largest mean daily one-hour maximum concentrations are associated with migrating anticyclones and not with the quasi-permanent Bermuda High that often dominates the southeastern United States during the summer. As a result, maximum ozone concentrations are just as likely during the months of April, May, September and October as they are during the summer months. These findings support and help explain the unique O{sub 3}, climatology experienced by the Houston area.

  13. Quantification of total and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in five Bermudian coral species across a depth gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, D. M.; Jones, R.; Rowe, C. L.; Mitchelmore, Carys Louise

    2012-06-01

    The symbiotic dinoflagellate microalgae of corals ( Symbiodinium spp.) contain high concentrations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a multifunctional metabolite commonly found in many species of marine algae and dinoflagellates. A photoprotective antioxidant function for DMSP and its breakdown products has often been inferred in algae, but its role(s) in the coral-algal symbiosis remains elusive. To examine potential correlations between environmental and physiological parameters and DMSP, total DMSP (DMSPt, from the host coral and zooxanthellae), particulate DMSP (DMSPp, from the zooxanthellae only), coral surface area, and total protein, as well as zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll concentration, cell volume and genotype (i.e., clade) were measured in five coral species from the Diploria- Montastraea- Porites species complex in Bermuda along a depth gradient of 4, 12, 18, and 24 m. DMSPt concentrations were consistently greater than DMSPp concentrations in all species suggesting the possible translocation of DMSP from symbiont to host. D. labyrinthiformis was notably different from the other corals examined, showing DMSPp and DMSPt increases (per coral surface area or tissue biomass) with increasing water depth. However, overall, there were no consistent depth-related patterns in DMSPp and DMSPt concentrations. Further research, investigating dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethylsulfoxide, and acrylate levels and DMSP-lyase activity in correlation with other biomarker endpoints that have been shown to be depth (i.e., temperature and light) responsive are needed to substantiate the significance of these findings.

  14. Broad Distribution and Phylogeny of Anaerobic Endophytes of Cluster XIVa Clostridia in Plant Species Including Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Asami; Kawahara, Makoto; Ikeda, Seishi; Ishimine, Masato; Akao, Shoichiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Endophytic clostridia present on various plants as obligate anaerobes were surveyed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis specific to the clostridial 16S rRNA gene. Endophytic clostridia were detected in 10 plant types: sugarcane, cultivated rice, corn, tobacco, soybean, bermuda grass, tall fescue, and three mangrove species. Phylogenetically, cluster XIVa clostridia were detected more frequently than cluster I clostridia in aerial parts. Isolation of clostridia from surface-sterilized sugarcane stem validated the TRFLP results. Plant-derived clostridia occupied two unique phylogenetic positions (groups I and II) within cluster XIVa. Most of cluster XIVa clostridia from other sources (e.g., human, animal, and insect intestines) were located outside these groups. Thus two unique groups of cluster XIVa clostridia are widely distributed in plants, including crops. In field-grown soybeans, TRFLP analysis revealed clostridia only in a non-nodulating mutant. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) showed that the bacterial community in soybean shoot depended partly on the soybean nodulation genotype. PMID:21558691

  15. Status of standard cross section library and future plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukeran, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Power and Industrial System R and D Laboratory, Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    JSSTDL-300 multi-group cross section library with 300 neutron energy groups coupled with 104 group {gamma}-ray cross sections was developed for general users in nuclear reactor physics and/or design, whose source data is the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.2. For the purpose of a standard or common use, several famous cross section libraries worldwide used, i.e., ABBN-25, GAM-123, VITAMIN-C/J(E+C), MGCL-137, BERMUDA-12 and FNS-125 for neutron, and LANL-12, -24-, -48, and CSEWG-94 for {gamma}-ray, are consulted about setting the common energy group structure. Furthermore, in order to expand the applicability, the top energy is set on 20 MeV and the lowest energy is 10{sup -5} eV. In the thermal neutron energy region, the JSSTDL-300 has about 20 energy groups. Besides, many utility codes for group collapsing and for data format transformation are provided for general users. (author)

  16. Identification of Ustilago cynodontis as a new producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, based on ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants known because of their multifunctionality and biocompatibility. The search for novel producers of MELs was undertaken based on the analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences on basidiomycetous yeasts. The bermuda grass smut fungus Ustilago cynodontis NBRC 7530, which taxonomically relates to Pseudozyma shanxiensis known as a MEL-C producer, was found to accumulate glycolipids in the cultured medium. Under a shake flask culture with soybean oil, the amount of the glycolipids was 1.4 g/L for 7 days at 25 degrees C. As a result of the structural characterization, the main glycolipids was identified as 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, and the major fatty acids were C(14) and C(16) ones. The glycolipid was highly hydrophilic MEL-C, and very similar to those produced by P. shanxiensis. The fungi of the genus Ustilago are thus likely to be potential producers of MELs as well as the yeasts of the genus Pseudozyma. PMID:18781055

  17. Physics of the environment: possible Sumatra Tsunami warning times for large animals in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, David G.; Scheifele, Peter M.; Vonwinkle, William A.

    2005-04-01

    There has previously been significant anecdotal evidence that animals can anticipate or sense seismic events. It is known that large animals, specifically elephants, sense and utilize low frequency sound. The object of this paper is to estimate the possible warning times that large animals in Sri Lanka could have had of the Sumatra Tsunami, assuming they could sense low frequency wave transmission from the initial earthquake arriving by either atmospheric, ocean, or bottom paths. The atmospheric path appears to be the least efficient due to relatively high attenuation and poor coupling to the source. It would also give the shortest warning time: approximately 30 minutes. The ocean path via the deep sound channel, which has been shown by a previous Bermuda experiment to be an efficient means of coupling seismic energy to an island, would give a warning time of more than 1.5 hours. The bottom path(s), which gave strong received signals at a Sri Lanka seismic station, would give a warning time of about 2 hours. These estimates should provide a context for animal behavior reports.

  18. Evaluation of Community Respiratory Mechanisms With Oxygen Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, B.; Barkan, E.

    Oxygen uptake in the surface waters of oceans and lakes takes place by ordinary dark respiration as well as by cyanide resistant respiration in both dark and light conditions, and by photorespiration and Mehler reaction that occur only during illumination. Thus in order to study the overall discrimination in aquatic systems it is necessary to eval- uate its effects in both light and dark conditions and to separate the effect of photo- synthetic production of oxygen. Such separation is possible if gross rates of oxygen production and consumption are known. We have estimated these rates from in situ incubation experiments and from the natural distribution of O-16, O-17, O-18 and the ratio of dissolved oxygen/argon. We have studied the respiration mechanisms in L. Kinneret, in the Atlantic Ocean near Bermuda and in the Southern Ocean. The over- all respiratory fractionation, which represents both light and dark consumption, was greater than the fractionation found in dark incubations of surface waters. We suggest that the only mechanism that can explain the strong overall fractionation is significant O2 uptake by cyanide resistant respiration in illuminated plankton. Our study shows that cyanide resistant respiration, which is known to strongly fractionate against O-18, is widespread in aquatic systems.

  19. Pore fluids and the LGM ocean salinity-Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Carl

    2016-03-01

    Pore fluid chlorinity/salinity data from deep-sea cores related to the salinity maximum of the last glacial maximum (LGM) are analyzed using estimation methods deriving from linear control theory. With conventional diffusion coefficient values and no vertical advection, results show a very strong dependence upon initial conditions at -100 ky. Earlier inferences that the abyssal Southern Ocean was strongly salt-stratified in the LGM with a relatively fresh North Atlantic Ocean are found to be consistent within uncertainties of the salinity determination, which remain of order ±1 g/kg. However, an LGM Southern Ocean abyss with an important relative excess of salt is an assumption, one not required by existing core data. None of the present results show statistically significant abyssal salinity values above the global average, and results remain consistent, apart from a general increase owing to diminished sea level, with a more conventional salinity distribution having deep values lower than the global mean. The Southern Ocean core does show a higher salinity than the North Atlantic one on the Bermuda Rise at different water depths. Although much more sophisticated models of the pore-fluid salinity can be used, they will only increase the resulting uncertainties, unless considerably more data can be obtained. Results are consistent with complex regional variations in abyssal salinity during deglaciation, but none are statistically significant.

  20. Holocene dynamics of the Florida Everglades with respect to climate, dustfall, and tropical storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Paul H; Hansen, Barbara C S; Donovan, Joe J; Givnish, Thomas J; Stricker, Craig A; Volin, John C

    2013-10-22

    Aeolian dust is rarely considered an important source for nutrients in large peatlands, which generally develop in moist regions far from the major centers of dust production. As a result, past studies assumed that the Everglades provides a classic example of an originally oligotrophic, P-limited wetland that was subsequently degraded by anthropogenic activities. However, a multiproxy sedimentary record indicates that changes in atmospheric circulation patterns produced an abrupt shift in the hydrology and dust deposition in the Everglades over the past 4,600 y. A wet climatic period with high loadings of aeolian dust prevailed before 2800 cal BP (calibrated years before present) when vegetation typical of a deep slough dominated the principal drainage outlet of the Everglades. This dust was apparently transported from distant source areas, such as the Sahara Desert, by tropical storms according to its elemental chemistry and mineralogy. A drier climatic regime with a steep decline in dustfall persisted after 2800 cal BP maintaining sawgrass vegetation at the coring site as tree islands developed nearby (and pine forests covered adjacent uplands). The marked decline in dustfall was related to corresponding declines in sedimentary phosphorus, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon, suggesting that a close relationship existed between dustfall, primary production, and possibly, vegetation patterning before the 20th century. The climatic change after 2800 cal BP was probably produced by a shift in the Bermuda High to the southeast, shunting tropical storms to the south of Florida into the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:24101489

  1. A joint local and teleseismic tomography study of the Mississippi Embayment and New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamwandha, Cecilia A.; Powell, Christine A.; Langston, Charles A.

    2016-05-01

    Detailed, upper mantle P and S wave velocity (Vp and Vs) models are developed for the northern Mississippi Embayment (ME), a major physiographic feature in the Central United States (U.S.) and the location of the active New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). This study incorporates local earthquake and teleseismic data from the New Madrid Seismic Network, the Earthscope Transportable Array, and the FlexArray Northern Embayment Lithospheric Experiment stations. The Vp and Vs solutions contain anomalies with similar magnitudes and spatial distributions. High velocities are present in the lower crust beneath the NMSZ. A pronounced low-velocity anomaly of ~ -3%--5% is imaged at depths of 100-250 km. High-velocity anomalies of ~ +3%-+4% are observed at depths of 80-160 km and are located along the sides and top of the low-velocity anomaly. The low-velocity anomaly is attributed to the presence of hot fluids upwelling from a flat slab segment stalled in the transition zone below the Central U.S.; the thinned and weakened ME lithosphere, still at slightly higher temperatures from the passage of the Bermuda hotspot in mid-Cretaceous, provides an optimal pathway for the ascent of the fluids. The observed high-velocity anomalies are attributed to the presence of mafic rocks emplaced beneath the ME during initial rifting in the early Paleozoic and to remnants of the depleted, lower portion of the lithosphere.

  2. Autonomous, high-resolution observations of particle flux in the oligotrophic ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Estapa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observational gaps limit our understanding of particle flux attenuation through the upper mesopelagic because available measurements (sediment traps and radiochemical tracers have limited temporal resolution, are labor-intensive, and require ship support. Here, we conceptually evaluate an autonomous, optical proxy-based method for high-resolution observations of particle flux. We present four continuous records of particle flux collected with autonomous, profiling floats in the western Sargasso Sea and the subtropical North Pacific, as well as one shorter record of depth-resolved particle flux near the Bermuda Atlantic Timeseries Study (BATS and Oceanic Flux Program (OFP sites. These observations illustrate strong variability in particle flux over very short (~1 day timescales, but at longer timescales they reflect patterns of variability previously recorded during sediment trap timeseries. While particle flux attenuation at BATS/OFP agreed with the canonical power-law model when observations were averaged over a month, flux attenuation was highly variable on timescales of 1–3 days. Particle fluxes at different depths were decoupled from one another and from particle concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence in the immediately-overlying surface water, consistent with horizontal advection of settling particles. We finally present an approach for calibrating this optical proxy in units of carbon flux, discuss in detail the related, inherent physical and optical assumptions, and look forward toward the requirements for the quantitative application of this method in highly time-resolved studies of particle export and flux attenuation.

  3. Revealing the diversity of a once small taxon: the genus Selenoribates (Acari, Oribatida, Selenoribatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pfingstl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new intertidal oribatid species, Selenoribates elegans sp. n., Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. are described from the archipelago of Bermuda. Selenoribates elegans sp. n. is characterized by its slender body shape, S. quasimodo sp. n. possesses a hunchback in lateral view and S. satanicus sp. n. exhibits two horn-like projections on its anterior gastronotic region. Based on these new findings, the number of Selenoribates species doubled at once and the distribution of this genus, formerly limited to the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, includes now occurrences in the Atlantic and Indo-pacific Ocean as well. The morphology of S. quasimodo sp. n. and S. satanicus sp. n. deviates conspicuously from the other known members of Selenoribates, thus indicating that not only the number of species but also the anatomy of this genus is more diverse than formerly supposed. Nymphs of S. quasimodo sp. n. show an interesting case of ontogenetic neotrichy, with gastronotic setae being duplicated with each moult.

  4. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans for the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E L Ferreira

    Full Text Available The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that may be under the reach of the invasion. Despite the anticipation that lionfish would eventually extend their range throughout most of the eastern coast of South America, it had not been recorded in Brazil until now. Here we report the first lionfish appearance for the Brazilian coast and show that the individual collected by us is genetically linked to the invasive Caribbean population. Since small-range endemics are found in several locations in Brazil and are among the species that are most vulnerable to extinction, we recommend urgent control, management and education measures aimed at minimizing the effects of this impending invasion.

  5. Tillering of Tifton 85 bermudagrass in response to nitrogen rates and time of application after cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premazzi Linda Monica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is determinant for pasture productivity, as it results in increasing forage yield and is associated with the growth physiology of forage plants. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates and times of application after cutting on Tifton 85 Bermuda grass (Cynodon spp. tillering. Plants were grown in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil and nitrogen rates were 0, 80, 160 and 240 mg kg-1 of soil; times of application were immediately after and seven days after cutting. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment was set in a completely randomized block design (n= 4. Plants were evaluated in two sequential growth periods - 39 and 41 days. Nitrogen rates affected tiller density, considering the initial number of tillers in the second growth and the emerged and final number of tillers at the end of the growth periods. Tiller weight increased up to the nitrogen rate of 201 and 185 mg kg-1 of soil in the first and second growth periods, and the correlation coefficients between the final number of tillers and dry matter yields in the top part of the plant for these periods were 0.92 and 0.94, respectively. The rate of tiller development, evaluated in each of the seven-day periods, was affected by nitrogen rates and time of application. There was an effect of rates and time of application in the first and a significant interaction between rates and time in the second growth period.

  6. The aero- and hydromechanics of keel yachts

    CERN Document Server

    Slooff, J W

    2015-01-01

    How and why does sail boat performance depend on the configuration and trim of boat and sails? This book provides the yachtsman with answers in a relatively straightforward account of the physical mechanisms of sailing. It presents an accessible overview of the fluid dynamic aspects of sailing and sailing technology, addressing both aeromechanics and hydromechanics.  Readers are provided with the basic principles of physics and general mechanics that will assist their understanding of the fluid mechanics of sailing yachts. Rich appendices cover not only in-depth, mathematical-physical treatments and derivations for those wishing to explore further, but also helpful summaries of basic mathematical notions for those wishing to refresh their knowledge.  This work explores keel yachts, specifically single-masted mono-hulls with ‘fore-and-aft’, Bermuda-rigged sails. However, much of it is applicable to other types of sailing vessels such as multi-hulls, yachts with multiple masts, windsurf boards and the li...

  7. Diagnosis of Physical and Biological Controls on Phytoplankton Distribution in the Sargasso Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Caixia; Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli

    2014-01-01

    The linkage between physical and biological processes is studied by applying a one-dimensional physical-biological coupled model to the Sargasso Sea. The physical model is the Princeton Ocean Model and the biological model is a five-component system including phytoplankton, zooplankton, nitrate, ammonium, and detritus. The coupling between the physical and biological model is accomplished through vertical mixing which is parameterized by the level 2.5 Mellor and Yamada turbulence closure scheme. The coupled model investigates the annual cycle of ecosystem production and the response to external forcing, such as heat flux, wind stress, and surface salinity, and the relative importance of physical processes in affecting the ecosystem. Sensitivity ex-periments are also carried out, which provide information on how the model bio-chemical parameters affect the biological system. The computed seasonal cycles compare reasonably well with the observations of the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS). The spring bloom of phytoplankton occurs in March and April, right after the weakening of the winter mixing and before the estab-lishment of the summer stratification. The bloom of zooplankton occurs about two weeks after the bloom of phytoplankton. The sen-sitivity experiments show that zooplankton is more sensitive to the variations of biochemical parameters than phytoplankton.

  8. Effect of dietary restriction and hay inclusion in the diet of slow-growing broilers

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    Karla P. Picoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.

  9. The Mutual Development of the Captive Insurance Market and Reinsurance Market in China%国内自保市场与再保险市场共同发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐英

    2012-01-01

    Captive insurance company is either the demand side or the supply side of the reinsurance market. Therefore, it is closely related to the reinsurance market. This paper first analyzed the relationship between captiw insurance company and reinsurance market, and then it used Bermuda as a case to make an empirical analysis tc demonstrate that combination of the captive market and reinsurance market could help to achieve mutual develop- ment of them. Finally, the paper discussed the feasibility of achieving mutual development for the domestic captiv~ market and reinsurance market, and put forward some recommendations.%自保公司既可以是再保险市场的需求方,也可以是再保险市场的供给方,因此,自保公司与再保险市场关系密切。本文首先分析了自保公司和再保险市场的内在关系,然后以百慕大作为案例实证自保市场与再保险市场两者结合有利于实现共同发展,最后探讨了国内自保市场与再保险市场共同发展的可行性及建议。

  10. The effect of indole-butyric acid and kinetin on rooting of rose cuttings in winter and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of indole-butyric acid, both alone and with a low concentration of kinetin, on the rooting of rose cuttings in winter and summer, is presented in this paper. The experiments were conducted using 500 and 1000 mg/l IBA with or without the addition of 5 mg/l kinetin. The growth regulators were applied by dipping the base of a cutting for 5 s in an aqueous solution of these substances. Cuttings 5-6 cm in length were made from the mid-part of a stem of a rose grown in a greenhouse. The experiments were carried out using 'Queen of Bermuda' and 'Baccara' cuttings. The investigations showed that treating rose cuttings rooted in winter with an IBA solution had a significant promotive effect on the quantity of rooted cuttings, number of formed roots on the cutting, as well as on the length of the longest root. A distinctive increase in the number of breaking buds was also seen on the cuttings treated with IBA. The IBA solution applied to cuttings rooted in the summer significantly decreased the number of rooted cuttings and breaking buds. However, no significant influence on the number and length of formed roots was found. Addition of kinetin to the IBA solutions did not have any effect on the rooting of rose cuttings either in winter or summer.

  11. 起步合作式多学科的框架流程式教学%"Getting Started" Teaching in a Collaborative Multidisciplinary Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卡尔·斯坦尼茨; 邝志峰; 林广思

    2013-01-01

    In Carl Steinitz’s framework of Landscape Planning and Design teaching, the most difficult stage of “getting started”on the changes which wil be proposed as the main “product” is considered as the most important stage. After the context and function introduction of his teaching framework, Carl presents the two teaching processes of the Bermuda and Tepotzotlan projects, and discusses the roles in col aboration during the teaching process.%  在卡尔・斯坦尼茨的景观规划和设计教学框架流程中,作为主要成果的“改变模型”的起步阶段是最艰难也是最重要的。在简述其教学框架流程的基本内容和使用方式之后,介绍了百慕大和墨西哥泰波兹特兰两个设计课题的教学过程,最后讨论了教学中团队合作的角色分工问题。

  12. Comparison of techniques for determination of soluble sugars used in feed for ruminant nutrition

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    Cândida Camila dos Reis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate different techniques for determination of soluble sugars (fraction CA in foods used for ruminant nutrition. Feed analyzed were: sugar-cane, bermuda grass, corn meal and soybean meal. Dry matter (DM, ash, ether extract (EE and crude protein (CP were determined to make possible the calculation of total carbohydrates concentration in the samples. The soluble carbohydrate fraction were determined in 15 repetitions of each sample by two different analytical techniques. One technique based on soluble carbohydrates extraction and its quantification by spectrophotometry after chelation of the sugar with anthrone; and another one that uses phenol as the chelating agent. The experiment were conducted in a completely randomized design and the data submitted to the two-factor factorial analysis of variance (? = 0.05, with the different feeds and the two techniques as factors. There was no statistical difference between techniques, but the effect of the feed and the interaction feed x technique were significant. So, a new analysis of variance was conducted to test the difference between techniques in each feed separately. Only soybean meal did not show statistical difference between the water soluble sugars determined by the two techniques.

  13. Trans-Colonial Collaboration and Slave Narrative: Mary Prince Revisited

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    Michelle Gadpaille

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1831 in London, two formidable women met: Mary Prince, an ex-slave from Bermuda, who had crossed the Atlantic to a qualified freedom, and Susanna Strickland, an English writer. The narrative that emerged from this meeting was The History of Mary Prince, which played a role in the fight for slave emancipation in the British Empire. Prince disappeared once the battle was won, while Strickland emigrated to Upper Canada and, as Susanna Moodie, became an often quoted 19th century Canadian writer. Prince dictated, Strickland copied, and the whole was lightly edited by Thomas Pringle, the anti-slavery publisher at whose house the meeting took place. This is the standard account. In contesting this version, the paper aims to reinstate Moodie as co-creator of the collaborative Mary Prince text by considering multiple accounts of the meeting with Prince and to place the work in the context of Moodie’s pre- and post-emigration oeuvre on both sides of the Atlantic.

  14. A new species of Halicyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae from a lagoon system of the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suarez-Morales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plankton samples obtained from the lagoon system Laguna Navío Quebrado, in northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an undescribed cyclopoid copepod of the genus Halicyclops. The new species belongs to the highly diverse and widely distributed thermophilus-complex. It closely resembles H. clarkei Herbst, 1982 from Louisiana and H. bowmani Rocha & Iliffe, 1993 from Bermuda. These species share the same armature of P1-P4EXP3, with a 3443 spine formula and the terminal antennary segment with 5 setae. However, H. gaviriai sp. n. can be separated from both H. clarkei and H. bowmani by the morphology of the anal pseudoperculum, the proportions of the fourth antennulary segment, the length of the inner basipodal spine of P1, the P1EXP/inner basipodal spine inner length ratio and the length/width ratio of the caudal rami. This is the third species of Halicyclops recorded from Colombia and the first one described from this country. With the addition of H. gaviriai sp. n., the number of species of Halicyclops known from the Neotropics increases to 19. The regional diversity of the genus is probably underestimated.

  15. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) for the Brazilian Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos E L; Luiz, Osmar J; Floeter, Sergio R; Lucena, Marcos B; Barbosa, Moysés C; Rocha, Claudia R; Rocha, Luiz A

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that may be under the reach of the invasion. Despite the anticipation that lionfish would eventually extend their range throughout most of the eastern coast of South America, it had not been recorded in Brazil until now. Here we report the first lionfish appearance for the Brazilian coast and show that the individual collected by us is genetically linked to the invasive Caribbean population. Since small-range endemics are found in several locations in Brazil and are among the species that are most vulnerable to extinction, we recommend urgent control, management and education measures aimed at minimizing the effects of this impending invasion. PMID:25901361

  16. Hematology, plasma biochemistry, and tissue enzyme activities of invasive red lionfish captured off North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E T; Stoskopf, M K; Morris, J A; Clarke, E O; Harms, C A

    2010-12-01

    The red lionfish Pterois volitans is important not only in the aquarium trade but also as an invasive species in the western Atlantic. Introduced to waters off the southeastern coast of the United States, red lionfish have rapidly spread along much of the East Coast and throughout Bermuda, the Bahamas, and much of the Caribbean. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were evaluated in red lionfish captured from the offshore waters of North Carolina to establish baseline parameters for individual and population health assessment. Blood smears were evaluated for total and differential white blood cell counts, and routine clinical biochemical profiles were performed on plasma samples. To improve the interpretive value of routine plasma biochemistry profiles, tissue enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT], lactate dehydrogenase [LD], and creatine kinase [CK]) were analyzed from liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and heart tissues from five fish. The hematological and plasma biochemical values were similar to those of other marine teleosts except that the estimated white blood cell counts were much lower than those routinely found in many species. The tissue enzyme activity findings suggest that plasma LD, CK, and AST offer clinical relevance in the assessment of red lionfish. PMID:21413511

  17. Temporal variability in Chemical and Stable isotopic characteristics of ambient bulk aerosols over a coastal environment of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, R.; Karapurkar, S. G.; Sarma, V. V.; Praveen, P.; Kumar, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols are known to influence regional biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in addition to regional radiation budgets. Owing to multiplicity of primary sources of natural and anthropogenic origin, their detailed chemical and isotopic characterization can greatly help in source apportionment and identifying secondary processes. From the roof of NIO-Goa (India) [15.46οN, 73.8oE; at ~55.8 MASL], atmospheric bulk aerosols (n=22) were collected on Quartz filters, from 2009 December to January 2011 covering entire 2010 (except monsoon period) to investigate temporal variability in their chemical and isotopic characteristics of the carbonaceous fraction i.e. TC, TOC and TN mass concentrations and their stable isotopic ratios (δ13CTC, δ13CTOC and δ15NTN). Both δ13CTC and δ13CTOC varied in narrow ranges (-24.9±1.1‰, -25.7±0.9‰ respectively), but significant differences were observed between the two during pre-monsoon months (as high as 2.3‰), possibly due to mixing of inorganic mineral dust. δ15NTN values showed a wide range of variability (average = 13.6±7.2‰), with significantly lower values (~2-5‰; as reported earlier by Agnihotri et al. 2011) during pre-monsoon period compared to those during winter (as high as ~26‰). Using δ13CTC values and two end-member mixing model (assuming δ13C of marine and continental carbon as -21 and -27‰ respectively), the average marine carbon fraction for Goa aerosols was estimated as 36±18.5%, significantly higher than reported for Chennai aerosols (~19%) (Pavuluri et al., 2011), but close to the reported average for marine aerosols at Bermuda (38%) (Turekian et al., 2003). Chemical and isotopic characteristics of ambient aerosols over Goa along with contemporaneous meteorological data indicate that winter aerosols contain significant proportion of carbonaceous fraction originated from biomass burning and other anthropogenic activities carried out in northern parts of

  18. Luminescence dated Late Pleistocene wave-built terraces in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitiro Suguio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents field and chronological investigations along the coast of northeastern Brazil from ~4°S to 9°S latitude, which corresponds to ~700 km of coastline under a semi-diurnal mesotidal regime. We investigated wave-built terrace deposits and dated sediments using the optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence methods on quartz grains. The wave-built terraces yielded two main age groups: 200-230 ka and 100-130 ka, which we interpreted as depositional ages. We correlated these age groups with oxygen-isotope stages 7c and 5e, respectively. These events correspond to the antepenultimate and penultimate transgressions along the Brazilian coast. The deposits occur mainly in patches on low-lying flat plateaus along the littoral zone and incision valleys that cut across coastal tablelands. The altitude of the base of the 200-230 ka terraces ranges from 10 m above mean sea level (asl to -2m asl, whereas the base of the 100-130 ka varies from 12 m asl to -2 m asl. Both terraces were deposited in the foreshore and upper shoreface zones. We noted a coincidence between sea-level highstand chronologies in northeastern Brazil and those in the Bahamas and Bermuda.Este estudo apresenta uma investigação de campo e geocronológica realizada ao longo da costa nordeste do Brasil entre ~4°S e 9°S de latitude, o que corresponde a ~700 km de costa submetida a um regime de meso-maré. Nós investigamos terraços marinhos construídos por ondas e datamos sedimentos usando luminescência oticamente estimulada e termoluminescência em grãos de quartzo. Os terraços marinhos forneceram dois grupos de idades: 200-230 ka e 100-130 ka, que interpretamos como idades de deposição. Nós correlacionamos estas idades com idades do estágio isotópico do oxigênio 7c e 5e, respectivamente. Estes eventos correspondem a antepenúltima e penúltima transgressões que ocorreram ao longo da costa brasileira. Os depósitos ocorrem predominantemente em

  19. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Review of the host plants of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Casmuz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.In order to update records of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith host plants, a bibliographic review was made. Host plant search was organized into groups per zones and countries. Records from the U.S., Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean Islands were grouped together as belonging to Northern America. As South American records, all reports were included except for those from Argentina. 186 host plants were found and they belong to 42 different families. The most cited hosts are part of the following families: Poaceae (35.5%, Fabaceae (11.3%, Solanaceae and

  20. Hydrological and Dynamical Characteristics of Summertime Droughts over U.S. Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Chiau; Smith, Eric A.

    2001-05-01

    strong anticyclone over central North America.On a regional scale, midtropospheric westerly winds are weakened (or become easterly) south of a thermal heat low centered in South Dakota during drought episodes because of the north-south temperature reversal perturbation. The associated westward displaced Bermuda high leads to enhanced low-level warm flow into the Dakotas, thus helping to maintain the reversal in the meridional temperature gradient and the concomitant thermal wind reversal. Enhanced moisture transport from the Gulf of California into the western plains (part of the Great Basin monsoon process) results from the large-scale perturbation pressure pattern. Middle-upper level convergence maintains the water vapor strip east of the Rocky Mountains, while the Mississippi valley undergoes moisture cutoff from both this process and the westward shift in the Bermuda high. The strip of maximum PW then undergoes enhanced solar and infrared absorption that feeds back on the thermal heat low. Surface air temperatures warm while sinking motion balances middle-upper level radiative cooling around the Kansas City area. This is the dynamical coupling that leads to reduced surface relative humidities. The centers of high surface air temperature and deficit rainfall are dynamically consistent with patterns in geopotential heights, vertical velocities, and water vapor amounts.