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Sample records for bermuda grass allergen

  1. Evaluation of molecular basis of cross reactivity between rye and Bermuda grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruby; Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2009-12-01

    Allergenic cross reactivity between the members of the Pooids (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis) and Chloridoids (Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum) is well established. Studies using crude extracts in the past have demonstrated limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and the Chloridoids suggesting separate diagnosis and therapy. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis for the limited cross reactivity observed between the 2 groups of grasses. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular basis of cross allergenicity between the major allergens from rye and Bermuda grass pollens. Immunoblot inhibition tests were carried out to determine the specificity of the proteins involved in cross reactivity. Crude pollen extract and bacterially expressed and purified recombinant Lol p 1and Lol p 5 from rye grass were subjected to cross inhibition experiments with crude and purified recombinant Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass using sera from patients allergic to rye grass pollen. The immunoblot inhibition studies revealed a high degree of cross inhibition between the group 1 allergens. In contrast, a complete lack of inhibition was observed between Bermuda grass group 1 allergen rCyn d 1, and rye grass group 5 allergen rLol p 5. Crude rye grass extract strongly inhibited IgE reactivity to Bermuda grass, whereas crude Bermuda grass pollen extract showed a weaker inhibition. Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  2. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  3. An experimental model of allergic asthma in cats sensitized to house dust mite or bermuda grass allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris Reinero, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Berghaus, Roy D; Williams, Kurt J; Leutenegger, Christian M; Walby, William F; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2004-10-01

    Animal models are used to mimic human asthma, however, not all models replicate the major characteristics of the human disease. Spontaneous development of asthma with hallmark features similar to humans has been documented to occur with relative frequency in only one animal species, the cat. We hypothesized that we could develop an experimental model of feline asthma using clinically relevant aeroallergens identified from cases of naturally developing feline asthma, and characterize immunologic, physiologic, and pathologic changes over 1 year. House dust mite (HDMA) and Bermuda grass (BGA) allergen were selected by screening 10 privately owned pet cats with spontaneous asthma using a serum allergen-specific IgE ELISA. Parenteral sensitization and aerosol challenges were used to replicate the naturally developing disease in research cats. The asthmatic phenotype was characterized using intradermal skin testing, serum allergen-specific IgE ELISA, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgG and IgA ELISAs, airway hyperresponsiveness testing, BALF cytology, cytokine profiles using TaqMan PCR, and histopathologic evaluation. Sensitization with HDMA or BGA in cats led to allergen-specific IgE production, allergen-specific serum and BALF IgG and IgA production, airway hyperreactivity, airway eosinophilia, an acute T helper 2 cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and BALF cells, and histologic evidence of airway remodeling. Using clinically relevant aeroallergens to sensitize and challenge the cat provides an additional animal model to study the immunopathophysiologic mechanisms of allergic asthma. Chronic exposure to allergen in the cat leads to a variety of immunologic, physiologic, and pathologic changes that mimic the features seen in human asthma.

  4. Monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to quantify the major allergen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen, Cyn d 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffort, O; Calabozo, B; González, R; Carpizo, J A; Barber, D; Polo, F

    2004-12-01

    Pollen of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is an important cause of pollinosis in many areas of the world. Most patients show sensitivity to the major allergen Cyn d 1, a glycoprotein composed of a number of isoforms with a molecular mass of 31-32 kDa. The aim of this work was to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based ELISA to quantify Cyn d 1, and to assess the correlation of the allergen content with the biological activity of C. dactylon pollen extracts. After fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse immunized with C. dactylon pollen extract, Cyn d 1-specific mAbs secreting hybridomas were selected, and the antibodies characterized. One of them (4.4.1) was used as the capture antibody in an ELISA method for Cyn d 1 quantitation. An anti-Cyn d 1 rabbit serum was used as the second antibody. Cyn d 1 was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with mAb 4.4.1, characterized, and used as the standard in the assay. The identity, purity and isoallergen composition of affinity-purified Cyn d 1 was confirmed by N-terminal amino acid sequencing, SDS-PAGE, Western blot and 2D electrophoresis. The Cyn d 1 ELISA is highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 0.24 ng/ml and a linear range of 1.1-9.2 ng/ml. An excellent correlation was found when the content of Cyn d 1, measured in 16 different extracts, was compared with the allergenic activity of the same extracts determined by RAST inhibition. The results prove the usefulness of the Cyn d 1 ELISA for the standardization of C. dactylon-allergen products on the basis of major allergen content. 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. IgE profiles of Bermuda grass pollen sensitised patients evaluated by Phleum pratense allergens Phl P 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 , 7, 11, 12.

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    Rossi, Renato E; Monasterolo, Giorgio; Prina, Paolo; Coco, Giuseppe; Operti, Daniela; Rossi, Lucilla

    2008-06-01

    Despite the difference in geographical dominance of certain grasses, a high degree of allergenic similarity or cross-reactivity between Bermuda grass pollen (BGP) and timothy grass pollen (TGP) has been previously demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the sensitisation to TGP in 411 patients known for their reactivity to BGP extracts by analysing their reactivity to crude timothy pollen extract and timothy pollen purified allergens, establishing their specific IgE-profiles. Using the immunoenzymatic CAP method we evaluated IgE-specific antibodies for BGP- and TGP- extracts and the timothy recombinant (r) and natural (n) allergens rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6, rPhl p 7, rPhl p 11, and rPhl p 12. BGP-IgE positive patients (median = 8.0 kUA/l, 2.8-22.2 kUA/l 25th-75th percentile) simultaneously had IgE positive results for TGP (100% of subjects)(median = 48.9 kUA/l, 19.8- > 100 kUA/l 25th-75th percentile) and high prevalence of sensitization to 6/8 Phleum pratense allergens (Phl p 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, markers of genuine sensitisation to TGP) other than profilin and calcium binding protein. More than 72% of BGP allergic patients were co-sensitised to rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6. A decrease of total and specific IgE with patients' age was observed. Our data show that all BGP-allergic patients simultaneously exhibit higher IgE antibody levels to recombinant and natural P. pratense allergens as well as to crude TGP extract. This suggests that when choosing an immunotherapeutic regimen for BGP-sensitised patients (after establishing their IgE profile via purified TGP-allergens), subcutaneous or sublingual TGP-extract vaccines in appropriate doses, in order to influence T epitope specificity, might be beneficial. Though extremely uncommon, in cases where a patient is exclusively BGP allergen-sensitised, BGP-extract therapy is the appropriate therapeutic response.

  6. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

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    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  7. Mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated turf and forage Bermuda grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Tifgreen, Tifway and Tifdwarf, sterile triploid (2n = 27)F 1 hybrids between Cynodon dactylon and C. transvaalensis, are widely used turf grasses bred at Tifton, Georgia. They cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Attempts to improve them by treating short dormant rhizome sections with EMS failed but exposing them to 7-9 kR of gamma radiation produced 158 mutants. These have been evaluated at Tifton, and Beltsville, Maryland, and nine that appear to be better than the parents in one or more characteristics were planted in 8 x 10 m plots in triplicate in 1977. Test results to date suggest that one or more of these will be good enough to warrant a name and release to the public. Coastcross-1 is an outstanding sterile F 1 hybrid Bermuda grass that gives 35% more beef per acre but lacks winter hardiness. Since 1971, several million sprigs of Coastcross-1 have been exposed to 7 kR and have been planted and screened for winter survival at the Georgia Mountain Experiment Station. Chlorophyll-deficient mutants have appeared and one mutant slightly, but significantly, more winter hardy than Coastcross-1 has been obtained. Sprigs of this mutant named Coastcross 1-M3 are being irradiated and screened in an attempt to increase its winter hardiness. (author)

  8. Ergot fungus Claviceps cynodontis found on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) in the Americas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2005), s. 1-6 ISSN 0706-0661 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : claviceps cynodon tis * ergot * bermuda grass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.066, year: 2005

  9. Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Bermuda's population characteristics, history, government, political situation, economy, and foreign relations were briefly described. Bermuda, a parliamentary British colony, is situated on a group of island in the Atlantic Ocean, about 650 miles east of North Carolina. Bermuda was discovered by the Spaniards in 1503; however, it was the British who founded the 1st settlement on the islands in 1612. The current population size is 56,652, and the annual rate of growth is 0.3%. About 2/3 of the population is of African descent, and the remaining inhabitants are of British, American, Portuguese, or Caribbean descent. The literacy rate is 98%, and school enrollment is universal and compulsory for 12 years. The infant mortality rate is 7.1/1000 live births and life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Although Bermuda is a British colony, it was granted considerable internal autonomy in 1968. A governor, appointed by the British Crown, is in charge of external affairs, defense, and the country's internal security. Under the constitution, adopted in 1968, the internal affairs of the country are conducted by an elected bicameral legislative body and a premier who represents the majority party in the lower legislative house. The current premier is John W. D. Swan of the United Bermuda Party (UBP). The UBP is supported mainly by the white minority and by a few blacks. The Progressive Labor Party (PLP) is supported primarily by the black majority. The UBP has retained power since it was established in 1965, but at each election, its winning margin decreased. Although there is universal suffrage, only a small proportion of the public participates in elections. Despite the fact that the governor was assassinated in 1972 and there was civil unrest in 1977, the country is politically stable. This political stability is due in part to the government's efforts since the 1950s to promote racial equality, to the government's willingness to recognize labors' right

  10. Responsiveness to timothy grass pollen in individuals without known natural exposure in an allergen challenge chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Andrews, Charles P; Rather, Cynthia G; Jacobs, Robert L

    2015-03-01

    The responsiveness to a nonendemic grass species is unknown and cannot be research without an allergen challenge chamber. To determine the clinical responsiveness to timothy grass pollen (TGP) in participants without known natural exposure in an allergen challenge chamber (ACC). Of the 26 screened participants, 22 met screening criteria and completed the 2 chamber exposures. The study consisted of an initial screening visit that included a blood draw for serum specific IgE (ssIGE) to Bermuda grass pollen and TGP followed by a 4½-day run-in phase and two 3-hour ACC exposure visits. This study was performed early in the first week of December 2013, when no seasonal pollens were detected in San Antonio, Texas. Symptom scores were recorded at baseline and every 30 minutes. Of the 26 screened participants, 22 met the screening criteria and completed the 2 chamber exposures. Thirteen participants had always lived in South Texas without natural exposure, and 9 had previously lived in areas with TGP exposure. All participants tested positive to TGP and Bermuda grass pollen. Twelve and 13 of 22 had positive ssIgE test results to Timothy and Bermuda allergens, respectively, with 11 having positive results for both allergens. There were strong correlations among skin prick test size, a positive ssIgE test result, and high symptoms from TGP exposure. There was little difference in symptoms between those who had lived their entire lives in South Texas and those who had lived elsewhere. In Texas, where exposure to TGP is minimal, strongly positive SPT and ssIgE test results were predictors of high symptoms to TGP exposure. Never exposed participants in South Texas reacted to TGP similar to those who had previous natural exposure, suggesting that in vivo cross-reactivity may be higher than predicted by prior in vitro data and may allow the use in clinical trials of allergens not endemic to the locale of an ACC. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  11. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS AND COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS PRETREATED USING DIFFERENT CHEMICAL METHODS

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    Jiele Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of biomass feedstock and pretreatment method on the enzyme requirement during hydrolysis, swichgrass and coastal Bermuda grass pretreated using H2SO4, NaOH, and Ca(OH2 at the optimal conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using two enzyme combinations: NS 50013 + NS 50010 and Cellic CTec + Cellic HTec. The enzyme loadings were optimized, and correlations between feedstock property, pretreatment strategy, and enzyme usage were evaluated. The results show that pretreatment methods resulting in greater lignin contents in the pretreated biomass were generally associated with higher enzyme requirements. More sugars could be recovered from alkaline-pretreated biomass during enzymatic hydrolysis due to the better carbohydrate preservation achieved at mild pretreatment temperatures. The cellulase enzyme, Cellic CTec, was more efficient in catalyzing the hydrolysis of coastal Bermuda grass, a feedstock more digestible than the pretreated swichgrass, following pretreatment with NaOH or Ca(OH2.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

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    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  13. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

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    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  14. Ruminal production of methane ''in vitro'' with Coast Cross No. 1 bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerken, C M; Funes, F; Gonzalez, R

    1980-11-01

    1. Samples of Coast Cross No. 1 bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days of cut, irrigated and fertilized at a rate of 400 kg N/ha/year, were used to determine their bromatological composition, digestibility and methane production ''in vitro''. 2. Crude protein concentration of the pasture fell sharply from 20 to 4% and crude fibre increased from 26 to 34% as the pasture grew older. DM digestibility decreased from 58 to 44% from the 6th to the 15th week of cut. Methane production ''in vitro'' was significantly lower (P is less than 0,01), at 3 and 6 weeks, than that obtained at older ages. The differences were more marked when calculated per unit of digested DM. 3. These results could be of interest in the search of a better utilization of dietary energy for grazing animals. (Refs. 16).

  15. Functional immunoglobulin E cross-reactivity between Pas n 1 of Bahia grass pollen and other group 1 grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M; Dang, T D; Voskamp, A; Drew, A C; Biondo, M; Phung, M; Upham, J W; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    2011-02-01

    Grass pollens are major triggers of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the immunological relationships between pollen allergens of the subtropical Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, and temperate grasses are unresolved. To assess serum IgE cross-reactivity between subtropical P. notatum and temperate Lolium perenne (Ryegrass) pollen allergens. Serum IgE reactivities of grass pollen-allergic patients with P. notatum, L. perenne and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen extracts and their respective purified group 1 allergens, Pas n 1, Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1, were compared by immunoblotting, ELISA and basophil activation. In a cohort of 51 patients from a temperate region, a high frequency of IgE reactivity with each grass pollen was detected, but reactivity with L. perenne pollen was substantially greater than with P. notatum and C. dactylon pollen. Similarly, serum IgE reactivity with Lol p 1 was greater than with Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. For seven of eight sera studied in detail, asymmetric serum IgE cross-reactivity was observed; L. perenne pollen inhibited IgE reactivity with P. notatum pollen but not the converse, and IgE reactivity with Pas n 1 was inhibited by Lol p 1 but IgE reactivity with Lol p 1 was not inhibited by Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. Importantly, P. notatum pollen and Pas n 1 activated basophils in grass pollen-allergic patients from a temperate region, although stimulation was greater by pollen of L. perenne than P. notatum or C. dactylon, and by Lol p 1 than Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. In contrast, a cohort of 47 patients from a subtropical region showed similar IgE reactivity with P. notatum and L. perenne pollen, and reciprocal cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity between L. perenne and P. notatum. Pollen allergens of the subtropical P. notatum, including Pas n 1, show clinically relevant IgE cross-reactivity with pollen allergens of L. perenne but also species-specific IgE reactivity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

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    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  17. Unique and cross-reactive T cell epitope peptides of the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1.

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    Etto, Tamara; de Boer, Carmela; Prickett, Sara; Gardner, Leanne M; Voskamp, Astrid; Davies, Janet M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) is a major cause of allergic rhinitis. Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for grass pollen allergy, but is unsuitable for patients with moderate to severe asthma due to the risk of anaphylaxis. T cell-reactive but IgE nonreactive peptides provide a safer treatment option. This study aimed to identify and characterize dominant CD4(+) T cell epitope peptides of the major BaGP allergen, Pas n 1. Pas n 1-specific T cell lines generated from the peripheral blood of BaGP-allergic subjects were tested for proliferative and cytokine response to overlapping 20-mer Pas n 1 peptides. Cross-reactivity to homologous peptides from Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1 of Ryegrass and Bermuda grass pollen, respectively, was assessed using Pas n 1 peptide-specific T cell clones. MHC class II restriction of Pas n 1 peptide T cell recognition was determined by HLA blocking assays and peptide IgE reactivity tested by dot blotting. Three Pas n 1 peptides showed dominant T cell reactivity; 15 of 18 (83%) patients responded to one or more of these peptides. T cell clones specific for dominant Pas n 1 peptides showed evidence of species-specific T cell reactivity as well as cross-reactivity with other group 1 grass pollen allergens. The dominant Pas n 1 T cell epitope peptides showed HLA binding diversity and were non-IgE reactive. The immunodominant T cell-reactive Pas n 1 peptides are candidates for safe immunotherapy for individuals, including those with asthma, who are allergic to Bahia and possibly other grass pollens. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Rojas-Contreras, A.; Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  19. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Rojas-Contreras, A.; Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-07-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  20. Allergenicity, immunogenicity and dose-relationship of three intact allergen vaccines and four allergoid vaccines for subcutaneous grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henmar, H; Lund, G; Lund, L; Petersen, A; Würtzen, P A

    2008-09-01

    Different vaccines containing intact allergens or chemically modified allergoids as active ingredients are commercially available for specific immunotherapy. Allergoids are claimed to have decreased allergenicity without loss of immunogenicity and this is stated to allow administration of high allergoid doses. We compared the allergenicity and immunogenicity of four commercially available chemically modified grass pollen allergoid products with three commercially available intact grass pollen allergen vaccines. The allergenicity was investigated with immunoglobulin (Ig)E-inhibition and basophil activation assays. Human T cell proliferation and specific IgG-titres following mouse immunizations were used to address immunogenicity. Furthermore, intact allergen vaccines with different contents of active ingredients were selected to study the influence of the allergen dose. In general, a lower allergenicity for allergen vaccines was clearly linked to a reduced immunogenicity. Compared with the vaccine with the highest amount of intact allergen, the allergoids caused reduced basophil activation as well as diminished immunogenicity demonstrated by reduced T cell activation and/or reduced induction of murine grass-specific IgG antibodies. Interestingly, intact allergen vaccines with lower content of active ingredient exhibited similarly reduced allergenicity, while immunogenicity was still higher or equal to that of allergoids. The low allergenicity observed for some allergoids was inherently linked to a significantly lower immunogenic response questioning the rationale behind the chemical modification into allergoids. In addition, the linkage between allergenicity, immunogenicity and dose found for intact allergen vaccines and the immunogen as well as allergenic immune responses observed for allergoids suggest that the modified allergen vaccines do not contain high doses of immunologically active ingredients.

  1. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  2. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive IgG antibodies to group V allergen from different grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Brewczyński, P. Z.; Tan, K. Y.; Mulder-Willems, H. J.; Widjaja, P.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kroon, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis

  3. Molecular features of grass allergens and development of biotechnological approaches for allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devis, Deborah L; Davies, Janet M; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-09-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by elevated allergen-specific IgE and excessive inflammatory cell responses. Among the reported plant allergens, grass pollen and grain allergens, derived from agriculturally important members of the Poaceae family such as rice, wheat and barley, are the most dominant and difficult to prevent. Although many allergen homologs have been predicted from species such as wheat and timothy grass, fundamental aspects such as the evolution and function of plant pollen allergens remain largely unclear. With the development of genetic engineering and genomics, more primary sequences, functions and structures of plant allergens have been uncovered, and molecular component-based allergen-specific immunotherapies are being developed. In this review, we aim to provide an update on (i) the distribution and importance of pollen and grain allergens of the Poaceae family, (ii) the origin and evolution, and functional aspects of plant pollen allergens, (iii) developments of allergen-specific immunotherapy for pollen allergy using biotechnology and (iv) development of less allergenic plants using gene engineering techniques. We also discuss future trends in revealing fundamental aspects of grass pollen allergens and possible biotechnological approaches to reduce the amount of pollen allergens in grasses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Comparative study of the growth and carbon sequestration potential of Bermuda grass in industrial and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global phenomenon occurring throughout the world. Greenhouse gases (GHGs especially carbon dioxide (CO2 considered to be the major culprit to bring these changes. So, carbon (C sequestration by any mean could be useful to reduce the CO2 level in atmosphere. Turf grasses have the ability to sequester C and minimize the effects of GHGs on the environment. In order to study that how turf grasses can help in C sequestration, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon was grown both at industrial and urban location and its effect on C storage were assessed by soil and plant analysis. Dry deposition of ammonium and nitrate was maximum at both locations through the year. However wet deposition was highest during the months of high rainfall. It was examined through soil analysis that soil organic matter, soil C and nitrogen in both locations increased after second mowing of grass. However, soil pH 6.68 in urban and 7.00 in industrial area and EC 1.86 dS/m in urban and 1.90 dS/m in industrial area decreased as the grass growth continue. Soil fresh weight (27.6 g in urban and (27.28 g industrial area also decreased after first and second mowing of grass. The C levels in plant dry biomass also increased which showed improved ability of plant to uptake C from the soil and store it. Similarly, chlorophyll contents were more in industrial area compared to urban area indicates the positive impact of high C concentration. Whereas stomatal conductance was reduced in high C environment to slow down respiration process. Hence, from present study it can be concluded that the Bermuda grass could be grown in areas with high C concentration in atmosphere for sequestrating C in soil.

  5. IgE-binding capacity of recombinant timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffer, S.; Vrtala, S.; Duchêne, M.; van Ree, R.; Kraft, D.; Scheiner, O.; Valenta, R.

    1994-01-01

    A panel of 60 cDNA clones coding for IgE-binding proteins from timothy grass pollen was immunocharacterized with sera from 30 patients allergic to grass pollen and antibodies raised against natural grass pollen allergens. In the cases of five representative patients in whom the IgE reactivity

  6. Determination of allergen specificity by heavy chains in grass pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Flicker, Sabine; Lupinek, Christian; Steinberger, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    Affinity and clonality of allergen-specific IgE antibodies are important determinants for the magnitude of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation. We sought to analyze the contribution of heavy and light chains of human allergen-specific IgE antibodies for allergen specificity and to test whether promiscuous pairing of heavy and light chains with different allergen specificity allows binding and might affect affinity. Ten IgE Fabs specific for 3 non-cross-reactive major timothy grass pollen allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, and Phl p 5) obtained by means of combinatorial cloning from patients with grass pollen allergy were used to construct stable recombinant single chain variable fragments (ScFvs) representing the original Fabs and shuffled ScFvs in which heavy chains were recombined with light chains from IgE Fabs with specificity for other allergens by using the pCANTAB 5 E expression system. Possible ancestor genes for the heavy chain and light chain variable region-encoding genes were determined by using sequence comparison with the ImMunoGeneTics database, and their chromosomal locations were determined. Recombinant ScFvs were tested for allergen specificity and epitope recognition by means of direct and sandwich ELISA, and affinity by using surface plasmon resonance experiments. The shuffling experiments demonstrate that promiscuous pairing of heavy and light chains is possible and maintains allergen specificity, which is mainly determined by the heavy chains. ScFvs consisting of different heavy and light chains exhibited different affinities and even epitope specificity for the corresponding allergen. Our results indicate that allergen specificity of allergen-specific IgE is mainly determined by the heavy chains. Different heavy and light chain pairings in allergen-specific IgE antibodies affect affinity and epitope specificity and thus might influence clinical reactivity to allergens. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  7. Indole-diterpenes and ergot alkaloids in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) infected with Claviceps cynodontis from an outbreak of tremors in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Silvio; Botha, Christo J; Vrålstad, Trude; Rolén, Elin; Miles, Christopher O

    2009-12-09

    Tremorgenic syndromes in mammals are commonly associated with indole-diterpenoid alkaloids of fungal origin. Cattle are sometimes affected by tremors (also called "staggers") when they graze on toxic grass pastures, and Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon , kweek) has been known to be associated with tremors for several decades. This study reports the identification of paspalitrems and paspaline-like indole-diterpenes in the seedheads of Claviceps cynodontis -infected Bermuda grass collected from a pasture that had caused a staggers syndrome in cattle in South Africa and thereby links the condition to specific mycotoxins. The highest concentration (about 150 mg/kg) was found for paspalitrem B. Ergonovine and ergine (lysergic acid amide), together with their C-8 epimers, were found to co-occur with the indole-diterpenes at concentrations of about 10 microg/kg. The indole-diterpene profile of the extract from the ergotized Bermuda grass was similar to that of Claviceps paspali sclerotia. However, the C. paspali sclerotia contained in addition agroclavine and elymoclavine. This is the first study linking tremors associated with grazing of Bermuda grass to specific tremorgenic indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins.

  8. Transfer factor of Radium -226, lead-210 and Polonium-210 from Norm contaminated soil to Atriplex, Afelfa and Bermuda grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mukhallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.

    2011-10-01

    transfer factors of Radium -226, lead-210 and Polonium-210 from contaminated soil with oil coproduced water to grazing plants in the north eastern region of Syria have been determined. contaminated soil was collected from one of the AL-Furat Petroleum Oil company oil fields;soil was distributed into several pots where the studied plants were planted in order to study the transfer factors of radioisotopes to them. Results have shown that the mean transfer factors of radium to green parts have reached has reached 0.0016 in Atriplex halimus L.,0.0021 in Atriplex canescens Nutt, 0.0025 in Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss,0.0082 in Bermuda grass and 0.0167 in Medicago Sativ L,which was the highest,while the transfer factors of polonium and lead were ten times higher than those for radium and reacted 0.012 in Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, 0.011 in Atriplex canescens Nutt, 0.007 in Atriplex halimus L.0.32 in bermuda grass and 0.025 in Afelfa.(author)

  9. allergenicity and cross- reactivity of buffalo grass (stenotaphrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bermuda on solid phase, but 100% inhibition was never achieved, indicating .... injected intraperitoneally into male Balb/c mice, with boosting at 2-week intervals ..... particles (DEPs), industrial emissions and wood smoke from the burgeoning ...

  10. Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of Grass Pollen Allergens Using Brachypodium distachyon as a Model System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sharma

    Full Text Available Comparative genomics have facilitated the mining of biological information from a genome sequence, through the detection of similarities and differences with genomes of closely or more distantly related species. By using such comparative approaches, knowledge can be transferred from the model to non-model organisms and insights can be gained in the structural and evolutionary patterns of specific genes. In the absence of sequenced genomes for allergenic grasses, this study was aimed at understanding the structure, organisation and expression profiles of grass pollen allergens using the genomic data from Brachypodium distachyon as it is phylogenetically related to the allergenic grasses. Combining genomic data with the anther RNA-Seq dataset revealed 24 pollen allergen genes belonging to eight allergen groups mapping on the five chromosomes in B. distachyon. High levels of anther-specific expression profiles were observed for the 24 identified putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium. The genomic evidence suggests that gene encoding the group 5 allergen, the most potent trigger of hay fever and allergic asthma originated as a pollen specific orphan gene in a common grass ancestor of Brachypodium and Triticiae clades. Gene structure analysis showed that the putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium either lack or contain reduced number of introns. Promoter analysis of the identified Brachypodium genes revealed the presence of specific cis-regulatory sequences likely responsible for high anther/pollen-specific expression. With the identification of putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium, this study has also described some important plant gene families (e.g. expansin superfamily, EF-Hand family, profilins etc for the first time in the model plant Brachypodium. Altogether, the present study provides new insights into structural characterization and evolution of pollen allergens and will further serve as a base for their

  11. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...

  12. Effect of lime, N, P, and K amendments to surface-mined coal spoils on yield and chemical composition of common Bermuda grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebelhar, M W; Barnhisel, R I; Akin, G W; Powell, J L

    1982-12-01

    Common Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, L. Pers.) was used as an alternative to cool-season grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) on acid sandstone surface-mine spoils in western Kentucky. Lime, N, P, and K fertilizer amendments were evaluated as to their effects in promoting Bermuda grass growth and development. The applied lime was effective in raising the pH from 3.4 to 4.6, 5.7, and 6.3 for the 18, 36 and 72 metric ton/ha treatments, respectively, over a 17-month period. Nitrogen was found to affect Bermuda grass production significantly and severe deficiency symptoms were observed where N was not applied. Dry matter yields increased significantly with each additional increment of N applied. Although the application of P and K increased the concentration of these ions in the plant tissues, the main influence of P and K was to increase the plants' resistance to winter killing; little effect on total dry matter production was observed. 19 references.

  13. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p  Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  14. Transfer factors of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po from NORM-contaminated oil field soil to some Atriplex species, Alfalfa and Bermuda grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masria, M.S.; Mukalallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transfer factors of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po from soil contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil fields to some grazing plants were determined using pot experiments. Contaminated soil was collected from a dry surface evaporation pit from a Syrian oil field in the Der Ezzor area. Five types of plants (Atriplex halimus L., Atriplex canescens, Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, Alfalfa and Bermuda grass) were grown and harvested three times over two years. The results show that the mean transfer factors of 226 Ra from the contaminated soil to the studied plant species were 1.6 x 10 -3 for Atriplex halimus L., 2.1 x 10 -3 for Atriplex canescens, 2.5 x 10 -3 for Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, 8.2 x 10 -3 for Bermuda grass, and the highest value was 1.7 x 10 -2 for Alfalfa. Transfer factors of 210 Pb and 210 Po were higher than 226 Ra TFs by one order of magnitude and reached 7 x 10 -3 , 1.1 x 10 -2 , 1.2 x 10 -2 , 3.2 x 10 -2 and 2.5 x 10 -2 for Atriplex halimus, Atriplex canescens, Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, Bermuda grass and Alfalfa, respectively. The results can be considered as base values for transfer factors of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in semiarid regions. (authors)

  15. On-site hydrolytic enzymes production from fungal co-cultivation of Bermuda grass and corn cob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Gracida, Jorge; Huizache-Peña, Nelson; Elizondo-García, Norberto; Salazar-Martínez, José; García Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) is used to produce industrial enzymes. The objective of this study was to use a co-culture of Aspergillus niger GS1 and Trichoderma reesei, grown on a mixture of Bermuda grass and corn cob to obtain fermented forage (FF) rich in hydrolytic enzymes, as a value added ingredient for animal feed. FPase, amylase and xylanase productivities (dry matter, DM) were 8.8, 181.4, and 42.1Ug(-1)h(-1), respectively (1U=reducing sugars released min(-1)), after 12-16h of SSF with C/N=60. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased 1.6-, 2.7- and 1.9-fold (DM), respectively. In vitro ruminal and true digestibility of DM was improved 2.4- and 1.4-fold. Ruminal digestion of FF reduced 1.32-fold the acetate:propionate ratio, which may reduce the environmental impact of ruminants feeding. On-site hydrolytic enzymes productivity using SSF without enzymes extraction could be of economic potential for digestibility improvement in animal feed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  17. Complementary DNA cloning of the major allergen Phl p I from timothy grass (Phleum pratense); recombinant Phl p I inhibits IgE binding to group I allergens from eight different grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffer, S.; Valenta, R.; Vrtala, S.; Susani, M.; van Ree, R.; Kraft, D.; Scheiner, O.; Duchêne, M.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Grass pollens, such as pollen from timothy grass (Phleum pratense), represent a major cause of type I allergy. OBJECTIVE: In this report we attempted to determine how cross-reactive allergenic components of grass pollens from different species can be represented by a minimum number of

  18. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  19. Satellite Phenology Observations Inform Peak Season of Allergenic Grass Pollen Aerobiology across Two Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk

  20. Quantification in mass units of group 1 grass allergens by a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arilla, M C; Ibarrola, I; Eraso, E; Aguirre, M; Martínez, A; Asturias, J A

    2001-08-01

    Grass pollen extracts currently used for allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy are a complex mixture of proteins of which only a few have allergenic activity. Lol p 1 is one of the most important allergens in grass pollen extracts. To develop a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of Lol p 1 and other group 1 allergens from grass species, and to assess its suitability for quantifying this group of allergens. Balb/c mice immunized with recombinant Lol p 1 were used for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Screening of hybridomas was performed by direct ELISA, and selected monoclonal antibodies were immobilized on ELISA plates and incubated with samples containing group 1 allergens. Bound allergens were detected by a combination of biotinylated Lol p 1-specific monoclonal antibody and peroxidase-streptavidin conjugate. The assay is based on three Lol p 1-specific monoclonal antibodies with different epitope specificities. The optimized ELISA measured Lol p 1 concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000 ng/mL and could quantify group 1 allergen from grass species belonging to the Pooidea subfamily. The assay does not depend on anti-sera production or availability of human sera and thus reactives can be produced in unlimited amounts. This sensitive and specific Lol p 1 assay will be helpful both for quantifying the group 1 allergen content of Pooideae pollen extracts intended for clinical use and for studying cross-reactivities among pollen extracts.

  1. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, A C; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, P A; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O3 are known to be involved in the current

  2. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, AC; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, PA; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O-3 are known to be involved in the current

  3. Grass immunotherapy induces inhibition of allergen-specific human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, S; Hamilton, R G; Norman, P S; Ansari, A A

    1997-02-01

    The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from humans allergic to grass pollens (GR+ subjects) show strong in vitro proliferative responses to purified allergens from Lolium perenne pollen Lol p 1, and to a lesser extent to Lol p 2 and Lol p 3. By contrast, PBMC from grass allergic patients undergoing immunotherapy (GR + IT subjects) exhibit a very poor Lol p-specific proliferative response, similar to that observed in nongrass allergic subjects (GR-subjects). Unlike GR-subjects, both GR+ and GR + IT subjects have high levels of antigen-specific serum IgG and IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, Lol p 2 and Lol p 3. While GR+ subjects exhibit a significant correlation between antigen-specific serum antibody and PBMC responses, GR + IT subjects do not show a correlation between the two responses. The possible mechanisms by which immunotherapy may modulate allergen-specific T cell proliferative response are discussed.

  4. Comparative physiological and proteomic analyses reveal the actions of melatonin in the reduction of oxidative stress in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Xin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-08-01

    The fact of melatonin as an important antioxidant in animals led plant researchers to speculate that melatonin also acts in the similar manner in plants. Although melatonin has significant effects on alleviating stress-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS), the involvement of melatonin in direct oxidative stress and the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear in plants. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin significantly alleviated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-modulated plant growth, cell damage, and ROS accumulation in Bermuda grass. Additionally, 76 proteins significantly influenced by melatonin during mock or H2O2 treatment were identified by gel-free proteomics using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation). Metabolic pathway analysis showed that several pathways were markedly enhanced by melatonin and H2O2 treatments, including polyamine metabolism, ribosome pathway, major carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, redox, and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study provides more comprehensive insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of melatonin in Bermuda grass responses to direct oxidative stress. This may relate to the activation of antioxidants, modulation of metabolic pathways, and extensive proteome reprograming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Major grass pollen allergen Lol p 1 binds to diesel exhaust particles: implications for asthma and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R B; Suphioglu, C; Taylor, P; Desai, R; Watson, H C; Peng, J L; Bursill, L A

    1997-03-01

    Grass pollen allergens are known to be present in the atmosphere in a range of particle sizes from whole pollen grains (approx. 20 to 55 microns in diameter) to smaller size fractions Lol p 1, immunogold labelling with specific monoclonal antibodies and a high voltage transmission electron-microscopic imaging technique. DECP are visualized as small carbon spheres, each 30-60 nm in diameter, forming fractal aggregates about 1-2 microns in diameter. Here we test our hypothesis and show by in vitro experiments that the major grass pollen allergen, Lol p 1, binds to one defined class of fine particles, DECP. DECP are in the respirable size range, can bind to the major grass pollen allergen Lol p 1 under in vitro conditions and represent a possible mechanism by which allergens can become concentrated in polluted air and thus trigger attacks of asthma.

  6. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...... mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with grass pollen rhinitis into groups receiving SCIT, SLIT tablet, or neither and followed them for 15 months...... differed significantly in both SCIT and SLIT-tablet treatment groups when compared to the control group. Both SCIT and SLIT-tablet groups were significantly different from the control group after 1–3 months of treatment. In general, the changes induced by SCIT reached twice that of SLIT tablet...

  7. Relevance of Allergenic Sensitization to Cynodon dactylon and Phragmites communis: Cross-reactivity With Pooideae Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Matas, M A; Moya, R; Cardona, V; Valero, A; Gaig, P; Malet, A; Viñas, M; García-Moral, A; Labrador, M; Alcoceba, E; Ibero, M; Carnés, J

    The homologous group of sweet grasses belongs to the Pooideae subfamily, but grass pollen species from other subfamilies can also cause allergy, such as Cynodon dactylon (Chloridoideae) and Phragmites communis (Arundinoideae). C dactylon and P communis have not been included in the sweet grasses homologous group because of their low cross-reactivity with other grasses. The aims of this study were to investigate the profile of sensitization to C dactylon and P communis in patients sensitized to grasses and to analyze cross-reactivity between these 2 species and temperate grasses. Patients were skin prick tested with a grass mixture (GM). Specific IgE to GM, C dactylon, P communis, Cyn d 1, and Phl p 1 was measured by ImmunoCAP. A pool of sera was used for the immunoblot assays. Cross-reactivity was studied by ELISA and immunoblot inhibition. Thirty patients had sIgE to GM. Twenty-four (80%) had positive results for C dactylon, 27 (90%) for P communis, 22 (73.3%) for nCyn d 1, and 92.9% for rPhl p 1. Bands were detected in the 3 extracts by immunoblot. Inhibition of GM was not observed with C dactylon or P communis by immunoblot or ELISA inhibition. When C dactylon or P communis were used in the solid phase, GM produced almost complete inhibition. Eighty percent of patients sensitized to grasses were also sensitized to C dactylon and 90% were sensitized to P communis. Sensitization to these species seems to be induced by allergens different to those in sweet grasses.

  8. The effect of geographical and climatic properties on grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Şenol; Şahin, Aydan Acar; Sarışahin, Tuğba; Şahin, Serap; Kaplan, Ayşe; Pınar, Nur Münevver

    2018-04-01

    The Poaceae family, including grasses, comprises several cosmopolitan and allergenic species. The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between Poaceae pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations in two cities with different geographical and climatic properties in Turkey. Pollen were collected from Burkard traps in Ankara and Zonguldak. Phl p 5 sampling was carried out between March and October in both 2015 and 2016 using a BGI900 Cascade High Volume Air Sampler (900 L/min.). The concentrations of Phl p 5 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The annual sum of Poaceae pollen (pollen index) during 2015-2016 was 5454 in Ankara and 4142 in Zonguldak. The total Phl p 5 concentration was 1309 pg/m3 in Zonguldak, whereas it was 8181 pg/m3 in Ankara over 2 years. About 90% of the allergen was found in the fraction with particulate matter (PM) > 10 μm in both cities. It was found that the main meteorological parameter which affected pollen and Phl p 5 was temperature in both stations. Rainfall was also found to be important for Zonguldak, due to its climatic and geographic properties. Lastly, we suggest that the primary wind direction, which is from the south of Zonguldak, could have a `drift effect' for allergens because of the airborne pollen concentrations and the dates on which the allergen is released into the atmosphere. The wind direction may be an important factor in the distribution of allergen and pollen grains in stations, especially those with a hilly topography.

  9. Mutants of the major ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p 5, with reduced IgE-binding capacity: candidates for grass pollen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Ines; De Weerd, Nicole; Bhalla, Prem L; Niederberger, Verena; Sperr, W R; Valent, Peter; Kahlert, Helga; Fiebig, Helmut; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Ebner, Christof; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Singh, Mohan B

    2002-01-01

    More than 400 million individuals are sensitized to grass pollen allergens. Group 5 allergens represent the most potent grass pollen allergens recognized by more than 80 % of grass pollen allergic patients. The aim of our study was to reduce the allergenic activity of group 5 allergens for specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Based on B- and T-cell epitope mapping studies and on sequence comparison of group 5 allergens from different grasses, point mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in highly conserved sequence domains of Lol p 5, the group 5 allergen from ryegrass. We obtained Lol p 5 mutants with low IgE-binding capacity and reduced allergenic activity as determined by basophil histamine release and by skin prick testing in allergic patients. Circular dichroism analysis showed that these mutants exhibited an overall structural fold similar to the recombinant Lol p 5 wild-type allergen. In addition, Lol p 5 mutants retained the ability to induce proliferation of group 5 allergen-specific T cell lines and clones. Our results demonstrate that a few point mutations in the Lol p 5 sequence yield mutants with reduced allergenic activity that represent potential vaccine candidates for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy.

  10. Immunochemical studies of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Kihara, T K; Marsh, D G

    1987-12-15

    It was reported earlier that human immune responses to three perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III, are associated with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3. Rye-allergic people are often concordantly sensitive to all three of these allergens. Since earlier studies suggested that these antigens are non-cross-reactive, their immunologic relatedness by double antibody radioimmunoassay (DARIA) was studied in order to understand further the immunochemical basis for the concordant recognition of the three allergens. Direct binding DARIA studies were performed with human sera from 189 allergic subjects. Inhibition DARIA studies were carried out with 17 human sera from grass-allergic patients who were on grass immunotherapy, one goat anti-serum, and six rabbit antisera. None of the sera detected any significant degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p I and II, or between Lol p I and III. However, the degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III exhibited by individual human and animal antisera varied between undetectable and 100%. In general, the degree of cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III was higher among human sera than among animal sera. Taken together with earlier findings that antibody responses to Lol p I, II and III are associated with HLA-HDR3, and that most Lol p II and III responders are also Lol p I responders, but not vice versa, our present results suggest the following: the HLA-DR3-encoded Ia molecule recognizes a similar immunodominant Ia recognition site (agretope) shared between Lol p I and Lol p II and/or III; in addition, Lol p I appears to contain unique Ia recognition site(s) not present in Lol p II and III. However, further epitope analyses are required to investigate these possibilities.

  11. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of the rye grass allergen Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Ishioka, G Y; Walker, L E; Chesnut, R W

    1990-09-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of two "isoallergenic" forms of Lol p I, the major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. cDNA clones isolated from a Lolium perenne pollen library contained an open reading frame coding for a 240-amino acid protein. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two of these clones revealed four changes at the amino acid level and numerous nucleotide differences. Both clones contained one possible asparagine-linked glycosylation site. Northern blot analysis shows one RNA species of 1.2 kilobases. Based on the complete amino acid sequence of Lol p I, overlapping peptides covering the entire molecule were synthesized. Utilizing these peptides we have identified a determinant within the Lol p I molecule that is recognized by human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted T cells obtained from persons allergic to rye grass pollen.

  12. Peripheral erythrocytes decrease upon specific respiratory challenge with grass pollen allergen in sensitized mice and in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galateja Jordakieva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: BALB/c mice (n = 20 were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10 or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA (n = 10. A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42 at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens

  13. Complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-07-05

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II was determined by automated Edman degradation of the protein and selected fragments. Cleavage of the protein by enzymatic and chemical techniques established an unambiguous sequence for the protein. Lol p II contains 97 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 10,882. The protein lacks cysteine and glutamine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. Theoretical predictions by Fraga's (Fraga, S. (1982) Can. J. Chem. 60, 2606-2610) and Hopp and Woods' (Hopp, T. P., and Woods, K. R. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 3824-3828) methods indicate the presence of four hydrophilic regions, which may contribute to sequential or parts of conformational B-cell epitopes. Analysis of amphipathic regions by Berzofsky's method indicates the presence of a highly amphipathic region, which may contain, or contribute to, an Ia/T-cell epitope. This latter segment of Lol p II was found to be highly homologous with an antibody-binding segment of the major rye allergen Lol p I and may explain why immune responsiveness to both the allergens is associated with HLA-DR3.

  14. Evaluation of two grass pollen extracts for immunotherapy by serum determinations of specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies towards purified Timothy grass pollen allergens (Phl p 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12 in patients undergoing hyposensitization treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Enzo Rossi

    2002-01-01

    Conclusions: These results indicate that grass pollen immunotherapy elicits an array of antibody specificities that reflect the allergen content and the potency of allergen extracts; this could be of pivotal importance to define optimal allergen extract doses.

  15. Measurement of IgE antibodies against purified grass pollen allergens (Lol p 1, 2, 3 and 5) during immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ree, R; Van Leeuwen, W A; Dieges, P H; Van Wijk, R G; De Jong, N; Brewczyski, P Z; Kroon, A M; Schilte, P P; Tan, K Y; Simon-Licht, I F; Roberts, A M; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C

    1997-01-01

    IgE titres tend to rise early after the start of immunotherapy, followed by a decline to pre-immunotherapy levels or lower. We were interested to know whether the early increase in IgE antibodies includes new specificities of IgE, and whether these responses persist. Sera of 64 patients undergoing grass pollen immunotherapy were tested for IgE against four purified grass pollen allergens: Lol p 1, 2, 3, and 5. At least two serum samples were taken, one before the start of therapy and one between 5 and 18 months after the first immunization (mean: 10 months). The mean IgE responses to Lol p 1, 2 and 3 showed a moderate but not significant increase. In contrast, the mean IgE response to Lol p 5 showed a significant decrease of > 30%. IgE against total Lohum perenne pollen extract moderately increased (> 20%), showing that a RAST for total pollen is not always indicative for the development of IgE against its major allergens. For > 40% of the patients it was found that IgE against one or more of the four allergens increased, while IgE against the remaining allergen(s) decreased. For 10 sera the ratio of IgE titres against at least two allergens changed by at least a factor of 5. The changes in specific IgE also included conversions from negative (< 0.1 RU) to positive (0.6 to 5.0 RU) for five patients. For two patients, the induction of these 'new' IgE antibodies against major allergens was shown to result in a response that was persistent over several years. Although active induction of new IgE specificities by immunotherapy was not really proven, the observations in this study indicate that monitoring of IgE against purified (major) allergens is necessary to evaluate changes in specific IgE in a reliable way.

  16. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  17. Characterization of the human T cell response to rye grass pollen allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, M D; Papalia, L; Eusebius, N P; O'Hehir, R E; Rolland, J M

    2002-12-01

    Knowledge of dominant T cell epitopes of major allergens recognized by allergic individuals is required to improve efficacy and safety of allergen immunotherapy. Rye grass pollen (RGP) is the most important source of seasonal aeroallergens in temperate climates and Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 are the two major IgE-reactive allergens. This study aimed to characterize the T cell response to these allergens using a large panel of RGP-sensitive individuals. Short-term RGP-specific T cell lines (TCL) were generated from 38 RGP-sensitive subjects and stimulated with Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5 allergens and synthetic 20-mer peptides. Proliferative responses were determined by 3H-thymidine uptake and IL-5 and IFN-gamma in culture supernatants analysed by ELISA. Of 17 subjects tested for reactivity to both allergens 16 (94%) responded to Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5, establishing these as major T cell-reactive allergens. Sites of T cell reactivity were spread throughout the allergen molecules but regions of high reactivity were found. For Lol p 1 these spanned residues 19-38, 109-128, 154-173, 190-209, and for Lol p 5 37-56, 100-119, 145-164, 154-173, 190-209, 217-236 and 226-245. IL-5 and IFN-gamma were produced by T cells cultured with proliferation-inducing peptides. T cell responses to RGP major allergens have been extensively characterized, providing fundamental information for developing T cell-targeted immunotherapy for RGP allergy.

  18. The T Cell Response to Major Grass Allergens Is Regulated and Includes IL-10 Production in Atopic but Not in Non-Atopic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domdey, A.; Liu, A.; Millner, A.

    2010-01-01

    in allergen-specific responses. The aim was to determine whether major grass allergens induce production of suppressive cytokines in allergic and healthy subjects and to examine the inhibitory effect of these cytokines on allergic responses. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated...... from healthy and grass-allergic donors and stimulated with the major grass allergens Phl p 1 or Phl p 5. The effects of endogenous IL-10 and/or TGF-beta on proliferation and cytokine production were determined by use of blocking antibodies. In addition, the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells...... in PBMCs in the two groups, but fewer cells from atopic donors were CD4(+)CD25(+)CCR4(+) and more cells were CD4(+)CD25(+)CLA(+) compared to healthy donors. Conclusion: Allergen-specific responses of grass allergic patients but not in non-atopic subjects are influenced by regulatory cytokines produced...

  19. Lol p XI, a new major grass pollen allergen, is a member of a family of soybean trypsin inhibitor-related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Hoffman, D R; van Dijk, W; Brodard, V; Mahieu, K; Koeleman, C A; Grande, M; van Leeuwen, W A; Aalberse, R C

    1995-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against an unknown allergen from Lolium perenne grass pollen. The allergen had an apparent molecular mass of 18 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Earlier immunoblotting studies had shown that carbohydrate-specific IgG antibodies recognize an antigen of similar size. We sought to characterize the allergen biochemically and immunologically. The amino acid sequence of the allergen was determined by automated Edman degradation, and its monosaccharide composition was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. A panel of 270 grass pollen-positive sera was assessed in a RAST with the purified allergen. Protease digestion (proteinase K) and chemical deglycosylation (trifluoromethane sulfonic acid) were used to distinguish between carbohydrate and peptide epitopes for IgE antibodies. The allergen was shown to be a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 16 kd, of which 8% is carbohydrate. Its amino acid sequence shares 32% homology with soybean trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz) but lacks its active site. No homology was found with known grass pollen allergens, hence it was designated Lol p XI. A high degree of homology (44%) was found with a tree pollen allergen, Ole e I, the major allergen of olive pollen. More than 65% of grass pollen-positive sera had IgE against Lol p XI. IgE reactivity was demonstrated both with the carbohydrate moiety and the peptide backbone. Lol p XI is a new major grass pollen allergen carrying an IgE-binding carbohydrate determinant. Lol p XI is structurally related to the major allergen from olive pollen.

  20. Lol p XI, a new major grass pollen allergen, is a member of a family of soybean trypsin inhibitor-related proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Hoffman, D. R.; van Dijk, W.; Brodard, V.; Mahieu, K.; Koeleman, C. A.; Grande, M.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against an unknown allergen from Lolium perenne grass pollen. The allergen had an apparent molecular mass of 18 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Earlier immunoblotting studies had shown that carbohydrate-specific IgG

  1. Cloning and sequencing of Lol pI, the major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, I J; Smith, P M; Pollock, J; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Hough, T; Singh, M B; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D

    1991-02-25

    We have isolated a full length cDNA clone encoding the major glycoprotein allergen Lol pI. The clone was selected using a combination of immunological screening of a cDNA expression library and PCR amplification of Lol pI-specific transcripts. Lol pI expressed in bacteria as a fusion protein shows recognition by specific IgE antibodies present in sera of grass pollen-allergic subjects. Northern analysis has shown that the Lol pI transcripts are expressed only in pollen of rye-grass. Molecular cloning of Lol pI provides a molecular genetic approach to study the structure-function relationship of allergens.

  2. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a

  3. Health economic comparison of SLIT allergen and SCIT allergoid immunotherapy in patients with seasonal grass-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bram G; Westerhout, Kirsten Y; Schreder, Carl H; Augustin, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Allergoids are chemically modified allergen extracts administered to reduce allergenicity and to maintain immunogenicity. Oralair® (the 5-grass tablet) is a sublingual native grass allergen tablet for pre- and co-seasonal treatment. Based on a literature review, meta-analysis, and cost-effectiveness analysis the relative effects and costs of the 5-grass tablet versus a mix of subcutaneous allergoid compounds for grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were assessed. A Markov model with a time horizon of nine years was used to assess the costs and effects of three-year immunotherapy treatment. Relative efficacy expressed as standardized mean differences was estimated using an indirect comparison on symptom scores extracted from available clinical trials. The Rhinitis Symptom Utility Index (RSUI) was applied as a proxy to estimate utility values for symptom scores. Drug acquisition and other medical costs were derived from published sources as well as estimates for resource use, immunotherapy persistence, and occurrence of asthma. The analysis was executed from the German payer's perspective, which includes payments of the Statutory Health Insurance (SHI) and additional payments by insurants. Comprehensive deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses and different scenarios were performed to test the uncertainty concerning the incremental model outcomes. The applied model predicted a cost-utility ratio of the 5-grass tablet versus a market mix of injectable allergoid products of € 12,593 per QALY in the base case analysis. Predicted incremental costs and QALYs were € 458 (95% confidence interval, CI: € 220; € 739) and 0.036 (95% CI: 0.002; 0.078), respectively. Compared to the allergoid mix the probability of the 5-grass tablet being the most cost-effective treatment option was predicted to be 76% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of € 20,000. The results were most sensitive to changes in efficacy estimates, duration of the pollen season, and

  4. Zea mI, the maize homolog of the allergen-encoding Lol pI gene of rye grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, A H; Rubinstein, A L; Chay, C H; Klapper, D G; Bedinger, P A

    1993-09-15

    Sequence analysis of a pollen-specific cDNA from maize has identified a homolog (Zea mI) of the gene (Lol pI) encoding the major allergen of rye-grass pollen. The protein encoded by the partial cDNA sequence is 59.3% identical and 72.7% similar to the comparable region of the reported amino acid sequence of Lol pIA. Southern analysis indicates that this cDNA represents a member of a small multigene family in maize. Northern analysis shows expression only in pollen, not in vegetative or female floral tissues. The timing of expression is developmentally regulated, occurring at a low level prior to the first pollen mitosis and at a high level after this postmeiotic division. Western analysis detects a protein in maize pollen lysates using polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies directed against purified Lolium perenne allergen.

  5. HLA-D gene studies in relation to immune responsiveness to a grass allergen Lol p III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shinomiya, N; Zwollo, P; Marsh, D G

    1991-01-01

    The grass pollen allergen Lol p III (Mr 11,000) is a well-characterized antigen that has been found useful in immunogenetic studies of human immune responsiveness. Since immune responsiveness to this allergen is associated with HLA-DR3, we investigated whether there was any sequence in the HLA-D region that would render a person "susceptible" [antibody (Ab)-positive] to the allergen. By sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) slot-blot and sequence analyses of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified genomic DNA from Lol p III responder and nonresponder subjects, Ab responsiveness was found to be strongly associated with the sequence Glu-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Ser (EYSTS), present in the first polymorphic regions of DR beta I polypeptide chains of DR3, DR11 (split of DR5), and DRw6. Of the 41 grass-allergic subjects investigated, 19 had the EYSTS sequence, of whom 18 (95%) were Lol p III immunoglobulin G (IgG) Ab responders; among the 22 EYSTS- subjects, ten were Lol p III responders (P = 0.001, relative risk = 21.6). No such association was found with any polymorphic sequences in other DR beta chains, or in DQ alpha I and DQ beta I chains. These findings suggest that the EYSTS sequence is important in the presentation of an epitope of Lol p III; other sequence(s) may be involved in the presentation of other epitope(s). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a strong association between a specific HLA sequence and immune responsiveness to a well-defined antigen. The paper shows that presence of the EYSTS sequence classifies subjects as Lol p III responders in 18/19 cases.

  6. Airborne study of grass allergen (Lol p 1) in different-sized particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Linares, C; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Nieto Lugilde, D; Alba, F

    2010-01-01

    The Poaceae family is considered one of the main causes of pollen allergy in industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to establish the dynamics of the Poaceae allergens and determine their distribution in the different-sized particles in the atmosphere. The air of Granada (southern Spain) was sampled during the pollination period of Poaceae using a cascade impactor and a Hirst-type volumetric collector simultaneously. The sampled airborne allergens were analyzed by indirect ELISA and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Airborne pollen was evaluated with the Spanish Aerobiological Network methodology. Poaceae pollen and allergenic activity have parallel dynamics during the period of maximum pollination, which is reflected in the positive correlations between the 2 variables. In addition, the highest Lol p 1 concentrations were recorded in particle sizes lower than 3.3 mum (stage 4-F). The Spearman correlation test showed that airborne allergens are not dependent on meteorological factors, such as humidity, wind direction or sunshine, however, Lol p 1 allergen correlated positively with Poaceae pollen. The results of the present study confirm that the Lol p 1 allergen is detected more frequently with pollutants than with coarse particles with similar dynamics and a positive correlation between airborne pollen and aeroallergens. Moreover, Lol p 1 is released in stable weather conditions without large changes in humidity or temperature. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Immunogold electron microscopic localization of timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen major allergens Phl p I and Phl p V after anhydrous fixation in acrolein vapor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, M.; Dolecek, C.; van Ree, R.; Valenta, R.

    1994-01-01

    We used the vapor phase of acrolein as an anhydrous fixative for timothy grass pollen in an immunogold double-labeling localization study of two different major allergens, Phl p I and Phl p V. More than 48 hr of fixation were needed for the subcellular pollen structures to be satisfactorily

  8. Measurement of basophil-activating capacity of grass pollen allergens, allergoids and hypoallergenic recombinant derivatives by flow cytometry using anti-CD203c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, H; Cromwell, O; Fiebig, H

    2003-09-01

    The assessment of the basophil-activating potential is an important aspect in the development of improved preparations for specific immunotherapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of CD203c expression as a measure of basophil activation to compare allergoids with original allergen extracts, and recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives with recombinant wild-type and natural allergens. Heparinized whole blood samples from grass pollen allergic subjects were stimulated with grass pollen allergens and allergen derivatives followed by labelling of the basophils with PE-conjugated anti-CD203c. After lysis of the erythrocytes and fixation, the basophils were detected by flow cytometry. In some experiments, histamine release was determined simultaneously. Grass pollen allergoids revealed a 10-10 000-fold reduction of basophil-activating capacity measured by CD203c expression. The deletion mutant DM4 of rPhl p 5b showed stronger hypoallergenic characteristics in a range of 50-10 000-fold reduction, whereas a combination mutant of rPhl p 5b and Phl p 6 revealed less hypoallergenic features. Histamine release experiments led to a similar outcome as CD203c measurement. The measurement of CD203c expression on basophils by flow cytometry provides a rapid and sensitive method for the estimation of the allergic or hypoallergenic features of allergen preparations. The results demonstrated the hypoallergenicity of grass pollen allergoids and of the rPhl p 5b variant DM4, which may be a candidate in future preparations for specific immunotherapy.

  9. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Hough, T; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Smith, P M; Taylor, P; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE binding determinant in the C-terminal domain. Images PMID:1671715

  10. A rapid and efficient two-step gel electrophoresis method for the purification of major rye grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D; Davies, J; O'Hehir, R; Suphioglu, C

    2001-06-01

    Purified proteins are mandatory for molecular, immunological and cellular studies. However, purification of proteins from complex mixtures requires specialised chromatography methods (i.e., gel filtration, ion exchange, etc.) using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems. Such systems are expensive and certain proteins require two or more different steps for sufficient purity and generally result in low recovery. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, inexpensive and efficient gel-electrophoresis-based protein purification method using basic and readily available laboratory equipment. We have used crude rye grass pollen extract to purify the major allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 as the model protein candidates. Total proteins were resolved on large primary gel and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)-stained Lol p 1/5 allergens were excised and purified on a secondary "mini"-gel. Purified proteins were extracted from unstained separating gels and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analyses. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels resolved pure proteins (i.e., 875 microg of Lol p 1 recovered from a 8 mg crude starting material) while immunoblot analysis confirmed immunological reactivity of the purified proteins. Such a purification method is rapid, inexpensive, and efficient in generating proteins of sufficient purity for use in monoclonal antibody (mAb) production, protein sequencing and general molecular, immunological, and cellular studies.

  11. Grass-specific CD4+ T-cells exhibit varying degrees of cross-reactivity, implications for allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archila, LD; DeLong, JH; Wambre, E; James, EA; Robinson, DM; Kwok, WW

    2014-01-01

    Background Conceptually, allergic responses may involve cross-reactivity by antibodies or T-cells. While IgE cross-reactivity amongst grass pollen allergens has been observed, cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific T-cell level has been less documented. Identification of the patterns of cross-reactivity may improve our understanding, allowing optimization of better immunotherapy strategies. Objectives We use Phleum pratense as model for the studying of cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific CD4+ T cell level amongst DR04:01 restricted Pooideae grass pollen T-cell epitopes. Methods After In vitro culture of blood mononucleated cells from Grass-pollen allergic subjects with specific Pooideae antigenic epitopes, dual tetramer staining with APC-labeled DR04:01/Phleum pratense tetramers and PE-labeled DR04:01/Pooideae grass homolog tetramers was assessed to identify cross-reactivity amongst allergen-specific DR04:01-restricted T-cells in 6 subjects. Direct ex vivo staining enabled the comparison of frequency and phenotype of different Pooideae grass pollen reactive T-cells. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays were also used to examine phenotypes of these T-cells. Results T-cells with various degree of cross reactive profiles could be detected. Poa p 1 97-116, Lol p 1 221-240, Lol p 5a 199-218, and Poa p 5a 199-218 were identified as minimally-cross-reactive T-cell epitopes that do not show cross reactivity to Phl p 1 and Phl p 5a epitopes. Ex vivo tetramer staining assays demonstrated T-cells that recognized these minimally-cross reactive T-cell epitopes are present in Grass-pollen allergic subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that not all Pooideae grass epitopes with sequence homology are cross-reactive. Non-cross reactive T-cells with comparable frequency, phenotype and functionality to Phl p-specific T-cells, suggest that a multiple allergen system should be considered for immunotherapy instead of a mono allergen system. PMID:24708411

  12. Grass-specific CD4(+) T-cells exhibit varying degrees of cross-reactivity, implications for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archila, L D; DeLong, J H; Wambre, E; James, E A; Robinson, D M; Kwok, W W

    2014-07-01

    Conceptually, allergic responses may involve cross-reactivity by antibodies or T-cells. While IgE cross-reactivity among grass-pollen allergens has been observed, cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific T-cell level has been less documented. Identification of the patterns of cross-reactivity may improve our understanding, allowing optimization of better immunotherapy strategies. We use Phleum pratense as model for the studying of cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific CD4(+) T cell level among DR04:01 restricted Pooideae grass-pollen T-cell epitopes. After in vitro culture of blood mono-nucleated cells from grass-pollen-allergic subjects with specific Pooideae antigenic epitopes, dual tetramer staining with APC-labelled DR04:01/Phleum pratense tetramers and PE-labelled DR04:01/Pooideae grass homolog tetramers was assessed to identify cross-reactivity among allergen-specific DR04:01-restricted T-cells in six subjects. Direct ex vivo staining enabled the comparison of frequency and phenotype of different Pooideae grass-pollen reactive T-cells. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays were also used to examine phenotypes of these T-cells. T-cells with various degrees of cross-reactive profiles could be detected. Poa p 1 97-116 , Lol p 1 221-240 , Lol p 5a 199-218 , and Poa p 5a 199-218 were identified as minimally cross-reactive T-cell epitopes that do not show cross-reactivity to Phl p 1 and Phl p 5a epitopes. Ex vivo tetramer staining assays demonstrated T-cells that recognized these minimally cross-reactive T-cell epitopes are present in Grass-pollen-allergic subjects. Our results suggest that not all Pooideae grass epitopes with sequence homology are cross-reactive. Non-cross-reactive T-cells with comparable frequency, phenotype and functionality to Phl p-specific T-cells suggest that a multiple allergen system should be considered for immunotherapy instead of a mono-allergen system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Complete primary structure of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III: comparison with known Lol p I and II sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-10-17

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III, determined by the automated Edman degradation of the protein and its selected fragments, is reported in this paper. Cleavage by enzymatic and chemical techniques established unambiguously the sequence for this 97-residue protein (Mr = 10,909), which lacks cysteine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. The sequence of Lol p III is very similar to that of another L. perenne allergen, Lol p II, which was sequenced recently; of the 97 positions in the two proteins, 57 are occupied by identical amino acids (59% identity). In addition, both allergens share a similar structure with an antibody-binding fragment of a third L. perenne allergen, Lol p I. Since human antibody responsiveness to all these three allergens is associated with HLA-DR3, and since the structure common to the three molecules shows high degrees of amphipathicity in Lol p II and III, we speculate that this common segment in the three molecules might contain or contribute to the respectively Ia/T-cell sites.

  14. Allergen-specific IgG and IgA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in a model of experimental feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, C R; Byerly, J R; Decile, K C; Berghaus, R D; Walby, W F; Schelegle, E S; Hyde, D M; Gershwin, L J

    2003-12-15

    Allergic asthma, a Th2 cell driven response to inhaled allergens, has classically been thought of as predominantly mediated by IgE antibodies. To investigate the role of other immunoglobulin classes (e.g., IgG and IgA) in the immunopathogenesis of allergic asthma, levels of these allergen-specific immunoglobulins were measured in serum and mucosal fluids. Bermuda grass allergen (BGA)-specific IgG and IgA ELISAs in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were developed and optimized in an experimental model of BGA-induced feline asthma. Levels of BGA-specific IgG and IgA significantly increased over time in serum and BALF after allergen sensitization. Additionally, these elevated levels of BGA-specific IgG and IgA were seen in conjunction with the development of an asthmatic phenotype indicated by positive intradermal skin tests, enhanced airways hyperreactivity, and increased eosinophil percentages in the BALF.

  15. Modified Allergens for Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitsuksanoa, Pattraporn; Głobińska, Anna; Jansen, Kirstin; van de Veen, Willem; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2018-02-16

    During the past few decades, modified allergens have been developed for use in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with the aim to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects. This review aims to provide an overview of the different types of modified allergens, their mechanism of action and their potential for improving AIT. In-depth research in the field of allergen modifications as well as the advance of recombinant DNA technology have paved the way for improved diagnosis and research on human allergic diseases. A wide range of structurally modified allergens has been generated including allergen peptides, chemically altered allergoids, adjuvant-coupled allergens, and nanoparticle-based allergy vaccines. These modified allergens show promise for the development of AIT regimens with improved safety and long-term efficacy. Certain modifications ensure reduced IgE reactivity and retained T cell reactivity, which facilities induction of immune tolerance to the allergen. To date, multiple clinical trials have been performed using modified allergens. Promising results were obtained for the modified cat, grass and birch pollen, and house dust mite allergens. The use of modified allergens holds promise for improving AIT efficacy and safety. There is however a need for larger clinical studies to reliably assess the added benefit for the patient of using modified allergens for AIT.

  16. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Aalberse, R C

    1995-03-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a synthetic peptide of its C terminus. When allergen and antibodies were allowed to preincubate, Lol p I induced histamine release was inhibited up to 85% by the antiserum against Lol p I. By omitting preincubation, and thereby more closely mimicking an in vivo situation, up to 55% inhibition was realized. This indicates that allergen-specific IgG can act as 'blocking' antibody without preincubation. Immunization of rabbits with a synthetic C-terminal peptide of Lol p I resulted in antibodies reactive with natural Lol p I. Despite their 100-fold lower avidity for Lol p I (as compared with antinatural Lol p I), these antibodies had the capacity to inhibit Lol p I induced histamine release for > 90% (up to 50% without preincubation). This indicates that it is possible to block histamine release induced by a major allergen with low-avidity IgG antibodies directed against a minor proportion of the allergen (25 amino acids). IgE antibodies from the donors studied were unreactive with this synthetic peptide, indicating that for blocking activity identical epitope specificity of IgE and IgG is not essential. This opens interesting perspectives for application of synthetic peptides in immunotherapy, distinct from their effects on T cell reactivity.

  17. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A M; Van Ree, R; Cardy, S M; Bevan, L J; Walker, M R

    1992-07-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and inferred amino acid sequence showed greater than 90% homology with the group II allergen from Lolium perenne (Lol II) indicating they encode the group II equivalent, Dac g II. Western blot immunoprobing of recombinant lysates with rabbit polyclonal, mouse monoclonal and human polyclonal antisera demonstrates immunological identity between recombinant Dac g II, Lol p I and Lol p II. Similar cross-identity is observed with pollen extracts from three other grass species: Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Recombinant Dac g II was recognized by species- and group-cross-reactive human IgE antibodies in 33% (4/12) of sera randomly selected from grass-sensitive individuals and in 67% (14/21) of sera from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, whilst 0/4 sera from patients receiving venom immunotherapy alone contained Dac g II cross-reactive IgE. Cross-reactive IgG4 antibodies were detectable in 95% of sera from grass pollen immunotherapy patients. These preliminary data suggest that conventional grass pollen allergoid desensitization immunotherapy may induce IgE responses to a cross-reactive epitope(s) co-expressed by grass pollen groups I and II (and possibly group III) allergens.

  18. Generation and epitope analysis of human monoclonal antibody isotypes with specificity for the timothy grass major allergen Phl p 5a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, J.; Diethers, A.; Seismann, H.

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of monoclonal human IgE antibodies with specificity for defined allergens is a bottleneck for the molecular characterisation of allergens and their epitopes. Insights into the characteristics of such antibodies may allow for analyses of the molecular basis underlying allergenicity an...

  19. How far can we simplify in vitro diagnostics for grass pollen allergy?: A study with 17 whole pollen extracts and purified natural and recombinant major allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current diagnostics for grass pollen allergy are composed of mixtures of pollen of different grass species. Their complex composition hampers accurate standardization. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether mixtures of grass pollen extracts can be replaced by a single

  20. The T cell response to major grass allergens is regulated and includes IL-10 production in atopic but not in non-atopic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domdey, A; Liu, A; Millner, A

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of allergic diseases is increasing in industrialized countries and the immunological mechanisms leading to tolerance or allergy are poorly understood. Cytokines with suppressive abilities and CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells have been suggested to play a central role in allergen-spe...

  1. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses and an assessment of the genetic and cytogenetic effects. Progress report, May 1, 1975--April 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1976-06-01

    Irradiation ( 60 Coγ source) was used for the genetic improvement of several warm season grasses and pearl millet. Results of plant breeding experiments using radioinduced mutants of Bermuda grass and millet are reported

  2. Desenvolvimento e migração de larvas infectantes de ciatostomíneos (Nematoda: Cyathostominae em gramínea coast cross (Cynodon dactylon em clima tropical, na Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brasil Development and migration of cyathostome infective larvae (Nematoda: Cyathostominae in bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon in tropical climate, in Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C. M. do Couto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo foi realizado no período de julho de 2003 a novembro de 2004, para avaliar o desenvolvimento, a sobrevivência, a migração das larvas infectantes em gramínea "coast cross" (Cynodon dactylon e o horário de maior disponibilidade, em condições de clima tropical, na Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brasil. De julho de 2003 a setembro de 2004, massas fecais de equinos naturalmente infectados foram depositadas mensalmente sobre a gramínea. Sete dias após, amostras de fezes e gramínea foram coletadas semanalmente em diferentes horários (8, 13 e 17 horas, pesadas e processadas pela técnica de Baermann. O desenvolvimento, a sobrevivência e a migração das larvas infectantes nas fezes e na gramínea foram observados durante todo o período. A sobrevivência das L3 foi de até 15 semanas nas fezes e 12 semanas na gramínea no período seco e de nove e oito semanas, respectivamente, para o período chuvoso. No período chuvoso, maior número de L3 foi recuperado nas fezes e, no período seco, na gramínea. Condições climáticas influenciaram diretamente o número larvas infectantes. Pela análise multivariada, ficou demonstrado uma forte relação entre o tempo e o número de L3 nas fezes, sendo esta relação menos acentuada para a gramínea. Não se observou diferença significativa entre os horários de coleta.A study following the development and migration of Cyathostominae infective larvae was conducted from July 2003 to November 2004 in tropical climate, Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brazil. Samples of naturally infected feces were placed on 12 m² plot each month on a cyathostomin-free "Bermuda grass" pasture (Cynodon dactylon. After Seven days, samples of feces and grass were collected every week at 8 a.m, 1 and 5 p.m., weighed and processed by Baermann technique. Higher survival of L3 was found at dry season, 15 and 12 weeks on feces and sward respectively, at rainy season the survival was smaller. The multivariable analysis of main

  3. Bermuda Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bermuda Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  4. Identification of T-cell epitopes of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaher, B; Suphioglu, C; Knox, R B; Singh, M B; McCluskey, J; Rolland, J M

    1996-07-01

    T-cell recognition of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass pollen, was investigated by using a T-cell line and T-cell clones generated from the peripheral blood of an atopic donor. The T-cell line reacted with purified Lol p 9, as well as with crude ryegrass pollen extract, but failed to cross-react with Bermuda grass pollen extract. All of six T-cell clones generated from this line proliferated in response to Lol p 9. Epitope mapping was carried out with a panel of 34 overlapping synthetic peptides, which spanned the entire sequence of the Lol p 9 12R isoform. The T-cell line responded to two of the peptides, Lol p 9 (105-116) and Lol p 9 (193-204), whereas reactivity with one or other of these peptides was shown by five T-cell clones. These two peptides contained sequences consistent with motifs previously reported for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted peptides. HLA antibody blocking studies showed that presentation of peptide Lol p 9 (105-116) to one T-cell clone was HLA-DR-restricted; this clone expressed a T helper cell phenotype (CD3+, CD4+) and the T-cell receptor alpha beta. The identification of immunodominant T-cell epitope(s) on allergens is essential for devising safer and more effective immunotherapy strategies, which can interrupt the chain of events leading to allergic disease.

  5. Bermuda 3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  6. Bermuda 1 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  7. Allergenic pollen pollinosis in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiza, J; Jerez, M; Jiménez, J A; Narganes, M J; Cabrera, M; Varela, S; Subiza, E

    1995-07-01

    A 15-year pollen count was performed in the atmosphere of Madrid, Spain, to determine the months in which the highest concentrations of allergenic pollens occur. Pollen counts were done with a Burkard spore trap (Burkard Manufacturing, Rickmansworth, Herst., U.K.). The results were subsequently compared with results of skin tests in patients with pollinosis born and living in and around Madrid. The highest airborne presence (percent of total yearly pollen counts, mean of counts from 1979 to 1993) was for Quercus spp. (17%); followed by Platanus spp. (15%), Poaceae (15%), Cupressaceae (11%), Olea spp. (9%), Pinus spp. (7%), Populus spp. (4%), and Plantago spp. (4%). The most predominant pollens from January to April are tree pollens (Cupressaceae, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ulmus, Populus, Platanus, and Morus), although these are also abudant in May and June (Quercus, Olea, and Pinus spp.). The grass pollination period shows a double curve: the first peak occurs from February to April (8% of yearly grasses), and the second peak occurs from May to July (90% of yearly grasses). Among allergenically significant weeds, the most notable is Plantago; in contrast, Rumex, Urticaceae, Cheno-Amaranthaceae, and Artemisia spp. have very low concentrations (arizonica (20%). The population of Madrid is exposed to high concentrations of allergenic pollen from February to July, although the most intense period is from May to June. Grass pollens are the most important cause of pollinosis in this area.

  8. Glycoproteomic analysis of seven major allergenic proteins reveals novel post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C; Mathiesen, Caroline Benedicte K

    2015-01-01

    Allergenic proteins such as grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) proteins are known to trigger hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system, leading to what is commonly known as allergy. Key allergenic proteins including sequence variants have been identified but characterization of their post...... allergens. Moreover, we identified more complex glycan structures than previously reported on the major grass pollen group 1 and 5 allergens, implicating important roles for carbohydrates in allergen recognition and response by the immune system. The new findings are important for understanding basic...

  9. Occupational allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Allergens are substances that may cause a hypersensitivity (allergy) of the immune system. After acquiring this hypersensitivity, further exposure to the same substance may result in allergic skin disease such as allergic contact dermatitis, or allergic airway disease such as allergic rhinitis or

  10. Comparison of the intradermal irritant threshold concentrations of nine allergens from two different manufacturers in clinically nonallergic dogs in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust-Wheatcraft, Desirae A; Dell, Darin L; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S; Griffin, Craig E

    2017-12-01

    The intradermal irritant threshold concentration for many allergens is unknown. To determine the intradermal irritant threshold concentration (ITC) of nine allergens from two different manufacturers. Twenty privately owned clinically nonallergic dogs. Alternaria, cat dander, Dermatophagoides farinae, Chenopodium album (lamb's quarter), Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), Morus alba (white mulberry), Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) and Phleum pretense (Timothy grass) from two manufacturers (ALK; Round Rock, TX, USA and Greer ® Laboratories; Lenoir, NC, USA) were injected intradermally at two dilutions and at 15 and 30 min evaluated subjectively (1-4) and objectively (horizontal wheal diameter) by two blinded investigators. A subjective score of 3 or 4 by either investigator at either timed reading was considered positive. If both concentrations resulted in positive reactions, two additional dilutions were performed. The ITC was defined as the lowest tested concentration that elicited a positive reaction in ≥10% of animals. The ITCs were Alternaria >2,000 PNU/mL; cat dander 750 PNU/mL (ALK) and 2,000 PNU/mL (Greer ® ); D. farinae strumarium <6,000 PNU/mL; P. glandulosa <500 PNU/mL; M. alba <6,000 PNU/mL; C. dactylon <10,000 PNU/mL (ALK) and <6,000 PNU/mL (Greer ® ); and P. pretense <6,000 PNU/mL. There were significant differences in subjective scoring and objective measurement between manufacturers for Alternaria, cat dander and P. pretense. Results revealed significant positive correlation between subjective scoring and objective measurement for each time, investigator and manufacturer separately. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Allergenic fragments of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen Lol p IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T

    1989-01-01

    To facilitate studies on establishing the nature of structure/function relationships of allergens, ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p IV, was cleaved into smaller fragments by cyanogen bromide (CNBr) and the resulting peptides were further digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were then fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C-18 reverse phase column. The allergenic activity of the HPLC fractions was evaluated in terms of their ability to inhibit the binding of 125I-Lol p IV to serum IgE antibodies of a grass-allergic patient. Many of these fractions inhibited the binding between the native allergen and IgE antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitions were specific, i.e., the fractions did not inhibit the binding between 125I-Lol p I (a group-I ryegrass pollen allergen) and the IgE antibodies present in the allergic human serum. The possibility that the allergenic peptide fractions were contaminated by the native undegraded allergen, which might have accounted for the observed inhibition, was ruled out by the fact that the native allergen could not be detected by SDS-PAGE and the elution profiles of allergenically active peptides did not coincide with that of native allergen. One of the allergenic sites recognized by monoclonal antibody (Mab) 90, i.e., site A, was located in HPLC fractions 90-100 while another allergenic site B (recognized by Mab 12) appeared to be lost following the sequential digestion of Lol p IV with CNBr and trypsin.

  12. Effects of nasal corticosteroids on boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production induced by nasal allergen exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Egger

    Full Text Available Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear.Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure.Subjects (n = 48 suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1-4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter.Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects.In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure.http://clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00755066.

  13. Purified Timothy grass pollen major allergen Phl p 1 may contribute to the modulation of allergic responses through a pleiotropic induction of cytokines and chemokines from airway epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röschmann, K.I.L.; van Kuijen, A.M.; Luiten, S.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; Fokkens, W.J.; Petersen, A.; van Drunen, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    By definition, allergens are proteins with the ability to elicit powerful T helper lymphocyte type 2 (Th2) responses, culminating in immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibody production. Why specific proteins cause aberrant immune responses has remained largely unanswered. Recent data suggest that there may be

  14. Purified Timothy grass pollen major allergen Phl p 1 may contribute to the modulation of allergic responses through a pleiotropic induction of cytokines and chemokines from airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röschmann, K. I. L.; van Kuijen, A.-M.; Luiten, S.; Jonker, M. J.; Breit, T. M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Petersen, A.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    By definition, allergens are proteins with the ability to elicit powerful T helper lymphocyte type 2 (Th2) responses, culminating in immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibody production. Why specific proteins cause aberrant immune responses has remained largely unanswered. Recent data suggest that there may be

  15. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, P-J; Burbach, G; Heinzerling, L M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient...... the allergens selection. Result: Among the 3034 patients involved, 1996 (68.2%) were sensitized to at least one allergen. Overall, eight allergens (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, birch pollen, cat dander, Artemisia, olive pollen, Blatella and Alternaria) allowed to identified more than 95......% of sensitized subjects. However, differences were observed between countries, two allergens being sufficient for Switzerland (grass pollen and cat dander) as opposed to nine for France (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, olive pollen, cat dander, Blatella, cypress, dog dander, alder and [Artemisia...

  16. Depleted Uranium Toxicity, Accumulation, and Uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (Purple Threeawn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Afrachanna D; Wynter, Michelle; Medina, Victor F; Bednar, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) in western Arizona is a testing range where Depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been historically fired. A portion of the fired DU penetrators are being managed under controlled conditions by leaving them in place. The widespread use of DU in armor-penetrating weapons has raised environmental and human health concerns. The present study is focused on the onsite management approach and on the potential interactions with plants local to YPG. A 30 day study was conducted to assess the toxicity of DU corrosion products (e.g., schoepite and meta-schoepite) in two grass species that are native to YPG, Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea). In addition, the ability for plants to uptake DU was studied. The results of this study show a much lower threshold for biomass toxicity and higher plant concentrations, particularly in the roots than shoots, compared to previous studies.

  17. Naise võim Bermudas : kubjas kukutati / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritanniale kuuluva Bermuda saare parlamendivalimised vallandasid sündmuste ahela, mis võivad muuta asumaa poliitikat. Ametist tagandati peaminister Jennifer Meredith Smith ja uueks peaministriks sai senine tööminister William Alexander Scott

  18. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses and an assessment of the genetic and cytogenetic effects. Annual report, August 1, 1976--October 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1977-08-01

    New techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of several warm season grasses are described. The economic value of radiation induced plant mutants and the genetic and cytogenetic effects of these treatments are discussed. Alterations in protein quality in pearl millet grain and improved varieties of Bermuda grass following radiation treatment are reported

  19. Studies on `allergoids' prepared from naturally occurring allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, D. G.; Lichtenstein, L. M.; Campbell, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    The highly purified major allergenic component of rye grass pollen (Group I) was used to investigate the possibility of destroying selectively the allergenic properties of an antigen, while largely retaining its original immunizing capacities. The allergen was treated under mild conditions with formalin alone or formalin plus a reactive low molecular weight additive. Certain derivatives (allergoids) showed well over 99 per cent reduction in allergenicity, determined by the histamine released from allergic human leucocytes in vitro, but were still able to combine with rabbit antibody against native antigen. Furthermore, the allergoids stimulated production (in guinea-pigs) of appreciable amounts of antibody able to inhibit native allergen-mediated human allergic histamine release in vitro and to cross-react with native antigen by PCA tests in normal guinea-pigs. Residual allergenicity and cross-immunogenicity (by the inhibition assay) of the different formalinized derivatives varied appreciably according to the additive used in formalinization, but the cross-reactivities of the different preparations in quantitative precipitin analysis against rabbit anti-native antigen serum were similar. The residual allergenicities of individual derivatives varied by up to 1000-fold in different cell preparations, suggesting a heterogeneity of allergenic determinants. Allergoid derivatives showed no hapten-like activity in that they were unable to inhibit allergen-mediated histamine release from leucocytes. The theoretical and practical application of allergoids is discussed, including their potential usefulness in improving the immunotheraphy of atopic humans. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:4192674

  20. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A. M.; van Ree, R.; Cardy, S. M.; Bevan, L. J.; Walker, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial

  1. Evaluation of a compliance device in a subgroup of adult patients receiving specific immunotherapy with grass allergen tablets (GRAZAX) in a randomized, open-label, controlled study: an a priori subgroup analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.H.; Andersen, K.F.; Bruning, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This a priori subgroup analysis was conducted to assess patients' experience with a compliance device for the administration of sublingual specific immunotherapy for grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. METHODS: The present paper reports the results of a subgroup analysis of a

  2. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  3. Hyposensitization therapy with whole pollen extract or purified allergens monitored by immunoblotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarolim, E; Matthiesen, F; Skov, P S

    1990-01-01

    . Inhibition experiments using allergenic components isolated by preparative sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that all antigenic components of timothy grass pollen detected in immunoblot dispose of private and cross-reactive determinants for binding of human IgE. The worse......Patients allergic to grass pollen were hyposensitized with two major allergenic components or whole extract of timothy grass pollen. Specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 formed during immunotherapy were analyzed by immunoblotting. Similar antibody-binding patterns were observed in both patient groups...

  4. Sequential allergen desensitization of basophils is non-specific and may involve p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting Christensen, S K; Kortekaas Krohn, I; Thuraiaiyah, J; Skjold, T; Schmid, J M; Hoffmann, H J H

    2014-10-01

    Sequential allergen desensitization provides temporary tolerance for allergic patients. We adapted a clinical protocol to desensitize human blood basophils ex vivo and investigated the mechanism and allergen specificity. We included 28 adult, grass allergic subjects. The optimal, activating allergen concentration was determined by measuring activated CD63(+) CD193(+) SS(Low) basophils in a basophil activation test with 8 log-dilutions of grass allergen. Basophils in whole blood were desensitized by incubation with twofold to 2.5-fold increasing allergen doses in 10 steps starting at 1 : 1000 of the optimal dose. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was assessed after 3 min of allergen stimulation (n = 7). Allergen specificity was investigated by desensitizing cells from multi-allergic subjects with grass allergen and challenging with optimal doses of grass, birch, recombinant house dust mite (rDer p2) allergen or anti-IgE (n = 10). Desensitization reduced the fraction of blood basophils responding to challenge with an optimal allergen dose from a median (IQR) 81.0% (66.3-88.8) to 35.4% (19.8-47.1, P desensitized with grass allergen. Challenge with grass allergen resulted in 39.6% activation (15.8-58.3). An unrelated challenge (birch, rDer p2 or anti-IgE) resulted in 53.4% activation (30.8-66.8, P = 0.16 compared with grass). Desensitization reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation from a median 48.1% (15.6-92.8) to 26.1% (7.4-71.2, P = 0.047) and correlated with decrease in CD63 upregulation (n = 7, r > 0.79, P Desensitization attenuated basophil response rapidly and non-specifically at a stage before p38 MAPK phosphorylation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  6. Food processing and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  8. Allergens of mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Siwak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mite allergens belong to the group of inhalant allergens and represent antigenic substances which are particutlarly important in the pathogenesis of respiratory system diseases and skin diseases. The most common diseases associated with chronic exposure to these aeroallergens include: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. Mite allergens are simple proteins or glycoproteins with different molecular structures and various biochemical functions. The sensitizing capacity of these proteins is connected from their physicochemical properties. Individual allergens perform, among others, the functions of structural proteins, act as enzymes, transport lipids, bind metal ions, and are capable of glycosylation. In addition, mite allergenic proteases degrade proteins of the skin epithelium-resulting in a weakening of its natural protective barrier-and induce the immune response. The proteases also induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, eotaxin, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF. The article presents the tertiary structure of major and mid-range mite allergens and their classification. Based on literature reports concerning the chemical structure of allergenic proteins, it was emphasized that the structural differences between homologous proteins with allergenic pozoproperties relate to the distribution of amino acid residues on the surface of the molecule. IgE binding affinity and the similarities and differences in the amino acid sequence of the allergens were also the basis for determining cross-reactivity of allergenic proteins. The paper shows an example of this phenomenon, describing the existence of common allergens for various mite species.

  9. Biochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant allergen Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P

    1997-11-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.

  10. Environmental allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.S.; Bokhari, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to find out the common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in patients with allergic rhinitis. Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: A local allergy clinic in an urban area of Lahore during the year 2000-2001. Subjects and Methods: Eighty patients with allergic rhinitis irrespective of age and sex were studied. These cases were selected on the basis of symptoms like sneezing, itching, watery nasal discharge and eosinophilia in nasal secretions. Forty matched healthy subjects as controls were also studied. Allergy test was performed on all the subjects by skin prick test to determine sensitivity to common environmental allergens using Bencard (England) allergy kit. Results: common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in allergic rhinitis patients were house dust (82.5 %), house dust mites (73.7%), mixed threshing (80%), straw dust (58.7%, hay dust (63.7%), mixed feathers (45%), cat fur (57.5%), cotton flock (56.2%), tree pollens (45%) and grass pollens (48.7%). Sensitivity to these allergens was observed in significantly higher (P<0.01) percentage of allergic rhinitis patients as compared with control subjects. Sensitivity to house dust, house dust mites and cat fur was of severe degree in majority of allergic rhinitis patients. While sensitivity to mixed threshing, straw dust, hay dust and mixed feathers was of moderate to severe degree in majority of these patients. Conclusion: Skin prick tests provide an effective and definitive mean to find out sensitivity to different allergens in cases with allergic rhinitis. Based on these findings, the physician can manage these patients in better way. (author)

  11. Mechanisms, safety and efficacy of a B cell epitope-based vaccine for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zieglmayer

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The B cell epitope-based recombinant grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32 is well tolerated and few doses are sufficient to suppress immediate allergic reactions as well as allergen-specific T cell responses via a selective induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01445002.

  12. Peak nasal inspiratory flow as outcome for provocation studies in allergen exposure chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelke, Georg; Berger, Uwe; Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    2017-01-01

    : In a randomized controlled blinded setting subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis were exposed to grass pollen, birch pollen, house dust mite and/or placebo in the GA(2)LEN chamber. Different allergen concentrations were used to evaluate symptom severities. Patients had to perform PNIF before and every 30 min...... during a challenge using a portable PNIF meter. RESULTS: 86 subjects participated in 203 challenges, altogether. House dust mite provocations caused the greatest reduction in PNIF values, followed by grass pollen and birch pollen. Provocations with every allergen or pollen concentration led...... symptoms. CONCLUSION: PNIF is a helpful and feasible tool for conducting provocation trials with allergens, especially grass pollen and house dust mite, in an AEC....

  13. Distinct modulation of allergic T cell responses by subcutaneous versus sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Andersen, Kristian Aasbjerg

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms involved have not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in the allergen-specific T cell response induced by subcutaneous versus sublingual administration of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). METHODS: Grass pollen allergic patients were randomized into groups receiving either SCIT...... injections, or SLIT tablets or neither. PBMC were tested for Timothy grass (TG)-specific cytokine production by ELISPOT after in vitro expansion with TG peptide pools. Phenotypic characterization of cytokine producing cells was performed by FACS. RESULTS: In the SCIT group, decreased IL-5 production...

  14. Lyral: a fragrance allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Giuseppe; James, William

    2005-03-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of contact dermatitis and account for a large percentage of reactions to cosmetic products. Novel fragrance compounds that may not be detected by the common fragrance screening agents (including balsam of Peru and fragrance mix) are continually being produced. Lyral is one of those allergens found in many cosmetic and household products. This review will discuss the recent literature and the significance of this allergen to allergic contact dermatitis.

  15. Demonstration of carbohydrate-specific immunoglobulin G4 antibodies in sera of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    From a group of 92 patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, and selected on grounds of high IgG4 titers against Lol p I, sera were tested for IgG4 antibodies against the glycosylated grass pollen allergen Lol p XI. In 72 of 92 cases IgG4 antibodies were demonstrated. The N-glycan of Lol p XI

  16. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Obersteiner

    Full Text Available Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20 and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55. With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators. Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ammonia (NH3, and ozone (O3. What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress.

  17. Spectrum of allergenic pollen in Karachi and their characterization using conventional and electron microscopy: Potential candidates for allergy vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, A.; Noori, M.Y.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of naturally growing plants with possible allergenic potential and study their pollen morphology in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: We performed field surveys of naturally growing plants with possible allergenic potential and studied their pollen morphology using conventional (light) as well as scanning electron microscopy. Results: About 80 allergenic pollen producing species were identified which are distributed in 45 genera and 9 angiospermic families. Grasses belonging to Graminae are most abundant followed by plants from family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Highly allergenic weeds were also found widely growing in the city areas belonging to Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. Conclusion: Our study provides an updated information about the allergenic plants growing in Karachi city. All desensitization efforts should be designed in accordance to the available information regarding the prevalent allergens in the environment so that appropriate therapy can be given to the affected population. (author)

  18. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Simons, F E R; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Calderón MA, Simons FER, Malling H-J, Lockey RF, Moingeon P, Demoly P. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: mode of action and its relationship with the safety profile. Allergy 2012; 67: 302-311. ABSTRACT: Allergen immunotherapy reorients inappropriate immune responses......-presenting cells (mostly Langerhans and myeloid dendritic cells) exhibit a tolerogenic phenotype, despite constant exposure to danger signals from food and microbes. This reduces the induction of pro-inflammatory immune responses leading to systemic allergic reactions. Oral tissues contain relatively few mast...... cells and eosinophils (mostly located in submucosal areas) and, in comparison with subcutaneous tissue, are less likely to give rise to anaphylactic reactions. SLIT-associated immune responses include the induction of circulating, allergen-specific Th1 and regulatory CD4+ T cells, leading to clinical...

  19. Nanoparticle–allergen complexes for allergen immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Felice G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabriella Di Felice,1 Paolo Colombo2 1National Center for Drug Research and Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, 2Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, National Research Council, Palermo, Italy Abstract: Allergen-specific immunotherapy was introduced in clinical settings more than 100 years ago. It remains the only curative approach to treating allergic disorders that ameliorates symptoms, reduces medication costs, and blocks the onset of new sensitizations. Despite this clinical evidence and knowledge of some immunological mechanisms, there remain some open questions regarding the safety and efficacy of this treatment. This suggests the need for novel therapeutic approaches that attempt to reduce the dose and frequency of treatment administration, improving patient compliance, and reducing costs. In this context, the use of novel adjuvants has been proposed and, in recent years, biomedical applications using nanoparticles have been exploited in the attempt to find formulations with improved stability, bioavailability, favorable biodistribution profiles, and the capability of targeting specific cell populations. In this article, we review some of the most relevant regulatory aspects and challenges concerning nanoparticle-based formulations with immunomodulatory potential, their related immunosafety issues, and the nature of the nanoparticles most widely employed in the allergy field. Furthermore, we report in vitro and in vivo data published using allergen/nanoparticle systems, discuss their impact on the immune system in terms of immunomodulatory activity and the reduction of side effects, and show that this strategy is a novel and promising tool for the development of allergy vaccines. Keywords: allergy, nanocarriers, immunotoxicity, immune modulation, immunotherapy, allergens

  20. A microtitre plate radioimmunoassay for the detection and semiquantitation of housedust mite, rye grass pollen and cow's milk specific IgA antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, G.N.; Hartley, W.A.; Taylor, B.

    1980-01-01

    A microtitre plate based radioimmunoassay (RIA) to measure semiquantitatively allergen specific IgA antibodies is described, with optimal coupling conditions for 3 allergens, house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), rye grass pollen and cow's milk, and the optimal serum and [ 125 I]anti-IgA incubation conditions. (Auth.)

  1. Allergen-induced increase of eosinophil cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Grønborg, H; Mygind, N

    1990-01-01

    It was our aim to study the effect of nasal allergen provocation on the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage fluid, with and without glucocorticoid pretreatment. Twenty grass-pollen sensitive volunteers were provoked outside the pollen season on 2 consecutive days...

  2. Clinical significance identification in the of aero-allergen western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pteronyssimus (73%), South African grasses (38%), tree pollens (22,4%), flower and weed pollens (19,6%), cat (27%), dog (12%) and feathers (18,6%). One-third of the 1 372 children screened at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital Allergy Service had positive specific IgE responses to environmental allergens.

  3. Laryngeal effects of nasal allergen provocation in singers with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verguts, Monique M. L.; Eggermont, Anita; Decoster, Wivine; de Jong, Felix I. C. R. S.; Hellings, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of our recent insight into nasobronchial interaction mechanisms in allergic airway disease, the association between allergic rhinitis and voice complaints remains obscure. To evaluate the effects of nasal allergen provocation and seasonal grass pollen exposure on subjective and objective

  4. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L.K.; Hansen, Tine Kjær; Norgaard, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  5. Ocean time-series near Bermuda: Hydrostation S and the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic time-series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Anthony F.; Knap, Anthony H.

    1992-01-01

    Bermuda is the site of two ocean time-series programs. At Hydrostation S, the ongoing biweekly profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen now span 37 years. This is one of the longest open-ocean time-series data sets and provides a view of decadal scale variability in ocean processes. In 1988, the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study began a wide range of measurements at a frequency of 14-18 cruises each year to understand temporal variability in ocean biogeochemistry. On each cruise, the data range from chemical analyses of discrete water samples to data from electronic packages of hydrographic and optics sensors. In addition, a range of biological and geochemical rate measurements are conducted that integrate over time-periods of minutes to days. This sampling strategy yields a reasonable resolution of the major seasonal patterns and of decadal scale variability. The Sargasso Sea also has a variety of episodic production events on scales of days to weeks and these are only poorly resolved. In addition, there is a substantial amount of mesoscale variability in this region and some of the perceived temporal patterns are caused by the intersection of the biweekly sampling with the natural spatial variability. In the Bermuda time-series programs, we have added a series of additional cruises to begin to assess these other sources of variation and their impacts on the interpretation of the main time-series record. However, the adequate resolution of higher frequency temporal patterns will probably require the introduction of new sampling strategies and some emerging technologies such as biogeochemical moorings and autonomous underwater vehicles.

  6. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  7. BERMUDA-1DG: a one-dimensional photon transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tomoo; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1984-10-01

    A one-dimensional photon transport code BERMUDA-1DG has been developed for spherical and infinite slab geometries. The purpose of development is to equip the function of gamma rays calculation for the BERMUDA code system, which was developed by 1983 only for neutron transport calculation as a preliminary version. A group constants library has been prepared for 30 nuclides, and it now consists of the 36-group total cross sections and secondary gamma ray yields by the 120-group neutron flux. For the Compton scattering, group-angle transfer matrices are accurately obtained by integrating the Klein-Nishina formula taking into account the energy and scattering angle correlation. The pair production cross sections are now calculated in the code from atomic number and midenergy of each group. To obtain angular flux distribution, the transport equation is solved in the same way as in case of neutron, using the direct integration method in a multigroup model. Both of an independent gamma ray source problem and a neutron-gamma source problem are possible to be solved. This report is written as a user's manual with a brief description of the calculational method. (author)

  8. [A comparative evaluation of the biological action of allergens and allergoids prepared from plant pollen by the double radial immunodiffusion method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenchik, E I; Korytina, O L

    1989-09-01

    Antisera to allergens and allergoids prepared from timothy, orchard grass, birch and wormwood pollen have been obtained and used in the double radial immunodiffusion test. The preparations of the allergoid row have been found capable of inducing immune response in laboratory animals (rabbits). Both forms of pollen preparations, allergens and allergoids, have been shown to possess common antigenic determinants reacting with antibodies present in antisera to allergens and allergoids. The absence of identity in the ratio of manifestations of gel precipitation reactions for allergoid with respect to the initial forms of allergens of individual pollen preparation has been noted.

  9. Specific immunotherapy modifies allergen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in an epitope-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambre, Erik; DeLong, Jonathan H.; James, Eddie A.; Torres-Chinn, Nadia; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Möbs, Christian; Durham, Stephen R.; Till, Stephen J.; Robinson, David; Kwok, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system induces and controls allergic inflammation at the T cell epitope level is critical for the design of new allergy vaccine strategies. Objective To characterize allergen-specific T cell responses linked with allergy or peripheral tolerance and to determine how CD4+ T cell responses to individual allergen-derived epitopes change over allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Methods Timothy grass pollen (TGP) allergy was used as a model for studying grass pollen allergies. The breadth, magnitude, epitope hierarchy and phenotype of the DR04:01-restricted TGP-specific T cell responses in ten grass pollen allergic, five non-atopic and six allergy vaccine-treated individuals was determined using an ex vivo pMHCII-tetramer approach. Results CD4+ T cells in allergic individuals are directed to a broad range of TGP epitopes characterized by defined immunodominance hierarchy patterns and with distinct functional profiles that depend on the epitope recognized. Epitopes that are restricted specifically to either TH2 or TH1/TR1 responses were identified. ASIT was associated with preferential deletion of allergen-specific TH2 cells and without significant change in frequency of TH1/TR1 cells. Conclusions Preferential allergen-specific TH2-cells deletion after repeated high doses antigen stimulation can be another independent mechanism to restore tolerance to allergen during immunotherapy. PMID:24373351

  10. New routes of allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricigil, Mitat; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Sakarya, Engin Umut; Sakalar, Emine Güven; Senturk, Mehmet; Reisacher, William R; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-11-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is the only cure for immunoglobulin E mediated type I respiratory allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are the most common treatments. In this article, we reviewed new routes of allergen immunotherapy. Data on alternative routes to allow intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT), epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT), local nasal immunotherapy (LNIT), oral immunotherapy (OIT), and oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT) were gathered from the literature and were discussed. ILIT features direct injection of allergens into lymph nodes. ILIT may be clinically effective after only a few injections and induces allergen-specific immunoglobulin G, similarly to SCIT. A limitation of ILIT is that intralymphatic injections are required. EPIT features allergen administration by using patches mounted on the skin. EPIT seeks to target epidermal antigen-presenting Langerhans cells rather than mast cells or the vasculature; this should reduce both local and systemic adverse effects. LNIT involves the spraying of allergen extracts into the nasal cavity. Natural or chemically modified allergens (the latter, termed allergoids, lack immunoglobulin E reactivity) are prepared in a soluble form. OIT involves the regular administration of small amounts of a food allergen by mouth and commences with low oral doses, which are then increased as tolerance develops. OMIT seeks to deliver allergenic proteins to an expanded population of Langerhans cells in the mucosa of the oral cavity. ILIT, EPIT, LNIT, OIT, and OMIT are new routes for allergen immunotherapy. They are safe and effective.

  11. The influence of digestibility on the allergenicity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  12. A proteomic style approach to characterize a grass mix product reveals potential immunotherapeutic benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Alan; Swan, Nicola; Alawode, Wemimo; Skinner, Murray

    2011-09-01

    Grass allergy immunotherapies often consist of a mix of different grass extracts, each containing several proteins of different physiochemical properties; however, the subtle contributions of each protein are difficult to elucidate. This study aimed to identify and characterize the group 1 and 5 allergens in a 13 grass extract and to standardize the extraction method. The grass pollens were extracted in isolation and pooled and also in combination and analyzed using a variety of techniques including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, liquid chromatog-raphy-mass spectrometry, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylam-ide gel electrophoresis. Gold-staining and IgE immunoblotting revealed a high degree of homology of protein bands between the 13 species and the presence of a densely stained doublet at 25-35 kD along with protein bands at approximately 12.5, 17, and 50 kD. The doublet from each grass species demonstrated a high level of group 1 and 5 interspecies homology. However, there were a number of bands unique to specific grasses consistent with evolutionary change and indicative that a grass mix immunotherapeutic could be considered broad spectrum. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis and IgE immunoblotting showed all 13 grasses share a high degree of homology, particularly in terms of group 1 and 5 allergens. IgE and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay potencies were shown to be independent of extraction method.

  13. Dose-response relationship of a new Timothy grass pollen allergoid in comparison with a 6-grass pollen allergoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Hohlfeld, J M; Al-Kadah, B; Hauswald, B; Homey, B; Hunzelmann, N; Schliemann, S; Velling, P; Worm, M; Klimek, L

    2017-11-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with grass pollen allergoids has been proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Based on the extensive cross-reactivity among Pooideae species, it has been suggested that grass pollen extracts could be prepared from a single species, rather than from a multiple species mixture. To find the optimal dose of a Phleum pratense (P. pratense) allergoid preparation and compare its efficacy and safety to a 6-grass pollen allergoid preparation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study (EudraCT: 2011-000674-58), three doses of P. pratense allergoid (1800 therapeutic units (TU), standard-dose 6000 TU and 18 000 TU) were compared with placebo and the marketed 6-grass pollen allergoid (6000 TU). In a pre-seasonal dosing regimen, 102 patients were randomized to five treatment groups and received nine subcutaneous injections. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in weal size (late-phase reaction [LPR]) in response to the intracutaneous testing (ICT) before and after treatment, comparing the active allergoids to placebo. Secondary outcomes were the change in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) assessed in the allergen exposure chamber (AEC), the changes in P. pratense-serum-specific IgG 4 and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). All three doses of the P. pratense and the 6-grass pollen allergoid preparations were significantly superior to placebo for the primary outcome, whereas there were no significant differences in the change in TNSS. Compared to the standard-dose, the high-dose of P. pratense did not produce any additional significant benefit, but showed a slight increase in AEs. Yet this increase in AEs was lower than for the 6-grass pollen preparation. The standard-dose of the new P. pratense allergoid was comparable to the marketed 6-grass pollen preparation at equal dose for the parameters measured. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John

  14. Modelling allergenic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie

    combines second order Monte-Carlo simulations with Bayesian inferences [13]. An alternative method using second order Monte-Carlo simulations was proposed to take into account the uncertainty from the inputs. The uncertainty propagation from the inputs to the risk of allergic reaction was also evaluated...... countries is proposed. Thus, the allergen risk assessment can be performed cross-nationally and for the correct food group. Then the two probabilistic risk assessment methods usually used were reviewed and compared. First order Monte-Carlo simulations are used in one method [14], whereas the other one......Up to 20 million Europeans suffer from food allergies. Due to the lack of knowledge about why food allergies developed or how to protect allergic consumers from the offending food, food allergy management is mainly based on food allergens avoidance. The iFAAM project (Integrated approaches to Food...

  15. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  16. Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery between 20110607 and 20110627

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants,...

  17. Allergen management in the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boye, Joyce I; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2010-01-01

    .... Starting with an introduction to food allergens, the book follows with sections on food allergen management during production and processing, guidelines for the processing of specific allergen-free...

  18. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses and an assessment of the genetic and cytogenetic effects. Progress report, November 1, 1977--October 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, W.W.; Burton, G.W.

    1978-05-01

    Progress is reported on plant breeding programs for the genetic improvement of warm season grasses using irradiation as a tool. Data are included from studies on alteration of the protein quantity and quality in pearl millet grain by irradiation and mutation breeding; the effects of nitrogen and genotype on pearl millet grain; the effects of seed size on quality in pearl millet; irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf Bermuda grasses; irradiation breeding of sterile coastcross-1, a forage grass, to increase winter hardiness; use of irradiation to induce resistance to rust disease; and an economic assessment of irradiation-induced mutants for plant breeding programs

  19. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  20. Integrative, Interdisciplinary Learning in Bermuda Through Video Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. J.; Connaughton, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding an ecosystem and how humans impact it requires a multidisciplinary perspective and immersive, experiential learning is an exceptional way to achieve understanding. In summer 2017 we took 18 students to the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) as part of a Washington College two-week, four-credit summer field course. We took a multi-disciplinary approach in choosing the curriculum. We focused on the ecology of the islands and surrounding coral reefs as well as the environmental impacts humans are having on the islands. Additionally, we included geology and both local and natural history. Our teaching was supplemented by the BIOS staff and local tour guides. The student learning was integrated and reinforced through student-led video projects. Groups of three students were tasked with creating a 5-7 minute video appropriate for a public audience. We selected video topics based upon locations we would visit in the first week and topics were randomly assigned. The project intention was for the students to critically analyze and evaluate an area of Bermuda that is a worthwhile tourist destination. Students presented why a tourist should visit a locale, the area's ecological distinctiveness and complexity, the impact humans are having, and ways tourists can foster stewardship of that locale. These projects required students to learn how to make and edit videos, collaborate with peers, communicate a narrative to the public, integrate multi-disciplinary topics for a clear, whole-system perspective, observe the environment from a critical viewpoint, and interview local experts. The students produced the videos within the two-week period, and we viewed the videos as a group on the last day. The students worked hard, were proud of their final products, and produced excellent videos. They enjoyed the process, which provided them opportunities to collaborate, show individual strengths, be creative, and work independently of the instructors.

  1. Timothy grass pollen extract-induced gene expression and signalling pathways in airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röschmann, K. I. L.; Luiten, S.; Jonker, M. J.; Breit, T. M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Petersen, A.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy is one of the most common allergies worldwide and airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are the first to encounter and respond to aeroallergens and are therefore interesting targets for the development of new therapeutics.

  2. Timothy grass pollen extract-induced gene expression and signalling pathways in airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röschmann, K.I.L.; Luiten, S.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; Fokkens, W.J.; Petersen, A.; van Drunen, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Grass pollen allergy is one of the most common allergies worldwide and airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are the first to encounter and respond to aeroallergens and are therefore interesting targets for the development of new

  3. Quality requirements for allergen extracts and allergoids for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, J; Bonertz, A; Vieths, S

    2017-12-01

    All allergen products for allergen immunotherapy currently marketed in the European Union are pharmaceutical preparations derived from allergen-containing source materials like pollens, mites and moulds. Especially this natural origin results in particular demands for the regulatory requirements governing allergen products. Furthermore, the development of regulatory requirements is complicated by the so far missing universal link between certain quality parameters, in particular biological potency, on the one hand and clinical efficacy on the other hand. As a consequence, each allergen product for specific immunotherapy has to be assessed individually for its quality, safety and efficacy. At the same time, biological potency of allergen products is most commonly determined using IgE inhibition assays based on human sera relative to product-specific in house references, ruling out full comparability of products from different manufacturers. This review article aims to summarize the current quality requirements for allergen products including the special requirements implemented for control of chemically modified allergen extracts (allergoids). Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Allergen extracts and recombinant proteins: comparison of efficiency of in vitro allergy diagnostics using multiplex assay on a biological microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoldovskaya, Olga; Feyzkhanova, Guzel; Arefieva, Alla; Voloshin, Sergei; Ivashkina, Olga; Reznikov, Yuriy; Rubina, Alla

    2016-01-01

    Immunological test systems for diagnostics of type I hypersensitivity involve the following types of antigens: whole allergen extracts, individual highly purified proteins and their recombinant analogues. The goal of this study was to compare the results obtained with whole allergen extracts (birch pollen, cat dander, and timothy grass pollen) and their respective recombinant proteins in biochip-based immunoassay. Multiplex fluorescent immunoassay of 139 patients' blood serum samples was carried out using biological microchips (biochips). sIgE concentrations for the chosen allergens and their recombinant components were measured. ROC analysis was used for comparison of the results and determination of diagnostic accuracy. The results for the birch pollen extract and its recombinant allergens have shown that the diagnostic accuracy of the methods utilizing the whole allergen extract, its major component Bet v 1 and the combination of major and minor components (Bet v 1 and Bet v 2) was the same. Values for diagnostic accuracy for the cat dander extract and its major recombinant component Fel d 1 were equal. In contrast with birch pollen and cat dander allergens, using of recombinant components of timothy grass pollen (Phl p 1, Phl p 5, Phl p 7 and Phl p 12) did not allow reaching the diagnostic accuracy of using natural extract. Multiplex analysis of samples obtained from patients with allergy to birch pollen and cat dander using biological microchips has shown that comparable accuracy was observed for the assay with natural extracts and recombinant allergens. In the case of timothy grass allergen, using the recombinant components may be insufficient.

  5. Development of innovative technique that may be used as models for the increase of biomass production with grasses and other species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. W.; Hanna, W. W.

    1981-09-01

    Techniques for biomass increase are discussed: irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf bermuda grasses; irradiation breeding of sterile Coastcross-1, a forage grass hybrid to increase winter hardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific irradiation induced mutants with their normal inbred parent; use of mitomycin and streptomycin to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; biomass of napiergrass; evaluation of mutagen induced lignin mutants to maximize metabolizable energy in sorghum; interspecific crosses in Pennisetum; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to induce and transfer reproductive behavior in plants; and genetics of radiation induced mutations.

  6. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal,

  7. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  8. 156 Economic Evaluation of Grass Tablets for Immunotherapy (oralair) Compared to Placebo in Adults and Children in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchetti, Amerigo; Ruggeri, Matteo; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Bonini, Sergio; Puccinelli, Paola; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Frati, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Background Specific immunotherapy is based on the regular administration over time of a maintenance dose of allergen extracts to allergic patients in order to modify the immune response, thus achieving a decrease in symptoms/drug intake and an improvement in quality of life, possibly on the long-term. Grass pollen tablet, Oralair (Stallergenes, Antony Cedex, France), were developed and registered for rhinoconjunctivitis allergy induced by grass pollen. There is sufficient evidence for the cli...

  9. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  10. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  11. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  12. Bermuda as an evolutionary life raft for an ancient lineage of endangered lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Brandley

    Full Text Available Oceanic islands are well known for harboring diverse species assemblages and are frequently the basis of research on adaptive radiation and neoendemism. However, a commonly overlooked role of some islands is their function in preserving ancient lineages that have become extinct everywhere else (paleoendemism. The island archipelago of Bermuda is home to a single species of extant terrestrial vertebrate, the endemic skink Plestiodon (formerly Eumeces longirostris. The presence of this species is surprising because Bermuda is an isolated, relatively young oceanic island approximately 1000 km from the eastern United States. Here, we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using a relaxed molecular clock to demonstrate that the island of Bermuda, although no older than two million years, is home to the only extant representative of one of the earliest mainland North American Plestiodon lineages, which diverged from its closest living relatives 11.5 to 19.8 million years ago. This implies that, within a short geological time frame, mainland North American ancestors of P. longirostris colonized the recently emergent Bermuda and the entire lineage subsequently vanished from the mainland. Thus, our analyses reveal that Bermuda is an example of a "life raft" preserving millions of years of unique evolutionary history, now at the brink of extinction. Threats such as habitat destruction, littering, and non-native species have severely reduced the population size of this highly endangered lizard.

  13. An immunoblotting analysis of cross-reactivity between melon, and plantago and grass pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ortiz, J C; Ventas, P; Cosmes, P; López-Asunsolo, A

    1996-01-01

    It is known that most patients with type I allergy to pollens also suffer intolerance to fruits. Recently, an epidemiological and CAP-inhibition study has shown a new clustering of allergy between melon and Plantago and grass pollens. The aim of the present study was to confirm these results by immunoblotting analysis and inhibition of immunoblotting. Sera from 3 patients with confirmed allergy to melon, and Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata pollens were used for the in vitro studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis with a pool of sera revealed that several distinct protein bands were shared by the three extracts at 14, 31, and a spectrum between 40 and 70 kDa, approximately. Immunoblotting inhibition experiments, performed with extracts of melon, Plantago and Dactylis, showed that all allergens of melon blotting were almost completely inhibited by grass and Plantago pollen extracts. Inversely, the melon extract was capable of inhibiting IgE-binding to various allergens of Dactylis at high mol mass and partially to the band at 14 kDa. Moreover, the melon almost totally inhibited the IgE-binding capacity to the proteins of Plantago extract. Taken together, the results support the presence of structurally similar allergens in melon, Plantago and grass pollens, and that all allergenic epitopes of the melon are present in these pollens.

  14. Grass Rooting the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  15. Effectiveness of allergen-specific immunotherapy with pollen allergens in children from the viewpoint of molecular allergology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Nedelska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergen-specific immunotherapy as elimination procedures is the only method of treatment and prevention of allergic disorders formation and exacerbation of clinical symptoms. One of the approaches to molecular diagnosis is choice of allergen for allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT. The purpose of our study was to identify possible reasons of failure of ASIT with pollen allergens (predominantly weeds in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever and/or bronchial asthma based on studying hypersensitivity to the allergens, analysis of anamnestic data. Materials and methods. Allergy skin prick tests were conducted to 192 children (middle age 9.8 ± 2.7 years with the seasonal symptoms of rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma according to standard methodology with pollen allergens of Immunolog Ltd (Vinnytsia. We evaluated positive results as 5 mm and higher diameter of papula/hyperemia. The anamnestic survey was carried out in 52 patients by means of the questionnaire that contained questions about cross allergy (pollen-food, oral allergy syndrome, concomitant pathology of upper respiratory tract and effectiveness of АSІТ, which is elaborated by us. Results. The skin prick tests show that in 192 patients, who have hay fever, ragweed, sunflower sensibilization predominates (56 and 58 %, correspondingly. About 10–20 % of children are sensitive to cereals (ryegrass, fescue. To the allergens of poplar, acacia, couch-grass, oak, mint, nettle, walnut, the positive reactions of prick tests were observed in 3–7 children, that is 1.5–3.6 %. According to our results, 23 % of patients had sensibilization to 5 and more pollen allergens. 52 % of children had concomitant food allergy, 15 % of patients have reactions of the lips, oral cavity when using certain products, mostly tomatoes, nuts, seeds (they were diagnosed oral allergy syndrome. Also, one third of children have varying degrees of adenoid hypertrophy, tonsils hypertrophy

  16. Allergen source materials: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    A variety of positive outcomes can be realized from validation and risk management activities (see Table 4). They are dependent on the participation of multiple functional groups including the quality unit, regulatory and legal affairs, engineering and production operations, research and development, and sales and marketing. Quality risk management is receiving increased attention in the area of public health, pharmacovigilance, and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Recent examples of its regulatory use in our industry include the assessment of the potential risks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) agents through contaminated products], the risks of precipitates in allergenic extracts, and the revision of the potency limits for standardized dust mite and grass allergen vaccines. Its application to allergen source material process validation activities allowed for a practical strategy, especially in a complex manufacturing environment involving hundreds of products with multiple intended uses. In addition, the use of tools such as FMEA was useful in evaluating proposed changes made to manufacturing procedures and product specifications, new regulatory actions, and customer feedback or complaints. The success of such a quality assurance programs will ultimately be reflected in the elimination or reduction of product failures, improvement in the detection and prediction of potential product failures, and increased confidence in product quality.

  17. Direct contact between dendritic cells and bronchial epithelial cells inhibits T cell recall responses towards mite and pollen allergen extracts in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Wagtmann, Valery R; Hansen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    (DCs), we have investigated recall T cell responses in allergic patients sensitized to house dust mite, grass, and birch pollen. Conclusions: Using allergen extract-loaded DCs to stimulate autologous allergen-specific T cell lines, we show that AEC-imprinted DCs inhibit T cell proliferation...... production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon re-challenge. The inhibitory effects of AECs' contact with DCs were absent when allergen extract-loaded DCs had only been exposed to AECs supernatants, but present after direct contact with AECs. We conclude that direct contact between DCs and AECs inhibits T...

  18. Pretreatment IgE sensitization patterns determine the molecular profile of the IgG4 response during updosing of subcutaneous immunotherapy with timothy grass pollen extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Würtzen, Peter Adler; Dahl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergen immunotherapy is an effective treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Clinical efficacy is associated with improvement of basophil sensitivity and an increase in allergen-specific immunoglobulin concentration. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether changes in allergen...... component-specific serum IgE and IgG4 levels during the updosing phase of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) are biomarkers of the immunologic changes that can lead to treatment efficacy. METHODS: Twenty-four subjects with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were randomized 3:1 to receive SCIT...... (Alutard SQ) or to an open control group. IgE and IgG4 concentrations were determined for the major allergens Phl p 1 or Phl p 5 by using ImmunoCAP and for 8 grass pollen molecules by using Immuno Solid-phase Allergy Chip (ISAC) before treatment and after updosing. RESULTS: Levels of specific IgE against...

  19. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Annette eKuehn; Ines eSwoboda; Karthik eArumugam; Christiane eHilger; François eHentges; François eHentges

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  20. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  1. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses and assessment of the genetic and cytogenetic effects. Report period, May 1, 1974--April 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies were conducted: altering protein quantity and quality in pearl millet grain by irradiation and mutation breeding; gamma-radiation breeding of sterile triploid turf Bermuda grasses; irradiation breeding of sterile coast cross-1, a forage grass hybrid, to increase winter hardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific radioinduced mutants with their normal inbred parent; economic assessment of radioinduced mutants; use of irradiation to induce resistance to rust disease; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to control reproductive behavior in plants; and genetics of radioinduced mutations. (U.S.)

  2. The incidence of Common Allergens in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis Referred to Shahid Mofatteh Clinic, Yasuj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Nabavizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Background & Aim: Allergic diseases are one of the most common diseases which are more prevalent in certain seasons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory and food allergies to common allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 184 patients including 120 males and 64 females referred to the Shahid Mofatteh Clinic with the respiratory allergy symptoms including rhinitis, sneezing and coughing during 2012-2013. Data collection, checklist registered, including demographic information and data associated with sensitivity of skin prick test of 21 allergens were selected. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical. Results: A number of 153 patients (83.2% were allergic to one or more of the 21 allergens tested, whereas 31 patients (16.8 of them showed no sensitivity. The most common allergic reactions to insect allergens were 73 cases (47.7%, grass and turf 58 cases (37.9% percent, Beetle 55 cases (35.9%, wheat flour, 51 (33.3% walnuts, 37 (24.4% and cat fur 36 (5/23.5% respectively.. Conclusion: Susceptibility to insects, beetles and grass had the highest prevalence in patients with allergic rhinitis referred to Super Specialized clinic in Yasuj. Because susceptibility to allergens depends on the environment, therefore, being aware of them can lead to avoidance and control allergic reactions. Key words: Allergic Disease, Skin Prick Test, Rhinitis

  3. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS § 680.1 Allergenic Products. (a) Definition. Allergenic Products are products that are administered to man for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of allergies...

  4. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  5. Bermuda's balancing act: The economic dependence of cruise and air tourism on healthy coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beukering, P.J.H.; Sarkis, S.; van der Putten, L.; Papyrakis, E.

    2015-01-01

    Although Bermuda has to date managed to achieve equilibrium between tourism and coral reef conservation, this delicate balance may be threatened by the growth and changing face of the tourism industry. This may result in negative impacts on the coral reefs and services provided by this valuable

  6. Vernon Bermuda Workshop: A Course in Sub-tropical Island Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, educators in central Connecticut developed the Vernon Bermuda Workshop as a means of introducing middle- and high-school students to subtropical island ecology. Each year, after months of classroom preparation, approximately 20 top students spend one week at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (St. George's, Bermuda) studying the local flora and fauna in both the field and laboratory. The curriculum includes an additional array of activities, ranging from historical and ecological tours to spelunking, and culminates in a series of field-observation-related presentations. I am responsible for the meteorological and oceanographic components of the curriculum. In the field, my students collect time-series of biophysical variables over the course of a day, which they use to interpret diurnal patterns and interactions amongst the variables. I also add remote-sensing and phytoplankton biology components to the curriculum - in previous years, my students have studied time-series of Sea WIFS imagery collected at Bermuda during our trip. I have been an Instructor for this Workshop since 2003. The Workshop provides an outreach activity for GSFC Code 616.

  7. Chemical and Biological Properties of Food Allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jedrychowski, L.; Wichers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    This book provides epidemiological data on food allergens and information on the incidence of food allergies. It discusses the link between hypersensitivity and immune system health and covers methods used for assays on allergenic components, animal models for allergen analysis, and clinical methods

  8. [The contribution of food and airborne allergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynowska, Dorota; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata; Dynowski, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity and airborne allergens may play a role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the kind of food and airborne allergens which may most often induce and intensify AD lesions and also to assess the variability and the kind of allergens leading to AD. The subjects of this study were 610 persons, aged 3 months-70 years. The clinical status of the patients was estimated by an atopic dermatitis symptom score scale (SCORAD). The laboratory examinations differentiated inflammatory processes from allergic reactions. The skin prick tests (SPT), serum total IgE and specific IgE-antibody levels to chosen food products and standard airborne allergens with the immuno-enzymes method ELISA-DPC were performed. The elevated values of the total IgE were proved in 46.1% children from group 0-15 years and in 31.4% of adolescents and adult persons (above 15 year of age). On the basis of positive SPT and positive specific IgE values it was shown, that most frequent food allergens were: egg protein (13.0%), cow milk (9.5%), egg yolk (8.4%), wheat (3.6%) and chocolate (1.8%). The most often airborne allergens connected with AD were: grass (11.6%), moulds (10.2%), house dust mites (9.3%), pollen like hazel (8.0%) and weeds (6.7%), animal allergens coming from cats (7.2%) and dogs (6.1%). The food hypersensitivity was particularly manifested in children. It may be the predictor of potential future development of allergic disease as well as the indicator of the allergic march.

  9. Characterization of Cannabis sativa allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Green, Brett J; Sussman, Gordon; Berlin, Noam; Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Hettick, Justin M; Beezhold, Donald H

    2013-07-01

    Allergic sensitization to Cannabis sativa is rarely reported, but the increasing consumption of marijuana has resulted in an increase in the number of individuals who become sensitized. To date, little is known about the causal allergens associated with C sativa. To characterize marijuana allergens in different components of the C sativa plant using serum IgE from marijuana sensitized patients. Serum samples from 23 patients with a positive skin prick test result to a crude C sativa extract were evaluated. IgE reactivity was variable between patients and C sativa extracts. IgE reactivity to C sativa proteins in Western blots was heterogeneous and ranged from 10 to 70 kDa. Putative allergens derived from 2-dimensional gels were identified. Prominent IgE reactive bands included a 23-kDa oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 and a 50-kDa protein identified to be the photosynthetic enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Additional proteins were identified in the proteomic analysis, including those from adenosine triphosphate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and luminal binding protein (heat shock protein 70), suggesting these proteins are potential allergens. Deglycosylation studies helped refine protein allergen identification and demonstrated significant IgE antibodies against plant oligosaccharides that could help explain cross-reactivity. Identification and characterization of allergens from C sativa may be helpful in further understanding allergic sensitization to this plant species. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fish allergens at a glance: variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  11. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eKuehn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1 isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens.New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings will be useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis but also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  12. Differences in total and allergen specific IgE during pregnancy compared with 1 month and 1 year post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lee M; Ownby, Dennis R; Wegienka, Ganesa R; Peterson, Edward L; Woodcroft, Kimberly J; Joseph, Christine L; Johnson, Christine C

    2009-10-01

    Pregnancy alters the function of many body systems, including the immune system. However, little is known regarding the effect of pregnancy on maternal IgE levels or atopy. To determine whether pregnancy consistently influences serum levels of total or allergen specific IgE. Blood samples were obtained from 764 women during the third trimester of pregnancy and 1 month post partum. A third sample was obtained from 106 of these women 1 year post partum. Samples were analyzed for total and specific IgE to 8 regionally common allergens using a commercially available system. Sensitization was defined as an allergen specific IgE level of 0.35 kU of allergen per liter or higher to any allergen. Total IgE increased significantly post partum, both at 1 month (40.36 vs 35.37 IU/mL intrapartum; P = .001) and at 1 year (44.97 vs 37.00 IU/mL intrapartum; P = .005). Allergen specific IgE decreased significantly at 1 month for cat, dog, ragweed, timothy grass, and egg (P = .001 to P = .02) but not for dust mite, cockroach, or Alternaria (P = .15 to P = .90). Similar patterns of change in total and specific IgE were seen at 1 year. However, on average, only 3.5% of participants changed sensitization status to the individual allergens studied during the 1 year of observation. Compared with intrapartum levels, total IgE levels increased significantly at 1 month and 1 year post partum. Conversely, at the same time points, IgE levels specific for common allergens significantly declined to most but not all allergens. Few women changed their sensitization status over 1 year.

  13. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  14. Effects of daily food processing on allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Novak, Natalija

    2017-08-11

    Daily food processing has the potential to alter the allergenicity of foods due to modification of the physico-chemical properties of proteins. The degree of such modifications depends on factors such as processing conditions, type of food considered, allergenic content, etc. The impact of daily food processing like boiling, roasting, frying or baking on food allergenicity have been extensively studied. The influence of other thermal treatments such as microwave heating or pressure cooking on allergenicity has also been analyzed. Non-thermal treatment such as peeling impacts on the allergenic content of certain foods such as fruits. In this review, we give an updated overview of the effects of daily processing treatments on the allergenicity of a wide variety of foods. The different variables that contribute to the modification of food allergenicity due to processing are also reviewed and discussed.

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF ALLERGENIC PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Dikareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed, for the first time ever, the geographical distribution of the main allergenic plants in Russia. All materials were organized as database and attached to the map in GIS Mapinfo. For each region of Russian Federation, two indices were calculated: the total number of allergenic plants in the region and the “allergenic index”. A series of maps wascompiled: the number of spring-flowering species, the number of summer-flowering species,the total number of species flowering during the whole year, the overall allergen danger during spring and summer seasons, respectively, and the overall allergen danger during the whole year. In terms of the number of allergenic species and by the “allergenic index,” the most dangerous regions appeared to be the Ryazan and Voronezh Oblasts, while the less dangerous – the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, and the Magadan Oblast. The maps may serve as a reference source for allergologists and allergy sufferers.

  16. Anaphylaxis to Insect Venom Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollert, Markus; Blank, Simon

    2015-01-01

    available for diagnostic measurement of specific IgE in venom-allergic patients. These recombinant venom allergens offer several promising possibilities for an improved diagnostic algorithm. Reviewed here are the current status, recent developments, and future perspectives of molecular diagnostics of venom...

  17. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  18. EAACI Guidelines on allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pajno, G B; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Arasi, S

    2018-01-01

    . This Guideline, prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Task Force on Allergen Immunotherapy for IgE-mediated Food Allergy, aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for active treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy with FA-AIT. Immunotherapy relies on the delivery...

  19. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, G; Pfaar, O; Akdis, C A

    2018-01-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR) is an allergic disorder of the nose and eyes affecting about a fifth of the general population. Symptoms of AR can be controlled with allergen avoidance measures and pharmacotherapy. However, many patients continue to have ongoing symptoms and an impaired quality...

  20. Molecular fingerprinting of complex grass allergoids: size assessments reveal new insights in epitope repertoires and functional capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starchenka, S; Bell, A J; Mwange, J; Skinner, M A; Heath, M D

    2017-01-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is a well-documented treatment for allergic disease which involves injections of native allergen or modified (allergoid) extracts. The use of allergoid vaccines is a growing sector of the allergy immunotherapy market, associated with shorter-course therapy. The aim of this study was the structural and immunological characterisation of group 1 (Lol p 1) IgG-binding epitopes within a complex mix grass allergoid formulation containing rye grass. HP-SEC was used to resolve a mix grass allergoid preparation of high molecular weight into several distinct fractions with defined molecular weight and elution profiles. Allergen verification of the HP-SEC allergoid fractions was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. IgE and IgG immunoreactivity of the allergoid preparations was explored and Lol p 1 specific IgG-binding epitopes mapped by SPOT synthesis technology (PepSpot™) with structural analysis based on a Lol p 1 homology model. Grass specific IgE reactivity of the mix grass modified extract (allergoid) was diminished in comparison with the mix grass native extract. A difference in IgG profiles was observed between an intact mix grass allergoid preparation and HP-SEC allergoid fractions, which indicated enhancement of accessible reactive IgG epitopes across size distribution profiles of the mix grass allergoid formulation. Detailed analysis of the epitope specificity showed retention of six Lol p 1 IgG-binding epitopes in the mix grass modified extract. The structural and immunological changes which take place following the grass allergen modification process was further unravelled revealing distinct IgG immunological profiles. All epitopes were mapped on the solvent exposed area of Lol p 1 homology model accessible for IgG binding. One of the epitopes was identified as an 'immunodominant' Lol p 1 IgG-binding epitope (62-IFKDGRGCGSCFEIK-76) and classified as a novel epitope. The results from this study support the concept

  1. Recombinant allergen Lol p II: expression, purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, E; Brandazza, A; De Lalla, C; Musco, G; Siccardi, A G; Arosio, P; Sidoli, A

    1995-05-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) is a major cause of type I allergies worldwide. It contains complex mixtures of proteins, among which Lol p II is a major allergen. Previously, we have reported the cloning and sequencing of Lol p II and its expression in fusion with the heavy chain of human ferritin as carrier polypeptide (Sidoli et al., 1993, J. biol. Chem. 268, 21819-21825). Here, we describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p II overproduced as a non-fusion protein in the periplasm of E. coli. The recombinant allergen was expressed in high yields and was easily purified in milligram amounts. It competed with the natural Lol p II for binding to specific IgE, and it induced allergic responses in skin prick tests, indicating to be immunologically analogous to the natural protein. Biochemical analyses indicate that recombinant Lol p II is a highly stable and soluble monomeric molecule which behaves like a small globular protein.

  2. Food allergens in mattress dust in Norwegian homes - a potentially important source of allergen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, R J; Faeste, C K; Granum, B; Egaas, E; London, S J; Carlsen, K-H; Lødrup Carlsen, K C; Løvik, M

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to food allergens and food allergic reactions are mostly caused by ingesting the allergen, but can also occur from exposure via the respiratory tract or the skin. Little is known about exposure to food allergens in the home environment. The objective of this study was firstly to describe the frequency of detection of allergens from fish, egg, milk, and peanut in mattress dust collected from homes of 13-year-old adolescents and secondly to identify home characteristics associated with the presence of food allergen contamination in dust. Food allergens were measured by dot blot analysis in mattress dust from 143 homes in Oslo, Norway. We analysed associations between home characteristics (collected by parental questionnaires and study technicians) and food allergens by multivariate regression models. Fish allergen was detected in 46%, peanut in 41%, milk in 39%, and egg allergen in 22% of the mattress dust samples; only three samples contained none of these allergens. All four food allergens were more frequently detected in mattresses in small dwellings (Food allergens occurred frequently in beds in Norwegian homes, with dwelling size and proximity of kitchen and bedroom as the most important determinants. Due to the amount of time children spent in the bedroom, mattress dust may be an important source of exposure to food allergens. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Eberechi Akpaka

    Full Text Available Molecular characteristics of vancomycin resistant enterococci isolates from Bermuda Island is currently unknown. This study was conducted to investigate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE isolates from Bermuda Island using the chromogenic agar, E-tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Eighteen E. faecium isolates were completely analyzed and were all resistant to vancomycin, susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, positive for vanA and esp genes. The MLST analysis confirmed most isolates were of the sequence types linked to clonal complex 17 (CC17 that is widely associated with outbreaks in hospitals. Infection control measures, antibiotic stewardship, and surveillance activities will continue to be a priority in hospital on the Island.

  4. Genetic ancestry and indigenous heritage in a Native American descendant community in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Vilar, Miguel G; Dulik, Matthew C; Gaieski, David F; Gittelman, Rachel M; Lindo, John; Gau, Lydia; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-11-01

    Discovered in the early 16th century by European colonists, Bermuda is an isolated set of islands located in the mid-Atlantic. Shortly after its discovery, Bermuda became the first English colony to forcibly import its labor by trafficking in enslaved Africans, white ethnic minorities, and indigenous Americans. Oral traditions circulating today among contemporary tribes from the northeastern United States recount these same events, while, in Bermuda, St. David's Islanders consider their histories to be linked to a complex Native American, European, and African past. To investigate the influence of historical events on biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in 111 members of Bermuda's self-proclaimed St. David's Island Native Community. Our results reveal that the majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplotypes are of African and West Eurasian origin. However, unlike other English-speaking New World colonies, most African mtDNA haplotypes appear to derive from central and southeast Africa, reflecting the extent of maritime activities in the region. In light of genealogical and oral historical data from the St. David's community, the low frequency of Native American mtDNA and NRY lineages may reflect the influence of genetic drift, the demographic impact of European colonization, and historical admixture with persons of non-native backgrounds, which began with the settlement of the islands. By comparing the genetic data with genealogical and historical information, we are able to reconstruct the complex history of this Bermudian community, which is unique among New World populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Origin of Bermuda's clay-rich Quaternary paleosols and their paleoclimatic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwitz, S.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Mahan, S.; Vaughn, B.

    1996-01-01

    Red clayey paleosols that are chiefly the product of aerosolic dust deposition are interbedded in the Quaternary carbonate formations of the Bermuda oceanic island system. These paleosols provide a basis for reconstructing Quaternary atmospheric circulation patterns in the northwestern Atlantic. Geochemical analyses were performed on representative paleosol samples to identify their parent dust source. Fine-grained fractions were analyzed by energy-dispersive X ray fluorescence to determine trace element (Zr, Y, La, Ti, and Nb) concentrations and to derive geochemical signatures based on immobile element ratios. These ratios were compared with geochemical signatures determined for three possible sources of airborne dust: (1) Great Plains loess, (2) Mississippi River Valley loess, and (3) Saharan dust. The Zr/Y and Zr/La ratios provided the clearest distinction between the hypothesized dust sources. The low ratios in the paleosol B horizons most closely resemble Saharan dust in the the two North American loessial source areas could not be clearly detected. Thus Bermuda paleosols have a predominantly Saharan aerosolic dust signature. Saharan dust deposition on Bermuda during successive Quaternary glacial periods is consistent with patterns of general circulation models, which indicate that during glacial maxima the northeast summer trade winds were stronger than at present and reached latitudes higher than 30 ?? N despite lower-than-present sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic.

  6. Elevated temperatures and bleaching on a high latitude coral reef: the 1988 Bermuda event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clayton B.; Logan, Alan; Ward, Jack; Luckhurst, Brian; Berg, Carl J.

    1990-03-01

    Sea temperatures were normal in Bermuda during 1987, when Bermuda escaped the episodes of coral bleaching which were prevalent throughout the Caribbean region. Survey transecs in 1988 on 4 6 m reefs located on the rim margin and on a lagoonal patch reef revealed bleaching only of zoanthids between May and July. Transect and tow surveys in August and September revealed bleaching of several coral species; Millepora alcicornis on rim reefs was the most extensively affected. The frequency of bleaching in this species, Montastrea annularis and perhaps Diploria labyrinthiformis was significantly higher on outer reefs than on inshore reefs. This bleaching period coincided with the longest period of elevated sea temperatures in Bermuda in 38 years (28.9 30.9°C inshore, >28° offshore). By December, when temperatures had returned to normal, bleaching of seleractinians continued, but bleaching of M. alcicornis on the outer reefs was greatly reduced. Our observations suggest that corals which normally experience wide temperature ranges are less sensitive to thermal stress, and that high-latitude reef corals are sensitive to elevated temperatures which are within the normal thermal range of corals at lower latitudes.

  7. Associations between grass and weed pollen and emergency department visits for asthma among children in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héguy, Léa; Garneau, Michelle; Goldberg, Mark S; Raphoz, Marie; Guay, Frédéric; Valois, Marie-France

    2008-02-01

    Asthma among children is a major public health problem worldwide. There are increasing number of studies suggesting a possible association between allergenic pollen and exacerbations of asthma. In the context of global climate change, a number of future climate and air pollution scenarios predict increases in concentrations of pollen, an extension of the pollen season, and an increase in the allergenicity of pollen. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the short-term effects of exposure to grass and weed pollen on emergency department visits and readmissions for asthma among children aged 0-9 years living in Montreal between April and October, 1994-2004. Time-series analyses were carried out using parametric log-linear overdispersed Poisson models that were adjusted for temporal variations, daily weather conditions (temperature, atmospheric pressure), and gaseous air pollutants (ozone and nitrogen dioxide). We have found positive associations between emergency department visits and concentrations of grass pollen 3 days after exposure. The effect of grass pollen was higher on emergency department readmissions as compared to initial visits. Weak negative associations were found between weed pollen (including ragweed pollen) and emergency department visits 2 days after exposure. The data indicate that among children, emergency department visits increased with increasing concentrations of grass pollen.

  8. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the effective......Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence...... of these were judged to be of high, five moderate and three low quality. These reviews suggested that, in carefully selected patients, subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy resulted in significant reductions in symptom scores and medication requirements. Serious adverse outcomes were rare...

  9. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Roberts, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Allergic diseases are common and frequently coexist. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergic disease with effects beyond cessation of AIT that may include important preventive effects. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) ...... of allergic co-morbidities in those with other allergic conditions. Evidence for the preventive potential of AIT as disease modifying treatment exists but there is an urgent need for more high-quality clinical trials....

  10. [Prevalence of sensitization to allergens in school children with asthma residents from Guadalajara metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Padilla, Guadalupe; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Kestler-Gramajo, Amanda; Valdez-López, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is dependent on the geographical and climatic conditions in each region; therefore, identify agents most commonly sensitized children with asthma is important for planning prevention measures. To determine the prevalence of the sensitization to allergens in children with asthma. This cross-sectional and prolective study includes children from ages 6 to 14, who have asthma, attended for the first time in an allergy service. The patients were recruited consecutively between the months of January 1st 2014 to December 31st 2014. The frequency of the allergen sensitization was estimated. This study included 186 children, the median age was 7 years olds, the male group was 104/186 (55.9%) The median of the positive results was 5 and monosensitized were 47/186 (2.2%). The most common category of allergens was the indoor (90.3%), then trees (71.0%), and finally the fungi (9.7%). Individually, the house dust mites were more common in between the interior allergens, followed by the epithelial; in the tree pollen were oaks (31.7%) and ashes (28.0%), in weeds was mugwort (21.5%), in grasses was Zea mays (18.3%) and in the fungi was Cladosporium spp. (6.5%). The high prevalence of the sensitization to house dust mites and epithelial in children with asthma, stimulates to implement methods of environmental control for contributing a better control of the disease.

  11. [Specific immunotherapy. Hyposensitization with allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedi, B; Kapp, A

    2004-04-01

    Successful allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) induces complex immunologic chan-ges resulting in reduced allergic inflammatory reactions. SIT has long-term effects in mild forms of inhalant allergies and is effective even when standard pharmacotherapy fails. Moreover, the risk to develop additional allergic sensitizations and the development of asthma is significantly reduced in children with allergic rhinitis. SIT is the treatment of choice in patients with systemic reactions to hymenoptera venoms. Although the exact effector mechanisms of SIT still have to be clarified, the most probable effect is a modulation of regulatory T cells associated with a switch of allergen-specific B-cells towards IgG4 production. The critical point to insure efficacy and safety is the selection of patients and allergens, task best performed by a specialist trained in allergology. Further details are available in the position papers of the German allergy societies - DGAI(Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Allergologie und Klinische Immunologie) and ADA (Arzte-verband Deutscher Allergologen) - which can be found at www.dgaki.de.

  12. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans: Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating

  13. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans : Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating

  14. 484 Allergen Standardisation in Allergens and Allergoids—Challenges and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Murray; Bullimore, Alan; Hewings, Simon; Swan, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Background The range of therapeutics and dosing schedules for allergen preparations and allergoids produced and used clinically are considerable. Standardisation of allergy immunotherapies is considered a positive step; however there are difficulties in identifying universal metrics for standardisation. Many advocate the use of major allergen content whilst others advocate total allergenicity. Additionally as a compounding argument, where major allergen is used, many disagree on what the major allergen is for certain species. Methods Major allergen content measurement allows a consistent recognised measure, and IgE responses of a serum pool are often dominated by IgE against major allergens. However issues such as specificity of different assays toward isoforms and other variants of single allergens often results in diverging allergen contents that can cause unexpected and misleading disparity. Other aspects that increase complication are the relevance to modified allergens, use of adjuvants and differing dosing regimes. Results The major allergen content of key products in different therapeutic formats has been measured. Conclusions This has been performed in conjunction with techniques such as total allergenicity, as allergy treatments and therapeutics require careful characterisation to allow supply of consistent, safe and efficacious products.

  15. Effective Allergen Management : Precautionary (may contain) allergen labeling; when to apply?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort. M.M.J. van

    2013-01-01

    When do you label food products as having been possibly cross contaminated by allergens? TNO can help you to develop a quantitative risk management guidance for food allergens, based on a unique method that quantifies the risk of food allergen traces in products and validated data on thresholds.

  16. Allergenicity assessment of apple cultivars: hurdles in quantifying labile fruit allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer, L.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Kleine Budde, I.; Breiteneder, H.; Ma, Y.; Mills, C.; Sancho, A. I.; Meulenbroek, E. J.; van de Weg, E.; Gilissen, L.; Ferreira, F.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; van Ree, R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of allergenicity of foods is important for allergic consumers and regulators. Immunoassays to measure major food allergens are widely applied, often giving variable results. Using the major apple allergen Mal d 1 as a model, we aimed to establish at the molecular level why

  17. Characterization of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) pollen extract and preliminary analysis of grass group 1, 4 and 5 homologues using monoclonal antibodies to Phleum pratense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, L; Sridhara, S; Singh, B P; Gangal, S V

    1998-11-01

    Previous studies have established the role of Imperata cylindrica (Ic) pollen in type I allergic disorders. However, no systematic information is available on the allergen composition of Ic pollen extract. To characterize the IgE-binding proteins of Ic pollen extract and to detect the presence of grass group 1, 4 and 5 allergen homologues, if any. Pollen extract of Ic was analyzed by in vivo and in vitro procedures such as intradermal tests (ID), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ELISA-inhibition, thin-layer isoelectric focusing (TLIEF), sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Dot blot assay was carried out to check the presence of well-known group 1, 4, and 5 allergen homologues in Ic pollen extract. Out of 303 respiratory allergies patients skin-tested, 27 showed sensitivity to Ic pollen extract. Specific IgE levels were elevated in all 15 serum samples tested. The extract prepared for this study was found to be highly potent since it required only 400 ng of homologous proteins for 50% inhibition of binding in ELISA inhibition assays. TLIEF of Ic pollen extract showed 44 silver-stained bands (pI 3.5-7.0) while SDS-PAGE resolved it into 24 Coomassie-Brilliant-Blue-stained bands (MW 100-10 kD). Immunoblotting with individual patient sera recognized 7 major IgE-binding bands (MW 85, 62, 57, 43, 40, 28 and 16 kD) in Ic pollen extract. A panel of monoclonal antibodies, specific to group 1, 4 and 5 allergens from Phleum pratense pollen extract identified group 5 and group 4 homologues in Ic pollen extract. Ic pollen extract was characterized for the protein profile by TLIEF and SDS-PAGE. IgE reactivity was determined by ELISA and immunoblot. Monoclonal antibodies to group 5 and group 4 allergens reacted weakly showing that this pollen contains group 5 and group 4 homologous allergens.

  18. Ultra-short-course booster is effective in recurrent grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Lang, S; Pieper-Fürst, U; Astvatsatourov, A; Gerich, F; Klimek, L; Kramer, M F; Reydelet, Y; Shah-Hosseini, K; Mösges, R

    2018-01-01

    A relevant proportion of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) patients experience recurrent symptoms after successfully completing allergen immunotherapy (AIT). This prospective, controlled, noninterventional study used internationally standardized instruments to determine the clinical effects of a preseasonal, ultra-short-course booster AIT on clinical outcome parameters. This two-arm study included patients aged ≥12 years with recurrent grass pollen-induced seasonal AR who had completed a successful course of any grass pollen AIT at least 5 years before enrolment. Overall, 56 patients received one preseasonal short-course booster AIT using tyrosine-absorbed grass pollen allergoids containing the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL ® ); 51 control patients received symptomatic medication. The combined symptom and medication score (CSMS) was recorded in the (peak) grass pollen season. Furthermore, concomitant (antiallergic) medication use, the patients' state of health, Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniRQLQ) results and safety/tolerability of the treatment were assessed. The CSMS in the peak grass pollen season was significantly lower in the booster AIT group (Δ=38.4%, Pallergoids containing the adjuvant MPL ® effectively prevents re-occurrence of symptoms in patients with grass pollen-induced ARC. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Structural studies of novel glycoconjugates from polymerized allergens (allergoids) and mannans as allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Ana I; Javier Cañada, F; Cases, Bárbara; Sirvent, Sofia; Soria, Irene; Palomares, Oscar; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Casanovas, Miguel; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Subiza, José L

    2016-02-01

    Immunotherapy for treating IgE-mediated allergies requires high doses of the corresponding allergen. This may result in undesired side effects and, to avoid them, hypoallergenic allergens (allergoids) polymerized with glutaraldehyde are commonly used. Targeting allergoids to dendritic cells to enhance cell uptake may result in a more effective immunotherapy. Allergoids coupled to yeast mannan, as source of polymannoses, would be suitable for this purpose, since mannose-binding receptors are expressed on these cells. Conventional conjugation procedures of mannan to proteins use oxidized mannan to release reactive aldehydes able to bind to free amino groups in the protein; yet, allergoids lack these latter because their previous treatment with glutaraldehyde. The aim of this study was to obtain allergoids conjugated to mannan by an alternative approach based on just glutaraldehyde treatment, taking advantage of the mannoprotein bound to the polymannose backbone. Allergoid-mannan glycoconjugates were produced in a single step by treating with glutaraldehyde a defined mixture of allergens derived from Phleum pratense grass pollen and native mannan (non-oxidized) from Saccharomyces cerevisae. Analytical and structural studies, including 2D-DOSY and (1)H-(13)C HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, demonstrated the feasibility of such an approach. The glycoconjugates obtained were polymers of high molecular weight showing a higher stability than the native allergen or the conventional allergoid without mannan. The allergoid-mannan glycoconjugates were hypoallergenic as detected by the IgE reactivity with sera from grass allergic patients, even with lower reactivity than conventional allergoid without mannan. Thus, stable hypoallergenic allergoids conjugated to mannan suitable for using in immunotherapy can be achieved using glutaraldehyde. In contrast to mannan oxidation, the glutaraldehyde approach allows to preserve mannoses with their native geometry, which may be

  20. Fractionation and analysis of allergenicity of allergens from Prosopis juliflora pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, I S

    1989-01-01

    Prosopis juliflora pollen allergen extract was prepared, and its crude allergen extract was fractionated by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. Six different fractions were obtained which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Protein and carbohydrate content of each fraction were estimated. Fraction E (MW 20,000) showed a 25% carbohydrate concentration. The amino acid analysis indicated that this fraction was rich in glutamic acid and alanine. Antigenicity or allergenicity of fractionated allergens were checked by gel diffusion test, rocket immunoelectrophoresis, skin prick test, and radioallergosorbent test. All these test indicate that fraction E consisted mainly of allergenic molecules (MW 20,000) of P. juliflora pollen.

  1. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  2. Currant allergy and the Rosaceae-grass pollen allergy syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ezquerra, Patricia Rojas; de la Gaspar, Maria Vazquez Torre; de Fernández, Manuel Barrio; Flores, Vanesa Tovar; Alvarez-Santullano, Ana Villanueva; de Ocáriz, Maria Luisa Baeza Ochoa

    2007-05-01

    Despite the increasing use of currants in culinary recipes, currant allergy has rarely been reported. To study a case of currant allergy and to explore cross-reactivity between grass pollen and Rosaceae family fruit allergens. Skin prick tests to pollen and skin prick-to-prick tests with currants and peach were performed. Specific IgE levels were determined using the CAP method. We prepared a protein extract of 0.1 mg/mL in phosphate-buffered saline using red currant in the presence of protease inhibitors. Immunoblot inhibition studies were performed to explore cross-reactivity between grass pollen and currant allergens. Skin prick test results were positive to Dactylis, arizonic, and olive pollens. Results of skin prick-to-prick tests with fresh red and black currants were negative and positive, respectively, to peach. The specific IgE level was 5.7 KU/L to red currant and 2.92 KU/L to peach (CAP). Western blot analysis with red currant extract revealed specific IgE protein bands of 37 and 26 kDa. Preincubation of sera with extracts from red currant and peach inhibited both IgE bands, and preincubation with Dactylis pollen inhibited the 37-kDa band only. We report a case of allergy to grass pollen with an oral allergy syndrome involving several fruits from 2 different families of the Rosidae subclass confirmed by in vitro tests. Inhibition studies demonstrated cross-reactivity between different fruits (currant and raspberry) from the Rosidae subclass and were incomplete with grass pollen allergens.

  3. Food Allergens: Is There a Correlation between Stability to Digestion and Allergenicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    and the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof may greatly influence the outcome as well as the interpretation of results. The finding that digests from food allergens may retain allergenicity, stresses the importance of using immunological assays for evaluating......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. It has not yet been established what makes a dietary protein a food allergen. Several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of these is resistance to digestion....... This paper reviews data from digestibility studies on purified food allergens and evaluates the predictive value of digestibility tests on the allergenic potential. We point out that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. We discuss how the choice of in vitro digestibility assay condition...

  4. Proficiency test for allergens in food 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Alamenou, P.; Elbers, I.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014 a proficiency test for allergens in baby cereal was organized by RIKILT, Wageningen UR. This PT-test enabled laboratories to evaluate their competence for the analysis of allergens in baby cereal. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were accepted. The proficiency test was

  5. Current insights in allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Giovanni; Bagnasco, Diego; Ferrando, Matteo; Heffler, Enrico; Puggioni, Francesca; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2018-02-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) in its subcutaneous and sublingual forms is currently a well-established and experimentally supported treatment for respiratory allergy and hymenoptera venom allergy. There have been advances in its use linked strictly to the advancement in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of allergy, the production of well-characterized extracts, and diagnostic techniques. The use of AIT in asthma and the application of new approaches are expanding. We briefly review the advances and concerns in the use of AIT. PubMed and Scopus. The most recent and clinically relevant literature was selected and reviewed. The introduction of high-quality products supported by large dose-finding trials has yielded better defined indications, contraindications, and modalities of use. Some specific products in tablet form have recently been approved in the United States. Sublingual immunotherapy has been found to be effective in asthma, which until recently had been a matter of debate. Another promising therapy is oral and sublingual desensitization for food allergy, for which encouraging results have recently been reported. In the near future, other options will be available, including new routes of administration (intralymphatic and epicutaneous), allergoids, engineered allergens, and peptides. The use of component-resolved diagnosis techniques will further refine and target AIT prescriptions. This condensed and updated review shows that AIT remains a viable treatment option, especially after the introduction of standardized tablets for some allergens. Food allergy and new administration routes represent a promising expansion. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Watermelon and ragweed share allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enberg, R N; Leickly, F E; McCullough, J; Bailey, J; Ownby, D R

    1987-06-01

    A biotin-avidin amplified ELISA was used to measure antigen-specific IgE for ragweed, representative members of the gourd family (watermelon, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, zucchini, and cucumber), and banana in the sera of 192 allergic patients, each with an IgE greater than or equal to 180 microns/ml. Sixty-three percent (120/192) of the sera contained antiragweed IgE, and of these patients, 28% to 50% contained IgE specific for any single gourd family member. In contrast, no greater than 11% of the sera positive for a given gourd or banana were negative for ragweed. Correlations between ragweed and gourd-specific IgE levels were significant (p less than 0.001), and correlation coefficients between any two gourds exceeded 0.79. In an ELISA system, the extracts of watermelon and ragweed inhibited each other in a dose-dependent manner; the resulting nonparallel inhibition curves indicate that some, but not all, of the allergens in the two extracts are cross-reactive. Isoelectric focusing of watermelon and ragweed extracts in narrow range gel (pH 4 to 6) followed by immunoblotting demonstrated six watermelon allergen bands with isoelectric points identical to those of ragweed allergens. Several remaining bands in the two extracts had differing isoelectric points, however. Six of 26 patients interviewed with watermelon-specific IgE reported developing oropharyngeal symptoms (itching and/or swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat) after ingesting at least one of the study foods, whereas only one of 25 patients interviewed without detectable watermelon-specific IgE reported similar symptoms (p = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Public protection - reliable allergen risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, V.; Popov Raljić, J.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    Consumers with potentially fatal food allergies are dependent on correct product labelling to protect their health. The food industry is responsible for providing every detail consumers need to make informed decisions. Considering public health, food suppliers have to monitor the presence of allergens, prevent cross-contamination and label products accurately. Allergen labelling of food products, drinks and non pre-packed food and drink products is clearly defined with legal regulations. To achieve this, a complete understanding of each product’s allergenic ingredients is needed and cross-contamination of food with allergens must be avoided. Raw materials need to be checked, every ingredient must be verified and every single allergen has to be stipulated. A mislabeled product could be recalled at potential cost, financially damaging business and at the same time, negatively impacting brand and reputation.

  8. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  10. Cloning, expression, and immunological characterization of recombinant Lolium perenne allergen Lol p II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, A; Tamborini, E; Giuntini, I; Levi, S; Volonté, G; Paini, C; De Lalla, C; Siccardi, A G; Baralle, F E; Galliani, S

    1993-10-15

    The molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding for an isoallergenic form of Lol p II, a major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification on mRNA extracted from pollen. The amino acid sequence derived from the cDNA was truncated by 4 and 5 residues at the NH2- and COOH-terminal ends, respectively, and differed only in one position from that previously reported. This cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion to the carboxyl terminus of the human ferritin H-chain. The molecule was produced in high yields as a soluble protein and was easily purified. The protein retains the multimeric quaternary structure of ferritin, and it exposes on the surface the allergenic moiety, which can be recognized in Western blotting and in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments by specific IgE from allergic patients. The recombinant allergen was used to analyze the sera of 26 patients allergic to L. perenne compared with control sera. The results were in good agreement with the values obtained with the radioallergosorbent test assay. In addition, histamine release experiments in whole blood from an allergic patient and skin prick tests showed that the recombinant allergen retains some of the biological properties of the natural compound. These findings indicate that the availability of homogeneous recombinant allergens may be useful for the development of more specific diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Moreover, this expression system may be of more general interest for producing large amounts of soluble protein domains in E. coli.

  11. Evaluation of a public health intervention to lower mercury exposure from fish consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dewailly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of a public health intervention to reduce blood mercury (Hg concentration levels in pregnant Bermudian women. METHODS: In 2003, we conducted a study entitled "Prenatal exposure of the Bermudian Population to Environmental Contaminants" which provided Bermuda's first baseline data on prenatal exposure to several environmental contaminants, including Hg. The mean Hg concentration from 42 healthy newborns measured in umbilical cord blood was 41.3 nmol/L, ranging from 5-160 nmol/L. This concentration was much higher than expected, being approximately 8 times the general levels found in Canada and the U.S. Furthermore, we estimated that 85% of total Hg measured was in the form of methylmercury (MeHg, indicating that seafood consumption was the primary source of Hg exposure during pregnancy in Bermuda. Locally sourced seafood was identified as the most significant possible contributory source of Hg exposure. In 2005 the authors began a complementary research programme to study the levels of Hg in local commercial fish species. Coming out of this research were specific local fish consumption guidelines issued by the Department of Health advising pregnant women to avoid those local fish species found to be high in Hg while still encouraging consumption of fish species having lower Hg levels. RESULTS: In 2010, under another research initiative, we returned to Bermuda to carry out another evaluation of Hg in human blood. Hg was measured in the blood of 49 pregnant women. The arithmetic mean Hg blood concentration was 6.6 nmol/L and the geometric mean 4.2 nmol/L. The maximum concentration found was 24 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Hg exposure of Bermudian pregnant women has dropped significantly by a factor of around 5 since the foetal cord blood study in 2003.

  12. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Kaffka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV. We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. growth, quality, and use by cattle. Simulations based on field measurements and a related container study indicate that although soil chemical composition is affected by irrigation water quality, irrigation timing and frequency can be used to mitigate salt and trace mineral accumulation. Bermuda grass yields of up to 12 Mg dry matter (DM·ha−1 were observed at the field site and predicted by the model. Forage yield and quality supports un-supplemented cattle stocking rates of 1.0 to 1.2 animal units (AU·ha−1. However, a balance must be achieved between stocking rate, desired average daily gain, accumulation of salts in the soil profile, and potential pollution of ground water from drainage and leaching. Using available weather data, crop-specific parameter values and field scale measurements of soil salinity and nitrogen levels, the model can be used by farmers growing forages on saline soils elsewhere, to sustain forage and livestock production under similarly marginal conditions.

  13. Common indoor and outdoor aero-allergens in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-allergens in South Africa that are also encountered around the world are listed in Table I. In addition to this wide range of common aero-allergens, South Africans are also exposed to a full range of food allergens, some of which, e.g. perlemoen (Haliotis midae) and other seafood allergens, are unique to this region.

  14. Authentication of food allergen quality by physicochemical and immunological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, A I; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Alessandri, S

    2010-01-01

    Purified allergens are required to detect cross-contamination with other allergenic foods and to understand allergen interaction with other components of the food matrix. Pure allergens are also used for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. For example, serological methods are being dev...

  15. Mountain cedar allergens found in nonpollen tree parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, D W; Goetz, M A; Whisman, B A

    1995-09-01

    Mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen is the principal aeroallergen in south central Texas from late December through February. The major mountain cedar allergen is a 40-kD glycoprotein, gp40. To identify allergens in mountain cedar wood, leaves, and berries and to detect mountain cedar allergen in smoke from burning male or female trees. SDS-PAGE plus mountain cedar human sIgE and monoclonal antibody immunoblots identified mountain cedar allergens within pollen and nonpollen tree part extracts. IgE immunoblots identified a single wood allergen at 36 kD and three berry allergens at 36, 26-27, and 21 kD, in addition to known pollen allergens. Mountain cedar monoclonal antibody bound an allergen epitope present not only on 40, 33, and 28-kD pollen allergens, but also on 36 and 32-kD wood allergens, and the 26-27-kD berry allergen. Immunoblot studies detected no mountain cedar allergen in leaves and no allergen in smoke from burning male and female trees. Allergens constituted a much smaller percentage of extractable protein in wood and berries than in pollen. Mountain cedar berry allergen content is too small to give credence to the ingestion of berries as a folk medicine treatment of mountain cedar pollinosis. In addition, while smoke from burning mountain cedar trees may be irritating, it contains no allergens that could cause allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  16. Distribution of peanut allergen in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tamara T; Conover-Walker, Mary Kay; Pomés, Anna; Chapman, Martin D; Wood, Robert A

    2004-05-01

    Patients with peanut allergy can have serious reactions to very small quantities of peanut allergen and often go to extreme measures to avoid potential contact with this allergen. The purpose of this study was to detect peanut allergen under various environmental conditions and examine the effectiveness of cleaning agents for allergen removal. A monoclonal-based ELISA for Arachis hypogaea allergen 1 (Ara h 1; range of detection, 30-2000 ng/mL) was used to assess peanut contamination on cafeteria tables and other surfaces in schools, the presence of residual peanut protein after using various cleaning products on hands and tabletops, and airborne peanut allergen during the consumption of several forms of peanut. After hand washing with liquid soap, bar soap, or commercial wipes, Ara h 1 was undetectable. Plain water and antibacterial hand sanitizer left detectable Ara h 1 on 3 of 12 and 6 of 12 hands, respectively. Common household cleaning agents removed peanut allergen from tabletops, except dishwashing liquid, which left Ara h 1 on 4 of 12 tables. Of the 6 area preschools and schools evaluated, Ara h 1 was found on 1 of 13 water fountains, 0 of 22 desks, and 0 of 36 cafeteria tables. Airborne Ara h 1 was undetectable in simulated real-life situations when participants consumed peanut butter, shelled peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, is relatively easily cleaned from hands and tabletops with common cleaning agents and does not appear to be widely distributed in preschools and schools. We were not able to detect airborne allergen in many simulated environments.

  17. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    E-mail addresses: 1 mike.ajieh@gmail.com, 2 dracigboanugo@yahoo.com, ... machine design was considered for processing biomass of grass origin. The machine operations include pulverization, compaction and extrusion of the briquettes.

  18. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  19. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  20. A role for Waldeyer's ring in immunological response to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, Simonetta; Trabattoni, Daria; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; De Luca, Maria Cristina; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Leo, Gualtiero; Frati, Franco

    2014-02-01

    Adenoids, tubal tonsil, palatine tonsil, and lingual tonsil are immunological organs included in the Waldeyer's ring, the basic function of which is the antibody production to common environmental antigens. Adenoidal hypertrophy (AH) is a major medical issue in children, and adenoidectomy is still the most used treatment worldwide. The response of adenoids to allergens is a good model to evaluate their immunological function. This report assessed the immunological changes in adenoid tissues from children with allergic rhinitis (AR) undergoing sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Adenoid samples from 16 children (seven males, nine females, mean age 7.12 years) with AH and clinical indication to adenoidectomy were collected. Of them, five children were not allergic and 11 had house dust mite and grass pollen-induced AR. Among allergic children, in four AR was treated by antihistamines while in seven AR was treated by high-dose SLIT during 4-6 months. The evaluation addressed the T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th3 cells by performing a PCR array on mRNA extracted from adenoid samples. In non-allergic children, a typical Th1 pattern was found. SLIT induced a strong down-regulation of genes involved in Th2 and Th1 activation and function. In particular, in SLIT-treated allergic children IL-4, CCR2, CCR3, and PTGDR2 (Th2 related genes) and CD28, IL-2, and INHA (Th1 related genes) expression was reduced, compared with children treated with antihistamines. These preliminary findings warrant investigation in trials including larger numbers of patients, but indicate that hypertrophic adenoids of allergic children have the typical response to the specific allergen administered by SLIT. This should suggest that one should reconsider the immunological role of adenoids.

  1. Sensitising capacity of peptides from food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is for this reason a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. The association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has though been challenged in recent years...... and structures may contribute. In conclusion, the experimental data presented in this PhD thesis contribute to the understanding of induction of allergy by investigating the sensitising potential of peptides derived from a food allergen. It add knowledge to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying...

  2. Chemical modification of birch allergen extract leads to a reduction in allergenicity as well as immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Peter Adler; Lund, Lise; Lund, Gitte; Holm, Jens; Millner, Anders; Henmar, Helene

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, specific immunotherapy is currently conducted with vaccines containing allergen preparations based on intact extracts. In addition to this, chemically modified allergen extracts (allergoids) are used for specific allergy treatment. Reduced allergenicity and thereby reduced risk of side effects in combination with retained ability to activate T cells and induce protective allergen-specific antibody responses has been claimed for allergoids. In the current study, we compared intact allergen extracts and allergoids with respect to allergenicity and immunogenicity. The immunological response to birch allergen extract, alum-adsorbed extract, birch allergoid and alum-adsorbed allergoid was investigated in vitro in human basophil histamine release assay and by stimulation of human allergen-specific T cell lines. In vivo, Bet v 1-specific IgG titers in mice were determined after repetitive immunizations. In all patients tested (n = 8), allergoid stimulations led to reduced histamine release compared to the intact allergen extract. However, the allergoid preparations were not recognized by Bet v 1-specific T cell lines (n = 7), which responded strongly to the intact allergen extract. Mouse immunizations showed a clearly reduced IgG induction by allergoids and a strongly potentiating effect of the alum adjuvant. Optimal IgG titers were obtained after 3 immunizations with intact allergen extracts, while 5 immunizations were needed to obtain maximal response to the allergoid. The reduced histamine release observed for allergoid preparations may be at the expense of immunological efficacy because the chemical modifications lead to a clear reduction in T cell activation and the ability to induce allergen-specific IgG antibody responses. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Bioanalytical methods for food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection and new allergen discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gasilova, Natalia; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    For effective monitoring and prevention of the food allergy, one of the emerging health problems nowadays, existing diagnostic procedures and allergen detection techniques are constantly improved. Meanwhile, new methods are also developed, and more and more putative allergens are discovered. This review describes traditional methods and summarizes recent advances in the fast evolving field of the in vitro food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection in food products and discovery of the new all...

  4. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    OpenAIRE

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-01-01

    Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...

  5. Purification and characterization of parvalbumin isotypes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; You, Juan; Luo, Yongkang; Wu, Jianping

    2014-07-02

    The prevalence of fish allergy is rapidly increasing because of a growing fish consumption driven mainly by a positive image of the fish and health relationship. The purpose of this study was to characterize parvalbumin isotypes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), one of the most frequently consumed freshwater fish in China. Three parvalbumin isotypes were purified using consecutive gel filtration and reverse-phase chromatography and denoted as PVI, PVII, and PVIII. The molecular weights of the isotypes were determined to be 11.968, 11.430, and 11.512 kDa, respectively. PVI showed 74% matched amino acids sequence with PV isotype 4a from Danio rerio, while PVII and PVIII showed 46% matched amino acids sequence with PV isotypes from Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. PVII is the dominant allergen, but it was liable to gastrointestinal enzymes as PVIII; however, PVI was resistant to pepsin digestion. A further study is to characterize the epitopes of PVII, the dominant allergen.

  6. Bermuda Triangle: a subsystem of the 168/E interfacing scheme used by Group B at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Levinson, L.J.; Trang, Q.H.

    1979-12-01

    The Bermuda Triangle system is a method of interfacing several 168/E microprocessors to a central system for control of the processors and overlaying their memories. The system is a three-way interface with I/O ports to a large buffer memory, a PDP11 Unibus and a bus to the 168/E processors. Data may be transferred bidirectionally between any two ports. Two Bermuda Triangles are used, one for the program memory and one for the data memory. The program buffer memory stores the overlay programs for the 168/E, and the data buffer memory, the incoming raw data, the data portion of the overlays, and the outgoing processed events. This buffering is necessary since the memories of 168/E microprocessors are small compared to the main program and the amount of data being processed. The link to the computer facility is via a Unibus to IBM channel interface. A PDP11/04 controls the data flow. 7 figures, 4 tables

  7. Population Structure of Montastraea cavernosa on Shallow versus Mesophotic Reefs in Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Marchini, Chiara; Chequer, Alex D.; Goffredo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems remain largely unexplored with only limited information available on taxonomic composition, abundance and distribution. Yet, mesophotic reefs may serve as potential refugia for shallow-water species and thus understanding biodiversity, ecology and connectivity of deep reef communities is integral for resource management and conservation. The Caribbean coral, Montastraea cavernosa, is considered a depth generalist and is commonly found at mesophotic depths. We surveyed abundance and size-frequency of M. cavernosa populations at six shallow (10m) and six upper mesophotic (45m) sites in Bermuda and found population structure was depth dependent. The mean surface area of colonies at mesophotic sites was significantly smaller than at shallow sites, suggesting that growth rates and maximum colony surface area are limited on mesophotic reefs. Colony density was significantly higher at mesophotic sites, however, resulting in equal contributions to overall percent cover. Size-frequency distributions between shallow and mesophotic sites were also significantly different with populations at mesophotic reefs skewed towards smaller individuals. Overall, the results of this study provide valuable baseline data on population structure, which indicate that the mesophotic reefs of Bermuda support an established population of M. cavernosa. PMID:26544963

  8. 8 Allergenic Composition of Polymerized Allergen Extracts of Betula verrucosa, Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus and Phleum Pratense

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Cases, Barbara; Tudela, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, Eva Abel; Casanovas, Miguel; Subiza, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergoids have been successfully used in the treatment of respiratory allergic diseases. They are modified allergen extracts that allow the administration of high allergen doses, due to their reduced IgE binding capacity.They maintain allergen-specific T-cell recognition. Since they are native allergen extracts that have been polymerized with glutaraldehyde, identification of the allergenic molecules requires more complicated methods. The aim of the study was to determine the qual...

  9. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization...... and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due......) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen...

  10. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  11. Specific allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Herman; Calderon, Moises A; Manikam, Logan; Nankervis, Helen; García Núñez, Ignacio; Williams, Hywel C; Durham, Stephen; Boyle, Robert J

    2016-02-12

    Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT) is a treatment that may improve disease severity in people with atopic eczema (AE) by inducing immune tolerance to the relevant allergen. A high quality systematic review has not previously assessed the efficacy and safety of this treatment. To assess the effects of specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT), including subcutaneous, sublingual, intradermal, and oral routes, compared with placebo or a standard treatment in people with atopic eczema. We searched the following databases up to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 7, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), Web of Science™ (from 2005), the Global Resource of EczemA Trials (GREAT database), and five trials databases. We searched abstracts from recent European and North American allergy meetings and checked the references of included studies and review articles for further references to relevant trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of specific allergen immunotherapy that used standardised allergen extracts in people with AE. Two authors independently undertook study selection, data extraction (including adverse effects), assessment of risk of bias, and analyses. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We identified 12 RCTs for inclusion in this review; the total number of participants was 733. The interventions included SIT in children and adults allergic to either house dust mite (10 trials), grass pollen, or other inhalant allergens (two trials). They were administered subcutaneously (six trials), sublingually (four trials), orally, or intradermally (two trials). Overall, the risk of bias was moderate, with high loss to follow up and lack of blinding as the main methodological concern.Our primary outcomes were 'Participant- or parent-reported global assessment of disease severity at the end of treatment'; 'Participant- or parent-reported specific

  12. Allergen immunotherapy in people, dogs, cats and horses - differences, similarities and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Roth-Walter, F; Marti, E; Janda, J; Seida, A A; DeBoer, D

    2018-04-19

    In human patients with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis sensitized to grass pollen, the first successful allergen immunotherapy (AIT) was reported in 1911. Today, immunotherapy is an accepted treatment for allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypersensitivities to insect venom. AIT is also used for atopic dermatitis and recently for food allergy. Subcutaneous, epicutaneous, intralymphatic, oral and sublingual protocols of AIT exist. In animals, most data are available in dogs where subcutaneous AIT is an accepted treatment for atopic dermatitis. Initiating a regulatory response and a production of "blocking" IgG antibodies with AIT are similar mechanisms in human beings and dogs with allergic diseases. Although subcutaneous immunotherapy is used for atopic dermatitis in cats, data for its efficacy is sparse. There is some evidence for successful treatment of feline asthma with AIT. In horses, most studies evaluate the effect of AIT on insect hypersensitivity with conflicting results though promising pilot studies have demonstrated the prophylaxis of insect hypersensitivity with recombinant antigens of biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Optimising AIT using allergoids, peptide immunotherapy, recombinant allergens and new adjuvants with the different administration types of allergen extracts hopefully will further improve compliance and efficacy of this proven treatment modality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Allergen management in the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boye, Joyce I; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2010-01-01

    "This book comprehensively addresses the sources of allergenic contaminants in foods, their fate during processing, and the specific measures that need to be taken to minimize their occurrence in foods...

  14. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  15. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.; Johansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Identification of patients at risk of developing polysensitization is not possible at present. An association between weak sensitizers and polysensitization has been hypothesized. Objectives: To examine associations of 21 allergens in the European baseline series to polysensitization....... Patients/Methods: From a database-based study with 14 998 patients patch tested with the European baseline series between 1985 and 2005, a group of 759 (5.1%) patients were polysensitized. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the relative contribution of each allergen to polysensitization. Results...... denominator for the association between the allergens and the polysensitization was apparent, and any association, whether positive or negative, was relatively low. Based on these results, sensitization to specific baseline allergens cannot be used as risk indicators for polysensitization Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  16. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at risk of developing polysensitization is not possible at present. An association between weak sensitizers and polysensitization has been hypothesized. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of 21 allergens in the European baseline series to polysensitization....... PATIENTS/METHODS: From a database-based study with 14 998 patients patch tested with the European baseline series between 1985 and 2005, a group of 759 (5.1%) patients were polysensitized. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the relative contribution of each allergen to polysensitization. RESULTS...... denominator for the association between the allergens and the polysensitization was apparent, and any association, whether positive or negative, was relatively low. Based on these results, sensitization to specific baseline allergens cannot be used as risk indicators for polysensitization....

  17. The human allergens of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killian Sue

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A computerized statistical analysis of allergy skin test results correlating patient reactivities initiated our interest in the cross-reactive allergens of mesquite tree pollen. In-vitro testing with mesquite-sensitized rabbits and a variety of deciduous tree pollens revealed so many cross-reactivities that it became apparent there could be more allergens in mesquite than previously described in the world literature. Our purpose was to examine the allergens of mesquite tree pollen (Prosopis juliflora which elicit an IgE response in allergic humans so that future research could determine if these human allergens cross-react with various tree pollens in the same manner as did the mesquite antiserum from sensitized rabbits. Methods Proteins from commercial mesquite tree pollen were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium-dodecyl-sulphate. These mesquite proteins were subjected to Western blotting using pooled sera from ten mesquite-sensitive patients and goat anti-human IgE. The allergens were detected using an Amplified Opti-4-CN kit, scanned, and then interpreted by Gel-Pro software. Results Thirteen human allergens of mesquite pollen were detected in this study. Conclusion The number of allergens in this study of mesquite exceeded the number identified previously in the literature. With the increased exposure to mesquite through its use in "greening the desert", increased travel to desert areas and exposure to mesquite in cooking smoke, the possible clinical significance of these allergens and their suggested cross-reactivity with other tree pollens merit further study.

  18. The human allergens of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Sue; McMichael, John

    2004-07-05

    BACKGROUND: A computerized statistical analysis of allergy skin test results correlating patient reactivities initiated our interest in the cross-reactive allergens of mesquite tree pollen. In-vitro testing with mesquite-sensitized rabbits and a variety of deciduous tree pollens revealed so many cross-reactivities that it became apparent there could be more allergens in mesquite than previously described in the world literature. Our purpose was to examine the allergens of mesquite tree pollen (Prosopis juliflora) which elicit an IgE response in allergic humans so that future research could determine if these human allergens cross-react with various tree pollens in the same manner as did the mesquite antiserum from sensitized rabbits. METHODS: Proteins from commercial mesquite tree pollen were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium-dodecyl-sulphate. These mesquite proteins were subjected to Western blotting using pooled sera from ten mesquite-sensitive patients and goat anti-human IgE. The allergens were detected using an Amplified Opti-4-CN kit, scanned, and then interpreted by Gel-Pro software. RESULTS: Thirteen human allergens of mesquite pollen were detected in this study. CONCLUSION: The number of allergens in this study of mesquite exceeded the number identified previously in the literature. With the increased exposure to mesquite through its use in "greening the desert", increased travel to desert areas and exposure to mesquite in cooking smoke, the possible clinical significance of these allergens and their suggested cross-reactivity with other tree pollens merit further study.

  19. Cloning and characterization of profilin (Pru du 4), a cross-reactive almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Pallavi; Venkatesh, Yeldur P; Wang, Fang; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2006-10-01

    The identity of allergenic almond proteins is incomplete. Our objective was to characterize patient IgE reactivity to a recombinant and corresponding native almond allergen. An almond cDNA library was screened with sera from patients with allergy for IgE binding proteins. Two reactive clones were sequenced, and 1 was expressed. The expressed recombinant allergen and its native counterpart (purified from unprocessed almond flour) were assayed by 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, dot blot, and ELISA, and screened for cross-reactivity with grass profilin. The 2 selected clones encoded profilin (designated Pru du 4) sequences that differed by 2 silent mutations. By dot-blot analyses, 6 of 18 patient sera (33%) reacted with the recombinant Pru du 4 protein, and 8 of 18 (44%) reacted with the native form. ELISA results were similar. Almond and ryegrass profilins were mutually inhibitable. Two-dimensional immunoblotting revealed the presence of more than 1 native almond profilin isoform. The strength of reactivity of some patients' serum IgE differed markedly between assays and between native and recombinant profilins. Almond nut profilin is an IgE-binding food protein that is cross-reactive with grass pollen profilin and is susceptible to denaturation, resulting in variable reactivity between assay types and between patients. Serum IgE of nearly half of the tested patients with almond allergy reacts with almond nut profilin. Because most patients also had pollinosis, the well-known cross-reactivity between pollen and food profilins could account for this pattern of reactivity.

  20. Consumer preferences for food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-01-01

    Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.

  1. AllerML: markup language for allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Gendel, Steven M; Power, Trevor D; Schein, Catherine H; Braun, Werner

    2011-06-01

    Many concerns have been raised about the potential allergenicity of novel, recombinant proteins into food crops. Guidelines, proposed by WHO/FAO and EFSA, include the use of bioinformatics screening to assess the risk of potential allergenicity or cross-reactivities of all proteins introduced, for example, to improve nutritional value or promote crop resistance. However, there are no universally accepted standards that can be used to encode data on the biology of allergens to facilitate using data from multiple databases in this screening. Therefore, we developed AllerML a markup language for allergens to assist in the automated exchange of information between databases and in the integration of the bioinformatics tools that are used to investigate allergenicity and cross-reactivity. As proof of concept, AllerML was implemented using the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP; http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) database. General implementation of AllerML will promote automatic flow of validated data that will aid in allergy research and regulatory analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of reagins and allergen extracts on radioallergosorbent assays for mite allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, E.R.; Vandenberg, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reproducibility of the radioallergosorbent (RAST) inhibition and direct binding assays with mite allergen were investigated in the presence of heterogeneous extracts and non-mite sensitive atopic sera. Both contain components similar to potential contaminants which would occur in the assay of mite allergen and dust allergen extracts. The standardized inhibition and direct binding assays employed had a day to day (n = 4) coefficient of variation [(s.d. x 100)/mean] of 15% and 24% respectively. The inhibition assay for mite allergen was reproducible in the presence of protein concentrations of added plant, fungal, arthropod and animal extracts in excess of the protein concentrations that occur under the operational mite assay conditions. The mite inhibition assay was also reproducible in the presence of non-mite allergen extracts, with and without additional sera containing IgE specific for the non0mite allergens. The binding of a constant quantity of mite allergen to the activated solid phase in the direct binding assay was reproducible in the presence of added bovine serum albumin, and of a fungal or arthropod extract, representing the heterogeneous components of an allergen extract at the concentrations of total protein known to occur in the direct binding assay of mite extracts. (author)

  3. Proteomic analysis of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 predicts allergenicity for 15 birch species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Peters, J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen of the European and Asian white birch (Betula pendula and B. platyphylla) causes hay fever in humans. The allergenic potency of other birch species is largely unknown. To identify birch trees with a reduced allergenicity, we assessed the immunochemical characteristics of 15 species and two

  4. Detection of major food allergens in amniotic fluid: initial allergenic encounter during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Maroto, Aroa S; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Villalba, Mayte; Esteban, Vanesa; Ruiz-Ramos, Marta; de Alba, Marta Rodriguez; Vivanco, Fernando; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Ingestion of food allergens present in maternal milk during breastfeeding has been hypothesized as a gateway to sensitization to food; however, this process could develop during pregnancy, as the maternal-fetal interface develops a Th2- and Treg-mediated environment to protect the fetus. We hypothesized that in these surroundings, unborn children are exposed to food allergens contained in the mother's diet, possibly giving rise to first sensitization. The presence of allergens in utero was studied by analyzing amniotic fluid (AF) samples in two different stages of pregnancy: at 15-20 weeks and after delivery at term. An antibody microarray was developed to test for the most common food allergens. The array detects the presence of ten allergens from milk, fruit, egg, fish, nuts, and wheat. AF from 20 pregnant women was collected: eight after delivery at term and 12 from women who underwent diagnostic amniocentesis between weeks 15 and 20 of gestation. The presence of allergens was detected in all samples. Samples from amniocentesis had a higher allergen concentration than samples after delivery at term. We demonstrated the presence of intact major food allergens in AF samples. This early contact could explain subsequent sensitization to foods never eaten before. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The European Survey on Adverse Systemic Reactions in Allergen Immunotherapy (EASSI): A paediatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Del Río, Pablo; Vidal, Carmen; Just, Jocelyne; Tabar, Ana I; Sanchez-Machin, Inmaculada; Eberle, Peter; Borja, Jesus; Bubel, Petra; Pfaar, Oliver; Demoly, Pascal; Calderón, Moises A

    2017-02-01

    Safety data on 'real-life' allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in children and adolescents is usually extrapolated from studies in adults. Patients aged 18 or under initiating aeroallergen AIT were evaluated in a prospective European survey. Patient profiles and systemic reactions (SRs) were recorded. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for SRs. A total of 1563 patients (mean ± SD age: 11.7 ± 3.9 years; rhinitis: 93.7%; asthma: 61.5%; polysensitization: 62.5%) and 1578 courses of AIT were assessed. Single-allergen AIT was administered in 89.5% of cases (n = 1412; mites: 49%; grass pollen: 25.8%; tree pollen: 8.7%; Alternaria: 4.6%; dander: 0.8%; weed pollen: 0.6%). Subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) was used in 71.4% (n = 1127) of the treatments, including 574 (50.9%) with natural extracts. Sublingual AIT (SLIT) was used for the remaining 451 treatments (drops: 73.8%; tablets: 26.2%). The mean ± SD follow-up period was 12.9 ± 3.3 months. The estimated total number of doses was 19,669 for SCIT and 131,550 for SLIT. Twenty-four patients (1.53%) experienced 29 SRs. Respiratory (55.7%) and skin symptoms (37.9%) were most frequent. Anaphylaxis was diagnosed in 3 SRs (10.3%), and adrenaline was administered in 2 of these cases. In a univariate analysis, the risk of SRs was lower in mite-sensitized patients and higher in cases of pollen polysensitization (>3), grass pollen extracts and the use of natural extracts (vs. allergoids). In a real-life paediatric setting, AIT is safe. SRs are infrequent and generally not severe. Pollen polysensitization, grass pollen extracts and natural extracts (vs. allergoids) were risk factors for AIT-associated SRs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

    2013-12-01

    Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioanalytical methods for food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection and new allergen discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasilova, Natalia; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    For effective monitoring and prevention of the food allergy, one of the emerging health problems nowadays, existing diagnostic procedures and allergen detection techniques are constantly improved. Meanwhile, new methods are also developed, and more and more putative allergens are discovered. This review describes traditional methods and summarizes recent advances in the fast evolving field of the in vitro food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection in food products and discovery of the new allergenic molecules. A special attention is paid to the new diagnostic methods under laboratory development like various immuno- and aptamer-based assays, including immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis. The latter technique shows the importance of MS application not only for the allergen detection but also for the allergy diagnosis.

  8. Real-life compliance and persistence among users of subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Menno A; Röder, Esther; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Al, Maiwenn J; Hop, Wim C J; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2013-08-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) are safe and effective treatments of allergic rhinitis, but high levels of compliance and persistence are crucial to achieving the desired clinical effects. Our objective was to assess levels and predictors of compliance and persistence among grass pollen, tree pollen, and house dust mite immunotherapy users in real life and to estimate the costs of premature discontinuation. We performed a retrospective analysis of a community pharmacy database from The Netherlands containing data from 6486 patients starting immunotherapy for 1 or more of the allergens of interest between 1994 and 2009. Two thousand seven hundred ninety-six patients received SCIT, and 3690 received SLIT. Time to treatment discontinuation was analyzed and included Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates, where appropriate. Overall, only 18% of users reached the minimally required duration of treatment of 3 years (SCIT, 23%; SLIT, 7%). Median durations for SCIT and SLIT users were 1.7 and 0.6 years, respectively (P < .001). Other independent predictors of premature discontinuation were prescriber, with patients of general practitioners demonstrating longer persistence than those of allergologists and other medical specialists; single-allergen immunotherapy, lower socioeconomic status; and younger age. Of the persistent patients, 56% were never late in picking up their medication from the pharmacy. Direct medication costs per nonpersistent patient discontinuing in the third year of treatment were €3800, an amount that was largely misspent. Real-life persistence is better in SCIT users than in SLIT users, although it is low overall. There is an urgent need for further identification of potential barriers and measures that will enhance persistence and compliance. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Depth, temperature, oxygen and salinity profile data from repetitive occupation of a hydrographic station off St. George's, Bermuda from 1954 through 1984 (NODC Accession 0000650)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the PANULIRUS and other platforms from repetitive occupations of a hydrographic station off St. George's, Bermuda....

  10. Allergenic Proteins in Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies can be defined as immunologically mediated hypersensitivity reactions; therefore, a food allergy is also known as food hypersensitivity. The reactions are caused by the immune system response to some food proteins. The eight most common food allergens are proteins from milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soya, wheat, fish and shellfish. However, many other foods have been identified as allergens for some people, such as certain fruits or vegetables and seeds. It is now recognized that food allergens are an important food safety issue. A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system reacts to otherwise harmless substances in certain foods. For these reasons, one of the requirements from the European Union is that allergenic food ingredients should be labelled in order to protect allergic consumers. According to the European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients’ Associations, about 8 % of children and 4 % of adults suffer from some type of food allergy. Food allergies often develop during infant or early childhood ages, affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestines. In some cases, the allergy may persist in adult age, for example, coeliac disease, which is an abnormal immune response to certain proteins present in gluten, a type of protein composite found in wheat and barley. Almost all allergens are proteins, and highly sensitive analytical methods have been developed to detect traces of these compounds in food, such as electrophoretic and immunological methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purpose of this review is to describe the allergenic components of the most common causes of food allergies, followed by a brief discussion regarding their importance in the food industry and for consumer safety. The most important methods used to detect allergenicity in food will also be discussed.

  11. Allergen Sensitization Pattern by Sex: A Cluster Analysis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Paik, Seung Hwan; Doh, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun-Sun; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun

    2017-12-01

    Allergens tend to sensitize simultaneously. Etiology of this phenomenon has been suggested to be allergen cross-reactivity or concurrent exposure. However, little is known about specific allergen sensitization patterns. To investigate the allergen sensitization characteristics according to gender. Multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) is widely used as a screening tool for detecting allergen sensitization in dermatologic clinics. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with MAST results between 2008 and 2014 in our Department of Dermatology. A cluster analysis was performed to elucidate the allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E cluster pattern. The results of MAST (39 allergen-specific IgEs) from 4,360 cases were analyzed. By cluster analysis, 39items were grouped into 8 clusters. Each cluster had characteristic features. When compared with female, the male group tended to be sensitized more frequently to all tested allergens, except for fungus allergens cluster. The cluster and comparative analysis results demonstrate that the allergen sensitization is clustered, manifesting allergen similarity or co-exposure. Only the fungus cluster allergens tend to sensitize female group more frequently than male group.

  12. Geotechnical properties of sediments from North Pacific and Northern Bermuda Rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.J.; Laine, E.P.; Lipkin, J.; Heath, G.R.; Akers, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of geotechnical properties for the Sub-seabed Disposal Program have been oriented toward sediment characterization related to effectiveness as a containment media and determination of detailed engineering behavior. Consolidation tests of the deeper samples in the North Pacific clays indicate that the sediment column is normally consolidated. The in-situ coefficient of permeability (k) within the cored depth of 25 meters is relatively constant at 10 -7 cm/sec. Consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests indicate stress-strain properties characteristic of saturated clays with effective angles of friction of 35 0 for smectite and 31 0 for illite. These results are being used in computer modeling efforts. Some general geotechnical property data from the Bermuda Rise are also discussed

  13. Sharing Data to Build a Medical Information Commons: From Bermuda to the Global Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; Ankeny, Rachel A; Maxson Jones, Kathryn

    2017-08-31

    The Human Genome Project modeled its open science ethos on nematode biology, most famously through daily release of DNA sequence data based on the 1996 Bermuda Principles. That open science philosophy persists, but daily, unfettered release of data has had to adapt to constraints occasioned by the use of data from individual people, broader use of data not only by scientists but also by clinicians and individuals, the global reach of genomic applications and diverse national privacy and research ethics laws, and the rising prominence of a diverse commercial genomics sector. The Global Alliance for Genomics and Health was established to enable the data sharing that is essential for making meaning of genomic variation. Data-sharing policies and practices will continue to evolve as researchers, health professionals, and individuals strive to construct a global medical and scientific information commons.

  14. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McLean Pirkle

    Full Text Available In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish, substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies. Recent evidence indicates mercury concentrations in Bermuda's pregnant women have fallen five- fold.Assess whether changes in women's fish eating patterns during pregnancy are consistent with the public health messaging. Determine who is making changes to their diet during pregnancy and why.Mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey of 121 pregnant women, including 13 opened-ended interviews. Health system, social vulnerability, public health messaging, and socio-demographic variables were characterized and related to changes in fish consumption during pregnancy. Qualitative data were coded according to nutritional advice messages, comprehension of communication strategies, and sources of information.95% of women surveyed encountered recommendations about fish consumption during pregnancy. 75% reported modifying fish eating behaviors because of recommendations. Principal sources of information about fish consumption in pregnancy were health care providers and the Internet. 71% of women reported reducing consumption of large fish species with greater mercury levels, but 60% reported reduced consumption of smaller, low mercury fish. No participant mentioned hearing about the benefits of fish consumption. More frequent exposure to public health messages during pregnancy was associated with lower reported consumption. Bermudian born women were less likely to reduce consumption of large fish species during pregnancy.In Bermuda, public health messages advocating reduced consumption of larger

  15. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  16. Authentication of food allergen quality by physicochemical and immunological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, A I; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Alessandri, S

    2010-01-01

    Purified allergens are required to detect cross-contamination with other allergenic foods and to understand allergen interaction with other components of the food matrix. Pure allergens are also used for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. For example, serological methods are being...... developed to improve the quality of diagnosis, and to reduce the need for food challenge tests. In addition, recombinant allergens are being evaluated as candidate vaccines for safe and efficacious specific immunotherapy. Pure allergens are indispensable as reference materials for the calibration...... and standardization of methods between different laboratories and operators for risk assessment in the food industry. Therefore, there is a need for well-defined purified food allergens. In this context, a panel of 46 food allergens from plant and animal sources has been purified, from either the food sources...

  17. Allergenic food introduction and risk of childhood atopic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Elbert (Niels); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); R.G. Voortman (Trudy); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); N.W. de Jong (Nicolette); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); Duijts, L. (Liesbeth); S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The role of timing and diversity of allergenic food introduction in the development of childhood allergic sensitization and atopic diseases is controversial. Objective: To examine whether timing and diversity of allergenic food introduction are associated with allergic

  18. HYMENOPTERA ALLERGENS: FROM VENOM TO VENOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edzard eSpillner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe hymenoptera venom allergy primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of hymenoptera venom allergy research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire venome as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of IgE reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in hymenoptera venom allergy and may serve for monitoring, reevaluation and improvement of current therapeutic strategies.

  19. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1 cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases.

  20. Modifications of allergenicity linked to food technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergies (FA) has increased over the past fifteen years. The reasons suggested are changes in dietary behaviour and the evolution of food technologies. New cases of FA have been described with chayote, rambutan, arguta, pumpkin seeds, custard apple, and with mycoproteins from Fusarium.... Additives using food proteins are at high risk: caseinates, lysozyme, cochineal red, papaïn, alpha-amylase, lactase etc. Heating can reduce allergenicity or create neo-allergens, as well as storage, inducing the synthesis of allergenic stress or PR proteins. Aeroallergens (miles, moulds) contaminate foods and can induce allergic reactions. Involuntary contamination by peanut proteins on production lines is a problem which is not yet solved. Genetically modified plants are at risk of allergenicity, requiring methodological steps of investigations: the comparison of the amino-acid sequence of the transferred protein with the sequence of known allergens, the evaluation of thermo degradability and of the denaturation by pepsin and trypsin are required, as well as the study with sera from patients allergic to the plant producing the gene. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis, heating, or the development of genetically modified plants may offer new alternatives towards hypoallergenic foods (57 references).

  1. Bioenergy production from roadside grass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show...

  2. Oxidative Stress: Promoter of Allergic Sensitization to Protease Allergens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijt, Leonie S.; Utsch, Lara; Lutter, René; van Ree, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Allergies arise from aberrant T helper type 2 responses to allergens. Several respiratory allergens possess proteolytic activity, which has been recognized to act as an adjuvant for the development of a Th2 response. Allergen source-derived proteases can activate the protease-activated receptor-2,

  3. The current state of recombinant allergens for immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Malling, H-J

    2010-01-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy is a well documented treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The majority of the disadvantages of the treatment are related to the poor quality of the natural allergen extracts which can contain varying amounts of individual allergens including allergens to which...

  4. Preparation of patient-related allergens for hyposensitization. Qualitative aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Søndergaard, I; Weeke, B

    1988-01-01

    An affinity chromatography method for preparation of patient-related antigens from commercially available allergen extracts has been investigated. IgG1,2,4 from a patient previously hyposensitized with dog hair and dandruff allergen was bound to protein A-sepharose. Secondly, commercial allergen ...

  5. Specific IgE Antibodies in Young Children with Atopic Dermatitis--Correlation of Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Immunoblot Test and ImmunoCap System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Ewa; Ceregra, Aldona; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta; Surowska, Barbara; Trojanowska, Ilona; Roszko-Kirpsza, Izabela; Cukrowska, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    Sensitization to food allergens is a common condition in pediatric atopic dermatitis (AD). Recently, the multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) allowing for a comprehensive assessment of atopy has been developed, but the usefulness in young AD children is not known. The aim of this study was to determine IgE specificity in AD children using MAST and to compare the results for selected food allergens with the reference ImmunoCap system. The study enrolled 50 children up to 2 years old with a diagnosis of AD. IgE antibodies were measured with the MAST-immunoblots. Children with specific IgE levels ≥ 0.35 kU/L were identified as sensitized to allergens. Most often children were sensitized to food allergens (egg white and yolk, hazelnuts, potato, cow's milk proteins, wheat flour, codfish, and soybean), but a high percentage of them also had IgE antibodies against house dust mites (12%), grass (10%), and birch (10%). Eight percent of children were sensitized to domestic animals (cats and dogs). Almost perfect (kappa index 0.8 - 1.0) and substantial (kappa index 0.6 - 0.8) agreement between MAST and ImmunoCap was found for food allergens except codfish. Pearson's analysis of antibody classes showed a very strong correlation between two methods (r = 0.8 - 1.0) for egg white, hazelnuts, potato, cow's milk proteins, wheat flour, and soybean, and a strong correlation (r = 0.6 - 0.79) was observed for peanut, egg yolk, and codfish. The study showed the frequent occurrence of IgE antibodies against food and airborne and animal allergens in young AD children and confirmed the usefulness of MAST-immunoblots for screening of sensitization in pediatric patients.

  6. Food Allergen Labeling: A Latin American Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Food allergy is a public health concern almost all over the world. Although most of the countries that regulate the declaration of allergens in prepackaged foods include the list recommended by the Codex Alimentarius, some countries have added other allergens to this list due to prevalence data and regional incidence, whereas others have incorporated exceptions for some products derived from allergenic foods. Within this context, the situation in Latin America regarding these regulations is diverse. Data about prevalence of food hypersensitivity are very limited in the region. The countries that have established regulations are Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Chile, Mexico, and Venezuela. Argentina has approved a regulation for the labeling of food allergens in November 2016. It only needs to be published in the Official Bulletin to go into effect. All countries follow the Codex list that includes latex and excludes sulfites, except Brazil. On the other hand, Argentina is the only country that includes exceptions. As for the methodologies for the detection of allergens in foods, this issue is a serious problem for both the food industry and control laboratories. Available methodologies are based mainly on commercial ELISA kits; currently, there are no Latin American companies that produce them, so ELISA kits are expensive and their acquisition is complicated. There is an initiative in Argentina to address all these gaps in the region through the Platform of Food Allergens (PFA), a nonprofit organization that integrates health professionals, patients, representatives of the food industry, government, and scientists. The different actions carried out by the PFA have made it possible to contact different scientific groups from other Latin American countries in order to expand this initiative and thereby promote and strengthen both public and private capacities in the region.

  7. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  8. Molecular Allergen-Specific IgE Assays as a Complement to Allergen Extract-Based Sensitization Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, Rob C.; Aalberse, Joost A.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular allergen-based component-resolved diagnostic IgE antibody tests have emerged in the form of singleplex assays and multiplex arrays. They use both native and recombinant allergen molecules, sometimes in combination with each other, to supplement allergen extract-based IgE antibody analyses.

  9. AllergenOnline: A peer-reviewed, curated allergen database to assess novel food proteins for potential cross-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodman, Richard E.; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ferreira, Fatima; Sampson, Hugh A.; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Baumert, Joseph L.; Bohle, Barbara; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Wise, John; Taylor, Steve L.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly regulators are demanding evaluation of potential allergenicity of foods prior to marketing. Primary risks are the transfer of allergens or potentially cross-reactive proteins into new foods. AllergenOnline was developed in 2005 as a peer-reviewed bioinformatics platform to evaluate

  10. Effect of irradiation on biochemistry properties of shrimp allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Kefei; Gao Meixu; Li Chunhong; Li Shurong; Pan Jiarong

    2007-01-01

    Study on the effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at the dose of 0,3,5,7,10 kGy on shrimp allergen biochemistry properties was conducted. The results indicated that the allergen protein molecule can be broken down to smaller molecules or coagulated to larger molecules by irradiation. The hydrophobicity and turbidity of irradiated allergen increased with the increase of absorbed dose. The results also show that allergen solution is more sensitive to irradiation than allergen in solid state or in the whole shrimp. (authors)

  11. Medication persistence with long-term, specific grass pollen immunotherapy measured by prescription renewal rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, J; De Geest, S; Shah-Hosseini, K; Mösges, R

    2011-04-01

    We assessed medication persistence using prescription renewal rates for grass pollen specific immunotherapy (SIT) in a representative population of patients in Germany to evaluate whether the perception of superior persistence for the subcutaneous route compared to the sublingual route could be confirmed in clinical practice. Individual prescriptions for allergen immunotherapy were extracted from a national prescription database (INSIGHT Health) and followed over 3 years on a per-patient basis. However, patients' medical history and treatment schedules were not available for analysis. Products were identified by the national drug code (PZN number) and grouped to either subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with natural extract injections, SCIT with modified allergens (allergoids) or sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with natural pollen extract solutions. Persistence was defined as at least one prescription of the individual drug in the respective years. A total of 1409 patients started SIT in 2005 (112, 695, and 602 for natural extract SLIT, natural extract SCIT, and allergoid SCIT, respectively). In 2006, 71%, 55%, and 59% of those patients had at least one renewal prescription of natural extract SLIT, natural extract SCIT, and allergoid SCIT, respectively, as well as 51%, 34%, and 39% in 2007. In both years, persistence with natural extract SLIT was significantly higher than with natural extract SCIT (p = 0.0015 for 2006, p = 0.0003 for 2007) and allergoid SCIT (p = 0.0152 for 2006, p = 0.0111 for 2007). There were no significant differences between the two SCIT groups. Medication persistence with grass pollen SIT in a representative sample of patients in Germany was similar to published medication persistence in asthma and COPD patients. The sublingual application route shows significantly better persistency than the subcutaneous route with native allergens or allergoids.

  12. Animal Allergens and Their Presence in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day-care centers, and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors. Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification, and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm, and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces) using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended. PMID:24624129

  13. Allergens labeling on French processed foods - an Oqali study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Charlène; Chambefort, Amélie; Digaud, Olivier; Duplessis, Barbara; Perrin, Cécile; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Gauvreau-Béziat, Julie; Menard, Céline

    2017-07-01

    The French Observatory of Food Quality (Oqali) aims at collecting all nutritional data provided on labels of processed foods (nutritional information and composition), at branded products level, in order to follow nutritional labeling changes over time. This study carries out an overview of allergens labeling frequencies by distinguishing allergens used in recipes from those listed on precautionary statements, for the fourteen allergen categories for which labeling is mandatory according to European legislation. 17,309 products were collected, between 2008 and 2012, from 26 food categories. Products were classified per family and type of brand (national brands, retailer brands, entry-level retailer brands, hard discount, and specialized retailer brands). Allergenic ingredients were identified from ingredients lists and precautionary statements. 73% of the 17,309 products studied contained at least one allergen in their ingredients list and 39% had a precautionary statement for one or more allergens. Milk (53%), gluten (41%), and egg (22%) were the most commonly used allergens in ingredients lists. For precautionary statement, nuts (20%), egg (14%), peanut (13%), soybean (12%), and milk (11%) were the most common allergens listed. Precautionary statement was most frequently found among first-price products (hard discount and entry-level retailer brands). National brands seemed to use it less frequently. For all these results, differences depended both on food categories and allergen categories. This study will enable to follow allergens labeling and their use as ingredients over time, particularly by assessing an hypothetical increase in allergens presence in processed food.

  14. Animal allergens and their presence in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eZahradnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day care centers and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors.Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended.

  15. Effects of Maillard reaction on allergenicity of buckwheat allergen Fag t 3 during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen-Huang; Li, Chen; Li, Yu-Ying; Wang, Zhuan-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Fag t 3 is a major allergenic protein in tartary buckwheat. The Maillard reaction commonly occurs in food processing, but few studies have been conducted on the influence of thermal processing on the allergenic potential of buckwheat allergen. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of autologous plant polysaccharides on the immunoreactivity of buckwheat Fag t 3 (11S globulin) following the Maillard reaction. Fag t 3 and crude polysaccharides were prepared from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) flour. After heating, the polysaccharides were covalently linked to Fag t 3 via a Maillard reaction, and the IgE/IgG-binding properties of Fag t 3 decreased dramatically, with significant changes also being observed in the electrophoretic mobility, secondary structure and solubility of the glycated Fag t 3. The great influence of glycation on IgE/IgG binding to Fag t 3 was correlated with a significant change in the structure and epitopes of the allergenic protein. These data indicated that conjugation of polysaccharides to Fag t 3 markedly reduced the allergen's immunoreactivity. Glycation that occurs via the Maillard reaction during the processing of buckwheat food may be an efficient method to reduce Fag t 3 allergenicity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  17. Consumer-friendly food allergen detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Georgina M.S.; Bremer, Monique G.E.G.; Nielen, Michel W.F.

    2018-01-01

    In this critical review, we provide a comprehensive overview of immunochemical food allergen assays and detectors in the context of their user-friendliness, through their connection to smartphones. Smartphone-based analysis is centered around citizen science, putting analysis into the hands of the

  18. Update on allergen detection in childhood asthma.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    False-negative results occur in patients who have true IgE mediated disease as confirmed by skin testing or allergen challenge. The sensitivity of blood allergy testing is approximately 25% to 30% lower than that of skin testing, based on comparative studies.13,14. Limitations of blood testing of specific IgE. Levels of specific ...

  19. Isoeugenol is an important contact allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, I R; Johansen, J D; Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy to the fragrance mix in individuals with eczema is up to 10%. Within the mix, isoeugenol (CAS 97-54-1) is an important individual allergen. Until May 1998, the IFRA (International Fragrance Association) guidelines suggested that isoeugenol could safely be used at...

  20. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    IntroductionThe goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaer...

  1. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus M. Anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaerosol contamination. One of ...

  2. Physicochemical characterization of allergens: quantity, identity, purity, aggregation and conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, Stef J; Luykx, Dion M A M; de Jongh, Harmen H J; Veldhuizen, Willem Jan

    2009-01-01

    Allergens and allergoids can be characterized by means of physicochemical methods, resulting in a description of the protein on different structural levels. Several techniques are available and their suitability depends on the composition of the particular sample. Current European legislation on allergen products demands characterization of final products in particular focusing on identity, degree of modification (for allergoids) and stability of the composition. Structural parameters of allergens may be used to investigate the stability of an allergen product. The challenge is to identify and optimize techniques that allow determination of protein structure in the context of a formulated pharmaceutical product. As the majority of the products currently marketed are formulated with aluminium hydroxide or aluminium phosphate as a depot, most of the methods and techniques used for protein characterization in solution are not applicable. An additional hurdle is that allergen products are based on natural extracts, comprising a mixture of proteins, both allergens and non-allergens, sometimes in the presence of other uncharacterized components from the raw material. This paper describes which methods are suitable for the different stages of allergen product manufacturing, and how these relate to the current regulatory requirements. Some of the techniques are demonstrated using a model allergen, cod parvalbumin, and a chemically modified form thereof. We conclude that a variety of methods is available for characterization of proteins in solution, and that a limited number of techniques appear to be suitable for modified allergens (allergoids). Adaptation of existing methods, e.g. mass spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy may be helpful to obtain protein parameters of allergens in a formulated allergen product. By choosing a combination of techniques, including those additional to physicochemical approaches, relevant parameters of allergens in formulated allergen

  3. [Allergens used in skin tests in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Guidos Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo; Cid del Prado, Mari Lou

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the only recognized causal treatment for allergies. It is prepared on an individual basis, based on the patient's clinical history and the result of the skin prick test (SPT). An adequate composition of the allergens with which to test the patient is crucial for an optimal diagnosis. To know allergens used in tests in allergy practices in Mexico. A national survey among all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras Especialistas en Inmunología Clínica y Alergia (COMPEDIA) was carried out. In a second phase respondents were asked to send in the composition of a routine SPT in their clinic. The results are presented descriptively and the frequency is calculated by which certain allergen is tested in the interviewed practices. A survey response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained and 54% showed their SPT content. Weeds' representation in the SPT seems adequate; Atriplex is tested in all allergy practices. Some trees that show cross-reactivity might be eliminated from the SPT, but 20% doesn't test for Cynodon nor Holcus, and 25% doesn't for important allergens as cat, dog and cockroach. House dust and tobacco are still tested with certain frequency. The selection of which allergens to test in a SPT is based on multiple data, that change continuously with new investigations and discoveries. Our specialty is the most indicated--and obligated--to adjust constantly to these changes to have the best diagnostic tool to detect specific allergies.

  4. Reducing dust and allergen exposure in bakeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J Mason

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakers have a continuing high incidence of occupational allergic asthma. In factory bakeries they are exposed not only to flour dust containing allergens, but also improvers whose ingredients enhance the strength and workability of the dough and its speed of rising. Improvers are flour-based but can contain added soya, fungal or bacterial enzymes that are also allergenic, as well as vegetable oil, calcium sulphate/silicate and organic esters. This study investigated the dustiness of the components used in factory bakeries and whether altering improver ingredients could reduce dust and allergen exposure. A standardised rotating drum test was employed on the individual components, as well as a representative improver and three practicable improver modifications by decreasing calcium sulphate, calcium silicate or increasing oil content. Levels of dust, the allergens wheat flour amylase inhibitor (WAAI and soya trypsin inhibitor (STI were measured in the generated inhalable, thoracic and respirable sized fractions. A “scooping and pouring” workplace simulation was also performed. Initial tests showed that dustiness of several wheat flours was relatively low, and even lower for soya flour, but increased in combination with some other improver components. All three improver modifications generally reduced levels of dust, STI and WAAI, but increasing oil content significantly decreased dust and STI in comparison to the standard improver and those improvers with reduced calcium silicate or sulphate. The simulation demonstrated that increased oil content reduced inhalable levels of gravimetric dust, STI and WAAI. Changing improver formulation, such as increasing oil content of flour by a small amount, may represent a simple, practical method of reducing bakery workers’ exposure to dust and allergens where improvers are used. It may be a useful adjunct to engineering control, changes to work practices and appropriate training in reducing the risk to

  5. Sequential Treatment Initiation with Timothy Grass and Ragweed Sublingual Immunotherapy Tablets Followed by Simultaneous Treatment Is Well Tolerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Jennifer; Berman, Gary; Gagnon, Remi; Bernstein, David I; Nelson, Harold S; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Kaur, Amarjot; Li, Qing; Nolte, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Dual treatment with grass and ragweed sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets has not been studied. To characterize the safety and tolerability of dual grass and ragweed SLIT-tablet administration. This open-label, multicenter trial (NCT02256553) enrolled North American adults (N = 102) allergic to grass and ragweed. The trial had 3 periods, each of 2 weeks duration. In period 1, subjects received once-daily timothy grass SLIT tablet (2800 bioequivalent allergen unit; Merck, Inc, Kenilworth, NJ/ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark). In period 2, subjects received a short ragweed SLIT tablet (12 Ambrosia artemisiifolia 1-U; Merck/ALK) every morning and a grass SLIT tablet every evening. In period 3, subjects received once-daily grass and ragweed SLIT tablets within 5 minutes (simultaneous intake). The primary end point was the proportion of subjects with 1 or more local swelling events in each period. Secondary end points were the proportion of subjects with 1 or more local adverse events (AEs), that discontinued the treatment because of AEs, and subjects with 1 or more local AEs requiring treatment. No severe swellings, systemic allergic reactions, asthma attacks, or reactions requiring epinephrine were reported. Most (99%) AEs were graded mild to moderate. The proportions of subjects with 1 or more local swelling events were 14%, 22%, and 15% for periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For periods 1, 2, and 3, the proportions of subjects with 1 or more local AEs were 71%, 69%, and 56%, respectively; the proportions discontinuing the treatment because of treatment-related AEs were 5%, 1%, and 2%, and the proportions with 1 or more local AEs requiring treatment were 4%, 4%, and 1%. In this trial, a 4-week sequential SLIT-tablet dosing schedule followed by simultaneous intake of timothy grass and ragweed tablets was well tolerated. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of allergenicity and immunogenicity of an intact allergen vaccine and commercially available allergoid products for birch pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, L; Henmar, H; Würtzen, P A; Lund, G; Hjortskov, N; Larsen, J N

    2007-04-01

    Specific immunotherapy with intact allergen vaccine is a well-documented treatment for allergic diseases. Different vaccine formulations are currently commercially available, the active ingredient either being intact allergens or chemically modified allergoids. The rationale behind allergoids is to decrease allergenicity while maintaining immunogenicity. However, data from the German health authorities based on reporting of adverse events over a 10-year period did not indicate increased safety of allergoids over intact allergens. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemical modification on allergenicity and immunogenicity comparing four commercial allergoid products for birch pollen immunotherapy with an intact allergen vaccine. Solid-phase IgE inhibition and histamine release assays were selected as model systems for allergenicity, and a combination of human T cell proliferation and IgG titres following mouse immunizations were used to address the immunogenicity of the intact allergen vaccine and the four allergoids. In all assays, the products were normalized with respect to the manufacturer's recommended maintenance dose. IgE inhibition experiments showed a change in epitope composition comparing intact allergen vaccine with allergoid. One allergoid product induced enhanced histamine release compared to the intact allergens, while the other three allergoids showed reduced release. Standard T cell stimulation assays using lines from allergic patients showed a reduced response for all allergoids compared with the intact allergen vaccine regardless of the cell type used for antigen presentation. All allergoids showed reduced capacity to induce allergen-specific IgG responses in mice. While some allergoids were associated with reduced allergenicity, a clear reduction in immunogenicity was observed for all allergoid products compared with the intact allergen vaccine, and the commercial allergoids tested therefore do not fulfil the allergoid

  7. A molecular evaluation of the Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Bermuda including Liagora nesophila sp. nov. and Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolizio, Thea R; Schneider, Craig W; Lane, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive, molecular-assisted alpha-taxonomic examination of the rhodophyte family Liagoraceae sensu lato, a group that has not previously been targeted for molecular studies in the western Atlantic. Sequence data from three molecular markers indicate that in Bermuda alone there are 10 species in nine different genera. These include the addition of three genera to the flora - Hommersandiophycus, Trichogloeopsis, and Yamadaella. Liagora pectinata, a species with a type locality in Bermuda, is phylogenetically allied with Indo-Pacific species of Hommersandiophycus, and the species historically reported as L. ceranoides for the islands is morphologically and genetically distinct from that taxon, and is herein described as L. nesophila sp. nov. Molecular sequence data have also uncovered the Indo-Pacific L. mannarensis in Bermuda, a long-distance new western Atlantic record. DNA sequences of Trichogloeopsis pedicellata from the type locality (Bahamas) match with local specimens demonstrating its presence in Bermuda. We described Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov. from Bermuda, a species phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the generitype, Y. caenomyce of the Indo-Pacific. Our data also indicated a single species each of Ganonema, Gloiocallis, Helminthocladia, Titanophycus, and Trichogloea in the flora. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Environmental assessment of metal exposure to corals living in Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Goodkin, N.F.; Jones, R.; Lamborg, C.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Hughen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination in Castle Harbour, Bermuda, has been linked to the dissolution and leaching of contaminants from the adjacent marine landfill. This study expands the evidence for environmental impact of leachate from the landfill by quantitatively demonstrating elevated metal uptake over the last 30 years in corals growing in Castle Harbour. Coral Pb/Ca, Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios and total Hg concentrations are elevated relative to an adjacent control site in John Smith's Bay. The temporal variability in the Castle Harbour coral records suggests that while the landfill has increased in size over the last 35 years, the dominant input of metals is through periodic leaching of contaminants from the municipal landfill and surrounding sediment. Elevated contaminants in the surrounding sediment suggest that resuspension is an important transport medium for transferring heavy metals to corals. Increased winds, particularly during the 1990s, were accompanied by higher coral metal composition at Castle Harbour. Coupled with wind-induced resuspension, interannual changes in sea level within the Harbour can lead to increased bioavailability of sediment-bound metals and subsequent coral metal assimilation. At John Smith's Bay, large scale convective mixing may be driving interannual metal variability in the coral record rather than impacts from land-based activities. Results from this study provide important insights into the coupling of natural variability and anthropogenic input of contaminants to the nearshore environment.

  9. Double-blind, placebo-controlled immunotherapy with mixed grass-pollen allergoids. I. Rush immunotherapy with allergoids and standardized orchard grass-pollen extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Hejjaoui, A; Skassa-Brociek, W; Guérin, B; Maasch, H J; Dhivert, H; Michel, F B

    1987-10-01

    Forty-five grass pollen-allergic patients were randomly assigned to three groups according to their skin test and RAST sensitivities and the severity of seasonal rhinitis. Eleven patients were treated with placebo (group 1), 19 patients (group 2) were treated with a six-mixed grass-pollen allergoid prepared by mild formalinization with a two-step procedure, and 15 other patients were treated with a standardized orchard grass-pollen extract (group 3). Because of a different immunotherapy schedule, only patients placed in groups 1 and 2 received the extracts in a double-blind fashion. Rush immunotherapy was performed in 3 to 6 days, and the maintenance dose was subsequently administered weekly for 4 weeks and every 2 weeks until the end of the grass-pollen season. During the season, a coseasonal treatment was administered. Systemic reactions occurred during the rush protocol in 36.8% of patients treated with allergoid and 20% of patients who received the standardized extract. Only patients treated with allergoid had systemic reactions during maintenance dose. The reactions observed with the standardized extract were more severe. Total doses of allergoid ranged from 2350 to 13,500 protein nitrogen units. Symptoms and medication scores during the peak of the season were analyzed. Patients treated with the standardized allergen had a significant reduction of the number of days of symptoms during the month of June (9.5 +/- 6.7 days; p less than 0.005) and of medication scores (1.3 +/- 1.4; p less than 0.01) compared to patients receiving placebo (19.4 +/- 8.1 days; medication score, 2.8 +/- 2.1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH POLLINOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Torshkhoeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to compare clinical efficacy and safety of sublingual and parenteral allergen-specific immunotherapy in children with pollinosis. Patients and methods: 143 patients with pollinosis aged from 5 to 16 years old were included into the study. They were divided into 4 groups and received allergen-specific immunotherapy. Patients of the groups I and III were administered water-salt mixtures of extracts of tree pollen allergens. Patients from the II group received standardized adjuvant mixture of extracts of tree pollen allergens. Patients from the IV group were administered standardized extract of birch pollen allergens. Prophylaxis with water-salt solutions was performed before seasons of increased allergy risk during 3 years in autumns and winters. Prophylaxis with standardized extracts of allergens was performed uninterruptedly for 3 years. Results: allergen-specific immunotherapy prevents increase of sensitization and enlargement of allergen spectrum of elevated organism perceptibility, as well as prevents aggravation of disease course and conversion to more severe forms. It also decreases requirements of anti-allergic drugs and therefore elongates the duration of remission. Conclusions: allergen-specific immunotherapy with the use of standardized allergens is the most effective method of treatment of pollen sensitization in children. In order to increase its efficacy not less than 3 courses of immunotherapy are needed.

  11. [Sampling of allergens in dust deposited in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, L; Galdi, E; Pozzi, V; Moscato, G

    2001-01-01

    Some workplaces share with domestic dwellings many characteristics favouring house dust mite growth. Moreover it has recently been shown that pets owners can bring allergens to public places with their clothes. So it is possible that significant exposure to indoor allergens can occur outside homes, at the workplace. The recent availability of immunoassays with monoclonal antibodies for indoor allergens has enabled many investigators to quantify exposure to such allergens in epidemiological studies. Analysis of allergens in settled dust is a simple method of quantification exposure to indoor allergens. The concentrations of indoor allergens in public places have already been investigated and high levels of indoor allergens have been reported. A study performed by our group in offices (banks and media) in different regions of Italy has also shown significant levels of indoor allergens. Thus, evaluating exposure to indoor allergens at the workplace is critical to evaluate risk factors for sensitization and elicitation of symptoms in sensitized subjects and such data help in addressing correctly the problem of reducing exposure levels.

  12. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  13. Spectrum of allergens for Japanese cedar pollinosis and impact of component-resolved diagnosis on allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujimura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan is associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, as well as significant loss of productivity among the workforce in early spring, thus representing a serious social problem. Furthermore, the prevalence is increasing, and has risen by more than 10% in this decade. Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were identified as the major allergens in Japanese cedar pollen (JCP, and in 2004, the existence of other major and minor allergens were revealed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Allergenome analysis identified a chitinase, a lipid transfer protein, a serine protease, and an aspartic protease as novel IgE-reactive allergens in patients with JCP allergy. Thaumatin-like protein (Cry j 3 was shown to be homologous to Jun a 3, a major allergen from mountain cedar pollen. Isoflavone reductase-like protein was also characterized in a study of a JCP cDNA library. The characterization of component allergens is required to clarify the sensitizer or cross-reactive elicitor allergens for component-resolved diagnosis (CRD. Increasing evidence from numerous clinical trials indicates that CRD can be used to design effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the eight characterized JCP allergens and discuss the impact of CRD and characterization of novel allergens on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  14. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  15. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  16. Allergenic characterization of a novel allergen, homologous to chymotrypsin, from german cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Lee, Jae Hyun; Hong, Chein Soo; Park, Jung Won

    2015-05-01

    Cockroach feces are known to be rich in IgE-reactive components. Various protease allergens were identified by proteomic analysis of German cockroach fecal extract in a previous study. In this study, we characterized a novel allergen, a chymotrypsin-like serine protease. A cDNA sequence homologous to chymotrypsin was obtained by analysis of German cockroach expressed sequence tag (EST) clones. The recombinant chymotrypsins from the German cockroach and house dust mite (Der f 6) were expressed in Escherichia coli using the pEXP5NT/TOPO vector system, and their allergenicity was investigated by ELISA. The deduced amino acid sequence of German cockroach chymotrypsin showed 32.7 to 43.1% identity with mite group 3 (trypsin) and group 6 (chymotrypsin) allergens. Sera from 8 of 28 German cockroach allergy subjects (28.6%) showed IgE binding to the recombinant protein. IgE binding to the recombinant cockroach chymotrypsin was inhibited by house dust mite chymotrypsin Der f 6, while it minimally inhibited the German cockroach whole body extract. A novel allergen homologous to chymotrypsin was identified from the German cockroach and was cross-reactive with Der f 6.

  17. Comparison of allergenicity and allergens between fish white and dark muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A; Tanaka, H; Hamada, Y; Ishizaki, S; Nagashima, Y; Shiomi, K

    2006-03-01

    Fish is one of the most frequent causes of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy. Although the fish dark muscle is often ingested with the white muscle, no information about its allergenicity and allergens is available. Heated extracts were prepared from both white and dark muscles of five species of fish and examined for reactivity with IgE in fish-allergic patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for allergens by immunoblotting. Cloning of cDNAs encoding parvalbumins was performed by rapid amplification cDNA ends. Parvalbumin contents in both white and dark muscles were determined by ELISA using antiserum against mackerel parvalbumin. Patient sera were less reactive to the heated extract from the dark muscle than to that from the white muscle. A prominent IgE-reactive protein of 12 kDa, which was detected in both white and dark muscles, was identified as parvalbumin. Molecular cloning experiments revealed that the same parvalbumin molecule is contained in both white and dark muscles of either horse mackerel or Pacific mackerel. Parvalbumin contents were four to eight times lower in the dark muscle than in the white muscle. The fish dark muscle is less allergenic than the white muscle, because the same allergen molecule (parvalbumin) is contained at much lower levels in the dark muscle than in the white muscle. Thus, the dark muscle is less implicated in fish allergy than the white muscle.

  18. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Svedman, C; White, I R; Basketter, D A

    2003-07-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petrolatum and the European standard series. 28 of the patients showed a positive patch test reaction (+ to +++) to citral and 82 at least 1 IR patch test reaction and no positive patch test reaction to citral. A statistically significant association between a positive patch test reaction to citral and positive patch test reactions to other fragrances compared with IR reactions (n = 82) was established. The difference regarding fragrance history found between those with IR and positive reactions to citral was not significant. Citral could be an allergen and/or irritant, worthy of further more extensive studies.

  19. Footwear dermatitis - Clinical patterns and contact allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handa S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty patients suspected of contact dermatitis to footwear studied to evaluate various clinical presentations and possible sensitizers. ′V′ chappals and sandals were suspected alone in 12, a combination of open and closed shoes in 15 and closed shoes alone in 3 patients. Commonest affected sites were dorsa of feet and toes in 14 and dorsa of feet corresponding to the shape of footwear in 12 patients. Patch tests were done using a battery of sixteen allergens. Positive patch tests were seen in 29 patients. Rubber chemicals were the commonest allergens detected in 26 patients, dyes in 10,leather in 6, glues and neoprene cements in 4 and rubber material from suspected footwear as such in 4 patients respectively.

  20. Degradation and removal of soybean allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magishi, Norihiro; Yuikawa, Naoya; Kobayashi, Makio; Taniuchi, Shoichiro

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of Japan and is available throughout the world. The two main raw ingredients of soy sauce are soybean and wheat, both of which are established food allergens. The present study examined the degradation and removal of soybean allergens in soy sauce by immunoblotting with anti‑soybean protein antibody from rabbit and sera from two children with soybean allergy. It was demonstrated that soybean allergens were gradually degraded during the fermentation process, but were not completely degraded in raw soy sauce. During the processes of heat‑treatment and filtration, the soluble soybean allergens in raw soy sauce were denatured to insoluble allergens by heat‑treatment and subsequently completely removed from soy sauce by filtration. Therefore, to reduce the allergenicity of soy sauce, heat‑treatment and filtration are very important processes in addition to the enzymatic degradation during the fermentation of soy sauce.

  1. New Trends in Food Allergens Detection: Toward Biosensing Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rita C; Barroso, M Fátima; González-García, María Begoña; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-25

    Food allergens are a real threat to sensitized individuals. Although food labeling is crucial to provide information to consumers with food allergies, accidental exposure to allergenic proteins may result from undeclared allergenic substances by means of food adulteration, fraud or uncontrolled cross-contamination. Allergens detection in foodstuffs can be a very hard task, due to their presence usually in trace amounts, together with the natural interference of the matrix. Methods for allergens analysis can be mainly divided in two large groups: the immunological assays and the DNA-based ones. Mass spectrometry has also been used as a confirmatory tool. Recently, biosensors appeared as innovative, sensitive, selective, environmentally friendly, cheaper and fast techniques (especially when automated and/or miniaturized), able to effectively replace the classical methodologies. In this review, we present the advances in the field of food allergens detection toward the biosensing strategies and discuss the challenges and future perspectives of this technology.

  2. Predicting allergenicity of proteins using Physical–Chemical Property (PCP) motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motivation: Quantitative guidelines to distinguish allergenic proteins from related, but non-allergenic ones are urgently needed for regulatory agencies, biotech companies and physicians. Cataloguing the SDAP database has indicated that allergenic proteins populate a relatively small number of prote...

  3. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Fukutomi

    2015-10-01

    Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  4. The Level of Sensitivity of Food Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Rengganis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the occurrence of allergy continues to increase rapidly both domestically and globally. World Allergy Organization (WAO revealed that 22% of the world population suffers from allergies, and this number increases every year. Food allergy is a condition caused by the reaction of IgE against substances (chemicals in food. Food allergy can interfere with brain function and body organ systems as well as affect the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to know the level of sensitivity of food allergens in the Immunology Allergy Poly RSCM in 2007. Data were collected from 208 patients who have medical records and went through skin prick tests in the Immunology Allergy Clinic RSCM in 2007. Univariate analysis was performed to describe the types of food allergens within groups of children and adults. Around 49% of the respondents were sensitive to food allergens. The types of foods that caused the most allergies for children and adults are respectively shrimp, egg white and cornstarch. Cow's milk and wheat flour are the types of food that caused most allergies for children only, whereas for adults, the food that caused the most allergies is crab.

  5. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  6. Immunological and physical properties of allergen solutions. Effects of nebulization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, L; Poulsen, L K; Heinig, J H

    1991-01-01

    activity was measured by IgG4 RAST inhibition technique and allergen quality was analysed by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The distribution of particle sizes of aerosols of different allergen solutions was determined by a TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. A significant difference (P less than 0.......05) in allergen activity was found between the AD and H2O diluents before and after using a Sandoz nebulizer and a Wright nebulizer equipped with a small chamber. This suggested greater allergen activity in AD-diluted solutions, and the pattern was repeated with the other two nebulizers, but was not statistically...

  7. Quantifying Dustiness, Specific Allergens, and Endotoxin in Bulk Soya Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J. Mason

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soya is an important bulk agricultural product often transported by sea as chipped beans and/or the bean husks after pelletisation. There are proven allergens in both forms. Bulk handling of soya imports can generate air pollution containing dust, allergens, and pyrogens, posing health risks to dockside workers and surrounding populations. Using an International Organization for Standardization (ISO standardised rotating drum dustiness test in seven imported soya bulks, we compared the generated levels of dust and two major soya allergens in three particle sizes related to respiratory health. Extractable levels of allergen and endotoxin from the bulks showed 30–60 fold differences, with levels of one allergen (hydrophobic seed protein and endotoxin higher in husk. The generated levels of dust and allergens in the three particle sizes also showed very wide variations between bulks, with aerolysed levels of allergen influenced by both the inherent dustiness and the extractable allergen in each bulk. Percentage allergen aerolysed from pelletized husk—often assumed to be of low dustiness—after transportation was not lower than that from chipped beans. Thus, not all soya bulks pose the same inhalation health risk and reinforces the importance of controlling dust generation from handling all soya bulk to as low as reasonably practicable.

  8. Levels of house dust mite allergen in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Howard J; Smith, Ian; Anua, Siti Marwanis; Tagiyeva, Nargiz; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham

    2015-09-01

    This small study investigated house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in cars and their owners' homes in north-east Scotland. Dust samples from twelve households and cars were collected in a standardised manner. The dust samples were extracted and measured for the Dermatophagoides group 2 allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2) and total soluble protein. Allergen levels at homes tended to be higher than in the cars, but not significantly. However, they significantly correlated with paired car dust samples expressed either per unit weight of dust or soluble protein (rho=0.657; p=0.02 and 0.769; p=0.003, respectively). This points to house-to-car allergen transfer, with the car allergen levels largely reflecting levels in the owner's home. Car HDM allergen levels were lower than those reported in Brazil and the USA. Twenty-five percent of the houses and none of the cars had allergen levels in dust greater than 2000 ng g(-1). This value is often quoted as a threshold for the risk of sensitisation, although a number of studies report increased risk of sensitisation at lower levels. This small study does not allow for characterisation of the distribution of HDM allergen in vehicles in this geographic area, or of the likely levels in other warmer and more humid areas of the UK. Cars and other vehicles are an under-investigated micro-environment for exposure to allergenic material.

  9. What do we know about plant food allergens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, J. A.; Sancho, A. I.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    databases has allowed their classification into families. This has shown that plant food allergens fall into four main families, with the prolamin superfamily (including the 2S albumins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins and cc-amylase inhibitors) predominating, followed by the family of allergens related...... to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, and the cupin superfamily, including the I IS and 7S seed storage globulins. Future studies will be required to allow us to begin understand what it is about these protein families - whether it be their abundance, stability or some as yet unidentified factor...... - that is predisposing certain family members to becoming allergens....

  10. Organic geochemistry and pore water chemistry of sediments from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Neumann, A.C.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Gerchakov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Mangrove Lake, Bermuda, is a small coastal, brackish-water lake that has accumulated 14 m of banded, gelatinous, sapropelic sediments in less than 104 yr. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that Mangrove Lake's sedimentary environment has undergone three major depositional changes (peat, freshwater gel, brackish-water gel) as a result of sea level changes. The deposits were examined geochemically in an effort to delineate sedimentological and diagenetic changes. Gas and pore water studies include measurements of sulfides, ammonia, methane, nitrogen gas, calcium, magnesium, chloride, alkalinity, and pH. Results indicate that sulfate reduction is complete, and some evidence is presented for bacterial denitrification and metal sulfide precipitation. The organic-rich sapropel is predominantly algal in origin, composed mostly of carbohydrates and insoluble macromolecular organic matter called humin with minor amounts of proteins, lipids, and humic acids. Carbohydrates and proteins undergo hydrolysis with depth in the marine sapropel but tend to be preserved in the freshwater sapropel. The humin, which has a predominantly aliphatic structure, increases linearly with depth and composes the greatest fraction of the organic matter. Humic acids are minor components and are more like polysaccharides than typical marine humic acids. Fatty acid distributions reveal that the lipids are of an algal and/or terrestrial plant source. Normal alkanes with a total concentration of 75 ppm exhibit two distribution maxima. One is centered about n-C22 with no odd/even predominance, suggestive of a degraded algal source. The other is centered at n-C31 with a distinct odd/even predominance indicative of a vascular plant origin. Stratigraphic changes in the sediment correlate to observed changes in the gas and pore water chemistry and the organic geochemistry. ?? 1982.

  11. DOSES DE LODO DE ESGOTO SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DA GRAMA BERMUDA (Cynodon dactylon)

    OpenAIRE

    NOBILE, Fabio Olivieri de; NUNES, Hugo Dias; NEVES, Jéssica Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Population growth occurred rapidly, resulting in cities with poor infrastructure on the sanitation sector. So, there was the introduction of sanitary treatment, causing difficulty in choosing alternatives for the proper disposal of sewage sludge, rich in essential nutrients for the plants. The experiment was conducted to determine the best dose of sewage sludge to Grass Cynodon dactylon. It was conducted in greenhouse in the University Center of Educational Foundation of Barretos-SP. The expe...

  12. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  13. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  14. Thermogravimetric analysis of forest understory grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; John S. Kush; Sharon M. Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Forest understory grasses are of significance in the initiation, establishment and maintenance of fire, whether used as a management tool or when occurring as wildfire. The fundamental thermal properties of such grasses are critical to their behavior in fire situations and have been investigated in the current work by the application of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA...

  15. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...... validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...

  16. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  18. Satisfaction and quality of life of allergic patients following sublingual five-grass pollen tablet immunotherapy in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín-Amerigo, Darío; Tabar, Isabel A; del Mar Fernández-Nieto, Maria; Callejo-Melgosa, Anna M; Muñoz-Bellido, Francisco J; Martínez-Alonso, José C; Méndez-Alcalde, Jorge D; Reche, Marta; Rodríguez-Trabado, Ana; Rosado-Ingelmo, Ana; Alonso-Gómez, Alicia; Blanco-González, Rosa; Alvarez-Fernandez, José A; Botella, Isabel; Valls, Ana; Cimarra, Mercedes; Blanco, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background Five-grass pollen tablet is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). This trial sought to determine the satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients undergoing this treatment. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicentre, observational, naturalistic study, following a discontinuous pre- and co-seasonal five-grass pollen regimen over two seasons in Spain (2012, 2013). The HRQoL of the patients was measured with the specific Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) for adults, adolescent (AdolRQLQ), or paediatric (PRQLQ) patients. Treatment satisfaction was assessed by the Satisfaction Scale for Patients Receiving Allergen Immunotherapy (ESPIA) questionnaire. Patients/investigators were surveyed on beliefs and attitudes towards the five-grass pollen tablet. ARC evolution according to allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA) criteria and treatment adherence were evaluated. Results Among the 591 ARC patients included, the mean (SD) HRQoL scores were 1.40 (1.1) in adults, 1.33 (1.1) in adolescents, and 1.15 (1.1) in children, indicating low levels of impairment (scale 0–6). ESPIA answers showed high levels of satisfaction, with an average score of 69.2 (scale 0–100). According to ARIA criteria, 88.2% of patients reported improvement of ARC. Moreover, this was accompanied by a reduced use of symptomatic medication. Adherence to treatment was estimated at 96.8%. In general, both patients and specialists exhibited a positive attitude towards five-grass pollen tablet treatment. Conclusion ARC patients treated with five-grass pollen tablet showed favourable levels of HRQoL and treatment satisfaction, with concomitant improvements in ARC and symptomatic medication use, which translated into high levels of treatment adherence and a positive attitude towards five-grass pollen tablet. PMID:29225657

  19. AllergenOnline: A peer-reviewed, curated allergen database to assess novel food proteins for potential cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ferreira, Fatima; Sampson, Hugh A; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Baumert, Joseph L; Bohle, Barbara; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Wise, John; Taylor, Steve L

    2016-05-01

    Increasingly regulators are demanding evaluation of potential allergenicity of foods prior to marketing. Primary risks are the transfer of allergens or potentially cross-reactive proteins into new foods. AllergenOnline was developed in 2005 as a peer-reviewed bioinformatics platform to evaluate risks of new dietary proteins in genetically modified organisms (GMO) and novel foods. The process used to identify suspected allergens and evaluate the evidence of allergenicity was refined between 2010 and 2015. Candidate proteins are identified from the NCBI database using keyword searches, the WHO/IUIS nomenclature database and peer reviewed publications. Criteria to classify proteins as allergens are described. Characteristics of the protein, the source and human subjects, test methods and results are evaluated by our expert panel and archived. Food, inhalant, salivary, venom, and contact allergens are included. Users access allergen sequences through links to the NCBI database and relevant references are listed online. Version 16 includes 1956 sequences from 778 taxonomic-protein groups that are accepted with evidence of allergic serum IgE-binding and/or biological activity. AllergenOnline provides a useful peer-reviewed tool for identifying the primary potential risks of allergy for GMOs and novel foods based on criteria described by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (2003). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Indoor mite allergens in patients with respiratory allergy living in Porto, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plácido, J L; Cuesta, C; Delgado, L; da Silva, J P; Miranda, M; Ventas, P; Vaz, M

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the levels of mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, and Lep d 1) in dust samples from the homes of 59 patients with asthma, 36 sensitized to house-dust mites (HDM) and 23 to grass pollen (controls), living in Porto, northern Portugal. The relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM and the influence of housing conditions on mite-allergen levels were also evaluated. Der p 1 (median 9.2 micrograms/g) and Der 2 (4.6 micrograms/g) were the main allergens, while Der f 1 and Lep d 1 levels were always 2 micrograms/g and their homes contained significantly higher levels of Der p 1 (median 12.5 vs 6.4 micrograms/g; P = 0.008) and Der 2 (6.2 vs 3.0 micrograms/g; P = 0.004) when compared to the control group. A significant correlation was observed between the exposure to Der p 1 and the wheal area at skin testing with the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) extract (P = 0.01) as well as with serum specific IgE levels to Dp (P = 0.03). Patients with higher levels of serum specific IgE (> or = 17.5 HRU/ml) were also more frequently exposed to Der p 1 levels > or = 10 micrograms/g (P = 0.002). Old homes, presence of carpets, and signs of dampness were conditions associated with significantly higher levels of mite allergens. In conclusion, we found high levels of Der p 1 and Der 2 particularly in the homes of HDM-sensitized patients and we confirm the relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM, assessed by both in vivo and in vitro methods. In additional to a favorable outdoor climate, we found in our region housing conditions propitious to mite growth, suggesting that specific geographic characteristics must also be taken into account for the correct planning of mite-avoidance measures.

  1. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24–33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  2. Sensitization to Indigenous Pollen and Molds and Other Outdoor and Indoor Allergens in Allergic Patients From Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Airborne allergens vary from one climatic region to another. Therefore, it is important to analyze the environment of the region to select the most prevalent allergens for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive skin tests to pollen and fungal allergens collected from local indigenous plants or isolated molds, as well as other outdoor and indoor allergens in allergic patients in 6 different geographical areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the United Arab Emirates, and Sudan. Materials and methods Four hundred ninety-two consecutive patients evaluated at different Allergy Clinics (276 women and 256 men; mean age, 30 years) participated in this study. The selection of indigenous allergens was based on research findings in different areas from Riyadh and adjoining areas. Indigenous raw material for pollen grains was collected from the desert near the capital city of Riyadh, KSA. The following plants were included: Chenopodium murale, Salsola imbricata, Rumex vesicarius, Ricinus communis, Artiplex nummularia, Amaranthus viridis, Artemisia monosperma, Plantago boissieri, and Prosopis juliflora. Indigenous molds were isolated from air sampling in Riyadh and grown to obtain the raw material. These included the following: Ulocladium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium spp., and Alternaria spp. The raw material was processed under Good Manufacturing Practices for skin testing. Other commercially available outdoor (grass and tree pollens) and indoor (mites, cockroach, and cat dander) allergens were also tested. Results The highest sensitization to indigenous pollens was detected to C. murale (32%) in Khartoum (Sudan) and S. imbricata (30%) and P. juliflora (24%) in the Riyadh region. The highest sensitization to molds was detected in Khartoum, especially to Cladosporium spp. (42%), Aspergillus (40%), and Alternaria spp. (38%). Sensitization to mites was also very prevalent

  3. Investigating Bermuda's pollution history through stable isotope analyses of modern and museum-held gorgonian corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, David M.; Murdoch, Thaddeus J.T.; Conti-Jerpe, Inga; Fogel, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, Bermuda has been challenged with wastewater management for the protection of human and environmental health. By quantifying the δ 15 N of the common sea fan Gorgonia ventalina sampled from 30 sites throughout Bermuda we show that sewage-derived nitrogen is detectable on nearshore coral reefs and declines across the lagoon to the outer rim. We also sampled gorgonians from two museum collections representing a 50y time-series (1958–2008). These samples revealed an increase in δ 15 N of > 4.0‰ until the mid-1970s, after which δ 15 N values slowly declined by ~ 2.0‰. A δ 15 N chronology from a gorgonian skeleton exhibited a similar decline over the last 30–40 years of approximately 0.6‰. We conclude that policies have been effective in reducing sewage impacts to Bermudian reefs. However, significant sources of sewage pollution persist and are likely have a strong impact on harbor and nearshore coral communities and human health.

  4. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  5. Predation as the primary selective force in recurrent evolution of gigantism in Poecilozonites land snails in Quaternary Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators that created selection pressure for large size and rapid growth in the snails. Extreme reduction in land area from rising seas, along with changes in ecological conditions at the onset of interglacial episodes, marked extinction events for large predators, after which snails reverted to much smaller size. The giant snails were identical in morphology during the last two glacials when the predators included a large flightless rail Rallus recessus (marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2) and a crane Grus latipes and a duck Anas pachysceles (MIS 6). In a preceding glacial period (MIS 10), when the fauna also included the tortoise Hesperotestudo bermudae, the snails were not only large, but the shells were much thicker, presumably to prevent crushing by tortoises. Evolution of Poecilozonites provides an outstanding example of dramatic morphological change in response to environmental pressures in the absence of cladogenesis. PMID:20554560

  6. Serological response of cattle to Brucella allergen after repeated intradermal applications of this allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.A.M.; Bercovich, Z.; Damen, C.P.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether an allergen that has been prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus triggers a serum antibody response that interferes with the interpretation of serologic tests results. Fifteen cattle seronegative for Brucella antigen were tested with the SDTH

  7. Allergen manufacturing and quality aspects for allergen immunotherapy in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonertz, A; Roberts, G; Slater, J E

    2018-01-01

    Adequate quality is essential for any medicinal product to be eligible for marketing. Quality includes verification of the identity, content and purity of a medicinal product in combination with a specified production process and its control. Allergen products derived from natural sources require...

  8. Localization of candidate allergen genes on the apple (Malus domestica) genome and their putative allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,

    2005-01-01

    Apple is generally considered as a healthy food, but 2-3% European people can not eat this fruit because it provokes allergy reaction. Four classes of apple allergen genes have been identified, they are Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 . This thesis focuses on the genomic characterization of

  9. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Progress in the study of reducing food allergenicity by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Kefei; Gao Meixu; Li Chunhong; Pan Jiarong

    2006-01-01

    Food allergy becomes an important factor in food safety areas. As one of the methods to cure allergy, reducing food allergenicity by irradiation becomes a hot topic. This article reviewed the present situation and the mechanism of reducing food allergenicity by irradiation. (authors)

  11. [A comparative immunochemical analysis of allergoids and allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, V A; Tsvetkov, N V; Diakiv, V V; Lavrenchik, E I

    1992-01-01

    In comparison with allergens having protein fragments with a molecular weight not exceeding 110 kD, allergoids have been found to consist of larger fragments with a molecular weight of 10-150 kD. Allergoids have less charged components than initial allergens and less antigenic components. Allergoids retain their capacity for stimulating the production of antibodies, specific to all antigenic components.

  12. Nasal mucosal blood flow after intranasal allergen challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, K.; Bake, B.; Pipkorn, U.

    1988-01-01

    The nasal mucosal blood flow in patients with allergic rhinitis was determined at nasal allergen challenges with the 133 Xenon washout method. Determinations were made in 12 subjects before and 15 minutes after challenge with diluent and increasing doses of allergen. The time course was followed in eight subjects by means of repeated measurements during 1 hour after a single allergen dose. Finally, the blood flow was measured after unilateral allergen challenge in the contralateral nasal cavity. A dose-dependent decrease in blood flow was found after nasal challenge with increasing doses of allergens, whereas challenge with diluent alone did not induce any changes. The highest allergen dose, which also induced pronounced nasal symptoms, resulted in a decrease in blood flow of 25% (p less than 0.001). The time-course study demonstrated a maximum decrease in blood flow 10 to 20 minutes after challenge and then a gradual return to baseline. Unilateral allergen challenge resulted in a decrease in blood flow in the contralateral, unchallenged nasal cavity, suggesting that part of the allergen-induced changes in blood flow were reflex mediated

  13. Challenges in the implementation of EAACI guidelines on allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonertz, A; Roberts, G C; Hoefnagel, M

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory approaches for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) products and the availability of high-quality AIT products are inherently linked to each other. While allergen products are available in many countries across the globe, their regulation is very heterogeneous. First, we describe the regulator...

  14. Dust Allergens within Rural Northern Rocky Mountain Residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Emily; Semmens, Erin; Noonan, Curtis; Cady, Carol; Ward, Tony

    2015-01-23

    To date, few studies have characterized allergens within residences located in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountain region. In this study, we collected dust samples from 57 homes located throughout western Montana and northern Idaho. Dust samples were collected and later analyzed for dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 , Group 2 mite allergens ( Der p 2 and Der f 2 ), domestic feline ( Fel d 1 ), and canine ( Can f 1 ). Indoor temperature and humidity levels were also measured during the sampling program, as were basic characteristics of each home. Dog (96%) and cat (82%) allergens were the most prevalent allergens found in these homes (even when a feline or canine did not reside in the home). Results also revealed the presence of dust mites. Seven percent (7%) of homes tested positive for Der p 1 , 19% of homes were positive for Der f 1 , and 5% of homes were positive for the Group 2 mite allergens. Indoor relative humidity averaged 27.0 ± 7.6% within the homes. Overall, humidity was not significantly associated with dust mite presence, nor was any of the other measured home characteristics. This study provides a descriptive assessment of indoor allergen presence (including dust mites) in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountains, and provides new information to assist regional patients with reducing allergen exposure using in-home intervention strategies.

  15. High concentrations of natural rubber latex allergens in gloves used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Gloves made of natural rubber latex (NRL) are commonly used by healthcare workers because of their good qualities. However, allergic reactions to latex allergens are still commonly reported. Objective. To measure the concentrations of Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02 allergens in gloves used by a ...

  16. Allergenicity of latex rubber products used in South African dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen latex examination gloves (powdered and non-powdered) and five dental rubber dams, representing 6 brands, from five dental academic institutions were analysed for latex allergens and total protein. Total protein content was determined using the BioRad DC protein assay kit and natural rubber allergen levels ...

  17. Overview of the most commonly used methods in allergen characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANJA CIRKOVIC VELICKOVIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of an allergen is a troublesome and difficult process, as it requires both the precise biochemical characterization of a (glycoprotein molecule and the establishment of its susceptibility to IgE antibodies, as they are themain link to histamine release in some hypersensitivity states (type I allergies. As the characterization of an allergen includes molecular weight determination of the allergenic molecule, its structure determination, physicochemical properties, IgE binding properties of the allergen molecule, and its allergenicity, an overal review of which biochemical and immunochemical methods are used in achieving this goal are presented in this paper. The information on the molecular level on the stuctures of allergens indicates that allergens are considerably heterogeneous protein structures, and that there is no particular aminoacid sequence which is responsible for the allergenicity. Therefore, information gained from detailed structural, functional and immunochemical studies of these intriguing molecules, which nowadaysmodulate a variety of pathophysiological conditions, would greatly improve our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms, and the way to handle them.

  18. Purification and characterisation of relevant natural and recombinant apple allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberhuber, Christina; Ma, Yan; Marsh, Justin; Rigby, Neil; Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Alessandri, Stefano; Briza, Peter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Maderegger, Bernhard; Himly, Martin; Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; Knulst, André; Ebner, Christof; Shewry, Peter; Mills, E. N. Clare; Wellner, Klaus; Breiteneder, Heimo; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bublin, Merima

    2008-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is the most widely cultivated fruit crop in Europe and frequently causes allergic reactions with a variable degree of severity. So far, four apple allergens Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 have been identified. Mal d 1, a Bet v 1 related allergen, and Mal d 4, apple

  19. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of Allergenic Products. 680.2 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS § 680.2 Manufacture of Allergenic Products. (a...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture...

  20. Airborne exposure to laboratory animal allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J Mason

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to laboratory animal allergens remains a significant cause of IgE-mediated occupational allergy and asthma. Since 2005, we have measured the major mouse and rat allergens (mus m 1 and rat n 1 collected on filters from air sampling in a range of UK and non-UK animal facilities. Supplied core data allowed us to construct an anonymized database of atmospheric results in ng m–3 containing 3080 mouse and 1392 rat analyses. Roughly twice as many static samples compared to personal samples had been sent for analysis. The medians (90th percentiles for the mouse and rat allergens employing personal atmospheric sampling were 2.6 (60.6 and 0.4 (12.4 ng m–3 respectively; for static samples the equivalent values were 0.2 (3.7 and 0.1 (1.4 ng m–3. Where unequivocal sample descriptors were provided with samples, results were categorised to activities/areas. Medians and 90th percentiles in these categories suggest that staff undertaking cleaning out, dumping of soiled bedding and cleaning cages can still have very substantial potential exposures in some facilities. The move to filtered cages appears to reduce general exposure, but filter changing and/or cleaning can lead to high exposures. In some facilities, animal receipt can cause significant exposures, as well as activities such as bleeding, culling and dosing; all activities involving the handling of animals outside of cages. We believe that the data presented may help those using air measurements in such facilities to improve their control of exposure to such aeroallergens, and thus reduce the risk of both sensitisation and subsequent allergic health problems, including the development of allergic asthma.

  1. The prevalence of positive reactions in the atopy patch test with aeroallergens and food allergens in subjects with atopic eczema: a European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsow, U; Laifaoui, J; Kerschenlohr, K; Wollenberg, A; Przybilla, B; Wüthrich, B; Borelli, S; Giusti, F; Seidenari, S; Drzimalla, K; Simon, D; Disch, R; Borelli, S; Devillers, A C A; Oranje, A P; De Raeve, L; Hachem, J-P; Dangoisse, C; Blondeel, A; Song, M; Breuer, K; Wulf, A; Werfel, T; Roul, S; Taieb, A; Bolhaar, S; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C; Brönnimann, M; Braathen, L R; Didierlaurent, A; André, C; Ring, J

    2004-12-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) was proposed to evaluate IgE-mediated sensitizations in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The prevalence and agreement with clinical history and specific IgE (sIgE) of positive APT reactions was investigated in six European countries using a standardized method. A total of 314 patients with AE in remission were tested in 12 study centers on clinically uninvolved, non-abraded back skin with 200 index of reactivity (IR)/g of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat dander, grass, and birch pollen allergen extracts with defined major allergen contents in petrolatum. Extracts of egg white, celery and wheat flour with defined protein content were also patch tested. APT values were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h according to the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) guidelines. In addition, skin-prick test (SPT) and sIgE and a detailed history on allergen-induced eczema flares were obtained. Previous eczema flares, after contact with specific allergens, were reported in 1% (celery) to 34% (D. pteronyssinus) of patients. The frequency of clear-cut positive APT reactions ranged from 39% with D. pteronyssinus to 9% with celery. All ETFAD intensities occured after 48 and 72 h. Positive SPT (16-57%) and elevated sIgE (19-59%) results were more frequent. Clear-cut positive APT with all SPT and sIgE testing negative was seen in 7% of the patients, whereas a positive APT without SPT or sIgE for the respective allergen was seen in 17% of the patients. APT, SPT and sIgE results showed significant agreement with history for grass pollen and egg white (two-sided Pr > /Z/ atopic controls, no positive APT reaction was seen. Aeroallergens and food allergens are able to elicit eczematous skin reactions after epicutaneous application. As no gold standard for aeroallergen provocation in AE exists, the relevance of aeroallergens for AE flares may be evaluated by APT in addition to SPT and sIgE. The data may contribute to the international

  2. The Multilateral Disarmament Process. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (16th, Warwick, Bermuda, June 21-26, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    This is a report of a conference held in Bermuda in 1981 to discuss a multilateral approach to disarmament. The conference was an informal, off-the-record exchange of ideas and opinions among 24 diplomats and scholars from 18 countries and two international agencies. Participants considered current disarmament concepts, assessed UN disarmament…

  3. Allergen immunotherapy for insect venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, E-M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety...... of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were...

  4. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings...... by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology...

  5. Aspects of food processing and its effect on allergen structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Angelika

    2009-08-01

    The article summarizes current physical and chemical methods in food processing as storage, preparation, separation, isolation or purification and thermal application on the one hand as well as enzymatic treatment on the other and their impact on the properties of food proteins. Novel methods of food processing like high pressure, electric field application or irradiation and their impact on food allergens are presented. The EU project REDALL (Reduced Allergenicity of Processed Foods, Containing Animal Allergens: QLK1-CT-2002-02687) showed that by a combination of enzyme and heat treatment the allergic potential of hen's egg decreased about 100 fold. Clinical reactions do not appear anymore. An AiF-FV 12024 N project worked with fruits like mango, lychee and apple. Processed mango and lychee had no change in allergenic potential during heating while e. g. canning. Apple almost lost its allergenic potential after pasteurization in juice production.

  6. Food allergy in breastfeeding babies. Hidden allergens in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S

    2016-07-01

    Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.

  7. Purification and characterization of allergens from Xanthium strumarium pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, K S; Gangal, S V

    1987-12-01

    The allergenic components present in whole pollen extract of Xanthium strumarium were isolated by sequential ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE Sephadex A50 chromatography and gel filtration. The techniques of RAST inhibition and skin test were utilized to check the allergenicity of fractionated proteins revealing the presence of Xan Ib and Xan VIa as the important allergenic components. Xan Ib was found to be devoid of carbohydrate and had a molecular weight of 103,000 daltons. Xan VIa was a glycoprotein of molecular weight 17,000 daltons. The carbohydrate moiety of Xan VIa was found to be associated with allergenicity. The characteristic pattern of whole pollen extract on CIE and TLIEF showed 36 and 21 protein bands, respectively. The use of FPLC in isolation of partially purified allergens from Xanthium is discussed.

  8. Particulate organic carbon mass distribution at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kjell; Orcutt, Karen M.; Purdie, Duncan A.; Michaels, Anthony F.; Knap, Anthony H.

    Errors in total particulate organic carbon (total POC) measurements caused by particles settling in Niskin water samplers, loss of bacterial cells during filtration and undersampling of rare particles such as the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. were investigated at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Regular core samples of temperature, primary production, bacterial abundance, chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) and POC were collected at monthly intervals from 1991 to 1996. During this period of time, shorter investigations of particles settling in water samples (1991-1992), bacterial cells lost during filtration (1992-1993), and Trichodesmium abundance (1995-1996) were performed at the BATS site. The BATS site shows striking seasonal patterns in hydrography and phytoplankton primary productivity, with a strong maximum immediately following the deep winter mixing of the water column. Following the peak in primary production, bacterial abundance showed only slightly elevated levels in spring. Maxima of Chl- a and POC also were associated with the primary production peaks, but these particle concentrations became less pronounced through summer and fall. An average of 26% of total POC collected in Niskin water bottles settled below the spigot before it could be sampled. An average of 47% of all bacterial cells passed the nominal pore size of a Whatman GF/F filter, and total POC measurements generated from GF/F filtered seawater samples had to be corrected for this loss. The average integrated stocks of total POC in the upper 65 m of the water column was 32% pigmented phytoplankton, 15% microheterotrophs, 54% other detrital matter (32 : 15 : 54). Phytoplankton C equaled bacterial C in the 65-135 m depth range (16 : 19 : 65), but phytoplankton C was virtually non-existent deeper than 135 m (2 : 14 : 74). Bacterial C biomass was higher than phytoplankton in surface waters outside the spring bloom period, but carbon not accounted for by phytoplankton

  9. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  10. Spreading of occupational allergens: laboratory animal allergens on hair-covering caps and in mattress dust of laboratory animal workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, Esmeralda J. M.; Doekes, Gert; Stone, Martin J.; Aalberse, Rob C.; van der Zee, Jaring S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family members of laboratory animal workers are at risk of developing allergy to laboratory animals. Little is known about the spreading of laboratory animal allergens outside the animal facilities. OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of laboratory animal allergens in dust collected from

  11. A protocol for a systematic review to identify allergenic tree nuts and the molecules responsible for their allergenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Bushra; Padfield, Philip; Sperrin, Matthew; Simpson, Angela; Mills, E N Clare

    2017-08-01

    Food regulations require that tree nuts and derived ingredients are included on food labels in order to help individuals with IgE-mediated allergies to avoid them. However, there is no consensus regarding which tree nut species should be included in this definition and specified on food labels. Allergen detection methods used for monitoring foods target allergen molecules, but it not clear which are the most relevant molecules to choose. A modified population-exposure-comparators-outcome (PECO) approach has been developed to systematically review the evidence regarding (1) which allergenic tree nuts should be included in food allergen labelling lists and (2) which are the clinically relevant allergens which should be used as analytical targets. A search strategy and criteria against which the evidence will be evaluated have been developed. The resulting evidence will be used to rank tree nuts with regards their ability to cause IgE-mediated allergies, and allergen molecules regarding their capacity to elicit an allergic reaction. The results of the systematic review will enable risk assessors and managers to identify tree nut species that should be included in food allergen labelling lists and ensure analytical methods for determination of allergens in foods are targeting appropriate molecules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Responsiveness of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 scaffold to the gastric environment: Impact on structure and allergenic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, Ana I; Wangorsch, Andrea; Jensen, Bettina M

    2011-01-01

    Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity....

  13. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  14. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  15. Tree-grass interactions in savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Savannas occur where trees and grasses interact to create a biome that is neither grassland nor forest. Woody and gramineous plants interact by many mechanisms, some negative (competition) and some positive (facilitation). The strength and sign...

  16. POTENTIALS OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND GRASSES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. ... to education, printing, publishing and ... technical form, paper is an aqueous deposit ..... Period of. Soaking. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight.

  17. Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

  18. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantification

    The potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for

  19. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  20. Reduction of the Number of Major Representative Allergens: From Clinical Testing to 3-Dimensional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  1. Detection of peanut allergen in human blood after consumption of peanuts is skewed by endogenous immunoglobulins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen-Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, K. van; Keijer, J.; Baumert, J.L.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that allergens may appear in the circulation after ingestion of allergenic food sources. The reported levels of allergen in serum, however, are low, and conclusions between studies differ. Here, we investigated factors that determine the detection of allergens in serum

  2. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.; Blom, W.M.; Houben, G.F.; Taylor, S.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk

  3. Allergen immunotherapy induces a suppressive memory response mediated by IL-10 in a mouse asthma model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Joost L. M.; van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; Hofman, Gerard A.; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; Weller, Frank R.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Human studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy induces memory suppressive responses and IL-10 production by allergen-specific T cells. Previously, we established a mouse model in which allergen immunotherapy was effective in the suppression of allergen-induced asthma

  4. Detection of peanut allergen in human blood after consumption of peanuts is skewed by endogenous immunoglobulins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.; Keijer, J.; Baumert, J.L.; Jong, De Govardus A.H.; Witkamp, R.F.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that allergens may appear in the circulation after ingestion of allergenic food
    sources. The reported levels of allergen in serum, however, are low, and conclusions between studies differ.
    Here, we investigated factors that determine the detection of allergens in

  5. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  6. An Allergen Portrait Gallery: Representative Structures and an Overview of IgE Binding Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Ivanciuc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in the biochemical classification and structural determination of allergens and allergen–antibody complexes has enhanced our understanding of the molecular determinants of allergenicity. Databases of allergens and their epitopes have facilitated the clustering of allergens according to their sequences and, more recently, their structures. Groups of similar sequences are identified for allergenic proteins from diverse sources, and all allergens are classified into a limited number of protein structural families. A gallery of experimental structures selected from the protein classes with the largest number of allergens demonstrate the structural diversity of the allergen universe. Further comparison of these structures and identification of areas that are different from innocuous proteins within the same protein family can be used to identify features specific to known allergens. Experimental and computational results related to the determination of IgE binding surfaces and methods to define allergen-specific motifs are highlighted.

  7. Allergen immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis: current use and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Pfaar, Oliver; Bousquet, Jean; Senti, Gabriela; Kündig, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Type-1 allergies are among the most chronic common diseases of humans. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causative and disease-modifying treatment option besides allergen avoidance. Severe systemic adverse allergic reactions may be induced by every AIT treatment. Different approaches have been used to provide safer AIT preparations to lower or even totally overcome this risk. Areas covered: A structured literature recherche in Medline and Pubmed under inclusion of national and international guidelines and Cochrane meta-analyses has been performed aiming at reviewing clinical use of such approaches in AIT. New allergen preparations may include allergoids, recombinant allergens (recA) and modified recombinant allergens (recA) in subcutaneous as well as in mucosal immunotherapies (application e.g. using bronchial, nasal, oral and sublingual application) with sublingual being the established mucosal application route and new ways of application like intralymphatic and epicutaneous immunotherapy. Expert commentary: Immune-modifying agents like Virus-like particles and CpG-motifs, adjuvants like MPL and aluminum hydroxide are evaluated and found to increase and direct the immunological response toward immunological tolerance. New forms of allergen extracts can improve safety and efficacy of AIT and may change our way of performing allergen immunotherapy in the future.

  8. Structural analysis of linear and conformational epitopes of allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Schein, Catherine H.; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Oezguen, Numan; Negi, Surendra S.; Braun, Werner

    2009-01-01

    In many countries regulatory agencies have adopted safety guidelines, based on bioinformatics rules from the WHO/FAO and EFSA recommendations, to prevent potentially allergenic novel foods or agricultural products from reaching consumers. We created the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) to combine data that had previously been available only as flat files on Web pages or in the literature. SDAP was designed to be user friendly, to be of maximum use to regulatory agencies, clinicians, as well as to scientists interested in assessing the potential allergenic risk of a protein. We developed methods, unique to SDAP, to compare the physicochemical properties of discrete areas of allergenic proteins to known IgE epitopes. We developed a new similarity measure, the property distance (PD) value that can be used to detect related segments in allergens with clinical observed crossreactivity. We have now expanded this work to obtain experimental validation of the PD index as a quantitative predictor of IgE cross-reactivity, by designing peptide variants with predetermined PD scores relative to known IgE epitopes. In complementary work we show how sequence motifs characteristic of allergenic proteins in protein families can be used as fingerprints for allergenicity. PMID:19121639

  9. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  10. Responses of human birch pollen allergen-reactive T cells to chemically modified allergens (allergoids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormann, D; Ebner, C; Jarman, E R; Montermann, E; Kraft, D; Reske-Kunz, A B

    1998-11-01

    Allergoids are widely used in specific immunotherapy for the treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to analyse whether a modification of birch pollen allergens with formaldehyde affects the availability of T-cell epitopes. Efficient modification of the allergens was verified by determining IgE and IgG binding activity using ELISA inhibition tests. T-cell responses to birch pollen allergoids were analysed in polyclonal systems, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of five birch pollen-allergic individuals, as well as birch pollen extract-reactive T-cell lines (TCL), established from the peripheral blood of 14 birch pollen-allergic donors. To determine whether the modification of natural (n)Bet v 1 with formaldehyde or maleic anhydride results in epitope-specific changes in T-cell reactivities, 22 Bet v 1-specific T-cell clones (TCC), established from nine additional birch pollen-allergic individuals, were tested for their reactivity with these products. The majority of PBMC and TCL showed a reduced response to the birch pollen extract allergoid. Bet v 1-specific TCC could be divided into allergoid-reactive and -non-reactive TCC. No simple correlation between possible modification sites of formaldehyde in the respective T-cell epitopes and the stimulatory potential of the allergoid was observed. Mechanisms of suppression or of anergy induction were excluded as an explanation for the non-reactivity of representative TCC. All TCC could be stimulated by maleylated and unmodified nBet v 1 to a similar extent. These results demonstrate differences in the availability of T-cell epitopes between allergoids and unmodified allergens, which are most likely due to structural changes within the allergen molecule.

  11. Authorised allergen products for intracutaneous testing may no longer be available in Germany: Allergy textbooks have to be re-written.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Werfel, Thomas; Vogelberg, Christian; Jung, Kirsten

    Beside the skin prick test, the intracutaneous test represents the most important skin test method for detecting type-1 allergies. With the incorporation of European directives into national law, test allergens used for allergy diagnosis are deemed medicinal products within the meaning of the German Medicinal Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz) and therefore require marketing authorisation for distribution in Germany. The high costs of acquiring and maintaining these authorisations have lead to no new finished intracutaneous test products being authorized in Germany for more than 20 years. Instead, most manufacturers have voluntarily withdrawn their existing marketing authorisations for intracutaneous test extracts. The last manufacturer to offer approved finished allergen products for intracutaneous tests recently announced that it would now cease production and distribution of these solutions. Research on the current European and German legislation; selective literature search in Medline, including national and international guidelines and Cochrane meta-analyses; licensing information on the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute homepage (www.pei.de) as well as in the Bundesanzeiger (Federal Gazette). According to information on www.pei.de, marketing authorisations still existed as of 31.01.2015 for intracutaneous test solutions of six grass/cereal/herbal pollens, seven tree pollens, ten food allergens, twelve moulds and yeasts as well as two fungal mixtures, five house dust and storage mites and five animal epithelia/danders, all held by only one company in Germany. These marketing authorisations were granted between 16th March 1987 and 17th January 1992; more recent marketing authorisations do not exist. European legislation and the associated increase in production and licensing costs have already lead to numerous suppliers withdrawing their marketing authorisation for diagnostic test allergens - marketing authorisations for 443 diagnostic allergens were voluntarily withdrawn

  12. Food allergens of plant origin - their molecular and evolutionary relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E. N. C.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Shewry, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Along with other forms of allergic disease, food allergies appear to be on the increase, with childhood allergies to foods such as peanuts being of particular concern. Around 7-10 foods are responsible for the majority of allergies, including several of plant origin, notably peanut. Allergies...... are usually triggered by the protein components in a food, which are also known as allergens. However, not all the proteins in an allergenic food like peanut are allergens. Why should this be? This question has been addressed by an EU-funded inter-disciplinary network of clinicians, food chemists and plant...

  13. Fractionation and immunochemical characterization of Prosopis juliflora pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, I S

    1986-12-01

    Prosopis juliflora pollen grain crude extract gave six different molecular weight fractions varied from 81,000 to 13,000 dalton on Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The purity of fractions of Prosopis juliflora pollen extract were checked by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The fraction had an molecular weight 20,000 dalton showed four absorption maxima whereas other fractions had single absorption maxima. Allergenic activity and nature of allergens were evaluated by in vitro Radioallergosorbent test and in vivo Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis test. All these tests indicated that most allergenic fractions were in the 20,000 molecular weight.

  14. Exotic pets are new allergenic sources: allergy to iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel-Moncín, M M; Pineda, F; Río, C; Alonso, R; Tella, R; Cisteró-Bahima, A

    2006-01-01

    Although furry animals are known sources of respiratory allergy, scaly animals are assumed not to be allergenic. Exotic animals such as iguanas are becoming increasingly common pets. Nevertheless, these animals are not suspected to be allergenic. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma caused by a pet iguana. Clear IgE-sensitization and respiratory allergy to iguana scales is demonstrated, suggesting that scaly pets should be taken into account as possible allergenic sources.

  15. The Prevalence of Grass Pollen-Related Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis in Elite Amateur Irish Athletes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grace, M

    2016-09-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR\\/C), has been shown to impact upon athletic performance. The championships of the unique, amateur Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football (collectively known as GAA) take place during the prime pollen months of summer. Elite GAA players must perform optimally when most exposed to pollen. Elite GAA subjects (n=254) underwent skin prick testing to 6 aeroallergens and completed a validated questionnaire (AQUA), producing a score indicating likelihood of having allergy. The prevalence of allergy (positive to at least one aeroallergen on SPT and positive AQUA score) was 27.1% (n=69). Sixteen and a half percent (n=42) of the subjects tested had grass pollen AR\\/C while 22% (n=54) had house dust mite AR\\/C, though none were on standard medical therapies or had used allergen-specific immunotherapy. Grass pollen AR\\/C prevalence appears as common in elite Irish athletes as it is in other countries. It appears to be mild rather than well controlled in these subjects.

  16. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkus Kristen A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  17. Identification of two distinct allergenic sites on ryegrass-pollen allergen, Lol p IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T; Dzuba-Fischer, J M; Rector, E S; Sehon, A H

    1989-04-01

    Lol p IV is an important allergen of ryegrass pollen. For the immunochemical identification of antigenic and/or allergenic site(s), murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against Lol p IV. The hybridoma cell-culture supernatants were screened for anti-Lol p IV antibodies by a combination of ELISA and Western immunoblot analyses. The MAbs were finally purified from ascites on a Mono Q ion-exchange column. In a competitive radioimmunoassay with Lol p IV as the solid phase and 125I-labeled MAbs, it was established that MAbs 90, 91, 92, 93, and 94, although they differed in their relative affinities, recognized in common with one another an epitope designated as antigenic site A, whereas MAb 12 recognized a different epitope referred to as site B. Sites A and B were also demonstrated to constitute allergenic determinants of Lol p IV. Differences in the repertoire of specificities of the human IgE antibodies directed to Lol p IV were also demonstrated. Interestingly, it was found that sera from both allergic as well as from nonatopic individuals had IgG antibodies to sites A and/or B.

  18. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert; López-Expósito, Iván; Bouchaud, Grégory; Blanchard, Carine; Bodinier, Marie; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Wit, Nicole; Untersmayr, Eva; Adel-Patient, Karine; Knippels, Leon; Epstein, Michelle M; Noti, Mario; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Kimber, Ian; Verhoeckx, Kitty; O'Mahony, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant controls and endpoints measured.

  19. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Food allergens and mucosal immune systems with special reference to recognition of food allergens by gut-associated lymphoid tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kaminogawa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy, triggered by an aberrant immune response elicited by orally ingested food allergens, is generated through a complicated mechanism because the allergen interacts with the mucosal immune system (the gut- associated lymphoid tissue, GALT and the resulting immune response affects the generation of allergy. This review will describe the process by which antigens or allergens are recognized by the GALT and the characteristic immune responses induced thereafter. Orally administered antigens induce distinct immune responses in the Peyer's patches, lamina propria and the intestinal epithelium. In addition to these local immune responses in the gut, ingested antigens are known to affect systemic immunity. These may induce a suppressed state of systemic immune responsiveness, which is called oral tolerance, or in some cases they may elicit a systemic IgE antibody response which may lead to allergic reactions. Information on the regions on food allergens recognized by T cells and IgE antibodies is important in understanding the fates of food allergens after being recognized by the GALT. The structure of T and B cell epitopes on food allergens and the possibility of modulation of allergic reactions by amino-acid substituted analogs of allergen- derived peptides will also be discussed.

  1. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and digestibility coefficients were obtained for the protein, fibre, ash and fat contents of both ... Cabbage is a superior feed compared to grass for raising grass carp and a suitable low-cost alternative ... Materials and Methods ... from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- .... In: Aquatic weeds in South East Asia.

  2. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Crisp Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  3. Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and

  4. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  5. Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein

  6. The roles of temperature and light in black band disease (BBD) progression on corals of the genus Diploria in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Kristin; Jones, Ross; Gibbs, David; Richardson, Laurie

    2011-03-01

    On Bermuda reefs the brain coral Diploria labyrinthiformis is rarely documented with black band disease (BBD), while BBD-affected colonies of Diploria strigosa are common. D. labyrinthiformis on these reefs may be more resistant to BBD or less affected by prevailing environmental conditions that potentially diminish host defenses. To determine whether light and/or temperature influence BBD differently on these two species, infection experiments were conducted under the following experimental treatments: (1) 26 °C, ambient light; (2) 30 °C, ambient light; (3) 30 °C, low light; and (4) 30 °C, high light. A digital photograph of the affected area of each coral was taken each day for 7 days and analyzed with ImageJ image processing software. The final affected area was not significantly different between species in any of the four treatments. BBD lesions were smaller on both species infected under ambient light at 26 °C versus 30 °C. Low light at 30 °C significantly reduced the lesion size on both species when compared to colonies infected at the same temperature under ambient light. Under high light at 30 °C, BBD lesions were larger on colonies of D. strigosa and smaller on colonies of D. labyrinthiformis when compared to colonies infected under ambient light at the same temperature. The responses of both species suggests that BBD progression on both D. strigosa and D. labyrinthiformis is similarly influenced by a combination of light and temperature and that other factors present before infections become established likely contribute to the difference in BBD prevalence in Bermuda. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Skin sensitisation profiles to inhalant allergens for patients in Tétouan city (North West of Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardei, F; Bouziane, H; Kadiri, M; Rkiek, B; Tebay, A; Saoud, A

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of respiratory allergies is increasing and is a serious global health problem. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of skin sensitization to inhalant allergens in patients consulting for respiratory allergy, to identify the main allergens involved and to evaluate the profile of skin prick-test reactivity related to sex, age and season. This retrospective study included 379 patients consulting during 2009-2012 in three private medical offices of Tetouan. Of the 379 patients, 39.6% were monosensitized and 60.4% polysensitized. The percentages of polysensitized patients were higher in patients exhibiting rhinoconjunctivitis and astma-rhinoconjunctivitis than in subjects with asthma. The prevalence of symptoms according to sex showed no significant difference (P=0.64). Regarding age, a significant difference was observed in the case of rhinoconjunctivitis (P<0.01), while asthma and asthma-rhinoconjunctivitis showed no significant difference. Sensitization to house dust mites was the most frequent followed by grasses, olives and Parietaria. The multiple correspondence analyses (ACM) showed that patients under 20-years of age with asthma and asthma-rhinoconjunctivitis profile are more associated with sensitization to mites during the spring and autumn. The 20-49-year age group was represented mainly by polysensitized patients with rhinoconjunctivitis. Sensitization to mites ranks first in Tetouan followed by the percentage of sensitized patients to grass pollen and olive. The ACM showed that the house dust mite asthma seems to affect more children and adolescents while the 20-49 year age of polysensitized group suffers significantly rhinoconjunctivitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Allergen immunotherapy for the prevention of allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Dhami, Sangeeta; Netuveli, Gopal

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need to establish the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the prevention of allergic disease. METHODS: Two reviewers independently screened nine international biomedical databases. Studies were quantitatively synthesized using...... was found in relation to its longer-term effects for this outcome. There was, however, a reduction in the short-term risk of those with allergic rhinitis developing asthma (RR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.30-0.54), with this finding being robust to a pre-specified sensitivity analysis. We found inconclusive evidence...... random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: A total of 32 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Overall, meta-analysis found no conclusive evidence that AIT reduced the risk of developing a first allergic disease over the short term (RR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.04-2.09) and no randomized controlled evidence...

  9. Thresholds of allergenic proteins in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.; Knulst, Andre C.

    2005-01-01

    Threshold doses or Estimated Eliciting Doses (EEDs) represent an important new field of research in food allergy. Clinicians and regulators have embraced some toxicological concepts such as LOAEL and NOAEL and applied them to an area of significant clinical uncertainty and interest. The impact of intrinsic human factors (e.g., asthma and exercise) and extrinsic event factors (e.g., season, location and especially dose of allergen) on a future allergic reaction in the community needs to be considered carefully when interpreting results of clinical and research low-dose food challenges. The ongoing cooperation of food allergy research groups in medicine, food science and government will surely deliver results of the highest importance to the wider communities of allergology, food science and technology and the increasing number of allergic consumers

  10. Association of HLA-DR3 with human immune response to Lol p I and Lol p II allergens in allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Ansari, A A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G

    1988-04-01

    Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responses to two well-characterized, antigenetically non-crossreactive components of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen extract, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II) were studied in two groups of skin-test positive (ST+) Caucasoid adults. By both nonparametric and parametric statistical methods, significant associations were found between Ab responses to both Lol I and Lol II and the possession of HLA-DR3. In view of the well-known associations of both DR3 and B8 (which are in linkage disequilibrium) with many autoimmune diseases, differences in anti-Lol I and anti-Lol II mean log[Ab] levels between B8+, DR3- vs B8-, DR3- subjects and B8+, DR3+ vs B8-, DR3+ subjects were investigated. No differences were found. Our data, along with recent RFLP and DNA sequence studies, suggest that an Ia molecule involved in immune recognition of a similar major Ia recognition site of both the Lol molecules may consist of a DR3 alpha-beta I pair. Abbreviations used: Ab: Antibody. HLA: Human leukocyte antigen. Lol p I, Lol I: Group I allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye I). Lol p II, Lol II: Group II allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye II). Mr: Relative molecular mass. Rx: Immunotherapy with grass pollen extracts. ST: Skin test.

  11. Human immune responsiveness to Lolium perenne pollen allergen Lol p III (rye III) is associated with HLA-DR3 and DR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Freidhoff, L R; Meyers, D A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G

    1989-05-01

    A well-characterized allergen of Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen, Lol p III, has been used as a model antigen to study the genetic control of the human immune response. Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responsiveness to Lol p III were studied in two groups of skin-test-positive Caucasoid adults (N = 135 and 67). We found by nonparametric and parametric analyses that immune responsiveness to Lol p III was significantly associated with HLA-DR3 and DR5. No association was found between any DQ type and immune responsiveness to Lol p III. Geometric mean IgE or IgG Ab levels to Lol p III were not different between B8+, DR3+ subjects and B8-, DR3+ subjects, showing that HLA-B8 had no influence on the association. Lol p III IgG Ab data obtained on subjects after grass antigen immunotherapy showed that 100% of DR3 subjects and 100% of DR5 subjects were Ab+. A comparison of all the available protein sequences of DRB gene products showed that the first hypervariable region of DR3 and DR5 (and DRw6), and no other region, contains the sequence Glu9-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Ser13. Our observations are consistent with the possibility that immune responsiveness to the allergen Lol p III is associated with this amino acid sequence in the first hypervariable region of the DR beta 1 polypeptide chain.

  12. Measurement of IgG antibodies to house dust mite and grass pollen by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delespesse, G; Debisschop, M J; Flament, J [Hopital Saint Pierre, Louvain (Belgium). Lab. de Recherches de la Clinique Medicale

    1979-09-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was used to measure specific IgG antibodies to either Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DPT) or grass pollens. Radiolabelled protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) was used to determine the IgG antibodies attached to the microtubes. The binding of IgG from either normal or allergic sera to DPT-coated tubes was antigen specific and mediated by the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. IgG antibodies from non-allergic serum competed with IgE antibodies to DPT. IgE antibodies did not significantly interfere with the assay. Indeed heating a reaginic serum resulted in a striking reduction of the (/sup 125/I) anti- IgE binding to allergen-coated tubes without modifying the (/sup 125/I)-SpA binding. Furthermore, filtration of a reaginic serum through Sephacryl S-200 separated a peak of IgE antibodies. The solid phase method was more sensitive than a double-antibody technique employing the same DPT extract as labelled antigen. Non-allergic subjects had less IgG antibodies to DPT or grass pollens than allergic patients. In untreated patients, there was a good correlation between levels of IgG and IgE antibodies to grass pollens but not to DPT. Patients hyposensitized to house dust mite had on the average three times more specific IgG antibodies than untreated cases. (author).

  13. Measurement of IgG antibodies to house dust mite and grass pollen by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delespesse, G.; Debisschop, M.J.; Flament, J.

    1979-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was used to measure specific IgG antibodies to either Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DPT) or grass pollens. Radiolabelled protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) was used to determine the IgG antibodies attached to the microtubes. The binding of IgG from either normal or allergic sera to DPT-coated tubes was antigen specific and mediated by the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. IgG antibodies from non-allergic serum competed with IgE antibodies to DPT. IgE antibodies did not significantly interfere with the assay. Indeed heating a reaginic serum resulted in a striking reduction of the ( 125 I) anti- IgE binding to allergen-coated tubes without modifying the ( 125 I)-SpA binding. Furthermore, filtration of a reaginic serum through Sephacryl S-200 separated a peak of IgE antibodies. The solid phase method was more sensitive than a double-antibody technique employing the same DPT extract as labelled antigen. Non-allergic subjects had less IgG antibodies to DPT or grass pollens than allergic patients. In untreated patients, there was a good correlation between levels of IgG and IgE antibodies to grass pollens but not to DPT. Patients hyposensitized to house dust mite had on the average three times more specific IgG antibodies than untreated cases. (author)

  14. Comparison of immune reactivity profiles against various environmental allergens between adult patients with atopic dermatitis and patients with allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, N; Aiba, S; Tanaka, M; Aoyama, H; Tabata, N; Tamura, G; Tagami, H

    1997-09-01

    To clarify the pathomechanisms underlying the involvement of different organs by atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic respiratory disease (ARD), we compared the immune reactivities to various environmental allergens between 46 adult patients who suffered only from AD but were without any history of ARD and 41 patients who had only ARD, using a RAST FEIA (radioallergosorbent test/fluoroenzyme immunoassay) and a scarification patch test. We also studied 42 healthy adult subjects in a similar fashion. Total serum IgE antibody levels were found to be far higher in the AD group than in the ARD and healthy control group, and RAST revealed that the AD group was sensitized to far larger numbers of allergens such as food mix, cereal mix, fungus mix and Candida albicans than were the other groups. The ARD group displayed a high incidence in RAST, comparable to that of the AD group, only against Japanese cedar and grass pollen mix antigen. However, the most remarkable difference in the immune reactivity profiles was that the AD group showed a uniquely higher RAST score and a lower incidence of positive patch test reactions to C. albicans antigen than did the ARD group. The reactivities in the ARD group to C. albicans antigen did not differ from those in the control group. Our present data suggest that a more pronounced shift from Th1 to Th2 cells, reactive against various allergens, takes place in AD patients.

  15. Risk management of allergenic food ingredients in hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov-Raljić Jovanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergens have appeared in the last two decades as a concealed form of threat which significantly endangers public health, and their labelling on food products, drinks, and non pre-packed gastro-products is clearly defined with legal regulations. In practice, the chemical risk management is faced with several unexpected problems. Some of them are declarations or statements about allergenic ingredients, where a nutritional allergen that the food contains is labelled with an unusual name, or similar products from different manufacturers where one is safe and the other contains allergens. A hospitality facility which deals with production and distribution of unpackaged foods should, in addition to a developed HACCP concept and standardized recipes for food preparation, prepare a detailed, precise, and clearly defined plan for management of chemical risks.

  16. Experimental approaches to predict allergenic potential of novel food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    2013-01-01

    ’t know under what circumstances oral tolerance develops. With all these unanswered questions, it is a big challenge to designan animal model that, with relatively few animals, is able to predict if a food protein is a potential allergen. An even larger challenge is to predict its potency, a prerequisite...... for risk evaluation.Attempts have been made to rank proteins according to their allergenic potency based on the magnitude of the IgE response in experimental animals. This ranking has not included abundance as a parameter. We may be able to predict potential allergenicity i.e. hazard but our lack......There are many unanswered questions relating to food allergy sensitization in humans. We don’t know under what circumstances sensitization takes place i.e. route (oral, dermal, respiratory), age, dose, frequencyof exposure, infection or by-stander effect of other allergens. In addition we don...

  17. Allergenic sesquiterpene lactones from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii Cass.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Gade Hyldgaard, Mette; Andersen, Klaus E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) of the Compositae family of plants has become a popular pot and container plant. The plant produces the sesquiterpene lactone allergen calocephalin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sensitizing potential of sesquiterpene lactones from cushion ...

  18. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine...... the effect of intranasal azelastine or systemic cetirizine (both potent antihistamines) on the allergen-induced release of mast-cell mediators from the human nasal mucosa in vivo. METHODS: Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 11) and control subjects not allergic to birch pollen (n = 5) were included......, nasal allergen challenges were performed, and the number of sneezes were counted. In addition, nasal lavage fluid was collected, and the levels of mast-cell mediators (histamine and tryptase) were measured. RESULTS: The allergen challenge of patients allergic to pollen produced sneezing...

  19. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in "Elstar" apple and the effect of grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.

    2009-01-01

    Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...

  20. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes.

  1. Development and evolution of risk assessment for food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crevel, Rene' W. R.; Baumert, Joseph L.; Baka, Athanasia

    2014-01-01

    The need to assess the risk from food allergens derives directly from the need to manage effectively this food safety hazard. Work spanning the last two decades dispelled the initial thinking that food allergens were so unique that the risk they posed was not amenable to established risk assessme...... provided valuable insights, leading to further refinements and generating testable hypotheses. Their application to estimate the risk posed by the concurrent consumption of two potentially contaminated foods illustrates their power....

  2. Allergenic food introduction and risk of childhood atopic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels J Elbert

    Full Text Available The role of timing and diversity of allergenic food introduction in the development of childhood allergic sensitization and atopic diseases is controversial.To examine whether timing and diversity of allergenic food introduction are associated with allergic sensitization, allergy and eczema in children until age 10 years.This study among 5,202 children was performed in a population-based prospective cohort. Timing (age ≤6 months vs. >6 months and diversity (0, 1, 2 and ≥3 foods of allergenic food (cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, tree nuts, soy and gluten introduction were assessed by questionnaires at ages 6 and 12 months. At age 10 years, inhalant and food allergic sensitization were measured by skin prick tests, and physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergy by questionnaire. Data on parental-reported physician-diagnosed eczema were obtained from birth until age 10 years.Children introduced to gluten at age ≤6 months had a decreased risk of eczema (aOR (95% CI: 0.84 (0.72, 0.99, compared with children introduced to gluten at age >6 months. However, timing of allergenic food introduction was not associated with allergic sensitization or physician-diagnosed allergy. Children introduced to ≥3 allergenic foods at age ≤6 months had a decreased risk of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (0.64 (0.42, 0.98, compared with children not introduced to any allergenic food at age ≤6 months. However, diversity of allergenic food introduction was not associated with allergic sensitization, physician-diagnosed food allergy or eczema.Neither timing nor diversity of allergenic food introduction was consistently associated with childhood allergic sensitization, allergy or eczema.

  3. The effects of gastric digestion on codfish allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Poulsen, Lars K.; Platzer, Michael H

    2005-01-01

    In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties.......In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties....

  4. American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series: 2017 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Peter C; Dunnick, Cory A; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce; Warshaw, Erin; Mowad, Christen

    The American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series was introduced in 2012. After 4 years of use, changes in our recommended allergens are necessary. For the updated series, we have reordered the first 4 panels to approximately mirror the current TRUE Test and removed parthenolide, triclosan, glutaraldehyde, and jasmine. Polymyxin B, lavender, sodium benzoate, ethylhexylglycerin, and benzoic acid are new additions to the American Contact Dermatitis Society series.

  5. Isolation of allergenically active glycoprotein from Prosopis juliflora pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, I S

    1989-03-01

    An allergenically active glycoprotein was homogeneously isolated from the aqueous extract of Prosopis juliflora pollen by ConA-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of this glycoprotein was 20,000 dalton, determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. This fraction showed a total carbohydrate concentration of 25%. The purified glycoprotein revealed immunochemically most antigenic or allergenic and demonstrated homogeneous after reaction with P. juliflora pollen antiserum, characterized by gel diffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis and Radioallergosorbent test.

  6. The role of contact allergens in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hession, Meghan T; Scheinman, Pamela L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether contact allergens play a role in chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). We conducted a longitudinal prospective study of 23 patients with CIU. Patients were patch tested to a modified North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard, fragrance, and cosmetic series; other series were tested as warranted by relevant history and physical examination. Readings were performed at 48 and 72 hours. Patients were counseled to avoid proven contact allergens and were followed up 2 to 9 months after testing. Twenty-one of 23 patients were female. The mean age was 46 years. The mean duration of urticaria was 32 months. Of the 23 patients, 8 (35%) experienced improvement of their symptoms with allergen avoidance. Four (17%) experienced a complete remission, and 4 (17%) experienced partial improvement. Two of the complete responders challenged themselves to proven contact allergens and developed urticaria, which resolved upon allergen avoidance. The most common allergens were potassium dichromate (n = 9), nickel sulfate (n = 7), Myroxylon pereirae (n = 6), cobalt chloride, neomycin, p-phenylenediamine (n = 5); fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II (n = 4); cinnamic aldehyde (n = 3); and formaldehyde (n = 2). Patch testing may be helpful in the evaluation of CIU patients for whom previous workup has failed to reveal an etiology.

  7. Controlling allergens in animal rooms by using curtains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Thomas Cæcius; Itter, Gabi; Fosse, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room. The experimen......The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room....... The experimental situation we studied provides some information regarding allergen disposition in animal rooms but is clearly artificial and does not reflect a typical, ‘real-world’ environment in terms of preventing exposure of workers to allergens. Plastic curtains with holes were placed in front of racks......, and a corridor between the racks and a curtain was present. The room was ventilated with air, which was blown into the room through the middle of the corridor, flowing downstream and passing through the holes in the curtain. This set-up resulted in air flow from the corridor through the curtain. Air samples were...

  8. Nonadverse effects on allergenicity of isopentenyltransferase-transformed broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, E C; Chen, J T; Chao, M L; Yu, S C; Chang, C Y; Chu, W S; Tsai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) provide modern agriculture with improvements in efficiency and the benefits of enhanced food production; however, the potential impact of GMOs on human health has not yet been clarified. To investigate the allergenicity of isopentenyltransferase (ipt)-transformed broccoli compared with non-GM broccoli. Sera from allergic individuals were used to identify the allergenicity of GM and non-GM broccoli. Immunoglobulin (Ig) binding of different lines of GM and non-GM broccoli was identified using immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the histamin release assay. Positive reactions to broccoli (Brassica Oleracea) were observed in 7.02% of individuals. Specific IgE to broccoli and total IgE fro allergic individuals were well correlated. The different tests performed showed no significant differences in the allergenicity of conventionally raised and GM broccoli, indicating the absence of unexpected effects on allergenicity in ipt-transformed plants. Using Western blot analysis we detected heterogeneous IgE-reactive allergenic components in broccoli-allergic sera, but no significant differences between GM an non-GM broccoli were observed in serum from the same patients. Our study demonstrates that there are no differences between GM (ipt-transformed) broccoli and non-GM broccoli, as determined by specific IgE in sera from broccoli-allergic patients. This indicates that there were no unexpected effects on allergenicity in this GM broccoli.

  9. A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Wong, Justin; Khodadadi, Delaram; Nagi, Richie; Tey, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-02-21

    We demonstrate a personalized food allergen testing platform, termed iTube, running on a cellphone that images and automatically analyses colorimetric assays performed in test tubes toward sensitive and specific detection of allergens in food samples. This cost-effective and compact iTube attachment, weighing approximately 40 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where the test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are vertically illuminated by two separate light-emitting-diodes. The illumination light is absorbed by the allergen assay, which is activated within the tubes, causing an intensity change in the acquired images by the cellphone camera. These transmission images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within 1 s using a smart application running on the same cellphone for detection and quantification of allergen contamination in food products. We evaluated the performance of this cellphone-based iTube platform using different types of commercially available cookies, where the existence of peanuts was accurately quantified after a sample preparation and incubation time of ~20 min per test. This automated and cost-effective personalized food allergen testing tool running on cellphones can also permit uploading of test results to secure servers to create personal and/or public spatio-temporal allergen maps, which can be useful for public health in various settings.

  10. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  11. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species...... that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants responded to flaming. Regrowth of the grasses was measured by harvesting aboveground biomass 2 wk after......, as they did not increase the reduction of aboveground biomass compared with the 7-d treatment interval. Knowledge on the regrowth of grass weeds after flaming treatments provided by this study can help improve recommendations given to road keepers and park managers for management on these weeds. Nomenclature...

  12. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  13. Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

  14. 8 Allergenic Composition of Polymerized Allergen Extracts of Betula verrucosa, Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus and Phleum Pratense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Cases, Barbara; Tudela, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, Eva Abel; Casanovas, Miguel; Subiza, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergoids have been successfully used in the treatment of respiratory allergic diseases. They are modified allergen extracts that allow the administration of high allergen doses, due to their reduced IgE binding capacity.They maintain allergen-specific T-cell recognition. Since they are native allergen extracts that have been polymerized with glutaraldehyde, identification of the allergenic molecules requires more complicated methods. The aim of the study was to determine the qualitative composition of different polymerized extracts and investigate the presence of defined allergenic molecules using Mass spectrometry. Methods Proteomic analysis was carried out at the Proteomics Facility of the Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos (Toledo, Spain). After reduction and alkylation, proteins were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were cleaned using C18 SpinTips Sample Prep Kit; peptides were separated on an Ultimate nano-LC system using a Monolithic C18 column in combination with a precolumn for salt removal. Fractionation of the peptides was performed with a Probot microfraction collector and MS and MS/MS analysis of offline spotted peptide samples were performed using the Applied Biosystems 4800 plus MALDI TOF/TOF Analyzer mass spectrometer. ProteinPilot Software V 2.0.1 and the Paragon algorithm were used for the identification of the proteins. Each MS/MS spectrum was searched against the SwissProt 2010_10 database, Uniprot-Viridiplantae database and Uniprot_Betula database. Results Analysis of the peptides revealed the presence of native allergens in the polymerized extracts: Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der p 8 and Der p 11 in D. pteronyssinus; Bet v 2, Bet v 6, Bet v 7 and several Bet v 1 isoforms in B. verrucosa and Phl p 1, Phl p 3, Phl p 5, Phl p 11 and Phl p 12 in P. pratense allergoids. In all cases, potential allergenic proteins were also identified, including ubiquitin, actin, Eenolase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, luminal

  15. Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and geographical variation. ... Seven species are important pasture grasses throughout the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, northern Cape and Natal. ... Language: English.

  16. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume sward in ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture ...

  17. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  18. Novel vaccines targeting dendritic cells by coupling allergoids to nonoxidized mannan enhance allergen uptake and induce functional regulatory T cells through programmed death ligand 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvent, Sofía; Soria, Irene; Cirauqui, Cristina; Cases, Bárbara; Manzano, Ana I; Diez-Rivero, Carmen M; Reche, Pedro A; López-Relaño, Juan; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Subiza, Javier; Casanovas, Miguel; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Subiza, José Luis; Palomares, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative treatment for allergy. AIT faces pitfalls related to efficacy, security, duration, and patient compliance. Novel vaccines overcoming such inconveniences are in demand. We sought to study the immunologic mechanisms of action for novel vaccines targeting dendritic cells (DCs) generated by coupling glutaraldehyde-polymerized grass pollen allergoids to nonoxidized mannan (PM) compared with glutaraldehyde-polymerized allergoids (P) or native grass pollen extracts (N). Skin prick tests and basophil activation tests with N, P, or PM were performed in patients with grass pollen allergy. IgE-blocking experiments, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, cocultures, suppression assays, real-time quantitative PCR, ELISAs, and ELISpot assays were performed to assess allergen capture by human DCs and T-cell responses. BALB/c mice were immunized with PM, N, or P. Antibody levels, cytokine production by splenocytes, and splenic forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells were quantified. Experiments with oxidized PM were also performed. PM displays in vivo hypoallergenicity, induces potent blocking antibodies, and is captured by human DCs much more efficiently than N or P by mechanisms depending on mannose receptor- and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin-mediated internalization. PM endorses human DCs to generate functional FOXP3(+) Treg cells through programmed death ligand 1. Immunization of mice with PM induces a shift to nonallergic responses and increases the frequency of splenic FOXP3(+) Treg cells. Mild oxidation impairs these effects in human subjects and mice, demonstrating the essential role of preserving the carbohydrate structure of mannan. Allergoids conjugated to nonoxidized mannan represent suitable vaccines for AIT. Our findings might also be of the utmost relevance to development of therapeutic interventions in other immune tolerance-related diseases. Copyright

  19. Avoidance Behavior against Positive Allergens Detected with a Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Test Immunoblot Assay in Patients with Urticaria: Factors Associated with Avoidance Success/Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kwon, In Ho; Kim, Han Su; Kim, Heung Yeol; Cho, Eun Byul; Bae, Youin; Park, Gyeong Hun; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2016-02-01

    Avoidance behavior against positive allergens detected by using multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST)-immunoblot assay in patients with urticaria has been rarely reported. We aimed to assess the avoidance behavior of patients with urticaria against positive allergens detected with a MAST. One hundred and one urticaria patients who showed positivity to at least one allergen on a MAST completed a questionnaire regarding their test results. The avoidance behavior of the patients was evaluated, and relevant determining factors of avoidance success/failure were statistically assessed. We detected 144 different data (n=51, food allergens; n=17, pollen allergens; and n=76, aeroallergens) from 101 patients with urticaria. The avoidance failure rates were 33.3% for food allergens, 70.6% for pollen allergens, and 30.3% for aeroallergens. The pollen group showed a significantly higher avoidance failure rate than the food and aeroallergen groups (psuccessfully avoid allergens (psuccess or failure against allergens in patients with urticaria when clinicians conduct allergen-specific immunoglobulin E tests.

  20. Regulation of levels of serum antibodies to ryegrass pollen allergen Lol pIV by an internal image anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-03-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated B1/1, was produced against an idiotope of a murine antibody (mAb91), which recognizes the epitope, site A, of allergen Lol pIV, one of the major groups of allergens in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen. The ability of B1/1 to modulate the antibody responses to Lol pIV was investigated in murine model systems. In the first system, B1/1-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) conjugate was administered to treat three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H). In the second and third model systems, a solution of B1/1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used to treat syngeneic BALB/c mice at various doses and time intervals, respectively. The treatment with either form of B1/1, administered at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms mouse, resulted in a reduction of the levels of the antibodies to Lol pIV. In particular, the level of IgE antibodies to Lol pIV was greatly reduced. The administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of a solution of B1/1 8 weeks prior to the challenge with Lol pIV was still effective in reducing the level of antibodies to the allergen. Moreover, the level of antibodies to Lol pIV that expressed the idiotope mAb91 was also markedly decreased. By contrast, it was observed that the level of antibodies to Lol pIV in mice pretreated with B1/1 in PBS at a dose of 10 ng/mouse increased (albeit slightly) compared to that in mice treated with control mAb. These experimental models lend themselves for investigating the mechanism(s) by which an anti-Id modulates antibody responses to a grass pollen allergen.

  1. Serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in atopic and healthy cats: comparison of a rapid screening immunoassay and complete-panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Alison; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2011-02-01

    Feline and canine atopic dermatitis are thought to have a similar immunopathogenesis. As with dogs, detection of allergen-specific IgE in cat serum merely supports a diagnosis of feline atopy based on compatible history, clinical signs and elimination of other pruritic dermatoses. In this study, a rapid screening immunoassay (Allercept(®) E-Screen 2nd Generation; Heska AG, Fribourg, Switzerland; ES2G) was compared with a complete-panel serum allergen-specific IgE assay (Allercept(®); Heska AG; CP) in healthy cats with no history of skin disease and in atopic cats. The latter had no diagnosis of external parasitism, infection, food hypersensitivity or other skin disease explaining their pruritus, and expressed cutaneous reaction patterns typically associated with feline allergic skin disease (head, neck or pinnal pruritus, miliary dermatitis, self-induced alopecia, eosinophilic granuloma complex). The proportion of cats positive on either the ES2G or the CP assays was not significantly different between the atopic and healthy cat groups. There was, however, strong agreement between the results of the ES2G and CP assay; overall, the two tests were in agreement for 43 of 49 (88%) serum samples. There was also strong agreement when individual allergen groups were evaluated (agreement noted: indoor, 41 of 49 samples; grasses/weeds, 37 of 49 samples; and trees, 41 of 49 samples). These results indicate that although neither test is diagnostic for feline atopic dermatitis, the screening assay is beneficial for predicting the results of a complete-panel serum allergen-specific IgE assay in cats. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Evolutionary distance from human homologs reflects allergenicity of animal food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, John A; Breiteneder, Heimo; Mills, E N Clare

    2007-12-01

    In silico analysis of allergens can identify putative relationships among protein sequence, structure, and allergenic properties. Such systematic analysis reveals that most plant food allergens belong to a restricted number of protein superfamilies, with pollen allergens behaving similarly. We have investigated the structural relationships of animal food allergens and their evolutionary relatedness to human homologs to define how closely a protein must resemble a human counterpart to lose its allergenic potential. Profile-based sequence homology methods were used to classify animal food allergens into Pfam families, and in silico analyses of their evolutionary and structural relationships were performed. Animal food allergens could be classified into 3 main families--tropomyosins, EF-hand proteins, and caseins--along with 14 minor families each composed of 1 to 3 allergens. The evolutionary relationships of each of these allergen superfamilies showed that in general, proteins with a sequence identity to a human homolog above approximately 62% were rarely allergenic. Single substitutions in otherwise highly conserved regions containing IgE epitopes in EF-hand parvalbumins may modulate allergenicity. These data support the premise that certain protein structures are more allergenic than others. Contrasting with plant food allergens, animal allergens, such as the highly conserved tropomyosins, challenge the capability of the human immune system to discriminate between foreign and self-proteins. Such immune responses run close to becoming autoimmune responses. Exploiting the closeness between animal allergens and their human homologs in the development of recombinant allergens for immunotherapy will need to consider the potential for developing unanticipated autoimmune responses.

  3. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  4. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1941-01-01

    In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The

  5. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  6. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental conditions.

  7. Convex relationships in ecosystems containing mixtures of trees and grass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between grass production and the quantity of trees in mixed tree-grass ecosystems (savannas) is convex for all or most of its range. In other words, the grass production declines more steeply per unit increase in tree quantity...

  8. Names of Southern African grasses: Name changes and additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...

  9. IgE sensitization to food allergens and airborne allergens in relation to biomarkers of type 2 inflammation in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelis, A; Alving, K; Middelveld, R; James, A; Ono, J; Ohta, S; Izuhara, K; Borres, M P; Forsberg, B; Janson, C; Malinovschi, A

    2018-05-10

    We have recently reported that sensitization to food allergens and sensitization to airborne allergens had independent associations with increased fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophils in middle-aged adults and in young subjects with asthma. To investigate the relation between IgE sensitization and several type 2 inflammation biomarkers in adult asthmatics. FeNO, urinary eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (U-EDN), serum eosinophil cationic protein (S-ECP) and periostin were measured in 396 asthmatics, aged 17-76 years, from the Swedish GA2LEN study. Sensitization to airborne allergens was examined with skin prick tests (≥3 mm wheal) and sensitization to food allergens with measurement of specific IgE (≥0.35 kU/L). Asthmatics sensitized to food allergens had higher FeNO, 22.3 ppb (18.6, 26.7) vs 16.1 ppb (14.2, 18.2) (P = .005), S-ECP, 17.7 mg/L (14.8, 21.1) vs 12.8 mg/L (10.9, 14.9) (P = .01), and periostin, 73.7 (67.5, 80.3) ng/mL vs 59.9 (55.8, 64.2) ng/mL (P = .003), than non-sensitized subjects. Periostin levels in this group were also significantly higher than in the group sensitized only to airborne allergens (P = .01). Sensitization to food allergens related independently to FeNO (P = .02), S-ECP (P = .006) and periostin (P = .004), whereas sensitization only to airborne allergens related only to FeNO (P = .02) after adjustments for age, sex, height, weight and smoking history. FeNO correlated weakly with S-ECP (r = .17, P < .001), periostin (r = .19, P < .001) and U-EDN (0.16, P < .001). S-ECP also correlated weakly with U-EDN (r = .12, P = .02). None of the correlations between the remaining pairs of markers of type 2 inflammation were significant. Sensitization to food allergens related to several local and systemic type 2 inflammation markers, such as FeNO, S-ECP and periostin. Assessing the profile of allergic sensitization, including to food allergens, might improve the understanding and

  10. Allergen extracts for immunotherapy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona-Villa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (SLAAI presents a document about the use of immunotherapy (IT in Latin America, where administration patterns, indications and contraindications, effects on health, adverse events and socioeconomic impact are reviewed. Objective: To review publications analyzing the use of IT in Latin America. Methods: A literature review was carried out in order to identify works addressing IT in Latin America. This review was focused on practical scientific information available on IT in the region, and a parallel comparison was made with practices observed in the United States and European countries. Results: Of the 21 Latin American countries included, only 9 had original articles meeting the selection criteria; a total of 82 articles were selected, most of them from Brazil and Mexico. Most widely used allergenic extracts in Latin America tropical and subtropical regions were those of mites and pollen. Conclusion: Although it is true that there are huge challenges for the future of IT in Latin America, studies on subcutaneous IT and sublingual IT are increasing, but most of them are retrospective and some have design bias, and more prospective studies are therefore required, using internationally validated scales for clinical evaluation.

  11. Characterization of parvalbumin, the major allergen in Alaska pollack, and comparison with codfish Allergen M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Do, Thien; Hordvik, Ivar; Endresen, Curt; Elsayed, Said

    2005-02-01

    Increased fish consumption has led to frequent reporting of fish allergy and adverse reactions. Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) is a globally important commercial fish species, belonging to the Gadidae family. This family of fish also includes cod whose parvalbumin, Allergen M (Gad c 1), has been thoroughly studied and considered as a reference to sensitization in fish allergy. In the present study, parvalbumin from Alaska pollack, designated The c 1, was purified by use of anion exchange chromatography. To demonstrate the homogeneity of the purified protein, reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography was performed and showed two distinct fractions which had similar IgG and IgE binding capacities. Accordingly, cDNA cloning revealed two isotypic parvalbumin transcripts in pollack muscle. Recombinant parvalbumins of pollack exhibited low IgG and IgE binding capacities, in contrast to the native counterparts, which were almost as potent as cod Gad c 1. The allergenicity of The c 1 was assayed by ELISA inhibition, and compared to cod, the concentration required for obtaining 50% ELISA inhibition (C 50%) was only 18% higher for The c 1.

  12. Successful transdermal allergen delivery and allergen-specific immunotherapy using biodegradable microneedle patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Shin, Jung U; Kim, Seo Hyeong; Noh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hye Ran; Lee, Jungsoo; Chu, Howard; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jung Dong; Kim, Hong Kee; Jeong, Do Hyeon; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is an effective treatment modality for allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD). However, frequent visits over a 3-year period as well as looming adverse events tend to discourage patient compliance. Therefore, a more convenient, effective, and safe method of SIT is needed. For several decades, use of microneedles has been promoted as an efficient and precise transdermal drug delivery method. In this study, we developed Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) extract (DfE)-loaded microneedle patches, and evaluated their safety and efficacy as a novel SIT method. After 4 weeks of patch application, efficient allergen delivery and successful induction of immune response to DfE were demonstrated in mice, with no apparent adverse events. AD-induced NC/Nga mice received microneedle immunotherapy (MNIT) (10 μg), subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) (10 μg), SCIT (100 μg), or placebo. Both MNIT (10 μg) and SCIT (100 μg) treatments improved clinical and histologic manifestations of AD skin lesions, altered immunoglobulin production, dampened Th2 cellular response, and boosted Treg infiltrates, without significant side effects; whereas SCIT (10 μg) or placebo subsets failed to show any effects. Based on the favorable safety and efficacy profiles demonstrated in mice by MNIT in the current study, we believe that MNIT may serve as a new SIT modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  14. Identification of novel allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus using immunoproteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, P; Sundaram, C S; Madan, T; Gade, W N; Shah, A; Sirdeshmukh, R; Sarma, P U

    2007-08-01

    Approximately 20% of the world's asthmatics are suffering from Aspergillus fumigatus (Afu)-induced allergies. The characterization of specific IgE-inducing allergens in allergic aspergillosis patients is fundamental for clinical diagnosis and for immunotherapy. Immunoproteomics combined with mass spectrometric analysis was used to identify proteins of third-week culture filtrate (3wcf) potentially responsible for Afu-specific IgE immunoreactivity, using pooled sera from Afu-sensitized asthmatics. Their allergenic potential was also tested against patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis immunoblotting of 3wcf proteins with individual sera from such patients. This helped us to establish a set of candidate allergens, which could be explored further for diagnostic application in allergic aspergillosis asthmatics including ABPA. Peptide mass fingerprint using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and/or de novo sequencing by MS/MS analysis of the protein spots from 2-D gels led to the identification of a total of 16 allergens of Afu. Eleven of them are being reported as allergens for the first time and five had been reported earlier. Putative isoforms of the proteins Asp f 13 and chitosanase have been observed for the first time. When studied for reactivity of these proteins among patients with ABPA using their individual sera, these patients exhibited sensitization although the pattern was varying. Taken together, these proteins could thus be considered as potential allergens even among patients with ABPA. Three of these proteins viz. the hypothetical protein (# spot no. 5), extracellular arabinase (# spot no. 6) and chitosanase (# spot no. 11) could be major allergens with specific IgE immunoreactivity with six out of eight patients' sera. The immunoproteomic approach applied to the analysis of culture filtrate proteins resulted in the

  15. Genome-wide analysis of potential cross-reactive endogenous allergens in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chao Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteins in the food are the source of common allergic components to certain patients. Current lists of plant endogenous allergens were based on the medical/clinical reports as well as laboratory results. Plant genome sequences made it possible to predict and characterize the genome-wide of putative endogenous allergens in rice (Oryza sativa L.. In this work, we identified and characterized 122 candidate rice allergens including the 22 allergens in present databases. Conserved domain analysis also revealed 37 domains among rice allergens including one novel domain (histidine kinase-, DNA gyrase B-, and HSP90-like ATPase, PF13589 adding to the allergen protein database. Phylogenetic analysis of the allergens revealed the diversity among the Prolamin superfamily and DnaK protein family, respectively. Additionally, some allergens proteins clustered on the rice chromosome might suggest the molecular function during the evolution.

  16. Allergens in law - European legislation assessed against the preferences of food allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.J.; Frewer, L.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews current European legislation concerning allergens and their labelling, in particular in relation to the need to optimise consumer protection and improve the quality of life of food allergic consumers. Adequate communication concerning the presence of (potentially) allergenic

  17. Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo-glutaronitrile formu...

  18. Clinical significance identification in the of aero-allergen western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -allergen ... avoidance measures and the selection of patients suitable for immunotherapy. ... continuous volumetric air sampling, using a Burkard spore trap. Mould spore counts .... evidence of asthma, rhinitis and!or eczema. Drops of allergen.

  19. DermAll nanomedicine for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaczi, Edina; Szabó, Kornélia; Francziszti, László; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R; Molnár, Levente; Bitai, Tamás; Jánossy, Tamás; Bata-Csörgő, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2013-11-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) the only disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergies is characterized with long treatment duration and high risk of side effects. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a novel ASIT, called DermAll, in an experimental allergic rhinitis model. We designed and characterized DermAll-OVA, a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as model allergen. DermAll-OVA was administered topically with DermaPrep device to target Langerhans cells. To detect the clinical efficacy of DermAll ASIT we quantified the nasal symptoms and characterized the immunomodulatory activity of DermAll ASIT by measuring cytokine secretion after OVA-stimulation of splenocytes and antibodies from the sera. In allergic mice DermAll ASIT was as safe as Placebo, balanced the allergen-induced pathogenic TH2-polarized immune responses, and decreased the clinical symptoms by 52% [32%, 70%] compared to Placebo. These studies suggest that DermAll ASIT is safe and should significantly improve the immunopathology and symptoms of allergic diseases. A novel allergen-specific immunotherapy for IgE-mediated allergies is presented in this paper, using an experimental allergic rhinitis model and a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin as model allergen. Over 50% reduction of symptoms was found as the immune system's balance was favorably altered toward more TH2-polarized immune responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of IgE antibodies against purified grass pollen allergens (Lol p 1, 2, 3 and 5) during immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Dieges, P. H.; van Wijk, R. G.; de Jong, N.; Brewczyski, P. Z.; Kroon, A. M.; Schilte, P. P.; Tan, K. Y.; Simon-Licht, I. F.; Roberts, A. M.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE titres tend to rise early after the start of immunotherapy, followed by a decline to pre-immunotherapy levels or lower. OBJECTIVES: We were interested to know whether the early increase in IgE antibodies includes new specificities of IgE, and whether these responses persist. METHODS:

  1. Variability of crossreactivity of IgE antibodies to group I and V allergens in eight grass pollen species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Driessen, M. N.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Crossreactivity to Dactylis glomerata, Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Secale cereale, Zea mays, and Phragmites communis of IgE antibodies against Lol p I or Lol p V was investigated by means of RAST-inhibition. Within a group of sera the degree of crossreactivity was

  2. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2010-01-01

    a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution...... without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded....

  3. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Stanley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2 m−2 yr−1. This is comparable to previous AOUR-based estimates of export production at the BATS site but is several times larger than export estimates derived from sediment traps or 234Th fluxes. We compare AOUR determined in this study to AOUR measured in the 1980s and show AOUR is significantly greater today than decades earlier because of changes in AOU, rather than changes in ventilation rates. The changes in AOU are likely a methodological artefact associated with problems with early oxygen measurements.

  4. Modeling Biogeochemical-Physical Interactions and Carbon Flux in the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; McClain, Charles R.; Christian, James R.

    2001-01-01

    An ecosystem-carbon cycle model is used to analyze the biogeochemical-physical interactions and carbon fluxes in the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site for the period of 1992-1998. The model results compare well with observations (most variables are within 8% of observed values). The sea-air flux ranges from -0.32 to -0.50 mol C/sq m/yr, depending upon the gas transfer algorithm used. This estimate is within the range (-0.22 to -0.83 mol C/sq m/yr) of previously reported values which indicates that the BATS region is a weak sink of atmospheric CO2. The overall carbon balance consists of atmospheric CO2 uptake of 0.3 Mol C/sq m/yr, upward dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) bottom flux of 1.1 Mol C/sq m/yr, and carbon export of 1.4 mol C/sq m/yr via sedimentation. Upper ocean DIC levels increased between 1992 and 1996 at a rate of approximately 1.2 (micro)mol/kg/yr, consistent with observations. However, this trend was reversed during 1997-1998 to -2.7 (micro)mol/kg/yr in response to hydrographic changes imposed by the El Nino-La Nina transition, which were manifested in the Sargasso Sea by the warmest SST and lowest surface salinity of the period (1992-1998).

  5. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  6. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  7. Effect of local allergen priming on early, late, delayed-phase, and epicutaneous skin reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, F. R.; Weller, M. S.; Jansen, H. M.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Allergic disease is reflected in a chronic inflammatory response to an allergen. It is thought that local allergen priming underlies this chronicity. To assess the effect of allergen priming on the amplitude and histologic effect of the allergic reaction, four sequential, intracutaneous skin tests

  8. Effect of local allergen priming on early, late, delayed-phase, and epicutaneous skin reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, FR; Weller, MS; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    1996-01-01

    Allergic disease is renected in a chronic inflammatory response to an allergen. It is thought that local allergen priming underlies this chronicity. To assess the effect of allergen priming on the amplitude and histologic effect of the allergic reaction, four sequential, intracutaneous skin tests

  9. Augmentation of skin response by exposure to a combination of allergens and irritants - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Held, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Clinical experimental studies on contact dermatitis (CD) often evaluate the effect of one allergen or one irritant at a time. In real life, the skin is often exposed to more allergens, more irritants or allergens and irritants in combination. This combined exposure may potentially influence irrit...

  10. Immunological, chemical and clinical aspects of exposure to mixtures of contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte M.; Geisler, Carsten; Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena

    2017-01-01

    relevant. In this article, we provide a general introduction to immune responses to contact allergens, and discuss the literature concerning immune responses to mixtures of allergens. According to the existing evidence, increased responses are induced following sensitization with combinations of allergens...

  11. Prediction of allergenicity of gene-modified foods by serum-based testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of applying the IFBC/ILSI decision tree in a number of cases, a refinement of the scheme is suggested. Large differences in allergenic potential may be obtained by altering the route of administration of an allergen. Because an inhalation allergen can induce symptoms at different...

  12. The contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and respiratory allergy in the Th2-prone Brown Norway rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Stierum, R.H.; Boorsma, A.; Schijf, M.A.; Prinsen, M.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Bloksma, N.; Arts, J.H.E.

    2008-01-01

    All LMW respiratory allergens known to date can also induce skin allergy in test animals. The question here was if in turn skin allergens can induce allergy in the respiratory tract. Respiratory allergy was tested in Th2-prone Brown Norway (BN) rats by dermal sensitization with the contact allergen

  13. Allergen-induced changes in airway responsiveness are related to baseline airway responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; RijssenbeekNouwens, LHM; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    In the literature, bronchial allergen challenge is usually reported to result in an increase in histamine-induced airway responsiveness (AR). The present study investigated the relation between baseline AR and allergen-induced changes in AR. The effect of allergen challenge on AR was investigated in

  14. Adsorption of Cashew Allergens to Acid-Etched Zinc Metal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvanized metal surfaces are approved by the FDA for use in many food processing steps. Food allergens can cause severe reactions even in very small amounts, and surfaces contaminated with allergens could pose a serious threat. The binding of cashew allergens to zinc particles was evaluated. Whi...

  15. Establishment of Reference Doses for residues of allergenic foods: Report of the VITAL Expert Panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, S.L.; Baumert, J.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Brooke-Taylor, S.; Allen, K.J.; Houben, G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, an expert panel was assembled to establish appropriate Reference Doses for allergenic food residues as a part of the VITAL (Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labeling) program of The Allergen Bureau of Australia & New Zealand (ABA). These Reference Doses would guide advisory labeling

  16. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (Pair-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  17. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  18. [Use of THP-1 for allergens identification method validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuezheng; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Xue; Zhang, Yanshu; Dai, Yufei

    2014-05-01

    Look for an in vitro test method to evaluate sensitization using THP-1 cells by the changes of the expression of cytokines to provide more reliable markers of the identification of sensitization. The monocyte-like THP-1 cells were induced and differentiated into THP-1-macrophages with PMA (0.1 microg/ml). The changes of expression of cytokines at different time points after the cells being treated with five known allergens, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), phenylene diamine (PPDA) potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and two non-allergens sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and isopropanol (IPA) at various concentrations were evaluated. The IL-6 and TNF-alpha production was measured by ELISA. The secretion of IL-1beta and IL-8 was analyzed by Cytometric Bead Array (CBA). The section of the IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-8 were the highest when THP-1 cells were exposed to NiSO4, DNCB and K2Cr2O7 for 6h, PPDA and TDI for 12h. The production of IL-6 were approximately 40, 25, 20, 50 and 50 times for five kinds chemical allergens NiSO4, DNCB, K2Cr2O7, PPDA and TDI respectively at the optimum time points and the optimal concentration compared to the control group. The expression of TNF-alpha were 20, 12, 20, 8 and 5 times more than the control group respectively. IL-1beta secretion were 30, 60, 25, 30 and 45 times respectively compared to the control group. The production of IL-8 were approximately 15, 12, 15, 12 and 7 times respectively compared to the control group. Both non-allergens SDS and IPA significantly induced IL-6 secretion in a dose-dependent manner however SDS cause a higher production levels, approximately 20 times of the control. Therefore IL-6 may not be a reliable marker for identification of allergens. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-8 expressions did not change significantly after exposed to the two non-allergens. The test method using THP-1 cells by detecting the productions of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and

  19. Allergen-specific immunotherapy and risk of autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Madsen, Flemming; Skaaby, Tea

    2012-01-01

    After 100 years of experience with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), an issue that is still unresolved is whether SIT can act as a trigger of, or as a risk factor for, autoimmune disease. We searched the literature for evidence on this topic.......After 100 years of experience with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), an issue that is still unresolved is whether SIT can act as a trigger of, or as a risk factor for, autoimmune disease. We searched the literature for evidence on this topic....

  20. Allergen immunotherapy for the prevention of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Halken, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Prevention of Allergic Disease. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the pre......BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Prevention of Allergic Disease. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  1. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered.

  2. Selected oxidized fragrance terpenes are common contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matura, Mihaly; Sköld, Maria; Börje, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Terpenes are widely used fragrance compounds in fine fragrances, but also in domestic and occupational products. Terpenes oxidize easily due to autoxidation on air exposure. Previous studies have shown that limonene, linalool and caryophyllene are not allergenic themselves but readily form...... allergenic products on air-exposure. This study aimed to determine the frequency and characteristics of allergic reactions to selected oxidized fragrance terpenes other than limonene. In total 1511 consecutive dermatitis patients in 6 European dermatology centres were patch tested with oxidized fragrance...

  3. Isolation and characterization of allergens of Prosopis juliflora pollen grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, I S; Sharma, J D

    1985-12-01

    Proteins and glycoproteins from Prosopis juliflora (Pj) pollen grains were separated by gel filtration, electrophoresis, DEAE cellulose chromatography and their molecular weight was determined by gel filtration and SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The allergenic activity of different fractions were evaluated by in vivo skin prick test and in vitro gel diffusion test. It was found that fraction E of gel filtration and fraction III and IV of DEAE cellulose chromatography were most allergenic. This fraction E of gel filtration showed positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff's reagent as determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis.

  4. Sensitivity to the Main Allergens in Children with Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Kuznietsova

    2015-11-01

    Objective of the research — to study hypersensitivity to the main allergens in children with allergic diseases based on the results of skin allergy testing, as well as to analyze the structure of diseases. Materials and methods. We have examined 228 children using skin prick testing, the estimation of results was conducted 25–40 minutes after performing the test. Associations between the results of skin prick test with various allergens were studied using cross-correlation analysis in the package of applied statistics Statistics 6.0. Results. 85.5 % of children were sensitized to the pollen allergens, domestic — 54 %, food — 21 %, fungal allergens — 35 %. Among pollen plants, there prevails sensitization to ambrosia — 47.8 %, sunflower — 49.5 %, cyclachaena — 38.5 %; among domestic allergens — to the tick species D.рteronyssinus and D.farinae — 24 %, cat hair — 19.7 %, among fungal — to Alternaria (23 %. Most often hyperergic reaction (papule diameter ≥ 8 mm was observed to cyclachaena (44 %, sunflower (46 %, ambrosia (50 %, cat hair (42 %, D.farinae (39 %. We have established significant (р < 0.05 correlations of mainly middle strength between positive prick-tests in pairs: ambrosia — cyclachaena (r = +0.43, ambrosia — sunflower (r = +0.43, acarus D.рteronyssinus — D.farinae (r = +0.66, mixture «birch, alder, oak, hazel» — ryegrass (r = +0.53, beef meat — egg yolk (r = +0.42, pork meat — chicken meat (r = +0.35, milk (r = +0.36, wool of sheep — pork (r = +0.36. Conclusion. Predominance of sensitization to pollen allergens represents the epidemiological situation in the South region of Ukraine. The presence of correlations between the different types of allergens indicates the cross reactions between them. In case of multiple positive results of skin allergen tests, the study using molecular allergy diagnostic method is recommended to establish genuine or cross allergy.

  5. Lead-210 and polonium-210 in grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C R

    1960-07-16

    It appears that an important contribution to the observed ..cap alpha..-activity of grass may be provided by a process of natural fall-out in which lead-210 resulting from decay of atmospheric radon, together with a fraction of the equilibrium amount of its descendant polonium-210 are deposited by rainfall directly on to foliage. Metabolic uptake of part of this activity by sheep is indicated by the presence in the kidney of polonium-210. 6 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  6. Economic Factors Impacting Food Allergen Management: Perspectives from the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Kao, Lauren M; Schuster, Erik; Smith, Bridget M

    2017-10-01

    Food allergies affect up to 8% of children in the United States and may occasionally lead to severe life-threatening reactions. Because there is currently no cure for food allergies, strict avoidance of the allergen-containing foods is the only means of preventing an allergic reaction. Consumers rely on food manufacturers to reliably track and declare the presence of food allergens in products. Over the past 10 to 20 years, the food industry has increasingly adopted allergen control approaches in its processing facilities. However, the major industry costs related to food allergen management have not been fully described. The objective of this study was to characterize the factors that contribute to the economic impact of food allergen control practices on the food industry. A focus group (n = 100) was conducted with food industry professionals to identify key areas of cost for food allergen management. A survey based on the domains identified was then developed and disseminated to a convenience sample (n = 50) of quality control food industry specialists with knowledge of their company's food allergen management practices. Nearly all companies (92%) produced food products containing one or more of the top eight allergenic foods recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or sesame seeds. Cleaning procedures, employee training, and the potential for a recall due to allergen cross-contact were most frequently rated as the important factors in food allergen management. Recalls due to food allergen cross-contact, cleaning procedures, equipment and premises design, and employee training were ranked as the greatest allergen management expenses. Although 96% of companies had a food allergen control plan in place, nearly half (42%) had at least one food allergen-related recall within the past 5 years. The industry appears to endorse a willingness to unify precautionary allergen labeling to communicate a clear message more effectively to consumers.

  7. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Food allergen law and the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004: falling short of true protection for food allergy sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roses, Jonathan B

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, Congress mandated labeling of food allergens on packaged foods for the first time by passing the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA). FALCPA requires that manufacturers of foods containing one of the eight major allergens responsible for 90 percent of food allergies either state on the food's packaging that the food contains the allergen, or refers to the allergen by a name easily understandable by consumers in the ingredients listing. Despite this important first step in protecting consumers with food allergies, FALCPA left unregulated the use of conditional precautionary statements (e.g., "may contain [allergen]"), which many manufacturers have used as a low-cost shield to liability. Further, FALCPA applies only to packaged foods, and does not mandate listing of food allergen ingredients in restaurants. This article discusses the history of food allergen litigation in the United States, highlighting the problems plaintiffs have faced in seeking recovery for allergic reactions to a defendants' food product, and some of the practical difficulties still extant due to the lack of regulation of precautionary statements. Also presented is a review of the Massachusetts Food Allergy Awareness Act, the first state legislation requiring restaurants to take an active role in educating employees and consumers about the presence and dangers of food allergens.

  9. Fractionation and immunological characterization of allergens and allergoids of Prosopis juliflora pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, I S; Kamal; Mishra, S

    1991-06-01

    Allergoids of Prosopis juliflora pollen were prepared by formalinization of crude allergen and glycoprotein. Fractionation of crude allergen and allergoids on Sephadex G-100 resulted in separation of proteins of varying molecular size and a glycoprotein of 81 to 13 KD. Allergoids prepared from the glycoprotein fractionated into two proteins of approximately 200 KD and more than 200 KD. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis indicated 12 and gel diffusion test 3 precipitating antigens incrude allergen extract; by these tests allergoids depicted 8 and 3 precipitin bands, respectively. The precipitin analysis showed heterogeneity of allergenic determinants and also variation in cross-immunogenicity of the formalinized derivatives. The skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests depicted greater activity of fractionated crude allergens than the allergoids. The above tests suggest altered and concealed antigenic determinants as result of formalinization of P. juliflora pollen which, however, showed reduced allergenic activity relative to the native allergen.

  10. A four-step sandwich radioimmunoassay for direct selection of monoclonal antibodies to allergen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, V.; Corbi, A.L.; Sanchez-Madrid, F.; Carreira, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A 4-step radioimmunoassay has been devised for direct identification of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) directed to IgE-binding molecules. Polyvinyl chloride wells coated with purified anti-mouse kappa chain MAb (187-1) were successively incubated with: (1) MAb-containing hybridoma supernatants, (2) allergen extract, (3) allergic patients' serum pool, and (4) 125 I-labeled anti-human IgE antiserum, to detect MAb-allergen-IgE complexes. MAb to allergens from Parietaria judaica pollen and Dermatophagoides mites have been selected with this screening procedure. The affinity-purified allergen molecules competed the binding of IgE to allergen extracts coated to paper discs in a RAST inhibition assay, confirming the anti-allergen specificity of the selected MAb. This screening method is sensitive enough to allow detection of MAb directed to poorly represented allergens. (Auth.)

  11. Allergen labelling in meat, dairy and cereal products from the Serbian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirić, D.; Nikolić, D.; Ćirić, J.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Janković, V.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    Allergens in food are a great health risk, because of the ratio of severity of problems compared to small amounts of ingested allergen. Since 2014, Serbian producers and importers of food have been obliged to declare allergens from the list of Codex Alimentarius on the product packaging. Surveillance of different meat, diary, and cereal product took place in 2016, with aim of checking if the Serbian regulatory requirements for labelling of allergens in food are being fulfilled. Out of 68 different meat products, 20 were not labelled for allergens. Thirty-six labels of various dairy products were examined revealing that allergen information was included on 27 of them. Only one of eight examined cereal products did not have allergen labelling.

  12. Prosopis juliflora pollen allergen induced hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis studies in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, I S

    1986-11-01

    In vivo and in vitro allergenic activities of Prosopis juliflora pollen allergens were measured in guinea pigs. Intracutaneous skin test showed an early wheal flare response and a late erythema-redness, sensitized with various concentrations (100, 50, 25, 5 and 1.5 micrograms/ml) of Prosopis juliflora pollen extract after administration of a challenging dose. A 50 micrograms/ml sensitizing dose of Prosopis juliflora pollen allergen gave optimum skin response as both early and late effects. The nature of immunochemical reactivity between pollen allergens and reaginic antibodies were further characterized by histamine release test, gel diffusion test, radioallergosorbent test and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. These tests confirm allergenicity caused by Prosopis juliflora pollen allergens and showed the binding of allergens with reaginic antibody and its regulation in guinea pigs.

  13. Purification and characterization of the glycoprotein allergen from Prosopis juliflora pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, I S

    1991-02-01

    Highly active glycoprotein allergens have been isolated from pollen of Prosopis juliflora by a combination of Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and Sodium dodecyl sulphate-Poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The glycoprotein fraction was homogeneous, and had molecular weight 20,000. The purified glycoprotein allergen contained 20% carbohydrate, mainly arabinose and galactose. Enzymatic digestion of glycoprotein with protease released glycopeptides of molecular weight ranging from less than 1,000 to more than 5,000 on Sephadex G-25 gel filtration. Antigenicity or allergenicity testing of these glycopeptides by immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, and radioallergosorbent test indicated complete loss of allergenic activity after digestion with protease whereas incubation with beta-D-galactosidase and periodate oxidation had little affect on the allergenic activity of the glycoprotein fraction. But incubation with alpha-D-glucosidase did not affect the allergenic activity significantly. All these tests indicated that protein played significant role in allergenicity of P. juliflora pollen.

  14. NUTIRTION LABELLING OF FOOD AND ALLERGEN IN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Golian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The new regulation introduced mandatory nutrition labelling and ordering food manufacturers provide information on energy and six nutrients: fat, saturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, sugars, protein and salt - in that order, and per 100 g or 100 ml. This information should be included in the nutritional table in one visual field (usually on the back cover, moreover, can also be expressed on per serving. It is important to realize that this regulation requires manufacturers indicate the nutritional value in one field of vision, usually on the "back cover" designation in the principal field (e.g. "on the front cover" remains voluntary. Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labelling of ‘‘priority allergens. Increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labelling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs.doi:10.5219/230

  15. Frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens in allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Camero-Martínez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy is deemed to have a worldwide prevalence ranging from 2 to 10 %. Objective: To determine the frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens by age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, prolective, observational study. Patients aged from 2 to 64 years with symptoms consistent with allergic disease were included. Skin prick tests were carried out with food allergens. Frequencies and percentages were estimated. Results: One-hundred and ninety-one patients were included, out of which 63.4% were females. Mean age was 22.5 years; 19.3 % showed positive skin reactivity to at least one food. Distribution by age group was as follows: preschool children 13.5 %, schoolchildren 24.3 %, adolescents 2.7 % and adults 59.5 %. Diagnoses included allergic rhinitis in 84.3 %, asthma in 19.4 %, urticaria in 14.1 % and atopic dermatitis in 8.4 %. Positive skin reactivity frequency distribution in descending order was: soybeans with 5.2 %, peach with 4.7 %, grapes, orange and apple with 3.6 %, nuts with 3.1 %, pineapple, avocado, tomato and tuna with 2.6 %. Conclusion: The frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens was similar to that reported in the national and Latin American literature, but sensitization to each specific allergen varied for each age group.

  16. Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT): a prototype of Precision Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canonica, G. W.; Bachert, C.; Hellings, P.; Ryan, D.; Valovirta, E.; Wickman, M.; de Beaumont, O.; Bousquet, J.

    2015-01-01

    Precision medicine is a medical model aiming to deliver customised healthcare - with medical decisions, practices, and/or products tailored to the individual patient informed but not directed by guidelines. Allergen immunotherapy has unique immunological rationale, since the approach is tailored to

  17. Occupational Asthma after Withdrawal from the Occupational Allergen Exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáčková, P.; Pelclová, D.; Lebedová, J.; Marečková, H.; Brabec, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2006), s. 629-638 ISSN 0019-8366 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : occupational asthma * allergen exposure withdrawal Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2006 http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/indhealth_44_4_629.pdf

  18. Contact allergens in shoe leather among patients with foot eczema.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coevorden, A.M. van; Coenraads, P.J.; Pas, H.H.; Valk, P.G.M. van der

    2002-01-01

    Some patients with relapsing foot eczema and a shoe leather allergy, who fail to show positive results with standard series and shoe wear screening tray patch testing, do not respond to the use of hypoallergenic shoe leather. We assume that relevant allergens are present in hypoallergenic shoe

  19. Contact allergens in shoe leather among patients with foot eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Coevorden, AM; Coenraads, PJ; Pas, HH; van der Valk, PGM

    Some patients with relapsing foot eczema and a shoe leather allergy, who fail to show positive results with standard series and shoe wear screening tray patch testing, do not respond to the use of hypoallergenic shoe leather. We assume that relevant allergens are present in hypoallergenic shoe

  20. [Frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens in allergic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camero-Martínez, Heriberto; López-García, Aída Inés; Rivero-Yeverino, Daniela; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Rojas-Méndez, Isabel Cristina; Vázquez-Rojas, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is deemed to have a worldwide prevalence ranging from 2 to 10 %. To determine the frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens by age groups. Cross-sectional, descriptive, prolective, observational study. Patients aged from 2 to 64 years with symptoms consistent with allergic disease were included. Skin prick tests were carried out with food allergens. Frequencies and percentages were estimated. One-hundred and ninety-one patients were included, out of which 63.4% were females. Mean age was 22.5 years; 19.3 % showed positive skin reactivity to at least one food. Distribution by age group was as follows: preschool children 13.5 %, schoolchildren 24.3 %, adolescents 2.7 % and adults 59.5 %. Diagnoses included allergic rhinitis in 84.3 %, asthma in 19.4 %, urticaria in 14.1 % and atopic dermatitis in 8.4 %. Positive skin reactivity frequency distribution in descending order was: soybeans with 5.2 %, peach with 4.7 %, grapes, orange and apple with 3.6 %, nuts with 3.1 %, pineapple, avocado, tomato and tuna with 2.6 %. The frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens was similar to that reported in the national and Latin American literature, but sensitization to each specific allergen varied for each age group.

  1. The impact of common metal allergens in daily devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    We are widely exposed to metal allergens in our daily doings. As exposures constantly changes because of fashion trends and technological developments, there is a need for a continuous update of patch testers. An overview of consumer metal exposure studies that have been published in 2012 and 2013...

  2. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis : protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham; Pfaar, Oliver; Muraro, Antonella; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Calderon, Moises; Cingi, Cemal; Demoly, Pascal; Durham, Stephen; van Wijk, Ronald Gerth; Halken, Susanne; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hellings, Peter; Jacobsen, Lars; Knol, Edward; Linnemann, Desiree Larenas; Lin, Sandra; Maggina, Vivian; Oude-Elberink, Hanneke; Pajno, Giovanni; Panwankar, Ruby; Pastorello, Elideanna; Pitsios, Constantinos; Rotiroti, Giuseppina; Timmermans, Frans; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Varga, Eva-Maria; Wilkinson, Jamie; Williams, Andrew; Worm, Margitta; Zhang, Luo; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT

  3. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic asthma: Protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, S. (Sangeeta); Nurmatov, U. (Ulugbek); I. Agache; S. Lau (Susanne); Muraro, A. (Antonella); M. Jutel (M.); G. Roberts; C.A. Akdis; M. Bonini (Matteo); M. Calderon (Moises); T.B. Casale (Thomas); Cavkaytar, O. (Ozlem); L. Cox (Linda); P. Demoly; Flood, B. (Breda); Hamelmann, E. (Eckard); Izuhara, K. (Kenji); O. Kalayci; J. Kleine-Tebbe (Jörg); A. Nieto (Antonio); N. Papadopoulos; O. Pfaar (Oliver); L. Rosenwasser (Lanny); D. Ryan (Dermot); C.B. Schmidt-Weber; S.J. Szefler; U. Wahn (Ulrich); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); Wilkinson, J. (Jamie); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Asthma. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of

  4. Vinegar decreases allergenic response in lentil and egg food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Dueñas-Laita, A; Pineda, F; Herrero, M; Martín, B

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy results from an atypical response of the mucosal immune system to orally consumed allergens. Antacid medication inhibits the digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy. A decrease of the gastric pH might enhance the function of digestion and reduce the risk of food allergy. To test a possible decrease in the allergenicity of powerful food allergens (egg, chicken, lentils) with the addition of vinegar during the cooking process. We included seven patients who suffered from anaphylaxis due to egg, chicken and lentils. We added vinegar to egg, chicken and lentil processed extracts used for skin prick tests (SPT) and compared the wheal areas obtained with the same extracts sources and the same way but without vinegar addition. Immunodetection was performed with the different processed extracts and patients' sera. Only one patient consented food challenge with vinegar-marinated-chicken. Wheal areas were significantly minor with the food extract with vinegar. Immunodetection showed a decrease of the response with vinegar processed extracts. Vinegar addition during the cooking process may decrease lentil and chicken allergenicity. Copyright 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression levels of parvalbumins determine allergenicity of fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesmeier, U; Vázquez-Cortés, S; Bublin, M; Radauer, C; Ma, Y; Briza, P; Fernández-Rivas, M; Breiteneder, H

    2010-02-01

    Parvalbumins are the most important fish allergens. Polysensitization to various fish species is frequently reported and linked to the cross-reactivity of their parvalbumins. Studies on cross-reactivity and its association to the allergenicity of purified natural parvalbumins from different fish species are still lacking. In addition, some studies indicate that dark muscled fish such as tuna are less allergenic. Total protein extracts and purified parvalbumins from cod, whiff, and swordfish, all eaten frequently in Spain, were tested for their IgE-binding properties with 16 fish allergic patients' sera from Madrid. The extent of cross-reactivity of these parvalbumins was investigated by IgE ELISA inhibition assays. Additionally, the cDNA sequences of whiff and swordfish parvalbumins were determined. Extractable amounts of parvalbumins from cod were 20 times and from whiff 30 times higher than from swordfish. Parvalbumins were recognized by 94% of the patients in extracts of cod and whiff, but only by 60% in swordfish extracts. Nevertheless, a high cross-reactivity was determined for all purified parvalbumins by IgE inhibition. The amino acid sequence identities of the three parvalbumins were in a range of 62-74%. The parvalbumins of cod, whiff and swordfish are highly cross-reactive. The high amino acid sequence identity among cod, whiff and swordfish parvalbumins results in the observed IgE cross-reactivity. The low allergenicity of swordfish is due to the low expression levels of its parvalbumin.

  6. Assessment of protein allergenicity studies in brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    For the safety evaluation of genetically engineered crops, the potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein(s) has become an important issue. There is, however, no universal and reliable test system for the evaluation of the allergic sensitizing ability of food proteins. Therefore, there

  7. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Pajno, Giovanni Battista

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in IgE-mediated food...

  8. Pyroglyphid mites as a source of work-related allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Milković-Kraus, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Pyroglyphid mites are primarily associated with allergen exposure at home; hence the name house dust mites. However, we have found numerous studies reporting pyroglyhid mite levels in public and occupational settings. This review presents the findings of house dust mite allergens (family Pyroglyphidae, species Dermatophagoides) as potential work-related risk factors and proposes occupations at risk of house dust mite-related diseases. Pyroglyphid mites or their allergens are found in various workplaces, but clinically relevant exposures have been observed in hotels, cinemas, schools, day-care centres, libraries, public transportation (buses, trains, taxies, and airplanes), fishing-boats, submarines, poultry farms, and churches. Here we propose a classification of occupational risk as low (occasional exposure to mite allergen levels up to 2 μg g(-1)), moderate (exposure between 2 μg g(-1) and 10 μg g(-1)), and high (exposure >10 μg g(-1)). The classification of risk should include factors relevant for indoor mite population (climate, building characteristics, and cleaning schedule). To avoid development or aggravation of allergies associated with exposure to house dust mites at work, occupational physicians should assess exposure risk at work, propose proper protection, provide vocational guidance to persons at risk and conduct pre-employment and periodic examinations to diagnose new allergy cases. Protection at work should aim to control dust mite levels at work. Measures may include proper interior design and regular cleaning and building maintenance.

  9. Allergenicity assessment strategy for novel food proteins and protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert

    2016-08-01

    To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed according to the European food legislation. Allergenicity risk assessment might pose some major difficulties, since detailed guidance on how to assess the allergenic potential of novel foods is not available. At present, the approach relies mostly on the guidance of allergenicity assessment for genetically modified (GM) plant foods. The most recent one was proposed by EFSA (2010 and 2011); "weight-of-evidence approach". However this guidance is difficult to interpret, not completely applicable or validated for novel foods and therefore needs some adjustments. In this paper we propose a conceptual strategy which is based on the "weight-of-evidence approach" for food derived from GM plants and other strategies that were previously published in the literature. This strategy will give more guidance on how to assess the allergenicity of novel food proteins and protein sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemostratigraphy at DSDP Sites 386 (Bermuda Rise) and 144 (Demerara Rise), Implications for Euxinic Conditions During OAE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, P. A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J. S.; Sandler, A.

    2008-05-01

    Chemostratigraphic studies of DSDP Site 386 on the Bermuda Rise and Site 144 on the Demerara Rise indicate that euxinic conditions developed at these deep-water sites during the time interval that corresponds to Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2). The data show a large increase in Fe/Al ratios, and dispersed pyrite aggregates (Site 386 Core 43, Section 3). Such findings at these deep oceanic sites are compatible with earlier studies showing that sediments in euxinic settings display increases in Fe/Al ratios due to the scavenging of dissolved Fe, and is also in agreement with previous Pr/Ph ratio of cyanobacteria showing low thermal stress, supporting in situ derivation. Elemental analyses at Site 386 also show that relatively high Sr/CaO ratios are present before and after OAE 2, indicating an increased contribution of biogenic carbonates, but not during the C/T boundary event. When Cr is plotted against Al2O3 in conjunction with a solid line representing the Cr/Al2O3 ratio in average shale, half of the samples fall above and half fall below this line. The values that plot above this line are all from Cores 47, 44, 43, and 42, which contain higher TOC. Their strong Cr enrichment with respect to the average shale can be indicative of an algal source of the OM, as this biota preferentially concentrates Cr. Competitive exclusion due to dominance of opportunistic prokaryotic blooms in combination with oxygen depletion can be invoked to explain the conditions that developed and were unfavorable to most other organisms throughout the water column during OAE 2. Sediments from DSDP Site 144 also reveal increased molecular fossils indicative of green sulfur bacteria, which are further characteristic of euxinic conditions (Kuypers et al., 2002; Forster et al., 2004). These results are in agreement with earlier works that showed lipids at DSDP Site 144 are predominantly of an autochthonous origin with primary production as the dominant source (Simoneit and Stuermer, 1982

  11. An international marine-atmospheric 222Rn measurement intercomparison in Bermuda. Part 2: Results for the participating laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colle, R.; Unterweger, M.P.; Hutchinson, J.M.R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of an international measurement intercomparison of instruments used to measure atmospheric 222 Rn, four participating laboratories made nearly simultaneous measurements of 222 Rn activity concentration in commonly sampled, ambient air over approximately a 2 week period, and three of these four laboratories participated in the measurement comparison of 14 introduced samples with known, but undisclosed (blind) 222 Rn activity concentration. The exercise was conducted in Bermuda in October 1991. The 222 Rn activity concentrations in ambient Bermudian air over the course of the intercomparison ranged from a few hundredths of a Bq · m -3 to about 2 Bq · m -3 , while the standardized sample additions covered a range from approximately 2.5 Bq · m -3 to 35 Bq · m -3 . The overall uncertainty in the latter concentrations was in the general range of 10%, approximating a 3 standard deviation uncertainty interval. The results of the intercomparison indicated that two of the laboratories were within very good agreement with the standard additions, and almost within expected statistical variations. These same two laboratories, however, at lower ambient concentrations, exhibited a systematic difference with an averaged offset of roughly 0.3 Bq · m -3 . The third laboratory participating in the measurement of standardized sample additions was systematically low by about 65% to 70%, with respect to the standard addition which was also confirmed in their ambient air concentration measurements. The fourth laboratory, participating in only the ambient measurement part of the intercomparison, was also systematically low by at least 40% with respect to the first two laboratories

  12. Nutrient-enhanced growth of Cladophora prolifera in harrington sound, bermuda: Eutrophication of a confined, phosphorus-limited marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Brian E.; O'Connell, Julie

    1989-04-01

    The green alga Cladophora prolifera (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales) has formed widespread blooms in Bermuda's inshore waters during the past 20 years, but, to date, no conclusive evidence links these blooms to nutrient enrichment. This study assessed the nutrient-dependance of productivity of Cladophora collected from Harrington Sound, a confined P-limited marine system where Cladophora first became abundant. Both N- and P-enrichment decreased the doubling time of Cladophora, which ranged from 14 days (with N and P enrichment) to 100 days (without enrichment). Nutrient enrichment also enhanced the light-saturated photosynthetic capacity (i.e. P max) of Cladophora, which ranged from 0·50 mg C g dry wt -1 h -1 (without enrichment) to 1·0 mg C g dry wt -1 h -1 (with enrichment). Tissue C:N, C:P and N:P ratios of unenriched Cladophora were elevated—25, 942, and 49, respectively—levels that suggest limitation by both N and P but primary limitation by P. Pore-waters under Cladophora mats had reduced salinities, elevated concentrations of NH 4, and high N:P ratios (N:P of 85), suggesting that N-rich groundwater seepage enriches Cladophora mats. The alkaline phosphatase capacity of Cladophora was high compared to other macroalgae in Harrington Sound, and its capacity was enhanced by N-enrichment and suppressed by P-enrichment. Because the productivity of Cladophora is nutrient-limited in shallow waters of Harrington Sound, enhanced growth and increased biomass of Cladophora result from cumulative seepage of N-rich groundwaters coupled with efficient utilization and recycling of dissolved organo-phosphorus compounds.

  13. Estimating the potential impacts of large mesopredators on benthic resources: integrative assessment of spotted eagle ray foraging ecology in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ajemian

    Full Text Available Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS, an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted.

  14. Evaluating grasses as a long-term energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.G.; Riche, A.B.

    2001-07-01

    The work reported here is part of an ongoing project that aims to evaluate the yields of three perennial rhizomatous grasses and determine their suitability as bio-energy crops. The work began in 1993, and the grasses have been monitored continuously since that time. This report covers the period 1999/2000, and includes: the performance of plots of the energy grasses Miscanthus grass, switchgrass and reed canary grass seven years after they were planted; assessment of the yield of 15 genotypes of Miscanthus planted in 1997; monitoring all the species throughout the growing period for the presence of pests, weeds and diseases; measurement of the amount of nitrate leached from below Miscanthus grass; investigating the occurrence of lodging in switchgrass. (Author)

  15. Comparison of immunoglobulin E measurements on IMMULITE and ImmunoCAP in samples consisting of allergen-specific mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibodies towards allergen extracts and four recombinant allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody in vitro tests are performed on enzyme immunoassay systems. Poor agreement among systems has been reported and comparisons have been made exclusively with allergen extracts - not with recombinant allergens. Here we compare the ImmunoCAP and the IMMULITE sy...

  16. Current glimpse of airborne allergenic pollen in Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ghosal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, atopic dermatitis have been steadily increasing all over the world, including India. Owing to its alarming trend, several aerobiological surveys have been undertaken in different parts of India to delineate the variety of pollen and spore load. In this review, we have reported the current state of aerobiological knowladge in India with particular reference to allergenic airborn pollen occurence in 2001–2015. Pollen have been found to contribute a significant proportion in the air and caused allergy symptoms in the local inhabitants. Aerobiological records, a questionnaire survey and hospitalization records have been employed for the analysis. Holoptelea integrifolia, Amaranthus spinosus in northern region, Sorghum vulgare, Pennisetum, Gynandropsis gynandra, Parthenium hysterophorus, Dolichandrone platycalyx in southern regions, and Parthenium hysterophorus from the western region; Cynodon dactylon, Cenchrus ciliaris in the central area; Acacia auriculiformis, Cleome gynandra, Catharanthus roseus, Phoenix sylvestris, Areca catechu, and Lantana camara in the eastern regions as potential aeroallergens in India. The statistical approach confirmed the correlation between hospitalization rate associated with allergy-related health troubles and the prevalent allergenic pollen in the air. The Poaceae group has been found to be dominant throughout India. Immuno-biochemical studies identified various protein with allergenic potential found in the pollen recorded. Epitope identification and homology of the major allergenic protein Cat r1 of Catharanthus sp and Par j 1 of Parietaria judaica have been found. Identification of allergenic pollen grains and the modern approach concerning cross-reactivity and epitope revelation of dominant airborne pollen have important clinical implications for the prevention, diagnosis and treatments of allergic diseases in India.

  17. Identification of the major allergens of Indian scad (Decapterus russelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnan, Rosmilah; Murad, Shahnaz; Jones, Meinir; Taylor, Graham; Rahman, Dinah; Arip, Masita; Abdullah, Noormalin; Mohamed, Jamaluddin

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize major allergens of Indian scad (Decapterus russelli) which is among the most commonly consumed fish in Malaysia. Raw and cooked extracts of the fish were prepared. Protein profiles and IgE binding patterns were produced by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from subjects with fish allergy. The major allergens of the fish were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of the raw extract revealed 27 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while the cooked extract demonstrated only six protein fractions. The 1-DE immunoblotting detected 14 IgE-binding proteins, with a molecular weight range from 90 to fish. The approximately 12 kDa band was a heat-resistant protein while the approximately 51 and 46 kDa proteins were sensitive to heat. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated > 100 distinct protein spots and immunoblotting detected at least 10 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses as expected and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. A comparison of the major allergenic spot sequences of the 12 kDa proteins with known protein sequences in databases revealed extensive similarity with fish parvalbumin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a parvalbumin which is similar to Gad c 1 is the major allergen of Indian scad. Interestingly, we also detected heat-sensitive proteins as major allergenic components in our fish allergy patients.

  18. Occupational exposure to allergens in oxidative hair dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Zaletel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative hair dyes are the most important hair dying products. Hairdressers are exposed to the allergens found in oxidative hair dyes during the process of applying dyes to the hair, when cutting freshly dyed hair, or as a consequence of prior contamination of the working environment. pphenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine and its sulphate are the most common ingredients in oxidative hair dyes that cause allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers. Cross-reactivity of p-phenylenediamine with para-amino benzoic acid, sulphonamides, sulphonylurea, dapsone, azo dyes, benzocaine, procaine, and black henna temporary tattoos is possible. Allergic contact dermatitis is classified as delayed-type hypersensitivity, according to Coombs and Gell. Skin changes typically appear on the hands after previous sensitization to causative allergens. Combined with the patient’s overall medical and work history and clinical picture, epicutaneous testing is the basic diagnostic procedure for confirming the diagnosis and identifying the causative allergens. The simplest and most effective measure for preventing the occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers is prevention. Preventive measures should be applied as early as in the beginning stage of vocational guidance for this profession. It is important to include health education in the process of professional training and to implement general technical safety measures, in order to reduce sensitization to allergens in hairdressing. Here, special emphasis must be given to the correct use of protective gloves. Legislation must limit the concentration of allergenic substances in hair dyes, based on their potential hazards documented by scientific research.

  19. Immunological mechanisms of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Natalija; Bieber, T; Allam, J-P

    2011-06-01

    Within the last 100 years of allergen-specific immunotherapy, many clinical and scientific efforts have been made to establish alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies. Thus, intra-oral allergen delivery to the sublingual mucosa has been proven to be safe and effective. As a consequence, to date, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is widely accepted by most allergists as an alternative to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy. Although immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated in detail, several studies in mice and humans within recent years provided deeper insights into local as well as systemic immunological features in response to SLIT. First of all, it was shown that the target organ, the oral mucosa, harbours a sophisticated immunological network as an important prerequisite for SLIT, which contains among other cells, local antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as dendritic cells (DCs), with a constitutive disposition to enforce tolerogenic mechanisms. Further on, basic research on local DCs within the oral mucosa gave rise to possible alternative strategies to deliver the allergens to other mucosal regions than sublingual tissue, such as the vestibulum oris. Moreover, characterization of oral DCs led to the identification of target structures for both allergens as well as adjuvants, which could be applied during SLIT. Altogether, SLIT came a long way since its very beginning in the last century and some, but not all questions about SLIT could be answered so far. However, recent research efforts as well as clinical approaches paved the way for another exciting 100 years of SLIT. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, Beatrice M.; Smyth, Henry; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. → Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. → The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. → The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr -1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.