Sample records for berms

  1. Berm Breakwater Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Jensen, Morten S.; Hald, Tue


    The present report summarizes the test results obtained with a berm breakwater attacked by oblique waves. In the tests special attention is given to the influence of the rock shape on the longshore transport. Moreover, the reshaping berm profile and amount of wave overtopping is examined. The tests...

  2. On Front Slope Stability of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.


    The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison with the r......The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison...... test results including tests presented in Sigurdarson and Van der Meer (2011) are discussed. A proposal is presented for performance of new model tests with the purpose of developing more accurate formulae for the prediction of front slope erosion as a function of front slope, relative berm height...

  3. Stability of Hardly Reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; W. van der Meer, Jentsje; Burcharth, Hans F.


    Stability of berm breakwaters has been dealt with by several authors like Van der Meer (1992) and Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2010). The work of Van der Meer (1992) gives a very good estimate of the full reshaped profile for dynamically stable structures with a stability number Hs/ΔDn50 > 3 . How...

  4. Evaluating Sediment Mobility for Siting Nearshore Berms (United States)


    Berms by Brian C. McFall, S. Jarrell Smith, Cheryl E. Pollock, James Rosati III, and Katherine E. Brutsché PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics... studies to compare multiple placement sites. Presently, a Matlab script is available to perform the calculations using both methods. Future development...estimate the potential volume of sediment that a placement operation might yield to beneficially nourish a wetland or nearshore region, thereby allowing

  5. A New Formula for Front Slope Recession of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.


    The front slope stability of breakwaters with a homogeneous berm was studied in a large number of two dimensional model tests at Aalborg University, Denmark. The results are presented together with a new formula for prediction of the berm recession which is the most important parameter for descri......The front slope stability of breakwaters with a homogeneous berm was studied in a large number of two dimensional model tests at Aalborg University, Denmark. The results are presented together with a new formula for prediction of the berm recession which is the most important parameter...

  6. A Comparison of Homogeneous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, Kasper; Burcharth, Hans F.


    The paper deals with homogeneous and multi-layer berm breakwaters designed to maximize the utilization of the quarry material. Two wide stone classes are typically used for berm breakwaters with a homogeneous berm....

  7. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system modeling to predict damage level of non-reshaped berm breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, N.; Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Lokesha

    The Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model is constructed using experimental data set to predict the damage level of berm breakwater. Experimental data for non-reshaped berm breakwater are collected from Marine Structures Laboratory...

  8. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic-Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.


    This paper gives first an elaboration of berm recession equations for berm breakwaters and then new deterministic design rules for the Icelandic-type berm breakwater. Safety optimization calculations have been performed for a mild depth limited wave climate and for a situation a deep water. Repair...

  9. Armor stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghim, M. N.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke


    the structure toe. The main goal of the present paper is to provide an estimation technique based on this physical principle to predict the deformation of the front slope in terms of the eroded area. The proposed method is verified by comparison with model test data. It is found that by using the maximum wave......This paper deals with stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters. A simple physical argument is used to derive a new stability formula based on the assumption that the maximum wave force causing damage of armor layer is proportional to the maximum wave momentum flux near...... momentum flux approach the damage to the front slope (eroded area) can be very well predicted. Moreover, a simple method to estimate the eroded area based on measured or calculated berm recession (Rec) and depth of intersection of reshaped and initial profile (hf) is presented. The performance...

  10. Initial Morphologic Evolution of Perdido Key Berm Nourishment, Florida (United States)


    Nourishment , Florida by Ping Wang, Katherine E. Brutsche, Tanya M. Beck, Julie D. Rosati, and Linda S. Lillycrop PURPOSE: This Coastal and...portion of Perdido Key, including the present study area, was nourished in 1985 and 1989 (Dean et al. 1995). The 1985 beach nourishment was...Key berm nourishment , Florida. Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-89. Vicksburg, MS: US Army Engineer Research and

  11. Overtopping and Rear Slope Stability of Reshaping & Non-reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.


    Overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping and non-reshaping berm breakwaters have been studied in a wave flume. A total of 695 tests have been performed to cover the influence of crest freeboard, crest width, berm width, berm elevation, stone size and sea state. Formula for average...... overtopping discharge that includes these parameters has been derived. The measurements show good correlation between average overtopping discharge and rear slope damage....

  12. State-of-the-Art of Designing and Constructing Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Hedar, P. A.; Ouemeraci, H.

    Berm breakwaters are different from ordinary rubble mound breakwaters. A conventional rubble mound breakwater is required to be almost statically stable for the design wave conditions, while the berm breakwater has traditionally been allowed to reshape to a statically stable or a dynamically stab...

  13. Terrestrial laser scanning of anthropogenic beach berms for urban flood defense (United States)

    Sanders, B. F.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Shakeri Majd, M.


    Globally, over 20 million people reside below present high tide levels and as many as 200 million are vulnerable to flooding during extreme events. In California, coastal flooding is driven by a combination of factors such as high astronomical tides, waves, storm surge, and other fluctuations such as those caused by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and climate change is likely to exacerbate those factors testing the limits of coastal flood defenses. Beaches provide natural flood protection during storms by mitigating the effects of high water levels and wave runup, and a process known as beach berming can be used to temporarily enhance the ability of beaches to withstand overtopping. In cases where beaches serve as primary protection for development, anthropogenic berms may represent an attractive management option for temporarily addressing future flood hazards. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or lidar has emerged as a valuable technology for capturing the three dimensional geometry of complex surfaces and objects, and in the context of coastal flood prediction mobile TLS could prove invaluable by quickly mapping beach topography before an imminent flood threat and reducing associated uncertainties in coastal flood forecasting systems. The research presented here highlights the results of a field campaign to document the initial conditions and dynamic erosion of anthropogenic berms using TLS. On three occasions in February and March of 2012, a prototype berm was constructed on the foreshore of the city of Newport Beach, CA at low tide, and was scanned to document its initial shape, and then scanned in near-continuous fashion with the rising tide to characterize its subsequent erosion. The purpose is two-fold: (1) to measure the performance of the TLS system relative to accuracy and assess strengths and drawbacks that are likely to bear on the suitability of this technology to support flood prediction as described above, and (2) to develop a better

  14. Stability of submerged rock berms exposed to motion of liquefied soil in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Dixen, Figen Hatipoglu; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behaviour of a submerged rock berm in liquefied backfill soil. The soil is liquefied by waves, and the rock berm is subject to the orbital motion of the liquefied soil. The soil used in the experiments was silt with d50=0.075mm....... Various berm materials were used, stones of size 0.74–2.5cm, plastic balls of size 3.6cm, brass of size 2.5cm and steel of size 1.0cm. The experiments show that rock berms that are stable under very large waves can be unstable when they are exposed to the motion of liquefied soil. The limited data...

  15. First Year Sedimentological Characteristics and Morphological Evolution of an Artificial Berm at Fort Myers Beach, Florida (United States)


    Harbor in 1992 and 1993 resulted in a nearshore berm disposal in Port Canaveral, Florida, offshore of Cocoa Beach. Bodge (1994) evaluated the...samples. The carbonate grains are mostly shell debris. Table 2 provides an example summary of the sedimentological characteristics across a beach...located a 3-6) and f the berm ine sand, a shell debri . Similar to medium sh ly sorted ve e 11 shows a southeas Profile Sou t the toe of offshore (F

  16. Sandy berm and beach-ridge formation in relation to extreme sea-levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B; Kroon, Aart


    The formation of berms and their transformation into beach ridges in a micro-tidal environment is coupled to wave run-up and overtopping during extreme sea levels. A straight-forward comparison between extreme sea levels due to storm-surges and active berm levels is impossible in the semi......-enclosed bays along the Baltic Sea. Quite often, the maximum water levels do not coincide with the maximum intensity of the wave driven processes because of seiches in the Baltic. In this paper, we look into the joined distribution of extreme water levels and high-energetic wave conditions at Feddet, a sandy...... of extreme sea level events is identified using thirty-three well described extreme events throughout a period of 15 years. Analysis of the meteorological conditions during these events revealed that berm formation only occurred during 20% of all extreme events when onshore winds, high-energy wave action...

  17. Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm) to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges (United States)


    ppm Parts per million PRBerm Passive Reactive Berm PVC Polyvinyl Chloride QA Quality assurance QC Quality control RO Reverse Osmosis Water RO...1228. Manninen, S., and N. Tanskanen. 1993. Transfer of lead from shotgun pellets to humus and three plant species in a Finnish shooting range

  18. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.;


    Guidance on selection of breakwater types and related design safety levels for breakwaters are almost non-existent, which is the reason that PIANC has initiated working group 47 on this subject. This paper presents ongoing work particulary on the Icelandic type berm breakwater within the PIANC wo...

  19. Evaluation of Rhizobium tropici-derived Biopolymer for Erosion Control of Protective Berms. Field Study: Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (United States)


    7 Figure 2-2. Steps in the reconstruction of Berm 03-50-A...reduced the potential for soil transport. Figure 2-2. Steps in the reconstruction of Berm 03-50-A. 2.2.2 Biopolymer application Several different...clear line-of-sight is important for accurate repeated measurements. Grass was not an issue with the six-month scan, because while germination was

  20. Characterization of frozen soil-cement mixture for berm construction in cold regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoLin Yu; XinLei Na; ZhaoHui Joey Yang


    Lagoon berms in western Alaska are difficult to design and build due to limited resources, high cost of construction and materials, and warm permafrost conditions. This paper explores methods to treat locally available frozen materials and use them for berm construction. The goal is to find an optimized mix ratio for cement and additives that can be effective in increasing the strength and decreasing the thaw settlement of an ice-rich frozen silty soil. Soil of similar type and ice content to the permafrost found at a project site in Eek, Alaska is prepared in a cold room. The frozen soil is pulverized and cement, additives and fibers are added to the samples for enhancing shear strength and controlling thaw settlement. Thaw settlement and direct shear tests are performed to assess strength and settlement characteristics. This paper presents a sample preparation method, data from thaw settlement and direct shear tests, and analyses of the test results and prelim-inary conclusions.

  1. Analysis of Wave Reflection from Structures with Berms Through an Extensive Database and 2DV Numerical Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, Barbara; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;


    below sea water level (SWL) is important, the slope to appear in the breaker parameter is evaluated as a weighted average of the structure slope below the berm level and the average slope in the run-up/run-down area. The inclusion of this slope in the proposed formula allows to extend its prediction...

  2. Comparison of Homogenous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Front Slope Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, K. T.; Burcharth, Hans F.


    A model test study was conducted to study overtopping and front slope stability of homogenous and multi-layered berm breakwaters. The two breakwater types are compared and cons and pros are listed. The study shows that the optimum number of stone classes might be significantly lower than what has...

  3. Towards improved prediction and mitigation of beach overwash: Terrestrial LiDAR observation of dynamic beach berm erosion (United States)

    Schubert, J. E.; Gallien, T.; Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.


    Globally, over 20 million people currently reside below high tide levels and 200 million are below storm tide levels. Future climate change along with the pressures of urbanization will exacerbate flooding in low lying coastal communities. In Southern California, coastal flooding is triggered by a combination of high tides, storm surge, and waves and recent research suggests that a current 100 year flood event may be experienced on a yearly basis by 2050 due to sea level rise adding a positive offset to return levels. Currently, Southern California coastal communities mitigate the threat of beach overwash, and consequent backshore flooding, with a combination of planning and operational activities such as protective beach berm construction. Theses berms consist of temporary alongshore sand dunes constructed days or hours before an extreme tide or wave event. Hydraulic modeling in urbanized embayments has shown that coastal flooding predictions are extremely sensitive to the presence of coastal protective infrastructure, requiring parameterization of the hard infrastructure elevations at centimetric accuracy. Beach berms are an example of temporary dynamic structures which undergo severe erosion during extreme events and are typically not included in flood risk assessment. Currently, little is known about the erosion process and performance of these structures, which adds uncertainty to flood hazard delineation and flood forecasts. To develop a deeper understanding of beach berm erosion dynamics, three trapezoidal shaped berms, approximately 35 m long and 1.5 m high, were constructed and failure during rising tide conditions was observed using terrestrial laser scanning. Concurrently, real-time kinematic GPS, high-definition time lapse photography, a local tide gauge and wave climate data were collected. The result is a rich and unique observational dataset capturing berm erosion dynamics. This poster highlights the data collected and presents methods for processing

  4. Effects of Building a Sand Barrier Berm to Mitigate the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Louisiana Marshes (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Sallenger, A.H.; Twichell, David C.


    The State of Louisiana requested emergency authorization on May 11, 2010, to perform spill mitigation work on the Chandeleur Islands and on all the barrier islands from Grand Terre Island eastward to Sandy Point to enhance the capability of the islands to reduce the movement of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to the marshes. The proposed action-building a barrier berm (essentially an artificial island fronting the existing barriers and inlets) seaward of the existing barrier islands and inlets-'restores' the protective function of the islands but does not alter the islands themselves. Building a barrier berm to protect the mainland wetlands from oil is a new strategy and depends on the timeliness of construction to be successful. Prioritizing areas to be bermed, focusing on those areas that are most vulnerable and where construction can be completed most rapidly, may increase chances for success. For example, it may be easier and more efficient to berm the narrow inlets of the coastal section to the west of the Mississippi River Delta rather than the large expanses of open water to the east of the delta in the southern parts of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This document provides information about the potential available sand resources and effects of berm construction on the existing barrier islands. The proposed project originally involved removing sediment from a linear source approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) gulfward of the barrier islands and placing it just seaward of the islands in shallow water (~2-m depth where possible) to form a continuous berm rising approximately 6 feet (~2 m) above sea level (North American Vertical Datum of 1988-NAVD88) with an ~110-yd (~100-m) width at water level and a slope of 25:1 to the seafloor. Discussions within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and with others led to the determination that point-source locations, such as Hewes Point, the St. Bernard Shoals, and Ship Shoal, were more suitable 'borrow

  5. Óscar Bermúdez: investigador del Norte Grande, historiador del salitre, hombre de dos mundos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio González Miranda


    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene por objetivo hacer una semblanza biográfica del historiador Óscar Bermúdez, investigador del Norte Grande de Chile, especialmente del periodo salitrero. Para alcanzar ese objetivo, se interpretaron sus principales obras, se realizaron entrevistas y se analizaron dos estudios biográficos anteriores sobre Bermúdez. Sin embargo, este artículo no pretende ser solamente una semblanza biográfica de un personaje, sino establecer cuáles serían las principales influencias disciplinarias y de pensamientos en el trabajo historiográfico de este investigador. Se analiza de modo preferente la perspectiva epistemológica de Bermúdez, donde se discutela metodología positivista de su investigación historiográfica, que es comparada con su narrativa, especialmente sus cuentos publicados, donde se abren otras posibilidades para comprender el pensamiento de este autor.

  6. AMS-dated mollusks in beach ridges and berms document Holocene sea-level and coastal changes in northeastern Kuwait Bay (United States)

    Reinink-Smith, Linda M.


    In northeastern Kuwait, ancient beach ridges and associated berms are separated from the present shoreline by a 4-6 km-wide sabkha. A diverse mollusk fauna in the beach ridges attests to a former open marine environment. A total of 21 AMS dates were obtained in this study. Thirteen mollusk samples from beach ridges yielded AMS dates ranging from ~ 6990 cal yr BP in the southeast to ~ 3370 cal yr BP in the northwest, suggesting a southeast to northwest age progression during the Holocene transgression. In contrast, four samples from berms throughout the study area yielded AMS dates of 5195-3350 cal yr BP showing no age progression; these berms consist largely of Conomurex persicus gastropods that aggregated by storms during a highstand at ~ 5000-3500 cal yr BP. The berms are presently at ~ + 6 m above sea level, 2-3 m above the beach ridges. Human settlements were common on the ridge crests before and after the highstand. Regression to present-day sea level commenced after the highstand, which is when the sabkha began forming. A landward, marine-built terrace, which yielded AMS dates > 43,500 14C yr BP, probably formed during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e and hence is not genetically related to the beach ridges.

  7. Acerca del rol de Pedro Bermúdez en el Cantar de Mio Cid: Un acercamiento a su figura épica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Janín


    Full Text Available This work makes an attempt on getting close to the literary figure of Pedro Bermúdez in the Cantar de Mio Cid that allows it to characterize him as a peculiar hero; and proposes that Pedro represents a type of hero which is different to the model the Cantar means to coin, perhaps more primitive and alternative to the cidian paradigm, thus the virtues and values of the tradition of the most arcaic epic songs are not eliminated but displaced to a hero that seconds the protagonist, complementing him at the same time.

  8. Algunos datos sobre José Bermúdez de Castro y un primer acercamiento a sus colaboraciones en La Revista Española (1836)


    María José ALONSO SEOANE


    En el artículo se publican algunas noticias inéditas sobre José Bermúdez de Castro, como la fecha de su nacimiento y de su muerte, y se hace un estudio general de sus colaboraciones en La Revista Española, la mayoría de crítica teatral. El escritor, que participó de manera significativa en El Artista, publicó en La Revista Española más de veinte colaboraciones entre febrero y agosto de 1836; en ellas, muestra su adhesión al moderno Romanticismo, desde un amplio conocimiento ...

  9. Escultores académicos del siglo XVIII en el Diccionario de Ceán Bermúdez. Nuevas adiciones (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albarrán Martín, Virginia


    Full Text Available In A.E.A. number 310 we presented Ceán Bermúdez's information on sculptors whose surnames begin with the letters A through E, entries which were finally not included in his Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España (1800. In this second part, we continue from F to Z. The scarcity of bibliography concerning some of these artists means that these documents are of prime importance, given that they frequently include unpublished information.

    En el número 310 de A.E.A. dimos a conocer aquellos artículos relativos a los escultores académicos desde la letra A hasta la E que fueron suprimidos en el momento de publicación del Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España de Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez. Continuamos en esta segunda entrega con los correspondientes desde la letra F hasta el final. La escasez de bibliografía sobre algunos de los artistas mencionados convierte a estos documentos en fuentes de primer orden al contener datos en gran parte inéditos.

  10. Sea-level proxies extracted from GPR reflection data collected across recently formed berm, beach ridge and swale deposits on the island of Anholt, Denmark (United States)

    Nielsen, L.; Clemmensen, L. B.


    GPR reflection data have been collected across the most recent part of a berm, beach ridge and swale system formed during the last 130 years on the northern coast of the island of Anholt, the Kattegat, Denmark. The reflected arrivals have a peak frequency of about 250 MHz and they image the subsurface with a vertical resolution of 0.1-0.2 m to a maximum depth of 5 m below the surface. The berm and beach ridges with maximum heights of about 1.8 m and 1.5 m, respectively, appear as mounded features in the GPR sections. The berm ridge also contains low-angle, seaward dipping reflections. Similar sea-ward dipping reflections are also observed below swales, and current swale surfaces appear to constitute erosion surfaces. Reflections downlapping on a package of reflections, which is interpreted to be representative of upper shoreface deposits, are suggested to constitute good proxies of sea level. Tamura et al. (2008) suggested that similar downlapping reflections may represent a depth level of about 1 m below the mean sea level based on investigations of the Kujukuri strand plain in eastern Japan. We have made 17 depth readings of such downlaps along our 159-m-long profile. The average depth of these downlap points is 0.003 m below present mean sea level (pmsl). Individual readings fall in the range of -0.5 m to +0.5 above pmsl, consistent with the majority of current, annual sea-level variations as recorded by the Danish Maritime Safety Administration at a position about 50 km southwest of Anholt. The mean sea level has changed insignificantly in the study area during ridge formation, and we assume that these proxies may form a strong basis for constructing palaeo-sea level curves for fossil (ages of up to about 7500 years), raised beach-ridge systems along the shores of the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. Reference T. Tamura, F. Murakami, F. Nanayama, K. Watanabe, Y. Saito, 2008. Ground-penetrating radar profiles of Holocene raised-beach deposits in the Kujukuri strand

  11. Escultores académicos del siglo XVIII en el Diccionario de Ceán Bermúdez. Nuevas adiciones (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albarrán Martín, Virginia


    Full Text Available Toward the end of 1799, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Saint Ferdinand, in charge of the publication of Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez's Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España, decided not to include information pertaining to living artists. All of this material, preserved in the National Library in Madrid, and never before published, is presented in this first article dealing with academic sculptors letters A to E. A comparison of this new information with existing studies demonstrates the need for a profound revision of the works of certain artists.

    A finales del año 1799, la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Femando, una vez que se hace cargo de la publicación del Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España de Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, decide editar la obra sin la información referente a los artistas todavía en activo. De toda esa documentación, conservada en la Biblioteca Nacional y no publicada hasta el momento, se da a conocer en este primer artículo la perteneciente a los escultores académicos desde la letra A hasta la E. La comparación de esta información con los estudios existentes dedicados a la cuestión, muestra la necesidad de una nueva revisión en profundidad de la obra de determinados artistas.

  12. Aplicación de técnicas quimiométricas para clasificar la calidad de agua superficial de la microcuenca del río Bermúdez en Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Murillo


    Full Text Available Este trabajo investigativo presenta la aplicación de técnicas quimiométricas seleccionadas: análisis de cluster, análisis de componentes principales y análisis de factores, para clasificar la calidad del agua de los ríos y evaluar datos de contaminación.Se monitoreó 14 parámetros fisicoquímicos en 10 estaciones localizadas en la microcuenca del río Bermúdez de agosto de 2005 a febrero de 2007. Los resultados permitieron determinar la existencia de dos clusters naturales de sitios de monitoreo con características similares de contaminación e identificar la DQO, DBO, NO3-, SO4-2 y SST, como las principales variables que discriminan entre los sitios de muestreo.

  13. Stability of Hardly Reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.;


    in the surging wave area. Moreover, a simple method to estimate the erosion area based on recession formulae and the depth of intersection of reshaped and initial profile is presented and is applicable for hardly reshaping to fully reshaping. Even when using the only very simple and inaccurate estimate...

  14. Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) Subsurface Containment Berm Investigation (United States)


    The former Navy Arctic Research Laboratory Airstrip Site in Barrow, Alaska, has a history of fuel spills. Various methods have been used to re- mediate ...or [− + −]) were ab- sent directly under the insulation/plywood and on the shoulder areas im- mediately adjacent to the insulation/plywood. The lack

  15. Stability prediction of berm breakwater using neural network

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Manjunath, Y.R.

    /s estimated (Hudson). 3. NEURAL NETWORK Artificial neural network (ANN) is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way of biological nervous system, such as brain process information. ANN is composed of large number... of highly connected processing element (neurons) working in unison to solve a specific problem. Network learns through examples, so it requires good examples to train properly and further a trained network model can be used for prediction purpose...

  16. Engineering with Nature: Nearshore Berm Placements at Fort Myers Beach and Perdido Key, Florida, USA (United States)


    to maximize benefits to the environment and minimize negative impacts from finer non-native material by placing sediments in such a way that natural ...of the over-arching goals of Regional Sediment Management and Engineering with Nature is to maximize benefits while also minimizing negative did not create negative impacts to adjacent beaches caused by wave refraction around the ends of the placement. 138 19/03/2015 13 pp 11 Fig

  17. Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm) to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges (United States)


    live-fire lysimeter LPDES Louisiana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System LTM long-term monitoring Mg magnesium NA not applicable ND non...precipitation of Pb salts (e.g., carbonates, sulfates, sulfides , and phosphates). Generally, the mobility of dissolved Pb is controlled by pH...Further, unamended silicate sands generally contain minimal amounts of carbonates, iron and manganese oxides, sulfides , organic matter, and phosphate

  18. Performance Monitoring of a Nearshore Berm at Ft. Myers Beach, Florida (United States)


    respectively. ................................................. 121  ERDC/CHL TR-13-11 xiii Preface This study was performed by the Coastal ...monitoring study conducted by the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP) and Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program, two US Army Corps predictive models of the Perdido Key Beach nourishment project, Florida USA. Coastal Engineering (39) 173-191. Brutsche, K. E. and P. Wang. 2012

  19. Evaluation of Military Range Berm Effectiveness in Protecting Red-cockaded Woodpecker Foraging and Nesting Habitat (United States)


    longleaf pine (P. palustris; Table 2). This contrasted with Fort Stewart, where the dominant tree species was longleaf pine , followed by loblolly...of all trees surveyed on Fort Benning, compared with only 6.4% to 16.2% across plots on Fort Stewart. In contrast, longleaf pine accounted for...surveyed on Fort Stewart (Tables 2–4). The dominant tree species identified for each installation (i.e., loblolly pine for Fort Benning and longleaf

  20. Parameter optimization using GA in SVM to predict damage level of non-reshaped berm breakwater.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, N.; Lokesha.; Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Patil, S.G.

    . The results of SVM and GA-SVM models are compared in terms of statistical measures like correlation coefficient, root mean square error and scatter index. The results on SVM and GA-SVM models reveals that the performance of GA-SVM is better compared to SVM...

  1. Damage level prediction of non-reshaped berm breakwater using ANN, SVM and ANFIS models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; SubbaRao; Harish, N.; Lokesha

    Marine Structures Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, NITK, Surathkal, India. Soft computing techniques like Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference system (ANFIS) models...

  2. Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface Mission-BERMS, Saskdatchewan, Canada (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — North American ecosystems are critical components of the global carbon cycle, exchanging large amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases with the atmosphere. Net...

  3. A Cultural Resources Survey of Arlington Revetment and LSU Berm Levee Improvement Item, East Baton Rouge Parish Louisiana (United States)


    field, in the lab sand in the office. In the field, Rocky Sexton, Hampton Peele , Malcolm Shuman, Ken Jones, and Holly Ansel=o all contributed greatly... maize agriculture, and exhibited specific pottery types such as Plaquemine Brushed, L’Eau Noire Incised, and Harrison Bayou Incised (Quimby 1951...than during the Coles Creek period. Mound building, while 49 t. _ m •,.. . 0 lexant among omW group., was generally on the decline. Maize a utre, among

  4. A Cultural Resources Intensive Survey of the Ensley Berm Construction Site, Shelby County, Tennessee. A Negative Finding Report (United States)


    gathering bands are postulated. Early Paleo-Indian sites, identified by fluted Clovis projectile points, are rare in the Mississippi drainage of west...Russel, C. Vance Haynes, Donald Johnson and Marven Kay I 1981 Kimmswick: A Clovis -Mastodon Association in Eastern Missouri. Science 213:1115-1117. U...on-the-ground survey of an area, of sufficient intensity to determine the number, types, extent and distribution of cultura ] rescurces ;resent and

  5. Flexible Reactive Berm (FRBerm) for Removal of Heavy Metals from Runoff Water: ESTCP ER 1213 Treatability Study (United States)


    Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in...Research and Development Center. Larson, S.L., C. Griggs, J. Ballard, and C. Waggoner. 2011. Fishbone, a biogenic apatite, for sustainable remediation of...Martin, Chris S. Griggs, and Catherine C. Thomas Environmental Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Rd

  6. History of reference materials for food and nutrition metrology: As represented in the series of BERM Symposia (United States)

    Establishment of a metrology-based measurement system requires the solid foundation of traceability of measurements to available, appropriate certified reference materials (CRM). In the early 1970s the first “biological” Reference Material (RM) of Bowens Kale, Orchard Leaves, and Bovine Liver from ...

  7. Particle swarm optimization based support vector machine for damage level prediction of non-reshaped berm breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, N.; Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Patil, S.G.

    , Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, India. Results of both models are compared in terms of statistical measures, such as correlation coefficient, root mean square error and scatter index...

  8. Passive Reactive Berm to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges: Field Demonstration (United States)


    Calcium Cr Chromium Cu Copper Fe Iron Mn Manganese Mo Molybdenum Ni Nickel P Phosphorus Pb Lead Sb Antimony V...the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extraction solution against control soils with no amendments, the amended soils decreased the...passed through the lysimeter walls using water-tight bulkhead fittings sealed with a solvent -weld (Figure 11). The existing drain openings in the

  9. 40 CFR 440.148 - Best Management Practices (BMP). (United States)


    ... incursion into the plant site. (b) Berm construction: Berms, including any pond walls, dikes, low dams and... all solids retention structures such as berms, dikes, pond structures and dams shall be maintained...

  10. Dredging Research Program. Results of Monitoring the Disposal Berm at Sand Island, Alabama. Report 1. Construction and First Year’s Response (United States)


    22M MOBLE AL. 3NASIO Figure 10. Recovery card attached to each SBD conventional 7-g attached weight results in near neutral buoyancy. These SBD’s move...PELICAN POINT MOBLE POINT GULF SHORES 3 MAR 87 -m 20 19MAR87 ? 17 31 MAR87 D , HQ 19z 15APR87 n- __12 cr" 5MAY87 0 15 II AUG 87 12 z 20 OCT 87 6 I DEC... Technology Laboratory, MS. Hallermeier, R. J. 1980 (Aug). "Sand Motion Initiation by Water Waves: Two Asymptotes," Journal of the Waterway. Port, Coastal and

  11. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants.

  12. Application of composite seawall with a broad-berm in shore protection engineering%宽平台复式海堤结构在围涂工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦波; 陈国平; 陈伟国



  13. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri. Item R-846 Caruthersville, Pemiscot County, Missouri (United States)


    formerly the St. Louis, Kennett and Southern Railroad) constructed a new depot on West Third Street in downtown Caruthers- ville. According to Sue Swinger ...Commerce in Caruthersville was visited for information regarding sites in the National Register of Historic Places and Sue Swinger of the Riverfront... Swinger 1983:personal communicatlon to Bill Moore). The reported location of the house was on the east side of the seawall north of Carleton Avenue

  14. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties Missouri. Item R-752 Lambethville; Crittenden County, Arkansas (United States)


    also stated that three large felines occurred throughout the earlier United States. These included the puma (Felis concolour), Jaguar ( Panthera onca ...and the giant Jaguar ( Panthera atrox). By 15,000 B.P. the large megafauna had given way to that found during modern times. Historic Environment

  15. HPLC法测定石杉属植物中石杉碱甲的含量%Determination of Huperzine A in Three Species of Huperzia HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗; 王沫


    采用YWGC18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,10μm),以甲醇(80 mmol.L-1)-醋酸铵溶液(pH 6.0)(35:65)为流动相,流速为1.0 mL.min-1;检测波长为310 nm,建立了HPLC法测定湖北利川三种石杉属植物(蛇足石杉、皱边石杉、四川石杉)中石杉碱甲含量,以期发掘替代资源。结果显示,三种石杉属植物中均含有石杉碱甲,且四川石杉最多,蛇足石杉次之,皱边石杉最少,故四川石杉可以作为提取石杉碱甲的原料药材之一,具有较高的开发和利用价值。%In order to discover the substitute resource,HPLC method was established for the determination of Huperzine A(Hup A)in 3 species from Lichuan,A YWGC18column was used with the mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol-ammonium acetate(35:65)at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min detected at the wavelength of 310 nm.The rusult shows that the three species are all contains Hup A,and highest content of Hup A in Huperzia sutchueniana(Herter) Ching.The lowest content in Huperzia crispate(Ching ex H.S. Kung) Ching.So Huperzia sutchueniana(Herter) Ching.can be used in production as material.

  16. 三种石杉属植物孢子形态的扫描电镜观察%Observations on the Spore Morphology of Three Huperzia Berm.Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗; 王沫; 舒少华; 徐晓苗; 赵昕梅


    利用扫描电镜对采自湖北省利川市的蛇足石杉Huperzia serrata (Thunb.ex Murray) Trev.、皱边石杉H.crispate (Ching ex H.S.Kung) Ching和四川石杉H.sutchueniana (Herter) Ching 3种植物孢子的大小、形态及表面纹饰等方面进行观察测量,并对每个种孢子形态特征进行了描述.结果表明,3种石杉属植物孢子均为四面体型、三裂缝、辐射对称,表面纹饰均呈穴状.不同种在孢子大小、裂缝长度、孔穴深浅程度以及辐射间区凹陷程度上存在差异.因孢子形态是稳定的,可作为种间划分的重要依据,同时,也为蕨类植物孢子形态学的研究提供参考.

  17. A prática da psicoterapia infantil a partir do referencial teórico do psicodrama, gestalt terapia e abordagem centrada na pessoa, sob as óticas de Bermúdez, Ferrari, Oaklander e Axline.


    Maria Ivone Marchi Costa


    O presente estudo teve por objetivo geral investigar junto a psicoterapeutas que trabalham com crianças, de diferentes abordagens teóricas (Psicodrama, Gestalt terapia e Centrada no Cliente), como está sendo experienciada essa prática clínica. Para tanto, foram entrevistadas 6 (seis) psicoterapeutas, com experiência profissional que variou de 10 (dez) a 30 (trinta) anos, sendo 2 (duas) de cada abordagem. A entrevista foi semidirigida e compreendeu as seguintes dimensões: sentimentos experimen...

  18. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms, Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri Item R-618 Knowlton; Desha County, Arkansas. (United States)


    distribucion of cultural resources within the project area . In addition, information obtained in the background and literature search should be of such scope...DAC0W66-83-C-0030, Item R-618, to conduct a background, archi- val and literature search, and an intensive resources survey of teroject area of proposed...seepage through the levee during periods of flooding. The area surveyed included: 152.4 meters (500 feet) right-of-way perpen- dicular and landside frow

  19. 75 FR 5757 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for... (United States)


    ... concentrations of organic matter and some woody debris. Using the berm material has numerous benefits as a... retention ] benefits. The berms also serve as seed banks for native vegetation, and the woody debris can be.... While it will be relatively expensive to restore the project site, the re-planning team considered...

  20. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri. Item R-48.87 A.C. Nash; Missouri, Relief Well Ditches Cape Girardeau and Scott Counties, Missouri (United States)


    battles between Federal and Confederate troops occurred throughout the state, particularly in the west. In 1862 the battle of PeaI Ridge in Arkansas...constant raids by Southern soldiers collecting supplies as well as raids from citizens who sym- pathized with the South. The Battle of Cape Girardeau...bridge was constructed across the Mississippi River at Thebes on the St. Louis and Southwestern Railroad line (Kochitizky 1906). With the completion of

  1. Microbiology and biochemistry of placer rich beach sediment: Short-term response to small scale simulated mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Das, A.; Faria, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    In order to understand the influence of sand mining on the bacterial community of a placer rich beach ecosystem, a mechanical disturbance was simulated in Kalbadevi beach, Ratnagiri. Core samples from dune, berm, high tide, mid tide and low tide...

  2. Technical and Regulatory Guidance Document for Constructed Treatment Wetlands (United States)


    tunneling (staff biologist, Bosque del Apache NWR, New Mexico). Occasionally, berms are constructed to prevent flood damage to the wetlands. Berms...D. L. Parry, and B. N. Noller, 1995, “Retention of Arsenic and Metals in a Tropical Wetland following Dewatering from Tom’s Gully Gold Mine...Proceedings from 4th Environment Chemistry Conference, Chemistry in Tropical and Temperate Environments. Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, July 9–14

  3. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    be covered with shelly or quartz-rich sand. Transport of eroded materials by glaciers occurs in high latitude and snow bound regions. BERM Selective Sorting BERM SCIENCE REPORTER, OCTOBER 201445 and efforts spent and the market value of the metal... was the main global supplier of ilmenite. In 1950, the Department of Atomic Energy established the Indian Rare Earths Limited (IREL), a public sector undertaking at Alwaye, Kochi (Kerala). Mining and separation of heavy minerals commenced in 1965...

  4. Development of Range Design Elements and Quality Control/Quality Assurance Guidance to Reduce Maintenance Requirements on Training Ranges (United States)


    300 W. Vine Street, Suite 1300 1812 N. 22nd Street Lexington, KY 40507 Ozark, MO 65721 Table of Contents...MPRC Dual SAT Berm Ft Knox St Vith MPTR Projectile Impact Damage on SAT Berm 3-7 Design alternatives to provide added...thickness of the trail for normal conditions and the effects of frost conditions on the design. The thickness of the aggregate trail is based on the

  5. Sediment data collected in 2013 from the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana (United States)

    Buster, Noreen A.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Bernier, Julie C.; Flocks, James G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; DeWitt, Nancy T.


    As part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center collected sediment samples from the northern Chandeleur Islands in July 2013. The overall objective of this project, which integrates geophysical (bathymetric, seismic, and topographic) and sedimentologic data, is to better understand the depositional and erosional processes that drive the morphologic evolution of barrier islands over annual to interannual timescales (1 to 5 years). Between June 2010 and April 2011, in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the State of Louisiana constructed a sand berm extending more than 14 kilometers along the northern Chandeleur Islands platform. The construction of the berm provided a unique opportunity to investigate how this new sediment source will interact with and affect the morphologic evolution of the barrier-island system. Data collected from this study will be used to describe differences in the physical characteristics and spatial distribution of sediments both along the axis of the berm and also along transects across the berm and onto the adjacent barrier island. Comparison of these data with data from previous sampling efforts will provide information about sediment interactions and movement between the berm and the natural island platform, improving our understanding of short-term morphologic change and processes in this barrier-island system.

  6. Earthshelter: performance evaluation of a northern California residence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanetto, J.; Harding, D.


    A passive solar, earthsheltered house of pressure-treated wood construction is being monitored in Davis, California (38.5/sup 0/N latitude). The east/west walls are completely bermed as is a portion of the north. The berms extend over the house to form a sod roof. A comparison of indoor and outdoor temperatures during two data collection periods show this building type to be well-adapted to the local climate. Temperature data compared favorably with a nearby water-wall passive solar house. Temperatures in the earth berms were found to closely approximate continuous soil conditions. The sod roof was found to be of significant value during hot months where the great diurnal range in outdoor temperature was effectively damped. In the cool cloudy winters the shallow sod roof is of little thermal value.

  7. Sediment data collected in 2012 from the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana (United States)

    Bernier, Julie C.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Buster, Noreen A.; Flocks, James G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; DeWitt, Nancy T.


    As part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center collected sediment samples from the northern Chandeleur Islands in March and September 2012. The overall objective of this project, which integrates geophysical (bathymetric, seismic, and topographic) and sedimentologic data, is to better understand the depositional and erosional processes that drive the morphologic evolution of barrier islands over annual to interannual timescales (1 to 5 years). Between June 2010 and April 2011, in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the State of Louisiana constructed a sand berm extending more than 14 kilometers along the northern Chandeleur Islands platform. The construction of the berm provided a unique opportunity to investigate how this new sediment source will interact with and affect the morphologic evolution of the barrier-island system. Data collected from this study will be used to describe differences in the physical characteristics and spatial distribution of sediments both along the axis of the berm and also along transects across the berm and onto the adjacent barrier island. Comparison of these data with data from subsequent sampling efforts will provide information about sediment interactions and movement between the berm and the natural island platform, improving our understanding of short-term morphologic change and processes in this barrier-island system. This data series serves as an archive of sediment data collected in March and September 2012 from the Chandeleur Islands sand berm and adjacent barrier-island environments. Data products include descriptive core logs, core photographs and x-radiographs, results of sediment grain-size analyses, sample location maps, and Geographic Information System data files with accompanying formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata.

  8. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Winsor Dam (MA 00588), Quabbin Spillway (MA 00589), Goodnough Dike (MA 00590), Connecticut River Basin, Ware, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report. (United States)


    Non-Federal Dams; use cover date for date of report. I9. KEYa WORDS (Coon#~ o rSeeres side at femoser and *osROifr IV mesa imb".) DAMS, INSPECTION...lII m a j6. Repoint the lower courses of the Intake Structure stone masonry exterior walls. 17. FMI animal burrow holes on upper berm of Winsor Dam...grass slope Animal Burrows in Embank- Several noted on upper berm near right * ment abutment Vegetation on Embankment Grass in good condition, mowed

  9. Identifying, Planning, and Financing Beneficial Use Projects Using Dredged Material: Beneficial Use Planning Manual (United States)


    the website’s foundation by providing practical guidance for project sponsors (e.g., government agencies, port authorities, marinas , industries, and...parks provid- ing such amenities as swimming, picnicking, camping, or boating. 4. Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, and Aquaculture : using dredged...Development Beach Nourishment (offshore berms only) Parks and Recreation Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, and Aquaculture Strip-Mine Reclamation

  10. Heavy mineral distribution in the beaches of Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Angusamy, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chandrasekar, N.; Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    -tsunami samples Chinnankudi an upshoot of heavies to a tune of 93% in the Berm of Nagoor and HT of Chinnankudi. At Poompuhar, the distributions of heavy minerals are found to be different to other two stations. While Poompuhar establishes overall rise in the Wt...

  11. 40 CFR 232.2 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... soil material. (iii) Incidental fallback. (3) Section 404 authorization is not required for the... lines; placement of fill material for construction or maintenance of any liner, berm, or other... include, but are not limited to: rock, sand, soil, clay, plastics, construction debris, wood...

  12. 33 CFR 323.2 - Definitions. (United States)


    ..., dragging, or other similar activities that redeposit excavated soil material. (iii) Incidental fallback. (3..., soil, clay, plastics, construction debris, wood chips, overburden from mining or other excavation... lines; placement of fill material for construction or maintenance of any liner, berm, or...

  13. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 57.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices...

  14. 30 CFR 56.9301 - Dump site restraints. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 56.9301 Section 56.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices...

  15. 77 FR 9637 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls; Additional... (United States)


    ... information it must be included in the text of your comment. If you send an email directly to USACE, your... involving planting berms that are part of a study or PED should take advantage of the analysis and..., dated TBD. (1) A general description of the levee system. (2) A brief narrative describing the...

  16. 33 CFR 328.3 - Definitions. (United States)


    .... (b) The term wetlands means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at... river berms, beach dunes and the like are “adjacent wetlands.” (d) The term high tide line means the... delineate the general height reached by a rising tide. The line encompasses spring high tides and other...

  17. Structural Stability Of Detached Low Crested Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Kramer, Morten; Lamberti, Alberto;


    formula. Toe damage predicted by the formula is in agreement with experimental results. In field sites, damage at the toe induced by scour or by sinking is observed and the volume of the berm is often insufficient to avoid regressive erosion of the armour layer. Stone sinking and settlement in selected...

  18. Catalogue 2.0 the future of the library catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Sally


    Brings together some of the foremost international cataloguing practitioners and thought leaders, including Lorcan Dempsey, Emmanuelle Bermès, Marshall Breeding and Karen Calhoun, to provide an overview of the current state of the art of the library catalogue and look ahead to see what the library catalogue might become.

  19. Onshore heavy mineral placers of south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Mislankar, P.G.

    ) and are relatively more abundant in the berm and dune regions (supratidal/backshore zone) compared to beach (intertidal/ foreshore zone). Ilmenites are fresh, their shapes varies from euhedral to rounded and shows minor degree of alternation to sphene and leucoxene...

  20. Preliminary Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedure for Drainage and Erosion Control at McMurdo Station (United States)


    29 3.2.2 Snow clearing in channels and drainage ditches ...39 Appendix A: Wooden Weir Material Assembly and...heavy equipment to widen ditches , to divert excess runoff to other areas, and to place temporary berms to contain the flow. This reactive approach may

  1. Low Impact Development in Army Construction (United States)


    BUILDING STRONG Structural BMPs • Bioretention (rain gardens) • Capture reuse • Constructed filter • Detention basin • Dry pond • Wet pond...Underground system • Constructed wetlands • Bioretention • Infiltration practices • Dry well • Infiltration basin • Infiltration berm...Infiltration trenches • Subsurface infiltration beds • Bioretention • Level spreaders • Native revegetation • Pervious pavement with infiltration

  2. 78 FR 76317 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection... (United States)


    ... nonnative and invasive noxious weeds. Currently, just over 200 acres is farmed to dryland cereal crops to... riprap on the northwest bank of the Riparian Sanctuary, including a low berm along the gravel bar and a toe trench just off the gravel bar; removal of upstream rock; and site- specific plantings on...

  3. 76 FR 49324 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... (United States)


    ... contains mostly debris from the demolition phase of the reclamation project which occurred in 1986. Also... size. Diversion berms were installed to divert water flow away from the landfill and steep canyon... placed. Riprap was installed in areas of high erosion potential. The Site Entrance Area was grubbed...

  4. 75 FR 21571 - Marine Mammal Protection Act; Deterrence Guidelines (United States)


    ... watch for and alert others to the presence of bears); trip-wire fences; closed-circuit TV; and... the placement of snow berms; and Lighting systems management--Establishing protocols and procedures to install appropriate lighting in areas where it is essential to detect bears that may be in the...

  5. 75 FR 61631 - Marine Mammal Protection Act; Deterrence Guidelines (United States)


    ... the presence of bears); trip-wire fences; closed-circuit TV; and electronic alarm systems. Furthermore..., such as planning the placement of snow berms; and Lighting systems management--Establishing protocols and procedures to install lighting in areas where it is needed to detect bears that may be in...

  6. El Rey del Tomate. Migrant Political Transnationalism and Democratization in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Bakker


    Full Text Available La ampliamente publicitada campaña política transnacional de Andrés Bermúdez, que contendió como candidato para alcalde de Jerez, Zacatecas, es analizada en términos de un continuum de marcos teóricos sobre teoría y práctica de la democracia. Con base en intensivas entrevistas cualitativas con participantes importantes de la campaña, este estudio considera las siguientes cuestiones: ¿Hasta qué punto la candidatura de Bermúdez contribuye a la apertura del sistema político mexicano hacia la participación electoral de losmigrantes? ¿Qué implicaciones tienen los procesos políticos aquí mencionados para una implementación a gran escala de la doble ciudadanía, incluyendo el voto en el extranjero y las campañas transnacionales de migrantes mexicanos que viven en los Estados Unidos? ¿En qué contribuye el caso de Bermúdez para nuestro conocimiento teórico sobre el carácter y significado del transnacionalismo político de los migrantes en el momento presente? Las respuestas a estos cuestionamientos hacen posible determinar el papel que tuvo la campaña de Bermúdez en el proceso actual de democratización del México contemporáneo.

  7. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil. (United States)


    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL... current mining operation need not be rehandled except to ensure stability of the fill. (E) A safety berm... Sandstone 16 8 Do Shale 16 16 (iv) Underdrains shall consist of nondegradable, non-acid or toxic...

  8. Hydraulic Response of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Rubble mound breakwaters have been extensively investigated in the last decades. Nevertheless, there still exists some white spots where only little knowledge and only poor design rules are available. Some of these white spots are due to new types of structures developed in recent years...... experimental test programme with berm breakwaters, has not only resulted in an enormous amount of overtopping data, but also establishment of a design formula to calculate average overtopping discharges. Further, the test programme led to an improved design rule for front side stability of berm breakwaters......, which was not actually identifed as a white spot, but still there was room for big improvements. Rear slope stability and wave re ection has been discussed brie y. The conventional rubble mound breakwater has been investigated for many decades. Anyhow, there is still room for improvements in some areas...

  9. Application of Reliability in Breakwater Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, Erik

    of approaching design problems in an early stage of breakwater design. The deterministic design of rubble mound breakwaters with emphasis on the armour layer, toe berm and crown wall, and conventional vertical breakwaters is reviewed. Breakwater failure modes are reviewed with emphasis on establishing new...... methods to design certain types of breakwaters. Reliability analyses of the main armour and toe berm interaction is exemplified to show the effect of a multiple set of failure mechanisms. First the limit state equations of the main armour and toe interaction are derived from laboratory tests performed...... by Bologna University. Thereafter a multiple system of failure for the interaction is established. Relevant stochastic parameters are characterized prior to the reliability evaluation. Application of reliability in crown wall design is illustrated by deriving relevant single foundation failure modes...

  10. Environmental Assessment for Multiple Projects at Laughlin Air Forc Base, TX (United States)


    accomplishment. 20 Outside the range’s designated safety berms is evidence of ricochet debris, the result of having used full-21 metal- jacket ...Fault Zone, but no recent seismic activity has occurred in the area 16 FINAL - Environmental Assessment for Multiple Projects Laughlin Air Force Base...resources, such as top soils, mineral 32 reserves, seismic activity, or unique or important land forms. The potential for large, uncontrolled 33

  11. Evaluation of Shelter Ventilation by Model Tests. Option 2 (United States)


    HUMUERS, 7449 N. Natchez Ave. FEMPL Work Unit 12.171 Niles, Illinois 60648 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS IL REPORT DATE Federal Emergency...lights could be controlled through a voltage regulator. These lights 2-1 GARD ELEVATION VIEW Earth Berm Wndow 3’ x 3’ Winindow Interior of Shelter 32...Nationale 1 36 Rue J. B. Esch Luxembourg (Grand-Duche) Ministero dell Interno 1 Director General Protectione Civile Rome, Italy Civile Emergency Planning

  12. Proceedings from the Workshop on Research Needs for Assessment and Management of Non-Point Air Emissions from Department of Defense Activities held in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina on 19-21 February 2008 (United States)


    sound road/trail construction designs and practices that may include admixing of water attracting compounds; (2) berming, furrowing, wind under a roofed structure to minimize temperature changes versus fire and safety concerns resulting from enclosing this waste). gaseous emissions. The same is true of the development of fumigants for termite and mosquito control. Brominated compounds and defoliants were

  13. Dike construction on the north bank of the La Grande 1 project; Construction de la dique nord de l`amenagement La Grande 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massiera, M. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada); Levay, J. [Societe d`Energie de la Baie James, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    Sensitive marine clay, delta and river sand, and silt deposits necessitated the construction of a 2444 m long dike on the northern bank of the La Grande 1 (LG-1) power station in northern Quebec. Geological conditions at the LG-1 site and various stages of construction of the dike were described. Emphasis was placed on the construction techniques and foundation treatment. The dike was constructed with side berms in a depression to ensure stability. 14 figs.

  14. USACE Regional Sediment Management and Engineering with Nature 2013 Workshop Summary (United States)


    maintenance status could be used as a reliable source of material for adding lifts over marshes and wetlands to maintain the desired emergent...Bay Wetland Restoration Projects: Are Circular or Linear Berms More Effective? Albuquerque Realizing a Triple Win in the Desert: Systems-level...materials (such as burlap geotubes) for the stabilization of banks and wetlands .  Investigate the use of microbial remediation on materials at confined

  15. Final Environmental Assessment for the Bridge Replacement and Scour Protection Measures at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida (United States)


    Scour protection measures would consist of backfill soil overlaid with geotextile plastic and then aggregate (broken concrete). The backfill soil...canal is scouring underneath these footers. The scour protection methods would include placement of fill and plastic geotextile overlaid with...back the earthen berm of Kissimmee Road. The riprap, geotextile and concrete aggregate would be placed at the interface between the canal floor

  16. An Intensive Cultural Resource Survey for the Bank Stabilization Project: A Late 19th Century Stoneware Manufacturing Site, Bonaparte, Iowa. (United States)


    small columns of brick were placed in front of the bungs to protect the saggars from warping (Cox 1926:153). The third type of kiln employed, especially...many still lie among debris within the pottery building basement. Bats are generally round, flat plaster slabs used to support pottery while it’s... waffle -zoned Decoration, Albany Slip Glazed. Two specimens Recovered from 6-1-S-2, Ca. .’..Specimen B: Surface of Berm, Bisqueware,Light Red, Molded

  17. Evaluation of Sampling and Sample Preparation Modifications for Soil Containing Metallic Residues (United States)


    pulverize the propellant fibers, be- cause these are mainly composed of nitrocellulose , a wood-like substance, and the cooling times are to avoid...the particle size of the sample to achieve a representative result. A limited study of a berm where small arms and 40- mm rocket- propelled grenades... propellant residues indicated longer grind intervals of 300 s are necessary (Walsh et al. 2006a). Because, the grinding process generates heat and

  18. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Southern California Coastal Photography and Beach Profile Index. (United States)


    OBISPO COUNTY 17 TORRANCE ..... . ...... ............... 118.5-120.0 IS. SAN PEDRO ..................................... 119.0-1280 44. ARROYO GRANDE...Between Bangor and Dover Lanes, two views of groin from 100 ft upcoast and downcoast at berm. 205.10 Groin No. 7: End of San Pedro Road, two views of...Downcoast view of beach, from 4th guard rail post, from downcoast end of bluff, over-looking pier. 251.90 El Capitan State Beach: Downcoast view of beach

  19. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Airborne Laser Program at Kirtland AFB, White Sands Missile Range/ Holloman AFB, New Mexico; Edwards AFB, Vandenberg AFB, California (United States)


    buttes) o’ eartr·-en berms as a backstop. The ARS would also be tesied using a gcound-based simulator within Building 151 at Edwards AFB. No oper...Grasslands inciJde the horned !ark (Eremophila alpeslris), scaied quail (Cal/ipepla squamata), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), greater roadrunner...were not affected at all. and open range species such as quail and coyotes were only slightly impacted (White Sands M:ssile Range, ": 998

  20. Biopolymer as an Alternative to Petroleum-based Polymers to Control Soil Erosion: Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (United States)


    of the manufacturing plant. Maintaining berm height is a critical parameter to explosion containment. 1.1.2 Technology Description Rhizobium Rhizobium leguminosarum var. phaseoli CIAT 899. Carbohydr. Res. 204, 103-107. Goto, N., Mitamura, O. and Terai, H. 2001. Biodegradation of...Martinez-Romero, E., Segovia, L., Mercante, F.M., Franco, A.A., Graham, P., Pardo, M.A. 1991. Rhizobium tropici, a novel species nodulating Phaseolus


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, T.


    USDOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  2. Lead particle size and its association with firing conditions and range maintenance: implications for treatment. (United States)

    Dermatas, Dimitris; Chrysochoou, Maria


    Six firing range soils were analyzed, representing different environments, firing conditions, and maintenance practices. The particle size distribution and lead (Pb) concentration in each soil fraction were determined for samples obtained from the backstop berms. The main factors that were found to influence Pb fragment size were the type of soil used to construct the berms and the type of weapon fired. The firing of high velocity weapons, i.e., rifles, onto highly angular soils induced significant fragmentation of the bullets and/or pulverization of the soil itself. This resulted in the accumulation of Pb in the finer soil fractions and the spread of Pb contamination beyond the vicinity of the backstop berm. Conversely, the use of clay as backstop and the use of low velocity pistols proved to be favorable for soil clean-up and range maintenance, since Pb was mainly present as large metallic fragments that can be recovered by a simple screening process. Other factors that played important roles in Pb particle size distribution were soil chemistry, firing distance, and maintenance practices, such as the use of water spray for dust suppression and deflectors prior to impact. Overall, coarse Pb particles provide much easier and more cost-effective maintenance, soil clean-up, and remediation via physical separation. Fine Pb particles release Pb more easily, pose an airborne Pb hazard, and require the application of stabilization/solidification treatment methods. Thus, to ensure sustainable firing range operations by means of cost-effective design, maintenance, and clean-up, especially when high velocity weapons are used, the above mentioned factors should be carefully considered.

  3. Evaluating dryland ecological and river restoration using repeat LiDAR and hydrological monitoring (United States)

    Henderson, W. M.; DeLong, S.


    Recent improvements in the collection of multitemporal, high-resolution topographic data such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have done a great deal to increase our ability to quantify the details of landscape change. Both Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) can be used to easily assess how Earth surface processes affect landscape form to a level of precision that was previously more difficult to attain. A comprehensive approach using ALSM, TLS-TLS comparison, and hydrological monitoring is being used to assess the effectiveness of a large scale ecological and river restoration effort by the Cuenca los Ojos Foundation at San Bernardino Ranch near Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. In the study area, historical arroyo cutting and changes in land use led to the abandonment of a ciénega wetland and resulted in widespread ecological destruction. The current land managers have employed engineering methods in order to restore stream and ciénega ecology, including the installation of large rock gabions, earthen berms, and concrete spillways along channels. Our goal is to test the hypothesis that the use of dam and gabion structures leads to stream aggradation, flash flood dampening, and ultimately, increased available water and reestablishment of historic wetland plant and animal communities. We present results from LiDAR change detection that includes 2007-2011 ALSM to TLS change, and several 2011-2012 TLS-TLS comparisons. We also present results from streamflow monitoring, field observation, and monitoring of shallow groundwater and soil moisture conditions. Preliminary results show that channel aggradation occurs rapidly upstream of engineered structures. However, the apparent dampening of sediment transport by the structures leads to less aggradation and even incision immediately downstream of structures. Peak flood flows are decreased by the reservoirs formed behind large earthen berms. After several years of water retention

  4. Clivajes, tensiones y dinámicas del cooperativismo de trabajo bajo programas sociales: el boom de las cooperativas del Programa Ingreso Social con Trabajo - Argentina Trabaja



    Se analizan tensiones, clivajes, supuestos y actores desde el propio diseño del programa, usando como fuentes tanto entrevistas a informantes calificados y a miembros de organizaciones sociales, como documentos públicos e información proveniente de espacios de discusiones sobre la temática. Fil: Arcidiácono, Pilar. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales. Buenos Aires. Argentina Fil: Bermúdez, Ángeles. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales. Buenos...

  5. Die Transformation der NATO : amerikanische Vorstellungen und Risiken für Europa


    Dembinski, Matthias


    'Die vom russischen Präsidenten Wladimir Putin im April 2007 verkündete Aussetzung des Vertrags über konventionelle Streitkräfte (KSE) wegen des geplanten US-Raketenschilds in Osteuropa ist nur die Spitze des Eisbergs der Verwerfungen zwischen der NATO und Russland. Der schon seit einigen Jahren andauernde Wandel der NATO, vor allem die Beitritte weiterer osteuropäischer Mitgliedsstaaten und die Ausweitung ihres Aufgaben- und Tätigkeitsbereichs, beunruhigen Moskau. Eine übermächtige, geeinte ...

  6. Músicos premiados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Amaya


    Full Text Available Guabina huilense, Carlos Cortés, transcripción para coro. Cecilia Pinzón Urrea. Premios Nacionales de Cultura (Colcultura, 1994, Tercer Mundo Editores, Santafé de Bogotá, mayo de 1995, 8 págs. El gaván (joropo. Hernán Cortés Vergel. Premios Nacionales de Cultura. (Colcultura, 1994, Tercer Mundo Editores, 85 págs. Te busco. Homenaje a Lucho Bermúdez. Jorge Olimpo Manrique. Premios Nacionales Colcultura, 1994; Tercer Mundo Editores, 1995, 85 págs.

  7. Constraints on aeolian sediment transport to foredunes within an undeveloped backshore enclave on a developed coast (United States)

    Kaplan, Kayla L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.


    Landforms present in undeveloped beach enclaves located between properties developed with houses and infrastructure are often left to evolve naturally but are influenced by the human structures near them. This field study evaluates how buildings and sand-trapping fences change the direction of wind approach, reduce wind speed, and restrict fetch distances for sediment entrainment, thereby reducing the potential for aeolian transport and development of dunes in enclaves. Field data were gathered in an 80 m long, 44 m deep beach enclave on the ocean shoreline of New Jersey, USA. Comparison of wind characteristics in the enclave with a site unaffected by buildings revealed that offshore winds in the enclave are reduced in strength and altered in direction by landward houses, increasing the relative importance of longshore winds. Vertical arrays of anemometers on the foredune crest, foredune toe and berm crest in the enclave revealed increasing wind speed with distance offshore, with strongest winds on the berm crest. Vertical cylindrical traps on the foredune crest, foredune toe, mid-backshore, berm crest and upper foreshore revealed the greatest rate of sediment transport on the berm crest. Sediment samples from the beach and from traps revealed limited potential for aeolian transport because of coarse grain sizes. Strong oblique onshore winds are common in this region and are normally important for transporting sand to dunes. The length of an enclave and the setback distance on its landward side determine the degree to which sediment delivered by oblique winds contributes to dune growth. The landward edge of the enclave (defined by a sand fence near the dune toe) is sheltered along its entire length from winds blowing at an angle to the shoreline of 25° or less. A foredune set back this distance in an enclave the length of an individual lot (about 20 m) would be sheltered at an angle of 57° or less, reducing the opportunity for dune building by onshore winds

  8. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu


    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flum......-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction.......A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave...

  9. Bolívar y la batalla de Aragua de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Forzán Dagger


    Full Text Available Acerca de la batalla de Aragua de Barcelona, los historiógrafos discrepan en relación a las causas de la derrota que sufrieran las fuerzas republicanas comandadas por Bolívar y el general oriental José Francisco Bermúdez, el 18 de agosto de 1814, en la Villa de Aragua de Barcelona, a manos del sanguinario español Francisco Tomás Morales; y también en el número de soldados que intervinieron.

  10. Himno del agua


    Donato Calderón, Fiorella


    El día 7 de octubre del 2003, se adoptó oficialmente la letra y la música del compositor costarricense Carlos Guzmán Bermúdez como el Himno al Agua de nuestro país, así lo confirma el siguiente decreto de la Ley General de la Administración Pública, publicado en La Gaceta N.° 78, 25 de abril de 2005

  11. Mathematical modeling of complex noise barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayek, S.I.


    Mathematical modeling of the noise reduction efficiency of highway noise barriers depends on the shape and absorptivity of the barrier, the influence of the impedance of the ground under the receiver, the atmospheric conditions as well as traffic details. The mathematical model for a barrier's noise reduction requires the knowledge of point-to-point acoustic diffraction models. In many instances, the shape of the barrier is simple; such as thin wall (edge), sharp wedge, and cylindrically topped berms. However, new designs of more efficient barriers have been investigated recently.

  12. Anecdotes, stories and tales of seven Caribbean physicians - The cardiologist´ s Hearts


    Torres-José Vicente; Bermúdez Rafael; Díaz Israel; Vásquez Hugo; Sierra Óscar; Olivares Armando; Tinoco Eduardo; Sotomayor-Herazo Arístides


    ANÉCDOTAS, CUENTOS Y RELATOS DE SIETE MÉDICOS CARIBEÑOSLos doctores José Vicente Torres, Rafael Bermúdez, Israel Díaz, Hugo Vásquez, Óscar Sierra, Armando Olivares Prados y Eduardo Tinoco, egresados de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Cartagena en 1952, nos presentan una visión amplia de su discurrir como estudiantes de medicina y su crecimiento profesional y personal. Todos los autores de este magnífico libro, son oriundos de la provincia de la costa Caribe de Colombia. Todos vin...

  13. Overtopping on Rubble Mound Breakwaters for Low Steepness Waves in Deep and Depth Limited Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch Christensen, Nicole; Røge, Mads Sønderstrup; Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg;


    In this paper, the investigation of overtopping on rubble mound breakwaters for low steepness waves in both deep and shallow-water conditions are presented. The existing formulae provide quite different results for long waves for both conventional and berm breakwaters. Therefore, new model tests...... with focus on long waves have been performed for both types of breakwaters. The new model tests showed some deviation from the formulae. Therefore, limitations in the use of the present methods and an update for one of the methods are presented....

  14. Toe Structure Stability of Sloping Breakwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴中; 嵇才苏


    Based on physical model tests, the rubble mound toe structure stability under the action of both regular and irregular waves is studied. Test results show that wave height and water depth at the toe structure are the most important factors affecting the stability of toe berm stone, and that irregular waves cause greater damage to the toe structure than regular waves. Analyses prove that the Gerding formula agrees better with our test results than the Meer formula. Tests on two different types of main armors also indicate that the shape and composition of the main armor have effect on the stability of the toe structure.

  15. Ecología del manglar en una zona arida: exposición al oleaje y estructura del manglar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Cintrón


    Full Text Available Observations in a mangrove lined coast in south-western Puerto Rico (rainfall 800-1,000 mm; evaporation 1,900-2,200 mm; mean annual temperature 25º C; and average tidal range 0.3 m have shown that the degree of structural development of the mangrove forest is closely related to wave exposure. In exposed coastal segments, sand berms formed by wave action within the outer fringe prevent water flow towards the inner forest, resulting in high salinities. The berms are higher in areas where the outer mangrove fringe has been destroyed by storms or other causes. Dead mangrove stands are found behind these areas and salinities reach 75-80‰ We suggest that the mangrove fringe contributes to dissipate wave energy over a broad area which reduces the high of the berm. The presence of absence of "blowholes" in the seagrass Thalassia; bed is an index of the degree of protection that the coast receives. The "thickness" of the mangrove fringe is also related to the degree of shelter: it is "thin" in high energy segments, "thick" in coastal segments subject to intermediate energy and "thin"again in the most sheltered locations. In the outlying cays mangrove development follows a similar pattern: the outer exposed cays (essentially coral islands mantled by coarse sands are devoid of mangrove cover or have stunted trees (generally Laguncularia; canopy height, 2 m. Islands which are less exposed are colonized by Rhizophora which frequently forms overwashed forests (canopy height, 8-9 m. In the most seltered areas, Rhizophora colonizes the shallow banks, forming islands which soon develop an inner hypersaline lagoon due to the accumulation of material in the outer edges and the accumulation of salt in the interior. The wave energy level reaching a given section of the coast is therefore an important factor which determines the degree of structural development of the mangrove forest. High energy levels are associated with erosion, destruction or deposition of

  16. D5.4 Guidelines for interaction between seabed and support structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brennan, Andrew; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kirca, Özgür


    of liquefaction at the nodal section seems to be the same with the progressive wave case. Thus, mathematical models for progressive waves would also work for standing waves as far as the nodal section is concerned. Rock berms (protection cover) on pipelines and power transmission cables are essential to protect...... foundations. Liquefaction under Standing waves, although qualitatively similar, show features different from that caused by progressive waves. The pore pressure accumulation and liquefaction starts at the nodal section, and progresses towards anti-nodal section due to a diffusion mechanism. The rate...

  17. Textos y contextos : boletín bibliográfico nº 4


    Tamayo Acosta, Juan José


    Coordinador: Edgardo Rodríguez Gómez Reseñas de las siguientes monografías: El Concilio, nuevo comienzo / Karl Rahner, p. 1 -- Estado laico. La Iglesia católica y el Estado constitucional / Cayetano Núñez Rivero, p. 2 -- Las mujeres y el desarrollo humano / Martha C. Nussbaum, p. 3 -- El arte de vivir. Valores humanos para una nueva sociedad / Fernando Bermúdez López, p. 4 -- Ética y derechos humanos en la era biotecnológica / José Mª Rodríguez Merino, p. 5 -- Dignidad y religiones / Kare...

  18. Manuel Gálvez, crítico de arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Muñoz


    Full Text Available Between 1912 and 1914, Manuel Gálvez was in charge of the artistic section of Nosotros magazine. The critics he published there were contemporary to the institutionalization process that began with the inauguration of the Fine Arts Annual Salons. An intellectual of the Centenary generation, Galvez fought for the establishment of an Argentinian national art rooted in the principles of Realism. The artistic nationalism sustained by Gálvez had its best expression in the regionalist works of Jorge Bermúdez.

  19. Thermal state of ice-rich soils on the Tommot-Yakutsk Railroad right-of-way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavel Skryabin



  20. Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango Sala de Conciertos : noviembre de 1967

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Galindo M.


    Full Text Available Con ocasión del Congreso Nacional de Cirugia Interna, se realizó el día primero, como parte artística de su inauguración, un recital de órgano, ofrecido por Simón Galindo; la destinación casi total de las localidades para el cuerpo médico, impidió ciertamente la asistencia del que se pudiera llamar el público habitual de la sala. Fue este un programa integrado por obras de Telemann (Suite en Sol Menor, Toccata en Fa de Bach, Coral en Si Menor de Schurnann y el Concierto en Re Menor de Haendel en transcripción de Guilmant. Cabe destacar la inclusión en el programa, del Preludio y Fuga de Jesús Bermúdez Silva, de una admirable técnica y sensibilidad, obra casi única en el escaso repertorio de música organística en nuestros compositores nacionales; ojalá que este género se vea incrementado con la actual existencia de estupendos instrumentos en la capital; el maestro Bermúdez, alli presente, recibió una calurosa ovación de los oyentes.

  1. Variations of Morphologic Changes induced by Tropical Storm Debby along Three Barrier Island, West-Central Florida, USA (United States)

    Wang, P.; Roberts, T.


    Tropical Storm Debby generated sustained high waves and elevated water levels for nearly three days from June 24th to 26th, 2012, inducing substantial changes in beach and nearshore morphology. In addition, the storm winds and high waves approached the coast from a highly oblique angle from the south, driving substantial northward longshore sand transport, opposite to the regional net annual southward transport. A total of 145 beach and nearshore profiles along 3 adjacent barrier islands were surveyed 2 weeks before and one week after the storm impact. Overall, dune, beach, intertidal, and immediate subtidal areas suffered erosion, while deposition was measured over the nearshore bar. Beach recovery in the form of ridge and runnel development occurred as the storm energy subsided. Substantial longshore variations of storm-induced beach changes were measured, including both severe dune/beach/berm erosion and storm berm accretion, and both onshore and offshore migration of nearshore bar. Factors controlling these longshore variations include: 1) the oblique approaching of the storm forcing, 2) pre-storm beach morphology and chronic erosional or accretional trends, 3) sediment supply, and 4) tidal inlet and beach interactions. Wide spreading dune scarping occurred along the 30-km studied coast. Based on the pre- and post-storm survey data, a balanced sediment budget is obtained accounting for sand volume loss from dune, beach, intertidal, and subtidal zones, and sand gains over the nearshore bar and along the northern sections of the beach.

  2. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: a case study (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.


    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  3. Temporal changes in lithology and radiochemistry from the back-barrier environments along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana: March 2012-July 2013 (United States)

    Marot, Marci E.; Adams, C. Scott; Richwine, Kathryn A.; Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.; Bernier, Julie C.


    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted a time-series collection of shallow sediment cores from the back-barrier environments along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana from March 2012 through July 2013. The sampling efforts were part of a larger USGS study to evaluate effects on the geomorphology of the Chandeleur Islands following the construction of an artificial sand berm to reduce oil transport onto federally managed lands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the back-barrier tidal and wetland environments to the berm. This report serves as an archive for sedimentological, radiochemical, and microbiological data derived from the sediment cores. Data are available for a time-series of four sampling periods: March 2012; July 2012; September 2012; and July 2013. Downloadable data are available as Excel spreadsheets and as JPEG files. Additional files include: ArcGIS shapefiles of the sampling sites, detailed results of sediment grain size analyses, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of the Nuclide Migration from the Activation Zone Around the Proposed Spallation Neutron Source Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of migrating radionuclides from the activation zone around the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Using conservatively high estimates of the potential inventory of radioactive activation products that could form in the proposed compacted-soil shield berm around an SNS facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a conservative, simplified transport model was used to estimate the potential worst-case concentrations of the 12 long-lived isotopes in the groundwater under a site with the hydrologic characteristics of the ORR. Of the 12, only 3 isotopes showed any potential to exceed the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 20 Drinking Water Limits (DWLs). These isotopes were 14C, 22Na, and 54Mn. The latter two activation products have very short half-lives of 2.6 years and 0.854 year, respectively. Therefore, these will decay before reaching an off-site receptor, and they cannot pose off-site hazards. However, for this extremely conservative model, which overestimates the mobility of the contaminant, 14C, which has a 5,730-year half-life, was shown to represent a potential concern in the context of this study's conservative assumptions. This study examines alternative modifications to the SNS shield berm and makes recommendations.

  5. Evidence of flash floods in Precambrian gravel dominated ephemeral river deposits (United States)

    Long, Darrel G. F.


    Fluvial strata at the base of the Whyte Inlet Formation on Baffin Island, to the west of Sikosak Bay, are predominantly boulder and cobble bearing large pebble conglomerates of braided fluvial origin. Local development of narrow sinuous channels, possibly within the thalwegs of an initially braided bedrock confined system, is indicated by the presence of lateral accretion surfaces, some of which host isolated sub-vertically oriented boulders. These larger boulders were probably emplaced during exceptional flood events involving either hyper-concentrated flows or dilute debris flows, with velocities in the order of 2.2 m/s. Isolated ridges of boulders and cobbles are perched on the upper parts of lateral accretion surfaces in mixed sandy-gravelly fluvial intervals. These boulder berms developed down stream from channel bends or bedrock constrictions in response to flow expansion during flash floods, with estimated peak discharge of about 1.4 m/s. Associated sandstones on lateral accretion surfaces show evidence of deposition under both upper and lower flow conditions. Similar boulder and cobble berms of this type are known from modern ephemeral and highly seasonal fluvial systems in a wide range of climatic settings, and are a clear indication that highly variable to catastrophic discharge events affected the rivers responsible for deposition of these conglomerates.

  6. Effects of nourishment on the form and function of an estuarine beach (United States)

    Jackson, N.L.; Nordstrom, K.F.; Saini, S.; Smith, D.R.


    Beach nourishment programs in estuaries can enhance shore protection, but they decrease habitat suitability by creating higher berms and wider backshores than would occur under natural conditions. Use of sediment sources from outside the area can result in sedimentary characteristics that differ from native sediments on the surface and at depth, altering conditions for both aeolian transport to dunes and interstitial fauna. Field data were gathered on an estuarine beach to determine differences in beach profile change, depth of sediment reworking, and potential for aeolian transport due to nourishment. Data were gathered over a 20-month period 6 months prior to nourishment, 3 days after nourishment, 6 months after nourishment, and 14 months after nourishment when the beach was mechanically graded to eliminate a vertical scarp in the foreshore. The nourishment consisted of 87,900m3 of sediment emplaced to create a 1.34-km-long, 30-m-wide berm 2.3m above mean tide level. Seven percent of the fill was removed from the profile within 6 months after nourishment, accompanied by 7m in horizontal retreat of the artificial berm. The fill on the backshore remained above the zone of wave influence over a winter storm season and was separated from the active foreshore by the scarp. Nourished sediments on the intertidal foreshore were significantly different from native sediments to a depth of 0.20m below the surface. A lag surface of coarse sediment formed by deflation on the backshore, resulting in a rate of aeolian transport <2% of the rate on the wave-reworked foreshore.Nourishing a beach to a level higher than would be created by natural processes can create a profile that compartmentalizes and restricts transport of sediment and movement of fauna between the foreshore and backshore. Mechanical grading can eliminate the scarp, allow for faunal interaction, and reestablish wave reworking of the backshore that will facilitate aeolian transport. Using an initial design to

  7. The concept possession hypothesis of self-consciousness. (United States)

    Savanah, Stephane


    This paper presents the hypothesis that concept possession is sufficient and necessary for self-consciousness. If this is true it provides a yardstick for gauging the validity of different research paradigms in which claims for self-consciousness in animals or human infants are made: a convincing demonstration of concept possession in a research subject, such as a display of inferential reasoning, may be taken as conclusive evidence of self-consciousness. Intuitively, there appears to be a correlation between intelligence in animals (which presupposes concept possession) and the existence of self-consciousness. I present three discussions to support the hypothesis: an analogy between perception and conception, where both are self-specifying; an argument that any web of concepts will always include the self-concept; and a fresh interpretation of Bermũdez (1998) showing how his theory of non-conceptual content provides strong support for the concept possession hypothesis.

  8. Characterization of the radiation environment at the UNLV accelerator facility during operation of the Varian M6 linac (United States)

    Hodges, M.; Barzilov, A.; Chen, Y.; Lowe, D.


    The bremsstrahlung photon flux from the UNLV particle accelerator (Varian M6 model) was determined using MCNP5 code for 3 MeV and 6 MeV incident electrons. Human biological equivalent dose rates due to accelerator operation were evaluated using the photon flux with the flux-to-dose conversion factors. Dose rates were computed for the accelerator facility for M6 linac use under different operating conditions. The results showed that the use of collimators and linac internal shielding significantly reduced the dose rates throughout the facility. It was shown that the walls of the facility, in addition to the earthen berm enveloping the building, provide equivalent shielding to reduce dose rates outside to below the 2 mrem/h limit.

  9. Beach nourishment alternative assessment to constrain cross-shore and longshore sediment transport (United States)

    Karasu, Servet; Work, Paul; Uzlu, Ergun; Kankal, Murat; Yuksek, Omer


    A combined field and laboratory investigation was conducted to assess five options for creation of a recreational beach on a steep, armored shoreline on the eastern Black Sea coast. All designs incorporated a beach nourishment project placed between two existing, shore-normal, rubble-mound groins. Alternatives included the placement of a nearshore berm, longshore extensions added to the existing groins, and shore-parallel breakwaters. Several alternatives are reviewed for quantifying the performance of each design, including assessment of the change in shoreline position and project volume retained between the groins. Dimensionless benefits and benefit-cost ratios are quantified, and recommendations made on how to select the best outcome from a benefit-to-cost standpoint when options including hard structures are incorporated into a beach nourishment project design.

  10. Analysis of effect of first-level basin excavation on deformation of deep and large foundation pits%深大基坑首层盆式开挖对基坑变形影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚剑; 王旭军; 赵锡宏


    On the backgroung of the first-level soil excavation on the podium pit of Shanghai Tower which is constructed with top-down method, the effectiveness of earth berms on pit deformation is analyzed. Analytical results show that the results of calculation agree with field measurements for the lateral deformation of soil. In deep and large top-down excavations, the effects of the changes of retaining wall thickness range from 0.8 m to 1.6 m; and whether to consider lowered wall on the pit deformation are not significant when the first level soil is excavated. When the retaining wall is modeled with beam elements, the calculated value of wall lateral deformation is 10%-21% larger than that when the wall is modeled with solid elements; the reason is that the latter can consider the effect of resistance moment which is generated by the friction between the wall and the soil. The lateral anti-pressure F firstly decreases slowly with the decrease of the width of berms b. When b reaches about 20 m, F reaches the minimum, then gradually increases with the decrease of b. To the given excavation depth of berm boundary h1 , there is a critical value bcr for b; when b decrease to bcr , F reaches peak; if b is further reduced, the wall deformation is increasing rapidly. And bcr increases with the increase of h1. Finally, based on these results, the design method for earth berms in basin excavation is given.%以上海中心大厦裙房逆作施工基坑的首层土方开挖为背景,针对盆式开挖盆边预留土堤大小对基坑变形影响进行了深入分析.结果表明,围护墙变形计算值与实测值较为吻合;在逆作法深大基坑中,围护墙厚度在0.8~1.6m之间变化及是否考虑地墙落低作用对首层开挖的基坑变形影响不明显;采用梁单元模拟围护墙比采用实体单元的围护墙变形计算值要大10%~21%左右,原因是采用后者能考虑土体与墙之间摩擦力所产生的抵抗弯矩作用.预留土堤所

  11. Environmental implications of the use of sulfidic back-bay sediments for dune reconstruction - Lessons learned post Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Benzel, William M; Hoefen, Todd M; Hageman, Philip L; Morman, Suzette A; Reilly, Timothy J; Adams, Monique; Berry, Cyrus J; Fischer, Jeffrey M; Fisher, Irene


    Some barrier-island dunes damaged or destroyed by Hurricane Sandy's storm surges in October 2012 have been reconstructed using sediments dredged from back bays. These sand-, clay-, and iron sulfide-rich sediments were used to make berm-like cores for the reconstructed dunes, which were then covered by beach sand. In November 2013, we sampled and analyzed partially weathered materials collected from the cores of reconstructed dunes. There are generally low levels of metal toxicants in the reconstructed dune materials. However oxidation of reactive iron sulfides by percolating rainwater produces acid-sulfate pore waters, which evaporate during dry periods to produce efflorescent gypsum and sodium jarosite salts. The results suggest use of sulfidic sediments in dune reconstruction has both drawbacks (e.g., potential to generate acid runoff from dune cores following rainfall, enhanced corrosion of steel bulwarks) and possible benefits (e.g., efflorescent salts may enhance structural integrity).

  12. Erosive processes in Macau/Serra oil field, on the basis of coastal hydrodynamic and in the beaches profiles, Macau/RN, NE, Brazil; Processos erosivos no Campo Petrolifero de Macau/Serra, com base na hidrodinamica costeira e nos perfis praiais, Macau/RN, NE do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Marcelo dos Santos [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica]. E-mail:; Vital, Helenice [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia]|[Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Silveira, Iracema M. [Museu Camara Cascudo, Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos, Daniel A.S. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia


    In order to understand the causes of erosion before the construction of protective structures on erosional beaches of northeastern Brazil where the Macau/Serra oil field (Potiguar Basin) are installed, environmental studies based mainly on in situ measurements of hydrodynamic and beaches profiles data were undertaken as part of MARPETRO project (FINEP/CTPETRO/PETROBRAS). The data were collected monthly during a period of 24 months (October 2000 to September 2002), always in the spring tides. The beach profiles analysis show an intensive surface erosion rate, as observed by the decrease of the berm scarp in the profile 03, which retreat more than 17 meters in this period. Hydrodynamic data indicate a decrease in the period of erosion x deposition, as verified in the overlap of the topographic profiles. The results show that due to the high environmental sensibility of the area, which has a negative natural impacts while the human interference just accentuate the erosional processes. (author)

  13. Application of solar hot water and geothermal principles to closed-cycle aquaculture (United States)

    Yanzito, R. A.


    The design of an underground silo where warm water food fish could be raised to market size under controlled conditions. The building and solar concept analysis for the closed cycle aquaculture system are described. Energy conservation features of the design include Earth berming and insulation of the production silo and enclosure, a waste water reclaim system and a solar heating system. Much of the water surface area is covered with removable plants to minimize evaporative heat losses. An energy conservation analysis is also reported and the F-Chart computer program is described. The system chosen utilizes single glazed flat plate collectors in a closed loop antifreeze system. Makeup water is introduced during an 8 hour period each day. Solar energy is transferred from the antifreeze solution to the makeup water after it leaves the waste water heat exchanger.

  14. Movimientos Migratorios Masivos de México a Estados Unidos en Tres Novelas Chicanas Escritas en Español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Martínez


    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza tres novelas chicanas escritas en español que representan los tres grandes movimientos migratorios de México a Estados Unidos. Las épocas son el enganche, el programa bracero y la amnistía, conocida como IRCA (Inmigration Reform and Control Act de 1986. Las novelas analizadas son: Las aventuras de don Chipote, o, cuando los pericos mamen de Daniel Venegas que representa la época del enganche; Peregrinos de Aztlán de Miguel M. Méndez que refleja los efectos de la terminación del programa bracero y; Miel Quemada de Antonio Arreguín Bermúdez que refleja la vida de los campesinos durante la amnistía.

  15. Calculation note for an underground leak which remains underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, H.J.


    This calculation note supports the subsurface leak accident scenario which remains subsurface. It is assumed that a single walled pipe carrying waste from tank 106-C ruptures, releasing the liquid waste into the soil. In this scenario, the waste does not form a surface pool, but remains subsurface. However, above the pipe is a berm, 0.762 m (2.5 ft) high and 2.44 m (8 ft) wide, and the liquid released from the leak rises into the berm. The slurry line, which transports a source term of higher activity than the sluice line, leaks into the soil at a rate of 5% of the maximum flow rate of 28.4 L/s (450 gpm) for twelve hours. The dose recipient was placed a perpendicular distance of 100 m from the pipe. Two source terms were considered, mitigated and unmitigated release as described in section 3.4.1 of UANF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Addendum 1. The unmitigated consisted of two parts of AWF liquid and one part AWF solid. The mitigated release consisted of two parts SST liquid, eighteen parts AWF liquid, nine parts SST solid, and one part AWF solid. The isotopic breakdown of the release in these cases is presented. Two geometries were considered in preliminary investigations, disk source, and rectangular source. Since the rectangular source results from the assumption that the contamination is wicked up into the berm, only six inches of shielding from uncontaminated earth is present, while the disk source, which remains six inches below the level of the surface of the land is often shielded by a thick shield due to the slant path to the dose point. For this reason, only the rectangular source was considered in the final analysis. The source model was a rectangle 2.134 m (7 ft) thick, 0.6096 m (2 ft) high, and 130.899 m (131 ft) long. The top and sides of this rectangular source was covered with earth of density 1.6 g/cm{sup 3} to a thickness of 15.24 cm (6 in). This soil is modeled as 40% void space. The source consisted of earth of the same density with the void spaces filled with

  16. The Noticias de los arquitectos: towards a ‘National’ definition of Spanish architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Cera


    Full Text Available The book Noticias de los arquitectos y arquitectura de España desde su Restauración is the first ever history of Spanish architecture published in Spain. The book´s writing was undertaken by scholar and politician Eugenio Llaguno, around 1769, with the aim of defending Spanish arts against harsh contemporary criticisms. However, it was not published until 1829, and was finished by a completely different scholar, Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez. Thus, it is chiefly important because it reflects the evolution of Spanish thought over this 60 year period, including the impact of the French invasion in 1808, which led to a search of a National identity in the architectural past.

  17. Upper bound seismic rotational stability analysis of gravity retaining walls considering embedment depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 黄达; 杨超; 孙莎


    Stability analysis of gravity retaining wall was currently based on the assumption that the wall had no embedment depth. The effect of earth berm was usually neglected. The present work highlighted the importance of embedment depth when assessing the seismic stability of gravity retaining walls with the pattern of pure rotation. In the framework of upper bound theorem of limit analysis, pseudo-static method was applied into two groups of parallel rigid soil slices methods in order to account for the effect of embedment depth on evaluating the critical acceleration of wall-soil system. The present analytical solution is identical to the results obtained from using limit equilibrium method, and the two methods are based on different theory backgrounds. Parameter analysis indicates that the critical acceleration increases slowly when the ratio of the embedment depth to the total height of the wall is from 0 to 0.15 and increases drastically when the ratio exceeds 0.15.

  18. Passive millimeter-wave imagery of helicopter obstacles in a sand environment (United States)

    Wikner, David A.


    Operation of military helicopters in a dusty environment challenges pilots with reduced visibility. Passive millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging has the potential to be used in these environments to image through dust cloud obscurants. The millimeter-wave phenomenology of the sand environment and the obstacles present in that environment are explored in this work. A 93 GHz polarimetric passive MMW imager was used to characterize an obstacle-rich sand environment and the results are presented. It is shown that there is a strong polarimetric signature present for both sand and cinder block between 10 and 30 degrees depression angles. Also shown is the phenomenology associated with shadows on sand. It was determined that berms and ditches can be very difficult to detect using even a sensitive MMW radiometer. The results can be used to model the performance of passive MMW imaging systems in a sandy environment.

  19. Wave Interaction with Porous Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne

    are also applied as part of investigating and designing breakwaters. The models can provide more detailed information on some topics, such as pressure attenuation through the porous core material, while it is more difficult to simulate the direct destabilisation and movements of individual stones......Porous breakwater structures are widely used as protection against waves for ports and harbours as well as for general coastal protection. The structures differers depending on the exact purpose e.g. harbour protection, detached breakwaters, groins, submerged breakwaters etc. Typical types...... of structures are rubble mound breakwaters and berm breakwaters where common structural elements are core material, filter layers and armour layers. The armour stones serves as the main protection of the filter and core material against wave action. Therefore the armour stones must maintain stable when exposed...

  20. Desarrollo de habilidades cognoscitivas y de pensamiento crítico desde una problemática ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesica Carvajal Alfonso


    Full Text Available En las ultimas décadas se han visto diversos e interesantes cambios en la forma como se dan los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje en la escuela y en aula (Bermúdez, Escobedo & Jaramillo, 2.002, razón por la cual se planea un análisis teórico reflexivo en el cual se proponen algunas posibles herramientas didácticas para generar habilidades cognoscitivas que fomenten y fortalezcan el pensamiento critico y reflexivo en los estudiantes frente a la química tomando como punto de referencia aspectos de la problemática ambiental que se está viviendo actualmente, y la importancia que está generando la producción e implementación de combustibles alternativos debido a la necesidad de lograr un desarrollo sustentable y menos contaminante del medio ambiente.

  1. Ancient engineering geology projects in China; A canal system in Ganzu province and trenches along the Great Wall in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (United States)

    Wallace, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Hanks, T.C.


    Two major construction projects of ancient times in China involved what today would be considered engineering geology. We describe an ancient canal system in Gaotai County, Gansu province that was possibly begun in the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). The canal system heads at the Dasha River and extends northwestward for about 55 km to the City of Camels and Xusanwan village. Four parallel canals are present at the local site we examined. The canals were likely built primarily to transport water but may also have served as defensive military barriers. A second project involves trenches and berms along the north side of the Great Wall, clearly part of the Great Wall defensive system. This site is in Ningxia Autonomous Region near the town of Shizuishan. ?? 1994.

  2. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Cox, Rachel E.; Ebert, Tom; Smith, Jonathan D.; Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.

    Regolith is abundant on extra-terrestrial surfaces and is the source of many resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, titanium, aluminum, iron, silica and other valuable materials, which can be used to make rocket propellant, consumables for life support, radiation protection barrier shields, landing pads, blast protection berms, roads, habitats and other structures and devices. Recent data from the Moon also indicates that there are substantial deposits of water ice in permanently shadowed crater regions and possibly under an over burden of regolith. The key to being able to use this regolith and acquire the resources, is being able to manipulate it with robotic excavation and hauling machinery that can survive and operate in these very extreme extra-terrestrial surface environments.

  3. (Keine Strategie für Medizinbibliotheken? [(No strategy for medical libraries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obst, Oliver


    Full Text Available [english] Strategy is a big word. Which medical library does have a logical, let alone sustainable strategy? The following article is trying to break down this big word on a tradable level, to make it usable for everyday practice. In the sea of information, libraries and their areas of expertise could be small, agile speedboats compared to the overpowering ocean liners.[german] Strategie ist ein großes Wort. Welche Medizinbibliothek hat schon eine logische, geschweige denn nachhaltige Strategie aufzuweisen? Im folgenden Artikel wird versucht, dieses große Wort auf ein handelbares Level herunter zu brechen, um es für die alltägliche Praxis nutzbar zu machen. Bibliotheken und deren Spezialgebiete können als kleine, wendige Schnellboote auf dem Meer der Information durchaus den übermächtigen Ozeandampfern Konkurrenz machen.

  4. 1997-2001: el estatus de Homo antecessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En 1997 denominamos una nueva especie del género Homo, H. antecessor (Bermúdez de Castro et alii, 1997, para incluir la variabilidad observada en los restos humanos fósiles procedentes del nivel TD6 (Estrato Autota del yacimiento de la Gtan Dolina de la Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos. Los nuevos hallazgos realizados desde entonces en otros yacimientos europeos (e. g. Dmanisi, República de Georgia, así como la reinterpretación de algunos ejemplares fósiles han reforzado la credibilidad de la especie. El hipodigma de H. antecessor se ha incrementado con la inclusión del espécimen descubierto en 1994 cerca de la localidad italiana de Ceprano. Por otra parte, la especie H. antecessor continúa siendo la mejot candidata para representar el último antecesor común de los neandertales y de las poblaciones modernas.ABSTRACT: In 1997 we named a new Homo species, H. antecessor (Bermúdez de Castro et alii, 1997, to accommodate the variability observed in the human fossil remains coming from the TD6 level (Aurora Stratum of the Gran Dolina site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain. The new findings made since then in other European sites (e. g. Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia, as well as the re-examination of some fossil specimens have strengthened the credit of the species. The H. antecessor hypodigm has increased with the inclusion of the adult calvaría discovered in 1994 near Ceprano (Italy. Moteover, H. antecessor is still the best candidate for representing the last common ancestor to Neanderthals and modem humans.

  5. Las formas de segunda persona singular como estrategias evidenciales The forms of second singular person as evidential strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available En esta investigación se estudian las formas de segunda persona singular que no corresponden al dominio de la deixis y que presentan el rasgo de "generalidad" y "encubrimiento del emisor". Se explican estos dos fenómenos en el marco de la evidencialidad a través de los ejes "fuente de información" y "acceso a la información", descritos por Bermúdez (2005. Junto con una propuesta del posible significado de esta forma en el marco evidencial, se realiza un estudio de los aspectos sintácticos y morfológicos que influyen en su interpretación, en una muestra de un corpus del español de Chile, Codicach (Corpus dinámico del castellano de Chile. Se llega a la conclusión de que los elementos más influyentes para la interpretación genérica (acceso compartido son los activadores genéricos y que el aspecto imperfectivo y el tiempo presente no son requisitos indispensables para que se produzca esta interpretación.This investigation studies the forms of second singular person which do not correspond to deixis, and present a mark of "generality" and "concealed emitter". These two phenomena are explained according to evidence through the axes of "information source" and "information access", described by Bermúdez (2005. Along with a proposal for the possible meaning of these forms in the evidential context, a study is carried out on the syntactic and morphologic aspects which infuence its interpretation in a sample firom a Chilean Spanish corpus, Codicach (Corpus dinámico del castellano de Chile. The conclusion is that the most infuential elements for the generic interpretation (shared access are the generic activators and that the imperfective aspect and present tense are not indispensable requirements to reach such interpretation.

  6. Fisheries Enhancement in the Fish Creek Basin; Evaluation of In-Channel and Off-Channel Projects, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everest, Fred H.; Sedell, James R. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Wolfe, John (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)


    This S-year project which began in 1983 is designed to construct and evaluate habitat improvements in the Fish Creek basin by personnel of the Estacada Ranger District, Ht. Hood National Forest, and the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. The work is jointly funded by BPA and USDA-Forest Service. The evaluation has focused on activities designed to improve spawning and rearing habitat for chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout. Specific habitat improvements being evaluated include: boulder berms, an off-channel pond, a side-channel, addition of large woody debris to stream edge habitats, and hardwood plantings to improve riparian vegetation. The initial phases of habitat work have proceeded cautiously in concert with the evaluation so that knowledge gained could be immediately applied to future proposed habitat work. The evaluation has been conducted at the basin level, rather than reach or site level, and has focused intensely on identification of factors limiting production of salmonids in Fish Creek, as well as physical and biological changes resulting from habitat improvement. Identification of limiting factors has proven to be difficult and requires several years of all-season investigation. Results of this work to date indicate that spawning habitat is not limiting production of steelhead or coho in the basin. Coho habitat is presently underseeded because of inadequate escapement. Key summer habitats for coho, age 0 and age 1+ steelhead are beaver ponds, side channels, and pools, respectively. Key winter habitats appear to be groundwater-fed side channels and boulder-rubble stream margins with 30+ cm depth and low velocity water. Additional work is needed to determine whether summer habitat or winter habitat is limiting steelhead and coho production. Chinook use of the basin appears to be related to the timing of fall freshets that control migratory access into the system. Instream habitat improvements show varying degrees of promise

  7. Geologic evidence for a tsunami source along the trench northeast of Puerto Rico (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Feuillet, N.; Fuentes, Z.; Robert, H.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.; jennifer, W.


    Coral boulders of medieval age at Anegada, British Virgin Islands, calibrated to local geologic effects of far-field tsunamis and hurricanes, provide tangible evidence for the generation of a tsunami by faulting along the eastern Puerto Rico Trench. SETTING: Anegada is 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench and 200 km east-northeast of San Juan. It is fringed on the north and east by a coral reef 100-1200 m offshore; founded on Pleistocene carbonate with a cemented cap; rimmed on much of its perimeter by sandy Holocene beach ridges; and bermed with coral-rubble on a rocky stretch of its north shore. CORAL BOULDERS: Scores of coral heads up to 2 m in diameter were moved across the north shore in medieval time. Some crossed the line of the modern storm berm, continued over a limestone rise 4 m above sea level, and came to rest on lower ground hundreds of meters farther south. Others traversed beach ridges, and two of these boulders are now 1.5 km from the fringing reef. Most of the boulders are Diploria strigosa, an endemic of reef flanks. Some retain enough of their originally rounded, dimpled shape to have been deposited live. The likely time of emplacement of freshly dislodged, still-living heads is AD 1200-1450. This range is based on radiocarbon dating of outer growth bands of 18 heads from 5 separate areas. The youngest of the ages is 890±25 14C yr BP, and the ΔR assumed is 0 to -200 14C yr. CALIBRATION TO A FAR-FIELD TSUNAMI: Deposits dated to 1650-1800 at Anegada represent either the largest known far-field tsunami in the Caribbean (1755 Lisbon) or some other tsunami or unusual storm that surpassed the Lisbon tsunami in its local geologic effects. The water cut or freshened breaches in north-shore beach ridges and poured into a marine pond, where it moved limestone boulders and laid down a sheet of sand and shell that extends as much as 1.5 km inland [refs 1-4]. Many of the limestone boulders were probably inherited from the higher, earlier overwash that

  8. Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.


    time during the Lisbon(?) event. (3) A storm berm of coral rubble lies seaward of a field of coral boulders that marks the medieval overwash. The berm rises as much as 3 m above fair-weather high tides along Anegada's north shore at Soldier Wash, a sand-free stretch of coast 100 m from the fringing reef. The berm consists of imbricated, well-rounded fragments 15-30 cm in diameter on average. This rubble differs in preservation, size, and distribution from the brain-coral heads 1 m in diameter that the medieval overwash scattered hundreds of meters inland from Soldier Wash. *REFERENCES; 2012 fall AGU abs OS32A-05 T41A-2562, and T41A-2566.

  9. Use of structured decision-making to explicitly incorporate environmental process understanding in management of coastal restoration projects: Case study on barrier islands of the northern Gulf of Mexico. (United States)

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Meyers, Michelle; Mattsson, Brady; Steyer, Gregory; Godsey, Elizabeth; McDonald, Justin; Byrnes, Mark; Ford, Mark


    Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected. In this study, collaborative structured decision-making (SDM) was evaluated as an approach to incorporate process understanding into mid-construction decisions and to identify priority gaps in knowledge from a management perspective. The focus was a barrier island restoration project at Ship Island, Mississippi, where sand will be used to close an extensive breach that currently divides the island. SDM was used to estimate damage that may occur during construction, and guide repair decisions within the confines of limited availability of sand and funding to minimize adverse impacts to project objectives. Sand was identified as more limiting than funds, and unrepaired major breaching would negatively impact objectives. Repairing minor damage immediately was determined to be generally more cost effective (depending on the longshore extent) than risking more damage to a weakened project. Key gaps in process-understanding relative to project management were identified as the relationship of island width to breach formation; the amounts of sand lost during breaching, lowering, or narrowing of the berm; the potential for minor breaches to self-heal versus developing into a major breach; and the relationship between upstream nourishment and resiliency of the berm to storms. This application is a

  10. Taku Glacier: Proglacial Deformation and Subglacial Erosion (United States)

    Kuriger, E. M.; Motyka, R. J.; Truffer, M.; Bucki, A. K.


    Taku Glacier has advanced about 7~km since 1890 and is continuing its advance today. Located in southeastern Alaska, this glacier flows from the Juneau Ice Field down to sea level. In the last several decades the glacier has bulldozed a berm of marine and fluvial sediments from the fjord bottom; this berm now separates the terminus from tidewater. The force of the advancing glacier is causing large-scale deformation within these sediments. In 2001, a series of thrust scarps began to form in front of a 200~m section of the terminus. These scarps were active for several months and produced a series of bulges that grew to be several meters in height above the surrounding sediments. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to image the internal structure of these bulges. A trench dug into one of the proglacial ridges revealed that a >2~m clay/sand layer might have played an important role as a thrust zone during deformation. This layer could also be identified in the GPR returns. Beside these scarp-formed bulges there are numerous indicators of the continued advance. Push moraines along the terminus range in height from 1~m to a towering 10~m. In some areas the advancing ice has dug into the sediments and has lifted the vegetation from below. We also observed up to 1~m thick debris freeze-on layers that, when exposed at the terminus, melt and contribute to the development of some moraines. In addition to these observations we performed a series of radio echo-soundings over a grid that extends about 5~km upglacier. These data are compared with depth measurements made in 1989. Since then the glacier has advanced about 180~m. Within 1~km of the present terminus the glacier has deepened its bed by about 15~m, which indicates an erosion rate of about 1~my-1 in this area. This rate agrees with the one observed over the past 100~years. Entrenchment plays an important role in the glacier's dynamics and needs to be taken into account when measuring volume changes.

  11. Conductividad, oxígeno disuelto, PH y temperatura en el rio bermudez (Costa Rica y su relación con el uso del suelo en la cuenca (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Castro


    Full Text Available Se examinaron los patrones de variación espacial y temporal de la conductividad, el oxígeno disuelto, el pH y la temperatura en el río Bermúdez, Valle Central, Costa Rica, durante un período de 28 meses. El uso de la tierra más común en la cuenca es el cultivo del café (53%, seguido por el uso urbano (30%, el cual aumenta conforme se desciende hacia el piso del Valle. Si bien las aguas presentan una buena calidad en el área cercana a su origen, donde el uso de la tierra que predomina corresponde a bosque o pastos, a menudo protegidos por medio de parques recreativos, el río sufre un progresivo deterioro conforme desciende y sus aguas se tornan inadecuadas para consumo humano y peligrosas para la salud de las habitantes de la cuenca. La conductividad, el pH y el oxígeno disuelto varían estacionalmente en relación con el régimen de precipitación y el aporte de las aguas de desecho. El río Bermúdez puede considerarse representativo de los ríos del Valle Central. El deterioro de sus aguas ha hecho perder mucho de su atractivo escénico, y el río no puede ser utilizado como fuente de agua potable, ni para actividades agrícolas o recreativas. Los factores contaminantes persisten pues no se ha implementado un manejo adecuado de las aguas negras, no se ha puesto en práctica la legislación existente y vigente para obligar a las industrias a disminuir la contaminación provocada por sus efluentes, y por último, la contaminación orgánica proveniente del beneficiado del café, si bien ha disminuido por la puesta en marcha de políticas institucionales con este fin, continúa siendo de gran magnitud. Las aguas del río continúan siendo utilizadas para irrigar cultivos de hortalizas en la parte baja del río, lo que representa un peligro para la salud humana.

  12. Can erosion control structures in large dryland arroyo channels lead to resilient riparian and cienega restoration? Observations from LiDAR, monitoring and modeling at Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX (United States)

    DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.


    The use of erosion control structures to mitigate or even reverse erosion and to restore ecological function along dryland channels (arroyos and gullies) has led to a long list of both successful and failed restoration efforts. We propose that successful implementation of "engineering" approaches to fluvial restoration that include in-channel control structures require either a quantitative approach to design (by scientists and engineers), or intimate on-the-ground knowledge, local observation, and a commitment to adapt and maintain restoration efforts in response to landscape change (by local land managers), or both. We further propose that the biophysical interactions among engineering, sedimentation, flood hydrology and vegetation reestablishment are what determine resilience to destructive extreme events that commonly cause erosion control structure failure. Our insights come from comprehensive monitoring of a remarkable experiment underway at Ranch San Bernardino, Sonora, MX. At this site, private landowners are working to restore ecosystem function to riparian corridors and former cieñega wetlands using cessation of grazing; vegetation planting; upland grass restoration; large scale rock gabions (up to 100 m wide) to encourage local sediment deposition and water storage; and large earthen berms (up to 900 m wide) with cement spillways that form reservoirs that fill rapidly with water and sediment. Well-planned and managed erosion control structures have been used elsewhere successfully in smaller gully networks, but we are unaware of a comparable attempt to use gabions and berms for the sole purpose of ecological restoration along >10 km of arroyo channels draining watersheds on the order of ~400 km2 and larger. We present an approach to monitoring the efficacy of arroyo channel restoration using terrestrial and airborne LiDAR, remote sensing, streamflow monitoring, shallow groundwater monitoring, hydrological modeling and field observation. Our methods

  13. Density-lag anomaly patterns in backshore sands along a paraglacial barrier spit (United States)

    Pupienis, Donatas; Buynevich, Ilya; Jarmalavičius, Darius; Fedorovič, Julija; Žilinskas, Gintautas; Ryabchuk, Daria; Kovaleva, Olga; Sergeev, Alexander; Cichon-Pupienis, Anna


    The Curonian Spit, located along the southeast Baltic Sea coast, is one of the longest paraglacial mega-barriers in the world (~100 km) and is characteried by microtidal sandy beaches and unbroken foredune ridge emplaced by human activities in historical times. Both are dominated by quartzo-feldpathic sand, with various fractions of heavy minerals that may be concentrated as density lag. Such heavy-mineral concentrations (HMCs) may be distributed weither randomly or regularly along the coast, depending on the geological framework, hydro-aeolian processes, and human activities (e.g., steel elements of coastal engineering structures, military installations, etc.). In this study, we focus on the longshore patterns in HMC distribution and relative magnitude (mainly the concentration of ferrimagnetic components). Along the entire Curonian Spit coast (Russia-Lithuania), a total of 184 surface sand samples were collected at 1 km interval from the berm and foredune toe (seaward base). HMCs were characterized in the laboratory using bulk low-field magnetic susceptibility (MS). The Wavelength and Lomb spectral analysis were used to assess the spatial rhythmicity of their longshore distribution. Generally, quartz sand is characterised by low MS values of ĸ150 μSI are typical for heavy mineral-rich sand. MS values on the berm and foredune toe range from 11.2-4977.9 μSI and from 9.2-3153.0 μSI, respectively. Density lag anomalies had MS values exceeding an average value by ≥3 times. Wavelength and Lomb spectral analysis allowed to identify several clusters of periodicities with wavelength varying from 2-12 km, with power spectra having statistically significant values (>95 % CI). Along the modern Curonian Spit coast, two scales of rhythmic pattern variation are evident: macroscale (≤12 km) and mesoscale (2-3 km). The former can be attributed to localized expressions of geological framework (iron-rich components) and engineering structures (especially within the southern

  14. Use of structured decision-making to explicitly incorporate environmental process understanding in management of coastal restoration projects: Case study on barrier islands of the northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Meyers, Michelle B.; Mattsson, Brady; Steyer, Gregory; Godsey, Elizabeth; McDonald, Justin; Byrnes, Mark R.; Ford, Mark


    Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected. In this study, collaborative structured decision-making (SDM) was evaluated as an approach to incorporate process understanding into mid-construction decisions and to identify priority gaps in knowledge from a management perspective. The focus was a barrier island restoration project at Ship Island, Mississippi, where sand will be used to close an extensive breach that currently divides the island. SDM was used to estimate damage that may occur during construction, and guide repair decisions within the confines of limited availability of sand and funding to minimize adverse impacts to project objectives. Sand was identified as more limiting than funds, and unrepaired major breaching would negatively impact objectives. Repairing minor damage immediately was determined to be generally more cost effective (depending on the longshore extent) than risking more damage to a weakened project. Key gaps in process-understanding relative to project management were identified as the relationship of island width to breach formation; the amounts of sand lost during breaching, lowering, or narrowing of the berm; the potential for minor breaches to self-heal versus developing into a major breach; and the relationship between upstream nourishment and resiliency of the berm to storms. This application is a

  15. Nutrient Cycling in Piermont Marsh (United States)

    Reyes, N.; Gribbin, S.; Newton, R.; Diaz, K.; Laporte, N.; Trivino, G.; Ortega, J.; McKee, K.; Sambrotto, R.


    We investigate the cycling of nutrients through a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan in the Hudson River estuary. As part of a long-term ecological study of Piermont Marsh, a NOAA reference wetland managed by the NY State DEC, we are measuring dissolved inorganic nutrients on the Marsh surface and its drainage channels. The marsh occupies 400 acres along the southwest corner of Haverstraw Bay with approximately 2 km frontage to the estuary. It is supplied with nutrient-rich water and drained primarily along several tidal creeks and the hundreds of rivulets that feed them. During most tidal cycles the silty berm bounding the marsh is not topped. Human influence in the marsh's surrounding area has had profound effects, one of the most fundamental of which has been the shift from native grass species, predominantly Spartina alterniflora, to an invasive genotype of common reed, Phragmites australis. Along with this shift there have been changes in the root bed, the effective marsh interior and berm heights, the hydroperiod and, as a result, the ability of the marsh to be utilized by various types of Hudson estuary fish. The vegetative shift is believed to be anthropogenic, but the connection is not well understood, and it is not known what role biogeochemical perturbations are playing. We present two field seasons of nitrate, phosphate and silicate measurements from Sparkill Creek, a freshwater stream draining the surrounding highlands constitutes the northern boundary, two tidally driven creeks transect the Marsh from West to East: the Crumkill and an unnamed creek we have dubbed the "Tidal", Ludlow Ditch, a no-longer-maintained drainage channel grading gently from the northern part of the marsh to the South terminates in a wide tidal outlet that is its southern boundary. Net tidal cycle fluxes and fluxes resulting from runoff events are presented. Deviations from Redfield ratios and limiting nutrients are analyzed. Piermont Marsh data is compared

  16. The effects of storms and storm-generated currents on sand beaches in Southern Maine, USA (United States)

    Hill, H.W.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.; Dickson, S.M.


    Storms are one of the most important controls on the cycle of erosion and accretion on beaches. Current meters placed in shoreface locations of Saco Bay and Wells Embayment, ME, recorded bottom currents during the winter months of 2000 and 2001, while teams of volunteers profiled the topography of nearby beaches. Coupling offshore meteorological and beach profile data made it possible to determine the response of nine beaches in southern Maine to various oceanographic and meteorological conditions. The beaches selected for profiling ranged from pristine to completely developed and permitted further examination of the role of seawalls on the response of beaches to storms. Current meters documented three unique types of storms: frontal passages, southwest storms, and northeast storms. In general, the current meter results indicate that frontal passages and southwest storms were responsible for bringing sediment towards the shore, while northeast storms resulted in a net movement of sediment away from the beach. During the 1999-2000 winter, there were a greater percentage of frontal passages and southwest storms, while during the 2000-2001 winter, there were more northeast storms. The sediment that was transported landward during the 1999-2000 winter was reworked into the berm along moderately and highly developed beaches during the next summer. A northeast storm on March 5-6, 2001, resulted in currents in excess of 1 m s-1 and wave heights that reached six meters. The storm persisted over 10 high tides and caused coastal flooding and property damage. Topographic profiles made before and after the storm demonstrate that developed beaches experienced a loss of sediment volume during the storm, while sediment was redistributed along the profile on moderately developed and undeveloped beaches. Two months after the storm, the profiles along the developed beaches had not reached their pre-storm elevation. In comparison, the moderately developed and undeveloped beaches

  17. Effects of Microbial and Phosphate Amendments on the Bioavailability of Lead (Pb) in Shooting Range Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, Robin; Wilson, Christina; Knox, Anna; Seaman, John; Smith, Garriet


    Heavy metals including lead (Pb) are released continually into the environment as a result of industrial, recreational, and military activities. Lead ranked number two on the CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances and was identified as a major hazardous chemical found on 47% of USEPA's National Priorities List sites (Hettiarachchi and Pierzynski 2004). In-situ remediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soils may be accomplished by changing the soil chemistry and structure with the application of microbial and phosphate amendments. Soil contaminated with lead bullets was collected from the surface of the berm at Savannah River Site (SRS) Small Arms Training Academy (SATA) in Aiken, SC. While uncontaminated soils typically have Pb levels ranging from 2 to 200 mg/kg (Berti et al. 1998), previous analysis show Pb levels of the SATA berm to reach 8,673 mg/kg. Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds naturally produced by soil bacteria that can bind metals. Biosurfactants have a wide variety of chemical structures that reduce interfacial surface tensions (Jennings and Tanner 2000) and have demonstrated efficient metal complexion (Lin 1996). Biosurfactants also have the potential to change the availability of natural organic matter (Strong-Gunderson 1995). Two types of bacteria, Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida, were employed as amendments based on their ability to produce biosurfactants and survive in metal-contaminated soils. Apatites (calcium phosphate compounds) are important in the formation of Pb phosphates. Pb phosphates form rapidly when phosphate is available and are the most stable environmental form of lead in soil (Ruby et al.1998). Pyromorphites in particular remain insoluble under a wide range of environmental conditions (Zhang et al. 1998). The three apatites evaluated in the current study were North Carolina apatite (NCA), Florida apatite (FA), and biological apatite (BA). BA is ground fish bone that has few impurities such as As, Cr

  18. Disruption rates for one vulnerable soil in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, USA (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Sturm, Mark


    Rates of soil disruption from hikers and vehicle traffic are poorly known, particularly for arid landscapes. We conducted an experiment in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in western Arizona, USA, on an air-dry very fine sandy loam that is considered to be vulnerable to disruption. We created variable-pass tracks using hikers, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), and a four-wheel drive vehicle (4WD) and measured changes in cross-track topography, penetration depth, and bulk density. Hikers (one pass = 5 hikers) increased bulk density and altered penetration depth but caused minimal surface disruption up to 100 passes; a minimum of 10 passes were required to overcome surface strength of this dry soil. Both ATV and 4WD traffic significantly disrupted the soil with one pass, creating deep ruts with increasing passes that rendered the 4WD trail impassable after 20 passes. Despite considerable soil loosening (dilation), bulk density increased in the vehicle trails, and lateral displacement created berms of loosened soil. This soil type, when dry, can sustain up to 10 passes of hikers but only one vehicle pass before significant soil disruption occurs; greater disruption is expected when soils are wet. Bulk density increased logarithmically with applied pressure from hikers, ATV, and 4WD.

  19. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu Subsidence Crater Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Parsons


    The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). The subsidence crater was used as a land disposal unit for radioactive and hazardous waste from 1973 to 1988. Site disposal history is supported by memorandums, letters, and personnel who worked at the Nevada Test Site at the time of active disposal. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil form the tip of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that lead has been removed to concentrations be low regulatory action level. The area will then be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed, and certified by an independent professional engineer as to having followed the approved Closure Plan.

  20. Closure plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu subsidence crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). Based on the results of the analyses reported in the site characterization report, the only constituents of concern in the U-2bu subsidence crater include leachable lead and total petroleum hydrocarbons. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil from the top of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that the leachable lead has been removed to concentrations below the regulatory action level. After sample results show that the lead has been removed, the excavated area will be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed as a best management practice. An independent registered professional engineer will certify the site was closed following the approved Closure Plan. Post-closure care is not warranted for this site because closure activities will involve removal of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents of concern.

  1. Volume Computation of a Stockpile - a Study Case Comparing GPS and Uav Measurements in AN Open Pit Quarry (United States)

    Raeva, P. L.; Filipova, S. L.; Filipov, D. G.


    The following paper aims to test and evaluate the accuracy of UAV data for volumetric measurements to the conventional GNSS techniques. For this purpose, an appropriate open pit quarry has been chosen. Two sets of measurements were performed. Firstly, a stockpile was measured by GNSS technologies and later other terrestrial GNSS measurements for modelling the berms of the quarry were taken. Secondly, the area of the whole quarry including the stockpile site was mapped by a UAV flight. Having considered how dynamic our world is, new techniques and methods should be presented in numerous fields. For instance, the management of an open pit quarry requires gaining, processing and storing a large amount of information which is constantly changing with time. Fast and precise acquisition of measurements regarding the process taking place in a quarry is the key to an effective and stable maintenance. In other words, this means getting an objective evaluations of the processes, using up-to-date technologies and reliable accuracy of the results. Often legislations concerning mine engineering state that the volumetric calculations are to present ±3% accuracy of the whole amount. On one hand, extremely precise measurements could be performed by GNSS technologies, however, it could be really time consuming. On the other hand, UAV photogrammetry presents a fast, accurate method for mapping large areas and calculating stockpiles volumes. The study case was performed as a part of a master thesis.

  2. Groundwater Discharge into Intermittently Closed and Open Lakes and/or Lagoons (ICOLLs) via Radon-222 (United States)

    Sadat-Noori, M.; Santos, I. R.; Tait, D. R.; McMahon, A.; Kadel, S.; Maher, D. T.


    Intermittently Closed and Open Lakes and Lagoons (ICOLLs) are brackish coastal water bodies with an intermittent connection to the ocean that is closed periodically due to the accumulation of marine sediment forming an entrance berm. ICOLLs have dynamic coastal systems that may be vulnerable to minor changes in catchment hydrology. However, little is known regarding the impacts of groundwater on the hydrological cycles of ICOLLs. The relative contribution of rainfall versus groundwater discharge in two ICOLLs (Welsby, and Mermaid Lagoon) and a nearby wetland (South Welsby Lagoon) located on Bribie Island (Australia) were investigated using radon (222Rn) as natural geochemical groundwater tracer. Four seasonal surveys were undertaken to quantify the temporal and spatial groundwater dynamics of the ICOLLs. Radon contour maps revealed temporal and spatial changes over the study period. The estimated groundwater discharge rates from a radon-mass balance were 3.4±3.1, 7.3±9.8 and 2.6±3.8 cm d-1 in Weslby, South Weslby and Mermaid Lagoons, respectively. These values are at least 8-fold greater than rainfall (1420 mm per year, or 0.4 cm d-1). Assuming very minor surface water flows (not perceived during field surveys), this demonstrates that these systems are groundwater-dominated and their hydrology can be influenced by regional changes in groundwater level.

  3. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005. (United States)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won


    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments.

  4. Learned trafficability for UGVs: inferring geometry from imagery (United States)

    Broten, Gregory S.; Mackay, David; Digney, Bruce


    Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) operating in outdoor environments must traverse unstructured terrain. This terrain is diverse in nature and contains natural obstacles such as rocks, brushes, berms, and low lying wet areas. Outdoor terrain is not static as it varies on a seasonal basis due to the life cycle associated with natural vegetation. Additionally, outdoor terrain may change appearance due to variations in lighting conditions that result from the Sun's relative position and from weather conditions such as clouds, fog or rain. This environmental diversity has long caused researchers considerable grief, as developing a classical terrain classification algorithm has proven to be a very difficult if not an impossible task. Researchers have skirted this problem by relying upon ranging sensors and constructing 2 ½D or, more recently, 3D world representations. Although geometrical representations have been used extensively, the low data rates associated with laser rangefinders, the unreliability of stereo vision, and the interaction between geometry and orientation estimation errors have limited the lookahead distance, thereby reducing the maximum attainable vehicle speeds. Learning from experience, in a more human like manner, promises to reduce or alleviate many of the issues posed by unstructured outdoor terrain. Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) "Learned Trafficability" program researches learning from experience. The paper presents DRDC's progress in extending a 2 ½D world representation using vision and learning from experience.

  5. Efficient numerical schemes for viscoplastic avalanches. Part 1: The 1D case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Nieto, Enrique D., E-mail: [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Avda, Reina Mercedes, s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Gallardo, José M., E-mail: [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad de Málaga, F. Ciencias, Campus Teatinos S/N (Spain); Vigneaux, Paul, E-mail: [Unitée de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)


    This paper deals with the numerical resolution of a shallow water viscoplastic flow model. Viscoplastic materials are characterized by the existence of a yield stress: below a certain critical threshold in the imposed stress, there is no deformation and the material behaves like a rigid solid, but when that yield value is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. In the context of avalanches, it means that after going down a slope, the material can stop and its free surface has a non-trivial shape, as opposed to the case of water (Newtonian fluid). The model involves variational inequalities associated with the yield threshold: finite-volume schemes are used together with duality methods (namely Augmented Lagrangian and Bermúdez–Moreno) to discretize the problem. To be able to accurately simulate the stopping behavior of the avalanche, new schemes need to be designed, involving the classical notion of well-balancing. In the present context, it needs to be extended to take into account the viscoplastic nature of the material as well as general bottoms with wet/dry fronts which are encountered in geophysical geometries. We derived such schemes and numerical experiments are presented to show their performances.

  6. Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program: Restoration Design Challenges for Topographic Mounds, Channel Outlets, and Reed Canarygrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinks, Ian A. [Columbia Land Trust, Vancouver, WA (United States); Cullinan, Valerie I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The purpose of this study was to provide science-based information to practitioners and managers of restoration projects in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) regarding aspects of restoration techniques that currently pose known challenges and uncertainties. The CEERP is a program of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), Portland District, in collaboration with the National Marine Fisheries Service and five estuary sponsors implementing restoration. The estuary sponsors are Columbia Land Trust, Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce, Cowlitz Tribe, Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The scope of the research conducted during federal fiscal year 2015 included three aspects of hydrologic reconnection that were selected based on available scientific information and feedback from restoration practitioners during project reviews: the design of mounds (also called hummocks, peninsulas, or berms); the control of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinaceae); and aspects of channel network design related to habitat connectivity for juvenile salmonids.

  7. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition - central Tamil Nadu coast, India (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.


    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  8. 1982 Oregon energy resource manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, R.; Ebert, J. (eds.)


    This manual is divided into three distinct sections. Part one contains 40 passive solar home plans designed for the Pacific Northwest by Oregon architects and designers. Floor plans and exterior renderings of multi-family and single-family dwellings, earth sheltered and bermed designs, and light commercial structures are included. The degree of solar contribution each residence achieves is graphically presented for ease of understanding. Part two, renewable-energy-resource guide, is primarily designed as a locator to indepth publications that explain specific energy resources in detail. It contains illustrated book reviews of pertinent private and government publications available. Various tables, forms, diagrams, energy system evaluation criteria, an illustrated glossary, BPA energy programs, utility programs, financial outlooks and non-profit organizations are included. The product locator index makes up part three. This indexed directory contains the listings of businesses, including the address, phone number, contact person and a 30 to 50 word description of the product or services currently offered. These renewable energy companies range from architectural and engineering services to research and development firms.

  9. A geomorphological response of beaches to Typhoon Meari in the eastern Shandong Peninsula in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Dong; YANG Jichao; LI Guangxue; DADA Olusegun A; GONG Lixin; WANG Nan; WANG Xiangdong; ZHANG Bin


    Eight representative beach profiles on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula are observed and measured in 2011 and 2012 to determine the coastal processes under the lower tropical wind speed condition and the beach response to and recovery from the tropical storm Meari in a rare typhoon region. The results show that it is the enhancement and directional change of cross-shore and longshore sediment transports caused by Meari that leads to the beach morphological changes, and most of the sediment transports occur during the pre-Meari landing phase. The erosional scarp formation and the berm or beach face erosion are the main geomorphological responses of the beaches to the storm. The storm characteristics are more important than the beach shapes in the storm response process of the beaches on Shandong Peninsula. The typhoon is a fortuitous strong dynamic event, and the effect on the dissipative beach is more obvious than it is on the reflective beach in the study region. Furthermore, the beach trend is the main factor that controlls the storm effect intensity, and it is also closely related to the recovery of the beach profiles.

  10. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason


    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential.

  11. System dynamics modeling of nitrogen removal in a stormwater infiltration basin with biosorption-activated media. (United States)

    Xuan, Zhemin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P; Williams, Evan Shane


    Stormwater infiltration basins, one of the typical stormwater best management practices, are commonly constructed for surface water pollution control, flood mitigation, and groundwater restoration in rural or residential areas. These basins have soils with better infiltration capacity than the native soil; however, the ever-increasing contribution of nutrients to groundwater from stormwater due to urban expansion makes existing infiltration basins unable to meet groundwater quality criteria related to environmental sustainability and public health. This issue requires retrofitting current infiltration basins for flood control as well as nutrient control before the stormwater enters the groundwater. An existing stormwater infiltration basin in north-central Florida was selected, retrofitted, and monitored to identify subsurface physiochemical and biological processes during 2007-2010 to investigate nutrient control processes. This implementation in the nexus of contaminant hydrology and ecological engineering adopted amended soil layers packed with biosorption activated media (BAM; tire crumb, silt, clay, and sand) to perform nutrient removal in a partitioned forebay using a berm. This study presents an infiltration basin-nitrogen removal (IBNR) model, a system dynamics model that simulates nitrogen cycling in this BAM-based stormwater infiltration basin with respect to changing hydrologic conditions and varying dissolved nitrogen concentrations. Modeling outputs of IBNR indicate that denitrification is the biogeochemical indicator in the BAM layer that accounted for a loss of about one third of the total dissolved nitrogen mass input.

  12. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site and addtiional sites off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Cullinan, V.I.; Pearson, W.H. (Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))


    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District (USACE), has made active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. Disposal site boundaries were established to avoid an area where high densities of Young-of-the-Year (YOY) Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, were observed during the site selection surveys. To monitor possible impacts of disposal operations on Dungeness crab at the site, USACE recommended a crab distribution survey prior to disposal operations in the February 1989 environmental impact statement supplement (EISS) as part of a tiered monitoring strategy for the site. According to the tiered monitoring strategy, a preliminary survey is conducted to determine if the disposal site contains an exceptionally high density of YOY Dungeness crab. The trigger for moving to a more intensive sampling effort is a YOY crab density within the disposal site that is 100 times higher than the density in the reference area to the north. This report concerns a 1991 survey that was designed to verify that the density of YOY Dungeness crab present at the disposal site was not exceptionally high. Another objective of the survey was to estimate Dungeness crab densities at nearshore areas that are being considered as sediment berm sites by USACE.

  13. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)


    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  14. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition – central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Joevivek; N Chandrasekar


    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  15. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.


    Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of vertical lander rocket plume impingement, to keep abrasive and harmful dust from getting lofted and for dust free operations. In addition, the same regolith stabilization process can be used for 3 Dimensional ( 3D) printing, additive construction techniques by repeating the 2D stabilization in many vertical layers. This will allow in-situ construction with regolith so that materials will not have to be transported from Earth. Recent work in the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Surface Systems Office (NE-S) Swamp Works and at the University of Southern California (USC) under two NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) awards have shown promising results with regolith (crushed basalt rock) materials for in-situ heat shields, bricks, landing/launch pads, berms, roads, and other structures that could be fabricated using regolith that is sintered or mixed with a polymer binder. The technical goals and objectives of this project are to prove the feasibility of 3D printing additive construction using planetary regolith simulants and to show that they have structural integrity and practical applications in space exploration.

  16. Hegemonía: Simurg, intelectuales, cultura y educación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rodolfo Ibarra Rivas


    Full Text Available Este ensayo periodiza la cultura en México según las tendencias: afrancesa-miento, nacionalismo, modernización-norteamericanización, caída del sistema y porvenir-Simurg. Ilustra las circunstancias históricas que permiten comprender la ausencia de un proyecto cultural hegemónico, la falta de dirección intelectual y moral. Codi¿ca intelec-tuales ya fallecidos; al agruparlos por etapas y contrastarlos con los actuales, evidencia la ausencia de un proyecto nacional distinto del proyecto Televisa. Explica los conceptos que estructuran este texto —cultura, intelectual, educación, hegemonía y crisis—, y muestra los periodos antes enunciados, así como artistas y pensadores que los conformaron (verbi gratia: CantinÀas, Octavio Paz, David Alfaro Siqueiros, José Pablo Moncayo y actuales (Alfonso Cuarón, Aleks Sintek, El Perro Bermúdez. Invita a reconsiderar la importancia de valorar lo existente: la tendencia, no del todo visible, de movimientos sociales que actúan en provecho del porvenir deseado: otra cultura creada con el esfuerzo de muchos. Deseado por quienes critican la crisis actual.

  17. Exploring the potential of Multiphoton Laser Ablation Lithography (MP-LAL) as a reliable technique for sub-50nm patterning (United States)

    Manouras, Theodoros; Angelakos, Evangelos; Vamvakaki, Maria; Argitis, Panagiotis


    In this work, direct-write, high-resolution multiphoton photolithography using doped random methacrylic co-polymer thin films is demonstrated, using a continuous wave ultraviolet (UV) 375 nm diode laser source. The random copolymers are specifically designed for enhancing resolution and addressing issues arising from laser ablation processes, such as the berm-formation around the created holes in the film, which can be accessed by tuning the polymeric material properties including Tg, surface adhesion etc. The methacrylic copolymer is composed of monomers, each of them especially selected to improve individual properties. The material formulations comprise perylene molecules absorbing at the exposure wavelength where the polymeric matrix is transparent. It was found that if the radiation intensity exceeds a certain threshold, the perylene molecules transfer the absorbed light energy to the acrylate polymer matrix leading to polymer degradation and ablation of the exposed areas. The non-linear nature of the light absorption and energy transfer processes resulted in the creation of holes with critical dimensions well below the used wavelength reaching the sub 50 nm domain. Arrays of holes having various dimensions were fabricated in the laser ablation experiments using a directwrite laser system developed specifically for the purposes of this project.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita de Jesús Rivas


    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es describir las Políticas y Programas implementadas para reducir pobreza en Nicaragua. En el desarrollo del marco teórico, se abordaron las teorías esenciales para sustentar y enriquecer el estudio, considerando a diversos autores: Noriega (2010, Bermúdez (2011, Oquendo (2012, Chávez (2002, Ortiz (2010, Torche (2004, Manzanares y Linares (2010, Romero (2013, Pérez y Toro (2011. En relación con el marco metodológico, el estudio fue de carácter descriptivo, de tipo documental y no experimental. Además, se hizo uso de técnica de fichaje. Se describieron los resultados que demostraron los gastos destinados a salud, educación, tipos de viviendas, programas y proyectos ejecutados por el gobierno, para coadyuvar en la disminución de la pobreza. Aún, con la implementación de programas y proyectos, no se ha logrado combatir plenamente la pobreza, para el año 2013 está representó el 42.7% y una extrema pobreza del 7.6 %

  19. Flora and vegetation on dumps of uranium mining in the southern part of the former GDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Sänger


    Full Text Available From 1946 to 1990 an intensive uranium mining had been carried out with underground mining and also with opencast mining by the Wismut enterprise in the southern part of the former GDR. The mining activity lead also in the surroundings of Ronneburg to a permanent growth of devastated areas, among others in the form of dumps and tailings. These areas form by reason of mining-specific contaminations, extrem biotops which demand high claims on the pioneer organisms during the phase of natural first settlement. From 1990 to 1992 vegetation mappings were carried out on 15 dumps of the Thuringia mining area according to Braun-Blanquet (1964. The utilization of the computer programm Flora _D (Frank and Klotz 1990 enabled the ecological characterisation of the dumps. On the 15 investigated dumps found were 498 higher plants, belonging to 65 families. One hundred species are species with a high dominance. The number of species per dump fluctuates between 1 I and 282. Pioneer plants occur on the berms mostly in the second year after stoppage of the dumping, on the slopes after five to ten years. After nearly ten years the first step of settlement seems to be finished. Among the mechanisms of spreading dominate wind- and burdock spread. According to the form of life forms the dump species are predominantly hemicryptophytes, further therophytes, geophytes and phanerophytes.

  20. Coastal barrier stratigraphy for Holocene high-resolution sea-level reconstruction (United States)

    Costas, Susana; Ferreira, Óscar; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Leorri, Eduardo


    The uncertainties surrounding present and future sea-level rise have revived the debate around sea-level changes through the deglaciation and mid- to late Holocene, from which arises a need for high-quality reconstructions of regional sea level. Here, we explore the stratigraphy of a sandy barrier to identify the best sea-level indicators and provide a new sea-level reconstruction for the central Portuguese coast over the past 6.5 ka. The selected indicators represent morphological features extracted from coastal barrier stratigraphy, beach berm and dune-beach contact. These features were mapped from high-resolution ground penetrating radar images of the subsurface and transformed into sea-level indicators through comparison with modern analogs and a chronology based on optically stimulated luminescence ages. Our reconstructions document a continuous but slow sea-level rise after 6.5 ka with an accumulated change in elevation of about 2 m. In the context of SW Europe, our results show good agreement with previous studies, including the Tagus isostatic model, with minor discrepancies that demand further improvement of regional models. This work reinforces the potential of barrier indicators to accurately reconstruct high-resolution mid- to late Holocene sea-level changes through simple approaches.

  1. Morphodynamics of a gravel-dominated macrotidal estuary: Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico I. Isla


    Full Text Available Rio Grande city (Tierra del Fuego is located on two attached beach systems, one of Upper Pleistocene (Sangamonian and the other of Holocene age. Both gravel spits grew from north to south modifying the inlet of the Rio Grande estuary. The present estuary is constrained by the modern and recurved spit Popper Spit. The main characteristic of this macrotidal estuary is that both margins and the bottom are mainly composed of rounded gravel. Expansion of the city is limited by oceanic and estuarine coasts, and is taking place towards salt marshes taking up more than 30 hectares in the last 20 years. The alteration of the tidal prism induced by marsh reclamation and the construction of a bridge may be affecting the inlet dynamics. The area of salt marsh and gravel banks were calculated by means of supervised classifications derived from a Landsat TM image. The inlet morphology changes in response to cycles dominated by longshore drift, wave refraction and ebb-tidal delta configuration. Oceanic beaches are characterised by large disc-shape boulders at the storm berm, spherical pebbles and sand runs at the foreshore, and fine sand on the low-tide terrace. Although tidal effects are very significant in the dynamics of the estuary, wind can prevail during some days or during slack water.

  2. Ecclesiastical Architecture and the Castilian Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Seville Cathedral and the Church of the Sagrario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing d'Arcy


    Full Text Available When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray Lorenzo de San Nicolás, and nineteenth-century commentators, such as Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, the intromission of painters, joiners, silversmiths and other guilds into the realm of architectural design was seen as the principal corruptive force which manifested itself in the unpardonable horrors of the Baroque. These negative topoi have, in many cases, found their way into the contemporary historiography of Spanish architecture of the period, typically depicted as all surface and no space, relegating it to a place lesser importance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Abdul Rasheed


    Full Text Available The present study is based on the post tsunami survey conducted in January 2005 along the southwest coast of India. Although tsunami affected the whole coastline of Kerala, it devastated the low- lying coastal areas of Kollam, Alleppey and Ernakulam districts leading to the loss of life and property. This paper illustrates the variation of tsunami intensity along the coasts of these districts and the consequent morphological changes occurred in the coastal area during tsunami. Topographic survey data showed that the coastal inundation was rampant along the worst affected regions where the coastal areas are like a narrow strip of land of width 100-400m, lying between the Arabian Sea and the backwaters and the down slope of the coastal area increases towards the backwater side. The data on run-up height showed a variation of 1.9 – 5 m along the study area. Post tsunami beach profiles showed erosion of the foreshore and backshore and landward transport of beach material during the run-up of waves at Puthu- Vypeen. The erosion of the backshore (berm in several places along the coast was quite evident in the study. This has caused reduction in the elevation which may make these areas more vulnerable to breaching by the high waves, particularly during the monsoon and also during certain spring tides which is a matter of serious concern.

  4. Improvements in the Weeding of Levee Slope of Terraced Paddy Fields with Statutory Regulation of Places of Scenic Beauty (United States)

    Uchikawa, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Ayumi

    A growing number of terraced paddy fields in Japan are being conserved as cultural assets like places of scenic beauty. This has meant that the task of weeding levee slope of these terraced paddy fields has become increasingly important, not only for general maintenance of the terraced paddy fields, but also because of the impact landscape, vegetation and the surrounding environment. However, the steep gradient of the levee slope and lack of footholds mean that the workability and safety associated with this weeding work is problematic. In addition, in the event that an area has been designated as a cultural asset, there are restrictions regarding how it can be modified and local farmers are reluctant to change their traditional farming methods in such cases. This study therefore sought to clarify the actual condition of the levee slope weeding work undertaken in the places of scenic beauty Obasute Tanada district. Empirical validations of potential measures for reforming the work environment were evaluated based on the findings of this investigation. We demonstrated that it is possible to modify current work practices while still maintaining and preserving the terraced paddy fields, even in designated scenic locations. To improve the working environment for levee slope weeding, we propose creating berms to serve as footholds at the toes of slopes.

  5. Restoring ecosystem services to littoral zones of rivers in the urban core of Chongqing, China. (United States)

    Xian, Xu-Dong; Feng, Yi-Long; Willison, J H Martin; Ai, Li-Jiao; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhi-Neng


    Two examples of the creation of naturalized areas in the littoral zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the urban core of Chongqing City, China, are described. The areas were created for the purpose of restoring ecological functions and services. Plants were selected based on surveys of natural wetland vegetation in the region, and experiments were conducted to discover the capacity of species of interest to survive the sometimes extreme hydrological regimes at the sites. Novel methods were developed to stabilize the plants against the rigors of extreme summer floods and constant swash, notably zigzag berms of rocks wrapped in iron mesh. The areas include native reeds, grasses, shrubs, and trees. Plant communities in the areas are zoned according to flooding stress, and their structure is less stable at lower elevations that are subjected to greater stress. The tall grass Saccharum spontaneum (widespread in Southern Asia) and the tree Pterocarya stenoptera (native to Southwest China) are notable for their utility at these sites in the center of a large city. Communities of tall reeds and grasses have become so dense and stable that they now provide the ecosystem services of capturing river sediments and resisting erosion of the river banks. It is recommended that extensive greening of the riparian zones in urban areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir be conducted for the purpose of providing ecosystem services, based in part on the experiences described here.

  6. Depth-integrated modelling on onshore and offshore sandbar migration: Revision of fall velocity (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hong; Sanchez-Arcilla, Agustin; Caceres, Ivan


    This paper presents the results of morphodynamic modelling and analysis of onshore and offshore sandbar migration based on a depth-integrated approach. The coastal flow was modeled using the Boussinesq equation and the morphological evolution was modeled using the suspended sediment transport equation and bed load formulae based on the instantaneous velocity and acceleration. The proposed model was applied to the accretive and erosive conditions and the model reproduced the onshore and offshore sandbar migration and the formation of a berm around the shoreline reasonably. An analysis of the computed results revealed the following. (i) The vertical flow velocity can affect the suspension time of the sediments considerably and the bottom evolution. (ii) The suspended load is the main contributor to the morphological changes in terms of the quantity and quality, regardless of the accretive or erosive conditions. (iii) Regardless of accretive or erosive conditions, in terms of the time-average, the instantaneous flow velocity and acceleration-based bed load models always yielded an offshore and onshore direction sediment flux, respectively, except in the swash zone. On the other hand, the suspended sediment flux calculated by the advection-diffusion equation results in the sediment transport in either direction depending on the flow field.

  7. Karakteristik pantai Taman Nasional Wakatobi dalam mendukung potensi wisata bahari: Studi kasus Pulau Wangiwangi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Purbani


    Full Text Available Kabupaten Wakatobi dengan pusat pemerintahan di Pulau Wangiwangi memiliki sumberdaya alam yang sangat potensial dengan pantainya yang landai dan berpasir putih, membujur dari utara ke selatan dan posisinya sangat strategis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasikan jenis pantai di Pulau Wangiwangi dan memetakan kondisi pantai di Pulau Wangiwangi serta mengidentifikasikan potensi wisatanya . Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode observasi langsung dan analisis spasial. Pengamatan observasi langsung diterapkan untuk mengukur lebar pantai, panjang pantai dan berm menggunakan alat ukur meteran, sedangkan kemiringan pantai dengan kompas geologi. Hasil dari pengamatan pantai digunakan untuk membuat analisis spasial sehingga diperoleh Peta jenis karakteristik pantai. Proses pengolahan mengunakan ARC GIS 9,3. Kondisi pantai Pulau Wangiwangi berdasarkan geologi (litologi penyusun didominasi oleh Batu Gamping Koral (Limestone, morfologi terdiri atas Relief Tinggi dan Relief Sedang sedangkan karakteristik pantai Pulau Wang-Wangi terdiri dari Pantai berpasir,. Pantai berpasir bercampur fragmen karang dan. Pantai bertebing karang. Lokasi Pantai Berpasir di Pantai Waha dan Pantai Cemara. Pantai Berpasir bercampur fragmen karang berada di Pantai Wapia, Pantai Patuno, Pulau Matahora, sedangkan Pantai bertebing karang tersebar di Pantai Weki, Pulau Kapotan, Bungi dan Batutobengko. Potensi wisata pantai dapat diusulkan pada jenis pantai berpasir dan pantai berpasir bercampur fragmen karang. Objek wisata antara lain berenang, berjemur dan memancing.

  8. Faxing Structures to the Moon: Freeform Additive Construction System (FACS) (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Wilcox, Brian; McQuin, Christopher; Townsend, Julie; Rieber, Richard; Barmatz, Martin; Leichty, John


    Using the highly articulated All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) robotic mobility system as a precision positioning tool, a variety of print head technologies can be used to 3D print large-scale in-situ structures on planetary surfaces such as the moon or Mars. In effect, in the same way CAD models can be printed in a 3D printer, large-scale structures such as walls, vaults, domes, berms, paving, trench walls, and other insitu derived elements can be FAXed to the planetary surface and built in advance of the arrival of crews, supplementing equipment and materials brought from earth. This paper discusses the ATHLETE system as a mobility / positioning platform, and presents several options for large-scale additive print head technologies, including tunable microwave "sinterator" approaches and in-situ concrete deposition. The paper also discusses potential applications, such as sintered-in-place habitat shells, radiation shielding, road paving, modular bricks, and prefabricated construction components.

  9. Discussion on the Treatment Method of Soft Soil Foundation Reinforcement in Strengthening Municipal Road Construction%加强市政道路建设中软土地基加固处理方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      随着我国建设速度加快,道路建设遍布各地,然而在道路建设的过程中,遇到的困难也是越来越多,软土地基便是常常困扰着市政道路建设的主要问题之一。本文主要从软土地基的加固方法进行分析,充分介绍换填置换法、排水固结法、塑料排水板法、机械碾压和夯实法处理法、化学加固法、反压护道法等加固处理技术。%Along with our country to speed up the construct-ion speed, road construction is everywhere, but in the process of road construction, the difficulties also encountered more and more, soft soil foundation is one of the main problems that of-ten afflict municipal road construction. This article mainly ca-rries on the analysis from the method of soft soil foundation re-inforcement, the ful introduction of replacement replacement method, drainage consolidation method, plastic drainage board method, mechanical compaction and compaction method, che-mical grouting reinforcement technology, counter pressure ber-m method and so on.

  10. Use of Numerical Simulation to Measure the Effect of Relief Wells for Decreasing Uplift in a Homogeneous Earth Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Salmasi


    Full Text Available Relief wells are used extensively to relieve excess hydrostatic pressure in pervious foundation strata overlain by impervious top strata, conditions which often exist landward of levees and downstream of dams and hydraulic structures. Placing well outlets in below-surface trenches or collector pipes helps dry up seepage areas downstream of levees and dams. Relief wells are often used in combination with seepage control measures, such as upstream blankets, downstream seepage berms, and grouting. Draining seepage water into relief wells decreases uplift and prevents piping. This study examined the effect of relief wells with different diameters at different distances downstream of a homogeneous earth dam using Seep/W software. Also the effect of upstream water level of reservoir on seepage flow to each well was carried out. Results show that by decreasing the distance between relief wells and increasing the diameter of the relief wells, total uplift pressure decreases. The optimum distance between relief wells to decrease uplift pressure was found to be 5 m. The proposed method is recommended in designing relief wells by providing optimum diameter and distance of wells for the sustained yield.

  11. Modelling erosion development during wave overtopping of an asphalt road covered dike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomers Anouk


    Full Text Available Wave overtopping initiates erosion of dikes, thereby compromising the safety against flooding. Structures integrated in a grass covered dike may decrease the resistance against erosion. In this study, CFD modelling is used to assess the effect of an asphalt road on top of the dike crest on the initiation of erosion due to wave overtopping. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved via a k-ε turbulence model. Two wave overtopping experiments are used for validating the hydrodynamics and the coupled hydrodynamic-erosion model. The amount of scour caused by overtopping waves is predicted by combining the shear stresses from the CFD model with an erosion model including grass erosion. Both the hydrodynamics and scour depths show good agreement with the measurements. Results show that a dike profile with a road on top of the crest is more vulnerable to erosion development than a bare grass covered dike profile. This is caused by a combination of the smoother asphalt section and the damaged berms at the transitions of the asphalt with the grass cover.

  12. Assessment of Damage and Adaptation Strategies for Structures and Infrastructure from Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise for a Coastal Community in Rhode Island, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Small


    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of inundation, erosion, and wave damage for a coastal community in Rhode Island, USA. A methodology called the Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI was used that incorporates levels of inundation including sea level rise, wave heights using STWAVE, and detailed information about individual structures from an E911 database. This information was input into damage functions developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers following Hurricane Sandy. Damage from erosion was evaluated separately from local published erosion rates. Using CERI, two different adaptation strategies were evaluated that included a combination of dune restoration, protective berms, and a tide gate. A total of 151 out of 708 structures were estimated to be protected from inundation and wave action by the combined measures. More importantly, the use of CERI allowed for the assessment of the impact of different adaptation strategies on both individual structures and an entire community in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS environment. This tool shows promise for use by coastal managers to assess damage and mitigate risk to coastal communities.

  13. Toxoplasmosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Clara Delgado Varela


    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide. Its prevalence can double in rural populations in relation to urban populations, and it is different in persons of different races within the same community. Objective: To determine the characteristics of toxoplasmosis infection in Charavalle community, Bermúdez municipality, Sucre State, Venezuelan Republic. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was developed between April and September 2006. Through observation and interview the primary data on the 343 patients selected through simple sampling was obtained. The studied population was classified according to socio-demographic variables, the serum presence of IgG antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii was determine through indirect hemagglutination and the main risk factors l inked to toxoplasmosis infection were identified. Results: There was a prevalence of the age group between 16 and 30 years, mainly females in the Stratum III of socioeconomic level. Serological prevalence rate of antibodies IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii was 63, 56/100 inhabitants and the most significant risk factors were: cohabitation with dogs and cats, raw vegetables and fruit intake, and no drinkable water intake. Conclusions: Results largely agree with other researches on the same subject.

  14. Cost-effective temporary microirrigation system for grass establishment on environmentally sensitive steep slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Y. [University of Central Queensland, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). James Goldston Faculty of Engineering & Physical Systems


    An advanced technology cost-effective drip irrigation system design and setup on environmentally sensitive elevated steep slopes (batters) of a coal train derailment site in Central Queensland, Australia, are presented. The final profile of the coal burial site consists of six batters and associated berms with a drop in elevation of about 35 m. A small dam constructed downstream of the confluence of the two main drainage channels at the site supplied water for irrigation of the batters to aid the establishment of grass to control erosion. Water was periodically pumped from the small dam to three storage tanks using a petrol (gas) pump. Three solar pumps drew water from the storage tanks and dam to irrigate the top four batters. Contactors, pressure switches and irrigation control valves in turn shared a single solar power source between the solar pumps. Level balls (floating switches) placed in the storage tanks cut the solar power supply to the pumps when the storage tanks were nearly empty. On the whole, the irrigation system worked very well and excellent grass cover was established within 12 weeks. Given the environmental risks associated with the on-site burying of coal, and the estimated cost of about AU$11.73/m{sup 2} (every 10 years) in maintenance if the railway batters are not treated, the estimated total cost of AU$4.61/m{sup 2} of batter area treated with irrigation, including AU$3.08/m{sup 2} in irrigation cost, is justified.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke


    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  16. Modelling the Holocene Evolution of a Drift-dominated Alluvial-fan Coast (United States)

    Hicks, M.; Dickson, M.; Coco, G.


    A numerical model is being developed to simulate shore evolution along an alluvial fan coast over the Holocene. The alluvial fan of the Waitaki River, on the east coast of New Zealand's South Island, was built by Pleistocene glacial advances but has been eroded back by waves over recent millennia. The retreat has left a cliffed shore fronted by a narrow beach of mixed sand and gravel and a gently sloping seabed with only a thin, patchy sand cover over the Pleistocene substrate. The study motivation is to examine the sensitivity of shoreline movements in this setting to wave-climate change, sea-level rise, and river sediment supplies. The modelling couples a profile evolution model with a shoreline model. The profile evolution model is operational and is driven by a series of coupled process models which include seabed scour, berm construction during normal waves, berm overtopping and subsequent beach-stripping and scour of the exposed substrate and cliff-toe notching by storm waves, gravity failure of the cliffs and talus construction, and beach sediment abrasion. Negative feedback regulates the rate of cliff erosion through the protection provided by the new material added into the beach from the eroding cliffs and substrate. The model is forced by two wave conditions: a normal swell and a randomly-varying storm wave. These operate for proportions of the yearly time step. The model was begun on a sloping fan surface inundated by the last stages of post-glacial sea-level rise (8000 yr BP). The initial response is for rapid growth of a gravel beach ridge fed by wave-excavation of the nearshore. As the nearshore profile nears equilibrium with the wave climate, the onshore feed wanes below the abrasion rate and the beach ridge loses volume. As sea level rises the beach ridge moves upward and landward, but its capacity to do so is limited by the rate of sediment feed from the nearshore. When the beach size reduces to a threshold at which storm waves periodically

  17. Vegetation Influences on Tidal Freshwater Marsh Sedimentation and Accretion (United States)

    Cadol, D. D.; Elmore, A. J.; Engelhardt, K.; Palinkas, C. M.


    Continued sea level rise, and the potential for acceleration over the next century, threatens low-lying natural and cultural resources throughout the world. In the national capital region of the United States, for example, the National Park Service manages over 50 km^2 of land along the shores of the tidal Potomac River and its tributaries that may be affected by sea level rise. Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve on the Potomac River south of Washington, DC, is one such resource with a rich history of scientific investigation. It is a candidate for restoration to replace marsh area lost to dredging in the 1960s, yet for restoration to succeed in the long term, accretion must maintain the marsh surface within the tidal range of rising relative sea level. Marsh surface accretion rates tend to increase with depth in the tidal frame until a threshold depth is reached below which marsh vegetation cannot be sustained. Suspended sediment concentration, salinity, tidal range, and vegetation community all influence the relationship between depth and accretion rate. The complex interactions among these factors make sedimentation rates difficult to generalize across sites. Surface elevation tables (SET) and feldspar marker horizons have been monitored at 9 locations in Dyke Marsh for 5 years, providing detailed data on sedimentation, subsidence, and net accretion rates at these locations. We combine these data with spatially rich vegetation surveys, a LiDAR derived 1-m digital elevation model of the marsh, and temperature-derived inundation durations to model accretion rates across the marsh. Temperature loggers suggest a delayed arrival of tidal water within the marsh relative to that predicted by elevation alone, likely due to hydraulic resistance caused by vegetation. Wave driven coastal erosion has contributed to bank retreat rates of ~2.5 m/yr along the Potomac River side of the marsh while depositing a small berm of material inland of the retreating shoreline. Excluding sites

  18. A simple model for the spatially-variable coastal response to hurricanes (United States)

    Stockdon, H.F.; Sallenger, A.H.; Holman, R.A.; Howd, P.A.


    The vulnerability of a beach to extreme coastal change during a hurricane can be estimated by comparing the relative elevations of storm-induced water levels to those of the dune or berm. A simple model that defines the coastal response based on these elevations was used to hindcast the potential impact regime along a 50-km stretch of the North Carolina coast to the landfalls of Hurricane Bonnie on August 27, 1998, and Hurricane Floyd on September 16, 1999. Maximum total water levels at the shoreline were calculated as the sum of modeled storm surge, astronomical tide, and wave runup, estimated from offshore wave conditions and the local beach slope using an empirical parameterization. Storm surge and wave runup each accounted for ∼ 48% of the signal (the remaining 4% is attributed to astronomical tides), indicating that wave-driven process are a significant contributor to hurricane-induced water levels. Expected water levels and lidar-derived measures of pre-storm dune and berm elevation were used to predict the spatially-varying storm-impact regime: swash, collision, or overwash. Predictions were compared to the observed response quantified using a lidar topography survey collected following hurricane landfall. The storm-averaged mean accuracy of the model in predicting the observed impact regime was 55.4%, a significant improvement over the 33.3% accuracy associated with random chance. Model sensitivity varied between regimes and was highest within the overwash regime where the accuracies were 84.2% and 89.7% for Hurricanes Bonnie and Floyd, respectively. The model not only allows for prediction of the general coastal response to storms, but also provides a framework for examining the longshore-variable magnitudes of observed coastal change. For Hurricane Bonnie, shoreline and beach volume changes within locations that experienced overwash or dune erosion were two times greater than locations where wave runup was confined to the foreshore (swash regime

  19. Near-field tsunami inferred from numerical modeling of medieval overwash at Anegada, British Virgin Islands (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Atwater, B. F.; Tuttle, M. P.; Robert, H.; Feuillet, N.; Jennifer, W.; Fuentes, Z.


    In a comparison among numerical models of storms and tsunamis, only tsunami waves of nearby origin manage to wash over an area where coral heads of medieval age are scattered hundreds of meters inland from the north shore of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. This low-lying island faces the Puerto Rico Trench 120 km to the north. The island's north shore, fringed by a coral reef 100-1200 m offshore, displays geological evidence for two levels of overwash. The medieval overwash, dated to AD 1200-1450, was the higher one. It is evidenced by scores of coral boulders scattered hundreds of meters inland. Some of them crossed the area of the modern storm berm at Soldier Wash, continued across a broad limestone rise 3-4 m above sea level, and came to rest on lower ground farther inland. Coral heads in four other areas, also medieval or older, came to rest hundreds of meters inland from beach ridges now 2-4 m above sea level. The later, lower-elevation overwash, dated to AD 1650-1800, laid down a sheet of sand and shell that extends as much as 1.5 km inland. The hypothetical causes for each event, tested by numerical modeling, include (1) category IV and V hurricanes that differ in surge and wave heights; (2) the 1755 Lisbon earthquake or hypothetical medieval predecessor, at M 8.7 and M 9.0; (3) M 8.4 thrust earthquake along the Puerto Rico Trench between Hispaniola and Anegada; (4) M 8.7 thrust along the Puerto Rico Trench between Tortola and Antigua; (5) M 8.0 earthquake from normal faulting on the outer rise north of Anegada. The model output includes extent of onshore flooding, depth and velocity of overland flow, and energy lost by tsunami and hurricane waves as they cross the reef and continue across a shallow subtidal flat to Anegada's north shore. For the medieval overwash, the modeling is most conclusive in testing various explanations for the coral boulders inland of Soldier Wash. The simulated hurricane waves do not wash inland of the storm berm; the height of

  20. EUB Decision 2005-062 : Compton Petroleum Corporation application for a well licence, Crossfield Field : application no. 1346815

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Compton Petroleum Corporation applied to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board to produce gas from the Belly River Formation through a proposed vertical well at a surface location 1.1 km east of Calgary in legal subdivision (LSD) 10-6-23-28W4M to a projected bottomhole at the same location. The application has been subsequently amended to add 2 other potential surface locations in the same LSD. The proposed well would not contain hydrogen sulphide. A public hearing was held in April 2005 to consider the views of the applicant, the interveners and the Board with respect to the need for and location of the proposed well, the impacts on land use and future development. Interveners also expressed their concerns regarding land use, compensation and devaluation of their land. The Board asked a land development engineer at the City of Calgary's Corporate Properties Group to attend the hearing to help the Board understand the proposed Shepard Wetlands Project that borders the northeast quarter of the property. The Group stated it would not object to the proposed well at location 3 as long as the setback did not place restrictions on the Wetlands Project. The Board claimed that a relaxation of the normal 100 metre water body setback was appropriate in this case, providing that the well site was bermed during the drilling phase and through the production life of the well. The Board approved the well licence application after having considered all of the evidence. The Board also encouraged Compton to continue communication with landowners, future developers and the City of Calgary to ensure minimal impacts associated with the development. 1 fig.


    Hernández-Morante, Juan José; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Diana; Cañavate, Rubén; Conesa-Fuentes, María del Carmen


    Introducción: actualmente, el uso de Internet como fuente de información sobre temas de salud, y más concretamente sobre trastornos alimentarios, está aumentando enormemente. Sin embargo, al no existir una regulación precisa, la información disponible puede variar en calidad y fiabilidad. Objectivo: el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar tanto la calidad general como la información contenida en las páginas web sobre obesidad y trastornos de la alimentación más visitadas en España. Métodos: se introdujeron consecutivamente los términos ‘obesidad’, ‘anorexia’ y ‘bulimia’ en el buscador Google®. La calidad general de las páginas web se analizó mediante dos test, la certificación internacional HonCode ® y el test de Bermúdez-Tamayo et al.; la calidad de la información se analizó específicamente con el test DISCERN. Resultados: no observamos diferencias significativas en la calidad general entre las diferentes patologías estudiadas (p = 0,197), aunque las páginas web sobre anorexia obtuvieron las menores puntuaciones. Además, todas las páginas web mostraron deficiencias significativas respecto a la calidad de la información (p = 0,032). No obstante, las páginas sobre obesidad mostraron mayor calidad que las de anorexia. Discusión: la calidad general de las páginas sobre trastornos nutricionales es moderada, pero la calidad de la información que contienen es bastante deficiente. Hay que destacar que las páginas web sobre anorexia mostraron tanto la peor calidad como la peor información.

  2. Low-cost grass restoration using erosion barriers in a degraded African rangeland (United States)

    Kimiti, David W; Riginos, Corinna; Belnap, Jayne


    Rangeland degradation, typified by extensive bare ground and soil erosion, is a serious problem around the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, rangeland degradation threatens the food security of millions of people who depend on livestock and the region's large mammalian wildlife diversity. We tested the ability of five simple, low-cost erosion barriers to promote grass and forb establishment in a bare ground-dominated rangeland in Kenya. These treatments were: (1) trenches with small berms; (2) bundles of branches; and bundles of branches with (3) elephant dung balls, (4) burlap sacking, or (5) nylon mesh sacking inside them. We also tested whether barrier performance depended on (1) supplemental seeding with the grass Cenchrus ciliaris and (2) whether a barrier was located next to existing vegetation patches versus in the open. Within months, the trench and nylon mesh barriers had accumulated 20–50% more sediment than other treatments and had greater grass and forb seedling establishment. Seeding with Cenchrusresulted in higher herbaceous cover but was not necessary for other grasses to establish. After 3 years, the trench and nylon mesh barriers had created patches of new vegetation averaging 18–63% larger than patches created by the other treatments. Barriers that were initially adjacent to existing vegetation had created new vegetation patches averaging 65% larger than those created by solitary barriers. Results suggest that all barrier types increase grass cover but that trenches—especially if placed next to existing vegetation patches—are a particularly cost-effective way to reduce bare ground and erosion in degraded rangelands.

  3. Subtropical iceberg scours: Tracking the path of meltwater in the deglacial North Atlantic (United States)

    Hill, J. C.; Condron, A.


    Over 700 individual iceberg scours have been identified in seafloor bathymetry spanning the southern U.S. Atlantic margin, from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to the Florida Keys, in water depths from 170-380m. These iceberg scours represent the plowing path of iceberg keels transported southward along the margin in a cold, coastal boundary current derived from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Despite limited regional multibeam bathymetry data, the scours are traceable along the seafloor for >30 km and exhibit characteristic morphology of iceberg keel marks documented along glaciated continental margins. Many of the scours are flanked by lateral berms that are several meters high and often terminate in semi-circular pits ringed by several meter high ridges (i.e. grounding pits or iceberg plow ridges). The scours decrease in size and abundance moving southward, in accordance with increased iceberg melting farther from the ice calving margin. For example, the scours offshore of South Carolina (~32.5°N) are ~10-100m wide and incised 10-20m into the sediment, whereas scours off the Florida margin (31°N- 24.5°N) are narrower (10-50m wide) and incised 2-5m into the sea floor. Icebergs at these subtropical latitudes would likely have been comparable in size (up 300 m thick) to those calving from the modern-day Greenland Ice Sheet margin. Results from numerical simulations using MITgcm, a high-resolution, eddy-permitting, coupled ice-ocean model configured for the LGM suggest that cold, freshwater and small (≤90m thick) icebergs could have seasonally drifted to South Carolina, but iceberg transport to southern Florida requires much larger (5Sv) meltwater floods to overcome the northward flowing Gulf Stream. These meltwater flood events would most likely have been short-lived (<1 yr), but may have diverted a significant volume of freshwater away from the subpolar regions into the subtropical North Atlantic.

  4. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. It is an addendum to a previously issued document, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2), which presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation. The strategy presented in the SAP is to divide the investigation into three component parts: a large-scale characterization of the floodplain; a fine-scale characterization of the floodplain beginning with a known contaminated location; and a stream sediment characterization. During the large-scale and the fine-scale characterizations, soil and biota samples (i.e., small mammals, earthworms, and vegetation) will be collected in order to characterize the nature and extent of floodplain soil contamination and the impact of this contamination on floodplain biota. The fine-scale characterization will begin with an investigation of a site corresponding to the location noted in the Remedial Investigation Work Plan (ES/ER-19&D2) as an area where uranium and PCBs are concentrated in discrete strata. During this fine-scale characterization, a 1 m deep soil profile excavation will be dug into the creek berm, and individual soil strata in the excavation will be screened for alpha radiation, PCBs, and VOCs. After the laboratory analysis results are received, biota samples will be collected in the vicinity of those locations.

  5. Automated Feature Extraction of Foredune Morphology from Terrestrial Lidar Data (United States)

    Spore, N.; Brodie, K. L.; Swann, C.


    Foredune morphology is often described in storm impact prediction models using the elevation of the dune crest and dune toe and compared with maximum runup elevations to categorize the storm impact and predicted responses. However, these parameters do not account for other foredune features that may make them more or less erodible, such as alongshore variations in morphology, vegetation coverage, or compaction. The goal of this work is to identify other descriptive features that can be extracted from terrestrial lidar data that may affect the rate of dune erosion under wave attack. Daily, mobile-terrestrial lidar surveys were conducted during a 6-day nor'easter (Hs = 4 m in 6 m water depth) along 20km of coastline near Duck, North Carolina which encompassed a variety of foredune forms in close proximity to each other. This abstract will focus on the tools developed for the automated extraction of the morphological features from terrestrial lidar data, while the response of the dune will be presented by Brodie and Spore as an accompanying abstract. Raw point cloud data can be dense and is often under-utilized due to time and personnel constraints required for analysis, since many algorithms are not fully automated. In our approach, the point cloud is first projected into a local coordinate system aligned with the coastline, and then bare earth points are interpolated onto a rectilinear 0.5 m grid creating a high resolution digital elevation model. The surface is analyzed by identifying features along each cross-shore transect. Surface curvature is used to identify the position of the dune toe, and then beach and berm morphology is extracted shoreward of the dune toe, and foredune morphology is extracted landward of the dune toe. Changes in, and magnitudes of, cross-shore slope, curvature, and surface roughness are used to describe the foredune face and each cross-shore transect is then classified using its pre-storm morphology for storm-response analysis.

  6. Topographic lidar survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Plant, Nathaniel G.


    This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected on July 12 and 14, 2013, for Dauphin Island, Alabama, and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. Classified point cloud data—data points described in three dimensions—in lidar data exchange format (LAS) and bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs) in ERDAS Imagine raster format (IMG) are available as downloadable files. Photo Science, Inc., was contracted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and process these data. The lidar data were acquired at a horizontal spacing (or nominal pulse spacing) of 1 meter (m) or less. The USGS surveyed points within the project area from July 14–23, 2013, for use in ground control and accuracy assessment. Photo Science, Inc., calculated a vertical root mean square error (RMSEz) of 0.012 m by comparing 10 surveyed points to an interpolated elevation surface of unclassified lidar data. The USGS also checked the data using 80 surveyed points and unclassified lidar point elevation data and found an RMSEz of 0.073 m. The project specified an RMSEz of 0.0925 m or less. The lidar survey was acquired to document the short- and long-term changes of several different barrier island systems. Specifically, this survey supports detailed studies of Chandeleur and Dauphin Islands that resolve annual changes in beaches, berms and dunes associated with processes driven by storms, sea-level rise, and even human restoration activities. These lidar data are available to Federal, State and local governments, emergency-response officials, resource managers, and the general public.

  7. Overview of Proposed ISRU Technology Development (United States)

    Linne, Diane; Sanders, Jerry; Starr, Stan; Suzuki, Nantel; O'Malley, Terry


    ISRU involves any hardware or operation that harnesses and utilizes in-situ resources (natural and discarded) to create products and services for robotic and human exploration: Assessment of physical, mineral chemical, and volatile water resources, terrain, geology, and environment (orbital and local). Production of replacement parts, complex products, machines, and integrated systems from feedstock derived from one or more processed resources. Civil engineering, infrastructure emplacement, and structure construction using materials produced from in situ resources. Radiation shields, landing pads, roads, berms, habitats, etc. Generation and storage of electrical, thermal, and chemical energy with in situ derived materials. Solar arrays, thermal wadis, chemical batteries, etc. ISRU is a disruptive capability: Enables more affordable exploration than todays paradigm. Allows more sustainable architectures to be developed. Understand the ripple effect in the other Exploration Elements: MAV: propellant selection, higher rendezvous altitude (higher DV capable with ISRU propellants). EDL: significantly reduces required landed mass. Life Support: reduce amount of ECLSS closure, reduce trash mass carried through propulsive maneuvers. Power: ISRU drives electrical requirements, reactant and regeneration for fuel cells for landers, rovers, and habitat backup. Every Exploration Element except ISRU has some flight heritage (power, propulsion, habitats, landers, life support, etc.) ISRU will require a flight demonstration mission on Mars before it will be included in the critical path. Mission needs to be concluded at least 10 years before first human landed mission to ensure lessons learned can be incorporated into final design. ISRU Formulation team has generated a (still incomplete) list of over 75 technical questions on more than 40 components and subsystems that need to be answered before the right ISRU system will be ready for this flight demo.

  8. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O


    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  9. A grid-based infrastructure for ecological forecasting of rice land Anopheles arabiensis aquatic larval habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakoma Ibulaimu I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background For remote identification of mosquito habitats the first step is often to construct a discrete tessellation of the region. In applications where complex geometries do not need to be represented such as urban habitats, regular orthogonal grids are constructed in GIS and overlaid on satellite images. However, rice land vector mosquito aquatic habitats are rarely uniform in space or character. An orthogonal grid overlaid on satellite data of rice-land areas may fail to capture physical or man-made structures, i.e paddies, canals, berms at these habitats. Unlike an orthogonal grid, digitizing each habitat converts a polygon into a grid cell, which may conform to rice-land habitat boundaries. This research illustrates the application of a random sampling methodology, comparing an orthogonal and a digitized grid for assessment of rice land habitats. Methods A land cover map was generated in Erdas Imagine V8.7® using QuickBird data acquired July 2005, for three villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. An orthogonal grid was overlaid on the images. In the digitized dataset, each habitat was traced in Arc Info 9.1®. All habitats in each study site were stratified based on levels of rice stage Results The orthogonal grid did not identify any habitat while the digitized grid identified every habitat by strata and study site. An analysis of variance test indicated the relative abundance of An. arabiensis at the three study sites to be significantly higher during the post-transplanting stage of the rice cycle. Conclusion Regions of higher Anopheles abundance, based on digitized grid cell information probably reflect underlying differences in abundance of mosquito habitats in a rice land environment, which is where limited control resources could be concentrated to reduce vector abundance.

  10. Discrimination of inland and coastal dunes in Eastern Saudi Arabia desert system: An approach from particle size and textural parameter variations (United States)

    Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Chan, Septriandi Asmaidi; Al-Ghamdi, Majed; Akif, Tariq; Al-Ramadan, Khalid


    Different particle size parameters have been investigated in this study in order to distinguish the characteristics of different dune morphologies in the Eastern Saudi Arabia. Sand samples were collected from various environments including: the stoss, lee, crest and interdune sides of the inland dunes and foreshore; berm; backshore and backdune of the coastal dunes. Statistical parameters reveal that the majority of inland dune samples are dominated by well sorted fine sand whereas coastal dune samples are mainly dominated by very coarse to medium sand, ranging from well sorted to moderately sorted with a low percentage of silt and clay. The presence of relatively coarser grains in the coastal dunes might be explained by continuous wind deflation along the coast together with wave and tidal activities that concentrate coarser grains. Cross-plots from four statistical parameters and supported by the ANOVA test clearly distinguish the particle variations between these dunes. The log-probability analysis suggest that the main transport mechanism in inland and coastal dunes is dominated by the saltation population, comprising up to 80 percent of the distribution. However, the coastal dunes suspension population is mostly belonging to coarser grained material, whereas the inland dunes population is finer. In comparison with particle size characteristics of dunes in the region, the current study shows a close relationship to mean particle size in Iraq, but is relatively finer compared to the Kuwait dunes. This similarity and difference in particle size variation is mostly controlled by the proximity to the coast and also the wind energy and variation in the wind direction.

  11. Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal. (United States)

    Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana


    Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run

  12. 穿越航道的海底管道堆石保护设计方法研究与探讨%Study on Rock Armour Protection Design Method of Subsea Pipeline in Shipping Lanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马坤明; 刘志刚; 李庆; 戚晓明; 李旭


    The subsea pipeline will be in danger or be damaged under many conditions, especially the severe risk for anchor drop. Rock armour protection method is adopted in this paper. The key technique for rock armour protection design including such contents as dimension of rock berm, trench slope stability, rock grading design and so on are researched, Some suggestions for optimization are presented. The study of this paper has a remarkable means to keep the subsea pipeline safe and economic, and will provide a good theory instruction for engineering design in the future.%穿越航道的海底管道面临着诸多风险,尤其是船舶落锚和拖锚将给其带来严峻的考验.采用的管道保护方法为堆石覆盖保护法.针对堆石保护设计的关键技术,包括堆石层的尺寸设计、管沟边坡稳定性设计、回填石块的粒径级配设计等内容进行了研究和探讨,并就如何进行优化设计提出了一些建议.研究成果在保证管道安全性和经济性方面意义明显,同时还将为今后的工程设计提供一定的理论指导.

  13. Concept for Hydrogen-Impregnated Nanofiber/Photovoltaic Cargo Stowage System (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry David; Howard, Robert L.; Poffenberger, Jaso Eric


    A stowage system was conceived that consists of collapsible, reconfigurable stowage bags, rigid polyethylene or metal inserts, stainless-steel hooks, flexible photovoltaic materials, and webbing curtains that provide power generation, thermal stabilization, impact resistance, work/sleeping surfaces, and radiation protection to spaceflight hardware and crew members. Providing materials to the Lunar surface is costly from both a mass and a volume standpoint. Most of the materials that will be transferred to other planets or celestial bodies will not be returned to the Earth. In developing a plan to reconfigure pressurized logistics modules, it was determined that there was a requirement to be able to utilize the interior volume of these modules and transform them from Logistics Modules to Storage/Living Quarters. Logistics-to-living must re-utilize stowage bags and the structures that support them to construct living spaces, partitions, furniture, protective shelters from solar particle events, galactic cosmic radiation, and workspaces. In addition to reusing these logistics items for development of the interior living spaces, these items could also be reused outside the habitable volumes to build berms that protect assets from secondary blast ejecta, to define pathways, to stabilize high traffic areas, to protect against dust contamination, to secure assets to mobility elements, to provide thermal protection, and to create other types of protective shelters for surface experiments. Unique features of this innovation include hydrogen-impregnated nano fibers encapsulated in a polyethelyne coating that act as radiation shielding, flexible solar collection cells that can be connected together with cells from other bags via the webbing walls to create a solar array, and the ability to reconfigure each bag to satisfy multiple needs.

  14. Using Lunar Module Shadows To Scale the Effects of Rocket Exhaust Plumes (United States)


    Excavating granular materials beneath a vertical jet of gas involves several physical mechanisms. These occur, for example, beneath the exhaust plume of a rocket landing on the soil of the Moon or Mars. We performed a series of experiments and simulations (Figure 1) to provide a detailed view of the complex gas-soil interactions. Measurements taken from the Apollo lunar landing videos (Figure 2) and from photographs of the resulting terrain helped demonstrate how the interactions extrapolate into the lunar environment. It is important to understand these processes at a fundamental level to support the ongoing design of higher fidelity numerical simulations and larger-scale experiments. These are needed to enable future lunar exploration wherein multiple hardware assets will be placed on the Moon within short distances of one another. The high-velocity spray of soil from the landing spacecraft must be accurately predicted and controlled or it could erode the surfaces of nearby hardware. This analysis indicated that the lunar dust is ejected at an angle of less than 3 degrees above the surface, the results of which can be mitigated by a modest berm of lunar soil. These results assume that future lunar landers will use a single engine. The analysis would need to be adjusted for a multiengine lander. Figure 3 is a detailed schematic of the Lunar Module camera calibration math model. In this chart, formulas relating the known quantities, such as sun angle and Lunar Module dimensions, to the unknown quantities are depicted. The camera angle PSI is determined by measurement of the imaged aspect ratio of a crater, where the crater is assumed to be circular. The final solution is the determination of the camera calibration factor, alpha. Figure 4 is a detailed schematic of the dust angle math model, which again relates known to unknown parameters. The known parameters now include the camera calibration factor and Lunar Module dimensions. The final computation is the ejected

  15. Amenazas químico-tecnológicas en la Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sánchez-Murillo


    Full Text Available Los accidentes químico-tecnológicos son eventos inesperados que conllevan la liberación no controlada de una o más sustancias químicas con graves repercusiones en la salud humana y, en ocasiones, impactos irreversibles en el ambiente. El presente estudio consistió en la elaboración del primer Atlas de Amenazas Químico-Tecnológicas para las principales industrias de la Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica (GAM. La amenaza sobre los asentamientos humanos, en las provincias de Alajuela y Heredia, se concentró en las industrias que manipulan gas cloro, ácido nítrico y clorhídrico. En Cartago, la principal amenaza se centralizó en las empresas que utilizan gas cloro. El cantón central de San José presentó la mayor amenaza respecto a centros de atención médica, debido a la conjugación de dos factores: alta concentración de industrias y la presencia de los centros hospitalarios de mayor importancia en el país. El análisis espacial reveló que un 87 % de las industrias en San José se encuentran sobre aguas subterráneas: 33 % en Alajuela, 83 % en Heredia y 88 % en Cartago. Los principales cuerpos de agua que pueden ser afectados ante eventuales incidentes en el área de estudio son los ríos: Ciruelas, Virilla, Turales, Bermúdez, Torres, Tíribí, Chiquito y Taras.

  16. The incorporation of an organic soil layer in the Noah-MP land surface model and its evaluation over a boreal aspen forest (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Li, Yanping; Chen, Fei; Barr, Alan; Barlage, Michael; Wan, Bingcheng


    A thick top layer of organic matter is a dominant feature in boreal forests and can impact land-atmosphere interactions. In this study, the multi-parameterization version of the Noah land surface model (Noah-MP) was used to investigate the impact of incorporating a forest-floor organic soil layer on the simulated surface energy and water cycle components at the BERMS Old Aspen site (OAS) field station in central Saskatchewan, Canada. Compared to a simulation without an organic soil parameterization (CTL), the Noah-MP simulation with an organic soil (OGN) improved Noah-MP-simulated soil temperature profiles and soil moisture at 40-100 cm, especially the phase and amplitude (Seasonal cycle) of soil temperature below 10 cm. OGN also enhanced the simulation of sensible and latent heat fluxes in spring, especially in wet years, which is mostly related to the timing of spring soil thaw and warming. Simulated top-layer soil moisture is better in OGN than that in CTL. The effects of including an organic soil layer on soil temperature are not uniform throughout the soil depth and are more prominent in summer. For drought years, the OGN simulation substantially modified the partitioning of water between direct soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration. For wet years, the OGN-simulated latent heat fluxes are similar to CTL except for the spring season when OGN produced less evaporation, which was closer to observations. Including organic soil produced more subsurface runoff and resulted in much higher runoff throughout the freezing periods in wet years.

  17. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Ken


    The Hot Springs Fork of the Collawash River is a major sub-drainage in the Clackamas River drainage. Emphasis species for natural production are spring chinook, coho salmon, and winter steelhead. Increased natural production appears limited by a lack of quality rearing habitat. Habitat complexity over approximately 70% of accessible area to anadromous fish has been reduced over the last 40 years by numerous factors. Natural passage barriers limit anadromous fish access to over 7 miles of high quality habitat. In the first year of a multi-year effort to improve fish habitat in the Hot Springs Fork drainage, passage enhancement on two tributaries and channel rehabilitation on one of those tributaries was completed. Three waterfalls on Nohorn Creek were evaluated and passage improved on the uppermost waterfall to provide steelhead full access to 2.4 miles of good quality habitat. The work was completed in October 1985 and involved blasting three jump pools and two holding pools into the waterfall. On Pansy Creek, four potential passage barriers were evaluated and passage improvement work conducted on two logjams and one waterfall. Minor modifications were made to a waterfall to increase flow into a side channel which allows passage around the waterfall. Channel rehabilitation efforts on Pansy Creek (RM 0.0 to 0.3) to increase low flow pool rearing habitat and spawning habitat including blasting five pools into areas of bedrock substrate and using a track-mounted backhoe to construct instream structures. On site materials were used to construct three log sills, three boulder berms, a boulder flow deflector, and five log and boulder structures. Also, an alcove was excavated to provide overwinter rearing habitat. Pre-project monitoring consisting of physical and biological data collection was completed in the project area.

  18. Establishment and Evaluation of the Vegetative Community in A Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Industrial Park Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Galbrand


    Full Text Available A surface flow constructed wetland, designed to curve in a kidney shape in order to increase the length to width ratio to 5:1 was used to treat runoff from an industrial park. A natural wetland system located approximately 200 m downstream of the constructed wetland was selected to act as the vegetative community model for the constructed wetland. The selected model was a riparian, open water marsh dominated by emergent macrophytes. Baseline plant species surveying was conducted. In total, 21 emergent wetland plant species, 40 upland vascular plant species, 17 upland shrub species and 13 upland tree species were identified in the model site. The species from the model site were screened for suitability in the constructed wetland based on the following criteria: (a phytoremediation potential (especially metal uptake, (b sedimentation and erosion control, (c habitat function, (d public deterrent potential and (e rate of plant establishment, tolerances and maintenance requirements. Transplantation was chosen as the main vegetation establishment methodology in the constructed wetland. The species woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus and soft rush (Juncus effusus were chosen to dominate the interior berms and littoral edges of the constructed wetland cells. The buffer areas were dominated by meadowsweet (Spiraea alba var. latifolia and the open water areas were dominated by cowlily (Nuphar variegate and pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata species. A diverse, self-sustaining vegetative community was successfully established in the constructed wetland. The transplant success was gauged by mortality census in the spring of 2003. Over all, 138 dead transplants were observed, many of which had died as a direct result of washout. These computes to an overall site establish success rate of about 87.3%. The species, which suffered the highest mortality rates, were the pickerelweed, with approximately 50 dead plants, the meadowsweet with 32 observed dead plants and

  19. Regressive and transgressive barrier islands on the North-Central Gulf Coast — Contrasts in evolution, sediment delivery, and island vulnerability (United States)

    Otvos, Ervin G.; Carter, Gregory A.


    Basic differences between non-deltaic regressive and deltaic transgressive barrier islands reflect major contrasts in geological settings and sediment sources. Two island groups on the N. Gulf of Mexico provide unique perspectives of genetic and geomorphic contrasts applicable in a worldwide context. The near-extinction of the deltaic transgressive Chandeleur barriers and reduction of the sturdier prograded Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) chain are related to differences in sediment sources, storm, and anthropogenic impact. 160 years of documentary evidence points to contrasting geological settings, development history, sediment sources, and island morphology as responsible for different island erodibility and life spans. The non-deltaic chain received larger volumes of coarser, less erodible medium sand from the NE Gulf coast. Onshore sand flux from reworked delta deposits received from the retreating delta shoreface initiated the fragile, thin, and isolated transgressive Chandeleur islands. Fine-grained sand from unconsolidated muds of abandoned Mississippi-St. Bernard delta lobes maintained two distinct transgressive barrier island categories. In the absence of quantitative data on cross-shore transport, discrepancies between estimated littoral drift volumes and sand reserves for nourishment remain unexplained. Medium-sandy MS-AL barriers have resisted storm events far better than delta barriers. However, even the former chain did undergo 26 to 53% area reduction since 1848. Anthropogenic intervention stymied island growth. Emerging intertidal berm-basins formed on sandy shoal platforms in storm-eliminated sectors have contributed to partial island recovery. Delta attrition by wave erosion, tectonic, and compactional subsidence had accelerated delta lobe and barrier island decay. Intensive storm erosion culminating in and following Hurricane Katrina came close to eradicate the highly vulnerable Chandeleur barrier chain. Lacking adequate nourishment, after

  20. Heavy-metal contamination on training ranges at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.


    Large quantities of lead and other heavy metals are deposited in the environment of weapons ranges during training exercises. This study was conducted to determine the type, degree, and extent of heavy-metal contamination on selected handgun, rifle, and hand-grenade ranges at Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany. Soil, vegetation, and surface-water samples were collected and analyzed using the inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method and the toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP). The ICP-AES results show that above-normal levels of lead and copper are in the surface soil at the handgun range, high concentrations of lead and copper are in the berm and soil surface at the rifle range, and elevated levels of cadmium and above-normal concentrations of arsenic, copper, and zinc are present in the surface soil at the hand-grenade range. The TCLP results show that surface soils can be considered hazardous waste because of lead content at the rifle range and because of cadmium concentration at the hand-grenade range. Vegetation at the handgun and rifle ranges has above-normal concentrations of lead. At the hand-grenade range, both vegetation and surface water have high levels of cadmium. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer was used to measure lead concentrations in soils in a field test of the method. Comparison of XRF readings with ICP-AES results for lead indicate that the accuracy and precision of the hand-held XRF unit must improve before the unit can be used as more than a screening tool. Results of this study show that heavy-metal contamination at all three ranges is limited to the surface soil; heavy metals are not being leached into the soil profile or transported into adjacent areas.

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice


    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330, Areas 6,22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. The CAUs are currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). This CAU is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1). CAU 330 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 06-02-04 - Consists of an underground tank and piping. This CAS is close to an area that was part of the Animal Investigation Program (AIP), conducted under the U.S. Public Health Service. Its purpose was to study and perform tests on the cattle and wild animals in and around the NTS that were exposed to radionuclides. It is unknown if this tank was part of these operations. (2) CAS 22-99-06 - Is a fuel spill that is believed to be a waste oil release which occurred when Camp Desert Rock was an active facility. This CAS was originally identified as being a small depression where liquids were poured onto the ground, located on the west side of Building T-1001. This building has been identified as housing a fire station, radio station, and radio net remote and telephone switchboard. (3) CAS 23-01-02 - Is a large aboveground storage tank (AST) farm that was constructed to provide gasoline and diesel storage in Area 23. The site consists of two ASTs, a concrete foundation, a surrounding earthen berm, associated piping, and unloading stations. (4) CAS 23-25-05 - Consists of an asphalt oil spill/tar release that contains a wash covered with asphalt oil/tar material, a half buried 208-liter (L) (55-gallon [gal]) drum, rebar, and concrete located in the vicinity.

  2. Storm thresholds for the Spanish Gulf of Cádiz coast (United States)

    Plomaritis, Theocharis; Del Rio, Laura; Benavente, Javier; Valladares, Maria


    In this study critical thresholds are defined for storm impacts along the Spanish coast of the Gulf of Cádiz. The thresholds correspond to the minimum wave-tidal conditions necessary to produce significant morphological changes on beaches and dunes and/or damage on coastal infrastructure or human occupation. Threshold definition was performed by computing theoretical sea level variations during storms and comparing them with the topography of the study area and the location of infrastructures at a local level. Specifically, the elevations of the berm, the dune foot and the entrance of existing washovers were selected as threshold parameters. The total sea level variation generated by a storm event was estimated as the sum of the tidal level, the wind-induced setup, the barometric setup and the wave-associated sea level variation (wave setup and runup), assuming a minimum interaction between the different processes. These components were calculated on the basis of parameterisations that were adapted to the specific oceanographic and environmental conditions of the Gulf of Cadiz. Validation of the obtained results was performed for a range of coastal settings over the study area. The obtained thresholds for beach morphological changes in spring tide conditions range between a significant wave height of 2.4 and 3.7 m, while for dune foot erosion are around 4.8 m and for damage to infrastructure around 6.3 m. In case of neap tide conditions these values are increased on average by 50% over the areas with large tidal range. The calculated thresholds constitute snapshots of risk conditions within a certain time framework. Beach and nearshore zones are extremely dynamic, and also the characteristics of occupation on the coast change over time, so critical storm thresholds will change accordingly and therefore will need to be updated.

  3. Environmental and Physiographic Controls on Inter-Growing Season Variability of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour Fluxes in a Minerotrophic Fen (United States)

    van der Kamp, G.; Sonnentag, O.; Chen, J. M.; Barr, A.; Hedstrom, N.; Granger, R.


    The interaction of fens with groundwater is spatially and temporally highly variable in response to meteorological conditions, resulting in frequent changes of groundwater fluxes in both vertical and lateral directions (flow reversals) across the mineral soil-peat boundary. However, despite the importance of the topographic and hydrogeological setting of fens, no study has been reported in the literature that explores a fen's atmospheric CO2 and energy flux densities under contrasting meteorological conditions in response to its physiographic setting. In our contribution we report four years of growing season eddy covariance and supporting measurements from the Canada Fluxnet-BERMS fen (formerly BOREAS southern peatland) in Saskatchewan, Canada. We first analyze hydrological data along two piezometer transects across the mineral soil-peat boundary with the objective of assessing changes in water table configuration and thus hydraulic gradients, indicating flow reversals, in response to dry and wet meteorological conditions. Next we quantify and compare growing season totals and diurnal and daily variations in evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its component fluxes gross ecosystem productivity (GPP) and terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) to identify their controls with a major focus on water table depth. While ET growing season totals were similar (~ 310 mm) under dry and wet meteorological conditions, the CO2 sink- source strength of Sandhill fen varied substantially from carbon neutral (NEE = -2 [+-7] g C m-2 per growing season) under dry meteorological condition (2003) to a moderate CO2- sink with NEE ranging between 157 [+- 10] and 190 [+- 11] g C m-2 per growing season under wet meteorological conditions (2004, 2005, and 2006). Using a process-oriented ecosystem model, BEPS-TerrainLab, we investigate how different canopy components at Sandhill contribute to total ET and GPP, and thus water use efficiency, under dry and wet

  4. Sea-level rise and coastal groundwater inundation and shoaling at select sites in California, USA (United States)

    Hoover, Daniel J.; Odigie, Kingsley; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Barnard, Patrick


    Study regionThe study region spans coastal California, USA, and focuses on three primary sites: Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon.Study focus1 m and 2 m sea-level rise (SLR) projections were used to assess vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling at select low-lying, coastal sites in California. Separate and combined inundation scenarios for SLR and groundwater emergence were developed using digital elevation models of study site topography and groundwater surfaces constructed from well data or published groundwater level contours.New hydrological insights for the regionSLR impacts are a serious concern in coastal California which has a long (∼1800 km) and populous coastline. Information on the possible importance of SLR-driven groundwater inundation in California is limited. In this study, the potential for SLR-driven groundwater inundation at three sites (Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon) was investigated under 1 m and 2 m SLR scenarios. These sites provide insight into the vulnerability of Northern California coastal plains, coastal developments built on beach sand or sand spits, and developed areas around coastal lagoons associated with seasonal streams and berms. Northern California coastal plains with abundant shallow groundwater likely will see significant and widespread groundwater emergence, while impacts along the much drier central and southern California coast may be less severe due to the absence of shallow groundwater in many areas. Vulnerability analysis is hampered by the lack of data on shallow coastal aquifers, which commonly are not studied because they are not suitable for domestic or agricultural use. Shallow saline aquifers may be present in many areas along coastal California, which would dramatically increase vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling. Improved understanding of the extent and response of California coastal aquifers to SLR will help in preparing for mitigation

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration


    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. {sm_bullet} CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2){sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a{sm_bullet} CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site{sm_bullet} CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil{sm_bullet} CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10{sm_bullet} CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky) Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107.

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration


    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (1) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; (2) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); (3) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; (4) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; (5) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; (6) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; (7) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; (8) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; (9) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; (10) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; (11) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; (12) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; (13) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; (14) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and (15) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107. CAU 107 closure activities will consist of verifying that the current postings required under Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835 are in place and implementing use restrictions (URs) at two sites, CAS 03-23-29 and CAS 18-23-02. The current radiological postings combined with the URs are adequate administrative controls to limit site access and worker dose.

  7. A Low-Tech, Low-Budget Storage Solution for High Level Radioactive Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett Carlsen; Ted Reed; Todd Johnson; John Weathersby; Joe Alexander; Dave Griffith; Douglas Hamelin


    The need for safe, secure, and economical storage of radioactive material becomes increasingly important as beneficial uses of radioactive material expand (increases inventory), as political instability rises (increases threat), and as final disposal and treatment facilities are delayed (increases inventory and storage duration). Several vendor-produced storage casks are available for this purpose but are often costly — due to the required design, analyses, and licensing costs. Thus the relatively high costs of currently accepted storage solutions may inhibit substantial improvements in safety and security that might otherwise be achieved. This is particularly true in areas of the world where the economic and/or the regulatory infrastructure may not provide the means and/or the justification for such an expense. This paper considers a relatively low-cost, low-technology radioactive material storage solution. The basic concept consists of a simple shielded storage container that can be fabricated locally using a steel pipe and a corrugated steel culvert as forms enclosing a concrete annulus. Benefits of such a system include 1) a low-tech solution that utilizes materials and skills available virtually anywhere in the world, 2) a readily scalable design that easily adapts to specific needs such as the geometry and radioactivity of the source term material), 3) flexible placement allows for free-standing above-ground or in-ground (i.e., below grade or bermed) installation, 4) the ability for future relocation without direct handling of sources, and 5) a long operational lifetime . ‘Le mieux est l’ennemi du bien’ (translated: The best is the enemy of good) applies to the management of radioactive materials – particularly where the economic and/or regulatory justification for additional investment is lacking. Development of a low-cost alternative that considerably enhances safety and security may lead to a greater overall risk reduction than insisting on

  8. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  9. The Evolution and Development of the Lunar Regolith and Implications for Lunar Surface Operations and Construction (United States)

    McKay, David


    The lunar regolith consists of about 90% submillimeter particles traditionally termed lunar soil. The remainder consists of larger particles ranging up to boulder size rocks. At the lower size end, soil particles in the 10s of nanometer sizes are present in all soil samples. Lunar regolith overlies bedrock which consists of either lava flows in mare regions or impact-produced megaregolith in highland regions. Lunar regolith has been produced over billions of years by a combination of breaking and communition of bedrock by meteorite bombardment coupled with a variety of complex space weathering processes including solar wind implantation, solar flare and cosmic ray bombardment with attendant radiation damage, melting, vaporization, and vapor condensation driven by impact, and gardening and turnover of the resultant soil. Lunar regolith is poorly sorted compared to most terrestrial soils, and has interesting engineering properties including strong grain adhesion, over-compacted soil density, an abundance of agglutinates with sharp corners, and a variety of properties related to soil maturity. The NASA program has supported a variety of engineering test research projects, the production of bricks by solar or microwave sintering, the production of concrete, the in situ sintering and glazing of regolith by microwave, and the extraction of useful resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, iron, aluminum, silicon and other products. Future requirements for a lunar surface base or outpost will include construction of protective berms, construction of paved roadways, construction of shelters, movement and emplacement of regolith for radiation shielding and thermal control, and extraction of useful products. One early need is for light weight but powerful digging, trenching, and regolith-moving equipment.

  10. Artificial ultra-fine aerosol tracers for highway transect studies (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Wuest, Leann; Gribble, David; Buscho, David; Miller, Roger S.; De la Croix, Camille


    The persistent evidence of health impacts of roadway aerosols requires extensive information for urban planning to avoid putting populations at risk, especially in-fill projects. The required information must cover both highway aerosol sources as well as transport into residential areas under a variety of roadway configurations, traffic conditions, downwind vegetation, and meteorology. Such studies are difficult and expensive to do, but were easier in the past when there was a robust fine aerosol tracer uniquely tied to traffic - lead. In this report we propose and test a modern alternative, highway safety flare aerosols. Roadway safety flares on vehicles in traffic can provide very fine and ultra-fine aerosols of unique composition that can be detected quantitatively far downwind of roadways due to a lack of upwind interferences. The collection method uses inexpensive portable aerosol collection hardware and x-ray analysis protocols. The time required for each transect is typically 1 h. Side by side tests showed precision at ± 4%. We have evaluated this technique both by aerosol removal in vegetation in a wind tunnel and by tracking aerosols downwind of freeways as a function of season, highway configuration and vegetation coverage. The results show that sound walls for at-grade freeways cause freeway pollution to extend much farther downwind than standard models predict. The elevated or fill section freeway on a berm projected essentially undiluted roadway aerosols at distances well beyond 325 m, deep into residential neighborhoods. Canopy vegetation with roughly 70% cover reduced very fine and ultra-fine aerosols by up to a factor of 2 at distances up to 200 m downwind.

  11. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re

  12. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment in Chacao Channel, Chile (United States)

    Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.


    The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the

  13. Long-term channel adjustment and geomorphic feature creation by vegetation in a lowland, low energy river (United States)

    Grabowski, Robert; Gurnell, Angela


    over time to form bars, berms and benches. This process drives the extension of the river bank into the channel, narrowing it and increasing sinuosity. In reaches with well-developed woody riparian vegetation, the geomorphic changes are more complex, with fine sediment being absorbed into a diverse mosaic of geomorphic features initiated by living trees and large wood. This study underlines the importance of vegetation for the geomorphic adjustment and diversification of lowland rivers and as a component of sustainable river management.

  14. Sources of fecal indicator bacteria to groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California, USA (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; Dubinsky, Eric A.


    Malibu Lagoon through the sand berm at the mouth of the Lagoon contributed FIB to the adjacent beach at low tide. Similar increases in FIB concentrations did not occur at beaches adjacent to unsewered residential development, although wastewater indicator compounds and radon-222 (indicative of groundwater discharge) were present. High FIB concentrations at high tide were not related to groundwater discharge, but may be related to FIB associated with debris accumulated along the high-tide line.

  15. Abrupt climatic changes as triggering mechanisms of massive volcanic collapses: examples from Mexico (Invited) (United States)

    Capra, L.


    Climate changes have been considered to be a triggering mechanism for large magmatic eruptions. However they can also trigger volcanic collapses, phenomena that cause the destruction of the entire sector of a volcano, including its summit. During the past 30 ka, major volcanic collapses occurred just after main glacial peaks that ended with a rapid deglaciation. Glacial debuttressing, load discharge and fluid circulation coupled with the post-glacial increase of humidity and heavy rains can activate the failure of unstable edifices. Looking at the synchronicity of the maximum glaciations during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the northern and southern hemispheres it is evident that several volcanic collapses are absent during a glacial climax, but start immediately after it during a period of rapid retreat. Several examples can be detected around the world and Mexico is not an exception. The 28 ka Nevado de Toluca volcanic collapse occurred during an intraglacial stage, under humid conditions as evidenced by paleoclimatic studies on lacustrine sediments of the area. The debris avalanche deposit associated to this event clearly shows evidence of a large amount of water into the mass previous to the failure that enhanced its mobility. It also contains peculiar, plastically deformed, m-sized fragment of lacustrine sediments eroded from glacial berms. The 17 ka BP collapse of the Colima Volcano corresponds to the initial stage of glacial retreat in Mexico after the Last Glacial Maximum (22-17.5ka). Also in this case the depositional sequence reflects high humidity conditions with voluminous debris flow containing a large amount logs left by pine trees. The occurrence of cohesive debris flows originating from the failure of a volcanic edifice can also reflect the climatic conditions, indicating important hydrothermal alteration and fluid circulation from ice-melting at an ice-capped volcano, as observed for example at the Pico de Orizaba volcano for the Tetelzingo

  16. Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching (United States)

    Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.


    In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the

  17. Assessing cost-effectiveness of specific LID practice designs in response to large storm events (United States)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Liu, Xin; Zhan, Wenting


    green roof, bioretention and porous pavement for 2 yr storm). The optimal designs are influenced by the model and design parameters (i.e., initial saturation, hydraulic conductivity and berm height). However, it overall does not affect the main trends and key insights derived, and the results are therefore generic and relevant to the household/business-scale optimal design of LID practices worldwide.

  18. NASA Tech Briefs, Februrary 2013 (United States)


    Topics covered include: Measurements of Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) Allan Deviations in Space; Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator; Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards; Rover Low Gain Antenna Qualification for Deep Space Thermal Environments; Automated, Ultra-Sterile Solid Sample Handling and Analysis on a Chip; Measuring and Estimating Normalized Contrast in Infrared Flash Thermography; Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable, Wideband, Onboard Calibration Source; High-Reliability Waveguide Vacuum/Pressure Window; Methods of Fabricating Scintillators With Radioisotopes for Beta Battery Applications; Magnetic Shield for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR); CMOS-Compatible SOI MESFETS for Radiation-Hardened DC-to-DC Converters; Silicon Heat Pipe Array; Adaptive Phase Delay Generator; High-Temperature, Lightweight, Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications; Treatment to Control Adhesion of Silicone-Based Elastomers; High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies; Rockballer Sample Acquisition Tool; Rock Gripper for Sampling, Mobility, Anchoring, and Manipulation; Advanced Magnetic Materials Methods and Numerical Models for Fluidization in Microgravity and Hypogravity; Data Transfer for Multiple Sensor Networks Over a Broad Temperature Range; Using Combustion Synthesis to Reinforce Berms and Other Regolith Structures; Visible-Infrared Hyperspectral Image Projector; Three-Axis Attitude Estimation With a High-Bandwidth Angular Rate Sensor Change_Detection.m; AGATE: Adversarial Game Analysis for Tactical Evaluation; Ionospheric Simulation System for Satellite Observations and Global Assimilative; Modeling Experiments (ISOGAME); An Extensible, User- Modifiable Framework for Planning Activities; Mission Operations Center (MOC) - Precipitation Processing System (PPS) Interface Software System (MPISS); Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower

  19. Concept & Morphology of The Herning Center%评析丹麦海宁艺术中心的设计观念与形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Herning Center of the Arts has for the first time combined three distinctine cultural institutions:the Herning Art Museum,the Mid West Ensemble and the Socle du Monde.The new Center is intended to be an innovative forum uniting visual art and music.The design fuses landscape and architecture in a one-level building that includes permanent and temporary exhibition galleries,a 150- seat auditorium,music rehearsal rooms,a restaurant, a media library,administrative offices and an active landscape.The design of the center aims at "building a site".In transforming the flat field,a new 40,000 sf. of landscape of grass mounds and pools concealing all the parking and service areas while shaping inspiring bermed landscape focusing on reflecting pools is positioned on the south.Herning's prominent relationship with textiles and art provided the inspiration for the design concept.A fabric theme is carried throughout the project from the shape of the building which resembles a collection of shirtsleeves viewed from above.Fabric tarps were inserted into the formwork to yield a fabric texture to the building's exterior walls of white concrete.%丹麦海宁艺术中心首次将三个特色鲜明的文化机构结合在一起:海宁艺术博物馆、中西部室内乐乐团和"世界之基"展馆,为公众呈现出一个集聚了优秀艺术品和音乐的富有革新精神的集会场所。这座单层的建筑物将景观与建筑融合在一起,以"建造场所"为宗旨,以意大利艺术家皮埃罗·曼佐尼的作品和海宁纺织品工业历史为灵感来源,并在混凝土模板中加入防水布,用来在白色水泥外墙上压制出类似纺织品面料的质地。

  20. Sedimentología y morfología de la playa de anidación para tortugas marinas, El Carrizal, Coyuca de Benítez, Guerrero Sedimentology and morphology of the beach for nesting of marine turtles, El Carrizal, Coyuca of Benitez, Guerrero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zoilo Márquez-García


    Full Text Available De agosto del 2007 a junio del 2009, se llevaron a cabo 10 perfiles topográficos en playa Carrizal durante las épocas de lluvias y estiaje de estos años para determinar el cambio morfológico de la playa. Paralelamente se realizó un muestreo de sedimentos en la infraplaya, mesoplaya y supraplaya asociados con estos perfiles de playa. Los resultados muestran los mayores cambios morfológicos de la playa en la zona aledaña a la boca de la laguna de Coyuca con escalones de erosión en las bermas de mareas de hasta 2 m de altura y playas menores que 45 m de amplitud. Una mayor estabilidad se tiene en la parte de la playa más alejada de la boca lagunar con perfiles acumulativos de más de 50 m de amplitud y pendientes suaves. Los sedimentos son arenas cuarzofeldespáticas con predominio de arenas medias, bien clasificadas, asimétricas hacia tamaños gruesos, leptocúrticas tanto en la zona de mesoplaya como en la supraplaya, con la presencia de arenas gruesas en la infraplaya.From august 2007 to june 2009, ten topographic profiles were made on the Carrizal beach during rainy and dry seasons in order to determine the morphologic changes on beach profiles. Samples of sediments were collected in nearshore, onshore and backshore related to the beach profiles. The results show that the morphology of the beach zone near the mouth of the lagoon of Coyuca is more dynamic with high berms to 2 meters, strong slopes from 10 to 15 degrees and beaches are less than 45 meters in width. A major stability is finding in the farthest part of the lagoons mouth where profiles are accumulative and longger than 50 meters with soft slopes. The sediments are composed of quartz-pheldespatic sands, usually of medium size, well sorted and skewed to coarse sands and they are leptocurtic in beach face and in backshore, while in the nearshore they are skewed to coarse sizes.

  1. Municipal initiatives for managing dunes in coastal residential areas: a case study of Avalon, New Jersey, USA (United States)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.; Bruno, Michael S.; de Butts, Harry A.


    The characteristics of foredunes created in a municipal management program on a developed barrier island are evaluated to identify how landforms used as protection structures can be natural in appearance and function yet compatible with human values. Shoreline management zones include a naturally evolving, undeveloped segment; a noneroding, developed segment; eroding and noneroding segments of an "improved beach" where dunes have been built by artificial nourishment; and a privately built, artificially nourished dune on the shoreline of an inlet. A disastrous storm in 1962 resulted in an aggressive program for building dunes using sand fences, vegetation plantings, purchase of undeveloped lots, and sediment backpassing to maintain beach widths and dune elevations. The present nourished and shaped foredune in the improved beach is higher, wider, and closer to the berm crest than the natural dune. Restricted inputs of aeolian sand keep the surface flat and poorly vegetated. A stable section of this engineered shore has a wider beach, and sand fences have created a higher foredune with greater topographic diversity. The cross shore zonation of vegetation here is more typical of natural dunes, but the environmental gradient is much narrower. The privately built dune is low, narrow, and located where it could not be created naturally. Foreshore and aeolian sediments in the undeveloped segment and the improved beach are similar in mean grain size (0.16-0.21 mm) and sorting (0.31-0.39 φ), but sediment on the surface of the nourished dune is coarser (28.1% gravel) with a more poorly sorted sand fraction (1.30 φ) representing lag elements on the deflation surface. Willingness to enhance beaches and dunes for protection has reduced insurance premiums and allowed the municipality to qualify for funds from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to replace lost sediment, thus placing an economic value on dunes. Success of the management program is attributed to: (i

  2. Acute sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal bevacizumab: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco-Hernández A


    Full Text Available Axel Orozco-Hernández,1 Ximena Ortega-Larrocea,1 Gustavo Sánchez-Bermúdez,1 Gerardo García-Aguirre,1 Virgilio Morales Cantón,1 Raul Velez-Montoya2 1Retina Department, Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México IAP, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Aurora, CO, USA Background: Since the ophthalmological community adopted the use of intravitreal bevacizumab as an accepted off-label treatment for neovascular diseases, the amount of knowledge regarding its effects and properties has been increasing continually. In the last few years, there have been an increasing number of reports about sterile intraocular inflammation and intraocular pressure elevations after intravitreal bevacizumab. In the following case series, we describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of ten consecutive cases of patients developing mild-to-severe sterile intraocular inflammation after intravitreal bevacizumab and their management. Methods: This report presents a retrospective case series. We reviewed the medical records of ten consecutive patients from a group of 46, in whom repackaged bevacizumab in individual aliquots from two vials from the same batch were used. All surgical procedures were performed using standard sterile techniques in the operating room. At each follow-up visit, patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including visual acuity assessment, intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and posterior fundus examination. Results: Ten patients presented sterile endophthalmitis with an onset time of 3.5±1.95 days. The clinical characteristics were mild pain, slight visual loss, conjunctival hyperemia, and various degrees of intraocular inflammation with microhypopyon. All cultures were negative. All patients were managed with topical steroids and antibiotics, except two, in whom, due to severe vitreous cells, intravitreal antibiotics were

  3. Aeolian Coastal Landscapes in changes (a study from Tahkuna, Estonia) (United States)

    Anderson, A.


    berms. Erosion can cause lost of some habitats. Changes of landfroms can also be due to human activities (construction of roads, buildings, harbours), which affect sediment transportation along the coast. Changes in habitats are caused by their own development and also invasion of non-indigenous species. Aeolian coastal landscapes are unique, but easily altered ecosystems in Estonia. Therefore it is essential to improve the strategies for preserving these valuable areas. Aeolian coastal landscapes require greater attention and more complex scientific studies that contribute to the maintaining of natural values.

  4. Evaluation of Arroyo Channel Restoration Efforts using Hydrological Modeling: Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX (United States)

    Jemison, N. E.; DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.; Adams, J.


    In the drylands of the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, historical river channel incision (arroyo cutting) has led to the destruction of riparian ecological systems and cieñega wetlands in many locations. Along Silver Creek on the Arizona-Sonora border, the Cuenca Los Ojos Foundation has been installing rock gabions and concrete and earthen berms with a goal of slowing flash floods, raising groundwater levels, and refilling arroyo channels with sediment in an area that changed from a broad, perennially wet cieñega to a narrow sand- and gravel-dominated arroyo channel with an average depth of ~6 m. The engineering efforts hope to restore desert wetlands, regrow riparian vegetation, and promote sediment deposition along the arroyo floor. Hydrological modeling allows us to predict how rare flood events interact with the restoration efforts and may guide future approaches to dryland ecological restoration. This modeling is complemented by detailed topographic surveying and use of streamflow sensors to monitor hydrological processes in the restoration project. We evaluate the inundation associated with model 10-, 50-, 100-, 500-, and 1,000-year floods through the study area using FLO-2D and HEC-RAS modeling environments in order to evaluate the possibility of returning surface inundation to the former cieñega surface. According to HEC-RAS model predictions, given current channel configuration, it would require a 500-year flood to overtop the channel banks and reinundate the cieñega (now terrace) surface, though the 100-year flood may lead to limited terrace surface inundation. Based on our models, 10-year floods were ~2 m from overtopping the arroyo walls, 50-year floods came ~1.5 m from overtopping the arroyos, 100-year floods were ~1.2 m from overtopping, and 500- and 1,000-year floods at least partially inundated the cieñega surface. The current topography of Silver Creek does not allow for frequent flooding of the former cieñega; model predictions

  5. An Evaluation of Infrastructure for Tsunami Evacuation in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia (Invited) (United States)

    Cedillos, V.; Canney, N.; Deierlein, G.; Diposaptono, S.; Geist, E. L.; Henderson, S.; Ismail, F.; Jachowski, N.; McAdoo, B. G.; Muhari, A.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.; Toth, J.; Tucker, B. E.; Wood, K.


    Padang has one of the world’s highest tsunami risks due to its high hazard, vulnerable terrain and population density. The current strategy to prepare for tsunamis in Padang is focused on developing early warning systems, planning evacuation routes, conducting evacuation drills, and raising local awareness. Although these are all necessary, they are insufficient. Padang’s proximity to the Sunda Trench and flat terrain make reaching safe ground impossible for much of the population. The natural warning in Padang - a strong earthquake that lasts over a minute - will be the first indicator of a potential tsunami. People will have about 30 minutes after the earthquake to reach safe ground. It is estimated that roughly 50,000 people in Padang will be unable to evacuate in that time. Given these conditions, other means to prepare for the expected tsunami must be developed. With this motivation, GeoHazards International and Stanford University’s Chapter of Engineers for a Sustainable World partnered with Indonesian organizations - Andalas University and Tsunami Alert Community in Padang, Laboratory for Earth Hazards, and the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries - in an effort to evaluate the need for and feasibility of tsunami evacuation infrastructure in Padang. Tsunami evacuation infrastructure can include earthquake-resistant bridges and evacuation structures that rise above the maximum tsunami water level, and can withstand the expected earthquake and tsunami forces. The choices for evacuation structures vary widely - new and existing buildings, evacuation towers, soil berms, elevated highways and pedestrian overpasses. This interdisciplinary project conducted a course at Stanford University, undertook several field investigations, and concluded that: (1) tsunami evacuation structures and bridges are essential to protect the people in Padang, (2) there is a need for a more thorough engineering-based evaluation than conducted to-date of the suitability of

  6. Coastline Zones Identification and 3D Coastal Mapping Using UAV Spatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Papakonstantinou


    successfully recognized in the case of the sandy beach, while the erosion and beach crests were detected in the case of the rubble beach. The achieved level of detail of the 3D representations revealed new beach characteristics, including erosion crests, berm zones, and sand dunes. In conclusion, the UAV SfM workflow provides information in a spatial resolution that permits the study of coastal changes with confidence and provides accurate 3D visualizations of the beach zones, even for areas with complex topography. The overall results show that the presented methodology is a robust tool for the classification, 3D visualization, and mapping of coastal morphology.

  7. Post-storm evolution a high-energy remote sandy beach backed by a high and wide coastal dune (United States)

    Castelle, Bruno; Bujan, Stéphane; Ferreira, Sophie


    During the winter 2013/2014, the high-energy meso-macrotidal remote beach of Truc Vert (SW France) was exposed to the most energetic wave conditions over at least the last 65 years with, for instance, the 2-month averaged significant wave height at the coast exceeding 3.6 m. Unprecedented beach and dune erosion was observed with the notable presence of a 700-m long localized megacusp embayment with the erosion scarp height exceeding 6 m in its centre where the dune retreat reached 30 m. Both the beach and the coastal dune eroded by about 90 m3/m within 3 months of severe storm activity, that is, a total beach-dune system sediment loss reaching 180m3/m. Beach and dune evolution after the winter 2013/2014 was inspected from March 2014 to November 2015 using bimonthly topographic surveys covering 1500+ m alongshore. 1.5 years after the winter 2014/2015, the beach-dune system did not fully recover to its pre-winter 2014/2015 level. The dune accreted by only a few m3/m while the beach accreted by an impressive amount of approximately 150m3/m, to reach a total volume that was only exceeded in 2012 within our full 10-year time series. Despite little volumetric changes, the dune showed significant morphological change through slumping and onshore wave- and wind-driven sediment transport. Seasonal natural revegetation was observed with large dune grass growth into the summer berm and within the erosion scarp with slumped clots of dune grass re-establishing their growth during the winter 2014/2015. In late 2015, the onset of morphological foredune development was observed. It is anticipated that, if Truc Vert is not exposed to a cluster of severe storms during the winter 2015/2016, the coastal dune will increase in volume within 2016 at a much higher rate than during 2015. Last but not least, starting in late 2015, the coastal dune of Truc Vert is now intensively monitored through regular 4-km long UAV photogrammetric surveys. Given that, nowadays, some scientists advocate

  8. Enhancing and restoring habitat for the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Berry, Kristin H.


    Habitat has changed unfavorably during the past 150 years for the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a threatened species with declining populations in the Mojave and western Sonoran Desert. To support recovery efforts, we synthesized published information on relationships of desert tortoises with three habitat features (cover sites, forage, and soil) and candidate management practices for improving these features for tortoises. In addition to their role in soil health and facilitating recruitment of annual forage plants, shrubs are used by desert tortoises for cover and as sites for burrows. Outplanting greenhouse-grown seedlings, protected from herbivory, has successfully restored (>50% survival) a variety of shrubs on disturbed desert soils. Additionally, salvaging and re-applying topsoil using effective techniques is among the more ecologically beneficial ways to initiate plant recovery after severe disturbance. Some plant species provide better-quality forage than others. Tortoises selectively forage on particular annual and herbaceous perennial species, such as legumes, with favored plants varying with phenological stage within years. Non-native grasses are non-preferred forage and contribute fuel to spreading wildfires, which damage or kill shrubs that tortoises use for cover. Maintaining a diverse "menu" of native annual forbs and decreasing non-native grasses are priorities for restoring most desert tortoise habitats. Reducing herbivory by non-native animals, carefully timing herbicide applications, and strategically augmenting annual forage plants via seeding show promise for improving tortoise forage quality. Roads, another disturbance, negatively affect habitat in numerous ways (e.g., compacting soil, altering hydrology). Techniques such as re-contouring road berms to reestablish drainage patterns, vertical mulching ("planting" dead plant material), and creating barriers to prevent trespasses can assist natural recovery on decommissioned backcountry

  9. Low Prevalence of Sleep Disorders in Demyelinating Disease in a Northern Tenerife Population (United States)

    González-Platas, Montserrat; González-Platas, Javier; Bermúdez-Hernández, Moises; Pérez-Martín, Maria Yaiza; Croissier-Elías, Cristina; Pérez-Lorensu, Pedro Javier


    Study Objectives: Sleep disorders are seen in patients with demyelinating disease (DD) more often than in the general population. Combination of physical and psychological factors such as pain, spasms, nocturia, depression, anxiety, or medication effects could contribute to sleep disruption. Frequently, these disturbances have a major impact on health and quality of life of patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sleep disorders in patients seen in the DD consultation. Methods: 240 patients; mean age 43 years, 187 women; 163 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS): 144 relapsing-remitting, 19 progressive forms, 36 clinically isolated syndrome, 26 radiological isolated syndrome, and 15 patients with others DD. All participants completed questionnaires: Pittsburgh, Epworth, and Stanford scales, indirect symptoms of RLS and Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54. Results: Moderate/severe insomnia 12.5%, OSA 5.8%, RLS 9.6% (confirmed 3 cases), narcolepsy 0, fatigue (> 4) 24.6%. Physical QoL 66.6 ± 19.6, Mental QoL 66.1 ± 21.9. Patients with an established diagnosis showed higher scores on insomnia compared to the group of CIS and RIS (F = 3.85; p = 0.023), no differences were in the other parameters. Fatigue showed high correlation with insomnia (r = 0.443; p < 0.001), RLS (r = 0.513; p < 0.001), and sleepiness (r = 0.211; p = 0.001). None of the variables included in the regression model were shown to be predictors of Physical and Mental QoL. Conclusions: A high percentage of our sample sleeps well. Emphasize the low prevalence of sleep disorders (insomnia, fatigue, RLS, etc). We detected an overestimation in the RLS questionnaire and the low QoL recorded. Citation: González-Platas M, González-Platas J, Bermúdez-Hernández M, Pérez-Martín MY, Croissier-Elías C, Pérez-Lorensu PJ. Low prevalence of sleep disorders in demyelinating disease in a northern tenerife population. J Clin Sleep

  10. Multi-decadal water-table manipulation alters peatland hydraulic structure and moisture retention. (United States)

    Moore, Paul; Morris, Paul; Waddington, James


    Peatlands are a globally important store of freshwater and soil carbon. However, there is a concern that these water and carbon stores may be at risk due to climate change as vapour pressure deficits, evapotranspiration and summer moisture deficits are expected to increase, leading to greater water table (WT) drawdown in northern continental regions where peatlands are prevalent. We argue that in order to evaluate the hydrological response (i.e. changes in WT level, storage, surface moisture availability, and moss evaporation) of peatlands under future climate change scenarios, the hydrophysical properties of peat and disparities between microforms must be well understood. A peatland complex disturbed by berm construction in the 1950's was used to examine the long-term impact of WT manipulation on peatland hydraulic properties and moisture retention at three adjacent sites with increasing average depth to WT (WET, INTermediate reference, and DRY). All three sites exhibited a strong depth dependence for hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and bulk density. Moreover, the effect of microform on near-surface peat properties tended to be greater than the site effect. Bulk density was found to explain a high amount of variance (r2 > 0.69) in moisture retention across a range of pore water pressures (-15 to -500 cm H2O), where bulk density tended to be higher in hollows. The estimated residual water content for surface Sphagnum samples, while on average lower in hummocks (0.082 m3 m-3) versus hollows (0.087 m3 m-3), increased from WET (0.058 m3 m-3) to INT (0.088 m3 m-3) to DRY (0.108 m3 m-3) which has important implications for moisture stress under conditions of persistent WT drawdown. While we did not observe significant differences between sites, we did observe a greater proportional coverage and greater relative height of hummocks at the drier sites. Given the potential importance of microtopographic succession for altering peatland hydraulic structure, our

  11. 石家庄市3068例肺结核病人HIV感染检测结果分析%Analysis on resuts of HIV infection in pulmonary tuberculosis of 3068 cases in shijiazhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立新; 杨桦; 张青剑; 郭富爱; 张彦亭; 苏志敏; 孙家麟


    Objective To realize status of HIV infection in pulmonary tuberculosis in shijiashuang. Methods HIV test on volunteer among 6208 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis found from Apr. 2009 to Mar. 2010 were conducted. To collecting histories on drug use,blcodtransfusion or donation,bermful sexual behavior. Results Of 6208 cases with pulmonary tuberculosis,3068 cases were tested. The rate of screening HIV was 49. 42% . There were 6 HIV positive cases,3 cases known. HIV positive rate was 0. 2%. The six TB/HIV patients were consultation cases with symptom. They bednt fixed occupation,and almost young and middle man,three resident ,three in immigrant. The way of HIV infection was differently. Conclusion It is one of ways to fond out HIV infection in pulmonary tuberculosis , and too,is important means to early discover the TB and HIV double infection. It has realistic significance to control tuberculosis and TB/HIV patients to get formal treatment.%目的 了解石家庄市肺结核病人中HIV感染状况.方法 对2009年4月~2010年3月新登记的6208例肺结核病人中采取自愿的原则进行HIV抗体的检测,HIV抗体阳性者采集其吸毒史、卖血输血史、不洁性行为史等.结果 6208例新登记肺结核病人中,3068例进行了检测,检测率49.42%.其中HIV阳性者6例,阳性率0.2%,6例中已知HIV阳性者3例,占50%,新发现3例占50%.6例TB/HIV双感病人均为因症就诊,无固定职业,年龄以青壮年男性为主,本地户口3人,流动人口3人,HIV感染方式呈多种形式.结论 肺结核病人进行HIV检测是发现HIV感染者的方法之一,对控制结核病疫情均有现实意义.

  12. Intensification of citrus production and soil loss in Eastern Spain (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Burguet, M.; Giménez Morera, A.


    reduce. The economical value of the land and water lost is making this new intense chemically managed new citrus plantation non sustainable. The intensification of agriculture is triggering new soil erosion processes to be added to the traditional ones (García Ruiz and López Bermúdez, 2009). This research study is being supported by the the research project CGL2008-02879/BTE

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlecke, Robert


    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  14. Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Epidemiology, perinatology and DOHaD”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors


    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Epidemiology, perinatology and DOHaD”ABS 1. THE INFLUENCE OF MATERNAL PREGESTATIONAL OBESITY IN OFFSPRING. A NEW PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM • P. Priego, N. Sancho, I. Tofe, A. Torre, M.D. CañeteABS 2. UNPLANNED NEONATAL ADMISSION RATE AFTER ELECTIVE FAMILY CENTERED CAESAREAN SECTIONS • I.C. Narayen, E.E.M. Mulder, L.M. Freeman, J.J. Van Vonderen, K.E. Boers, A.B. Te PasABS 3. CESAREAN DELIVERY AMONG FOREIGN-BORN CHINESE AND US-BORN CHINESE WOMEN IN THE USA • T.A. Yen, M. Lahiff, N. Hosang, K. Harley, B. EskenaziABS 4. THE RELATION BETWEEN OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME – A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY • Y.S. Chang, C.H. Liu, P.N. Tsao, P.S. ChenABS 5. LONGITUDINAL GROWTH OF TURKISH VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS • S. Sancak, M. Hayran, T. Gursoy, F. OvalıABS 6. FETAL SONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN A CONFIRMED CASE OF BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME (BWS • M.D. Ordónez Díaz, M.A. Pino Gálvez, C. De la Cámara Morano, D. Trassierra Molina, M.P. Priego Ruiz, M.J. Párraga Quiles, A.B. López Marmol, J.L. Pérez Navero, M. Miño MoraABS 7. CORD BLOOD PENTRAXIN 3/CD36 IN FETAL MACROSOMIA • T. Boutsikou, K. Germanou, D.D. Briana, M. Boutsikou, N. Athanasopoulos, A. Marmarinos, D. Gourgiotis, A. Malamitsi-PuchnerABS 8. NEWBORN GENETIC SCREENING FOR CONGENITAL CENTRAL HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROME IN 41,152 NEWBORNS • P.C. Kuo, C.C. Hung, Y.N. Su, C.Y. Chen, H.C. Chou, W.S. Hsieh, P.N. TsaoABS 9. OFFSPRING OF DIABETIC MOTHER: THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL GLYCEMIC CONTROL • M. Miñambres Rodríguez, A. Pino Vázquez, C. Villa Francisco, I. Sanz Fernández, M. Brezmes Raposo, L. C. Bermúdez BarrezuetaABS 10. PREVALENCE AND PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL • M.P. Priego Ruiz, M.D. Ordónez Díaz, M.V. Rodriguez Benitez, D. Trassierra Molina, L. Rueda García, J.L. P

  15. What do we learn from EC (black carbon), OC and their Isotope Measurements in Fine Airborne PM over Canada? (United States)

    Huang, L.; Zhang, W.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J.; Chan, T.; Leaitch, R.


    Elemental carbon and organic carbon (EC & OC) components in fine airborne carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) are major air pollutants existing in urban, rural and remote environments as well as key players in climate change (via radiative forcing). It is known that both EC (also called as black carbon or soot) and OC are released from various emission sources (e.g., fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning) and OC is also produced in the atmosphere through photochemical oxidations from gas phase organics. Tracking their spatial (e.g., from urban to rural to background air or latitudinal) and temporal (e.g. seasonal and inter-annual) distributions will provide valuable information to constraining emission sources and atmospheric transport/transformation mechanisms as well as to assessing effectiveness of mitigation for these pollutants. Sources/processes detecting and attributing are key aspects in both air quality and climate change research. Isotope measurements, as independent tools, can provide valuable insight to constrain those aspects. Duo to its inert nature, it is expected that the ^13C of EC won't be changed after emitting to the atmosphere, reflecting the signature of source, whereas the ^13Cof OC will have a various degree of changes through photochemical processes, depending on the history of the air mass. Therefore, an isotopic profile of ^13C in carbon components released at different temperature ranges can provide useful insight to the emission sources and formation processes in ambient PM. Quartz filter samples were collected at the five sites over Canada, from Toronto (a typical urban site), Egbert (a rural site, ~ 80 km northwest of Toronto), to Fraserdale, and Berm-TT (both are continental boreal forest sites), to Alert (an Arctic baseline site). EC and OC concentrations for those samples collected during the period (2006 - 2007) were determined using a thermal method (Totoal_900_EnCan) developed in Toronto lab at Environment Canada, which is

  16. Morphodynamic rotation of an embayed sandy beach in a mud-dominated setting (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Anthony, Edward; Gardel, Antoine; Millet, Bertrand; Fleury, Jules; Dussouillez, Philippe


    The morphodynamics of beaches between bedrock headlands along the muddy French Guiana coast in South America are controlled by rotation induced by the alongshore migration of mud banks from the mouths of the Amazon River. As they migrate alongshore, these mud banks generate changes in shore-incident wave angles, resulting in reversals in longshore drift. A poor appreciation of the problems caused by this process has resulted in the past in damages to the highly urbanized sea-fronts on these beaches, including erosion and flooding. This work enhances our understanding of this rather unusual type of mud-induced rotation based on surveys of the 4 km-long Montjoly beach near Cayenne, in French Guiana, in the course of an approaching mud bank between October 2013 and October 2014. Our method was based on innovative high-resolution topographic surveys from airborne Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry over the beach in October 2013, March 2014 and October 2014. We produced digital surface models (DSM) with a resolution of 10 cm/pixel and an accuracy less than 10 cm from RTK-GPS measurements. We further measured incident wave heights from pressure sensors and conducted a bathymetric survey of the nearshore zone in October 2014. We also modelled high-tide wave propagation over the bathymetry using the REF/DIF v2.5 model. The results show the transfer of sand from the northern part of beach to the south between October 2013 and March 2014. The October 2013 DSM shows a reflective beach in the north indicative of erosion, with a narrow 50 m-wide upper beach. The southern sector was smoother and up to 90 m-wide. Between October 2013 and March 2014, the beach rotated under the influence of a mud bank, with a 30-m retreat of the berm in the north and an advance of 40 m in the south. We quantified a loss of ≈66,000 m³ of sand in the north and a gain of ≈22,000 m³ in the south over this six-month period. The October 2014 DSM shows minor morphological changes, thus

  17. Coupling of Groundwater Recharge and Biodegradation of Subsurface Crude-Oil Contamination (Invited) (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Hostettler, F. D.; Delin, G. N.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Warren, E.; Campbell, P.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Cozzarelli, I.


    area of the pumping station and is comparable in size to the largest Bemidji site oil pool. The oil is heavily degraded with complete loss of the n-alkane fraction suggesting that degradation is accelerated at this site. The pumping station is flat, gravel-covered, devoid of vegetation, and surrounded by a berm. Thus, the combined effects of no runoff, rapid infiltration, and zero transpiration all enhance recharge to the oil body. Recharge rates through the gravel yard and the adjacent forested area were estimated using a water table fluctuation method. Data for the first six months of 2010 showed that recharge below the gravel yard was 40% greater than below the forested area. Groundwater ammonia concentrations increase from 0.02 to 0.5 mmol/L under the oil body, while background NO3 is only 0.01 mmol/L and there is negligible N in the oil, again suggesting that N fixation meets N requirements. Combined, these studies suggest that enhanced transport of a limiting nutrient other than N from the surface may accelerate degradation of subsurface contamination.

  18. Geochemical Trends and Natural Attenuation of RDX, Nitrate, and Perchlorate in the Hazardous Test Area Fractured-Granite Aquifer, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1996-2006 (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Robertson, Andrew J.; Bynum, Jamar; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.


    A fractured-granite aquifer at White Sands Missile Range is contaminated with the explosive compound RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate (oxidizer associated with rocket propellant) from the previous use of the Open Burn/Open Detonation site at the Hazardous Test Area. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate ground-water concentrations were analyzed to examine source characteristics, spatial and temporal variability, and the influence of the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation in the Hazardous Test Area fractured-granite aquifer. Two transects of ground-water wells from the existing monitoring-site network - one perpendicular to ground-water flow (transect A-A') and another parallel to ground-water flow (transect B-B') - were selected to examine source characteristics and the spatial and temporal variability of the contaminant concentrations. Ground-water samples collected in 2005 from a larger sampling of monitoring sites than the two transects were analyzed for various tracers including major ions, trace elements, RDX degradates, dissolved gases, water isotopes, nitrate isotopes, and sulfate isotopes to examine the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation. Recharge entrains contaminants at the site and transports them downgradient towards the Tularosa Basin floor through a poorly connected fracture system(s). From 1996 to 2006, RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate concentrations in ground water downgradient from the Open Burn/Open Detonation site have been relatively stable. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate in ground water from wells near the site indicate dispersed contaminant sources in and near the Open Burn/Open Detonation pits. The sources of RDX and nitrate in the pit area have shifted with time, and the shift correlates with the regrading of the south and east berms of each pit in 2002 and 2003 following closure of the site. The largest RDX concentrations were in ground water about 0.1 mile downgradient from the pits, the largest perchlorate

  19. Age of overwash and rate of relative sea-level rise inferred from detrital heads and microatolls of medieval corals at Anegada, British Virgin Islands (United States)

    Jennifer, W.; Feuillet, N.; Robert, H.; Brian, A.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Deschamps, P.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.; Fuentes, Z.


    Coral boulders deposited on Anegada, an island 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench, record overwash dated to AD 1200-1450 and relative sea-level changes that preceded it. Composed largely of Pleistocene limestone, Anegada is less than 8 m above sea level and is fringed on the north and east by a coral reef where Atlantic Ocean waves break. The lowest parts of the island were washed over from the north in AD 1650-1800, as judged from landforms and deposits reported previously (doi:10.1007/s11069-010-9622-6). The coral boulders indicate overwash of higher elevation and earlier age. The boulders were apparently torn from the adjacent reef by a tsunami of nearby origin, as inferred in companion abstracts on geology and modeling. We found the corals scattered in five areas inland from the north shore. Two of the areas show solitary coral heads 1500 m from the reef. The boulders are more numerous in the three other areas, where they are up to 500-700 m from the reef and up to 4 m above sea level. Some were transported over beach ridges or through breaches cut into them. Others are hundreds of meters inland from a modern storm berm. Most rest on the Pleistocene limestone. Many are overturned. Most are broken but few are whole. The largest measured diameter is 2 m and the greatest measured height is 1 m. Most of the boulders are of the brain coral Diploria strigosa, but smaller Porites asteroides and Montastrea annularis are also present. Some of the D. strigosa retain the rounded shape typical of living heads and are dimpled with holes perhaps left by feather-duster worms. The preservation of these features suggests that many of the boulders came ashore alive. We avoided dating a head that shows field evidence for death before transport; an erosional surface cuts across its youngest growth bands and is covered with the remains of encrusting marine organisms. Among the 18 coral boulders dated, 13 form a young group with ages in the range 890±25 to 1020±25 14C yr BP

  20. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Azaarenes in Runoff from Freshly Applied Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.


    Coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT-sealcoat) is extensively applied to asphalt parking lots and driveways in the U.S. and Canada. Toxicity to fish and invertebrates of runoff from pavement to which CT-sealcoat has been freshly applied has been reported, but relatively little is known about how concentrations of chemicals in runoff change in the hours to days following sealcoat application. We measured the concentrations of 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 7 azaarenes in 9 samples of simulated runoff from a coal-tar-sealed test plot collected at increasing intervals from 5 hours to 16 weeks following application. Azaarenes, several of which are common constituents in coal-tar pitch, and their oxidized derivatives, azaarones, are an emerging group of little-studied heterocyclic chemicals. Runoff samples were collected by spraying 25 L of a diluted groundwater to 10 m2 on sealed pavement and retrieving the runoff downgradient where the runoff pooled against spill berms. Unfiltered samples were analyzed by GC/MS following liquid-liquid extraction. In the first sample (t=5 hr), phenanthrene had the highest concentration (130 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Concentrations of the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2 and 3 ring) decreased during the 16 weeks following application, and concentrations of the higher molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 ring) increased, coincident with an increase in the concentration of suspended particulates. In the final sample (t=16 weeks), fluoranthene had the highest concentration (36 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Of the azaarenes measured, concentrations of acridine and carbazole (107 and 750 μg/L, respectively) in the initial sample exceeded those of any of the PAHs measured except phenanthrene; acridine and carbazole concentrations decreased over the 5 weeks to <5% of their initial values. Samples of dried sealcoat were analyzed the day of application and 5 weeks later. Samples were

  1. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter


    their erosion potential, ability to overflow the proposed disposal facility, and for their ability to increase migration of contaminants from the facility. The assessment of available literature suggests that the likelihood of detrimental flood water impacting the proposed RH-LLW facility is extremely low. The annual exceedance probability associated with uncontrolled flows in the Big Lost River impacting either of the proposed sites is 1x10-5, with return interval (RI) of 10,000yrs. The most probable dam failure scenario has an annual exceedance probability of 6.3x10-6 (1.6x105 yr RI). In any of the scenarios generating possible on-site water, the duration is expected to be quite short, water depths are not expected to exceed 0.5 m, and the erosion potential can easily be mitigated by emplacement of a berm (operational period), and an engineered cover (post closure period). Subsurface mobilization of radionuclides was evaluated for a very conservative flooding scenario resulting in 50 cm deep, 30.5 day on-site water. The annual exceedance probability for which is much smaller than 3.6x10-7 (2.8x106 yr RI). For the purposes of illustration, the facility was assumed to flood every 500 years. The periodically recurring flood waters were predicted to marginally increase peak radionuclide fluxes into the aquifer by at most by a factor of three for non-sorbing radionuclides, and to have limited impact on peak radionuclide fluxes into the aquifer for contaminants that do sorb.

  2. Physical Hydraulic Model of Side-Channel Spillway of Lambuk DAM, Bali (United States)

    Harifa, A. C.; Sholichin, M.; Othman, F. B.


    The spillway is among the most important structures of a dam project. A spillway is designed to prevent overtopping of a dam at a place that is not designed for overtopping. Side-channel spillways are commonly used to release water flow from a reservoir in places where the sides are steep and have a considerable height above the dam. Experimental results were collected with a hydraulic model of the side-channel spillway for releasing the peak overflow of Lambuk Dam. This dam is, located on the Lambuk River, which is a tributary of the Yeh Hoo River ~ 34.6 km north of Denpasar on the island of Bali. The bituminous geomembrane faced dam is 24 m in height, with a 35-m wide spillway. The length of the side channel is 35 m long, with 58 m of transition channel, 67.37 m of chuteway channel and 22.71 m of stilling basin. The capacity of the spillway is 231.91 m3/s and the outlet works capacity is 165.28 m3/s. The reservoir is designed for irrigation and water supply. The purpose of this study was to optimize the designed of the structure and to ensure its safe operation. In hydraulic model may help the decision-makers to visualize the flow field before selecting a ';suitable' design. The hydraulic model study was performed to ensure passage of the maximum discharge at maximum reservoir capacity; to study the spillway approach conditions, water surface profiles, and flow patterns in the chuteway; and to reveal potential demerits of the proposed hydraulic design of various structures and explore solutions. The model was constructed at 1 : 40 scale, Reservoir topography was modeled using concrete, the river bed using sand and some gravel, the river berm using concrete, and the spillway and channel using Plexiglas. Water was measured using Rectangular contracted weir. Design floods (with return period in year) were Q2 = 111.40 m3/s, Q5 = 136.84 m3/s, Q10 = 159.32 m3/s, Q25 = 174.61 m3/s, Q50 = 185.13 m3/s, Q100 = 198.08 m3/s, Q200 = 210.55 m3/s, Q1000 = 231.91 m3/s and the

  3. Geomorphology and anthropogenic impact including military constraints in a microtidal wave-dominated embayment in south western Sardinia (Porto Pino beach, SCI ITB040025, Mediterranean Sea). Implications for beach management. (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Buosi, Carla; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo


    impact. The coastal dunes vulnerability status of this three parts was assessed using the Dune Vulnerability Index (DVI) based on 57 variables that described geomorphological condition, marine influence, aeolian influence, vegetation condition, and human effects. Results reveal the lowest vulnerability value in the area undergone military constraints. Blowouts, breaches in the coastal dune system and deflation areas are observed in the first and second part where there is the greatest human transit to allow users access of the beach. The main pressures and threats identified that determine significant impacts on dune habitats are: transit of vehicles in the dune with the subsequent degradation of vegetation and the triggering of deflation processes; setting of infrastructure on the dune; removal of seagrass banquettes. In particular, the impact of trucks used to remove banquettes is significant on subaerial beach morphology. This traffic flattens the berms, modifies sand permeability and reduces organic sediment input to the shore. This study has allowed to highlight the geomorphological processes, the anthropic pressure and the coastal dune vulnerability of this coastal area in order to mitigate the impacts.

  4. Risk analysis procedure for post-wildfire natural hazards in British Columbia (United States)

    Jordan, Peter


    preliminary map of vegetation burn severity if desired. The next steps include mapping catchment boundaries, field traverses to collect data on soil burn severity and water repellency, identification of unstable hillslopes and channels, and inspection of values at risk from hazards such as debris flows or flooding. BARC (burned area reflectance classification) maps based on satellite imagery are prepared for some fires, although these are typically not available for several weeks. Our objective is to make a preliminary risk analysis report available about two weeks after the fire is contained. If high risks to public safety or infrastructure are identified, the risk analysis reports may make recommendations for mitigation measures to be considered; however, acting on these recommendations is the responsibility of local land managers, local government, or landowners. Mitigation measures for some fires have included engineering treatments to reduce the hydrologic impact of logging roads, protective structures such as dykes or berms, and straw mulching to reduce runoff and erosion on severely burned areas. The Terrace Mountain Fire, with burned 9000 hectares in the Okanagan Valley in 2009, is used as an example of the application of the procedure.

  5. Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Ken (Mount Hood National Forest, Hood River Ranger District, Parkdale, OR); Cain, Thomas C. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR); Heller, David A. (Mount Hood National Forest, Gresham, OR)


    , etc. ) in which a variety of species and age group: of salmon and trout can rear. It also results in the sorting of gravel, rubble, and boulders being transported downstream, creating high quality spawning and rearing habitats, and food producing areas. In 1987, a total of 11.0 miles of stream were treated; 334 log structures (Including: ''deflector'', ''digger'', ''sill'', and ''cover'' logs) and 141 boulder structures (including: single boulder placement, ''berms'', ''alcoves'', and ''clusters'') were completed to meet habitat improvement objectives. In addition to these direct habitat improvement activities, BPA and the Forest Service financed a number of project and program assessment activities that have improved the efficiency and effectiveness of the Forest's fisheries management program. Notable findings relate to the durability of habitat improvement structures, the associated changes in physical habitat, and biological response to the improvement activities. A discussion of the 1987 habitat monitoring and evaluation program results can be found in the supplemental document, Appendix: Monitoring and Evaluation of Mt. Hood National Forest Stream Habitat Improvement and Rehabilitation Projects: 1987 Annual Report (Forsgren, Heller, and Ober, 1988).

  6. Opportunities and Strategies for Testing and Infusion of ISRU in the Evolvable Mars Campaign (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Mantovani, James; Sanders, Gerald B.; Jones, Christopher A.


    resource cycle closure and reduce mass requirements from Earth. This analysis has yielded engineering constraints, based on ISRU, that impact the evaluation of landing sites for missions to the surface of Mars. The terrain of a particular site must be sufficiently flat to permit ISRU systems, as well as ancillary systems such as power and propellant storage tanks, to be landed, moved into position, set up, and operated. Water must be accessible in a form that can be acquired via ISRU, in quantities that align with demands. The chosen method of acquiring and processing water should align with the available resources at a particular site, and that site must have sufficient quantities to meet the requirements (based on crew consumables and propellant demands). Lower altitude landing sites are preferred, as the increase in density can facilitate carbon dioxide acquisition from the atmosphere. Another preference is for sites with a greater ability to move regolith for civil engineering purposes; for example, this would be conducive to both bulk regolith uses (such as the manufacture of berms), and processed regolith uses (such as microwave sintering).

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris), Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand


    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris), Nevada Test Site, Nevada, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The general purpose of the investigation is to ensure adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select viable corrective actions. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details for CAU 511, whereas programmatic aspects of this project are discussed in the ''Project Management Plan'' (DOE/NV, 1994). General field and laboratory quality assurance and quality control issues are presented in the ''Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan'' (NNSA/NV, 2002). Health and safety aspects of the project are documented in the current version of the Environmental Engineering Services Contractor's Health and Safety Plan and will be supplemented with a site-specific safety basis document. Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of the following nine corrective action sites in Nevada Test Site Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). Corrective Action Sites 18-99-10 and 19-19-03 were identified after a review of the ''1992 RCRA Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Volume IV, Section L Potential Solid Waste Management Unit'' (DOE/NV, 1992). The remaining seven sites were first identified in the 1991 Reynolds

  8. Engineering protection of pipelinesfrom erosion processes Инженерная защита трубопроводов от эрозионных процессов

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skapintsev Aleksandr Evgen’evich


    Full Text Available The authors consider varied engineering actions aimed at the protection of pipelines from developing erosion processes with a focus on the conditions of northern regions. Engineering solutions, considered in the article, include prevention of erosion processes along pipelines, protection from suffusion, protection of extended areas having the limit value of the slope angle, and actions aimed at the drainage of areas along pipelines. Prevention of erosion processes along pipelines consists in the restoration of the fertile layer using biological methods, as well as the volumetric soil reinforcement using geological grids. Prevention of suffusion processes consists in the employment of various types of suffusion shields accompanied by the application of geotextile. Berms are constructed as suffusion prevention actions in extended areas having a limit value of the slope angle. This action is used to reduce the water flow energy of drainage ditches and trays along the pipeline. The authors believe that a complete geotechnical monitoring network must be designed and developed to monitor the condition of pipelines and foundation soils.Рассмотрены различные варианты мероприятий инженерной защиты трубопроводов от активизирующихся и развивающихся эрозионных процессов преимущественно в условиях северных регионов. Рассмотрены технические решения на участках вдольтрассовой эрозии, участках развития суффозионных процессов, технические решения на протяженных участках с предельной величиной угла наклона естественной поверхности, а также мероприятия инженерной защиты по осу

  9. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise (United States)

    Harden, E. L.


    significant difference in foreshore characteristics such as seasonal berm height and foreshore slope between the two types of beaches, beaches without back-beach barriers have more developed back dune systems and are significantly wider than adjacent restricted beaches, given that no extensive artificial beach nourishment has occurred. In regions such as Ventura and Imperial Beach, unrestricted beaches are 50-100% wider than adjacent beaches with back-beach barriers even with no significant differences in historical rates of shoreline change. Taking into account the nature of the back beach is just as crucial in predicting impacts of sea-level rise on beaches in California as considering inundation and retreat in the foreshore, and will be an important consideration for coastal managers in designing sea-level rise adaptation plans.

  10. Depósitos cuaternarios de la costa atlántica fueguina, entre los cabos Peñas y Ewan Quaternary deposits of the Fuegian Atlantic coast between Peñas and Ewan capes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Bujalesky


    storm berm and 7 (Shaiwaal Formation, 12 m a.p.s.b.. The older and higher levels would be older than the isotope stage 18O 11 (Viamonte Formation, 38 m a.p.s.b. and Najmishk Formation, 53 m a.p.s.b.. These are the southernmost Pleistocene raised beaches of the world. During the Holocene, approximately 5000 yr B.P., beach ridge plains composed of gravel begun to plug the inner estuaries of the Ensenada de la Colonia and Río Fuego palaeoembayments. These beach ridge plains have shown a regressive behaviour during the Holocene. They do not revealed erosion, sediment recycling at the seaward flank (cannibalism, and a significant landward retreat like the northernmost littoral environments of the Atlantic coast of Tierra del Fuego.

  11. Morphodynamics of a gravel-dominated macrotidal estuary: Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego Morfodinámica de un estuario macromareal dominado por gravas: Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico I. Isla


    Full Text Available Rio Grande city (Tierra del Fuego is located on two attached beach systems, one of Upper Pleistocene (Sangamonian and the other of Holocene age. Both gravel spits grew from north to south modifying the inlet of the Rio Grande estuary. The present estuary is constrained by the modern and recurved spit Popper Spit. The main characteristic of this macrotidal estuary is that both margins and the bottom are mainly composed of rounded gravel. Expansion of the city is limited by oceanic and estuarine coasts, and is taking place towards salt marshes taking up more than 30 hectares in the last 20 years. The alteration of the tidal prism induced by marsh reclamation and the construction of a bridge may be affecting the inlet dynamics. The area of salt marsh and gravel banks were calculated by means of supervised classifications derived from a Landsat TM image. The inlet morphology changes in response to cycles dominated by longshore drift, wave refraction and ebb-tidal delta configuration. Oceanic beaches are characterised by large disc-shape boulders at the storm berm, spherical pebbles and sand runs at the foreshore, and fine sand on the low-tide terrace. Although tidal effects are very significant in the dynamics of the estuary, wind can prevail during some days or during slack water.La ciudad de Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego está ubicada sobre dos sistemas de playas adosadas, una del Pleistoceno superior (Sangamon y la otra del Holoceno. Ambas espigas de grava crecieron de norte a sur condicionando la desembocadura del estuario del Río Grande, que a su vez está limitada por una espiga moderna y recurvada denominada Punta Popper. La característica de los ambientes estuarinos es el dominio de las gravas, tanto en los márgenes como en los bancos de fondo. El crecimiento de la ciudad, bordeada por costa de mar y de estuario, se está desarrollando hacia las marismas del estuario, ocupando más de 30 hectáreas en los últimos 20 años. La alteraci

  12. Establishing storm thresholds for the Spanish Gulf of Cádiz coast (United States)

    Del Río, Laura; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Benavente, Javier; Valladares, María; Ribera, Pedro


    In this study critical thresholds are defined for storm impacts along the Spanish coast of the Gulf of Cádiz. The thresholds correspond to the minimum wave and tide conditions necessary to produce significant morphological changes on beaches and dunes and/or damage on coastal infrastructure or human occupation. Threshold definition was performed by computing theoretical sea-level variations during storms and comparing them with the topography of the study area and the location of infrastructure at a local level. Specifically, the elevations of the berm, the dune foot and the entrance of existing washovers were selected as threshold parameters. The total sea-level variation generated by a storm event was estimated as the sum of the tidal level, the wind-induced setup, the barometric setup and the wave-associated sea-level variation (wave setup and runup), assuming a minimum interaction between the different processes. These components were calculated on the basis of parameterisations for significant wave height (Hs) obtained for the oceanographic and environmental conditions of the Gulf of Cadiz. For this purpose real data and reanalysis time-series (HIPOCAS project) were used. Validation of the obtained results was performed for a range of coastal settings over the study area. The obtained thresholds for beach morphological changes in spring tide conditions range between a significant wave height of 1.5 m and 3.7 m depending on beach characteristics, while for dune foot erosion are around 3.3 to 3.7 m and for damage to infrastructure around 7.2 m. In case of neap tide conditions these values are increased on average by 50% over the areas with large tidal range. Furthermore, records of real damage in coastal infrastructure caused by storms were collected at a regional level from newspapers and other bibliographic sources and compared with the hydrodynamic conditions that caused the damage. These were extracted from the hindcast database of the HIPOCAS project

  13. Propuesta de alfabetización de educación no formal, para hombres, mujeres y obreros inmigrantes nicaragüenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidieth María Núñez Castro


    Full Text Available Recibido 03 de agosto 2007 • Aprobado 29 de setiembre 2007   Resumen. El artículo resume los principales hallazgos de la investigación realizada sobre el nivel de alfabetización de mujeres y hombres, obreros inmigrantes nicaragüenses, residentes en Costa Rica; específicamente, madres y padres de familia con niños en la Escuela Gonzalo Monge Bermúdez, del distrito de Pital de San Carlos. En la investigación se determinan los motivos más relevantes por los que algunos nicaragüenses han inmigrado a Costa Rica. Además, se estipulan algunas necesidades a las que ellos desean dar solución en este país, así como el papel que pueden cumplir los procesos de educación no formal en la vida de estas personas. Es de clara importancia realizar una propuesta de alfabetización en Educación no formal, que permita a mujeres, hombres y obreros inmigrantes nicaragüenses prepararse y formarse para la vida y el trabajo. De acuerdo con el proyecto para América Latina y el Caribe, programa de Educación Para Todos, la educación es una de las necesidades básicas: Cada persona –niño, joven o adulto– deberá estar en condiciones de beneficiarse de las oportunidades básicas de aprendizaje. Estas necesidades comprenden tanto herramientas esenciales para el aprendizaje (lectura y escritura, problemas de aprendizaje…, como contenidos básicos, requeridos para que los seres humanos sean capaces de sobrevivir, desarrollen sus capacidades, vivan y trabajen con dignidad, participen plenamente en el desarrollo, mejoren la calidad de sus vidas, tomen decisiones fundamentales y continúen aprendiendo.  Abstract. This article summarizes the main findings of a research on literacy made with immigrant Nicaraguan men and women workers residing in Costa Rica, specifically with parents from students at the Gonzalo Monge School in Pital, San Carlos. In this investigation, the more relevant motives for these Nicaraguan immigrants to come to Costa Rica are

  14. PASCOS 2012 - 18th International Symposium on Particles Strings and Cosmology (United States)


    (Sociedad Mexicana de Física), ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics), BUAP (Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla), the Government of the State of Yucatán, the University of Hamburg, and Telmex. We also want to acknowledge the invaluable help of the staff of the Mexican Physical Society, in particular Lic. Santos Zúñniga Sánchez and Ms. Claudia Velasco Marín, and of the conference secretaries, Ms. Lizette Ramírez Bermúdez (UNAM) and Ms. Mariana del Castillo Sánchez (Cinvestav), for their support before, during and after the organization of PASCOS 2012. Last but not least, we would like to thank all the PASCOS 2012 participants for their attendance and for contributing to make the conference an engaging and stimulating event. The organizers, Myriam Mondragón, Adnan Bashir, David Delepine, Francisco Larios, Oscar Loaiza, Axel de la Macorra, Lukas Nellen, Sarira Sahu, Humberto Salazar and Liliana Velasco-Sevilla.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles and Debris) Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, Laura


    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 511, Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris). The CAU is comprised of nine corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of nine CASs: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 511 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) and closure activities were performed from January 2005 through August 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris)'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 511 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate preliminary

  16. Considerations of Scale and Processes in Stream Restoration and Ecological Response (United States)

    Simon, A.; Shields, D.; Kuhnle, R.; Knight, S.


    stream temperatures. Aggradation processes typical of Stage V result in loss of interstitial spaces for spawning, de-oxygenation of substrate and may suffocate organisms. Perhaps most importantly, channel widening produces shallower depths at base flow and renders streams less retentive of large wood. Ecological characteristics recover in advanced stages of channel evolution as baseflow channels are narrowed and berms re-vegetate (Stage VI), but full recovery to pre-incision (Stage I) conditions has not been observed for both ecologic and sediment-transport systems. The processes reflected by stages of evolution can operate over entire fluvial networks and over time scales in the order of 100 years. Issues regarding effectiveness or benefit of stream restoration practices, therefore, must address scale. Furthermore, site and approach selection for reach-scale restoration projects should be guided by knowledge of watershed-scale processes. As an example, a grade control structure installed on Hotophia Creek, Mississippi successfully eliminated upstream-progressing incision and resulted in locally improved aquatic populations in the stilling basin. However, the trapping of hydraulically-controlled sediment on the upstream side of the structure resulted in streambed incision, de-stabilization of streambanks and degraded aquatic habitat in downstream reaches not protected by other grade-control structures.

  17. Badlands: Regolith, Forms and Processes. A review of the scientific research in Spain (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Cerdà, Artemi


    Badlands are usually defined as 'intensely dissected natural landscapes where vegetation is sparse or absent and which are useless for agriculture' (Bryan and Yair, 1982). Badlands are widerspread around the world (Nadal-Romero, 2007; Dickie and Parsons, 2012; Haregeweyn et al., 2012). In Spain due to the climatic and geological conditions badlands are widespread. Badlands research has national and foreign pioneers (Harvey, 1982; Clotet et al., 1988; Alexander and Calvo, 1990; Calvo et al., 1991; Alexander et al., 1994). Almería, Granada, Murcia, Alicante, the Ebro Valley, and the Pyrenees are good examples of the variety and diversity of badlands in Spain (García-Ruiz and López-Bermúdez, 2009). The research on badlands paid attention to the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1999a), piping (Romero-Diaz et al., 2011), the role of parent material on the regolith morphology (Regués, 1995; Cerdà, 1998b) and the soil development (Regués, 1993), and the interaction of the vegetation and soil erosion (Cerdà and García Fayos, 1997; Solé et al., 1997) vegetation varied, whereas the percentage of studies on erosion rates increased steadily over time. During the 90s badlands research was flowering and research on badlands developments, forms and soil physical properties influence was done. The 00's were a period with research focused on processes (infiltration, runoff and erosion) but in general the interest on badland decreased. However, badlands are intensively researched in the Ebro Valley (Nadal-Romero et al., 2007; 2008; Nadal-Romero and Regués; 2009; 2010) and new research is being developed on degraded soils following the knowledge found on badlands (Cerdà, 2007; García Fayos et al., 2010). The future is moving to study vegetation dynamics and badlands reclamation, the effect of climatic change in badland areas, and erosion processes and rates (Nadal-Romero et al., 2013). The use of new non-invasive technologies (remote sensing, Terrestrial Laser

  18. Archive of digital chirp subbottom profile data collected during USGS cruise 12BIM03 offshore of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, July 2012 (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Wiese, Dana S.


    From July 23 - 31, 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys to investigate the geologic controls on barrier island framework and long-term sediment transport along the oil spill mitigation sand berm constructed at the north end and just offshore of the Chandeleur Islands, La. (figure 1). This effort is part of a broader USGS study, which seeks to better understand barrier island evolution over medium time scales (months to years). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital chirp subbottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Abbreviations page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 12BIM03 tells us the data were collected in 2012 during the third field activity for that project in that calendar year and BIM is a generic code, which represents efforts related to Barrier Island Mapping. Refer to for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. All chirp systems use a signal of continuously varying frequency; the EdgeTech SB-424 system used during this survey produces high-resolution, shallow-penetration (typically less than 50 milliseconds (ms)) profile images of sub-seafloor stratigraphy. The towfish contains a transducer that transmits and receives acoustic energy and is typically towed 1 - 2 m below the sea surface. As transmitted acoustic energy intersects density boundaries, such as the seafloor or sub-surface sediment layers, energy is reflected back toward the transducer, received

  19. Development and Design of Cost-Effective, Real-Time Implementable Sediment and Contaminant Release Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampson, Steve [Univ of KY, Center for Applied Energy Research, Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment


    sediment trapping efficiency for a 4.0 in (101.6mm) 24-hour storm was 99.7% with an initial empty pond condition. Stored runoff is expected to be transferred to the treatment plant located near Outfall 010. A 4-in storm event accounts for approximately 97% of the average annual precipitation. Pond 015 is relatively small due to the non-excavation restriction. Ninety eight percent and 72.3% sediment trap efficiencies were predicted for a 1.5 in and 3.0 in 24-hour storm; based on the pond being empty at the start of the storm and retained runoff being transferred to one of the secondary treatment systems. A 3-in storm event accounts for approximately 92% of the average annual precipitation. The watershed area of Pond 008 is 113.6 acres and the storage capacity is only 0.92 ac-ft. Sediment trap efficiencies of 96.7%, 77.2% and 67.6% were predicted for storms of 1, 1.5 and 2 inches, respectively. Thus, nearly a 70+% sediment trap efficiency is predicted for storm events of 2 inches or less; accounting for 82% of the average annual precipitation.The approximate quantity of runoff that can be retained and pumped to a secondary treatment system was determined on a storm and annual basis. On an annual basis, Ponds 008, 011 and 015 are expected to retain 20.2%, 83.1% and 34.7% of the generated runoff, respectively. Retained runoff will be pumped to alternative treatment systems. The alternative treatment systems designed and evaluated are: 1) evapotranspiration-only, 2) evapotranspiration - infiltration and 3) a combination weep berm – grass filter control system. The evapotranspiration-only method would result in complete treatment of the runoff transferred from the retention pond. The evapotranspiration - infiltration technique is expected to result in treatment through filtration and natural attenuation of soil and associated constituents. Both drip and micro-sprinklers were evaluated for the first two listed treatment systems. Outfall 015 was used to illustrate the

  20. Soil microbial activities in Mediterranean environment as desertification indicators along a pluviometric gradient. (United States)

    Novosadova, I.; Zahora, J.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.


    In the Mediterranean areas of Southern Spain, unsuitable agricultural practices with adverse environmental conditions (López Bermúdez and Albaladejo, 1990), have led to a permanent degradation and loss of soil fertility. This includes deterioration of the natural plant cover, which protects against erosion by contributing organic matter, the main prerequisite of ecosystem sustainability (Grace et al., 1994). Physico-chemical, microbiological and biochemical soil properties are very responsive and provide immediate and precise information on small changes occurring in soil (Dick and Tabatabai, 1993). There is increasing evidence that such parameters are also sensitive indicators of ecology stress suffered by a soil and its recovery, since microbial activity has a direct influence on the stability and fertility of ecosystems (Smith and Papendick, 1993). One method for recovering degraded soils of such semiarid regions, with their low organic matter content, is to enhance primary productivity and carbon sequestration without any additional nitrogen fertilization and preferably without incorporation of leguminous plants (Martinez Mena et al., 2008). Carbon rich materials can sustain microbial activity and growth, thus enhancing biogeochemical nutrient cycles (Pascual et al., 1997). The present study is focused in the role of physico-chemical and microbial soil properties in Mediterranean environment, in terms of in situ and ex situ microbial transformation of soil carbon and nitrogen, in order to characterise the key soil microbial activities which could strongly affect carbon and nitrogen turnover in soil and hereby soil fertility and soil organic matter "quality". These microbial activities could at unsuitable agricultural practices with adverse environmental conditions induce unfavourable hydrologycal tempo-spatial response. The final results shown modifications in the soil properties studied with the increasing of the aridity. Such changes suppose the soil

  1. Experimental study of deformations of reinforced cushion by high-strength woven geotextile in closing levee%圈围工程中高强有纺土工布加筋垫层变形试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国福; 徐兵; 王茂胜; 姚顺雨; 刘丽; 刘益锋


    monitoring data indicate that: (1) The displacements of the geotextile at the base of the closing levee showing a concave shape and maximum displacement occurred along the center line. (2) The displacements of the geotextiles is explicitly influenced by the movement of the attached toe-berms. (3) The measured maximum strain is 11.9% which is equivalent to 837.40 kN/m in tension. The high strain indicates that the geotextile with higher tensile stiffness should be used. (4) The stress redistribution between the stages of the construction is observed. This phenomenon is further verified by numerical simulation using Plaxis. (5) The strain of the geotextile is a function of the closing levee backfilling rate. An appropriate backfilling rate should be selected to limit the strain in geotextile. (6) With the same tensile strength, the larger elongation can accommodate faster construction.

  2. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields (United States)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena


    de Física de Altas Energías. At a personal level, we are very grateful to Dr Juan Carlos D'Olivo (President of the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías), Dr Pedro Mata Vázquez (Director of COECyT), Dr Ricardo Becerril Bárcenas (Director of the Institute of Physics and Mathematics, UMSNH), Dr Rigoberto Vera Mendoza (Director of the Faculty of Science, UMSNH) and Dr José Napoleón Guzmán Ávila (Coordinator of Scientific Research, UMSNH) for their invaluable support in all organizational matters, which enabled the school to become a reality. We gratefully acknowledge the help of our colleagues in the organizing committee: Alexis Aguilar, Alejandro Ayala, Wolfgang Bietenholz, Alberto Güijosa, Gabriela Murguía, Sarira Sahu (UNAM), Eduard de la Cruz Burelo, Abdel Pérez-Lorenzana (CINVESTAV), Elena Cáceres (UCOL), David Delepine (UG), Mariana Kirchbach (UASLP), Ildefonso León (UAS), Juan Carlos Arteaga-Velázquez (for his impeccable work in managing the web page of the school) and Víctor Villanueva (UMSNH). Most of them contributed to the extra work involved in refereeing the contributions submitted for this publication. Many thanks also go to all the student volunteers for the efficiency and dedication with which they carried out their duties. At the registration desk, we relied on the hard work of Xiomara Gutiérrez, Enif Gutiérrez (UMSNH) and Mara Diaz Pancardo. Several post docs and PhD students provided invaluable support in all organizational matters: Adolfo Huet, Cliffor Compeán, Rocío Bermúdez, Saúl Sánchez, Anabel Trejo, Iraís Rubalcava, Khépani Raya, José Juan González, Saúl Hernández Ortiz (UMSNH), Alfredo Galaviz, and Alan Aganza (USON). Their help in carrying out the organization of the school was essential and without their collaboration, this school would not have been the same. We also acknowledge the help of the administrative secretary Maria Esperanza Jaramillo of IFM (UMSNH). We would like to take this opportunity to thank

  3. Discurso de orden en el día de su posesión, El Profesor Héctor Pedraza. Académico Honorario (1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mendoza Vega


    la preparación para la cirugia, tres médicos de gran renombre, los doctores ivas; Bermúdez y Lombana; habían conseguido ellos, gracias a su dedicación y a la seriedad de su tarea, colocar la materia como auténtica “piedra de toque” para la calidad de los aspirantes a futuros médicos; recibir el ansiado “cuatro” en Anatomía era algo así como tener condecoración especial y ruta abierta hacia el éxito profesional.

    En aquel ambiente, quienes elegían la Anatomía para su carrera de profesorado entraban a formar parte de unaélite reconocida; y por allí precisamente se encaminó el joven Pedraza, con la Jefatura de Trabajos que obtuvo como se lograban todas las posiciones de la Facultad: por estricto concurso. Tal fue el desempeño, que al fallecer el famoso profesor Rivas, correspondió al doctor Pedraza tomar su cátedra; y debieron pasar más de veinte años, en los que recorrió con suficiencia todo el escalafón, hasta la posición de Profesor Titular, para que alguien a su vez se atreviera a pensar en su relevo.

    Esta prolongada permanencia en la cátedra no era, por supuesto, gratuita. Como había obtenido por concurso la posición de Profesor Auxiliar en 1934, recibió del gobierno nacional una comisión para especializarse en Anatomía Descriptiva, la cual cumplió con lujo en la Universidad de Lyon en 1936 y 1937; de allí, pasó a un curso de Anatomía Patológica de Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso, con el profesor Ives Bertrand en La Salpétriére de París; y de vuelta en Bogotá, publicó un manual titulado Monitor de Anatomía hoy rareza bibliográfica, con el cual dio una orientación entonces muy moderna, seudo-topográfica, a las prácticas del anfiteatro; en la Neuro-anatomía, introdujo el uso de dibujos coloreados de los cortes macroscópicos de encéfalo y médula espinal, para suplir la falta de laboratorio y colecciones especializadas...

  4. Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Gut, gastroenterology and nutrition”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors



  5. Beach ridges and prograded beach deposits as palaeoenvironment records (United States)

    Tamura, Toru


    Beach ridges are landforms commonly developed on prograded coasts with beach shorelines. A sequence of beach ridges, coupled with their subsurface deposits, can be regarded as a time series of coastal evolution. Methodological advances in field surveying and chronology applicable to beach ridges have led to detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to be derived from such sequences. This paper reconsiders the basic aspects of beach ridges and deposits, which need to be properly understood for their comprehensive interpretation in a palaeo-environmental context. It also reviews case studies in which beach-ridge sequences have been used to unveil past sea-level history, catastrophic events, and climate changes. Proposed formative processes of beach ridges include: 1) progradation of sandy beach and berm formations in relation to fairweather waves, coupled with aeolian foredune accumulation; 2) building of gravel ridges by storm waves; 3) welding of longshore bars. Beach-ridge formation through sea-level oscillation is thought to be questionable and caution is suggested for this process when undertaking palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Beach deposit stratification is known to dip either landwards or seawards, but landward dips are uncommon. Seaward dipping stratification is formed in relation to beachface progradation, and is usually dissected in places by erosion surfaces resulting from episodic beach retreat. The boundary between the foreshore and the underlying shoreface is well defined only in the case that longshore bars lead to complex bedding structure relative to that of the foreshore. Reliable chronology of beach ridges can be determined by radiocarbon and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Radiocarbon dating of articulated shells, which are considered not to be extensively reworked, provides robust results, but OSL dating is more useful as it enables direct dating of sediment grains. It is noted that there are restrictions in chronological

  6. The Change of Design of the Alyeska Pipeline and Construction Modes in Permafrost Areas,and Their Reasons and the Philosophy behind It%阿拉斯加输油管的设计和施工方式方案变更过程及其背后的原因和哲学思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Max Clifton Brewer; 金会军; 胡万志; 张欣佳; 陈剑锋


    项目的经验和教训.%Alyeska had developed or used three major modes in the construction:conventional burial,special burial,and above ground modes.Conventional burial depths of the pipeline top vary from 0.9 to 2.7 m in accommodation to topography,but not soil conditions.Circulating coolant system and/or thermosyphons were equipped for the special burial at the animal passage sections where the pipeline has to be buried.The above ground mode include the pile bent and above ground gravel berms.The later was used only when the pipeline dips into ground and comes out of the ground.The elevated pile bent uses the vertical support member (VSM),with or without thermosyphons.During the initial planning and design phases,the owner companies,the Trans-Alyeska Pipeline System (TAPS),and later Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC),staunchly demanded 100% burial.However,with the progress of survey and elaboration of designs,the construction modes had been changing all the time.When the construction was completed in 1977,only 57% of pipeline was buried,and some experienced engineers prefer 53% of burial after 30 years of operations.The "reasons" for the changes of construction modes include:1) that they had to change in order to get the permit to cross Federal lands; 2) they performed actual field investigations and participated in the development of the detailed engineering; and 3) National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).Alyeska was the agent for the seven oil companies,and uncharacteristically,because of the size and costs of the project,the oil companies' engineers individually participated to an unusual extent.In this paper,the authors present the organizational history of Alyeska and the US Federal and Alaska State governments as regards to the construction of the Alyeska Oil Pipeline,the process how the design was evolved and the reasons and the philosophy behind them,and experiences and lessons learned from the Alyeska project.

  7. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability (United States)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi


    is very dynamic (Cerdà 1998b). Acknowledgements The research projects 07 M/0077/1998, 07 M/0023/2000 and RTA01-078-C2- 2, GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Belmonte Serrato, F., Romero Díaz, A., López Bermúdez, F., Hernández Laguna, E. 1999. Óptimo de cobertura vegetal en relación a las pérdidas de suelo por erosión hídrica y las pérdidas de lluvia por interceptación. Papeles de Geografía 30, 5-15. Cammeraat, E., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C. 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semiarid environment. Ecohydrology, 3: 421-430. 10.1002/eco.161 Cerdà, A. 1997a. The effect of patchy distribution of Stipa tenacissima L. on runoff and erosion. Journal of Arid Environments, 36, 37-51. Cerdà, A. 1998. The influence of aspect and vegetation on seasonal changes in erosion under rainfall simulation on a clay soil in Spain. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 78, 321-330. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A.1997b. Soil erosion after land abandonment in a semiarid environment of Southeastern Spain. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 11, 163-176. Garcia-Estringana, P., Alonso-Blázquez, N., Alegre, J. 2010b. Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs. Journal of Hydrology 389, 363-372. Garcia-Estringana, P., Alonso-Blázquez, N., Marques, M.J., Bienes, R., Alegre, J. 2010a. Direct and indirect effects of Mediterranean vegetation on runoff and soil loss. European Journal of Soil Science 61, 174-185. García-Ruiz, J.M. 2010. The effects of land uses on soil erosion in Spain: a review. Catena 81, 1-11. Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., and Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model

  8. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the communities of Kodiak and nearby islands: Chapter F in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities (United States)

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Plafker, George


    directly cause any significant property damage at Afognak Serious long-term damage, however, resulted from tectonic subsidence estimated to be from 3½ to 5½ feet. The subsidence has resulted in rapid erosion of the coast, landward shift and building up of bench berms to the new higher sea levels, and flooding of extensive low-lying areas behind the barrier beaches. Inundation of low-lying parts of the village by a train of seismic sea waves having maximum heights of 10.8 feet above post-earthquake tide level (14.5 ft above post-earthquake mean lower low water) caused losses of about half a million dollars to homes, vehicles, bridges, and personal possessions. Uzinki was damaged by tectonic subsidence and seismic sea waves. No significant damage resulted from the ground motion during the earthquake; the Mercalli intensity was about VI. However, tectonic subsidence, estimated to be 5 feet, caused inundation of a narrow zone along the waterfront. Structures and vessels were damaged as a result of the seismic sea waves that repeatedly flooded the waterfront area after the earthquake. Old Harbor was damaged by seismic shock, subsidence, and seismic sea waves. The tremors, which had a Mercalli intensity estimated at VII-VIII, toppled two concrete-block chimneys, cracked interior walls, and caused minor breakage of personal property in the homes. Regional tectonic subsidence and superficial subsidence of the unconsolidated deposits on which the village is situated apparently caused incursion of salt water into the school well. A quarter of million yards of fill was required to raise the waterfront areas to their pre-earthquake elevations relative to sea level. Seismic sea waves having a maximum runup of about 12 feet above tide level (16 ft above post-earthquake mean lower low water) destroyed 34 of the 35 residences in the village and presumably drowned one man who lived immediately across the strait from Old Harbor. At Kaguyak, seismic sea waves having a maximum runup of

  9. PREFACE: Workshop on Higher Symmetries in Physics (United States)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, Rutwig; María Ancochea, José; Castrillón, Marco


    Committee, we would like to express our gratitude to the participants and assistants in the WHSP meeting for their presence and contributions, as well as to the members of the Scientific Committee for their help and outstanding efforts, with special mention to E Padrón from the Universidad de La Laguna and the GMC Network. R Campoamor-Stursberg, M Castrillón López and J M Ancochea Bermúdez Universidad Complutense de Madrid Editors of the WHSP Proceedings

  10. Correspondencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Señor Editor:En relación con el artículo titulado: «Uso del bajo peso al nacer como criterio seleccionador para la vigilancia rutinaria de anomalías congénitas de origen infeccioso» de los autores: Bermúdez A, González N y Ching R, y publicado en Colombia Médica Volumen 39 Nº 2, Suplemento 2, 2008 (Abril-Junio deseo realizar varios comentarios.En primer lugar el artículo no presenta ninguna coherencia argumentativa que permita correlacionar el título con los métodos utilizados en el análisis de la información, lo cual produce indefectiblemente dudas de las conclusiones y recomendaciones de los autores.Los autores plantean como diseño del estudio la observación de una serie de casos de recién nacidos con bajo peso según la definición de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y que la población de estudio se obtuvo por conveniencia con el fin de tener representación completa de las regiones de Colombia. En el caso del diseño del estudio planteado por los autores, no se entiende cómo a partir de una serie de casos, se obtiene el riego relativo (RR informado por el estudio; el RR es el cociente entre el riesgo en un grupo con el factor de exposición (factor de riesgo y el riesgo en un grupo de referencia, de tal modo que el RR se comporta como un índice de asociación entre la exposición y el desenlace estudiado. La mejor forma de calcular el RR es llevar a cabo estudios prospectivos como el estudio de cohortes o los estudios de casos y controles anidados a una cohorte. En el mismo sentido si se desea calcular un RR, el cálculo de tamaño de muestra debe corresponder con ese cometido, cálculo que debe contemplar la prevalencia de la patología o condición, la precisión del riesgo a estimar en relación con el riesgo real y un valor de riesgo que posea cierta vero-similitud. Estos aspectos del muestreo no se aprecian en el artículo, y si la intención era la de representar las diversas regiones de Colombia, el muestreo