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Sample records for berms

  1. Revised Recession of Reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Moghim, Mohammad Navid; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper data has been collected on berm breakwater stability from several laboratories. The total database contains more than 1500 model test data on berm recession. The data has been compared to five existing recession formulae and most of the existing recession formulae provide good...

  2. Stability of Hardly Reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.;

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with stability of berm breakwaters designed to be hardly or sometimes partly reshaping. Burcharth (2008, 2011) showed by comparison to the performance of a prototype berm breakwater that the Van der Meer formulae for stability of conventional rock armour including low cres...

  3. On Front Slope Stability of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    reshaping of a large Norwegian breakwater exposed to the North Sea waves. As a motivation for applying the Van der Meer formula a discussion of design parameters related to berm breakwater stability formulae is given. Comparisons of front erosion predicted by the use of the Van der Meer formula with model......The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison with the......, relative berm width, method of armour stone placement, and hydraulic parameters. The formulae should cover the structure range from statically stable berm breakwaters to conventional double layer armoured breakwaters....

  4. Stability of Hardly Reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; W. van der Meer, Jentsje; Burcharth, Hans F.;

    2012-01-01

    Stability of berm breakwaters has been dealt with by several authors like Van der Meer (1992) and Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2010). The work of Van der Meer (1992) gives a very good estimate of the full reshaped profile for dynamically stable structures with a stability number Hs/ΔDn50 > 3...

  5. A Comparison of Homogeneous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, Kasper; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with homogeneous and multi-layer berm breakwaters designed to maximize the utilization of the quarry material. Two wide stone classes are typically used for berm breakwaters with a homogeneous berm.......The paper deals with homogeneous and multi-layer berm breakwaters designed to maximize the utilization of the quarry material. Two wide stone classes are typically used for berm breakwaters with a homogeneous berm....

  6. A New Formula for Front Slope Recession of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2010-01-01

    The front slope stability of breakwaters with a homogeneous berm was studied in a large number of two dimensional model tests at Aalborg University, Denmark. The results are presented together with a new formula for prediction of the berm recession which is the most important parameter for...... describing the reshaping. The formula has also been calibrated and validated against model test data from other researchers. The significance of the new design formula is that it predicts berm recession much better than the existing methods, especially in case of more stable structures....

  7. Stability prediction of berm breakwater using neural network

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Manjunath, Y.R.

    In the present study, an artificial neural network method has been applied to predict the stability of berm breakwaters. Four neural network models are constructed based on the parameters which influence the stability of breakwater. Training...

  8. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system modeling to predict damage level of non-reshaped berm breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, N.; Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Lokesha

    The Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model is constructed using experimental data set to predict the damage level of berm breakwater. Experimental data for non-reshaped berm breakwater are collected from Marine Structures Laboratory...

  9. BERM BREAKWATERS WITH CONCRETE BLOCKS AS ARMOUR UNITS

    OpenAIRE

    Camara Aguilera, Altea

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to test the hydraulic stability of berm breakwaters with concrete armour units. To achieve this, five breakwater models were tested with the same wave program. All the models were modifications of the Sirevåg berm breakwater. The modifications consisted in the replacement of the class I stone form the armour layer by two different concrete units, cubes and cubipodsThe design waves were Hs,100=7.0 m, Tz=10.6 s. HoTo=48. The wave program consisted in 7 diffe...

  10. Overtopping of Berm Breakwaters Evaluation of Overtopping Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.

    2005-01-01

    The berm breakwater concept is basicly rather old, but was not used very much until it was “reinvented” in the early 1980’ties, when a slope protection for an airfield runway extending into the sea in the Alutian Islands, Alaska was designed....

  11. Armor stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghim, M. N.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    This paper deals with stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters. A simple physical argument is used to derive a new stability formula based on the assumption that the maximum wave force causing damage of armor layer is proportional to the maximum wave momentum flux near the...... momentum flux approach the damage to the front slope (eroded area) can be very well predicted. Moreover, a simple method to estimate the eroded area based on measured or calculated berm recession (Rec) and depth of intersection of reshaped and initial profile (hf) is presented. The performance of the...... simple method based on measured data of Rec and hf is better than the presented stability equation based on wave momentum flux parameter. When using the best prediction formulae for recession and depth of intersection the simple method and the momentum flux stability equation provide similar uncertainty....

  12. Design overview of Syncrude's Mildred Lake East Toe berm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Syncrude surface mining oil sand operation is located near Fort McMurray, Alberta, and produces an average of 470 tonnes of oil sand feed daily, which, after undergoing a bitumen extraction phase, generates 360,000 tonnes of tailings solids. This production yields approximately 83 million barrels of Syncrude Sweet Blend annually, being 13% of Canada's oil production. Tailings from the extraction process are used to hydraulically construct containment dikes and supporting beaches of the storage facilities, while the process water is returned to the extraction process. Since the start of the operation in 1978, the Mildred Lake Settling Basin has been Syncrude's primary tailings storage facility, and many design changes have occurred over 20 years which have optimized sand storage at the facility. An overview is included of the final design and preliminary performance of the Mildred Lake East Toe Berm currently being constructed along Cells 20 to 25 of Syncrude's Mildred Lake Settling Basin. The main point of constructing the East Toe Berm is to provide storage for 20 million cubic m or more of tailings over the period of March 1998 to July 1999. Following this period, a permanent tailings storage will be available in-pit. The key features of the Mildred Lake East Toe Berm described include the planning, design, and construction aspects, of which an additional benefit is an added storage capacity to the existing Mildred Lake Settling Basin. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Overtopping and Rear Slope Stability of Reshaping & Non-reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.

    Overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping and non-reshaping berm breakwaters have been studied in a wave flume. A total of 695 tests have been performed to cover the influence of crest freeboard, crest width, berm width, berm elevation, stone size and sea state. Formula for average...... overtopping discharge that includes these parameters has been derived. The measurements show good correlation between average overtopping discharge and rear slope damage....

  14. State-of-the-Art of Designing and Constructing Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Hedar, P. A.; Ouemeraci, H.;

    Berm breakwaters are different from ordinary rubble mound breakwaters. A conventional rubble mound breakwater is required to be almost statically stable for the design wave conditions, while the berm breakwater has traditionally been allowed to reshape to a statically stable or a dynamically stable...

  15. Terrestrial laser scanning of anthropogenic beach berms for urban flood defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, B. F.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Shakeri Majd, M.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, over 20 million people reside below present high tide levels and as many as 200 million are vulnerable to flooding during extreme events. In California, coastal flooding is driven by a combination of factors such as high astronomical tides, waves, storm surge, and other fluctuations such as those caused by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and climate change is likely to exacerbate those factors testing the limits of coastal flood defenses. Beaches provide natural flood protection during storms by mitigating the effects of high water levels and wave runup, and a process known as beach berming can be used to temporarily enhance the ability of beaches to withstand overtopping. In cases where beaches serve as primary protection for development, anthropogenic berms may represent an attractive management option for temporarily addressing future flood hazards. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or lidar has emerged as a valuable technology for capturing the three dimensional geometry of complex surfaces and objects, and in the context of coastal flood prediction mobile TLS could prove invaluable by quickly mapping beach topography before an imminent flood threat and reducing associated uncertainties in coastal flood forecasting systems. The research presented here highlights the results of a field campaign to document the initial conditions and dynamic erosion of anthropogenic berms using TLS. On three occasions in February and March of 2012, a prototype berm was constructed on the foreshore of the city of Newport Beach, CA at low tide, and was scanned to document its initial shape, and then scanned in near-continuous fashion with the rising tide to characterize its subsequent erosion. The purpose is two-fold: (1) to measure the performance of the TLS system relative to accuracy and assess strengths and drawbacks that are likely to bear on the suitability of this technology to support flood prediction as described above, and (2) to develop a better

  16. Predictions of barrier island berm evolution in a time-varying storm climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Flocks, James; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Long, Joseph W.; Guy, Kristy K.; Thompson, David M.; Cormier, Jamie M.; Smith, Christopher G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Dalyander, P. Soupy

    2014-01-01

    Low-lying barrier islands are ubiquitous features of the world's coastlines, and the processes responsible for their formation, maintenance, and destruction are related to the evolution of smaller, superimposed features including sand dunes, beach berms, and sandbars. The barrier island and its superimposed features interact with oceanographic forces (e.g., overwash) and exchange sediment with each other and other parts of the barrier island system. These interactions are modulated by changes in storminess. An opportunity to study these interactions resulted from the placement and subsequent evolution of a 2 m high sand berm constructed along the northern Chandeleur Islands, LA. We show that observed berm length evolution is well predicted by a model that was fit to the observations by estimating two parameters describing the rate of berm length change. The model evaluates the probability and duration of berm overwash to predict episodic berm erosion. A constant berm length change rate is also predicted that persists even when there is no overwash. The analysis is extended to a 16 year time series that includes both intraannual and interannual variability of overwash events. This analysis predicts that as many as 10 or as few as 1 day of overwash conditions would be expected each year. And an increase in berm elevation from 2 m to 3.5 m above mean sea level would reduce the expected frequency of overwash events from 4 to just 0.5 event-days per year. This approach can be applied to understanding barrier island and berm evolution at other locations using past and future storm climatologies.

  17. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic-Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.;

    2009-01-01

    strategies and possible failure with corresponding downtime have been taken into account, as well as actual market prices (in Iceland and Norway) for rack material and construction. Calculations show that low stability numbers for the largest rock armour layer give the optimal safety level.......This paper gives first an elaboration of berm recession equations for berm breakwaters and then new deterministic design rules for the Icelandic-type berm breakwater. Safety optimization calculations have been performed for a mild depth limited wave climate and for a situation a deep water. Repair...

  18. Parameter optimization using GA in SVM to predict damage level of non-reshaped berm breakwater.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, N.; Lokesha.; Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Patil, S.G.

    In the present study, Support Vector Machines (SVM) and hybrid of Genetic Algorithm (GA) with SVM models are developed to predict the damage level of non-reshaped berm breakwaters. Optimal kernel parameters of SVM are determined by using GA...

  19. Stability of submerged rock berms exposed to motion of liquefied soil in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Dixen, Figen Hatipoglu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behaviour of a submerged rock berm in liquefied backfill soil. The soil is liquefied by waves, and the rock berm is subject to the orbital motion of the liquefied soil. The soil used in the experiments was silt with d50=0.075mm....... Various berm materials were used, stones of size 0.74–2.5cm, plastic balls of size 3.6cm, brass of size 2.5cm and steel of size 1.0cm. The experiments show that rock berms that are stable under very large waves can be unstable when they are exposed to the motion of liquefied soil. The limited data...

  20. Prediction of Seaward Slope Recession in Berm Breakwaters Using M5' Machine Learning Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Sadat HOSSEINI; Mehdi SHAFIEEFAR

    2016-01-01

    In the design process of berm breakwaters, their front slope recession has an inevitable rule in large number of model tests, and this parameter being studied. This research draws its data from Moghim’s and Shekari’s experiment results. These experiments consist of two different 2D model tests in two wave flumes, in which the berm recession to different sea state and structural parameters have been studied. Irregular waves with a JONSWAP spectrum were used in both test series. A total of 412 test results were used to cover the impact of sea state conditions such as wave height, wave period, storm duration and water depth at the toe of the structure, and structural parameters such as berm elevation from still water level, berm width and stone diameter on berm recession parameters. In this paper, a new set of equations for berm recession is derived using the M5' model tree as a machine learning approach. A comparison is made between the estimations by the new formula and the formulae recently given by other researchers to show the preference of new M5' approach.

  1. Prediction of seaward slope recession in berm breakwaters using M5' machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Alireza Sadat; Shafieefar, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    In the design process of berm breakwaters, their front slope recession has an inevitable rule in large number of model tests, and this parameter being studied. This research draws its data from Moghim's and Shekari's experiment results. These experiments consist of two different 2D model tests in two wave flumes, in which the berm recession to different sea state and structural parameters have been studied. Irregular waves with a JONSWAP spectrum were used in both test series. A total of 412 test results were used to cover the impact of sea state conditions such as wave height, wave period, storm duration and water depth at the toe of the structure, and structural parameters such as berm elevation from still water level, berm width and stone diameter on berm recession parameters. In this paper, a new set of equations for berm recession is derived using the M5' model tree as a machine learning approach. A comparison is made between the estimations by the new formula and the formulae recently given by other researchers to show the preference of new M5' approach.

  2. Using Combustion Synthesis to Reinforce Berms and Other Regolith Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The Moonraker Excavator and other tools under development for use on the Moon, Mars, and asteroids will be employed to construct a number of civil engineering projects and to mine the soil. Mounds of loose soil will be subject to the local transport mechanisms plus artificial mechanisms such as blast effects from landers and erosion from surface vehicles. Some of these structures will require some permanence, with a minimum of maintenance and upkeep. Combustion Synthesis (CS) is a family of processes and techniques whereby chemistry is used to transform materials, often creating flame in a hard vacuum. CS can be used to stabilize civil engineering works such as berms, habitat shielding, ramps, pads, roadways, and the like. The method is to unroll thin sheets of CS fabric between layers of regolith and then fire the fabric, creating a continuous sheet of crusty material to be interposed among layers of loose regolith. The combination of low-energy processes, ISRU (in situ resource utilization) excavator, and CS fabrics, seems compelling as a general method for establishing structures of some permanence and utility, especially in the role of robotic missions as precursors to manned exploration and settlement. In robotic precursory missions, excavator/ mobility ensembles mine the Lunar surface, erect constructions of soil, and dispense sheets of CS fabrics that are covered with layers of soil, fired, and then again covered with layers of soil, iterating until the desired dimensions and forms are achieved. At the base of each berm, for example, is a shallow trench lined with CS fabric, fired and filled, mounded, and then covered and fired, iteratively to provide a footing against lateral shear. A larger trench is host to a habitat module, backfilled, covered with fabric, covered with soil, and fired. Covering the applied CS fabric with layers of soil before firing allows the resulting matrix to incorporate soil both above and below the fabric ply into the fused layer

  3. Sandy berm and beach-ridge formation in relation to extreme sea-levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B; Kroon, Aart

    2013-01-01

    The formation of berms and their transformation into beach ridges in a micro-tidal environment is coupled to wave run-up and overtopping during extreme sea levels. A straight-forward comparison between extreme sea levels due to storm-surges and active berm levels is impossible in the semi......-enclosed bays along the Baltic Sea. Quite often, the maximum water levels do not coincide with the maximum intensity of the wave driven processes because of seiches in the Baltic. In this paper, we look into the joined distribution of extreme water levels and high-energetic wave conditions at Feddet, a sandy...... extreme sea level events is identified using thirty-three well described extreme events throughout a period of 15 years. Analysis of the meteorological conditions during these events revealed that berm formation only occurred during 20% of all extreme events when onshore winds, high-energy wave action and...

  4. Damage level prediction of non-reshaped berm breakwater using ANN, SVM and ANFIS models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; SubbaRao; Harish, N.; Lokesha

    The damage analysis of coastal structure is very important as it involves many design parameters to be considered for the better and safe design of structure. In the present study experimental data for non-reshaped berm breakwater are collected from...

  5. On the Stability of Berm Breakwater Roundheads and Trunk Erosion in Oblique Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The stability of a berm type breakwater (sacrificial breakwater) was tested in a 3-dimensional model at The Hydraulics Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Aalborg. The object was to study the stability/erosion of the breakwater head and the trunk, the latter exposed to both...... head-on and oblique irregular waves. To avoid too many parameters a simple breakwater geometry and only one class of stones were used....

  6. The Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites (BERMS): A Canadian Contribution to CEOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, A. G.; Goodison, B.; Crawford, B.

    2004-05-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites (BERMS) program is providing the Canadian contribution to the WCRP Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) initiative of the Global Energy and Water Experiment. The BERMS super-site, which is located at the southern edge of the boreal forest in central Saskatchewan Canada, currently operates ten flux towers in a variety of ecosystems in a study area of 120 x 100 km. These sites were originally established to study the energy, water and carbon cycles of the Canadian boreal forest in relation to inter-annual climate variability for different ecosystems. The area has also been used as a super-site for developing and validating remotely-sensed information and products, especially for snow cover. It was the site of a major validation effort for snow-water equivalent determination for AMSR-E. The sites are the flagship sites in Canada for studying the energy, water and carbon cycles in a cold-climate region and are well suited to the CEOP investigation. Five of the tower flux sites were first established in 1993-4 as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) and have continued since 1997 as part of the BERMS program. Five additional sites have been recently established in young forest stands following disturbance by fire and harvest, with particular focus on the carbon cycle. The data from the three mature, long-term sites in Aspen, Black Spruce and Jack Pine have been submitted to CEOP. The BERMS program has served as a model for the Canadian field flux program of network-wide standardization in instrumentation and data post-processing, data management, and government-university collaboration. The modern, automated data management system has allowed provision of data for CEOP studies in a timely manner and within the CEOP data policy and guidelines. This presentation will provide an overview of the BERMS program and related remote sensing studies as they relate to CEOP, with particular focus on data

  7. Comparison of Homogenous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Front Slope Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, K. T.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    A model test study was conducted to study overtopping and front slope stability of homogenous and multi-layered berm breakwaters. The two breakwater types are compared and cons and pros are listed. The study shows that the optimum number of stone classes might be significantly lower than what has...

  8. Analysis of Wave Reflection from Structures with Berms Through an Extensive Database and 2DV Numerical Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, Barbara; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;

    2009-01-01

    below sea water level (SWL) is important, the slope to appear in the breaker parameter is evaluated as a weighted average of the structure slope below the berm level and the average slope in the run-up/run-down area. The inclusion of this slope in the proposed formula allows to extend its prediction...

  9. Effects of Building a Sand Barrier Berm to Mitigate the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Louisiana Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack L.; Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Twichell, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The State of Louisiana requested emergency authorization on May 11, 2010, to perform spill mitigation work on the Chandeleur Islands and on all the barrier islands from Grand Terre Island eastward to Sandy Point to enhance the capability of the islands to reduce the movement of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to the marshes. The proposed action-building a barrier berm (essentially an artificial island fronting the existing barriers and inlets) seaward of the existing barrier islands and inlets-'restores' the protective function of the islands but does not alter the islands themselves. Building a barrier berm to protect the mainland wetlands from oil is a new strategy and depends on the timeliness of construction to be successful. Prioritizing areas to be bermed, focusing on those areas that are most vulnerable and where construction can be completed most rapidly, may increase chances for success. For example, it may be easier and more efficient to berm the narrow inlets of the coastal section to the west of the Mississippi River Delta rather than the large expanses of open water to the east of the delta in the southern parts of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This document provides information about the potential available sand resources and effects of berm construction on the existing barrier islands. The proposed project originally involved removing sediment from a linear source approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) gulfward of the barrier islands and placing it just seaward of the islands in shallow water (~2-m depth where possible) to form a continuous berm rising approximately 6 feet (~2 m) above sea level (North American Vertical Datum of 1988-NAVD88) with an ~110-yd (~100-m) width at water level and a slope of 25:1 to the seafloor. Discussions within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and with others led to the determination that point-source locations, such as Hewes Point, the St. Bernard Shoals, and Ship Shoal, were more suitable 'borrow

  10. Escrito con Tinta Roja: The Mexicana Feminist Detective in the Fiction of María Elvira Bermúdez, Myriam Laurini and Patricia Valladares

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    In my dissertation, I examine Mexican detective fiction of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries written by Mexican feminist writers whose literary works include Mexican female detective characters. Writers and works I analyze in this dissertation are María Elvira Bermúdez's "Detente, sombra," (1962) and "Las cosas hablan" (1985) in conjunction with Bermúdez's socio-historical study, La vida familiar del mexicano (1955), argenmex writer Myriam Laurini's Morena en rojo (1994), and Patricia ...

  11. Óscar Bermúdez: investigador del Norte Grande, historiador del salitre, hombre de dos mundos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio González Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene por objetivo hacer una semblanza biográfica del historiador Óscar Bermúdez, investigador del Norte Grande de Chile, especialmente del periodo salitrero. Para alcanzar ese objetivo, se interpretaron sus principales obras, se realizaron entrevistas y se analizaron dos estudios biográficos anteriores sobre Bermúdez. Sin embargo, este artículo no pretende ser solamente una semblanza biográfica de un personaje, sino establecer cuáles serían las principales influencias disciplinarias y de pensamientos en el trabajo historiográfico de este investigador. Se analiza de modo preferente la perspectiva epistemológica de Bermúdez, donde se discutela metodología positivista de su investigación historiográfica, que es comparada con su narrativa, especialmente sus cuentos publicados, donde se abren otras posibilidades para comprender el pensamiento de este autor.

  12. Bikini: Disposal of contaminated soil in Berm construction; Design and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the levels of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in Bikini Island soil fall off exponentially (on average) with depth, the bulk of soil contamination can be removed directly by excavating the top 30 cm. Radiologically, the spoil is of low specific activity, and it can be handled without special precautions. However, the disposal of the spoil, totalling some 940,000 cubic yards plus vegetation, would pose something of a problem. Dumping into the lagoon (Bravo Crater) or ocean, presumably simple and effective measures, would not be legally permissible. A more practical alternative would employ the spoil to build a berm on the ocean-side of the island, or possibly a causeway between Bikini and Eneu Islands. The design of the proposed structures was reviewed at a conference held at the U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station, August 19, 1985. It was concluded that further study was required (BARC 2). This has been done by Coastal Engineering Research center and the complete report is presented

  13. Mecanismos elementales del relato policiaco en un cuento de María Elena Bermúdez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rivera Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El relato policiaco clásico obedece a un esquema muy preciso, el método científico decimonónico. Los elementos del texto construyen un combate de ingenios entre autor y lector en la solución de un crimen. Este mecanismo se manifiesta en Un cuarto en Ámsterdam de María Elena Bermúdez, donde las aparentes transgresiones de la historia confirman la eficacia del pensamiento lógico-deductivo.

  14. Mecanismos elementales del relato policiaco en un cuento de María Elena Bermúdez

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Rivera Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    El relato policiaco clásico obedece a un esquema muy preciso, el método científico decimonónico. Los elementos del texto construyen un combate de ingenios entre autor y lector en la solución de un crimen. Este mecanismo se manifiesta en Un cuarto en Ámsterdam de María Elena Bermúdez, donde las aparentes transgresiones de la historia confirman la eficacia del pensamiento lógico-deductivo.

  15. AMS-dated mollusks in beach ridges and berms document Holocene sea-level and coastal changes in northeastern Kuwait Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinink-Smith, Linda M.

    2015-09-01

    In northeastern Kuwait, ancient beach ridges and associated berms are separated from the present shoreline by a 4-6 km-wide sabkha. A diverse mollusk fauna in the beach ridges attests to a former open marine environment. A total of 21 AMS dates were obtained in this study. Thirteen mollusk samples from beach ridges yielded AMS dates ranging from ~ 6990 cal yr BP in the southeast to ~ 3370 cal yr BP in the northwest, suggesting a southeast to northwest age progression during the Holocene transgression. In contrast, four samples from berms throughout the study area yielded AMS dates of 5195-3350 cal yr BP showing no age progression; these berms consist largely of Conomurex persicus gastropods that aggregated by storms during a highstand at ~ 5000-3500 cal yr BP. The berms are presently at ~ + 6 m above sea level, 2-3 m above the beach ridges. Human settlements were common on the ridge crests before and after the highstand. Regression to present-day sea level commenced after the highstand, which is when the sabkha began forming. A landward, marine-built terrace, which yielded AMS dates > 43,500 14C yr BP, probably formed during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e and hence is not genetically related to the beach ridges.

  16. Model test study on rock berms for protection of subsea pipelines against dragging anchors%海管碎石保护结构抵抗拖锚危害的模型试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫澍旺; 郭冠群; 任宇晓; 孙立强; 雷震名

    2015-01-01

    船舶走锚时可能对海底管线造成破坏,实际工程中常用碎石保护结构来对海底管道进行保护。为了研究这种结构的保护效果和保护机理,在大型试验槽中对三种尺寸模型锚进行了模型试验。在试验中测量了锚爪尖端位置和锚爪力在保护结构中的变化,得到锚体从细砂进入保护结构时的运动过程和运动规律,据此研究了碎石保护结构对海底管线的保护效果并分析了保护机理。%The submarine pipeline may be damaged by the dragging anchors of ships. The rock armour berms are commonly used for pipeline protection in practical engineering. Little research work has been found in the existing literature for the armour berms. To study the protection mechanism and efficiency of this kind of armour berms, model tests were carried out in a model tank, in which foundation soil and the armour berm were simulated. Three model anchors with different sizes were adopted in the tests. By observing the trajectories of the dragging anchors in foundation soil and in the armour berm, it is possible to obtain the movement process and rule of anchor in sand and rock berms. The protection mechanism of rock berms for submarine pipelines against dragging anchors is discussed.

  17. Escultores académicos del siglo XVIII en el Diccionario de Ceán Bermúdez. Nuevas adiciones (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albarrán Martín, Virginia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In A.E.A. number 310 we presented Ceán Bermúdez's information on sculptors whose surnames begin with the letters A through E, entries which were finally not included in his Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España (1800. In this second part, we continue from F to Z. The scarcity of bibliography concerning some of these artists means that these documents are of prime importance, given that they frequently include unpublished information.

    En el número 310 de A.E.A. dimos a conocer aquellos artículos relativos a los escultores académicos desde la letra A hasta la E que fueron suprimidos en el momento de publicación del Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España de Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez. Continuamos en esta segunda entrega con los correspondientes desde la letra F hasta el final. La escasez de bibliografía sobre algunos de los artistas mencionados convierte a estos documentos en fuentes de primer orden al contener datos en gran parte inéditos.

  18. Escultores académicos del siglo XVIII en el Diccionario de Ceán Bermúdez. Nuevas adiciones (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albarrán Martín, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Toward the end of 1799, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Saint Ferdinand, in charge of the publication of Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez's Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España, decided not to include information pertaining to living artists. All of this material, preserved in the National Library in Madrid, and never before published, is presented in this first article dealing with academic sculptors letters A to E. A comparison of this new information with existing studies demonstrates the need for a profound revision of the works of certain artists.

    A finales del año 1799, la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Femando, una vez que se hace cargo de la publicación del Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España de Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, decide editar la obra sin la información referente a los artistas todavía en activo. De toda esa documentación, conservada en la Biblioteca Nacional y no publicada hasta el momento, se da a conocer en este primer artículo la perteneciente a los escultores académicos desde la letra A hasta la E. La comparación de esta información con los estudios existentes dedicados a la cuestión, muestra la necesidad de una nueva revisión en profundidad de la obra de determinados artistas.

  19. Aplicación de técnicas quimiométricas para clasificar la calidad de agua superficial de la microcuenca del río Bermúdez en Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Murillo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo investigativo presenta la aplicación de técnicas quimiométricas seleccionadas: análisis de cluster, análisis de componentes principales y análisis de factores, para clasificar la calidad del agua de los ríos y evaluar datos de contaminación.Se monitoreó 14 parámetros fisicoquímicos en 10 estaciones localizadas en la microcuenca del río Bermúdez de agosto de 2005 a febrero de 2007. Los resultados permitieron determinar la existencia de dos clusters naturales de sitios de monitoreo con características similares de contaminación e identificar la DQO, DBO, NO3-, SO4-2 y SST, como las principales variables que discriminan entre los sitios de muestreo.

  20. 碎石保护结构防护海底管线的机理及模型试验研究%Mechanism and model tests on protection of submarine pipelines using rock armor berms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫澍旺; 郭炳川; 孙立强; 雷震名; 刘润

    2014-01-01

    Submarine pipelines are likely to be exposed to the risk of damage from drag anchors of ships that are out of control during severe storms. Rock armor berms are commonly adopted to protect the pipelines by deflecting drag anchors. To understand the protection mechanism, both theoretical studies and model tests are carried out. A limit equilibrium method is put forward to deal with the interaction between the drag Hall anchor and the developed soil wedges. The polygons of forces on the soil wedges induced by both the anchor crown and the anchor fluke are established respectively. The total drag force on the anchor is the sum of the drag force on the anchor crown and that on the anchor fluke. The minimum total drag force on the anchor can be solved by using the hill climbing algorithm. Model tests are carried out using three model anchors with different linear scales. The drag forces measured in model tests agree well with those calculated by the theoretical approach. With the obtained forces, the moment on the anchor can be calculated. It is found that when the anchor is dragged into the rock armor berm from the foundation soil, unbalanced moment on the anchor will take place,which will cause the drag anchor to rotate and the fluke tip to rise up. The deflecting of the anchor trajectory can make the fluke tip keep a safe distance from the buried pipeline, which explains the protection mechanism. Using the proposed approach, the position of the fluke tip and the drag force on the anchor under equilibrium conditions can be predicted, which may be helpful to the berm designers.%近海海底管线会在港口锚地处因船舶走锚而受到损害,碎石结构能够防护管线免受走锚的危害,因此研究碎石结构的防护机理对保护管线有重要意义。采用极限平衡方法分析了走锚状态下土楔对形状复杂的商用霍尔锚的作用力,提出了锚冠和锚爪的受力计算模式,采用3种不同几何相似比的模型锚在模

  1. Costs of berm and causeway alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments initiated in February 1985 and still in progress have demonstrated that removal of 30 cm of topsoil brings the specific activity of Bikini Island soil down to the level of that on Eneu and reduces the external exposure rate to gamma rays from an average of 68 pr/h to 5 pr/h. The analytical data completed thus far for food crops grown in the experimental and control areas indicate a parallel response. During 1986 results became available showing that removal of topsoil would also limit productivity. However, it is now known that with adequate care the excavated plot can be as productive as the unexcavated (natural) one. The removal of 30 cm (1 foot) of topsoil at Bikini Island would produce large amounts of waste vegetable matter and approximately 719,000 cubic meters of contaminated topsoil. Three principal alternatives have been considered for the disposal of the spoil. The cost estimates for these and other rehabilitation alternatives were developed in detail by a panel of engineers, chaired by BARC member Arthur S. Kubo, which met in January 1986. The panel's report constitutes Appendix C of BARC Report No. 4

  2. Bermúdez Guzmán, Floralba

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Guzmán, Floralba

    2010-01-01

    En primera instancia se presenta de manera sucinta el estado actual de la investigación lingüística en la lengua de señas colombiana (LSC); luego enfatiza el propósito del artículo de presentar una propuesta de reformulación de los elementos fonológicos básicos de la lengua de señas colombiana partiendo de reflexiones y del interés por enriquecer la teoría particular de dicha lengua. En este proceso se hace aclaración sobre la terminología lingüística adoptada en el texto y se presenta un sus...

  3. Overtopping of Berm Breakwaters Extension of Overtopping Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.

    2005-01-01

    ) formula and the present improved formula. However, for a more stable structure and low wave steepness the improved formula performs better. Six different data sets are used to study the validity of the Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2004) formula, the present improved formula and the CLASH neural network...

  4. Particle swarm optimization based support vector machine for damage level prediction of non-reshaped berm breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, N.; Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Patil, S.G.

    Computing 27 (2015) 313–321 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied Soft Computing j ourna l h o mepage: www.elsev ier .com/ locate /asoc Particle cto damag b Narayan tild a Centre for Em ndia b Ocean Engine c Department o hkal 5 d Department o... PS ticle ne (P ppor foun ing p cal p inim erior s ado izes a le th utfits stat on p n of r Math side at xi ng sc d a he ou les, roba ppo tion (w · x) + b (2) , w denotes the weight vector; b refers to a constant known as f(x) denotes a function...

  5. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants.

  6. Obstruktives Schlafapnoesyndrom bei diabetischen Patienten ohne übermäßige Tagesschläfrigkeit im Patientengut einer niedergelassenen Praxis

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    1.1. Hintergründe, Epidemiologie und Ziele der Studie: Diabetes mellitus und obstruktives Schlafapnoe Syndrom (OSAS) teilen sich eine hohe Prävalenz in Industrienationen. Beide Krankheitsbilder treten häufig zusammen mit anderen Manifestationen des Metabolischen Syndroms auf. Das Vorhandensein von OSAS scheint aktuell die Entwicklung eines Diabetes mellitus zu fördern sowie umgekehrt. Mehrere Studien zeigten eine erhöhte Insulin-Resistenz bei Patienten mit OSAS. In einem Patientenkollektiv in...

  7. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants

  8. Effectiveness of best management practices in reducing Pb-bullet weathering in a shooting range in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field study evaluated the effectiveness of three best management practices (BMPs) in reducing the weathering of Pb-bullets in a shooting range. The BMPs included replacing soil berm with sand berm, liming sand berm, and removing Pb-bullets from soil berm. Berm samples were collected before and after implementing BMPs and analyzed for total Pb and/or water-soluble Pb. After 11 months of operation, the total Pb concentrations in the sand berm (57 mg kg-1) were significantly lower than that in the soil berm (277 mg kg-1). The reduced weathering of Pb-bullets in the sand berm was attributed to its lower moisture content and organic matter as both water and CO2 are critical in chemical weathering. Though liming reduced total Pb concentrations in the sand berm from 497-777 to 302-362 mg kg-1 after 15 months of application, it increased water-soluble Pb in some cases. While removal of Pb-bullets removed the sources of Pb, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that its abrasive action transferred metallic Pb to the soil fraction (-1. While all BMPs can be applied to mange Pb in shooting ranges, cautions need to be excised to minimize the adverse impacts.

  9. 76 FR 30320 - Public Scoping Meeting and Preparation of Environmental Impact Statement for Luce Bayou...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... jurisdictional wetlands, and the construction of structures that may affect navigable waters. Federal..., berms, chain link perimeter fencing, flow control structures, and metering stations. e. Box culverts...

  10. Oceanographic Observations made adjacent to the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, July-November, 2010.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A program to measure waves, water levels, and currents near the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana and adjacent berm construction site was conducted by the U.S....

  11. Mixed response in bacterial and biochemical variables to simulated sand mining in placer-rich beach sediments, Ratnagiri, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Das, A.; Nath, B.N.; Faria, D.G.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    by an order from 10 sup(6) cells g sup(-1) sediment, while, viability reduced marginally. Culturability on different strength nutrient broth increased by 155% during phase II. Changes in sedimentary proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids were marked at berm...

  12. The physical processes of seabed disturbance during iceberg grounding and scouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth-Lynas, C. M. T.; Josenhans, H. W.; Barrie, J. V.; Lewis, C. F. M.; Parrott, D. R.

    1991-08-01

    Icebergs drifting in ocean currents over the Labrador continental shelf may contact and move through seabed sediments to create characteristically curvilinear features, commonly referred to as scours, which average 1-2 m in depth and about 30-40 m in width. Such scours may continue for several hundreds of metres or several kilometres. The period of seabed interaction may last from a few minutes to several months and results in modification of both the seabed sediments and the iceberg keel. When observed from submersible soon after their formation, scours exhibit morphological characteristics not seen in old, degraded scours. The scour trough, between two berm ridges, is generally flat-bottomed but is characterized by the presence of ridge-and-groove microtopography, with amplitudes up to 0.3 m developed parallel to the scour axis. These features are formed at the trailing edge of the keel by clastic material embedded in the ice and by open fissures in the ice. In places along the inner berm margins, ridges and grooves may be developed at an angle to the scour axis, reflecting lateral displacement of material towards the berm as the iceberg moves forward. Voids up to 1 m deep and 2 m wide occasionally truncate the ridges and grooves. Voids are formed following the dissolution of small (a few m 3) masses of debris-laden ice that are mechanically broken off from the base of the keel and pressed into the seabed by the scouring iceberg. Initially low areas within the scour trough may preserve seafloor that has not been affected by ice-seabed interaction. In these regions deposition of bulldozed sediment from the surcharge at the leading edge of the keel may partially fill the narrow spaces beneath the keel in areas of initially low seabed elevation. Scour berms consist of in situ fractured but intact blocks of material on the inner flanks, and disarticulated blocks 1-2 m high along the berm crest. The outer berm slopes generally consist of pieces of larger blocks

  13. H-Area/ITP safety analysis summary report for subsurface liquid waste transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of analysis for this report is strictly limited to the subsurface release of liquid waste from the buried tanks in H-Area, following beyond Evaluation Basis Earthquake (EBE) events. Failure of these tanks is assumed and no assessments of tank structural integrity are made. The waste containment capability of the H-Area berms is examined, and the times for subsurface transport of liquid waste to the nearest surface water streams are determined. The H-Area tank farm berms are expected to remain intact following seismic events that do not produce liquefaction. The return frequency of an earthquake that produces onset of liquefaction is less than 1 x 10-5 per year. Berm damaging seismic events are defined to be earthquakes that are beyond the EBE, which has a return frequency of approximately 2 x 10-4 per year. As long as the berms remain intact, numerical analysis shows that any waste leaking from failed tanks will be contained by the berms with no liquid seeping out. Given a seismic event that causes waste to leak from the buried tanks but leaves the berms intact, the subsurface transport analysis shows that only a small fraction of waste will flow with the groundwater underlying H-Area. Best-estimate groundwater transit times between H-Area and surface water discharge points range from 45 to 85 years. Conservative estimates range from 10 to 15 years and also depend on location of the tank in question. Because the transport times are measured in tens of years, there is adequate time available to implement mitigation activities prior to any waste reaching the nearest surface water stream. Alternative mitigation planning is already underway to preclude this from becoming an issue

  14. Grain size distribution and annual variation along the beaches from Poompuhar to Nagoor, Tamilnadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandrasekaran, R.; Angusamy, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    with a concentration of 0.8 % (Tab.1). Both these values show an identical trend in shell content, silt+clay content. 3 At Chinnankudy High Tide (HT) region, there is an increase of silt and clay content by 1.09 %. In the berm samples, a general... (Tab.2). In the present study region, graphic mean size of the LT, HT samples of Poompuhar show that sediments are of medium grained in pre and post-tsunami whereas the berm samples display a change in characteristics from medium grained...

  15. Effects of sensor location and the atmospheric stability on the accuracy of an inverse-dispersion technique for lagoon gas emission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring gas emission rates from wastewater lagoons and storage ponds using currently available micrometeorological techniques can be an arduous task because typical lagoon environments contain a variety of obstructions (e.g., berm, trees, buildings) to wind flow. These non-homogeneous terrain cond...

  16. 76 FR 21940 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... to avoid a stream channel, stream channel realignment and tree planting, berm construction around... Federal Register at (73 FR 6241-01) for the Section 1, 13.1 mile segment of I-69 in the Counties of... Federal Register at (75 FR 49547) for the Section 2, 28.7 mile segment of I-69 in the Counties of...

  17. Estimated Particulate Emissions By Wind Erosion From the Indiana Harbor Confined Disposal Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) is being designed for contaminated sediments dredged from the Indiana Harbor Canal at East Chicago, IN. The sediment will be placed in two cells enclosed by earthern berms about 9 m tall and cover about 36 hectares. The purposes of this study were to a) determine...

  18. El Rey del Tomate. Migrant Political Transnationalism and Democratization in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Bakker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La ampliamente publicitada campaña política transnacional de Andrés Bermúdez, que contendió como candidato para alcalde de Jerez, Zacatecas, es analizada en términos de un continuum de marcos teóricos sobre teoría y práctica de la democracia. Con base en intensivas entrevistas cualitativas con participantes importantes de la campaña, este estudio considera las siguientes cuestiones: ¿Hasta qué punto la candidatura de Bermúdez contribuye a la apertura del sistema político mexicano hacia la participación electoral de losmigrantes? ¿Qué implicaciones tienen los procesos políticos aquí mencionados para una implementación a gran escala de la doble ciudadanía, incluyendo el voto en el extranjero y las campañas transnacionales de migrantes mexicanos que viven en los Estados Unidos? ¿En qué contribuye el caso de Bermúdez para nuestro conocimiento teórico sobre el carácter y significado del transnacionalismo político de los migrantes en el momento presente? Las respuestas a estos cuestionamientos hacen posible determinar el papel que tuvo la campaña de Bermúdez en el proceso actual de democratización del México contemporáneo.

  19. Förderung des Öko-Landbaus - Vom Aschenputtel zum Lieblingskind

    OpenAIRE

    Dabbert, Stephan; Häring, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Nach Jahrzehnten im Schatten der übermächtigen konventionellen Landwirtschaft wird der Öko-Landbau nun von der Politik hofiert und staatlich gefördert. Dafür gibt es gute Gründe - ökologisch und ökonomisch gesehen.

  20. Catalogue 2.0 the future of the library catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Brings together some of the foremost international cataloguing practitioners and thought leaders, including Lorcan Dempsey, Emmanuelle Bermès, Marshall Breeding and Karen Calhoun, to provide an overview of the current state of the art of the library catalogue and look ahead to see what the library catalogue might become.

  1. On Application of Stabilized Higher Order Finite Element Method on Unsteady Incompressible Flow Problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sváček, Petr; Horáček, Jaromír

    New Yourk : Springer, 2006 - (Bermúdez de Castro, A.; Salgado, P.), s. 897-905 ISBN 3-540-34287-7. [ENUMATH 2005 /6./. Santiago de Compostela (ES), 06.06. 2005] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FT-TA/026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : aeroelasticity * post fluter behaviour * Navier-Stokes equations Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts

  2. On the profile evolution of three artificial pebble beaches at Marina di Pisa, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the profiles of three artificial coarse-grained beaches located at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) were monitored from April 2008 to May 2009 in order to define the response of the beaches to major storms that occurred during the study. Two beaches are similar, the third differs in length and in the level of protection, being less than half the length of the others and devoid of an offshore submerged breakwater. The work was achieved by means of accurate topographic surveys intended to reconstruct the beach profile from the backshore up to the foreshore-upper shoreface transition (step). The surveys were performed with an RTK-GPS instrument, which provided extremely precise recording of the beach. The most significant features of the beaches were tracked during each survey; in particular, the landward foot of the storm berm, the crest of the storm berm, the coastline, and the step crest were monitored. Five cross-shore transects were traced on each beach. Along these transects, any meaningful slope change was recorded to obtain accurate sections of the beach. The field datasets were processed with AutoCAD software to compare the beach profile evolution during the year-long research. The results showed a comparable evolution of the twin beaches: the resulting storm berm retreat of about 15 to 19 m is a remarkable feature considering the coarse grain size and the offshore protection. Due to the absence of the breakwater, the third beach was characterized by even higher values of recession (over 20 m), and showed hints of wave reflection-related processes after the huge, steep storm berm had been formed and grown after the high energy events. These processes were not as evident on the twin beaches. These results underline the different response of three similar protection schemes, and the importance that frequent monitoring of the beach morphology holds when it comes to coastal management issues.

  3. Using natural means to reduce surface transport noise during propagation outdoors

    OpenAIRE

    Van Renterghem, T Timothy; Forssén, J; Attenborough, K.; Jean, Ph; Defrance, J; Hornikx, MCJ Maarten; Kang, J

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews ways of reducing surface transport noise by natural means. The noise abatement solutions of interest can be easily (visually) incorporated in the landscape or help with greening the (sub)urban environment. They include vegetated surfaces (applied to faces or tops of noise walls and on building façades and roofs ), caged piles of stones (gabions), vegetation belts (tree belts, shrub zones and hedges), earth berms and various ways of exploiting ground-surface-related effects....

  4. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave......-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction....

  5. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta-Zaragoza O; Bermúdez-Morales VH; Pérez-Plasencia C; Salazar-León J; Gómez-Cerón C; Madrid-Marina V

    2012-01-01

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztac...

  6. Short-term evolution of a reflective beach sector in front of a coastal lagoon (Southwest).Portuguese coast)

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Cristina; Albardeiro, Luís; Jacob, José; Pinheiro, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The subaerial beache act as detritical barriers in the opening and closing of lagoons located in sandy coastal ares. The study of beach morphodynamics, considering the evolution of the beachface and the berm, in these cases is critical to coastal management. The studied area located in an embayed sandy coastline at the Portuguese Southwest Atlantic Coast, is a 308m long subaerial, coarse to very coarse, sandy beach adjacent to the Melides lagoon entrance. In order to characterize the morphody...

  7. Persistence and weathering of Exxon Valdez oil in the intertidal zone - 3.5 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intertidal surveys of 18 stations in Prince William Sound have been repeated up to 12 times between September 1989 and August 1992. Four of the stations were set-asides where no treatment was conducted. Shoreline treatment techniques applied at the other stations included: hot-water flushing, nutrient addition, manual removal, berm relocation, and sediment tilling. Over 800 sediment samples have been analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons. Detailed chemical characterization by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been conducted on over 100 samples to track weathering patterns of the persistence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Shoreline environments studied include: cobble/boulder platforms with berms, bayhead beaches, sheltered rubble slopes, and sheltered bedrock. Major conclusions are:Surface oil was reduced to very small amounts as of 1991, though there was little change between 1991 and 1992, particularly in sheltered environments; oil penetrated deeply into gravel storm berms, beyond the depth of annual reworking. Berm relocation was required to speed removal of this highly stranded oil at 30 locations and it was very effective. The normal beach profile was reestablished after one storm season at many sites, depending upon the magnitude of the operation and rates of longshore sediment transport; on some gravel beaches, oil penetrated to greater than 50 cm in the upper intertidal zone. By August 1992, only the deepest layer of oil, greater than 25 cm, remained. This residual oil was moderately weathered, showing removal of all 2-ring PAHs; on sheltered rubble shores, oil had penetrated the loose surface deposits. The subsurface oil showed significant weathering but it was much slower than other areas, and still contained some 2-ring PAHs; on sheltered rocky shores, oil was more persistent and likely to form pavements in the upper intertidal zone on sites not treated

  8. Stability of a very coarse-grained beach at Carmel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingler, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Monastery Beach at Carmel, California, is a pocket beach composed of very coarse to granular sediment. In profile, the beach has a well-defined berm crest; a steep foreshore; and a gently sloping, barless offshore covered by large, long-crested oscillation ripples. Carmel Submarine Canyon heads a few hundred meters offshore of the beach, and San Jose Creek, a small ephemeral steam, ponds onshore of the central part of the berm. Wave conditions vary greatly during a year because the beach lies open to the Pacific Ocean for azimuths between 270??-322??N whence come a variety of wave types. Even with a variable wave climate, Monastery Beach has maintained a swell profile for almost three years. Aperiodic beach surveys show that the beach responds little to seasonal changes in wave climate. Four survey lines maintained the same swell profile throughout the study period. The fifth line maintained a stable profile only across the foreshore; the berm was twice artificially breached during storms to prevent upstream flooding along San Jose Creek. In comparison, Carmel Beach, a nearby beach composed of medium sand, commonly alternates between swell and storm profiles. The increased stability of Monastery Beach relative to Carmel Beach is attributed to two factors: grain size differences and location within Carmel Bay. Rebuilding proceeded very slowly along the breached part of the berm at Monastery Beach. The probable cause of such a low recovery rate is that oscillation ripples trapped the sand that was carried offshore when San Jose Creek eroded the beach. The ripples, which are active under high-energy conditions, approach dormancy under low-energy conditions. Each ripple, therefore, acts like a reservoir, retaining sand during most swell conditions. ?? 1981.

  9. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  10. Acute sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal bevacizumab: case series

    OpenAIRE

    Velez-Montoya, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Axel Orozco-Hernández,1 Ximena Ortega-Larrocea,1 Gustavo Sánchez-Bermúdez,1 Gerardo García-Aguirre,1 Virgilio Morales Cantón,1 Raul Velez-Montoya2 1Retina Department, Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México IAP, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Aurora, CO, USA Background: Since the ophthalmological community adopted...

  11. Decommissioning and Environmental Cleanup of a Small Arms Training Facility - 13225

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US DOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  12. DECOMMISSIONING AND ENVRIONMENTAL CLEANUP OF SMALL ARMS TRAINING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, T.

    2012-12-04

    USDOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  13. Evaluating dryland ecological and river restoration using repeat LiDAR and hydrological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, W. M.; DeLong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent improvements in the collection of multitemporal, high-resolution topographic data such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have done a great deal to increase our ability to quantify the details of landscape change. Both Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) can be used to easily assess how Earth surface processes affect landscape form to a level of precision that was previously more difficult to attain. A comprehensive approach using ALSM, TLS-TLS comparison, and hydrological monitoring is being used to assess the effectiveness of a large scale ecological and river restoration effort by the Cuenca los Ojos Foundation at San Bernardino Ranch near Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. In the study area, historical arroyo cutting and changes in land use led to the abandonment of a ciénega wetland and resulted in widespread ecological destruction. The current land managers have employed engineering methods in order to restore stream and ciénega ecology, including the installation of large rock gabions, earthen berms, and concrete spillways along channels. Our goal is to test the hypothesis that the use of dam and gabion structures leads to stream aggradation, flash flood dampening, and ultimately, increased available water and reestablishment of historic wetland plant and animal communities. We present results from LiDAR change detection that includes 2007-2011 ALSM to TLS change, and several 2011-2012 TLS-TLS comparisons. We also present results from streamflow monitoring, field observation, and monitoring of shallow groundwater and soil moisture conditions. Preliminary results show that channel aggradation occurs rapidly upstream of engineered structures. However, the apparent dampening of sediment transport by the structures leads to less aggradation and even incision immediately downstream of structures. Peak flood flows are decreased by the reservoirs formed behind large earthen berms. After several years of water retention

  14. Existencia de solución para un modelo termoeléctrico con conductividad térmica una función de Caratheodory

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez de Castro, Alfredo; Muñoz Sola, Rafael; Pena Brage, Francisco José

    2007-01-01

    En esta contribución presentamos un resultado de existencia de solución para un sistema no lineal de ecuaciones en derivadas parciales parabólicas. El modelo deriva de las ecuaciones de Maxwell en conductores para corrientes de baja frecuencia para el campo magnético, acopladas con un problema de Stefan para la temperatura. Este sistema ya fue considerado por los autores en [4] Bermúdez, A., Muñoz-Sola, R. y Pena, F., A nonlinear partial differential system arising in thermoelectricity. ...

  15. Revista de tesis

    OpenAIRE

    Revista, Facultad de Medicina

    2011-01-01

    Forceps de Kielland  por Alfonso Mejia Vieira / Prostatectomia perineal por Vicente Medina Martínez / Debito cardiaco.-velocidad de la sangre en las arterias y trabajo del corazón en Bogotá por Jorge E. Bernal Tirado. Tesis con mención honorífica / Contribución al estudio de los angiomas por Gonzalo Palacio Palacio / Distrofia edematosa por oligoalbuminemia por Arnulfo Valencia Bermúdez / El sondeo gastro-duodenal como metodo diagnóstico por Alfonso Blanco Cuesta / Contribución al estudio de ...

  16. Anecdotes, stories and tales of seven Caribbean physicians - The cardiologist´ s Hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-José Vicente; Bermúdez Rafael; Díaz Israel; Vásquez Hugo; Sierra Óscar; Olivares Armando; Tinoco Eduardo; Sotomayor-Herazo Arístides

    2010-01-01

    ANÉCDOTAS, CUENTOS Y RELATOS DE SIETE MÉDICOS CARIBEÑOSLos doctores José Vicente Torres, Rafael Bermúdez, Israel Díaz, Hugo Vásquez, Óscar Sierra, Armando Olivares Prados y Eduardo Tinoco, egresados de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Cartagena en 1952, nos presentan una visión amplia de su discurrir como estudiantes de medicina y su crecimiento profesional y personal. Todos los autores de este magnífico libro, son oriundos de la provincia de la costa Caribe de Colombia. Todos vin...

  17. Preliminary assessment of the nuclide migration from the activation zone around the proposed Spallation Neutron Source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of migrating radionuclides from the activation zone around the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Using conservatively high estimates of the potential inventory of radioactive activation products that could form in the proposed compacted-soil shield berm around an SNS facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a conservative, simplified transport model was used to estimate the potential worst-case concentrations of the 12 long-lived isotopes in the groundwater under a site with the hydrologic characteristics of the ORR

  18. Descrição da configuração da linha de costa ao longo do Arco Litoral Tróia-Sines.

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Cristina; Albardeiro, Luís; Baptista, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Aerial photography of 1996, 2001 and 2002 were used to obtain the alongshore characterization of subaerial beach width of the Tróia-Sines embayed coast. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) extension for ArcGIS v.9.0 was used to describe the variation of the shoreline configuration. The Tróia-Sines embayed coast is characterized by the southward increase of the beach width and berm high. Despite the similarity between the alongshore shoreline configuration, the variation of the subaer...

  19. Radiation shielding calculations for MuCool Test Area at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Rakhno, I

    2004-01-01

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) is an intense primary beam facility derived directly from the Fermilab Linac to test heat deposition and other technical concerns associated with the liquid hydrogen targets being developed for cooling intense muon beams. In this shielding study the results of Monte Carlo radiation shielding calculations performed using the MARS14 code for the MuCool Test Area and including the downstream portion of the target hall and berm around it, access pit, service building, and parking lot are presented and discussed within the context of the proposed MTA experimental configuration.

  20. Verminderte Expression von O6-Methylguanin-DNA-Methyltransferase bei Gliomen durch Promotormethylierung

    OpenAIRE

    Nickolay, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Pro Jahr erkranken 10 von 100 000 Menschen an einem malignen Hirntumor. Die Prognose ist schlecht. Die Therapie schließt Chirurgie, Bestrahlung und Chemotherapie ein. Das DNA-Reparaturenzym O6-Methylguanin-DNA-Methyltransferase, MGMT, erkennt DNA-Schäden, die durch alkylierende Substanzen wie Temozolomid entstanden sind. Übermäßige Methylierung der Promotorregion von MGMT führt zum Funktionsverlust des Enzyms. Dieser kann zu einer erhöhten Sensibilität für Alkylanzien führen. In der Therapie ...

  1. Ecología del manglar en una zona arida: exposición al oleaje y estructura del manglar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Cintrón

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations in a mangrove lined coast in south-western Puerto Rico (rainfall 800-1,000 mm; evaporation 1,900-2,200 mm; mean annual temperature 25º C; and average tidal range 0.3 m have shown that the degree of structural development of the mangrove forest is closely related to wave exposure. In exposed coastal segments, sand berms formed by wave action within the outer fringe prevent water flow towards the inner forest, resulting in high salinities. The berms are higher in areas where the outer mangrove fringe has been destroyed by storms or other causes. Dead mangrove stands are found behind these areas and salinities reach 75-80‰ We suggest that the mangrove fringe contributes to dissipate wave energy over a broad area which reduces the high of the berm. The presence of absence of "blowholes" in the seagrass Thalassia; bed is an index of the degree of protection that the coast receives. The "thickness" of the mangrove fringe is also related to the degree of shelter: it is "thin" in high energy segments, "thick" in coastal segments subject to intermediate energy and "thin"again in the most sheltered locations. In the outlying cays mangrove development follows a similar pattern: the outer exposed cays (essentially coral islands mantled by coarse sands are devoid of mangrove cover or have stunted trees (generally Laguncularia; canopy height, 2 m. Islands which are less exposed are colonized by Rhizophora which frequently forms overwashed forests (canopy height, 8-9 m. In the most seltered areas, Rhizophora colonizes the shallow banks, forming islands which soon develop an inner hypersaline lagoon due to the accumulation of material in the outer edges and the accumulation of salt in the interior. The wave energy level reaching a given section of the coast is therefore an important factor which determines the degree of structural development of the mangrove forest. High energy levels are associated with erosion, destruction or deposition of

  2. Hirsutismus Medikamentöse Therapie br Gemeinsame Stellungnahme der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie und Fortpflanzungsmedizin e.V. und des Berufsverbands der Frauenärzte e.V.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabe T; Albring C; Blume-Peytavi U; Egarter C; Geisthövel F; König K; Kuhl H; Merkle E; Mueck AO; Reisch N; Schüring A; Stute P; Toth B; Wildt L; Zouboulis CC

    2015-01-01

    Unter Hirsutismus versteht man das Vorhandensein von Terminalhaaren bei Frauen an typisch männlichen Prädilektionsstellen. Eine vermehrte Körperbehaarung kommt in Abhängigkeit von Alter und ethnischer Abstammung bei 510 % oder 515 % aller Frauen vor. Ein übermäßiger Haarwuchs mit Beeinträchtigung des ästhetischen Erscheinungsbildes und des Selbstwertgefühls kann die Lebensqualität erheblich beeinträchtigen (Hirsutismus ist eine manmade disease). Androgenmetabolismus: Die Androgene bestimm...

  3. Rückfußbewegung beim Laufen

    OpenAIRE

    Brauner, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Einführung Der Pronation, als Bewegungsrichtung der Rückfußbewegung, ist in der biomechanischen Forschung in der Vergangenheit sehr viel Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt worden. In den unzähligen Veröffentlichungen zur Pronation wiederholen sich zwei Kernaussagen: Einerseits ist Pronation ein natürlicher Dämpfungsmechanismus, der andererseits bei übermäßiger Ausprägung zu Überlastungsschäden führen kann. Zu beiden Aussagen finden sich viele Untersuchungen, doch eindeutig belegt oder widerlegt sin...

  4. Radiation shielding calculations for MuCool test area at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor Rakhno; Carol Johnstone

    2004-05-26

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) is an intense primary beam facility derived directly from the Fermilab Linac to test heat deposition and other technical concerns associated with the liquid hydrogen targets being developed for cooling intense muon beams. In this shielding study the results of Monte Carlo radiation shielding calculations performed using the MARS14 code for the MuCool Test Area and including the downstream portion of the target hall and berm around it, access pit, service building, and parking lot are presented and discussed within the context of the proposed MTA experimental configuration.

  5. Propiedades Antifúngicas en Plantas Superiores. Análisis Retrospectivo de Investigaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Montes Belmont; Victoriano Cruz Cruz; Gabriela Martínez Martínez; Gerardo Sandoval García; Rogelio García Licona; Susano Zilch Domínguez; Leticia Bravo Luna; Kalina Bermúdez Torres; Hilda Elizabet Flores Moctezuma; Magda Carvajal Moreno

    2000-01-01

    Montes-Belmont, R., Cruz-Cruz, V., Martínez-Martínez, G., Sandoval-García, G., García-Licona, R., Zilch-Domínguez, S., Bravo-Luna, L., Bermúdez-Torres, K., Flores- Moctezuma, H.E. y Carvajal-Moreno, M. 2000. Propiedades antifúngicas en plantas superiores. Análisis retrospectivo de investigaciones. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología 18:125- 131. Se presenta una síntesis de las experiencias de 12 años de investigaciones sobre plantas con propiedades antifúngicas. Se han probado un total de 206 e...

  6. Scour around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig

    particle image velocimetry, hot-film measurements and actual scour tests. The experimental results are supported by a field investigation of edge scour at the offshore wind park Egmond aan Zee and Scroby Sands offshore wind farm. It is found that the edge scour is caused by the local increase in the...... hydrodynamic field leading to increased sediment transport and scour. The governing flow processes are the horseshoe vortex generated in front of the scour protection berm, the contraction and acceleration flow at the side edge of the scour protection, and a pair of counter-rotating vortices emerging in the...

  7. Constant wind regimes during the Last Glacial Maximum and early Holocene: evidence from Little Llangothlin Lagoon, New England Tablelands, eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Shulmeister, James; Kemp, Justine; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Gontz, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the results of a multi-proxy investigation – integrating geomorphology, ground-penetrating radar, and luminescence dating – of a high-elevation lunette and beach berm in northern New South Wales, eastern Australia. The lunette occurs on the eastern shore of Little Llangothlin Lagoon and provides evidence for a lake high stand combined with persistent westerly winds at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM – centring on 21.5 ka) and during the early Holocene (ca. 9 an...

  8. In vivo Untersuchung des kardialen Stoffwechsels bei Morbus Fabry mittels 31Phosphor-MR-Spektroskopie

    OpenAIRE

    Stetter, Christian E.

    2008-01-01

    Der Morbus Fabry ist eine lysosomale Speicherkrankheit, die auf einem Mangel des Enzyms a-Galaktosidase A beruht. Die Krankheit wird X-chromosomal rezessiv vererbt und entsteht durch Mutation des a-Galaktosidase-Gens auf dem langen Arm des Chromosoms Xq22. Durch die erniedrigte bzw. fehlende Enzymaktivität kommt es zu einer übermäßigen Ablagerung von Glykosphingolipiden in sämtlichen Geweben des menschlichen Körpers, besonders betroffen sind Herz, Nieren, Gefäße und ZNS. Die Krankheit ist dur...

  9. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    grab (surface area 0.04 m 2 ) was utilized to recover samples from the river mouth to the upstream region. A total of 89 samples were collected along the beach and 19 samples from the river bed, i.e. two from the Achara and 17 from the Gad river... occurs near high-tide regions covering the berm, river banks and dunes (Figures 3 b–d), whereas within the dunes, heavy mineral laminations of variable thickness are distinct (Figure 3 e). The heavy mineral content increases with decreasing...

  10. Gas plant environmental noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1988, the Energy Resources Conservation Board which regulates the Alberta oil and gas industry tightened its environmental noise guidelines by a factor of 10. New nighttime maximum permissible noise levels as low as 40 dBA are now enforceable in rural areas. The directive is retroactively applicable upon residential complaints and necessitated the use of radical innovations for industry to comply. Details are presented of noise and noise parameters, acoustic fields, dissipation, absorption and diffraction. Major sources of gas plant noise are engine and turbine exhausts, air coolers and cooling towers, purge blowers for electric motors, piping and valves, and flares. Attenuation techniques include silencers, berms and dykes, acoustic lagging and housing, variable speed drives, and stack induced air draft cooler. Recommendations for noise abatement include: house all rotating equipment in acoustically lined buildings; muffle engine exhausts and purge blower vents with reactive silencers where possible; choose electric over engine driven equipment; keep a good mix of engine speeds, fan speeds, and blade counts to reduce tonal spikes; don't rely on berms or dykes; choose water cooling towers over aerial coolers and fit aerial coolers with variable speed drive fans; experiment with stack induced draft coolers where water cooling is not an option; and use process speed valves where possible over bypass valving. 18 figs

  11. Beach ridges, foredunes or transgressive dunefields? Definitions and an examination of the Torres to Tramandaí barrier system, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesp Patrick A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many prograded barriers and some dunefields in theworld have been termed 'beach ridge' plains, but the actual genesis of the 'ridges' is often unknown. Use of the terms, berms, beach ridges and foredunes is also confusing in the literature because their definitions are highly variable and are commonly used interchangeably. Thus, the formation and definition of sand berms, beach ridges and foredunes is briefly reviewed. Beach ridges are re-defined as entirely wave formed deposits which are most commonly formed during high wave conditions and/or elevated water levels (e.g. storm surges. Foredunes are formed by aeolian sand deposition in vegetation on the backshore. Some dunefields in Brazil have been called beach ridge plains when they are, in fact, foredune plains, transgressive dunefields, or complex barriers (i.e. barriers comprising two types of dunes. The Holocene barrier extending from Torres to Tramandaí in southern Brazil has been regarded as a beach ridge plain. The landforms of this Holocene barrier comprise wide, relatively linear, widely spaced (400-600m, shore parallel ridges on the landward half, and more closely spaced (80-400m, lobate and crescentic, discrete ridges on the seaward half. Low, rolling dunefields, sand sheets, nebkha fields and deflation plains occur between the ridges. The barrier is re-interpreted as a prograded, transgressive dunefield barrier.

  12. Temporal changes in lithology and radiochemistry from the back-barrier environments along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana: March 2012-July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, Marci E.; Adams, C. Scott; Richwine, Kathryn A.; Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.; Bernier, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted a time-series collection of shallow sediment cores from the back-barrier environments along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana from March 2012 through July 2013. The sampling efforts were part of a larger USGS study to evaluate effects on the geomorphology of the Chandeleur Islands following the construction of an artificial sand berm to reduce oil transport onto federally managed lands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the back-barrier tidal and wetland environments to the berm. This report serves as an archive for sedimentological, radiochemical, and microbiological data derived from the sediment cores. Data are available for a time-series of four sampling periods: March 2012; July 2012; September 2012; and July 2013. Downloadable data are available as Excel spreadsheets and as JPEG files. Additional files include: ArcGIS shapefiles of the sampling sites, detailed results of sediment grain size analyses, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata.

  13. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  14. Preliminary Assessment of the Nuclide Migration from the Activation Zone Around the Proposed Spallation Neutron Source Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of migrating radionuclides from the activation zone around the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Using conservatively high estimates of the potential inventory of radioactive activation products that could form in the proposed compacted-soil shield berm around an SNS facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a conservative, simplified transport model was used to estimate the potential worst-case concentrations of the 12 long-lived isotopes in the groundwater under a site with the hydrologic characteristics of the ORR. Of the 12, only 3 isotopes showed any potential to exceed the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 20 Drinking Water Limits (DWLs). These isotopes were 14C, 22Na, and 54Mn. The latter two activation products have very short half-lives of 2.6 years and 0.854 year, respectively. Therefore, these will decay before reaching an off-site receptor, and they cannot pose off-site hazards. However, for this extremely conservative model, which overestimates the mobility of the contaminant, 14C, which has a 5,730-year half-life, was shown to represent a potential concern in the context of this study's conservative assumptions. This study examines alternative modifications to the SNS shield berm and makes recommendations.

  15. Decommissioning of denison and Stanrock tailings management areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Denison Mines Limited uranium mining and milling facility in Elliot Lake ceased operations in April of 1992. Since that time major site decommissioning projects were completed. These projects involved demolition of site facilities and acid mine drainage (AMD) mitigation in the three tailings management areas known as TMA-1, TMA-2 at Denison and TMA-3 at Stanrock. The work on TMA-1 and TMA-2 was generally completed in late 1996 and the work at TMA-3 was essentially completed in late 1998. The use of water covers was chosen as the best technology for long term tailings stabilization for TMA-1 and -2. In the gently sloped and partially flooded basin of TMA-1, 1.83 million cubic metres of tailings were dredged and relocated to deeper areas of the basin to establish 0.9 metre water cover (also termed 'dredge the wedge'). Perimeter dams were regraded to add additional factors of safety and an upstream seepage reduction berm and a downstream toe stabilization berm were constructed at, the western most dam, Dam 10. (author)

  16. Environmental fate of tungsten from military use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript describes the distribution, fate and transport of tungsten used in training rounds at three small arms ranges at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), USA. Practice with tungsten/nylon rounds began in 2000 subsequent to a 1997 US Environmental Protection Agency ban on training with lead. Training with the tungsten rounds was halted in 2005 because of concerns regarding tungsten's environmental mobility and potential toxicity. This study, therefore, examines how tungsten partitions in the environment when fired on a small arms training range. Soil sampling revealed surface soil concentrations, highest at the berm face, up to 2080 mg/kg. Concentrations decreased rapidly with depth-at least by an order of magnitude by 25 cm. Nonetheless, tungsten concentrations remained above background to at least 150 cm. Pore-water samples from lysimeters installed in berm areas revealed a range of concentrations (< 1-400 mg/L) elevated with respect to background although there was no discernable trend with depth. Groundwater monitoring well samples collected approximately 30 m below ground surface showed tungsten (0.001-0.56 mg/L) attributable to range use

  17. Thermal state of ice-rich soils on the Tommot-Yakutsk Railroad right-of-way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavel Skryabin

    2014-01-01

    This-paper-summarizes-the-results-of-investigations-carried-out-in-the-northern-section-of-the-Tommot-Yakutsk-Railroad-in-eastern-Siberia,-underlain-by-ice-rich-permafrost.-The-ongoing-permafrost-and-geotechnical-research-program-in-support-of-railroad-construction-includes-assessment-of-the-ground-thermal-state-on-the-right-of-way-and-adjacent-areas-based-on-long-term-field-observations-using-the-method-of-terrain-thermal-physics.-These-studies-focus-on-the-upper-permafrost-within-the-depth-of-annual-temperature-variation.-In-undisturbed-areas,-inter-annual-variability-of-the-ground-thermal-state-shows-little-response-to-recent-climatic-variations.-However,-forest-clearing-and-surface-disturbance-during-right-of-way-construction-cause-an-increase-in-permafrost-temperature,-deepening-of-the-active-layer,-thaw-settlement,-and-water-ac-cumulation-along-the-embankment.-The-active-layer-is-thickest-along-the-sun-exposed-left-berm-and-is-thinnest-along-the-more-shaded-right-berm.-Measures-to-prevent-thaw-related-embankment-problems-are-recommended.

  18. Predicting geomorphic evolution through integration of numerical-model scenarios and topographic/bathymetric-survey updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, N. G.; Long, J.; Dalyander, S.; Thompson, D.; Miselis, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Natural resource and hazard management of barrier islands requires an understanding of geomorphic changes associated with long-term processes and storms. Uncertainty exists in understanding how long-term processes interact with the geomorphic changes caused by storms and the resulting perturbations of the long-term evolution trajectories. We use high-resolution data sets to initialize and correct high-fidelity numerical simulations of oceanographic forcing and resulting barrier island evolution. We simulate two years of observed storms to determine the individual and cumulative impacts of these events. Results are separated into cross-shore and alongshore components of sediment transport and compared with observed topographic and bathymetric changes during these time periods. The discrete island change induced by these storms is integrated with previous knowledge of long-term net alongshore sediment transport to project island evolution. The approach has been developed and tested using data collected at the Chandeleur Island chain off the coast of Louisiana (USA). The simulation time period included impacts from tropical and winter storms, as well as a human-induced perturbation associated with construction of a sand berm along the island shoreline. The predictions and observations indicated that storm and long-term processes both contribute to the migration, lowering, and disintegration of the artificial berm and natural island. Further analysis will determine the relative importance of cross-shore and alongshore sediment transport processes and the dominant time scales that drive each of these processes and subsequent island morphologic response.

  19. Environmental fate of tungsten from military use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Jay L. [Research and Development Center, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, New Hampshire, 03755 (United States)], E-mail: Jay.L.Clausen@erdc.usace.army.mil; Korte, Nic [1946 Clover Ct., Grand Junction, Colorado, 81506 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This manuscript describes the distribution, fate and transport of tungsten used in training rounds at three small arms ranges at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), USA. Practice with tungsten/nylon rounds began in 2000 subsequent to a 1997 US Environmental Protection Agency ban on training with lead. Training with the tungsten rounds was halted in 2005 because of concerns regarding tungsten's environmental mobility and potential toxicity. This study, therefore, examines how tungsten partitions in the environment when fired on a small arms training range. Soil sampling revealed surface soil concentrations, highest at the berm face, up to 2080 mg/kg. Concentrations decreased rapidly with depth-at least by an order of magnitude by 25 cm. Nonetheless, tungsten concentrations remained above background to at least 150 cm. Pore-water samples from lysimeters installed in berm areas revealed a range of concentrations (< 1-400 mg/L) elevated with respect to background although there was no discernable trend with depth. Groundwater monitoring well samples collected approximately 30 m below ground surface showed tungsten (0.001-0.56 mg/L) attributable to range use.

  20. A microstructural analysis of schedule-induced polydipsia reveals incentive-induced hyperactivity in an animal model of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Íbias, Javier; Pellón, Ricardo; Sanabria, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that frequent short bursts of activity characterize hyperactivity associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study determined whether such pattern is also visible in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), an animal model of ADHD. Male SHR, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar rats were exposed to 40 sessions of SIP using a multiple fixed-time (FT) schedule of food delivery with FT 30-s and FT 90-s components. Stable performance was analysed to determine the extent to which SIP-associated drinking is organized in bouts. The Bi-Exponential Refractory Model (BERM) of free-operant performance was applied to schedule-induced licks. A model comparison analysis supported BERM as a description of SIP episodes: licks were not produced at a constant rate but organized into bouts within drinking episodes. FT 30-s induced similar overall licking rates, latencies to first licks and episode durations across strains; FT 90-s induced longer episode durations in SHRs and reduced licking rate in WKY and Wistar rats to nearly baseline levels. Across schedules, SHRs made more and shorter bouts when compared to the other strains. These results suggest an incentive-induced hyperactivity in SHR that has been observed in operant behavior and in children with ADHD. PMID:25447297

  1. Use of radon-222 to evaluate the influence of groundwater discharge on fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, J. A.; Burton, C.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2011-12-01

    To protect beach-goers from waterborne disease, California requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at beaches having more than 50,000 visits annually. The source(s) of FIB in ocean beaches in excess of marine recreational water standards is often not known, or may be incorrectly identified. Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage have been implicated by regulatory agencies as a possible source of FIB to recreational ocean beaches, near Malibu, California. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater prior to discharge at the ocean. Groundwater discharge to the ocean near Malibu Lagoon (the estuary of Malibu Creek) is complicated by seasonally changing water levels in the lagoon. The lagoon is isolated from the ocean by a sand berm that develops across the mouth of the lagoon during the dry season. Higher water levels in the lagoon during the dry season, and lower water-levels during the wet season, cause seasonal changes in the direction of groundwater flow and the magnitude of discharge from the adjacent small (3,400 hectare), alluvial aquifer. Radon-222, an indicator of groundwater discharge, was measured in Malibu Lagoon, in the near-shore ocean adjacent to the lagoon, and in the near-shore ocean adjacent to unsewered residential development to determine the timing and magnitude of groundwater discharge. During the dry season, when the berm of the lagoon was closed and the lagoon was isolated from the ocean, radon-222 concentrations in the near-shore ocean during low tide increased as water discharged from the lagoon through the berm. Enterococcus concentrations in the near-shore ocean increased to almost 600 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliter at this time. Radon-222 concentrations also increased at low tide as groundwater discharged to the ocean from the adjacent alluvial aquifer underlying the unsewered residential development, but there was

  2. Why Do Some Estuaries Close: A Model of Estuary Entrance Morphodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, S. L.; Kennedy, D. M.; Rutherfurd, I.

    2014-12-01

    Intermittently Closed/Open Coastal Lakes/Lagoons (ICOLLs) are a form of wave-dominated, microtidal estuary that experience periodic closure in times of low river flow. ICOLL entrance morphodynamics are complex due to the interaction between wave, tidal and fluvial processes. Managers invest substantial funds to artificially open ICOLLs as they flood surrounding property and infrastructure, and have poor water quality. Existing studies examine broad scale processes but do not identify the main drivers of entrance condition. In this research, the changes in entrance geomorphology were surveyed before and after artificial entrance openings in three ICOLLs in Victoria, Australia. Changes in morphology were related to continuous measures of sediment volume, water level, tide and wave energy. A six-stage quantitative phase model of entrance geomorphology and hydrodynamics is presented to illustrate the spatio-temporal variability in ICOLL entrance morphodynamics. Phases include: breakout; channel expansion with rapid outflow; open with tidal exchange; initial berm rebuilding with tidal attenuation; partial berm recovery with rising water levels; closed with perched water levels. Entrance breakout initiates incision of a pilot channel to the ocean, whereby basin water levels then decline and channel expansion as the headcut migrates landwards. Peak outflow velocities of 5 m/s-3 were recorded and channel dimensions increased over 6 hrs to 3.5 m deep and 140 m wide. When tidal, a clear semi-diurnal signal is superimposed upon an otherwise stable water level. Deep-water wave energy was transferred 1.8 km upstream of the rivermouth with bores present in the basin. Berm rebuilding occurred by littoral drift and cross-shore transport once outflow ceased and microscale bedform features, particularly antidunes, contributed to sediment progradation. Phase duration is dependant on how high the estuary was perched above mean sea level, tidal prism extent, and onshore sediment supply

  3. Origin and Depositional Processes of Coastal Sands Revealed by Grain-Size Analysis (golfe du Lion, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barusseau, J. P.; Braud, R.

    2014-12-01

    The study focused on the lower beach and nearshore zone of the Golfe du Lion (northwestern Mediterranean Sea -France). We looked at grain-size distribution in the berm, collision zone, inner and outer bars, lower shoreface applying parametric methods, grain-size modal analysis and a deconvolution program (LNDoGS).Results indicate a mixture of three recognizable sedimentary types (ST1 - ST3 - ST4) and explain grain-size distribution (GSD) of the sands in both multimodal and apparently unimodal GSDs. ST1 flows from the River Rhone, ST3 and 4 are local components originating from either fluvial input or nearshore reworking of Quaternary sediments.A fourth component (ST2), derived in situ from ST1, is found far from the overwhelming footprint of the Rhone river sands, westward in the lower shoreface.The mixing process entails significant variations in grain-size indices and skewness appears as a very sensitive and meaningful parameter. Skewness and bimodality, generated in all zones, are two aspects of the mixing process, depending on the relative proportions of STs.Using LNDoGS makes deciphering the STs a lot easier. It also reveals that some GSDs can result from a combination of 3 sedimentary variants (SVs) belonging to the same ST (monotype grain-size distributions). Monotype mixtures are very abundant on the lower shoreface, significantly present on the berm and inner bar but rare in the most dynamic zones. On the berm they tend towards a lognormal model for only bedload is present in the swash. This trend towards a lognormal model can also be observed on the lower shoreface, possibly indicating the occurrence of suspension as a dominant process.Thus, each segment of the nearshore - foreshore profile can be characterized using coarseness, skewness sign, the presence of locally generated ST2, abundance of bimodalities, occurrence of SVs. Finally, a more detailed description of the spatial properties of grain-size distributions could help explore possible mechanisms

  4. A simple model to estimate the impact of sea-level rise on platform beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica Afonso

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of future beach evolution in response to sea-level rise are needed to assess coastal vulnerability. A research gap is identified in providing adequate predictive methods to use for platform beaches. This work describes a simple model to evaluate the effects of sea-level rise on platform beaches that relies on the conservation of beach sand volume and assumes an invariant beach profile shape. In closed systems, when compared with the Inundation Model, results show larger retreats; the differences are higher for beaches with wide berms and when the shore platform develops at shallow depths. The application of the proposed model to Cascais (Portugal) beaches, using 21st century sea-level rise scenarios, shows that there will be a significant reduction in beach width.

  5. Upper bound seismic rotational stability analysis of gravity retaining walls considering embedment depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 黄达; 杨超; 孙莎

    2015-01-01

    Stability analysis of gravity retaining wall was currently based on the assumption that the wall had no embedment depth. The effect of earth berm was usually neglected. The present work highlighted the importance of embedment depth when assessing the seismic stability of gravity retaining walls with the pattern of pure rotation. In the framework of upper bound theorem of limit analysis, pseudo-static method was applied into two groups of parallel rigid soil slices methods in order to account for the effect of embedment depth on evaluating the critical acceleration of wall-soil system. The present analytical solution is identical to the results obtained from using limit equilibrium method, and the two methods are based on different theory backgrounds. Parameter analysis indicates that the critical acceleration increases slowly when the ratio of the embedment depth to the total height of the wall is from 0 to 0.15 and increases drastically when the ratio exceeds 0.15.

  6. Underground siting of nuclear power reactors, determination of site characteristics, and general site availability in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the criteria and conclusions developed by staff of the Energy Commission pertaining to general site availability for underground nuclear power plants. Establishing the existence of technically suitable siting areas was deemed an integral part of the overall study of underground nuclear power reactors. Specifically, this portion of the study deals with parameters, both physical and social, which could influence or limit the siting of underground nuclear power plants in California. Siting criteria were developed for two sub-surface concepts: (1) berm-contained plants, wherein the reactor and principal radioactivity-containing structures are covered with soil; and, (2) rock sited plants, wherein the reactor and principal systems are located in large caverns excavated in competent rock

  7. (Keine Strategie für Medizinbibliotheken? [(No strategy for medical libraries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obst, Oliver

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] Strategy is a big word. Which medical library does have a logical, let alone sustainable strategy? The following article is trying to break down this big word on a tradable level, to make it usable for everyday practice. In the sea of information, libraries and their areas of expertise could be small, agile speedboats compared to the overpowering ocean liners.[german] Strategie ist ein großes Wort. Welche Medizinbibliothek hat schon eine logische, geschweige denn nachhaltige Strategie aufzuweisen? Im folgenden Artikel wird versucht, dieses große Wort auf ein handelbares Level herunter zu brechen, um es für die alltägliche Praxis nutzbar zu machen. Bibliotheken und deren Spezialgebiete können als kleine, wendige Schnellboote auf dem Meer der Information durchaus den übermächtigen Ozeandampfern Konkurrenz machen.

  8. Constant wind regimes during the Last Glacial Maximum and early Holocene: evidence from Little Llangothlin Lagoon, New England Tablelands, eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulmeister, James; Kemp, Justine; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Gontz, Allen

    2016-07-01

    Here we present the results of a multi-proxy investigation - integrating geomorphology, ground-penetrating radar, and luminescence dating - of a high-elevation lunette and beach berm in northern New South Wales, eastern Australia. The lunette occurs on the eastern shore of Little Llangothlin Lagoon and provides evidence for a lake high stand combined with persistent westerly winds at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM - centring on 21.5 ka) and during the early Holocene (ca. 9 and 6 ka). The reconstructed atmospheric circulation is similar to the present-day conditions, and we infer no significant changes in circulation at those times, as compared to the present day. Our results suggest that the Southern Hemisphere westerlies were minimally displaced in this sector of Australasia during the latter part of the last ice age. Our observations also support evidence for a more positive water balance at the LGM and early Holocene in this part of the Australian sub-tropics.

  9. Analysis of performance of the passive-solar-heated Patoka Nature Center, Birdseye, Indiana. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-22

    The purpose of this project was to monitor and analyze the passive-solar-heating performance of Patoka Nature Center. Patoka Nature Center is located in southern Indiana. The building has a floor area of 3200 square feet, is heavily bermed and well-insulated. The building features 1390 net square feet of direct-gain solar collector. This collector is equipped with BEADWALL (tm) night insulation. Thermal storage is provided by a masonry floor and 40 water-filled fiberglass tubes. The building's thermal performance was monitored from July 15, 1981 until July 17, 1982. During the 1981-1982 heating season, the subject building used 257 million BTUs for space heating. This was supplied from: auxillary heating equipment (28%), electric lighting (22%), other equipment (2%), and solar (48%). The annual solar heating efficiency (solar utilized/solar incident on collector glass) was 21.9%.

  10. The Noticias de los arquitectos: towards a ‘National’ definition of Spanish architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Cera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The book Noticias de los arquitectos y arquitectura de España desde su Restauración is the first ever history of Spanish architecture published in Spain. The book´s writing was undertaken by scholar and politician Eugenio Llaguno, around 1769, with the aim of defending Spanish arts against harsh contemporary criticisms. However, it was not published until 1829, and was finished by a completely different scholar, Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez. Thus, it is chiefly important because it reflects the evolution of Spanish thought over this 60 year period, including the impact of the French invasion in 1808, which led to a search of a National identity in the architectural past.

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Nineteenth Avenue Landfill, Phoenix, AZ. (First remedial action), September 1989. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 213-acre Nineteenth Avenue Landfill is in an industrial area of Maricopa County, Phoenix, Arizona. State permitted landfill operations were conducted from 1957 to 1979 during which time approximately nine million cubic yards of municipal refuse, solid and liquid industrial wastes, and some medical wastes and materials containing low levels of radioactivity were deposited in the landfill. The State ordered the landfill closed in 1979 due to the periodic inundation of the landfill by flood waters from the Salt River Channel. Subsequently, the city covered the site with fill, stockpiled soil for final capping, installed ground water monitoring wells, built berms around the landfill, and installed a methane gas collection system. The remedial action is designed to mitigate threats resulting from flooding of the landfill, which has occurred intermittently since 1965. The primary contaminants of concern in the soil/refuse include VOCs such as toluene and xylenes

  12. Animal Reasoning: Negation and Representations of Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Ladrón de Guevara, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I reject the possibility that animal reasoning, negation in particular, necessarily involves the representation of Absence, as suggested by José Luis Bermúdez, since this would still work as a logical negation (unavailable for non-linguistic creatures. False belief, pretense, and communication experiments show that non-human animals (at least some primates have difficulties representing absent entities or properties. I offer an alternative account resorting to the sub-symbolic similarity judgments proposed by Vigo & Allen and I introduce the notion of expectation: animal proto-negation takes place through the incompatibility between an expected and the actual representation. Finally, I propose that the paradigm of expectations can be extrapolated to other experiments in cognitive psychology (both with pre-linguistic children and animals in order to design “fair” experiments which test other minds considering their true abilities.

  13. Analysis of effect of first-level basin excavation on deformation of deep and large foundation pits%深大基坑首层盆式开挖对基坑变形影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚剑; 王旭军; 赵锡宏

    2013-01-01

    On the backgroung of the first-level soil excavation on the podium pit of Shanghai Tower which is constructed with top-down method, the effectiveness of earth berms on pit deformation is analyzed. Analytical results show that the results of calculation agree with field measurements for the lateral deformation of soil. In deep and large top-down excavations, the effects of the changes of retaining wall thickness range from 0.8 m to 1.6 m; and whether to consider lowered wall on the pit deformation are not significant when the first level soil is excavated. When the retaining wall is modeled with beam elements, the calculated value of wall lateral deformation is 10%-21% larger than that when the wall is modeled with solid elements; the reason is that the latter can consider the effect of resistance moment which is generated by the friction between the wall and the soil. The lateral anti-pressure F firstly decreases slowly with the decrease of the width of berms b. When b reaches about 20 m, F reaches the minimum, then gradually increases with the decrease of b. To the given excavation depth of berm boundary h1 , there is a critical value bcr for b; when b decrease to bcr , F reaches peak; if b is further reduced, the wall deformation is increasing rapidly. And bcr increases with the increase of h1. Finally, based on these results, the design method for earth berms in basin excavation is given.%以上海中心大厦裙房逆作施工基坑的首层土方开挖为背景,针对盆式开挖盆边预留土堤大小对基坑变形影响进行了深入分析.结果表明,围护墙变形计算值与实测值较为吻合;在逆作法深大基坑中,围护墙厚度在0.8~1.6m之间变化及是否考虑地墙落低作用对首层开挖的基坑变形影响不明显;采用梁单元模拟围护墙比采用实体单元的围护墙变形计算值要大10%~21%左右,原因是采用后者能考虑土体与墙之间摩擦力所产生的抵抗弯矩作用.预留土堤所

  14. The generation of subsurface temperature profiles for Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Temeemi, A.A.; Harris, D.J. [Department of Building Engineering and Surveying, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    A predicted profile of the periodic variation of subsurface temperature with depth is presented for the soil conditions of the State of Kuwait. The generation of the profile is based on Labs' equation for subterranean temperatures, which takes into account the thermal and physical properties of the soil. These subsurface temperatures are then compared with the ambient dry-bulb temperature. The profiles are then used to analyse the seasonal variations in subsurface temperatures at different depths and the time lags produced when compared with air temperatures. The resulting charts and graphs should be a useful tool for those interested in the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered and earth-bermed structures in Kuwait. (author)

  15. The effect of earth-contact on heat transfer through a wall in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Temeemi, A.A.; Harris, D.J. [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Department of Building Engineering and Surveying

    2003-05-01

    The energy efficiency of a wall in contact with the earth at varying depths is investigated for the climatic conditions of Kuwait. This is done by simulating the heat transfer through a subsurface wall at varying depths using a computer program, and comparing the results with an above ground wall using the same method. The prediction of long-term subterranean temperatures is done using Labs' equation, which takes into account the thermal and physical properties of the soil. Heat transfer through the subsurface wall is predicted to decrease with increasing soil depth. The heat transfer simulation results should be useful for those interested in the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered and earth-bermed structures in Kuwait. (author)

  16. K\\"ahler-Einstein metrics with edge singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffres, Thalia D; Rubinstein, Yanir A

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the existence and regularity of \\KE metrics on a compact \\K manifold $M$ with edge singularities with cone angle $2\\pi \\be$ along a smooth divisor $D$. We prove existence of such metrics with negative, zero and some positive cases for all cone angles $2\\pi \\be \\leq 2\\pi$. The results in the positive case parallel those in the smooth case. We also establish that solutions of this problem are polyhomogeneous, i.e., have a complete asymptotic expansion with smooth coefficients along $D$ for all $2\\pi \\be < 2\\pi$. This work rests on a recent advance by Donaldson \\cite{D}; certain of the existence results overlap those in other recent articles \\cite{Berm,Br,CGP}.

  17. Environmental implications of the use of sulfidic back-bay sediments for dune reconstruction - Lessons learned post Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Benzel, William M; Hoefen, Todd M; Hageman, Philip L; Morman, Suzette A; Reilly, Timothy J; Adams, Monique; Berry, Cyrus J; Fischer, Jeffrey M; Fisher, Irene

    2016-06-30

    Some barrier-island dunes damaged or destroyed by Hurricane Sandy's storm surges in October 2012 have been reconstructed using sediments dredged from back bays. These sand-, clay-, and iron sulfide-rich sediments were used to make berm-like cores for the reconstructed dunes, which were then covered by beach sand. In November 2013, we sampled and analyzed partially weathered materials collected from the cores of reconstructed dunes. There are generally low levels of metal toxicants in the reconstructed dune materials. However oxidation of reactive iron sulfides by percolating rainwater produces acid-sulfate pore waters, which evaporate during dry periods to produce efflorescent gypsum and sodium jarosite salts. The results suggest use of sulfidic sediments in dune reconstruction has both drawbacks (e.g., potential to generate acid runoff from dune cores following rainfall, enhanced corrosion of steel bulwarks) and possible benefits (e.g., efflorescent salts may enhance structural integrity). PMID:27210565

  18. Illinois homeowner's guide to reduction of indoor radon. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual presents the issue of indoor radon in a format that is useful to the homeowner who is interested in addressing this problem. The information is specific for Illinois, and includes a discussion of the natural environmental factors affecting indoor radon levels in Illinois (geological, meteorological and the contribution to airborne radon from groundwater), the home contribution factors (foundation configuration, below-grade openings, berming, and types of materials used) and the radon concentrating and diffusing affects of ventilation methods, energy-conservation measures, and air-handling devices such as heat exchangers, air filters, and humidification systems. The manual includes a series of decision trees for the development of a radon-reduction approach by the homeowner and a step-by-step guide to implementation of the chosen methods. Cost-estimate information for both remediation measures and prevention in new construction is also included, as are lists of contractors in the Illinois area and suppliers for reduction materials

  19. La apropiación de un gran relato hitórico en la adolescencia

    OpenAIRE

    Van Alphen, Floor

    2013-01-01

    Carretero (2011; Carretero y Bermúdez, 2012) propone un modelo de producción y consumo de las narrativas históricas nacionales, distinguiendo una sería de características de los grandes relatos históricos, aunque en la investigación que se presenta se analizaron solo cuatro de ellas: 1) El sujeto histórico se establece en términos de inclusión y exclusión, como un conjunto unificado yhomogéneo, opuesto al “otro” histórico también simplificado. Esto determina la "voz" de la narración y la e...

  20. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  1. Tunnel construction for a desertron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tunnel in this model of construction is 3-1/2 feet wide by 5 feet high. It is assumed that the tunnel contains a rail system and guidance system for: (1) An enclosed car used for transport of 2 people and some tools. (2) A magnet mover. This robot could pick up a magnet and transport it at about 10 miles per hour. (3) An alignment robot. The alignment robot would intercept E.M. waves (microwaves, lasers) to determine its position in the tunnel. Then workers could come along inside the tunnel hoop and nail it together and to the floor. The trench would then be back-filled with a 1 foot berm on top. A rail system would be installed and a support stand for the magnet

  2. Assessment of flood hazard at the radioactive waste management site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is located at the junction of major alluvial fans, to the east and west, with several smaller fans merging from the north. The conclusion is, the RWMS is likely to be hit several times during an assumed design life of 150 years by flash flood events of significant magnitude. This conclusion was arrived at by using regional peak flood equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and various hypotheses regarding flood processes on alluvial fans. It should be noted that the flood hazard at the RWMS is not necessarily greater than it would be for any facility of a similar size and design life located on any alluvial fan in Southern Nevada. Further, the berm on the upslope side of the RWMS may offer some protection; however, the degree of protection provided by this berm was not evaluated. Although this analysis is subject to a number of limitations, which are noted and discussed within, the conclusion is substantiated by the fact that the RWMS is located on a number of alluvial fans which were formed by erosional processes that are still active. Although protective measures for the site can be developed, the development of such mitigation plans should include not only a careful consideration of the probability that the site will be hit by a flood event, but also a careful consideration of the consequences of such a hit. This report is a focused analysis of the probability that the RWMS will be hit by a flash flood, but does not address what the consequences of such an event might be. 5 references, 19 figures, 18 tables

  3. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. PMID:26024280

  4. A new library of gamma rays group constants for BERMUDA based on JENDL-3.2 nuclear data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In gamma rays transport codes BERMUDA-1DG, -2DG, -2DG-S16 and -3DG, a library for gamma rays group constants, J439B.BERM41G.DATA, is currently used. Secondary gamma rays production matrix in this library is prepared for 20 nuclides based on nuclear data file JENDL-3. In 1994, JENDL-3.2, a newly revised version of JENDL-3 nuclear data file, became available by the effort of Nuclear Data Center of JAERI. A new group constants library, 'J439B.BERMJ3G.DATA', has been developed based on JENDL-3.2, for use in BERMUDA gamma rays transport calculations. Processing code is PROF-GROUCH-G/B system. One nuclide, 11B, has been removed out of 20 nuclides in BERM41G and eleven nuclides, 3He, F, P, S, K, V, Co, Cu, Nb, Ta and W, have been newly added so that total 30 nuclides data are included in the new library. Moreover, microscopic total cross sections σt for 30 nuclides processed from PHOTX data have been added for each energy group and also for each energy 'grid' which is made by dividing an energy group into ten subgroups with equal energy width. In the present report, described mainly are the outline of new library and know-how to use the processing system. As no user manual has been prepared for PROF-GROUCH-G/B yet, the present report is also useful as a manual for the option to develop gamma rays group constants for BERMUDA in PROF-GROUCH-G/B code system. (author)

  5. Development and Design of Cost-Effective, Real-Time Implementable Sediment and Contaminant Release Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampson, Steve [Univ of KY, Center for Applied Energy Research, Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment

    2007-08-01

    sediment trapping efficiency for a 4.0 in (101.6mm) 24-hour storm was 99.7% with an initial empty pond condition. Stored runoff is expected to be transferred to the treatment plant located near Outfall 010. A 4-in storm event accounts for approximately 97% of the average annual precipitation. Pond 015 is relatively small due to the non-excavation restriction. Ninety eight percent and 72.3% sediment trap efficiencies were predicted for a 1.5 in and 3.0 in 24-hour storm; based on the pond being empty at the start of the storm and retained runoff being transferred to one of the secondary treatment systems. A 3-in storm event accounts for approximately 92% of the average annual precipitation. The watershed area of Pond 008 is 113.6 acres and the storage capacity is only 0.92 ac-ft. Sediment trap efficiencies of 96.7%, 77.2% and 67.6% were predicted for storms of 1, 1.5 and 2 inches, respectively. Thus, nearly a 70+% sediment trap efficiency is predicted for storm events of 2 inches or less; accounting for 82% of the average annual precipitation.The approximate quantity of runoff that can be retained and pumped to a secondary treatment system was determined on a storm and annual basis. On an annual basis, Ponds 008, 011 and 015 are expected to retain 20.2%, 83.1% and 34.7% of the generated runoff, respectively. Retained runoff will be pumped to alternative treatment systems. The alternative treatment systems designed and evaluated are: 1) evapotranspiration-only, 2) evapotranspiration - infiltration and 3) a combination weep berm – grass filter control system. The evapotranspiration-only method would result in complete treatment of the runoff transferred from the retention pond. The evapotranspiration - infiltration technique is expected to result in treatment through filtration and natural attenuation of soil and associated constituents. Both drip and micro-sprinklers were evaluated for the first two listed treatment systems. Outfall 015 was used to illustrate the

  6. Fate and behavior of metal(loid) contaminants in an organic matter-rich shooting range soil: Implications for remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cleanup criteria. As the high Pb concentrations appeared to be linked to the presence of organic-rich berm cover materials, the use of wood chips as berm cover to prevent soil erosion requires reconsideration as a shooting range management practice

  7. Remediation of Uranium Impacted Sediments in a Watercourse - 12486

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, remediation was initiated for a non-operational fuel cycle facility previously used for government contract work. Between 2009 and the spring of 2011, remediation efforts were focused on demolition of contaminated buildings and removal of contaminated soil. In the late spring of 2011, the last phase of remediation commenced involving the removal of contaminated sediments from portions of a 1,200 meter long gaining stream. Planning and preparation for remediation of the stream began in 2009 with submittal of permit applications to undertake construction activities in a wetland area. The permitting process was lengthy and involved securing permits from multiple agencies. However, early and frequent communication with stakeholders played an integral role in efficiently obtaining the permit approvals. Frequent communication with stakeholders throughout the planning and remediation process also proved to be a key factor in timely completion of the project. The remediation of the stream involved the use of temporary bladder berms to divert surface water flow, water diversion piping, a sediment vacuum removal system, excavation of sediments using small front-end loaders, sediment dewatering, and waste packaging, transportation and disposal. Many safeguards were employed to protect several species of concern in the work area, water management during project activities, challenges encountered during the project, methods of Final Status Survey, and stream restoration. The planning and permitting effort for the Site Brook remediation began in May 2009 and permits were approved and in place by February 2011. The remediation and restoration of the Site Brook began in April 2011 and was completed in November 2011. The remediation of the Site Brook involved the use of temporary bladder berms to divert surface water flow, water diversion piping, a sediment vacuum removal system, excavation of sediments using small front-end loaders, sediment dewatering, and waste

  8. Can erosion control structures in large dryland arroyo channels lead to resilient riparian and cienega restoration? Observations from LiDAR, monitoring and modeling at Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    The use of erosion control structures to mitigate or even reverse erosion and to restore ecological function along dryland channels (arroyos and gullies) has led to a long list of both successful and failed restoration efforts. We propose that successful implementation of "engineering" approaches to fluvial restoration that include in-channel control structures require either a quantitative approach to design (by scientists and engineers), or intimate on-the-ground knowledge, local observation, and a commitment to adapt and maintain restoration efforts in response to landscape change (by local land managers), or both. We further propose that the biophysical interactions among engineering, sedimentation, flood hydrology and vegetation reestablishment are what determine resilience to destructive extreme events that commonly cause erosion control structure failure. Our insights come from comprehensive monitoring of a remarkable experiment underway at Ranch San Bernardino, Sonora, MX. At this site, private landowners are working to restore ecosystem function to riparian corridors and former cieñega wetlands using cessation of grazing; vegetation planting; upland grass restoration; large scale rock gabions (up to 100 m wide) to encourage local sediment deposition and water storage; and large earthen berms (up to 900 m wide) with cement spillways that form reservoirs that fill rapidly with water and sediment. Well-planned and managed erosion control structures have been used elsewhere successfully in smaller gully networks, but we are unaware of a comparable attempt to use gabions and berms for the sole purpose of ecological restoration along >10 km of arroyo channels draining watersheds on the order of ~400 km2 and larger. We present an approach to monitoring the efficacy of arroyo channel restoration using terrestrial and airborne LiDAR, remote sensing, streamflow monitoring, shallow groundwater monitoring, hydrological modeling and field observation. Our methods

  9. A Debris Flow Chronology and Analysis of Controls on Debris Flow Occurrence in the Upper Colorado River Valley, Rocky Mountain National Park, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, K. J.; Rathburn, S. L.; Grosicki, G.

    2011-12-01

    In high gradient environments, debris flows are commonly a dominant source of sediment transport and erosion. The importance of debris flows along the Upper Colorado was recently highlighted when the Grand Ditch, a 19th century water-conveyance ditch, overtopped from snowmelt and triggered a large debris flow along Lulu Creek, a tributary of the Upper Colorado River. Earlier research suggests that multiple debris flows have been triggered from the Grand Ditch over the last century, with higher magnitude and frequency than naturally occurring debris flows. To thoroughly test this hypothesis, debris flows are being mapped, dated using dendrogeomorphic evidence from tree cores and tree scars, and analyzed for relative magnitude. A total of approximately 15-20 mappable debris flows along the Upper Colorado have been located and sampled using a combination of historic aerial photos and field exploration in the basin. Berms observed along these debris flows are up to 1.5 meters high and frequently extend to the Colorado River valley bottom. Where even-aged stands are observed as a result of simultaneous stand germination after a debris flow, tree cores are collected from the oldest trees in the stand to estimate the age of the debris flow. Species of sampled trees include Lodgepole pine, Douglas fir, and Engelmann spruce. Initial core dates from a debris flow that extends along the Colorado River to just north of the Lulu wetland range from 29 to 37 years. Sampling of scarred survivor trees from debris flow berms provides an even better indicator of age because the warped tree rings can be counted to precisely date scarring events. Thus far 40 tree scars have been wedged and will be processed and dated during Fall 2011. Relative flow magnitudes will be compared using the heights of tree scars above the channel thalweg. Debris flow occurrence is related to the distribution of hydrothermally altered rocks in addition to other factors such as the aspect and gradient of the

  10. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-02-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential.

  11. Management of dams for the next Millennium: proceedings of the 1999 Canadian Dam Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The meeting featured seven sessions with 18 papers abstracted/indexed therein as follows: keynote address: tailings dams safety - implications for the dam safety community; 1 - design and performance: performance monitoring of dams: are we doing what we should be doing?; tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering; and design overview of Syncrude's Mildred Lake east toe berm; 2 - design and modelling: use of a 2D model for a dam break study on the ALCAN hydroelectric complex in Quebec; and spillway design implications resulting from changes in rainfall extremes; 3 - risk and dam safety I: closing the gaps in the dam safety guidelines; the reality of life safety consequence classification; and surveillance practices for the next millenium; 4 - risk and dam safety II: quantitative risk-assessment using the capacity-demand analysis; and new guidelines for dam safety classification; 5 - millenium issues: expectations of immortality, dam safety management into the next millenium; 6 - rehabilitation techniques: the unconventional application of conventional materials; nondestructive testing technology to characterize concrete dam/bedrock interface; method and instrument for detecting crack in concrete; and grouting of the cracks in the Arch 5-6 - Daniel Johnson Dam; and 7 - case studies: rehabilitation of an 80 year old Ambursen type dam; and debris booms for the protection of spillways.

  12. Corrective action plan for corrective action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mercury Fire Training Pit is a former fire training area located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting personnel at the NTS, and encompasses an area approximately 107 meters (m) (350 feet [ft]) by 137 m (450 ft). The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed burn pit with four small burn tanks, four large above ground storage tanks an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area, and areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. Closure activities will include excavation of the impacted soil in the aboveground storage tank and burn pit areas to a depth of 1.5 m (5 ft), and excavation of the impacted surface soil downgradient of the former ASTs and burnpit areas to a depth of 0.3 m (1 ft). Excavated soil will be disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill at the NTS

  13. Discussion on the Treatment Method of Soft Soil Foundation Reinforcement in Strengthening Municipal Road Construction%加强市政道路建设中软土地基加固处理方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      随着我国建设速度加快,道路建设遍布各地,然而在道路建设的过程中,遇到的困难也是越来越多,软土地基便是常常困扰着市政道路建设的主要问题之一。本文主要从软土地基的加固方法进行分析,充分介绍换填置换法、排水固结法、塑料排水板法、机械碾压和夯实法处理法、化学加固法、反压护道法等加固处理技术。%Along with our country to speed up the construct-ion speed, road construction is everywhere, but in the process of road construction, the difficulties also encountered more and more, soft soil foundation is one of the main problems that of-ten afflict municipal road construction. This article mainly ca-rries on the analysis from the method of soft soil foundation re-inforcement, the ful introduction of replacement replacement method, drainage consolidation method, plastic drainage board method, mechanical compaction and compaction method, che-mical grouting reinforcement technology, counter pressure ber-m method and so on.

  14. Low-cost concepts for dry transfer of spent fuel and waste between storage and transportation casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The federal government may provide interim storage for spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors that have used up their available storage capacity. One of the leading candidate concepts for this interim storage is to place spent fuel in large metal shielding casks. The Federal Interim Storage (FIS) site may not have the capability to transfer spent fuel from transportation casks to storage casks and vice versa. Thus, there may be an incentive to construct a relatively inexpensive but reliable intercask transfer system for use at an FIS site. This report documents the results of a preliminary study of preconceptual design and analysis of four intercask transfer concepts. The four concepts are: a large shielded cylindrical turntable that contains an integral fuel handling machine (turntable concept); a shielded fuel handling machine under which shipping and storage casks are moved horizontally (shuttle concept); a small hot cell containing equipment for transferring fuel betwee shipping and storage casks (that enter and leave the cell on carts) in a bifurcated trench (trench concept) and a large hot cell, shielded by an earthen berm, that houses equipment for handling fuel between casks that enter and leave the cell on a single cart (igloo concept). Information derived for each of the concepts is operating, capital and relocation costs; implementation and relocation time requirements; and overall characteristics

  15. Low-cost concepts for dry transfer of spent fuel and waste between storage and transportation casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The federal government may provide interim storage for spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors that have used up their available storage capacity. One of the leading candidate concepts for this interim storage is to place spent fuel in large metal shielding casks. The Federal Interim Storage (FIS) site may not have the capability to transfer spent fuel from transportation casks to storage casks and vice versa. Thus, there may be an incentive to construct a relatively inexpensive but reliable intercask transfer system for use at an FIS site. This report documents the results of a preliminary study of preconceptual design and analysis of four intercask transfer concepts. The four concepts are: (1) a large shielded cylindrical turntable that contains an integral fuel handling machine (turntable concept); (2) a shielded fuel handling machine under which shipping and storage casks are moved horizontally (shuttle concept); (3) a small hot cell containing equipment for transferring fuel between shipping and storage casks (that enter and leave the cell on carts) in a bifurcated trench (trench concept); and (4) a large hot cell, shielded by an earthen berm, that houses equipment for handling fuel between casks that enter and leave the cell on a single cart (igloo concept). Information derived for each of the concepts is operating, capital and relocation costs; implementation and relocation time requirements; and overall characteristics. 1 reference, 4 figures, 2 tables

  16. Coastal processes of Central Tamil Nadu, India: clues from grain size studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimalanathan Angusamy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The sediments of the beaches along the central coast of Tamil Nadu from Pondicherry to Vedaranyam were studied for their textural variation. 108 sediment samples collected from the low-, mid-, and high-tidal zones, as well as the berms and dunes of different beach morpho-units were analysed. The study area was divided into three sectors (northern, central and southern on the basis of prevailing energy conditions and oceanographic parameters. The poorly sorted, negatively skewed, coarser sediments of the northern sector are indicative of denudational processes taking place there. Medium-to-fine, moderately-to-well sorted, positive-symmetrically skewed sediments dominate the central sector, probably as a result of the influence of palaeo-sediments deposited by rivers from inland as well as by waves and currents from offshore. Fine, poorly sorted, positive-symmetrically skewed sediments dominate the southern sector, highlighting depositional processes. Linear Discriminant Function Analysis (LDF of the samples indicates a shallow marine environment origin for all the three sectors. These results show that reworked sediments, submerged during the Holocene marine transgression, are being deposited on present-day beaches by waves, currents and rivers in the study area.

  17. Volume Computation of a Stockpile - a Study Case Comparing GPS and Uav Measurements in AN Open Pit Quarry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeva, P. L.; Filipova, S. L.; Filipov, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    The following paper aims to test and evaluate the accuracy of UAV data for volumetric measurements to the conventional GNSS techniques. For this purpose, an appropriate open pit quarry has been chosen. Two sets of measurements were performed. Firstly, a stockpile was measured by GNSS technologies and later other terrestrial GNSS measurements for modelling the berms of the quarry were taken. Secondly, the area of the whole quarry including the stockpile site was mapped by a UAV flight. Having considered how dynamic our world is, new techniques and methods should be presented in numerous fields. For instance, the management of an open pit quarry requires gaining, processing and storing a large amount of information which is constantly changing with time. Fast and precise acquisition of measurements regarding the process taking place in a quarry is the key to an effective and stable maintenance. In other words, this means getting an objective evaluations of the processes, using up-to-date technologies and reliable accuracy of the results. Often legislations concerning mine engineering state that the volumetric calculations are to present ±3% accuracy of the whole amount. On one hand, extremely precise measurements could be performed by GNSS technologies, however, it could be really time consuming. On the other hand, UAV photogrammetry presents a fast, accurate method for mapping large areas and calculating stockpiles volumes. The study case was performed as a part of a master thesis.

  18. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential

  19. The incorporation of an organic soil layer in the Noah-MP Land Surface Model and its evaluation over a Boreal Aspen Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Li, Y.; Chen, F.; Barr, A.; Barlage, M.; Wan, B.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the multi-parameterization version of the Noah land-surface model (Noah-MP) was used to investigate the impact of adding a forest-floor organic soil layer on the simulated surface energy and water cycle components at a boreal aspen forest. The test site selected is BERMS Old Aspen Flux (OAS) field station in central Saskatchewan, Canada. The selection of different parameterization schemes for each process within the current Noah-MP model significantly affected the simulation results. The best combination options without incorporating organic soil is referred as the control experiment (CTL). By including an organic-soil parameterization within the Noah-MP model for the first time, the verification results (OGN) against site show significantly improved performance of the model in surface energy fluxes and hydrology simulation due to the lower thermal conductivity and greater porosity of the organic soil. The effects of including an organic soil layer on soil temperature are not uniform throughout the soil depth and year, and those effects are more prominent in summer and in deep soils. For drought years, the OGN simulation substantially modified the partition between direct soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration. For wet years, the OGN simulated latent heat fluxes are similar to CTL except for spring season where OGN produced less evaporation. The impact of the organic soil on sub-surface runoff is substantive with much higher runoff throughout the season.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2002-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench).

  1. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu Subsidence Crater Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Parsons

    1999-03-01

    The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). The subsidence crater was used as a land disposal unit for radioactive and hazardous waste from 1973 to 1988. Site disposal history is supported by memorandums, letters, and personnel who worked at the Nevada Test Site at the time of active disposal. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil form the tip of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that lead has been removed to concentrations be low regulatory action level. The area will then be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed, and certified by an independent professional engineer as to having followed the approved Closure Plan.

  2. Closure plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu subsidence crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). Based on the results of the analyses reported in the site characterization report, the only constituents of concern in the U-2bu subsidence crater include leachable lead and total petroleum hydrocarbons. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil from the top of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that the leachable lead has been removed to concentrations below the regulatory action level. After sample results show that the lead has been removed, the excavated area will be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed as a best management practice. An independent registered professional engineer will certify the site was closed following the approved Closure Plan. Post-closure care is not warranted for this site because closure activities will involve removal of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents of concern.

  3. Genesis Eco Systems, Inc. soil washing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Genesis soil washing system is an integrated system of modular design allowing for maximum material handling capabilities, with optimized use of space for site mobility. The Surfactant Activated Bio-enhanced Remediation Equipment-Generation 1 (SABRE-1, Patent Applied For) modification was developed specifically for removing petroleum byproducts from contaminated soils. Scientifically formulated surfactants, introduced by high pressure spray nozzles, displace the contaminant from the surface of the soil particles into the process solution. Once the contaminant is dispersed into the liquid fraction of the process, it is either mechanically removed, chemically oxidized, or biologically oxidized. The contaminated process water is pumped through the Genesis Biosep (Patent Applied For) filtration system where the fines portion is flocculated, and the contaminant-rich liquid portion is combined with an activated mixture of nutrients and carefully selected bacteria to decompose the hydrocarbon fraction. The treated soil and dewatered fines are transferred to a bermed stockpile where bioremediation continues during drying. The process water is reclaimed, filtered, and recycled within the system

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench)

  5. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition – central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Joevivek; N Chandrasekar

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  6. 1996 Phase 2 soil sampling at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consolidates 1996 soil sampling data collected from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin Site. This report is intended to be a data reference and does not make comparisons or conclusions regarding specific regulatory criteria. Chemical and radiological data were collected to support cleanup activities at the Hanford Site; soil sampling occurred beneath and next to the former basin structures. The 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, which consisted of four adjoining concrete basins, were located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, north of the retired 105-H Reactor. Originally, the basins were built as part of the 100-H water treatment structures. The four basins were inactive from the mid-1960's until 1973 when radioactive and dangerous (mixed) waste from the 300 Area Fuel Fabrication Facility was shipped to the basins for storage and treatment. The basins were used for solar evaporation of the waste. The last shipment of waste to the 183-H Basins took place in November 1985. Decontamination of the cement structure took place in 1995. The structure has subsequently been dismantled and disposed. Chapters 2.0 through 4.0 present summary information about sampling (1) beneath the loading ramp and berm piles, (2) in shallow soils beneath the former basin floor, and (3) deep vadose soils. Detailed data are provided in the appendices

  7. Efficient numerical schemes for viscoplastic avalanches. Part 1: The 1D case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the numerical resolution of a shallow water viscoplastic flow model. Viscoplastic materials are characterized by the existence of a yield stress: below a certain critical threshold in the imposed stress, there is no deformation and the material behaves like a rigid solid, but when that yield value is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. In the context of avalanches, it means that after going down a slope, the material can stop and its free surface has a non-trivial shape, as opposed to the case of water (Newtonian fluid). The model involves variational inequalities associated with the yield threshold: finite-volume schemes are used together with duality methods (namely Augmented Lagrangian and Bermúdez–Moreno) to discretize the problem. To be able to accurately simulate the stopping behavior of the avalanche, new schemes need to be designed, involving the classical notion of well-balancing. In the present context, it needs to be extended to take into account the viscoplastic nature of the material as well as general bottoms with wet/dry fronts which are encountered in geophysical geometries. We derived such schemes and numerical experiments are presented to show their performances

  8. Stress tomography : monitoring dam foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. [GeoConsult Inc., (Puerto Rico); Gonzalez, M.; Parra, S.; Malave, G.; Alvarellos, J. [Petroleos de Venezuela (Venezuela); Santamarina, J.C. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2002-12-01

    An important engineering application for dam foundations was presented. A study was conducted in which tomographic techniques were used to field-test a site characterization methodology based on the measurement of P and S-wave travel times and data processing. P and S-wave propagation studies provide information about stratigraphy, spatial distribution in soil stiffness and degree of saturation. In some instances, the state of stress can be determined. The interpretation can be enhanced through tomography by providing spatial distribution of the soil properties, instead of the average value that is obtained through cross-hole or down-hole testing. This field test at Lake Maracaibo Coastal Protection System involved 3 crosshole tests in the same soil deposit under different states of stress. A new borehole-less source of shear waves was used to increase the quality of the measurement. Tomographic imaging effectively characterized geotechnical systems and monitored subsurface processes such as changes in the field of stress in relation to pressure anomalies. It was concluded that a low velocity region beneath the berm of a dam can result from the undergoing subsurface arching and subsidence. 20 refs., 1 figs.

  9. Lessons learned from activities carried out under the Buhovo tailings pond reconstruction project in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1947, the 'Metallurgy' uranium processing plant began operation in Buhovo, near Sofia. Until 1990 the plant processed 10 million t of ore from various uranium deposits throughout the country. Tailings arising from the uranium recovery process were placed in two ponds, covering a 24 ha area close to Monastirsko river. Disposal took place in a basin enclosed by an earth dam. A great quantity of liquids remained above the sandy tailings, creating a severe risk in case of dam failures under seismic conditions because of the potential for liquid runoff and ensuing downstream contamination of the Monastirsko river. To strengthen the dam, a 30 m wide additional berm, extending to an elevation of 678 m, was planned and built. It required 700,000 m3 of clay soils and 60,000 m3 of gravel to be used as a filter for drainage purposes. Construction work was carried out by DEC (a Belgian contractor) between March 2000 and August 2001. INITEC, acting as the architect/engineer, supervised the work under FIDIC (Federation Internationale des Ingenieurs-Conseils) conditions and Bulgarian law. The purpose of the paper is to describe the lessons learned during this project, as well as the INITEC role as architect/engineer with active involvement in design modifications aimed at improving the performance of the project. (author)

  10. Faxing Structures to the Moon: Freeform Additive Construction System (FACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Wilcox, Brian; McQuin, Christopher; Townsend, Julie; Rieber, Richard; Barmatz, Martin; Leichty, John

    2013-01-01

    Using the highly articulated All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) robotic mobility system as a precision positioning tool, a variety of print head technologies can be used to 3D print large-scale in-situ structures on planetary surfaces such as the moon or Mars. In effect, in the same way CAD models can be printed in a 3D printer, large-scale structures such as walls, vaults, domes, berms, paving, trench walls, and other insitu derived elements can be FAXed to the planetary surface and built in advance of the arrival of crews, supplementing equipment and materials brought from earth. This paper discusses the ATHLETE system as a mobility / positioning platform, and presents several options for large-scale additive print head technologies, including tunable microwave "sinterator" approaches and in-situ concrete deposition. The paper also discusses potential applications, such as sintered-in-place habitat shells, radiation shielding, road paving, modular bricks, and prefabricated construction components.

  11. Ecclesiastical Architecture and the Castilian Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Seville Cathedral and the Church of the Sagrario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing d'Arcy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray Lorenzo de San Nicolás, and nineteenth-century commentators, such as Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, the intromission of painters, joiners, silversmiths and other guilds into the realm of architectural design was seen as the principal corruptive force which manifested itself in the unpardonable horrors of the Baroque. These negative topoi have, in many cases, found their way into the contemporary historiography of Spanish architecture of the period, typically depicted as all surface and no space, relegating it to a place lesser importance.

  12. Annoyance from High Speed Train Noise: a Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J.; Champelovier, P.; Vernet, I.

    1996-05-01

    A social survey was carried out in 1993 to assess the impact of noise experienced by residents living in the vicinity of the new TGV Atlantique line, along which noise protection (e.g., barriers, earth berms,..) was provided to comply with the noise guideline (daytime (8 a.m.-8 p.m.) Leq< 65 dB(A)). Two hundred and sixty residents were interviewed by a questionnaire; full 24 hour noise measurements were taken at each site in addition to 1 hour measurements. Analysis of noise annoyance levels and noise exposure levels suggests that the noise guideline should also cover evening and morning periods. Whilst LAeqseems to be a relevant noise annoyance descriptor for the daytime period, the number of noise events or the length of time over 70 dB(A) seems to be more appropriate for the evening. In any case, these findings will have to be considered in the context of practical requirements (indices have to be easy to predict, acceptable to the public, etc.).

  13. Mapping Levees Using LiDAR Data and Multispectral Orthoimages in the Nakdong River Basins, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjae Choung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping levees is important for analyzing levee surfaces, assessing levee stability, etc. Historically, mapping levees has been carried out using ground surveying methods or only one type of remote sensing dataset. This research aims to map levees using airborne topographic LiDAR data and multispectral orthoimages taken in the Nakdong River Basins. Levee surfaces consist of multiple objects with different geometric and spectral patterns. This research investigates different methods for identifying multiple levee components, such as major objects and eroded areas. Multiple geometric analysis approaches such as the slope classification method, and elevation and area analysis are used to identify the levee crown, berm, slope surfaces, and the eroded area, with different geometric patterns using the LiDAR data. Next, a spectral analysis approach, such as the clustering algorithm, is used to identify the major objects with different spectral patterns on the identified components using multispectral orthoimages. Finally, multiple levee components, including major objects and eroded areas, are identified. The accuracy of the results shows that the various components on the levee surfaces are well identified using the proposed methodology. The obtained results are applied for evaluating the physical condition of the levees in the study area.

  14. Toxoplasmosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Clara Delgado Varela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide. Its prevalence can double in rural populations in relation to urban populations, and it is different in persons of different races within the same community. Objective: To determine the characteristics of toxoplasmosis infection in Charavalle community, Bermúdez municipality, Sucre State, Venezuelan Republic. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was developed between April and September 2006. Through observation and interview the primary data on the 343 patients selected through simple sampling was obtained. The studied population was classified according to socio-demographic variables, the serum presence of IgG antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii was determine through indirect hemagglutination and the main risk factors l inked to toxoplasmosis infection were identified. Results: There was a prevalence of the age group between 16 and 30 years, mainly females in the Stratum III of socioeconomic level. Serological prevalence rate of antibodies IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii was 63, 56/100 inhabitants and the most significant risk factors were: cohabitation with dogs and cats, raw vegetables and fruit intake, and no drinkable water intake. Conclusions: Results largely agree with other researches on the same subject.

  15. Mechanism of evolution on winter-time natural convection cooling effect of fractured-rock embankment in permafrost regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Binxiang; XU Xuezu; LAI Yuanming; WANG Shuangjie; ZHANG Jinzhao

    2005-01-01

    Mechanism and evolution of the pore-air natural convection cooling effect in fractured-rock embankments in permafrost regions are studied using a numerical representation of the non-dimensional governing equations in variable permeability porous media. The analyses show that winter-time natural convection in fractured-rock embankments begins to occur in the side slope portions and gradually develops from the left and right side slope portions to the middle portion of embankment. The more significant distortion of isotherms from their initial orientations due to heat conduction alone is that the cooling effect of winter-time natural convection on the fractured-rock embankment is stronger. The minimum critical Rayleigh numbers triggering natural convection of the pore-air in the side slope portions and the middle portion of embankment were obtained. The factors of influence on triggering winter-time convection cooling effect in fractured-rock embankments were analyzed.Finally, the assertion that the techniques of the fractured-rock revetment and berm are the effective measures to maintain the heat stability of the roadbed in permafrost regions is theoretically demonstrated.

  16. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site and addtiional sites off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Cullinan, V.I.; Pearson, W.H. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District (USACE), has made active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. Disposal site boundaries were established to avoid an area where high densities of Young-of-the-Year (YOY) Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, were observed during the site selection surveys. To monitor possible impacts of disposal operations on Dungeness crab at the site, USACE recommended a crab distribution survey prior to disposal operations in the February 1989 environmental impact statement supplement (EISS) as part of a tiered monitoring strategy for the site. According to the tiered monitoring strategy, a preliminary survey is conducted to determine if the disposal site contains an exceptionally high density of YOY Dungeness crab. The trigger for moving to a more intensive sampling effort is a YOY crab density within the disposal site that is 100 times higher than the density in the reference area to the north. This report concerns a 1991 survey that was designed to verify that the density of YOY Dungeness crab present at the disposal site was not exceptionally high. Another objective of the survey was to estimate Dungeness crab densities at nearshore areas that are being considered as sediment berm sites by USACE.

  17. Response for flooding and effort of plant restart at Fort Calhoun NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort Calhoun NPP(FCNPP) experienced flood due to the elevation of water level of Missouri river from June to August, 2011. FCNPP took various responses including constructing the berm around the important facilities, and could maintain the safety of the reactor with difficulty. The response of FCNPP, which includes both good and bad aspects, will help us in examining the response to flooding at Japanese nuclear plants. In response to the occurrence of the fire of safety related breaker at FCNPP, June 2011, NRC entered the oversight for FCNPP based on the Inspection Manual Chapter-0350 and issued the Confirmatory Action Letter (CAL) with the check list to Omaha Public Power District (OPPD), owner of FCNPP. Check list described the items which OPPD should solve before the restart of FCNPP. Although many efforts need to be done by OPPD to solve the check list, there is transparency about the condition of the plant restart. In Japan all the plants except Ohi 3,4 have continued to shut down after Fukushima accident due to the lack of the rule for restarting of the plant after the occurrence of the safety problem. We should study the plant restart system of NRC. (author)

  18. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition - central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  19. Morphodynamics of a gravel-dominated macrotidal estuary: Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico I. Isla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Rio Grande city (Tierra del Fuego is located on two attached beach systems, one of Upper Pleistocene (Sangamonian and the other of Holocene age. Both gravel spits grew from north to south modifying the inlet of the Rio Grande estuary. The present estuary is constrained by the modern and recurved spit Popper Spit. The main characteristic of this macrotidal estuary is that both margins and the bottom are mainly composed of rounded gravel. Expansion of the city is limited by oceanic and estuarine coasts, and is taking place towards salt marshes taking up more than 30 hectares in the last 20 years. The alteration of the tidal prism induced by marsh reclamation and the construction of a bridge may be affecting the inlet dynamics. The area of salt marsh and gravel banks were calculated by means of supervised classifications derived from a Landsat TM image. The inlet morphology changes in response to cycles dominated by longshore drift, wave refraction and ebb-tidal delta configuration. Oceanic beaches are characterised by large disc-shape boulders at the storm berm, spherical pebbles and sand runs at the foreshore, and fine sand on the low-tide terrace. Although tidal effects are very significant in the dynamics of the estuary, wind can prevail during some days or during slack water.

  20. Design and implementation of an ex situ biopile for petroleum hydrocarbon treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a case study of the design, construction, and maintenance of a full-scale ex situ biopile system for treatment of JP-4 and JP-8 contaminated soils stockpiled at a bulk fuel storage terminal in Verona, New York. The biopile system at this site consists of a series of four aerated biopile cells with a combined maximum soil holding capacity of 2,600 cubic yards. The biopiles were constructed in an open area adjacent to the bulk fuel storage facility. The four cells are surrounded on three sides by a sloped-wall containment berm, lined with a geomembrane and covered with tarps. This prevents the contact of rain water and runoff with the contaminated soil, and prevents leachate generation. Air, water, and nutrients are supplied to each cell to maintain optimal microbial growth conditions, and to facilitate the rapid degradation of fuel residuals. Soil conditions, bacteria counts, and contaminated levels are routinely monitored. The operation of the system began in October 1995. Preliminary results indicate enhanced biological activity is occurring within the biopiles. Based on the initial biopile system monitoring results, soil petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations are expected to achieve cleanup goals established by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) by the summer of 1996

  1. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Cox, Rachel E.; Schuler, Jason M.; Ebert, Tom; Nick, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Regolith is abundant on extra-terrestrial surfaces and is the source of many resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, titanium, aluminum, iron, silica and other valuable materials, which can be used to make rocket propellant, consumables for life support, radiation protection barrier shields, landing pads, blast protection berms, roads, habitats and other structures and devices. Recent data from the Moon also indicates that there are substantial deposits of water ice in permanently shadowed crater regions and possibly under an over burden of regolith. The key to being able to use this regolith and acquire the resources, is being able to manipulate it with robotic excavation and hauling machinery that can survive and operate in these very extreme extra-terrestrial surface environments. In addition, the reduced gravity on the Moon, Mars, comets and asteroids poses a significant challenge in that the necessary reaction force for digging cannot be provided by the robot's weight as is typically done on Earth. Space transportation is expensive and limited in capacity, so small, lightweight payloads are desirable, which means large traditional excavation machines are not a viable option. A novel, compact and lightweight excavation robot prototype for manipulating, excavating, acquiring, hauling and dumping regolith on extra-terrestrial surfaces has been developed and tested. Lessons learned and test results will be presented including digging in a variety of lunar regolith simulant conditions including frozen regolith mixed with water ice.

  2. Efficient numerical schemes for viscoplastic avalanches. Part 1: The 1D case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Nieto, Enrique D., E-mail: edofer@us.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Avda, Reina Mercedes, s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Gallardo, José M., E-mail: jmgallardo@uma.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad de Málaga, F. Ciencias, Campus Teatinos S/N (Spain); Vigneaux, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Vigneaux@math.cnrs.fr [Unitée de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the numerical resolution of a shallow water viscoplastic flow model. Viscoplastic materials are characterized by the existence of a yield stress: below a certain critical threshold in the imposed stress, there is no deformation and the material behaves like a rigid solid, but when that yield value is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. In the context of avalanches, it means that after going down a slope, the material can stop and its free surface has a non-trivial shape, as opposed to the case of water (Newtonian fluid). The model involves variational inequalities associated with the yield threshold: finite-volume schemes are used together with duality methods (namely Augmented Lagrangian and Bermúdez–Moreno) to discretize the problem. To be able to accurately simulate the stopping behavior of the avalanche, new schemes need to be designed, involving the classical notion of well-balancing. In the present context, it needs to be extended to take into account the viscoplastic nature of the material as well as general bottoms with wet/dry fronts which are encountered in geophysical geometries. We derived such schemes and numerical experiments are presented to show their performances.

  3. Flora and vegetation on dumps of uranium mining in the southern part of the former GDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Sänger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From 1946 to 1990 an intensive uranium mining had been carried out with underground mining and also with opencast mining by the Wismut enterprise in the southern part of the former GDR. The mining activity lead also in the surroundings of Ronneburg to a permanent growth of devastated areas, among others in the form of dumps and tailings. These areas form by reason of mining-specific contaminations, extrem biotops which demand high claims on the pioneer organisms during the phase of natural first settlement. From 1990 to 1992 vegetation mappings were carried out on 15 dumps of the Thuringia mining area according to Braun-Blanquet (1964. The utilization of the computer programm Flora _D (Frank and Klotz 1990 enabled the ecological characterisation of the dumps. On the 15 investigated dumps found were 498 higher plants, belonging to 65 families. One hundred species are species with a high dominance. The number of species per dump fluctuates between 1 I and 282. Pioneer plants occur on the berms mostly in the second year after stoppage of the dumping, on the slopes after five to ten years. After nearly ten years the first step of settlement seems to be finished. Among the mechanisms of spreading dominate wind- and burdock spread. According to the form of life forms the dump species are predominantly hemicryptophytes, further therophytes, geophytes and phanerophytes.

  4. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of vertical lander rocket plume impingement, to keep abrasive and harmful dust from getting lofted and for dust free operations. In addition, the same regolith stabilization process can be used for 3 Dimensional ( 3D) printing, additive construction techniques by repeating the 2D stabilization in many vertical layers. This will allow in-situ construction with regolith so that materials will not have to be transported from Earth. Recent work in the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Surface Systems Office (NE-S) Swamp Works and at the University of Southern California (USC) under two NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) awards have shown promising results with regolith (crushed basalt rock) materials for in-situ heat shields, bricks, landing/launch pads, berms, roads, and other structures that could be fabricated using regolith that is sintered or mixed with a polymer binder. The technical goals and objectives of this project are to prove the feasibility of 3D printing additive construction using planetary regolith simulants and to show that they have structural integrity and practical applications in space exploration.

  5. Raman spectroscopy as an effective tool for high-resolution heavy-mineral analysis: examples from major Himalayan and Alpine fluvio-deltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Sergio; Bersani, Danilo; Vignola, Pietro; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy represents a new way to obtain detailed comprehensive information on heavy-mineral assemblages. In this work are presented several examples from major Alpine (Po River) and Himalayan (Ganga and Brahmaputra Rivers) fluvio-deltaic sands. Our attention was focused on the chemical properties of garnet, which is a widespread mineral in orogenic sediments, easy to be identified, and relatively stable during both equatorial weathering and intrastratal dissolution. Garnet grains were studied in different samples representative of various depositional environments (fluvial bar, fluvial levee, shoreface, beach berm, eolian dune), in order to investigate specifically the hydraulic behaviour of grains with different density in different hydrodynamic conditions. Raman spectra and semi-quantitative analysis of Raman shifts allowed us to rapidly determine the distribution of garnet types in each sample in order to obtain chemical composition, to calculate the density of each garnet, and finally to infer their respective provenance. This manuscript presents one possible application of the "MIRAGEM" method described by Bersani et al. in this volume. References, data sets and details on the analytical routine are widely explained in the above mentioned work. PMID:19111499

  6. Reinforcement of steel plank revetment deteriorated by corrosion; Fushoku rekkashita koyaban gogan no hokyo taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, K.; Takeda, E.; Karai, M. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-07-05

    Revetment for the site of Karatsu Power Station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Ltd., is an L-shape revetment using prestressed concrete and steel planks. Twenty-five years have elapsed since it was constructed, and now the revetment suffers from various kinds of deterioration, such as steel plank corrosion, salt damage of concrete, and change in shape and load condition. This report outlines the deterioration/soundness assessment and the execution of reinforcement using self-sustaining prestressed concrete planks. After assessing the time-dependence of stability of the revetment, it is found that plank thickness reduces by corrosion so much that the plank yield strength is exceeded by the stress imposed by earthquakes. It is inferred that cracks that occur in the concrete berm are caused by the uneven subsidence of the revetment and that they are responsible very likely for the corrosion and fracture of reinforcing bars and tie rods. Twenty years in the future, it is predicted, the south-side revetment will suffer a collapse rate of 46% due to the advance of steel plank corrosion and salt in the revetment concrete will exceed the critical amount for collapse of 3.8kg/m{sup 3}. On the basis of the above findings, it is inferred that the main factor of revetment deterioration is the synergistic effect of increase in the load on the revetment and the progress of steel plank corrosion. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Restoring ecosystem services to littoral zones of rivers in the urban core of Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Xu-Dong; Feng, Yi-Long; Willison, J H Martin; Ai, Li-Jiao; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhi-Neng

    2015-08-01

    Two examples of the creation of naturalized areas in the littoral zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the urban core of Chongqing City, China, are described. The areas were created for the purpose of restoring ecological functions and services. Plants were selected based on surveys of natural wetland vegetation in the region, and experiments were conducted to discover the capacity of species of interest to survive the sometimes extreme hydrological regimes at the sites. Novel methods were developed to stabilize the plants against the rigors of extreme summer floods and constant swash, notably zigzag berms of rocks wrapped in iron mesh. The areas include native reeds, grasses, shrubs, and trees. Plant communities in the areas are zoned according to flooding stress, and their structure is less stable at lower elevations that are subjected to greater stress. The tall grass Saccharum spontaneum (widespread in Southern Asia) and the tree Pterocarya stenoptera (native to Southwest China) are notable for their utility at these sites in the center of a large city. Communities of tall reeds and grasses have become so dense and stable that they now provide the ecosystem services of capturing river sediments and resisting erosion of the river banks. It is recommended that extensive greening of the riparian zones in urban areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir be conducted for the purpose of providing ecosystem services, based in part on the experiences described here. PMID:25907628

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of land farming oilfield waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of oilfield wastes through bio-remediation technologies such as land farming, land spreading and land treatment are discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons and other common oilfield substances such as amines, glycol, methanol, biocides and solvents can be degraded through landfarming operations. Land farming is an active bioremediation technology that treats contaminated soils, sediments or sludges by applying them to a clean soil surface and occasionally tilling them to enhance aeration and natural biological breakdown of the waste material. The related process of land spreading denotes a one time application and incorporation of a waste into an unprepared soil media without repeated tillage. Land treatment refers generally to in-situ treatment of contaminated material. The factors that help make land farming a success and the limitations of the process were described. The biodegradation process of hydrocarbons is a component of the carbon cycle. One of the end-products is carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas. It was noted that to date, no emissions restrictions have been placed on land farming operations in Alberta. Factors that drive the biodegradation process, i. e. aeration, moisture, temperature, nutrients, and the organic composition of the residues were reviewed. Land farming operations can be complex, often incorporating liners and other methods to control leaching of contaminants. The physical components of a land farm include: access ramps, grade, groundwater monitoring systems, irrigation systems, impermeable liners, leachate collection systems, run-off diversion berms, run-off water catchment, and a working area. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Sediment Sources and Transport Pathway Identification Based on Grain-Size Distributions on the SW Coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Espichel-Sines is an embayed coast in SW Portugal, consisting of two capes at both extremities, a tidal inlet and associated ebb tidal delta, a barrier spit, sandy beaches, sea cliffs, and a submarine canyon. Beach berm, backshore, near shore and inner shelf sediment samples were taken. Samples were analyzed for their grain-size compositions. This study ranks the hypothetical sediment sources influences on the sediment distributions in the study area using the multivariate Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF techniques. Transport pathways in this study were independently identified using the grain size trend analysis (GSTA technique to verify the EOF findings. The results show that the cliff-erosion sediment is composed of pebbles and sand and is the most important sediment source for the entire embayment. The sediment at the inlet mouth is a mixture of pebbles, sand, silt, and clay, which is a minor sediment source that only has local influence. The overall grain-size distributions on the shelf are dominated by the sand except for the high mud content around the tidal delta front in the northern embayment. Sediment transport patterns on the inner shelf at the landward and north sides of the canyon head are landward and northward along the barrier spit, respectively. On the south side of the canyon head, the prevailing sediment transport is seaward. Sediment transport occurs in both directions along the shore.

  10. Full-scale chilled pipeline frost heave testing, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, B. [Northern Engineering and Scientific, Anchorage, AK (United States); Isaacs, R.M. [RMI Associates, Camano Island, WA (United States); Myrick, J.E. [Myrick International, Tyler, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a chilled pipeline frost-heave testing facility that was developed to simulate and record the rate of frost heave and frost-bulb growth for a buried, chilled pipeline in frost-susceptible soil and to determine the effectiveness of different mitigation techniques. The test facility, which was established near Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1979, has 10 test sections using 1.22-metre-diameter pipe. The testing involved un-insulated, insulated, and insulated with over-excavation and gravel berm configurations as well as the frost heave of the chilled pipeline. The test facility was described in detail. Frost heave and frost-bulb growth measurements from the first 10 months of testing were presented, as these are the first data to enter the public domain. The testing was undertaken to investigate the frost-heave relationships between sections, to better understand frost heave in permafrost, to explore possible mitigation options, and to advance the predicative capabilities of frost heave models. 12 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  11. The impact of foundation conditions on the design and construction of the Snake Lake Reservoir dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unique aspects of the design and construction of two small dams for the Snake Lake Reservoir Project and some of the lessons learned in the process are described. The outstanding feature of this project was that although relatively close together and in the same post-glacial channel, the foundations of the two dams were quite different. The West Dam had permeable silt, sand and gravel with deep bedrock, while the East Dam had impermeable high plastic clay and shallow bedrock as foundation. The challenge to the design was to develop a cross section that would work for both foundation conditions. The final design turned out to be an impermeable fill with toe berms accommodating the variability in the foundations. Instrumentation was used to determine when the second construction stage should commence. At the end of the construction, the reservoir was partially filled relying on the instrumentation to suggest when that would be safe enough to proceed without impacting the overall embankment stability. In the event, the West Dam foundation soils proved to be several orders of magnitude higher than estimated from grain size analyses, requiring installation of a relief valve after construction was completed. Apart from that, dam construction proceeded smoothly and the instrumentation performed as expected.12 refs., 7 figs

  12. From disasters to decisions: Cape Canaveral Marine Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five years ago, in August 1992, a tropical depression off the western coast of Africa formed, intensifying and gathering storm clouds as it began its journey westward. By the time it reached the US mainland, it had become a full-fledged hurricane -- Hurricane Andrew -- that blasted over south Florida and into south-central Louisiana. In Florida City, Fla., things went from bad to worse. One piece of metal debris -- airborne from the hurricane's 145 mile-per-hour winds -- punctured an oil tank, triggering a rapidly spreading oil spill that needed to be contained, and fast. The tank had a mechanism whereby oil was replenished when the container was less than full; so as oil was sucked out by the high winds, more came pouring in. In addition, a berm that would have somewhat contained the spill was stuck in open position. Enter Cape Canaveral Marine Services, Inc., (CCMS, Cape Canaveral, Fla.), an environmental services company well-versed in emergency spill response activities. Within seven weeks, CCMS had cleaned up and mitigated the impacts of the spill. Although the job posed significant challenges, the company was uniquely situated to respond quickly, efficiently, and effectively. After all, it had already been in the business for 20 years

  13. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  14. Closure plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu subsidence crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). Based on the results of the analyses reported in the site characterization report, the only constituents of concern in the U-2bu subsidence crater include leachable lead and total petroleum hydrocarbons. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil from the top of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that the leachable lead has been removed to concentrations below the regulatory action level. After sample results show that the lead has been removed, the excavated area will be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed as a best management practice. An independent registered professional engineer will certify the site was closed following the approved Closure Plan. Post-closure care is not warranted for this site because closure activities will involve removal of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents of concern

  15. Current Program for the management of U.S. Department of Energy transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing inventory of TRU waste can be divided into tow distinct components: (1) retrievably stored TRU waste and (2) buried TRU waste. The distinction between open-quotes storedclose quotes and open-quotes buriedclose quotes TRU waste was established in 1970 when the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) determined that TRU-contaminated waste, when disposed, should have more effective isolation from the environment than the confinement provided by burial in pits and trenches covered with soil. Buried TRU (and contaminated soils surrounding buried TRU) are the results of disposal operations carried out at DOE sites prior to the 1970 decision. The inventory of buried TRU is 190,600 m3. This waste is the responsibility of the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). All TRU waste generated since 1970 has been placed in storage at six DOE sites. This storage was designed with a lifetime expected to be 20 years. The waste is stored in retrievable form for eventual shipment and disposal at a geologic repository. Currently, TRU waste is contained in a variety of packaging, including metal drums and wooden and metal boxes, and stored in earth-mounded berms, concrete culverts, or other facilities. At the end of 1991, there were approximately 64,000 m3 of retrievably stored TRU waste. With the WIPP facility not becoming operational until the year 2000 or later, the DOE must effectively manage this waste in other manners. The issues regarding the management of TRU wastes is described

  16. Low-level waste drum staging building at Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility, TA-16, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed action is to place a 3 meter (m) by 4.5 m (10 ft x 15 ft) prefabricated storage building (transportainer) adjacent to the existing Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at Technical Area (TA-) 16, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and to use the building as a staging site for sealed 55 galllon drums of noncompactible waste contaminated with low levels of tritium (LLW). Up to eight drums of waste would be accumulated before the waste is moved by LANL Waste Management personnel to the existing on-site LLW disposal area at TA-54. The drum staging building would be placed on a bermed asphalt pad, near other existing accumulation structures for office trash and compactible LLW. The no-action alternative is to continue storing drums of LLW in the WETF laboratories where they occupy valuable work space, hamper movement of personnel and equipment, and require waste management personnel to enter those laboratories in order to remove filled drums. No new waste would be generated by implementing the proposed action; no changes or increases in WETF operations or waste production rate are anticipated as a result of staging drums of LLW outside the main laboratory building. The site for the LLW drum staging building would not impact any sensitive areas. Tritium emissions from the drums of LLW were included within the source term for normal operations at the WETF; the cumulative impacts would not be increased

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  18. 波控中等潮差海滩剖面时空变化过程研究%Spatial and temporal variability of the wave-dominated, meso-tidal beach profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于吉涛; 丁圆婷; 程璜鑫; 陈子燊

    2015-01-01

    The 16-month beach profile data set from the tangent segment of a wave-dominated, meso-tidal bay is selected. An EOF analysis is used to extract the first three eigenfunctions which account for 91.32%of the total profile variability and to indentify the spatial characteristics of the beach profile. The first spatial eigenfunction is the primary mode and indicates the gradually enhanced change feature from the berm crest to the surf zone. The second spatial eigenfunction describes the formation and elimination process of the berm. The three spatial modes identify the existence of the giant cusps at the high water level of spring tides. By using the successive power spectrum method to first three temporal eigenfunctions associated with first three spatial eigenfunctions, results show that these three processes are dominated by the three tidal frequencies that are respectively about the half spring-tide cycle, a lunar tide cycle and 2-month spring-tide cycle. This conclusion illustrates that the wave superimposed on the periodic tide is the main dynamic factor of this wave-dominated, meso-tidal beach evolution, which was ignored in previous studies.%通过对一波控中等潮差海湾切线段16个月海滩剖面数据,采用EOF分析提取了占数据总方差91.32%的前3个空间特征函数研究海滩剖面空间变化.结果发现第一空间特征函数指示了滩肩顶至碎波带海滩剖面变动逐渐增强的特征,是海滩剖面变化的主要模式;第二空间特征函数指示了滩肩形成与消亡;第三空间特征函数指示了大潮高潮位的巨型滩角的存在.通过对EOF分析得到的时间特征函数作连续功率谱分析,反映该海滩剖面波能在大小潮汐约半月潮周期、近塑望月潮频率周期和大小潮汐约2个月潮周期内对这些空间过程的控制,体现了这一波控中等潮差海岸近岸区,叠加在周期性潮汐之上的波浪是海滩演变的主要动力因素,这在以前的研究中所忽略.

  19. Toxoplasmosis infection. Comportamiento de la infección toxoplásmica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel García Borges

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide. Its prevalence can double in rural populations in relation to urban populations, and it is different in persons of different races within the same community. Objective: To determine the characteristics of toxoplasmosis infection in Charavalle community, Bermúdez municipality, Sucre State, Venezuelan Republic. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was developed between April and September 2006. Through observation and interview the primary data on the 343 patients selected through simple sampling was obtained. The studied population was classified according to socio-demographic variables, the serum presence of IgG antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii was determine through indirect hemagglutination and the main risk factors l inked to toxoplasmosis infection were identified. Results: There was a prevalence of the age group between 16 and 30 years, mainly females in the Stratum III of socioeconomic level. Serological prevalence rate of antibodies IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii was 63, 56/100 inhabitants and the most significant risk factors were: cohabitation with dogs and cats, raw vegetables and fruit intake, and no drinkable water intake. Conclusions: Results largely agree with other researches on the same subject.Fundamento: La Toxoplasmosis es la zoonosis de más amplia distribución mundial, su prevalencia puede llegar a ser el doble en poblaciones rurales respecto a las urbanas y muy diferente en poblaciones de distinta raza, dentro de una misma comunidad. Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento de la Infección Toxoplásmica en la Comunidad de Charallave, municipio Bermúdez, estado Sucre, República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en el período comprendido entre abril y

  20. Vegetation Influences on Tidal Freshwater Marsh Sedimentation and Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadol, D. D.; Elmore, A. J.; Engelhardt, K.; Palinkas, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Continued sea level rise, and the potential for acceleration over the next century, threatens low-lying natural and cultural resources throughout the world. In the national capital region of the United States, for example, the National Park Service manages over 50 km^2 of land along the shores of the tidal Potomac River and its tributaries that may be affected by sea level rise. Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve on the Potomac River south of Washington, DC, is one such resource with a rich history of scientific investigation. It is a candidate for restoration to replace marsh area lost to dredging in the 1960s, yet for restoration to succeed in the long term, accretion must maintain the marsh surface within the tidal range of rising relative sea level. Marsh surface accretion rates tend to increase with depth in the tidal frame until a threshold depth is reached below which marsh vegetation cannot be sustained. Suspended sediment concentration, salinity, tidal range, and vegetation community all influence the relationship between depth and accretion rate. The complex interactions among these factors make sedimentation rates difficult to generalize across sites. Surface elevation tables (SET) and feldspar marker horizons have been monitored at 9 locations in Dyke Marsh for 5 years, providing detailed data on sedimentation, subsidence, and net accretion rates at these locations. We combine these data with spatially rich vegetation surveys, a LiDAR derived 1-m digital elevation model of the marsh, and temperature-derived inundation durations to model accretion rates across the marsh. Temperature loggers suggest a delayed arrival of tidal water within the marsh relative to that predicted by elevation alone, likely due to hydraulic resistance caused by vegetation. Wave driven coastal erosion has contributed to bank retreat rates of ~2.5 m/yr along the Potomac River side of the marsh while depositing a small berm of material inland of the retreating shoreline. Excluding sites

  1. A simple model for the spatially-variable coastal response to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, H.F.; Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Holman, R.A.; Howd, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The vulnerability of a beach to extreme coastal change during a hurricane can be estimated by comparing the relative elevations of storm-induced water levels to those of the dune or berm. A simple model that defines the coastal response based on these elevations was used to hindcast the potential impact regime along a 50-km stretch of the North Carolina coast to the landfalls of Hurricane Bonnie on August 27, 1998, and Hurricane Floyd on September 16, 1999. Maximum total water levels at the shoreline were calculated as the sum of modeled storm surge, astronomical tide, and wave runup, estimated from offshore wave conditions and the local beach slope using an empirical parameterization. Storm surge and wave runup each accounted for ∼ 48% of the signal (the remaining 4% is attributed to astronomical tides), indicating that wave-driven process are a significant contributor to hurricane-induced water levels. Expected water levels and lidar-derived measures of pre-storm dune and berm elevation were used to predict the spatially-varying storm-impact regime: swash, collision, or overwash. Predictions were compared to the observed response quantified using a lidar topography survey collected following hurricane landfall. The storm-averaged mean accuracy of the model in predicting the observed impact regime was 55.4%, a significant improvement over the 33.3% accuracy associated with random chance. Model sensitivity varied between regimes and was highest within the overwash regime where the accuracies were 84.2% and 89.7% for Hurricanes Bonnie and Floyd, respectively. The model not only allows for prediction of the general coastal response to storms, but also provides a framework for examining the longshore-variable magnitudes of observed coastal change. For Hurricane Bonnie, shoreline and beach volume changes within locations that experienced overwash or dune erosion were two times greater than locations where wave runup was confined to the foreshore (swash regime

  2. Removal action work plan for the YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is conducting environmental restoration activities at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. As part of these efforts, a removal action is planned for the former YS-860 Firing Ranges as described in the Action Memorandum for the project. This removal action work plan (RmAWP) is focused on the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, located outside the primary fenceline at the eastern end of the plant. This RmAWP defines the technical approach, procedures, and requirements for the removal of lead-contaminated soil and site restoration of the former YS-860 Firing Ranges at the Y-12 Plant. This RmAWP describes excavation, verification/confirmatory sampling, and reporting requirements for the project. Lower tier plans associated with the RmAWP, which are submitted as separate stand-alone documents, include a field sampling and analysis plan, a health and safety plan, a quality assurance project plan, a waste management plan, a data management implementation plan, and a best management practices plan. A site evaluation of the YS-86O Firing Ranges conducted in 1996 by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., determined that elevated lead levels were present in the Firing Ranges target berm soils. The results of this sampling event form the basis for the removal action recommendation as described in the Action Memorandum for this project. This RmAWP contains a brief history and description of the Former YS-860 Firing Ranges Project, along with the current project schedule and milestones. This RmAWP also provides an overview of the technical requirements of the project, including a summary of the approach for the removal activities. Finally, the RmAWP identifies the regulatory requirements and the appropriate removal action responses to address applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements to achieve the project goals of substantially reducing the risk to human health and the environment

  3. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996 (as amended February 2008)). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (smbullet) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt(smbullet) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2)(smbullet) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm(smbullet) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area(smbullet) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area(smbullet) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area(smbullet) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area(smbullet) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area(smbullet) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area(smbullet) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area(smbullet) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a(smbullet) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site(smbullet) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil(smbullet) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10(smbullet) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky) Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107.

  5. Heavy-metal contamination on training ranges at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.

    1993-05-01

    Large quantities of lead and other heavy metals are deposited in the environment of weapons ranges during training exercises. This study was conducted to determine the type, degree, and extent of heavy-metal contamination on selected handgun, rifle, and hand-grenade ranges at Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany. Soil, vegetation, and surface-water samples were collected and analyzed using the inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method and the toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP). The ICP-AES results show that above-normal levels of lead and copper are in the surface soil at the handgun range, high concentrations of lead and copper are in the berm and soil surface at the rifle range, and elevated levels of cadmium and above-normal concentrations of arsenic, copper, and zinc are present in the surface soil at the hand-grenade range. The TCLP results show that surface soils can be considered hazardous waste because of lead content at the rifle range and because of cadmium concentration at the hand-grenade range. Vegetation at the handgun and rifle ranges has above-normal concentrations of lead. At the hand-grenade range, both vegetation and surface water have high levels of cadmium. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer was used to measure lead concentrations in soils in a field test of the method. Comparison of XRF readings with ICP-AES results for lead indicate that the accuracy and precision of the hand-held XRF unit must improve before the unit can be used as more than a screening tool. Results of this study show that heavy-metal contamination at all three ranges is limited to the surface soil; heavy metals are not being leached into the soil profile or transported into adjacent areas.

  6. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  7. Discrimination of inland and coastal dunes in Eastern Saudi Arabia desert system: An approach from particle size and textural parameter variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Chan, Septriandi Asmaidi; Al-Ghamdi, Majed; Akif, Tariq; Al-Ramadan, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    Different particle size parameters have been investigated in this study in order to distinguish the characteristics of different dune morphologies in the Eastern Saudi Arabia. Sand samples were collected from various environments including: the stoss, lee, crest and interdune sides of the inland dunes and foreshore; berm; backshore and backdune of the coastal dunes. Statistical parameters reveal that the majority of inland dune samples are dominated by well sorted fine sand whereas coastal dune samples are mainly dominated by very coarse to medium sand, ranging from well sorted to moderately sorted with a low percentage of silt and clay. The presence of relatively coarser grains in the coastal dunes might be explained by continuous wind deflation along the coast together with wave and tidal activities that concentrate coarser grains. Cross-plots from four statistical parameters and supported by the ANOVA test clearly distinguish the particle variations between these dunes. The log-probability analysis suggest that the main transport mechanism in inland and coastal dunes is dominated by the saltation population, comprising up to 80 percent of the distribution. However, the coastal dunes suspension population is mostly belonging to coarser grained material, whereas the inland dunes population is finer. In comparison with particle size characteristics of dunes in the region, the current study shows a close relationship to mean particle size in Iraq, but is relatively finer compared to the Kuwait dunes. This similarity and difference in particle size variation is mostly controlled by the proximity to the coast and also the wind energy and variation in the wind direction.

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996 (as amended February 2008)). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (1) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; (2) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); (3) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; (4) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; (5) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; (6) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; (7) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; (8) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; (9) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; (10) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; (11) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; (12) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; (13) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; (14) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and (15) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107. CAU 107 closure activities will consist of verifying that the current postings required under Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835 are in place and implementing use restrictions (URs) at two sites, CAS 03-23-29 and CAS 18-23-02. The current radiological postings combined with the URs are adequate administrative controls to limit site access and worker dose

  9. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. It is an addendum to a previously issued document, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2), which presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation. The strategy presented in the SAP is to divide the investigation into three component parts: a large-scale characterization of the floodplain; a fine-scale characterization of the floodplain beginning with a known contaminated location; and a stream sediment characterization. During the large-scale and the fine-scale characterizations, soil and biota samples (i.e., small mammals, earthworms, and vegetation) will be collected in order to characterize the nature and extent of floodplain soil contamination and the impact of this contamination on floodplain biota. The fine-scale characterization will begin with an investigation of a site corresponding to the location noted in the Remedial Investigation Work Plan (ES/ER-19&D2) as an area where uranium and PCBs are concentrated in discrete strata. During this fine-scale characterization, a 1 m deep soil profile excavation will be dug into the creek berm, and individual soil strata in the excavation will be screened for alpha radiation, PCBs, and VOCs. After the laboratory analysis results are received, biota samples will be collected in the vicinity of those locations.

  10. Paleochannels and Sediment Characteristics of the Chenier Plain Inner Shelf, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, A.; Fagherazzi, S.; Orange, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the last 3000 yrs, sediments from the Mississippi Delta have been transported to the western part of the Louisiana shelf, triggering beach progradation through a series of shell and sandy ridges (cheniers) separated by muddy hollows. Distinct events of chenier plain development have been explained as being the result of delta lobe switching in the Mississippi delta combined to local processes responsible for formation of beach ridges, recurved spits, eolian deposits, storm berms, and natural levees. In the present work we investigate the recent infill of the inner shelf off the Chenier Plain coast, just west of the recent deltaic deposits of the Mississippi River. We use shallow seismic analysis and the identification of paleochannels to understand their relationship with current rivers off the present coastline. We have been able to identify four seismic units U1 to U4 and their associated surfaces and discontinuities. A tentative reconstruction for the last 20 ky sedimentary infill is provided, correlating well with the datations available for the area. The identification and tracking of several buried channels across the shelf in units U1 and U3 let us track the position of the Mermentau-Calcasieu hydrological system in previous lowstands. It is interpreted that the Mermentau river was flowing more eastward during the Wisconsinan, occupying the location of our study and was then diverted to the west as a result of coastal processes and the development of the Chenier plains. Also, the Mermentau was re-occupying almost the same location at different lowstands, and only when the Chenier formed (due to reactivation of the west Mississippi lobe), the Mermentau was deviated westward due to sediment accumulation at the shoreline.

  11. The incorporation of an organic soil layer in the Noah-MP land surface model and its evaluation over a boreal aspen forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Li, Yanping; Chen, Fei; Barr, Alan; Barlage, Michael; Wan, Bingcheng

    2016-07-01

    A thick top layer of organic matter is a dominant feature in boreal forests and can impact land-atmosphere interactions. In this study, the multi-parameterization version of the Noah land surface model (Noah-MP) was used to investigate the impact of incorporating a forest-floor organic soil layer on the simulated surface energy and water cycle components at the BERMS Old Aspen site (OAS) field station in central Saskatchewan, Canada. Compared to a simulation without an organic soil parameterization (CTL), the Noah-MP simulation with an organic soil (OGN) improved Noah-MP-simulated soil temperature profiles and soil moisture at 40-100 cm, especially the phase and amplitude (Seasonal cycle) of soil temperature below 10 cm. OGN also enhanced the simulation of sensible and latent heat fluxes in spring, especially in wet years, which is mostly related to the timing of spring soil thaw and warming. Simulated top-layer soil moisture is better in OGN than that in CTL. The effects of including an organic soil layer on soil temperature are not uniform throughout the soil depth and are more prominent in summer. For drought years, the OGN simulation substantially modified the partitioning of water between direct soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration. For wet years, the OGN-simulated latent heat fluxes are similar to CTL except for the spring season when OGN produced less evaporation, which was closer to observations. Including organic soil produced more subsurface runoff and resulted in much higher runoff throughout the freezing periods in wet years.

  12. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal

  14. Operation of the Tevatron satellite refrigerators for .75- and 2.0-kilometer-long magnet strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tevatron magnets at Fermilab are cooled by a hybrid system which consists of a 5000 liters/hr central helium liquefier coupled with a small-diameter liquid transfer line connecting twenty-four satellite refrigerators. The transfer line supplies liquid helium for both the refrigerators and the magnet lead flow as well as liquid nitrogen for the magnet shields. The satellites act as amplifiers with a gain of twelve by using the enthalpy of the helium supplied by the central liquefier as liquid and converting it to 4.5-K refrigeration and then returning it as 300-K gas. This arrangement combines the advantages of a single central facility with those of individual stand-alone units stationed around the ring. The central liquefier has the high efficiency associated with large components but its requirements for distribution of both cryogenic liquids and electric power to the service buildings is reduced. The six compressor buildings supply 20 atm helium to the twenty-four refrigerators through a discharge header located on the berm and a suction header located in the tunnel. The compressor buildings each have four-two stage 58 g/sec screw compressors; each of these has its own oil removal system. The inventory in the ring is controlled at the first compressor building through a cross-connect line to the central liquefier. The suction header is also used as the cooldown line as well as for quench relief. A third header located in the tunnel is the nitrogen collection and relief header

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. {sm_bullet} CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2){sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a{sm_bullet} CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site{sm_bullet} CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil{sm_bullet} CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10{sm_bullet} CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky) Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107.

  16. Design of Rock Slope Reinforcement: An Himalayan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Latha, Gali Madhavi

    2016-06-01

    The stability analysis of the two abutment slopes of a railway bridge proposed at about 359 m above the ground level, crossing a river and connecting two hill faces in the Himalayas, India, is presented. The bridge is located in a zone of high seismic activity. The rock slopes are composed of a heavily jointed rock mass and the spacing, dip and dip direction of joint sets are varying at different locations. Geological mapping was carried out to characterize all discontinuities present along the slopes. Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to assess the geotechnical properties of the intact rock, rock mass and joint infill. Stability analyses of these rock slopes were carried out using numerical programmes. Loads from the foundations resting on the slopes and seismic accelerations estimated from site-specific ground response analysis were considered. The proposed slope profile with several berms between successive foundations was simulated in the numerical model. An equivalent continuum approach with Hoek and Brown failure criterion was initially used in a finite element model to assess the global stability of the slope abutments. In the second stage, finite element analysis of rock slopes with all joint sets with their orientations, spacing and properties explicitly incorporated into the numerical model was taken up using continuum with joints approach. It was observed that the continuum with joints approach was able to capture the local failures in some of the slope sections, which were verified using wedge failure analysis and stereographic projections. Based on the slope deformations and failure patterns observed from the numerical analyses, rock anchors were designed to achieve the target factors of safety against failure while keeping the deformations within the permissible limits. Detailed design of rock anchors and comparison of the stability of slopes with and without reinforcement are presented.

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330, Areas 6,22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. The CAUs are currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). This CAU is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1). CAU 330 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 06-02-04 - Consists of an underground tank and piping. This CAS is close to an area that was part of the Animal Investigation Program (AIP), conducted under the U.S. Public Health Service. Its purpose was to study and perform tests on the cattle and wild animals in and around the NTS that were exposed to radionuclides. It is unknown if this tank was part of these operations. (2) CAS 22-99-06 - Is a fuel spill that is believed to be a waste oil release which occurred when Camp Desert Rock was an active facility. This CAS was originally identified as being a small depression where liquids were poured onto the ground, located on the west side of Building T-1001. This building has been identified as housing a fire station, radio station, and radio net remote and telephone switchboard. (3) CAS 23-01-02 - Is a large aboveground storage tank (AST) farm that was constructed to provide gasoline and diesel storage in Area 23. The site consists of two ASTs, a concrete foundation, a surrounding earthen berm, associated piping, and unloading stations. (4) CAS 23-25-05 - Consists of an asphalt oil spill/tar release that contains a wash covered with asphalt oil/tar material, a half buried 208-liter (L) (55-gallon[gal]) drum, rebar, and concrete located in the vicinity

  18. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Ken

    1986-10-01

    The Hot Springs Fork of the Collawash River is a major sub-drainage in the Clackamas River drainage. Emphasis species for natural production are spring chinook, coho salmon, and winter steelhead. Increased natural production appears limited by a lack of quality rearing habitat. Habitat complexity over approximately 70% of accessible area to anadromous fish has been reduced over the last 40 years by numerous factors. Natural passage barriers limit anadromous fish access to over 7 miles of high quality habitat. In the first year of a multi-year effort to improve fish habitat in the Hot Springs Fork drainage, passage enhancement on two tributaries and channel rehabilitation on one of those tributaries was completed. Three waterfalls on Nohorn Creek were evaluated and passage improved on the uppermost waterfall to provide steelhead full access to 2.4 miles of good quality habitat. The work was completed in October 1985 and involved blasting three jump pools and two holding pools into the waterfall. On Pansy Creek, four potential passage barriers were evaluated and passage improvement work conducted on two logjams and one waterfall. Minor modifications were made to a waterfall to increase flow into a side channel which allows passage around the waterfall. Channel rehabilitation efforts on Pansy Creek (RM 0.0 to 0.3) to increase low flow pool rearing habitat and spawning habitat including blasting five pools into areas of bedrock substrate and using a track-mounted backhoe to construct instream structures. On site materials were used to construct three log sills, three boulder berms, a boulder flow deflector, and five log and boulder structures. Also, an alcove was excavated to provide overwinter rearing habitat. Pre-project monitoring consisting of physical and biological data collection was completed in the project area.

  19. Concept for Hydrogen-Impregnated Nanofiber/Photovoltaic Cargo Stowage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry David; Howard, Robert L.; Poffenberger, Jaso Eric

    2012-01-01

    A stowage system was conceived that consists of collapsible, reconfigurable stowage bags, rigid polyethylene or metal inserts, stainless-steel hooks, flexible photovoltaic materials, and webbing curtains that provide power generation, thermal stabilization, impact resistance, work/sleeping surfaces, and radiation protection to spaceflight hardware and crew members. Providing materials to the Lunar surface is costly from both a mass and a volume standpoint. Most of the materials that will be transferred to other planets or celestial bodies will not be returned to the Earth. In developing a plan to reconfigure pressurized logistics modules, it was determined that there was a requirement to be able to utilize the interior volume of these modules and transform them from Logistics Modules to Storage/Living Quarters. Logistics-to-living must re-utilize stowage bags and the structures that support them to construct living spaces, partitions, furniture, protective shelters from solar particle events, galactic cosmic radiation, and workspaces. In addition to reusing these logistics items for development of the interior living spaces, these items could also be reused outside the habitable volumes to build berms that protect assets from secondary blast ejecta, to define pathways, to stabilize high traffic areas, to protect against dust contamination, to secure assets to mobility elements, to provide thermal protection, and to create other types of protective shelters for surface experiments. Unique features of this innovation include hydrogen-impregnated nano fibers encapsulated in a polyethelyne coating that act as radiation shielding, flexible solar collection cells that can be connected together with cells from other bags via the webbing walls to create a solar array, and the ability to reconfigure each bag to satisfy multiple needs.

  20. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. It is an addendum to a previously issued document, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19 ampersand D2), which presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation. The strategy presented in the SAP is to divide the investigation into three component parts: a large-scale characterization of the floodplain; a fine-scale characterization of the floodplain beginning with a known contaminated location; and a stream sediment characterization. During the large-scale and the fine-scale characterizations, soil and biota samples (i.e., small mammals, earthworms, and vegetation) will be collected in order to characterize the nature and extent of floodplain soil contamination and the impact of this contamination on floodplain biota. The fine-scale characterization will begin with an investigation of a site corresponding to the location noted in the Remedial Investigation Work Plan (ES/ER-19 ampersand D2) as an area where uranium and PCBs are concentrated in discrete strata. During this fine-scale characterization, a 1 m deep soil profile excavation will be dug into the creek berm, and individual soil strata in the excavation will be screened for alpha radiation, PCBs, and VOCs. After the laboratory analysis results are received, biota samples will be collected in the vicinity of those locations

  1. Removal action work plan for the YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting environmental restoration activities at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. As part of these efforts, a removal action is planned for the former YS-860 Firing Ranges as described in the Action Memorandum for the project. This removal action work plan (RmAWP) is focused on the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, located outside the primary fenceline at the eastern end of the plant. This RmAWP defines the technical approach, procedures, and requirements for the removal of lead-contaminated soil and site restoration of the former YS-860 Firing Ranges at the Y-12 Plant. This RmAWP describes excavation, verification/confirmatory sampling, and reporting requirements for the project. Lower tier plans associated with the RmAWP, which are submitted as separate stand-alone documents, include a field sampling and analysis plan, a health and safety plan, a quality assurance project plan, a waste management plan, a data management implementation plan, and a best management practices plan. A site evaluation of the YS-86O Firing Ranges conducted in 1996 by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., determined that elevated lead levels were present in the Firing Ranges target berm soils. The results of this sampling event form the basis for the removal action recommendation as described in the Action Memorandum for this project. This RmAWP contains a brief history and description of the Former YS-860 Firing Ranges Project, along with the current project schedule and milestones. This RmAWP also provides an overview of the technical requirements of the project, including a summary of the approach for the removal activities. Finally, the RmAWP identifies the regulatory requirements and the appropriate removal action responses to address applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements to achieve the project goals of substantially reducing the risk to human health and the environment.

  2. Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1984-07-01

    An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  3. Establishment and Evaluation of the Vegetative Community in A Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Industrial Park Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Galbrand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface flow constructed wetland, designed to curve in a kidney shape in order to increase the length to width ratio to 5:1 was used to treat runoff from an industrial park. A natural wetland system located approximately 200 m downstream of the constructed wetland was selected to act as the vegetative community model for the constructed wetland. The selected model was a riparian, open water marsh dominated by emergent macrophytes. Baseline plant species surveying was conducted. In total, 21 emergent wetland plant species, 40 upland vascular plant species, 17 upland shrub species and 13 upland tree species were identified in the model site. The species from the model site were screened for suitability in the constructed wetland based on the following criteria: (a phytoremediation potential (especially metal uptake, (b sedimentation and erosion control, (c habitat function, (d public deterrent potential and (e rate of plant establishment, tolerances and maintenance requirements. Transplantation was chosen as the main vegetation establishment methodology in the constructed wetland. The species woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus and soft rush (Juncus effusus were chosen to dominate the interior berms and littoral edges of the constructed wetland cells. The buffer areas were dominated by meadowsweet (Spiraea alba var. latifolia and the open water areas were dominated by cowlily (Nuphar variegate and pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata species. A diverse, self-sustaining vegetative community was successfully established in the constructed wetland. The transplant success was gauged by mortality census in the spring of 2003. Over all, 138 dead transplants were observed, many of which had died as a direct result of washout. These computes to an overall site establish success rate of about 87.3%. The species, which suffered the highest mortality rates, were the pickerelweed, with approximately 50 dead plants, the meadowsweet with 32 observed dead plants and

  4. The Evolution and Development of the Lunar Regolith and Implications for Lunar Surface Operations and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David

    2009-01-01

    The lunar regolith consists of about 90% submillimeter particles traditionally termed lunar soil. The remainder consists of larger particles ranging up to boulder size rocks. At the lower size end, soil particles in the 10s of nanometer sizes are present in all soil samples. Lunar regolith overlies bedrock which consists of either lava flows in mare regions or impact-produced megaregolith in highland regions. Lunar regolith has been produced over billions of years by a combination of breaking and communition of bedrock by meteorite bombardment coupled with a variety of complex space weathering processes including solar wind implantation, solar flare and cosmic ray bombardment with attendant radiation damage, melting, vaporization, and vapor condensation driven by impact, and gardening and turnover of the resultant soil. Lunar regolith is poorly sorted compared to most terrestrial soils, and has interesting engineering properties including strong grain adhesion, over-compacted soil density, an abundance of agglutinates with sharp corners, and a variety of properties related to soil maturity. The NASA program has supported a variety of engineering test research projects, the production of bricks by solar or microwave sintering, the production of concrete, the in situ sintering and glazing of regolith by microwave, and the extraction of useful resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, iron, aluminum, silicon and other products. Future requirements for a lunar surface base or outpost will include construction of protective berms, construction of paved roadways, construction of shelters, movement and emplacement of regolith for radiation shielding and thermal control, and extraction of useful products. One early need is for light weight but powerful digging, trenching, and regolith-moving equipment.

  5. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site

  6. A Low-Tech, Low-Budget Storage Solution for High Level Radioactive Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett Carlsen; Ted Reed; Todd Johnson; John Weathersby; Joe Alexander; Dave Griffith; Douglas Hamelin

    2014-07-01

    The need for safe, secure, and economical storage of radioactive material becomes increasingly important as beneficial uses of radioactive material expand (increases inventory), as political instability rises (increases threat), and as final disposal and treatment facilities are delayed (increases inventory and storage duration). Several vendor-produced storage casks are available for this purpose but are often costly — due to the required design, analyses, and licensing costs. Thus the relatively high costs of currently accepted storage solutions may inhibit substantial improvements in safety and security that might otherwise be achieved. This is particularly true in areas of the world where the economic and/or the regulatory infrastructure may not provide the means and/or the justification for such an expense. This paper considers a relatively low-cost, low-technology radioactive material storage solution. The basic concept consists of a simple shielded storage container that can be fabricated locally using a steel pipe and a corrugated steel culvert as forms enclosing a concrete annulus. Benefits of such a system include 1) a low-tech solution that utilizes materials and skills available virtually anywhere in the world, 2) a readily scalable design that easily adapts to specific needs such as the geometry and radioactivity of the source term material), 3) flexible placement allows for free-standing above-ground or in-ground (i.e., below grade or bermed) installation, 4) the ability for future relocation without direct handling of sources, and 5) a long operational lifetime . ‘Le mieux est l’ennemi du bien’ (translated: The best is the enemy of good) applies to the management of radioactive materials – particularly where the economic and/or regulatory justification for additional investment is lacking. Development of a low-cost alternative that considerably enhances safety and security may lead to a greater overall risk reduction than insisting on

  7. Using Lunar Module Shadows To Scale the Effects of Rocket Exhaust Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Excavating granular materials beneath a vertical jet of gas involves several physical mechanisms. These occur, for example, beneath the exhaust plume of a rocket landing on the soil of the Moon or Mars. We performed a series of experiments and simulations (Figure 1) to provide a detailed view of the complex gas-soil interactions. Measurements taken from the Apollo lunar landing videos (Figure 2) and from photographs of the resulting terrain helped demonstrate how the interactions extrapolate into the lunar environment. It is important to understand these processes at a fundamental level to support the ongoing design of higher fidelity numerical simulations and larger-scale experiments. These are needed to enable future lunar exploration wherein multiple hardware assets will be placed on the Moon within short distances of one another. The high-velocity spray of soil from the landing spacecraft must be accurately predicted and controlled or it could erode the surfaces of nearby hardware. This analysis indicated that the lunar dust is ejected at an angle of less than 3 degrees above the surface, the results of which can be mitigated by a modest berm of lunar soil. These results assume that future lunar landers will use a single engine. The analysis would need to be adjusted for a multiengine lander. Figure 3 is a detailed schematic of the Lunar Module camera calibration math model. In this chart, formulas relating the known quantities, such as sun angle and Lunar Module dimensions, to the unknown quantities are depicted. The camera angle PSI is determined by measurement of the imaged aspect ratio of a crater, where the crater is assumed to be circular. The final solution is the determination of the camera calibration factor, alpha. Figure 4 is a detailed schematic of the dust angle math model, which again relates known to unknown parameters. The known parameters now include the camera calibration factor and Lunar Module dimensions. The final computation is the ejected

  8. Artificial ultra-fine aerosol tracers for highway transect studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Wuest, Leann; Gribble, David; Buscho, David; Miller, Roger S.; De la Croix, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The persistent evidence of health impacts of roadway aerosols requires extensive information for urban planning to avoid putting populations at risk, especially in-fill projects. The required information must cover both highway aerosol sources as well as transport into residential areas under a variety of roadway configurations, traffic conditions, downwind vegetation, and meteorology. Such studies are difficult and expensive to do, but were easier in the past when there was a robust fine aerosol tracer uniquely tied to traffic - lead. In this report we propose and test a modern alternative, highway safety flare aerosols. Roadway safety flares on vehicles in traffic can provide very fine and ultra-fine aerosols of unique composition that can be detected quantitatively far downwind of roadways due to a lack of upwind interferences. The collection method uses inexpensive portable aerosol collection hardware and x-ray analysis protocols. The time required for each transect is typically 1 h. Side by side tests showed precision at ± 4%. We have evaluated this technique both by aerosol removal in vegetation in a wind tunnel and by tracking aerosols downwind of freeways as a function of season, highway configuration and vegetation coverage. The results show that sound walls for at-grade freeways cause freeway pollution to extend much farther downwind than standard models predict. The elevated or fill section freeway on a berm projected essentially undiluted roadway aerosols at distances well beyond 325 m, deep into residential neighborhoods. Canopy vegetation with roughly 70% cover reduced very fine and ultra-fine aerosols by up to a factor of 2 at distances up to 200 m downwind.

  9. Evaluating the applicability of regulatory leaching tests for assessing lead leachability in contaminated shooting range soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinde; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is the current US-EPA standard protocol to evaluate metal leachability in wastes and contaminated soils. However, application of TCLP to assess lead (Pb) leachability from contaminated shooting range soils may be questionable. This study determined Pb leachability in the range soils using TCLP and another US-EPA regulatory leaching method, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP). Possible mechanisms that are responsible for Pb leaching in each leaching protocol were elucidated via X-ray diffraction (XRD). Soil samples were collected from the backstop berms at four shooting ranges, with Pb concentrations ranging from 5,000 to 60,600 mg kg(-1) soil. Lead concentrations in the TCLP leachates were from 3 to 350 mg l(-1), with all but one soil exceeding the USEPA non-hazardous waste disposal limit of 5 mg l(-1). However, continued dissolution of metallic Pb particles from spent Pb bullets and its re-precipitation as cerussite (PbCO(3)) prevented the TCLP extraction from reaching equilibrium at the end of the standard leaching period (18 h). Thus, the standard one-point TCLP test would either over- or under-estimate Pb leachability in shooting range soils. Lead concentration in the SPLP leachates ranged from 0.021 to 2.6 mg l(-1), with all soils above the USEPA regulatory limit of 0.015 mg l(-1). In contrast to TCLP, SPLP leaching had reached equilibrium, with regard to both pH and Pb concentrations, within the standard 18 h leaching period, and the analytical SPLP results were in good agreement with those derived from modeling. Thus, we concluded that SPLP is a more appropriate alternative than TCLP for assessing lead leachability in range soils. PMID:18204911

  10. Tailings dams stability analysis using numerical modelling of geotechnical and geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, S.; Zlagnean, M.; Oancea, I.; Petrescu, A.

    2009-04-01

    Methods for monitoring seepage and detecting internal erosion are essential for the safety evaluation of embankment dams. Internal erosion is one of the major reasons for embankment dam failures, and there are thousands of large tailings dams and waste-rock dumps in the world that may pe considered as hotspots for environmental impact. In this research the geophysical survey works were performed on Cetatuia 2 tailings dam. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) method was able to detect spatially anomalous zones inside the embankment dam. These anomalies are the results of internal erosion phenomena which may progressing inside the dam and is difficult to detect by conventional methods. Data aquired by geophysical survey together with their interpretations were used in the numerical model for slope stability assessment. The final results show us the structural weakness induced by the presence of internal erosion elements especially for seismic loading case. This research methodology may be also available for tailings dam monitoring purposes. Electrical Rezistivity Imaging (ERI) was performed on Cetatuia 2 dam at the Uranium Milling Plant Feldioara, in order to map areas with lateral and vertical changes in resistivity. The electrodes are connected to an automated computer operated switch box that selects the 4 electrodes to be used. A computer controls the switch box and the measuring device, and runs a program that selects the electrodes, makes the measurement, and stores the measurement. For inversion processing procedures was used Res2Din software. The measured resistivity were plotted by the pseudo section contouring method. There are five resistivity pseudosections obtained from the Cetatuia 2 tailings dam during the october 2007 measurements. Four transversal profiles trans1 to trans4 are perpendicular to the berms and the longitudinal one long1 is placed along dam's crest. The high resistivities near the berms surfaces corresponds to unsaturated fill materials

  11. Enhancing and restoring habitat for the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat has changed unfavorably during the past 150 years for the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a threatened species with declining populations in the Mojave and western Sonoran Desert. To support recovery efforts, we synthesized published information on relationships of desert tortoises with three habitat features (cover sites, forage, and soil) and candidate management practices for improving these features for tortoises. In addition to their role in soil health and facilitating recruitment of annual forage plants, shrubs are used by desert tortoises for cover and as sites for burrows. Outplanting greenhouse-grown seedlings, protected from herbivory, has successfully restored (>50% survival) a variety of shrubs on disturbed desert soils. Additionally, salvaging and re-applying topsoil using effective techniques is among the more ecologically beneficial ways to initiate plant recovery after severe disturbance. Some plant species provide better-quality forage than others. Tortoises selectively forage on particular annual and herbaceous perennial species, such as legumes, with favored plants varying with phenological stage within years. Non-native grasses are non-preferred forage and contribute fuel to spreading wildfires, which damage or kill shrubs that tortoises use for cover. Maintaining a diverse "menu" of native annual forbs and decreasing non-native grasses are priorities for restoring most desert tortoise habitats. Reducing herbivory by non-native animals, carefully timing herbicide applications, and strategically augmenting annual forage plants via seeding show promise for improving tortoise forage quality. Roads, another disturbance, negatively affect habitat in numerous ways (e.g., compacting soil, altering hydrology). Techniques such as re-contouring road berms to reestablish drainage patterns, vertical mulching ("planting" dead plant material), and creating barriers to prevent trespasses can assist natural recovery on decommissioned backcountry

  12. Geoarqueología del sitio arcaico Chan-Chan 18, costa de Valdivia: discriminación de ambientes de ocupación humana y su relación con la transgresión marina del Holoceno Medio Geoarchaeology of the archaic site Chan-Chan 18, coast of Valdivia: environmental discrimination of human occupation and its relation with the middle Holocene marine transgression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El sitio arqueológico Chan-Chan 18 (39°30'S/73°15'W corresponde a un asentamiento costero complejo del Arcaico Medio. En él se reconocen dos fases de ocupación separadas por un hiatus, datadas entre 5.730-6.130 y 6.250-6.420 años cal. AP, respectivamente. Análisis estratigráficos y granulométricos interpretados mediante análisis multivariados, que incluyen muestras actuales de playas y dunas, han permitido reconocer que la ocupación más antigua del sitio se asentó al borde de la berma de una paleoplaya. Tal berma corresponde al registro de la máxima transgresión holocena, y se ubica a una altura de 8 m s.n.m. El registro temporal de la transgresión es sincrónico con otros de la zona centro y norte de Chile, pero reafirma el levantamiento cuaternario generalizado de la costa de Chile centro-sur, tal como lo sugieren otros antecedentes. Este levantamiento ocurre a pesar del hundimiento cosísmico descrito en esta regiónIn south central Chile the Middle Archaic is well represented by ChanChan 18, a complex coastal settlement located at the coast of Valdivia (39°30'S/73°15'W. In this archaeological site two separated phases of occupation are recognized, the first dated between 5,730 and 6,130, and the second between 6,250 and 6,420 cal. yr BP. Grained size and stratigraphical analyses interpreted by means of multivariate analyses, which include present samples of beaches and dunes, have allowed the recognition that the oldest occupation of the site was located near the berm of a paleo-beach. Such feature corresponds to the record of the maximum Holocene transgression, with an elevation of 8 m a.s.l. The transgression is synchronous with others of north and central Chile, but it confirms the generalized Quaternary rise of the southcentral coast of Chile, as it has been suggested by other observations and studies. This rise happens in spite of the coseismic subsidence described in this region

  13. Contribution of Soil CO2 Efflux to the Carbon Balance of Mature Deciduous and Coniferous Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumont-Guay, D.; Black, A. T.; Barr, A.; McCaughey, H.; Kljun, N.; Morgenstern, K.; Nesic, Z.

    2004-05-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites (BERMS) science team (now part of the Fluxnet Canada Research Network) is making long-term measurements of net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) between the atmosphere and several Canadian boreal forests using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. In order to better understand and constrain the annual carbon budgets obtained with EC, automated soil CO2 efflux chamber systems were established in three of these stands. This study analyses continuous measurements of soil (Rs) and ecosystem (Re) respiration (i.e., soil CO2 efflux and nighttime NEE, respectively) made in 2003 in one deciduous (trembling aspen, SOA) and two coniferous (black spruce, SOBS and jack pine, SOJP) southern boreal forests. These forests are located 80 km apart in central Saskatchewan, Canada, and offer a unique opportunity to compare the response of different forest ecosystems to similar climate forcings. 2003 was characterized by an unprecented drought in western Canada, which significantly reduced the sink strength of these forests. The values of NEE in 2003 were -97, -62 and -29 g C m-2 y-1 (minus sign means uptake by ecosystem) for the respective sites. Overall, the measurements of Rs and Re using the two independent approaches agreed well. Re was largely dominated by Rs at all three sites, the latter accounting for more than 80% of total Re. Annual estimates of Rs were greater at SOA than at SOBS and SOJP, and likely reflect the higher productivity of the deciduous forest. The approximate values of Rs for the respective sites were 920, 600 and 540 g C m-2 y-1 in 2003. The spatial variability of Rs was greater at SOBS than at SOA and SOJP and was related to the heterogeneous nature of the moss-dominated forest-floor. The temporal variability of Rs at all sites was strongly controlled by soil temperature. The annual R10 and Q10 values computed from the relationships of Rs as a function of soil temperature at the 2-cm depth were 4.06, 2.43 and 1

  14. Concept & Morphology of The Herning Center%评析丹麦海宁艺术中心的设计观念与形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆轶辰

    2011-01-01

    The Herning Center of the Arts has for the first time combined three distinctine cultural institutions:the Herning Art Museum,the Mid West Ensemble and the Socle du Monde.The new Center is intended to be an innovative forum uniting visual art and music.The design fuses landscape and architecture in a one-level building that includes permanent and temporary exhibition galleries,a 150- seat auditorium,music rehearsal rooms,a restaurant, a media library,administrative offices and an active landscape.The design of the center aims at "building a site".In transforming the flat field,a new 40,000 sf. of landscape of grass mounds and pools concealing all the parking and service areas while shaping inspiring bermed landscape focusing on reflecting pools is positioned on the south.Herning's prominent relationship with textiles and art provided the inspiration for the design concept.A fabric theme is carried throughout the project from the shape of the building which resembles a collection of shirtsleeves viewed from above.Fabric tarps were inserted into the formwork to yield a fabric texture to the building's exterior walls of white concrete.%丹麦海宁艺术中心首次将三个特色鲜明的文化机构结合在一起:海宁艺术博物馆、中西部室内乐乐团和"世界之基"展馆,为公众呈现出一个集聚了优秀艺术品和音乐的富有革新精神的集会场所。这座单层的建筑物将景观与建筑融合在一起,以"建造场所"为宗旨,以意大利艺术家皮埃罗·曼佐尼的作品和海宁纺织品工业历史为灵感来源,并在混凝土模板中加入防水布,用来在白色水泥外墙上压制出类似纺织品面料的质地。

  15. Long-term channel adjustment and geomorphic feature creation by vegetation in a lowland, low energy river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Robert; Gurnell, Angela

    2016-04-01

    over time to form bars, berms and benches. This process drives the extension of the river bank into the channel, narrowing it and increasing sinuosity. In reaches with well-developed woody riparian vegetation, the geomorphic changes are more complex, with fine sediment being absorbed into a diverse mosaic of geomorphic features initiated by living trees and large wood. This study underlines the importance of vegetation for the geomorphic adjustment and diversification of lowland rivers and as a component of sustainable river management.

  16. SUPERCOLLIDER: Boosters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The conventional construction contract for the Low Energy Booster (LEB) at the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) being built in Ellis County, Texas, was awarded in December to Cajun Contractors of Dallas, Texas. The construction includes 1870 feet of cut-and-cover tunnel with a shielding berm, an equipment access corridor, and provision for emergency exits. It also includes ten surface buildings, as well as the usual infrastructure (concrete pads, roads, and utilities). In addition, 575 feet of cut and- cover tunnel for the next machine in the chain, the medium Energy Booster (MEB), is included. Beneficial occupancy of all structures is projected for mid-April next year. The ring magnets for the LEB include 96 conventional (non-superconducting) dipoles, each 2 metres long, and a total of 90 quadrupoles of the same cross-section as the dipoles but in eight different lengths between 0.55 and 0.71 meters. Prototypes of the dipoles and quadrupoles are being constructed by Stanford (SLAC) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory respectively. Production magnets are expected to be fabricated in collaboration with the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk, starting this summer. BINP is also collaborating on the design and the fabrication of 12 dipole and 20 quadrupole magnets for the beam transfer and abort lines from the LEB to the Medium Energy Booster (MEB). The ring magnets for the MEB include 364 conventional dipoles (340 6.45 metres long and 24 5.75 metres long) and 230 quadrupoles (206 2.40 metres long and 12 each 2.8 and 0.54 metres long). A full-size development model of the dipole magnets is under construction at Fermilab. The Moscow Radiotechnical Institute is being considered as a collaborative source for the production of the quadrupole magnets, with production to start in summer of 1994 after approval of prototypes. The increasing Russian involvement in the SSC project was formalized in January when US Department of Energy Secretary

  17. Evaluation of Arroyo Channel Restoration Efforts using Hydrological Modeling: Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemison, N. E.; DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.; Adams, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the drylands of the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, historical river channel incision (arroyo cutting) has led to the destruction of riparian ecological systems and cieñega wetlands in many locations. Along Silver Creek on the Arizona-Sonora border, the Cuenca Los Ojos Foundation has been installing rock gabions and concrete and earthen berms with a goal of slowing flash floods, raising groundwater levels, and refilling arroyo channels with sediment in an area that changed from a broad, perennially wet cieñega to a narrow sand- and gravel-dominated arroyo channel with an average depth of ~6 m. The engineering efforts hope to restore desert wetlands, regrow riparian vegetation, and promote sediment deposition along the arroyo floor. Hydrological modeling allows us to predict how rare flood events interact with the restoration efforts and may guide future approaches to dryland ecological restoration. This modeling is complemented by detailed topographic surveying and use of streamflow sensors to monitor hydrological processes in the restoration project. We evaluate the inundation associated with model 10-, 50-, 100-, 500-, and 1,000-year floods through the study area using FLO-2D and HEC-RAS modeling environments in order to evaluate the possibility of returning surface inundation to the former cieñega surface. According to HEC-RAS model predictions, given current channel configuration, it would require a 500-year flood to overtop the channel banks and reinundate the cieñega (now terrace) surface, though the 100-year flood may lead to limited terrace surface inundation. Based on our models, 10-year floods were ~2 m from overtopping the arroyo walls, 50-year floods came ~1.5 m from overtopping the arroyos, 100-year floods were ~1.2 m from overtopping, and 500- and 1,000-year floods at least partially inundated the cieñega surface. The current topography of Silver Creek does not allow for frequent flooding of the former cieñega; model predictions

  18. Die moderne Adipositasepidemie vor dem Hintergrund physiologischer Regulation und biologischer Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürnsinn C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Die wohlstandsassoziierte Zunahme von Übergewicht und Adipositas ist eine große medizinische und gesundheitspolitische Herausforderung, doch ihre Ursachen sind noch kaum verstanden. Die etablierte Interpretation, weniger Notwendigkeit für körperliche Arbeit bei hoher Verfügbarkeit von Nahrung würde notwendigerweise zu einer positiven Kalorienbilanz führen, scheint viel zu kurz zu greifen. Der Nachweis einer starken genetischen Determination der Adipositas macht es nötig, das tradierte Bild von Hedonismus und Willensschwäche des Adipösen durch eine Suche nach physiologisch-vegetativen Mechanismen, die eine übermäßige Fettspeicherung verursachen, zu ersetzen. So gibt es heute klare Evidenz für Regelkreise, die über die Modulation von Appetit und Kalorienverbrauch die Fettreserven des Körpers gezielt auf einen Sollwert justieren. Damit lautet die treffende Fragestellung womöglich: Welche Aspekte der modernen Lebensbedingungen führen denn zu einer Erhöhung dieses Sollwerts, des so genannten „set point“? Obwohl wir von einer klaren Beantwortung dieser Frage weit entfernt sind, gibt es Hinweise aus Kulturvergleichen und Beobachtungen an Tieren, dass insbesondere die Zusammensetzung und Qualität der industriellen Nahrungsmittel großen Einfluss auf die Regulation, also den physiologisch angestrebten Zielwert, von Fettmasse und Körpergewicht haben. Wenn dem so ist, so lautet die nächste Frage: Wieso hat die Evolution Regulationsmechanismen hervorgebracht, die unter den gegebenen Umständen die Entwicklung einer augenscheinlich mit Nachteilen behafteten Adipositas bedingen? Dazu wurden schon einige Hypothesen präsentiert, doch wie hier diskutiert wird, kann jede dieser Ideen bei näherer Betrachtung so manche Frage nicht zufriedenstellend beantworten. Dies mag daran liegen, dass die Entwicklung einer physiologischen Reaktion auf Überfluss und Nahrungsqualität des Industriezeitalters mangels prähistorischer Perioden mit

  19. Modeling Sphagnum moisture stress in response to 21st century climate change using dynamic peat properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P.; Kettridge, N.; Morris, P. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Sphagnum is associated with wet habitats such as northern peatlands, which may be vulnerable to enhanced 21st century drought due to climate change. We adapted a physically based, 1.5-dimensional (vertical with horizontal interaction in the saturated zone) water-balance model to investigate the role of topographic position and depth-dependence of hydrophysical properties on Sphagnum moisture stress response to current and projected climate conditions in a southern boreal peatland. We parameterized the peat hydrophysical properties using field and lab-based measurements from three adjacent peatlands with different average water table (WT) depths, microtopgraphic variability, and microtopographic patterning; where measurement locations were chosen to take advantage of a long-term WT manipulation that resulted from berm construction in the 1950s. WT level was shown to have a strong control on pore water pressure (ψ), and thus on Sphagnum moisture stress. As a result of the close correspondence between laboratory measured surface peat hydrophysical properties for hummocks and lawns used to parameterize our model, microtopographic position was shown to have a greater impact on Sphagnum moisture stress when using a static surface level. By incorporating a dynamic surface level based on ψ, bulk density, and differences in compressibility between microtopographical elements, Sphagnum moisture stress was shown to be reduced in lawns. The reduction in moisture stress was less than what would be expected based solely on surface adjustment due to the concomitant change in pore-size distribution, which we model based on changes in bulk density. Overall, model behavior suggests that, while ψ maintains equilibrium-profile values relative to the WT level for relatively shallow values, surface ψ becomes non-linearly related to WT level below a value of approximately -0.4 m, thus greatly increasing the likelihood of desiccation under future climate scenarios where growing season

  20. Monitoring Sand Dinamics By Dgps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, P.; Bastos, L.; Bernardes, C.; Dias, A.

    During the last years a fast retreat of the coastal foredunes in several stretches of Aveiro lagoon littoral in western coast of Portugal was observed. In this region an extensive sandy strip extends along 50 kilometres from Ovar to Mira. The fast inland beach migration puts in risk the Aveiro lagoon and has great social impacts creat- ing some difficulties in coastal management. As the foredune erosion and consequent destruction by overwashes are related with the foreshore and backshore morphology, the study of the morphodynamic evolution of these areas of the beach is of special interest. In the scope of the RIMAR project (Natural Hazards related with sea level changes), periodic DGPS observations are been done along grids established in sensi- tive zones. The results of almost two years of regular monitorization of two of those grids, with about 300 meters extension, which cover the foreshore and the backshore areas, are presented. The goal of these observations is to give a contribution for a better characterisation of the beach dynamics in this region. However, although these grids provide information about the sandy exchanges between the backshore, the berms and the beachface, and the relation between the hydrodynamic regime and the beach pro- file they represent only a small area of the Aveiro littoral, and generalisation of these results must be done with care. Presently, a new methodology provide the possibility to survey large stretches of the coastline since the low tide limit until the foredune baseline. The new survey method is based on a two GPS antenna system mounted in a four-wheel quad, which represents a significant improvement in relation to the previ- ous method carried out on foot. One stretch with about 9 kilometres extension started to be monitored in Summer 2001. The possibility of rapid and efficient monitorization in large stretches of the coastline opens new prospects towards a better characterisa- tion and modelling of beach dynamics

  1. World War II, The CANOL project and the Marwell Tar Pit: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANOL project was a joint U.S.-Canada undertaking during World War II. It entailed the construction of a road and pipeline from the oil fields of Norman Wells on the Mackenzie River, 960 kms over the Mackenzie Mountains to a new refinery at Whitehorse. The goal was to provide a secure supply of aviation fuel far from the menace of Japanese bombers. Initially, the pipeline was expected to operate by October 1942. In actual fact, the first gasoline was not produced in the crude distillation unit until April 24, 1944, and it was not until November 1944 that the refinery finally began producing aviation fuel. Four months later, the pipeline and the refinery were shut down. The project cost American taxpayers $ 134 million. A total of 2650 kms of pipeline was laid. During the first nine months of pipeline operation 46,000 barrels of oil was spilled, much of it directly into the Mackenzie River. Total production from the refinery, which itself cost $ 27 million, wa 866,670 barrels of products. When the refinery was shut down, most of the refinery structures were dismantled and moved, via the Alaska Highway, to the newly discovered Leduc oilfields, but buildings, tanks and hydrocarbon waste were left behind. In a 1960 report it was estimated that some four million litres of oil has been pumped into a pit located within the containment berm formerly surrounding an 80,000 barrel oil storage tank which was dismantled after the shutdown. The bureaucratic dispute about who is responsible for cleaning up has been an issue ever since. The cost of cleanup was estimated at about $ 4 million in 1994. Since the federal government, the original owners of the land , transferred the land to provincial jurisdiction in 1970, it disclaimed any responsibility for site cleanup, however, there has been some recent evidence of willingness on the part of the Department of National Defence and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs to determine proper actions to clean up the site

  2. 柴木铁路片石通风措施的工程效果分析%Cooling Effect of Measures for Rubble Subgrade Convection of Chaidaer -Muli Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继; 宋瑞芳; 盛煜; 董献付; 张鲁新

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:柴达尔-木里铁路(柴木铁路)全长142.04km,沿线高温不稳定和极不稳定多年冻土广泛分布,冻土含冰量较高,同时由于柴木铁路呈东南-西北走向,冻土路基又面临着阴阳坡问题.柴木铁路53 km路段采用了片石通风路基,为保证路基的稳定性,有必要对片石通风措施的工程效果进行分析研究.研究结论:2007年以来的监测结果表明,在高温冻土区,片石通风路基和片石护道仅能有效冷却阴坡侧路基和坡脚;在低温基本稳定多年冻土区,片石通风措施不仅可以有效冷却路基本底,对阴阳坡现象也具有一定的抑制作用.%Research purposes: The total length of Chaidaer - Muli Railway is 142.04km and lots of the unstable and extreme unstable permafrost regions under high temperature are scattered along the railway with the rich ice content of the frozen soil. The frozen soil subgrade faces the situations of the back slope and front slope because the ChaidaerMuli Railway is from the southeast to northwest. The rubble convection subgrade was adopted in the area of 53km. To ensure the stability of the railway subgrade, it is necessary to analyze and research the cooling effect of the measures for the rubble subgrade convection.Research conclusions:The monitored data obtained since 2007 show in the warm permafrost region, only the shadow parts of the rubble convection subgrade and the base of the slope can be cooled by adopting the rubble convection subgrade and convection berm and in the low - temperature stable permafrost region, application of rubble convection not only cools the subgrade base, but also plays a certain role in restraining the back slope and front slope.

  3. 青藏铁路多年冻土路基稳定性及防治措施研究%Research on Stability of Embankment in Permafrost Regions along Qinghai-Tibet Railway and Its Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 韩龙武; 许国琪

    2011-01-01

    Stability of embankment in permafrost regions along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway is an important issue for safe operation of the railway. The main factors that affect the embankment stability are the change of ground temperature field within the embankment, surface water and ground water on both sides of the embankment (water in the upper and lower frozen layers and between the frozen layers) and ice contains in the stratum, together with the protective measures and the environmental hydrothermal effects. The protective principles to ensure the stability of the embankment is to reduce solar radiation and water effects from surrounding environment, and for these goals, some measures should be adopted, such as drainage from both sides of the embankment, adding piece (broken) stone slope protection (road), installing underground thermal probe in slope and the berm (or road shoulder), installing thermal probe with piece (broken) stone slope protection and building sun shield plate or prefabricated hollow concrete component.%青藏铁路冻土路基的稳定性是多年冻土区列车安全运营的重要保证.影响路基稳定性的主要因素是路基地温场的变化、路基两侧地表水以及地下水(冻结层上水、冻结层间水)和地层含冰量大小,即冻土路基防护措施的强弱和水热影响程度.保证冻土路基稳定性的防治原则是减少太阳辐射和周围环境的水影响,易采用路基两侧排水、增加片(碎)石护坡(道)、坡脚和护道(或路肩)埋设热棒、热棒+片(碎)石护坡复合结构和边坡铺设遮阳板或者预制空心混凝土构件等措施.

  4. Assessing cost-effectiveness of specific LID practice designs in response to large storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Liu, Xin; Zhan, Wenting

    2016-02-01

    green roof, bioretention and porous pavement for 2 yr storm). The optimal designs are influenced by the model and design parameters (i.e., initial saturation, hydraulic conductivity and berm height). However, it overall does not affect the main trends and key insights derived, and the results are therefore generic and relevant to the household/business-scale optimal design of LID practices worldwide.

  5. Flora and vegetation on dumps of uranium mining in the southern part of the former GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1946 to 1990 an intensive uranium mining had been carried out with underground mining and also with opencast mining by the Wismut enterprise in the southern part of the former GDR. The mining activity lead also in the surroundings of Ronneburg to a permanent growth of devastated areas, among others in the form of dumps and tailings. These areas from by reason of mining-specific contaminations, extreme biotops which demand high claims on the pioneer organisms during the phase of natural first settlement. From 1990 to 1992 vegetation mappings were carried out on 15 dumps of the Thuringia mining area according to Braun-Blanquet (1964). The utilization of the computer program FloraD enabled the ecological characterization of the dumps. On the 15 investigated dumps found were 498 higher plants, belonging to 65 families. One hundred species are species with a high dominance. The number of species per dump fluctuates between 11 and 282. Pioneer plants occur on the berms mostly in the second year after stoppage of the dumping, on the slopes after five to ten years. After nearly ten years the first step of settlement seems to be finished. Among the mechanisms of spreading dominate wind- and burdock spread. According to the form of life forms the dump species are dominantly hemicryptophytes, further therophypes, geophytes and phanerophytes. Biological radiation investigations were performed using the honeybee (Apis mellifera) as bioindicator. The radioactivity in bee products was determined by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. The results show that the radioactivity in honey is twice to three times as high as in that from unpolluted control areas. Nonetheless, the level of honey radioactivity observed in the studied area does not endanger human health. Also the contents of radionuclides from the fission of uranium (U-235, U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and Ra-228) in plants were determined. The effective equivalent dose for adults through different paths of exposure was

  6. Coastline Zones Identification and 3D Coastal Mapping Using UAV Spatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Papakonstantinou

    2016-05-01

    successfully recognized in the case of the sandy beach, while the erosion and beach crests were detected in the case of the rubble beach. The achieved level of detail of the 3D representations revealed new beach characteristics, including erosion crests, berm zones, and sand dunes. In conclusion, the UAV SfM workflow provides information in a spatial resolution that permits the study of coastal changes with confidence and provides accurate 3D visualizations of the beach zones, even for areas with complex topography. The overall results show that the presented methodology is a robust tool for the classification, 3D visualization, and mapping of coastal morphology.

  7. Acute sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal bevacizumab: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco-Hernández A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Axel Orozco-Hernández,1 Ximena Ortega-Larrocea,1 Gustavo Sánchez-Bermúdez,1 Gerardo García-Aguirre,1 Virgilio Morales Cantón,1 Raul Velez-Montoya2 1Retina Department, Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México IAP, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Aurora, CO, USA Background: Since the ophthalmological community adopted the use of intravitreal bevacizumab as an accepted off-label treatment for neovascular diseases, the amount of knowledge regarding its effects and properties has been increasing continually. In the last few years, there have been an increasing number of reports about sterile intraocular inflammation and intraocular pressure elevations after intravitreal bevacizumab. In the following case series, we describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of ten consecutive cases of patients developing mild-to-severe sterile intraocular inflammation after intravitreal bevacizumab and their management. Methods: This report presents a retrospective case series. We reviewed the medical records of ten consecutive patients from a group of 46, in whom repackaged bevacizumab in individual aliquots from two vials from the same batch were used. All surgical procedures were performed using standard sterile techniques in the operating room. At each follow-up visit, patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including visual acuity assessment, intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and posterior fundus examination. Results: Ten patients presented sterile endophthalmitis with an onset time of 3.5±1.95 days. The clinical characteristics were mild pain, slight visual loss, conjunctival hyperemia, and various degrees of intraocular inflammation with microhypopyon. All cultures were negative. All patients were managed with topical steroids and antibiotics, except two, in whom, due to severe vitreous cells, intravitreal antibiotics were

  8. Vertical accretion and shallow subsidence in a mangrove forest of southwestern Florida, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of vertical accretion from artificial soil marker horizons and soil elevation change from sedimentation-erosion table (SET) plots were used to evaluate the processes related to soil building in range, basin, and overwash mangrove forests located in a low-energy lagoon which recieves minor inputs of terregenous sediments. Vertical accretion measures reflect the contribution of surficial sedimentation (sediment deposition and surface root growth). Measures of elevation change reflect not only the contributions of vertical accretion but also those of subsurface processes such as compaction, decomposition and shrink-swell. The two measures were used to calculate amounts of shallow subsidence (accretion minus elevation change) in each mangrove forest. The three forest types represent different accretionary envrionments. The basin forest was located behind a natural berm. Hydroperiod here was controlled primarily by rainfall rather than tidal exchange, although the basin flooded during extreme tidal events. Soil accretion here occurred primarily by autochthonous organic matter inputs, and elevation was controlled by accretion and shrink-swell of the substrate apparently related to cycles of flooding-drying and/or root growth-decomposition. This hydrologically-restricted forest did not experience an accretion or elevation deficit relative to sea-level rise. The tidally dominated fringe and overwash island forests accreted through mineral sediment inputs bound in place by plant roots. Filamentous turf algae played an important role in stabilizing loose muds in the fringe forest where erosion was prevalent. Elevation in these high-energy environments was controlled not only by accretion but also by erosion and/or shallow subsidence. The rate of shallow subsidence was consistently 3-4 mm y-1 in the fringe and overwash island forests but was negligible in the basin forest. Hence, the vertical development of mangrove soils was influenced by both

  9. NASA Tech Briefs, Februrary 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Measurements of Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) Allan Deviations in Space; Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator; Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards; Rover Low Gain Antenna Qualification for Deep Space Thermal Environments; Automated, Ultra-Sterile Solid Sample Handling and Analysis on a Chip; Measuring and Estimating Normalized Contrast in Infrared Flash Thermography; Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable, Wideband, Onboard Calibration Source; High-Reliability Waveguide Vacuum/Pressure Window; Methods of Fabricating Scintillators With Radioisotopes for Beta Battery Applications; Magnetic Shield for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR); CMOS-Compatible SOI MESFETS for Radiation-Hardened DC-to-DC Converters; Silicon Heat Pipe Array; Adaptive Phase Delay Generator; High-Temperature, Lightweight, Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications; Treatment to Control Adhesion of Silicone-Based Elastomers; High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies; Rockballer Sample Acquisition Tool; Rock Gripper for Sampling, Mobility, Anchoring, and Manipulation; Advanced Magnetic Materials Methods and Numerical Models for Fluidization in Microgravity and Hypogravity; Data Transfer for Multiple Sensor Networks Over a Broad Temperature Range; Using Combustion Synthesis to Reinforce Berms and Other Regolith Structures; Visible-Infrared Hyperspectral Image Projector; Three-Axis Attitude Estimation With a High-Bandwidth Angular Rate Sensor Change_Detection.m; AGATE: Adversarial Game Analysis for Tactical Evaluation; Ionospheric Simulation System for Satellite Observations and Global Assimilative; Modeling Experiments (ISOGAME); An Extensible, User- Modifiable Framework for Planning Activities; Mission Operations Center (MOC) - Precipitation Processing System (PPS) Interface Software System (MPISS); Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower

  10. Radiological considerations in the operation of the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, H.J.

    1998-11-11

    radiation fields due to escaping gas bremsstrahlung. Estimated dose rates have been computed or scaled (in the case of 400 MeV electrons) outside of the bermed tunnel, in Building 412, and in the Klystron Gallery for several modes of operation, including potential safety envelope beam power, normal beam power and MCI (maximum credible incident) conditions. Radiological aspects of shielding changes to the synchrotrons and their effect upon operations are addressed in MOE 97. No change in the safety envelope for synchrotrons operation was warranted.

  11. Aeolian Coastal Landscapes in changes (a study from Tahkuna, Estonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A.

    2012-04-01

    berms. Erosion can cause lost of some habitats. Changes of landfroms can also be due to human activities (construction of roads, buildings, harbours), which affect sediment transportation along the coast. Changes in habitats are caused by their own development and also invasion of non-indigenous species. Aeolian coastal landscapes are unique, but easily altered ecosystems in Estonia. Therefore it is essential to improve the strategies for preserving these valuable areas. Aeolian coastal landscapes require greater attention and more complex scientific studies that contribute to the maintaining of natural values.

  12. Assessment of SRTM for studies of deformed lake terraces, Mono Basin, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, P.; Bursik, M.; Webb, F.

    2003-04-01

    Mono Lake lies east of the Sierra Nevada, central California, USA. Late Quaternary transgressions and regressions of Mono Lake have produced well-defined terraces within the active and relict shorelands of Mono Basin, as well as on the islands within the lake, including the largest, Paoha Island. To assess the ability of SRTM data to resolve the terraces, we compared the SRTM data to TOPSAR data along topographic profiles. The accuracy of the profiles was assessed by visual and statistical comparison. Information was then extracted from the profiles to determine whether the terraces showed any evidence of warping or offset. Perhaps the most prominent terraces within the basin lie on the eastern and western sides of Paoha Island. When compared with the TOPSAR profiles across these terraces, SRTM profiles are systematically smoother and higher. Comparison of a running average of the TOPSAR data as well as TOPSAR data decimated to 30 m with the SRTM data suggests that much of the SRTM smoothness is the result of the 30 m spacing of the SRTM data as opposed to the 5 m spacing of the TOPSAR data. There is however a mean vertical difference observed between the SRTM and TOPSAR datasets that averages approximately 5 m over a large part of the basin. Near the tops of hills and ridges, the difference between the datasets is less than it is over depressions or areas of low relief. We are investigating the potential causes of the systematic difference. We are exploring the SRTM and TOPSAR data to understand their suitability for determination of deformation of shoreline features. In particular, we are interested in whether magmatic activity beneath the Mono Craters, a volcanic chain on the southern margin of Mono Lake, may be responsible for deformation of a latest Pleistocene(?) terrace at a nominal elevation of 1990 m. The elevation of the bluff-berm break in slope for this terrace was estimated to be at the point of maximum curvature in topographic profiles crossing the

  13. Radiological considerations in the operation of the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    radiation fields due to escaping gas bremsstrahlung. Estimated dose rates have been computed or scaled (in the case of 400 MeV electrons) outside of the bermed tunnel, in Building 412, and in the Klystron Gallery for several modes of operation, including potential safety envelope beam power, normal beam power and MCI (maximum credible incident) conditions. Radiological aspects of shielding changes to the synchrotrons and their effect upon operations are addressed in MOE 97. No change in the safety envelope for synchrotrons operation was warranted

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various locations and

  16. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  17. Building of tropical beach ridges, northeastern Queensland, Australia: Cyclone inundation and aeolian decoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toru; Nicholas, William; Brooke, Brendan; Oliver, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Processes associated with tropical cyclones are thought responsible for building coarse sand beach ridges along the northeastern Queensland coast, Australia. While these ridges are expected to be geological records of the past cyclone, they question the general consensus of the aeolian genesis of sandy beach ridges. To explore the ridge-forming process, we carried out the GPR survey, auger drilling, pit excavation, grain-size analysis, and OSL dating for coarse sand beach ridges at the Cowley Beach, northeastern Queensland. The Cowley Beach is a mesotidal beach characterized by a low-tide terrace and steep beach face. Ten beach ridges are recognized along the survey transect that extends 700 m inland from the shore. 37 OSL ages are younger seawards, indicating the seaward accretion of the ridge sequence over the last 2700 years. The highest ridge is +5.1 m high above AHD (Australian Height Datum). Two GPR units are bounded by a groundwater surface at c. +1.5 m AHD. The upper unit is characterized by horizontal to hummocky reflectors punctuated by seaward dipping truncation surfaces. These reflectors in places form dome-like structure that appears to be the nucleus of a beach ridge. The shape and level (+2.5 m AHD) of the dome are similar to those of the present swash berm. The lower unit shows a sequence of reflectors that dip at an angle of present beach face. The sequence is dissected by truncation surfaces, some of which are continuous to those in the upper unit. Coarse sand mainly forms beach ridge deposits below +4.0 m AHD, while a few higher ridges have an upward fining layer composed of medium sand above +4.0 m, which is finer than aeolian ripples found on the backshore during the survey. In addition, pumice gravel horizons underlie the examined ridge crests. The sequence of seaward dipping reflectors indicates that the Cowley Beach, like other many sandy beaches, has prograded during onshore sand accretion by fairweather waves and has been eroded by storms

  18. On The Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Fiske, Michael; Edmunson, Jennifer; Khoshnevis, Behrokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in-situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in-situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. This is important because gamma and particle radiation constitute a serious but reducible threat to long-term survival of human beings, electronics, and other materials in space environments. Also, it is anticipated that surface structures will constitute the primary mass element of lunar or Martian launch requirements. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for self-sufficiency necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the joint MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in situ resources. One such technology, known as Contour Crafting (additive construction), is shown in Figure 1, along with a typical structure fabricated using this technology. This paper will present the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer

  19. Mapping levees for river basin management using LiDAR data and multispectral aerial orthoimages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Yun Jae

    Mapping levees is important to assessing levee stability, identifying flood risks for the areas protected by levee systems, etc. Historically, mapping levees has been carried out using ground surveying methods or only one type of remote sensing data set. This dissertation aims at mapping the levees by using airborne topographic LiDAR data and multispectral orthoimages taken in the river basins of the Nakdong River. In this dissertation, three issues with mapping levees are illustrated. The first issue is developing new methods for mapping levee surfaces by using geometric and spectral information. Levee surfaces consist of multiple objects having different geometric and spectral patterns. This dissertation proposes multiple methods for identifying the major objects and eroded areas on the levee surfaces. Multiple geometric analysis approaches such as the slope difference analysis and the elevation and area analysis are used to identify the levee top, berm, slope plates and the eroded area having different geometric patterns. Next, the spectral analysis approach, such as clustering algorithms, is used to identify major objects having different spectral patterns on the plates identified. Finally, multiple components, including the major objects and eroded areas on the levee surfaces, are identified. The second issue is developing new methods for mapping levee lines by using the geometric and spectral information. In general, the levee lines are determined on levee surfaces by considering the geometric pattern, the types of major objects, etc. This dissertation proposes multiple methods for mapping the levee lines located on various levee surfaces. First, the three baselines (the edges extracted from the images, the cluster boundaries extracted from the identified clusters and the plate boundaries extracted from the LiDAR data) are extracted separately from different sources. Next, the judgment test is performed in order to select one baseline as the levee line

  20. Propuesta de alfabetización de educación no formal, para hombres, mujeres y obreros inmigrantes nicaragüenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidieth María Núñez Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 03 de agosto 2007 • Aprobado 29 de setiembre 2007   Resumen. El artículo resume los principales hallazgos de la investigación realizada sobre el nivel de alfabetización de mujeres y hombres, obreros inmigrantes nicaragüenses, residentes en Costa Rica; específicamente, madres y padres de familia con niños en la Escuela Gonzalo Monge Bermúdez, del distrito de Pital de San Carlos. En la investigación se determinan los motivos más relevantes por los que algunos nicaragüenses han inmigrado a Costa Rica. Además, se estipulan algunas necesidades a las que ellos desean dar solución en este país, así como el papel que pueden cumplir los procesos de educación no formal en la vida de estas personas. Es de clara importancia realizar una propuesta de alfabetización en Educación no formal, que permita a mujeres, hombres y obreros inmigrantes nicaragüenses prepararse y formarse para la vida y el trabajo. De acuerdo con el proyecto para América Latina y el Caribe, programa de Educación Para Todos, la educación es una de las necesidades básicas: Cada persona –niño, joven o adulto– deberá estar en condiciones de beneficiarse de las oportunidades básicas de aprendizaje. Estas necesidades comprenden tanto herramientas esenciales para el aprendizaje (lectura y escritura, problemas de aprendizaje…, como contenidos básicos, requeridos para que los seres humanos sean capaces de sobrevivir, desarrollen sus capacidades, vivan y trabajen con dignidad, participen plenamente en el desarrollo, mejoren la calidad de sus vidas, tomen decisiones fundamentales y continúen aprendiendo.  Abstract. This article summarizes the main findings of a research on literacy made with immigrant Nicaraguan men and women workers residing in Costa Rica, specifically with parents from students at the Gonzalo Monge School in Pital, San Carlos. In this investigation, the more relevant motives for these Nicaraguan immigrants to come to Costa Rica are

  1. Depósitos cuaternarios de la costa atlántica fueguina, entre los cabos Peñas y Ewan Quaternary deposits of the Fuegian Atlantic coast between Peñas and Ewan capes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Bujalesky

    2006-03-01

    storm berm and 7 (Shaiwaal Formation, 12 m a.p.s.b.. The older and higher levels would be older than the isotope stage 18O 11 (Viamonte Formation, 38 m a.p.s.b. and Najmishk Formation, 53 m a.p.s.b.. These are the southernmost Pleistocene raised beaches of the world. During the Holocene, approximately 5000 yr B.P., beach ridge plains composed of gravel begun to plug the inner estuaries of the Ensenada de la Colonia and Río Fuego palaeoembayments. These beach ridge plains have shown a regressive behaviour during the Holocene. They do not revealed erosion, sediment recycling at the seaward flank (cannibalism, and a significant landward retreat like the northernmost littoral environments of the Atlantic coast of Tierra del Fuego.

  2. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    power modules over long distances, pre-positioning them for the arrival of crew on a subsequent lander. Surface Handling 1. Offload surface system payloads from the lander, breaking launch restraints and power/data connections. Payloads may be offloaded to a wheeled vehicle for transport. 2. Deploy payloads from a wheeled vehicle at a field site, placing the payloads in their final use site on the ground or mating them with existing surface systems. 3. Support regolith collection, site preparation, berm construction, or other civil engineering tasks using tools and implements attached to rovers. Human-Systems Interaction 1. Provide a safe command and control interface for suited EVA to ride on and drive the vehicles, making sure that the systems are also safe for working near dismounted crew. 2. Provide an effective control system for IV crew to tele-operate vehicles, cranes and other equipment from inside the surface habitats with evolving independence from Earth. .. Provide a supervisory system that allows machines to be commanded from the ground, working across the Earth-Lunar time delays on the order of 5-10 seconds (round trip) to support operations when crew are not resident on the surface. Technology Development Needs 1. Surface vehicles that can dock, align and mate with outpost equipment such as landers, habitats and fluid/power interfaces. 2. Long life motors, drive trains, seals, motor electronics, sensors, processors, cable harnesses, and dash board displays. 3. Active suspension control, localization, high speed obstacle avoidance, and safety systems for operating near dismounted crew. 4. High specific energy and specific power batteries that are safe, rechargeable, and long lived.

  3. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter

    2010-09-01

    their erosion potential, ability to overflow the proposed disposal facility, and for their ability to increase migration of contaminants from the facility. The assessment of available literature suggests that the likelihood of detrimental flood water impacting the proposed RH-LLW facility is extremely low. The annual exceedance probability associated with uncontrolled flows in the Big Lost River impacting either of the proposed sites is 1x10-5, with return interval (RI) of 10,000yrs. The most probable dam failure scenario has an annual exceedance probability of 6.3x10-6 (1.6x105 yr RI). In any of the scenarios generating possible on-site water, the duration is expected to be quite short, water depths are not expected to exceed 0.5 m, and the erosion potential can easily be mitigated by emplacement of a berm (operational period), and an engineered cover (post closure period). Subsurface mobilization of radionuclides was evaluated for a very conservative flooding scenario resulting in 50 cm deep, 30.5 day on-site water. The annual exceedance probability for which is much smaller than 3.6x10-7 (2.8x106 yr RI). For the purposes of illustration, the facility was assumed to flood every 500 years. The periodically recurring flood waters were predicted to marginally increase peak radionuclide fluxes into the aquifer by at most by a factor of three for non-sorbing radionuclides, and to have limited impact on peak radionuclide fluxes into the aquifer for contaminants that do sorb.

  4. Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Ken (Mount Hood National Forest, Hood River Ranger District, Parkdale, OR); Cain, Thomas C. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR); Heller, David A. (Mount Hood National Forest, Gresham, OR)

    1988-03-01

    , etc. ) in which a variety of species and age group: of salmon and trout can rear. It also results in the sorting of gravel, rubble, and boulders being transported downstream, creating high quality spawning and rearing habitats, and food producing areas. In 1987, a total of 11.0 miles of stream were treated; 334 log structures (Including: ''deflector'', ''digger'', ''sill'', and ''cover'' logs) and 141 boulder structures (including: single boulder placement, ''berms'', ''alcoves'', and ''clusters'') were completed to meet habitat improvement objectives. In addition to these direct habitat improvement activities, BPA and the Forest Service financed a number of project and program assessment activities that have improved the efficiency and effectiveness of the Forest's fisheries management program. Notable findings relate to the durability of habitat improvement structures, the associated changes in physical habitat, and biological response to the improvement activities. A discussion of the 1987 habitat monitoring and evaluation program results can be found in the supplemental document, Appendix: Monitoring and Evaluation of Mt. Hood National Forest Stream Habitat Improvement and Rehabilitation Projects: 1987 Annual Report (Forsgren, Heller, and Ober, 1988).

  5. Geomorphological Scientific Information for Agency Decision-Making in the Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psuty, N. P.; Silveira, T.

    2010-12-01

    All coasts are undergoing change and the challenge is to establish dimensions of the change and to use the information to create informed decision-making. In the northeastern region of the US, the National Park Service (NPS) and the US Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) have undertaken a monitoring program to rigorously gather coastal geomorphological data in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D formats according to newly-created protocols (Psuty, et al. 2010a; Psuty, et al., 2010b). The goal of the agencies’ thrust is to generate a matrix of measurements that can be compared through time and space, essentially providing an insight to sediment supply and sediment budget as a driver of coastal geomorphological evolution. At the core of the protocol is the seasonal systematic collection of shoreline position and coastal morphology for subsequent spatial and temporal trend analyses. Supplemental data gathering using the same protocol may also be applied to gather data on the impact of specific events (storms). In concert with the approach established in the USGS Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) (Thieler, et al., 2009), 1-D coastal changes are measured through the tracking of shoreline position in four National Parks and six Wildlife refuges in the Northeast. 2-D coastal changes are measured through the collection of beach profiles approximately every 1.5 km alongshore and tied to monuments that have XYZ geopositional accuracies of 1-3 cm that support feature-based and datum-based analyses. The profiles establish dimensions and displacements of the foredunes and berms. 3-D coastal changes are measured through the collection of topographic data sets that are presently collected in areas of special concern and are used to develop digital elevation models that provide measurements of volume changes as well as feature displacement in both feature and datum formats. The creation of the systematically-collected geomorphological data sets establishes the basis for management strategies

  6. Coupling of Groundwater Recharge and Biodegradation of Subsurface Crude-Oil Contamination (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Hostettler, F. D.; Delin, G. N.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Warren, E.; Campbell, P.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Cozzarelli, I.

    2010-12-01

    area of the pumping station and is comparable in size to the largest Bemidji site oil pool. The oil is heavily degraded with complete loss of the n-alkane fraction suggesting that degradation is accelerated at this site. The pumping station is flat, gravel-covered, devoid of vegetation, and surrounded by a berm. Thus, the combined effects of no runoff, rapid infiltration, and zero transpiration all enhance recharge to the oil body. Recharge rates through the gravel yard and the adjacent forested area were estimated using a water table fluctuation method. Data for the first six months of 2010 showed that recharge below the gravel yard was 40% greater than below the forested area. Groundwater ammonia concentrations increase from 0.02 to 0.5 mmol/L under the oil body, while background NO3 is only 0.01 mmol/L and there is negligible N in the oil, again suggesting that N fixation meets N requirements. Combined, these studies suggest that enhanced transport of a limiting nutrient other than N from the surface may accelerate degradation of subsurface contamination.

  7. PASCOS 2012 - 18th International Symposium on Particles Strings and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    (Sociedad Mexicana de Física), ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics), BUAP (Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla), the Government of the State of Yucatán, the University of Hamburg, and Telmex. We also want to acknowledge the invaluable help of the staff of the Mexican Physical Society, in particular Lic. Santos Zúñniga Sánchez and Ms. Claudia Velasco Marín, and of the conference secretaries, Ms. Lizette Ramírez Bermúdez (UNAM) and Ms. Mariana del Castillo Sánchez (Cinvestav), for their support before, during and after the organization of PASCOS 2012. Last but not least, we would like to thank all the PASCOS 2012 participants for their attendance and for contributing to make the conference an engaging and stimulating event. The organizers, Myriam Mondragón, Adnan Bashir, David Delepine, Francisco Larios, Oscar Loaiza, Axel de la Macorra, Lukas Nellen, Sarira Sahu, Humberto Salazar and Liliana Velasco-Sevilla.

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris), Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-08-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris), Nevada Test Site, Nevada, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The general purpose of the investigation is to ensure adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select viable corrective actions. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details for CAU 511, whereas programmatic aspects of this project are discussed in the ''Project Management Plan'' (DOE/NV, 1994). General field and laboratory quality assurance and quality control issues are presented in the ''Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan'' (NNSA/NV, 2002). Health and safety aspects of the project are documented in the current version of the Environmental Engineering Services Contractor's Health and Safety Plan and will be supplemented with a site-specific safety basis document. Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of the following nine corrective action sites in Nevada Test Site Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). Corrective Action Sites 18-99-10 and 19-19-03 were identified after a review of the ''1992 RCRA Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Volume IV, Section L Potential Solid Waste Management Unit'' (DOE/NV, 1992). The remaining seven sites were first identified in the 1991 Reynolds

  9. Morphodynamics of a gravel-dominated macrotidal estuary: Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego Morfodinámica de un estuario macromareal dominado por gravas: Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico I. Isla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Rio Grande city (Tierra del Fuego is located on two attached beach systems, one of Upper Pleistocene (Sangamonian and the other of Holocene age. Both gravel spits grew from north to south modifying the inlet of the Rio Grande estuary. The present estuary is constrained by the modern and recurved spit Popper Spit. The main characteristic of this macrotidal estuary is that both margins and the bottom are mainly composed of rounded gravel. Expansion of the city is limited by oceanic and estuarine coasts, and is taking place towards salt marshes taking up more than 30 hectares in the last 20 years. The alteration of the tidal prism induced by marsh reclamation and the construction of a bridge may be affecting the inlet dynamics. The area of salt marsh and gravel banks were calculated by means of supervised classifications derived from a Landsat TM image. The inlet morphology changes in response to cycles dominated by longshore drift, wave refraction and ebb-tidal delta configuration. Oceanic beaches are characterised by large disc-shape boulders at the storm berm, spherical pebbles and sand runs at the foreshore, and fine sand on the low-tide terrace. Although tidal effects are very significant in the dynamics of the estuary, wind can prevail during some days or during slack water.La ciudad de Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego está ubicada sobre dos sistemas de playas adosadas, una del Pleistoceno superior (Sangamon y la otra del Holoceno. Ambas espigas de grava crecieron de norte a sur condicionando la desembocadura del estuario del Río Grande, que a su vez está limitada por una espiga moderna y recurvada denominada Punta Popper. La característica de los ambientes estuarinos es el dominio de las gravas, tanto en los márgenes como en los bancos de fondo. El crecimiento de la ciudad, bordeada por costa de mar y de estuario, se está desarrollando hacia las marismas del estuario, ocupando más de 30 hectáreas en los últimos 20 años. La alteraci

  10. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    significant difference in foreshore characteristics such as seasonal berm height and foreshore slope between the two types of beaches, beaches without back-beach barriers have more developed back dune systems and are significantly wider than adjacent restricted beaches, given that no extensive artificial beach nourishment has occurred. In regions such as Ventura and Imperial Beach, unrestricted beaches are 50-100% wider than adjacent beaches with back-beach barriers even with no significant differences in historical rates of shoreline change. Taking into account the nature of the back beach is just as crucial in predicting impacts of sea-level rise on beaches in California as considering inundation and retreat in the foreshore, and will be an important consideration for coastal managers in designing sea-level rise adaptation plans.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles and Debris) Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 511, Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris). The CAU is comprised of nine corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of nine CASs: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 511 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) and closure activities were performed from January 2005 through August 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris)'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 511 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate preliminary

  12. Acetylcholine determination of microdialysates of fetal neocortex grafts that induce recovery of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M I; Bermúdez-Rattoni, F

    1998-03-01

    The microdialysis technique for acetylcholine (ACh) first became possible when sensitive and specific assays for ACh (pmol/sample range) were developed [G. Damsma, B.H.C. Westerink, P. de Boer, J.B. de Vries, A.S. Horn, Determination of basal acetylcholine release in freely moving rats by transstriatal dialysis coupled to on-line HPLC analysis: pharmacological aspects, Life Sci. 43 (1988) 1161-1168; G. Damsma, B.H.C. Westerink, A. Imperato, H. Rollema, J.B. de Vries, A. S. Horn, Automated brain dialysis of acetylcholine in freely moving rats: detection of basal acetylcholine, Life Sci. 41 (1987) 873-876; P.E. Potter, J.L. Meek, N.H. Neff, Acetylcholine and choline in neural tissue measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection, J. Neurochem. 41 (1983) 188-194; B.H.C. Westerink, G. Damsma, Determination of acetylcholine in microdialysates by HPLC and electrochemical detection, Neurosci. Protocols 20 (1993) 1-9.]. In the present protocol, the microdialysis technique was used to correlate ACh release with the recovery of the ability to acquire a conditioning taste aversion (CTA), by fetal brain grafts in insular cortex (IC) lesioned rats [M.I. Miranda, A.M. Lopez-Colome, F. Bermúdez Rattoni, Recovery of conditional taste aversion induced by fetal neocortex grafts. In vivo correlation of acetylcholine levels, Brain Res. 759 (1997) 141-148]. Three groups of IC lesioned rats showing disrupted CTA received cell suspension grafts of fetal tissue dissected from either the IC or occipital cortex (OC) of 16-day-old rat fetuses. One of the groups of IC-grafted animals was tested after 15 days post-graft; the other groups, IC- and OC-grafted animals, were tested after a recovery time of 45 days, as well as the groups of lesioned and unoperated animals used as control. After the CTA test, guide cannulas were stereotaxically implanted into the IC of all groups. Two days later, microdialysis was performed to determine the extracellular levels of ACh inside the graft. The

  13. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    erosion potential, ability to overflow the proposed disposal facility, and for their ability to increase migration of contaminants from the facility. The assessment of available literature suggests that the likelihood of detrimental flood water impacting the proposed RH-LLW facility is extremely low. The annual exceedance probability associated with uncontrolled flows in the Big Lost River impacting either of the proposed sites is 1 x 10-5, with return interval (RI) of 10,000yrs. The most probable dam failure scenario has an annual exceedance probability of 6.3 x 10-6 (1.6 x 105 yr RI). In any of the scenarios generating possible on-site water, the duration is expected to be quite short, water depths are not expected to exceed 0.5 m, and the erosion potential can easily be mitigated by emplacement of a berm (operational period), and an engineered cover (post closure period). Subsurface mobilization of radionuclides was evaluated for a very conservative flooding scenario resulting in 50 cm deep, 30.5 day on-site water. The annual exceedance probability for which is much smaller than 3.6 x 10-7 (2.8 x 106 yr RI). For the purposes of illustration, the facility was assumed to flood every 500 years. The periodically recurring flood waters were predicted to marginally increase peak radionuclide fluxes into the aquifer by at most by a factor of three for non-sorbing radionuclides, and to have limited impact on peak radionuclide fluxes into the aquifer for contaminants that do sorb.

  14. Zinkbedarf und Risiko und Nutzen einer Zinksupplementierung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Maret

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Körper eines erwachsenen Menschen enthält 2 – 3 g Zink, von denen pro Tag etwa 0,1% ersetzt werden. Auf dieser Basis und gestützt auf Schätzungen bezüglich der Bioverfügbarkeit von Zink werden Ernährungsempfehlungen für augenscheinlich gesunde Personen gegeben. Das Fehlen chemischer, funktioneller und/oder körperlicher Anzeichen eines Zinkmangels gilt dabei als Hinweis auf eine adäquate Versorgung. Spezifischere Daten sind jedoch nur selten vorhanden. Veränderungen hinsichtlich der Auswahl und Verfügbarkeit von Nahrungsmitteln sowie neue Methoden der Zubereitung, Konservierung und Aufbereitung machen u. U. die Neubewertung älterer Daten erforderlich. Konservative Schätzungen legen nahe, dass bei ≥ 25% der Weltbevölkerung das Risiko für einen Zinkmangel besteht. Die meisten Betroffenen sind arm und konsumieren nur selten Nahrungsmittel, die reich an gut bioverfügbarem Zink sind, sondern eher solche, die einen hohen Gehalt an Inhibitoren der Zinkabsorption aufweisen und/oder kaum bioverfügbares Zink enthalten. Im Gegensatz dazu hat bei vergleichsweise Wohlhabenden die Auswahl der Nahrungsmittel entscheidenden Einfluss auf das Risiko für einen Zinkmangel. Ein weiteres Problem, ebenfalls speziell bei vergleichsweise Wohlhabenden, ist das Risiko einer chronischen Zinkintoxikation durch übermäßige Einnahme von Zinksupplementen. Insbesondere kann eine hohe Aufnahme von Zink verglichen mit Kupfer zu Kupfermangel führen. Eine bedeutende Herausforderung, die im Hinblick auf den maximalen Nutzen für die Gesundheit bisher noch nicht gemeistert worden ist, besteht darin, dass die empfohlene Tagesdosis (recommended dietary allowance, RDA und die Referenzdosis (RfD für eine sichere Aufnahme von Zink sehr nahe beieinander liegen. Aktuelle Empfehlungen berücksichtigen weder die zahlreichen Nahrungsmittelbestandteile, die die Bioverfügbarkeit von Zink und Kupfer beeinflussen, noch die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Vergiftung durch

  15. Physical Hydraulic Model of Side-Channel Spillway of Lambuk DAM, Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harifa, A. C.; Sholichin, M.; Othman, F. B.

    2013-12-01

    The spillway is among the most important structures of a dam project. A spillway is designed to prevent overtopping of a dam at a place that is not designed for overtopping. Side-channel spillways are commonly used to release water flow from a reservoir in places where the sides are steep and have a considerable height above the dam. Experimental results were collected with a hydraulic model of the side-channel spillway for releasing the peak overflow of Lambuk Dam. This dam is, located on the Lambuk River, which is a tributary of the Yeh Hoo River ~ 34.6 km north of Denpasar on the island of Bali. The bituminous geomembrane faced dam is 24 m in height, with a 35-m wide spillway. The length of the side channel is 35 m long, with 58 m of transition channel, 67.37 m of chuteway channel and 22.71 m of stilling basin. The capacity of the spillway is 231.91 m3/s and the outlet works capacity is 165.28 m3/s. The reservoir is designed for irrigation and water supply. The purpose of this study was to optimize the designed of the structure and to ensure its safe operation. In hydraulic model may help the decision-makers to visualize the flow field before selecting a ';suitable' design. The hydraulic model study was performed to ensure passage of the maximum discharge at maximum reservoir capacity; to study the spillway approach conditions, water surface profiles, and flow patterns in the chuteway; and to reveal potential demerits of the proposed hydraulic design of various structures and explore solutions. The model was constructed at 1 : 40 scale, Reservoir topography was modeled using concrete, the river bed using sand and some gravel, the river berm using concrete, and the spillway and channel using Plexiglas. Water was measured using Rectangular contracted weir. Design floods (with return period in year) were Q2 = 111.40 m3/s, Q5 = 136.84 m3/s, Q10 = 159.32 m3/s, Q25 = 174.61 m3/s, Q50 = 185.13 m3/s, Q100 = 198.08 m3/s, Q200 = 210.55 m3/s, Q1000 = 231.91 m3/s and the

  16. Badlands: Regolith, Forms and Processes. A review of the scientific research in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Badlands are usually defined as 'intensely dissected natural landscapes where vegetation is sparse or absent and which are useless for agriculture' (Bryan and Yair, 1982). Badlands are widerspread around the world (Nadal-Romero, 2007; Dickie and Parsons, 2012; Haregeweyn et al., 2012). In Spain due to the climatic and geological conditions badlands are widespread. Badlands research has national and foreign pioneers (Harvey, 1982; Clotet et al., 1988; Alexander and Calvo, 1990; Calvo et al., 1991; Alexander et al., 1994). Almería, Granada, Murcia, Alicante, the Ebro Valley, and the Pyrenees are good examples of the variety and diversity of badlands in Spain (García-Ruiz and López-Bermúdez, 2009). The research on badlands paid attention to the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1999a), piping (Romero-Diaz et al., 2011), the role of parent material on the regolith morphology (Regués, 1995; Cerdà, 1998b) and the soil development (Regués, 1993), and the interaction of the vegetation and soil erosion (Cerdà and García Fayos, 1997; Solé et al., 1997) vegetation varied, whereas the percentage of studies on erosion rates increased steadily over time. During the 90s badlands research was flowering and research on badlands developments, forms and soil physical properties influence was done. The 00's were a period with research focused on processes (infiltration, runoff and erosion) but in general the interest on badland decreased. However, badlands are intensively researched in the Ebro Valley (Nadal-Romero et al., 2007; 2008; Nadal-Romero and Regués; 2009; 2010) and new research is being developed on degraded soils following the knowledge found on badlands (Cerdà, 2007; García Fayos et al., 2010). The future is moving to study vegetation dynamics and badlands reclamation, the effect of climatic change in badland areas, and erosion processes and rates (Nadal-Romero et al., 2013). The use of new non-invasive technologies (remote sensing, Terrestrial Laser

  17. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    de Física de Altas Energías. At a personal level, we are very grateful to Dr Juan Carlos D'Olivo (President of the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías), Dr Pedro Mata Vázquez (Director of COECyT), Dr Ricardo Becerril Bárcenas (Director of the Institute of Physics and Mathematics, UMSNH), Dr Rigoberto Vera Mendoza (Director of the Faculty of Science, UMSNH) and Dr José Napoleón Guzmán Ávila (Coordinator of Scientific Research, UMSNH) for their invaluable support in all organizational matters, which enabled the school to become a reality. We gratefully acknowledge the help of our colleagues in the organizing committee: Alexis Aguilar, Alejandro Ayala, Wolfgang Bietenholz, Alberto Güijosa, Gabriela Murguía, Sarira Sahu (UNAM), Eduard de la Cruz Burelo, Abdel Pérez-Lorenzana (CINVESTAV), Elena Cáceres (UCOL), David Delepine (UG), Mariana Kirchbach (UASLP), Ildefonso León (UAS), Juan Carlos Arteaga-Velázquez (for his impeccable work in managing the web page of the school) and Víctor Villanueva (UMSNH). Most of them contributed to the extra work involved in refereeing the contributions submitted for this publication. Many thanks also go to all the student volunteers for the efficiency and dedication with which they carried out their duties. At the registration desk, we relied on the hard work of Xiomara Gutiérrez, Enif Gutiérrez (UMSNH) and Mara Diaz Pancardo. Several post docs and PhD students provided invaluable support in all organizational matters: Adolfo Huet, Cliffor Compeán, Rocío Bermúdez, Saúl Sánchez, Anabel Trejo, Iraís Rubalcava, Khépani Raya, José Juan González, Saúl Hernández Ortiz (UMSNH), Alfredo Galaviz, and Alan Aganza (USON). Their help in carrying out the organization of the school was essential and without their collaboration, this school would not have been the same. We also acknowledge the help of the administrative secretary Maria Esperanza Jaramillo of IFM (UMSNH). We would like to take this opportunity to thank

  18. Interrelación de los ambientes eólico y marino a través del análisis textural y mineralógico de las arenas de Monte Hermoso, Argentina Aeolian and marine environments relationships through textural and mineralogical análisis of the sands from Monte Hermoso, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Fernández

    2003-12-01

    ón, asimetría, no se aprecian campos definidos que puedan llegar a diferenciar con certeza los distintos subambientes en los que se ha muestreado la playa. La interpretación de las matrices de esos parámetros indica, para el perfil localizado en la zona menos urbanizada, una situación de transición o de transporte y depósitos selectivos de los sedimentos entre los distintos subambientes. Para el otro perfil, las tendencias sólo reflejan depósitos en transición y una retroalimentación entre la zona de bajamar y las de playa, y el suministro de arena desde bajamar a la berma y a la base de médano. En cuanto a la composición mineralógica de estas arenas se determinó que, dada la homogeneidad cuali-cuantitativa que presentan, no es un parámetro lo suficientemente sensible, para ser utilizado en la diferenciación de los distintos subambientes o inferir la dirección de movimiento entre ellos. El análisis de la forma y el aspecto superficial de los granos de cuarzo de las muestras de base de médano y bajamar, refleja una mezcla entre aquellos modelados por viento y los que lo han sido por agua. Ello se explica por un continuo desplazamiento de la arena entre estos subambientes por acción del viento, es decir desde el continente a la playa (dirección más frecuente, o desde la playa baja a la zona medanosa (mayor intensidad. Las frecuencias predominante de vientos son de los sectores norte y noroeste y los menos habituales pero de mayor intensidad son del sureste y sudoeste.The objective of this paper is to investigate through the textural and mineralogical characteristics of the beach sands the contribution of the aeolian and marine environments of the site. The study is sited in a sector of the beach of the city resort of Monte Hermoso. To assess the contribution of each environment to the beach mass sediment a sand sampling was in defined beach sub-environments: dune base, berm, middle beach, low beach and low tide. This sampling was done on two beach profiles

  19. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Proposed Channel Modifications and Grade Control Structure on the Blue River near Byram's Ford Industrial Park, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    was simulated in the models of existing and proposed conditions to provide results for that flood with the current downstream channel modifications and with the proposed channel modifications and GCS. Results from the model of existing conditions show that the downstream channel modifications as they exist (2006) may already be affecting flows in the unmodified upstream channel. The 30-year flood does not inundate most of the Byram's Ford Industrial Park near the upstream end of the study area. Analysis of the 1990 flood (with the historical 1990 channel conditions) and the 1990 flood simulated with the existing (2006) conditions indicates a substantial increase in velocity throughout the study area and a substantial decrease in inundated area from 1990 to 2006. Results from the model of proposed conditions show that the proposed channel modifications will contain the 30-year flood and that the spoil berm designed to provide additional flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park for the 30-year flood prevents inundation of the industrial park. In the vicinity of Byram's Ford for the 30-year flood, the maximum depth increased from 39.7 feet (ft) in the model of existing conditions to 43.5 ft in the model of proposed conditions, with a resulting decrease in velocity from 6.61 to 4.55 feet per second (ft/s). For the 50-year flood, the maximum depth increased from 42.3 to 45.8 ft, with a decrease in velocity from 6.12 to 4.16 ft/s from existing to proposed conditions. For the 100-year flood, the maximum depth increased from 44.0 to 46.6 ft, with a decrease in velocity from 5.64 to 4.12 ft/s from existing to proposed conditions. When the May 15, 1990, discharge is simulated in the model of existing conditions (with the existing (2006) modified channel downstream of the study area), the maximum depth increases from 38.4 to 42.0 ft, with a decrease in velocity from 6.54 to 4.84 ft/s from existing (2006) to proposed conditions. Analysis of the results fro

  20. Gemeinsame Stellungnahme der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie und Fortpflanzungsmedizin e.V. und des Berufsverbands der Frauenärzte e.V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unter Hirsutismus versteht man das Vorhandensein von Terminalhaaren bei Frauen an typisch männlichen Prädilektionsstellen. Eine vermehrte Körperbehaarung kommt in Abhängigkeit von Alter und ethnischer Abstammung bei 5–10 % oder 5–15 % aller Frauen vor. Ein übermäßiger Haarwuchs mit Beeinträchtigung des ästhetischen Erscheinungsbildes und des Selbstwertgefühls kann die Lebensqualität erheblich beeinträchtigen (Hirsutismus ist eine „manmade disease“. Androgenmetabolismus: Die Androgene bestimmen Art und Verteilung von Haaren am menschlichen Körper. Unter Einfluss von Androgenen wird in den Haarfollikeln die Umwandlung von Vellushaaren in Terminalhaare induziert. Hierbei bestimmt die vom jeweiligen Hautareal abhängige spezifische Expres sion und Aktivität der 5alpha-Reduktase (5alpha-R (Isoenzyme Typ 1 und Typ 2 die Konversionsrate von Testosteron in das biologisch wirksame 5alpha-Dihydrotestosteron (DHT und damit die Wirkung von Androgenen auf die Haarfollikel. Bei der Pathogenese des Hirsutismus spielen Enzymdefekte der Nebennierenrinde und die Insulinresistenz eine Rolle. Der Hirsutismus beruht entweder auf einem absoluten oder relativen Überschuss von Androgenen des Ovars bzw. der Nebennierenrinde oder einer erhöhten Androgenempfindlichkeit der Zielorgane durch vermehrte Expression oder erhöhte Empfindlichkeit des Androgenrezeptors aufgrund genetischer Variationen. Therapieziel: Das Ziel der medizinischen Behandlung des Hirsutismus besteht darin, entweder im Rahmen einer retrograden Metamorphose die Transformation vom Terminalhaar in das Vellushaar zu induzieren oder einen Stopp des Haarwachstums bzw. einen Ausfall der Terminalhaare einzuleiten. Eine kausale Behandlung steht hierbei an erster Stelle (z. B. ovarielle oder adrenale Hemmung, Therapie der Interaktion mit einer Hyperinsulinämie beim PCO-Syndrom oder operative Ausschaltung pathologischer Androgenquellen [z. B. androgenproduzierende Tumoren von Ovar oder

  1. PREFACE: Workshop on Higher Symmetries in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, Rutwig; María Ancochea, José; Castrillón, Marco

    2009-07-01

    Committee, we would like to express our gratitude to the participants and assistants in the WHSP meeting for their presence and contributions, as well as to the members of the Scientific Committee for their help and outstanding efforts, with special mention to E Padrón from the Universidad de La Laguna and the GMC Network. R Campoamor-Stursberg, M Castrillón López and J M Ancochea Bermúdez Universidad Complutense de Madrid Editors of the WHSP Proceedings

  2. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    is very dynamic (Cerdà 1998b). Acknowledgements The research projects 07 M/0077/1998, 07 M/0023/2000 and RTA01-078-C2- 2, GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Belmonte Serrato, F., Romero Díaz, A., López Bermúdez, F., Hernández Laguna, E. 1999. Óptimo de cobertura vegetal en relación a las pérdidas de suelo por erosión hídrica y las pérdidas de lluvia por interceptación. Papeles de Geografía 30, 5-15. Cammeraat, E., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C. 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semiarid environment. Ecohydrology, 3: 421-430. 10.1002/eco.161 Cerdà, A. 1997a. The effect of patchy distribution of Stipa tenacissima L. on runoff and erosion. Journal of Arid Environments, 36, 37-51. Cerdà, A. 1998. The influence of aspect and vegetation on seasonal changes in erosion under rainfall simulation on a clay soil in Spain. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 78, 321-330. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A.1997b. Soil erosion after land abandonment in a semiarid environment of Southeastern Spain. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 11, 163-176. Garcia-Estringana, P., Alonso-Blázquez, N., Alegre, J. 2010b. Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs. Journal of Hydrology 389, 363-372. Garcia-Estringana, P., Alonso-Blázquez, N., Marques, M.J., Bienes, R., Alegre, J. 2010a. Direct and indirect effects of Mediterranean vegetation on runoff and soil loss. European Journal of Soil Science 61, 174-185. García-Ruiz, J.M. 2010. The effects of land uses on soil erosion in Spain: a review. Catena 81, 1-11. Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., and Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model

  3. Correspondencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Señor Editor:En relación con el artículo titulado: «Uso del bajo peso al nacer como criterio seleccionador para la vigilancia rutinaria de anomalías congénitas de origen infeccioso» de los autores: Bermúdez A, González N y Ching R, y publicado en Colombia Médica Volumen 39 Nº 2, Suplemento 2, 2008 (Abril-Junio deseo realizar varios comentarios.En primer lugar el artículo no presenta ninguna coherencia argumentativa que permita correlacionar el título con los métodos utilizados en el análisis de la información, lo cual produce indefectiblemente dudas de las conclusiones y recomendaciones de los autores.Los autores plantean como diseño del estudio la observación de una serie de casos de recién nacidos con bajo peso según la definición de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y que la población de estudio se obtuvo por conveniencia con el fin de tener representación completa de las regiones de Colombia. En el caso del diseño del estudio planteado por los autores, no se entiende cómo a partir de una serie de casos, se obtiene el riego relativo (RR informado por el estudio; el RR es el cociente entre el riesgo en un grupo con el factor de exposición (factor de riesgo y el riesgo en un grupo de referencia, de tal modo que el RR se comporta como un índice de asociación entre la exposición y el desenlace estudiado. La mejor forma de calcular el RR es llevar a cabo estudios prospectivos como el estudio de cohortes o los estudios de casos y controles anidados a una cohorte. En el mismo sentido si se desea calcular un RR, el cálculo de tamaño de muestra debe corresponder con ese cometido, cálculo que debe contemplar la prevalencia de la patología o condición, la precisión del riesgo a estimar en relación con el riesgo real y un valor de riesgo que posea cierta vero-similitud. Estos aspectos del muestreo no se aprecian en el artículo, y si la intención era la de representar las diversas regiones de Colombia, el muestreo