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Sample records for berlin west germany

  1. Luetzowstrasse residential building, Berlin, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroepf, S. [Solar Env. Tech., Amberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Solar air collectors are integrated into the south facade of this apartment building in Berlin. The solar heat is distributed to the 31 apartments by floor hypocausts. Highly insulated walls and roofs minimize the heat losses. (author)

  2. Wannseebahn row houses, Berlin, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhorn, H.

    1999-07-01

    The energy-saving concept of the four Wannseebahn row houses in Berlin comprises a compact construction method, good thermal insulation of the building envelope, deliberate use of solar energy with south-facing windows and sunspaces, and a solar air system. The energy gained by the air collectors is led through a closed cycle and released to the middle wall of the building. So that the stored energy is used in a controlled manner, there is a second closed air cycle with an active discharge. (author)

  3. “They looked German, albeit with even tighter pants and uglier shoes, but there was something different about them”: The Function of East and West Germany and the Fall of the Berlin Wall in Paul Beatty’s Slumberland

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    Schweinfurth, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines Paul Beatty’s novel Slumberland (2008 as representative for a still neglected field of American literary expression: American literary representations of Germany after 1989 which address issues of Germany’s former division into East and West, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and German reunification. It argues that the function of the German setting is not used to affirm a U.S. American identity through the othering of Germany but that it critically addresses controversial issues in the United States through the use of displacement.

  4. [Rheumatologic patient management and research in Berlin at the intersection between East and West].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, J

    1995-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, there was an immediate need for collaboration between rheumatologists from East- and West-Berlin from the very beginning, which could be taken as an example for the rest of Germany. This was achieved through different activities in patient care and research. The "Regionales Rheumazentrum Berlin" which was started at about that time played a special role in making this enterprise a success.

  5. Berlin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2005-01-01

    Berlin is the capital and the biggest city of Germany. It has a population of about 3. 5 million and extends over 889 square kilometers. It is located in central Europe, longitude 13:25 E, latitude 52:32 N, 34 m above sea level, at the rivers Spree and Havel.

  6. Fluorine prescribing practice of paediatricians in Berlin, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Mittelsdorf, Arlette

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study was to find out about paediatricians' approach towards fluoride within the municipal area of Berlin, Germany. For this purpose, an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 14 questions had been mailed; it was answered by a total number of 33 paediatricians. Basically, the survey indicates that they all prescribe fluorine in tablet form, but they differ about initiation and duration. About 30% prescribe fluorine between the age of 30 days and 6 years. All of ...

  7. Berlin: United Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Compares East and West Berlin before and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989. Offers divergent viewpoints on German reunification from interviews of two professors: one from East Germany, the other from West Germany. Recommends that social studies classes incorporate current events such as German reunification. (CH)

  8. Germany's Metamorphosis: Memory and the Holocaust in the Berlin Repulic

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    Alison Lewis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available I want to focus on two recent debates in Germany from the same inaugural period of Germany’s SPD–Green government, which both have as their focus the contestation of memory in relation to the Holocaust. In both debates the Holocaust serves as a negative myth of origin and a primal phantasmatic scene of guilt and shame around which German national identifications are organised. The first is the Walser–Bubis debate and the second the much more protracted but no less fierce debate about the building of a Holocaust memorial in Berlin, which peaked around the same time. Both debates are important in the German context because they come at the end of a long period of Christian Democratic (CDU rule and at the beginning of a new SPD era in German politics. They are significant, moreover, because they appear to send contradictory messages about German self- understanding to the international community.

  9. The archaeology of a contemporary "Leichenhalle" in Berlin, Germany

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    Glenn Arthur Ricci

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An archaeological/historical analysis of the 19th century Leichenhalle in the Prenzlauer Berg district of Berlin was undertaken in order to interpret the physical changes that the succeeding governments of Germany made to the building from 1886 to present day. The original construction was created to deal with poor living conditions during the industrial revolution. Following this, the Nazi party converted public sections of the building to serve as a memorial, incorporating expensive materials into the flooring creating the swastika symbol of the state across the floor while the cellar was modified to make an air-raid shelter. At the end of World War II, Berlin was divided amongst the Allied forces. Prenzlauer Berg became part of the Soviet Sector and attempted to remove all evidence of the former Nazi government. This included the removal of the Nazi memorial, yet the flooring of the monument room was spared. The building was then converted into a security guard house for the Stasi, which continued the Soviet precedent of using the entire building as a functional structure off limits to the public. Economic GDR architecture was added to the Leichenhalle, contrasting with the relatively expensive multicolored and designed brickwork of the original façade, only to be torn down during the reunification. This building reflects the various uses that a building can serve under radically differing governments during a short period and the problems that can come about historically when the government´s attempt to physically erase their predecessors or keep their actions in the building secret.

  10. Unification of Theoretical Models of Academic Self-Concept/Achievement Relations: Reunification of East and West German School Systems after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Koller, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal data (five waves) from large cohorts of 7th grade students in East Germany ("n"=2,119) and West Germany ("n"=1,928) were collected from the start of the reunification of the school systems following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Here we integrate the two major theoretical models of relations between academic…

  11. ["Shock" therapies in Nazi Germany. The example of Berlin psychiatry].

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    Rzesnitzek, L

    2014-09-01

    The idea that "shock" therapies were introduced by "Nazi-Psychiatry" very early and used radically in a cruel way darkens the image of these therapies until today. A case analysis of patient files of psychiatric hospitals in Berlin is used to recapitulate the introduction of insulin coma, metrazol and electroconvulsive therapy during the National Socialism era. Contrary to the false assumption that these "shock" therapies would have been introduced and preferred by psychiatrists involved with the Nazi regime and "euthanasia", in the case of Berlin these therapies were delayed by them and seldom used.

  12. Assessing the variety and pricing of selected foods in socioeconomically disparate districts of Berlin, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stroebele, Nanette; Dietze, Pia; Tinnemann, Peter; Willich, Stefan N.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim The neighbourhood environment appears to influence people?s food consumption. Access, variety and pricing of foods play a role in the socioeconomic difference of fruit and vegetable consumption. This study compared differences in the number of grocery stores, variety of fresh fruits and vegetables, and food prices in districts with different Social Indices (SI) in Berlin, Germany. Methods The ...

  13. The Berlin Poliklinik: psychoanalytic innovation in Weimar Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, E A

    1999-01-01

    After Freud proposed in 1918 the creation of "institutions or out-patient clinics [where] treatment will be free," Max Eitingon, Ernst Simmel, and other progressive psychoanalysts founded the Berlin Poliklinik, a free outpatient clinic. Guided by Weimar Republic principles of "radical functionalism," the Poliklinik and its companion inpatient service, the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium, pioneered treatment and training methodologies still used--and still debated--today. Their funding strategies, statistics, and approaches to clinical problems like length of treatment tell the history of an innovative psychoanalytic institute where men and women were generally treated in equal numbers and patients (ranging in occupational status from unemployed to professional) of all ages were treated free. Franz Alexander, Karl Abraham, Theresa Benedek, Paul Federn, Otto Fenichel, Edith Jacobson, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Helene Deutsch, Hanns Sachs, Sándor Radó, Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, Wilhelm Reich, Annie Reich, and Melanie Klein all worked at the Poliklinik, and from there initiated decades of original clinical theory, practice, and education.

  14. The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Pieth, Susanne; Jaumann, R.; Weiland, Marianne; Eichentopf, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The DLR/NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) was founded in 1985 in cooperation with NASA and is located at the DLR Institute of Planetary Research in Berlin-Adlershof. This library of planetary photographs and maps keeps on file all the image data transmitted by many NASA and ESA space probes and makes them accessible to the public in Europe and mainly in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

  15. Ecological analysis of social risk factors for Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany, 2007–2009

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    Wilking Hendrik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors are increasingly recognised as related to health inequalities in Germany and are also identified as important contributing factors for an increased risk of acquiring infections. The aim of the present study was to describe in an ecological analysis the impact of different social factors on the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in an urban setting. The specific outcome of interest was the distribution of Rotavirus infections, which are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants and also a burden in the elderly in Germany. The results may help to generate more specific hypothesis for infectious disease transmission. Methods We analysed the spatial distribution of hospitalized patients with Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany. The association between the small area incidence and different socio-demographic and economic variables was investigated in order to identify spatial relations and risk factors. Our spatial analysis included 447 neighbourhood areas of similar population size in the city of Berlin. We included all laboratory-confirmed cases of patients hospitalized due to Rotavirus infections and notified between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2009. We excluded travel-associated and nosocomial infections. A spatial Bayesian Poisson regression model was used for the statistical analysis of incidences at neighbourhood level in relation to socio-demographic variables. Results Altogether, 2,370 patients fulfilled the case definition. The disease mapping indicates a number of urban quarters to be highly affected by the disease. In the multivariable spatial regression model, two risk factors were identified for infants ( Conclusions Neighbourhoods with a high unemployment rate and high day care attendance rate appear to be particularly affected by Rotavirus in the population of Berlin. Public health promotion programs should be developed for the affected areas. Due to the ecological study

  16. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

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    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  17. Poverty and health in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between poverty and several health-related characteristics in West Germany was investigated. Data were derived from the National and Regional Health Surveys conducted in West Germany from 1984 to 1992. 25,544 males and 25,719 females with German nationality aged 25-69 years were examined. Poverty was defined as a household income of 50% less than the mean for West Germany. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between poverty and four health variables: individual health behavior, subjective assessment of health status, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported prevalence of lifetime chronic diseases. 10.2% of males and 12.8% of females were classified as being below the poverty line. For most but not all health parameters, less favourable results were found for the segment of the population with a household income below the poverty line. The most striking poverty-related differences were observed for lack of regular sport activities, subjective health satisfaction, obesity and myocardial infarction/stroke. Significantly lower prevalence rates for study subjects below the poverty line were observed for hypercholesterolemia in females only. Allergic disorders were the only chronic diseases reported significantly less often in males and females below the poverty line. Poverty has strong effects on individual health status and the prevalence of chronic diseases. Due to the rising unemployment rates in Germany in the last years it is very likely that the strong negative consequences of poverty for health are increasing.

  18. Ecological analysis of social risk factors for Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilking, Hendrik; Höhle, Michael; Velasco, Edward; Suckau, Marlen; Eckmanns, Tim

    2012-08-28

    Socioeconomic factors are increasingly recognised as related to health inequalities in Germany and are also identified as important contributing factors for an increased risk of acquiring infections. The aim of the present study was to describe in an ecological analysis the impact of different social factors on the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in an urban setting. The specific outcome of interest was the distribution of Rotavirus infections, which are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants and also a burden in the elderly in Germany. The results may help to generate more specific hypothesis for infectious disease transmission. We analysed the spatial distribution of hospitalized patients with Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany. The association between the small area incidence and different socio-demographic and economic variables was investigated in order to identify spatial relations and risk factors. Our spatial analysis included 447 neighbourhood areas of similar population size in the city of Berlin. We included all laboratory-confirmed cases of patients hospitalized due to Rotavirus infections and notified between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2009. We excluded travel-associated and nosocomial infections. A spatial Bayesian Poisson regression model was used for the statistical analysis of incidences at neighbourhood level in relation to socio-demographic variables. Altogether, 2,370 patients fulfilled the case definition. The disease mapping indicates a number of urban quarters to be highly affected by the disease. In the multivariable spatial regression model, two risk factors were identified for infants (unemployed inhabitants in the neighbourhood (95% credibility interval (CI): 3.10%-6.74%) and by 0.53% for each additional percent of children attending day care in the neighbourhood (95% CI: 0.00%-1.06%). We found no evidence for an association with the proportion of foreign residents, population density, the residential quality of

  19. Limits—Urban Density and Mobility Networks in West Berlin during the Period of Containment

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    Vanessa Miriam Carlow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available If space may be conceptualized as a natural resource, much like gas, oil, or minerals, then its production and use can also be thought of as something to be properly managed, taken care of, and not wasted. Limiting the expansion of the footprint of built-up land in urban areas forces this particular resource (space to be used more efficiently—in a sense, compelling it to be more creative and productive. These spatial constraints on urban areas generate different kinds of densification processes within the existing city, propagating densification, and with it new patterns and uses in urban development, as well as novel approaches to mitigating the hazards of dense urban environments. This paper examines the case of how spatial containment in West Berlin during the period of the Berlin Wall (1961–1989 produced such outcomes. West Berlin during this period can be considered a unique case of spatial containment, where a relatively large and vibrant modern city had to work around a clear and indelible limit to its physical expansion. This paper will discuss ways in which the containment influenced patterns of development in West Berlin toward densification and connectivity, focusing on the expansion of its infrastructural networks, and discuss the development of a new building culture around transformation and densification, including hybrid architectures and mitigation devices to deal with difficult sites produced by the densification.

  20. Managing Cultural Diversity in Federal Germany: Bavaria and Berlin as Classic Antagonists

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    Caroline Schultz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the type of federalism applied in Germany the level of analysis best suited for studying integration is that of the 16 Länder. For comparing the approaches of two of these - Bavaria and Berlin - in managing migration-related diversity, the paper uses a double differentiation as analytical starting point. The first refers to the bulk of literature of different national models of integration and proposes two ideal types of integration/diversity policy. The second differentiation seizes the suggestion that integration in some areas of life is socially much more consequential than in others with the consequence that state intervention in these areas is much easier to justify from a normative point of view. From the descriptive comparison it becomes clear that both Länder, though coming from rather diverging starting points, by now employ hybrid strategies to accommodate or manage different aspects of cultural diversity.

  1. [The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].

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    Cabello C, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling.

  2. Social Participation of Turkish and Arabic Immigrants in the Neighborhood: Case Study of Moabit West, Berlin

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    Figen UZAR

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Social participation of immigrants in district activities and local planning processes is given significance in Germany. It has become an important issue with the introduction of Neighborhood Management concept in the 1990s. This concept deals with districts which have a considerable percentage of low-income, unemployed, low-educated,immigrant population and social help beneficiaries. Immigrants are usually seen as the cause of the problems in those areas by the authorities since they are not integrated into the host societyand to the other immigrant groups. Since the 1990s, they have started to be seen as potential solution to the problems by means of an active social participation in their neighborhood. Desired level of social participation, however, has not been reached due to a number of reasons although there are a few immigrants who take part in social, cultural and planning activities in their district.The aim of this article is to outline the reasons of low participation rates, motivations of the participant immigrants and the forms of participation among Turkish and Arabic immigrantsin a neighborhood of Berlin, Moabit West, based on in-dept interviews made with both nonparticipant and participant immigrants and with some immigrant associations. The field research was carried out in June 2005, within the framework of the project ‘Immigrants in the City’. The reasons of low participation which were found as a result of this research study are language deficiency, different cultural understandings of participation, looking for concrete results of participatory actions and lack of information. The participant immigrants are motivated to solve the problems in the district and to change it, to increase integration of the immigrant youth into the society and of the immigrants, to the established society. Lastly, participant immigrants usually take part in street festivals and youth social work, and in immigrant associations instead of

  3. Passive solar systems performance in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habenicht, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the two main climatic features (solar radiation and temperature) on the performance of passive solar systems in West Germany. Evaluations were made for the four climatic zones - German Lowlands, German Highlands, Alp Foreland, Alps. These zones differ in solar radiation, temperature and diurnal temperature swings. To evaluate different passive solar systems (direct gain, Trombe wall, water wall) a prototypical dwelling was designed which responded to the environmental conditions. The calculations of the ''Solar Savings Fraction'' (SSF) of each systems were made with a program based on the 'LCR-method'. The paper concludes that although the heating requirements decrease with decreasing latitude and altitude, the SSF is nearly the same for all parts of Germany. They are in a range of +- 5%. This is due to the fact that two main climatic features solar radiation and temperature balance each other. In northern Germany the man solar radiation level is low and so is the number of heating degree days. The conditions in southern Germany are reverse.

  4. A spatial and seasonal description of return-levels for the Berlin-Brandenburg region (Germany)

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    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy. Besides the direct effect, e.g. damage due to hail, extreme precipitation can cause flood events, mudslides and increased erosion, which in turn lead to serious damage. Typically, return levels derived from annual maxima of daily precipitation sums are used for the design of hydraulic structures or for risk assessment in insurance companies. Seasonally or monthly resolved return levels are rarely considered, although they provide additional information: the higher temporal resolution can be beneficial for risk management, e.g. for agriculture or tourism sector. In addition, annual return levels derived from monthly maxima offer lower uncertainties, since a larger data basis are used for estimation. Here, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) is used to calculate monthly resolved return levels for 323 stations in the region Berlin-Brandenburg (Germany). Instead of estimating the parameters of the GEV for each month separately, the seasonal variation is captured by harmonic functions. This natural approach is particularly suitable for an efficient characterization of the seasonal variation of extreme precipitation. In a first step, a statistical model is developed for each station separately to estimate the monthly return levels. Besides the seasonal smoothness, also smoothness in space is exploited here. We use functions of longitude, latitude and altitude to describe the spatial variation of GEV parameters in the second step. Thus, uncertainty is reduced at gauges with short time series and estimates for ungauged sites can be obtained in a meaningful way.

  5. 9th Transgenic Technology Meeting (TT2010) in Berlin, Germany: a meeting report.

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    Saunders, Thomas L; Sobieszczuk, Peter

    2010-12-01

    The first Transgenic Technology (TT) Meeting was organized in 1999 by Johannes Wilbertz, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden as a regional meeting. The TT Meetings continued in this way, constantly gathering additional practitioners of transgenic methodologies until the breakthrough in 2005 when the 6th TT Meeting in Barcelona, Spain, hosted by Lluis Montoliu (Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Madrid, Spain), generated the momentum to establish the International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT). Since 2006, the ISTT has continued to promote the TT Meetings and provide its membership with a forum to discuss best practices and new methods in the field. The TT2010 Meeting was held at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany). Participation at the TT2010 Meeting exceeded the registration capacity and set a new attendance record. Session topics included methods for the generation of rat and mouse models of human disease, fundamental and advanced topics in rodent embryonic stem cells, and the newest transgenic technologies. Short presentations from selected abstracts were of especial interest. Roundtable discussions on transgenic facility establishment and cryoarchiving of mouse lines were favorably received. Students, technical staff, and professors participated in numerous discussions and came away with practical methods and new ideas for research.

  6. Preconceptional factors associated with very low birthweight delivery in East and West Berlin: a case control study

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    Reiher Horst

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birthweight, i.e. a birthweight Methods In 1992, two years after the German unification, we started to recruit two cohorts of very low birthweight infants and controls in East and West Berlin for a long-term neurodevelopmental study. The present analysis was undertaken to compare potential preconceptional risk factors for very low birthweight delivery in a case-control design including 166 mothers (82 East vs. 84 West Berlin with very low birthweight delivery and 341 control mothers (166 East vs. 175 West. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of various dichotomous parental covariates and their interaction with living in East or West Berlin. After backward variable selection, short maternal school education, maternal unemployment, single-room apartment, smoking, previous preterm delivery, and fetal loss emerged as significant main effect variables, together with living in West Berlin as positive effect modificator for single-mother status. Conclusion Very low birthweight has been differentially associated with obstetrical history and indicators of maternal socioeconomic status in East and West Berlin. The ranking of these risk factors is under the influence of the political framework.

  7. Modeling the fate of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration (Berlin, Germany).

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    Henzler, Aline F; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are frequently detected in urban surface water and the adjacent groundwater and are therefore an increasing problem for potable water quality. River bank filtration (RBF) is a beneficial pretreatment step to improve surface water quality for potable use. Removal is mainly caused by microbial degradation of micropollutants, while sorption retards the transport. The quantification of biodegradation and adsorption parameters for EOCs at field scale is still scarce. In this study, the fate and behavior of a range of organic compounds during RBF were investigated using a two dimensional numerical flow- and transport model. The data base used emanated from a project conducted in Berlin, Germany (NASRI: Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). Oxygen isotope signatures and hydraulic head data were used for model calibration. Afterwards, twelve organic micropollutants were simulated with a reactive transport model. Three compounds (primidone, EDTA, and AMDOPH) showed conservative behavior (no biodegradation or sorption). For the nine remaining compounds (1.5 NDSA, AOX, AOI, MTBE, carbamazepine, clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole), degradation and/or sorption was observed. 1.5 NDSA and AOX were not sorbed, but slightly degraded with model results for λ=2.25e(-3) 1/d and 2.4e(-3) 1/d. For AOI a λ=0.0106 1/d and R=1 were identified. MTBE could be characterized well assuming R=1 and a low 1st order degradation rate constant (λ=0.0085 1/d). Carbamazepine degraded with a half life time of about 66 days after a threshold value of 0.2-0.3 μg/L was exceeded and retarded slightly (R=1.7). Breakthrough curves of clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole could be fitted less well, probably due to the dependency of degradation on temperature and redox conditions, which are highly transient at the RBF site. Conditions range from oxic to anoxic (up to iron-reducing), with the oxic and

  8. Pharmaceutical spending and German reunification: parity comes quickly to Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, E M

    1994-01-01

    As the Berlin Wall fell and the population of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) swelled by 25 percent with the addition of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany), the health care system struggled to keep pace. This article examines drug outlays by the statutory sickness funds during the first 2 years of unified operations. It shows that providing equivalent coverage quickly led to equal rates of pharmaceutical consumption nationwide, while in Berlin the former East outdistanced the West by a considerable margin.

  9. Contested Namesakes: East Berlin School Names under Communism and in Reunified Germany

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    Plum, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the municipal authorities eliminate the names of all schools in eastern Berlin in 1990 to formalize the spontaneous purge of school identities. She added, that the renaming of primary and secondary schools at this historical juncture provides a unique vantage point for examining what the democratic turning…

  10. [Some impressions of child and adolescent psychiatric management in Berlin after the fall of the wall].

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    Fegert, J M; Geiken, G; Lenz, K

    1992-12-01

    The fall of the Berlin wall caused a sudden increase in migration from East-Germany to West-Berlin. In our sample we compared 155 Berlin elementary school children to 17 children from East-Germany now living in Berlin and 25 immigrant children most oft them coming from Turkey and Poland. Although many authors expected short-term disorders of adaptation, we found a constancy of psychiatric diagnosis in the migration group. We noticed important differences particularly in the new psychosocial situation of the former East German mothers, with many single-mother-families, where the mothers now were often unemployed.

  11. Aspects of decision support in water management--example Berlin and Potsdam (Germany) I--spatially differentiated evaluation.

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    Simon, Ute; Brüggemann, Rainer; Pudenz, Stefan

    2004-04-01

    Decisions about sustainable development demand spatially differentiated evaluations. As an example, we demonstrate the evaluation of water management strategies in the cities of Berlin and Potsdam (Germany) with respect to their ecological effects in 14 sections of the surface water system. Two decision support systems were compared, namely PROMETHEE, which is designed to obtain a clear decision (linear ranking), and Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT), normally providing more than one favourable solution (partial order). By PROMETHEE, the spatial differentiation had unwanted effects on the result, negating the stakeholders determined weighting of indicators. Therefore, the stakeholder can barely benefit from the convenience of obtaining a clear decision (linear ranking). In contrast, the result obtained by HDT was not influenced by spatial differentiation. Furthermore, HDT provided helpful tools to analyse the evaluation result, such as the concept of antagonistic indicators to discover conflicts in the evaluation process.

  12. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England

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    Willke, I.

    1975-01-01

    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  13. Fathers of orthopaedics in Germany (eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries): Lorenz Heister in Helmsted; Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in Berlin; Heine and family in Würzburg.

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    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In orthopaedic medicine in Germany, Lorenz Heister, practicing in the eighteenth century, is considered one of the fathers of German surgery and is renowned for his books on management of hemorrhage, wounds, fractures, bandaging, instrumentation and surgery. After Heister, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, orthopaedic medicine in Germany developed uniformly. In a period when few doctors were interested in a separate discipline of orthopaedics, Germany led in this field. Heine devoted himself to the development of the new profession of orthopaedics, and in 1816, he opened the first orthopaedic institute on German soil in the former monastery of St. Stephen, which later became known as the Karolinen-Institut. Along with Heine and his family, the special development of orthopaedics in Berlin may be attributed to the work of Dieffenbach who, in 1832, became professor at the University of Berlin and in 1840 director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery at Charité Hospital.

  14. Prevention of homicidal violence in schools in Germany: the Berlin Leaking Project and the Networks Against School Shootings Project (NETWASS).

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    Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on early identification of leaking behavior that often precedes targeted school attacks. Leaking refers to any behavior or communication that indicates a student is preparing to carry out a violent attack. This would include explicit or implied threats of violence, apparent fascination with prior acts of violence such as Columbine, and any evidence of planning or preparation to carry out an attack. The NETWASS project will test a training program and intervention strategy based on those findings, examining the usefulness of a threat assessment approach to prevent violence by training teachers to recognize leaking behavior by students. This approach is extended by training teachers on a larger scale to identify leaking and then having a school-based team evaluate the student and initiate appropriate interventions, such as mental health services, and in some cases, law enforcement action.

  15. Opening speech annual meeting on nuclear technology 2013, 14 to 16 May 2013, Berlin, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueldner, Ralf [Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (DAtF), Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Germany is an important location for nuclear technology also in the face of the 'Energiewende'. Our industry is not merely the object of political decisions, but it also continues to make its reliable and safe contribution to supplying energy and to this country's prosperity. The 9 nuclear power plants connected to the grid are a pillar of the energy supply especially for baseload generation, with an installed power of 12,700 MW at an average availability of over 90 %. With almost 100 billion kilowatt hours generated annually, they contributed 1/6 of the electricity generated in Germany in 2012 and made Germany the second largest nuclear power producer in the European Union. The nuclear power plants ensure, as do the other large power plants, the regional voltage and frequency stability and with their good controllability and the large standard service volume make an important contribution to integrating the production of electricity from renewables which is very high by international comparison. Nuclear technology in Germany is not restricted to the dismantling, final storage and remaining operations of plants, but rather it is made up of a vigorous, competitive nuclear industry that is among the best in the world. That does not merely show in the ranking of the nuclear power plants with the highest output rates, which placed 4 German plants in the top ten in the world also in 2012. It also becomes apparent when nuclear technology Made in Germany is sought after all over the world, in particular where the level of safety is concerned, e.g. worldwide in improving the safety of plants after the accident at Fukushima. Quite a number of safety components that are just being ordered elsewhere have been tried and tested for years already in Germany, and are supplied, installed and serviced by German suppliers and service providers. The broad range of the nuclear industry in Germany and its backing in a diverse research landscape means that the products

  16. Sexing Berlin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Berlin has always been a literary space of extremely diverse political and cultural projections. This essay investigates why after the unification of East and West Berlin the city has been imagined as a play zone of sexual self-fulfilment by authors such as Inka Parei, Tanja Dückers, Kathrin Röggla, Judith Hermann and Julia Franck. Have such erotic adventures replaced political vision in our post-utopian decade? What is the purpose of the laboured allegorisation of the fall of the wall in Durs Grünbein's essays or in the novels of Katja Lange-Müller and Thomas Hettche? The sexification of historical and political processes recalls similar stereotypes in the East German literature of the 1980s: the metropolis as a whore in works by Heiner Müller or Wolf Biermann, but also by younger authors of the independent literary scene in Berlin like Uwe Kolbe or Frank-Wolf Matthies.

  17. The Influence of green areas and roof albedos on air temperatures during Extreme Heat Events in Berlin, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schubert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mesoscale atmospheric model COSMO-CLM (CCLM with the Double Canyon Effect Parametrization Scheme (DCEP is applied to investigate possible adaption measures to extreme heat events (EHEs for the city of Berlin, Germany. The emphasis is on the effects of a modified urban vegetation cover and roof albedo on near-surface air temperatures. Five EHEs with a duration of 5 days or more are identified for the period 2000 to 2009. A reference simulation is carried out for each EHE with current vegetation cover, roof albedo and urban canopy parameters (UCPs, and is evaluated with temperature observations from weather stations in Berlin and its surroundings. The derivation of the UCPs from an impervious surface map and a 3-D building data set is detailed. Characteristics of the simulated urban heat island for each EHE are analysed in terms of these UCPs. In addition, six sensitivity runs are examined with a modified vegetation cover of each urban grid cell by -25%, 5% and 15%, with a roof albedo increased to 0.40 and 0.65, and with a combination of the largest vegetation cover and roof albedo, respectively. At the weather stations' grid cells, the results show a maximum of the average diurnal change in air temperature during each EHE of 0.82 K and -0.48 K for the -25% and 15% vegetation covers, -0.50 K for the roof albedos of 0.65, and -0.63 K for the combined vegetation and albedo case. The largest effects on the air temperature are detected during midday.

  18. Small rodents as paratenic or intermediate hosts of carnivore parasites in Berlin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaz, Denny; Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Antolová, Daniela; Schaper, Roland; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1) and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element) in brain and ascarids (ITS-2) in muscle or brain tissue. During necropsies, metacestodes were collected and identified using ITS-2 and 12S rRNA PCRs. An ELISA to detect antibodies against Toxocara canis ES antigens was performed. Within the 257 examined rodents, the most frequently observed parasite was Frenkelia glareoli predominantly found in Myodes glareolus. T. gondii was only detected in 12 rodents and Microtus spp. (although strongly underrepresented) had a significantly increased chance of being positive. Neither Echinococcus nor typical Taenia parasites of dogs and cats were found but Mesocestoides litteratus and Taenia martis metacestodes were identified which can cause severe peritoneal or ocular cysticercosis in dogs, primates and humans. Using PCR, the ascarids T. canis (n = 8), Toxocara cati (4) and Parascaris sp. (1) were detected predominantly in muscles. Seroprevalence of T. canis was 14.2% and ELISA was thus more sensitive than PCR to detect infection with this parasite. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that parasite communities could be grouped into an urban and a peri-urban cluster with high frequency of ascarid-positive rodents in urban and high frequency of F. glareoli in peri-urban sites. Prevalence rates of parasites in rodents with potential impact for human or veterinary public health are considerable and the monitoring of transmission cycles of carnivore parasites in intermediate rodent hosts is recommended to estimate the health

  19. Environmental risk factors for respiratory and skin atopy: results from epidemiological studies in former East and West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, J; Krämer, U; Schäfer, T; Abeck, D; Vieluf, D; Behrendt, H

    1999-01-01

    The fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 offered the unique opportunity to compare populations of a similar genetic and geographic background which had been living under quite different environmental exposure conditions for over 40 years. Since 1990 comparative epidemiological studies were performed between various regions in former East and West Germany with yearly questionnaires and 3 years' physical, dermatological, allergological and exposure examination in a total of about 30,000 preschool children. There were striking differences between the various German regions with higher prevalence rates of respiratory atopy (hay fever, asthma) and atopic sensitization (prick test, RAST) in West Germany, while atopic eczema was significantly higher in East Germany (17.5 vs. 11.4% in West Germany). Total serum IgE levels were markedly higher in children in the east of Germany, similarly to the prevalence of parasitic infestation (questionnaire data as well as positive ascaris RAST). In multivariate logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly associated with atopic eczema: animal contact (odds ratio, OR 2.9), animal furs in the bedroom (OR 2.2), use of gas without ventilation (OR 1.7) and living near road with heavy traffic (OR 1.7). Furthermore, socioeconomic factors measured as parental educational status (university vs. elementary school) were significantly associated (OR 2.3) with atopy. Respiratory tract infections and irritant responses decreased together with decreasing SO2 and suspended particulate air pollution in East Germany from 1991 to 1997. It is concluded that environmental factors from the physical, chemical, biological, and psychological environment (characteristic of a 'modern' or 'western' society) do influence the development of atopic sensitization and disease.

  20. International Workshop on Discrete Time Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Fields and Networks (2nd) Held in Berlin, Germany on October 28 and 29, 1993. Program and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Program 0 Berlin, Germany, October 1993 Diana Lawton, Piano 0 W.A. Mozart Sonate d-dur, KV. 311 Allegro con spirito Andante con espressione Rondo II C...exhibiting a cause-to- effect (causality) relationship. The latter in turn gives rise to computational rules that exhibit the sequential nature needed for...electromagnetic wave behaviors in a complicated geometry. However, it is a memory intensive and time consu- ming operation. Recently, the author’s

  1. Positive and negative flashbulb memories of the fall of the Berlin Wall among East- and West Germans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2006-01-01

    Flashbulb memories for the fall of the Berlin Wall were examined among 103 East and West Germans who considered the event as either highly positive or highly negative. Participants in the positive group rated their memories higher on measures of reliving and sensory imagery, whereas memory for fa......, rehearsal and the centrality of the memory to the person's identity and life story correlated positively with memory qualities. The results suggest that positive versus negative emotions have different effects on the processing and long-term retention of flashbulb memories....

  2. The geothermal field below the city of Berlin, Germany: Results from structurally and parametrically improved 3D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Maximilian; Sippel, Judith; Cacace, Mauro; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the influence of the geological structure and geophysical parametrization of model units on the geothermal field as calculated by 3D numerical simulations of coupled fluid and heat transport for the subsurface of Berlin, Germany. The study area is located in the Northeast German Basin which is filled with several kilometers of sediments. This sedimentary infill includes the clastic sedimentary units Middle Buntsandstein and Sedimentary Rotliegend which are of particular interest for geothermal exploration. Previous studies conducted in the Northeast German Basin have already shown the geometries and properties of the geological units majorly control the distribution of subsurface temperatures. In this study we followed a two-step approach, where we first improved an existing structural model by integrating newly available 57 geological cross-sections, well data and deep seismics (down to ~4 km). Secondly, we performed a sensitivity analysis investigating the effects of varying physical fluid and rock properties on the subsurface temperature field. The results of this study show, that the structural configuration of model units exerts the highest influence on the geothermal field (up to ± 23 K at 1000 m below sea level). Here, the Rupelian clay aquitard, displaying a heterogeneous thickness distribution, locally characterized by hydrogeological windows (i.e. domains of no thickness) enabling intra-aquifer groundwater circulation has been identified as major controlling factor. The new structural configuration of this unit (more continuous, less numerous hydrogeological windows) also leads to a reduction of the influence of different boundary conditions and heat transport mechanisms considered. Additionally, the models results show that calculated temperatures highly depend on geophysical properties of model units whereas the hydraulic conductivity of the Cenozoic succession was identified as most dominant, leading to changes

  3. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children’s health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  4. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children's health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools.

  5. Using crowdsourced data from citizen weather stations to analyse air temperature in 'local climate zones' in Berlin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Daniel; Meier, Fred; Bechtel, Benjamin; Otto, Marco; Scherer, Dieter

    2017-04-01

    Provision of observational data with high spatial coverage over extended time periods still remains as one of the biggest challenges in urban climate research. Classical meteorological networks are seldomly designed to monitor atmospheric conditions in a broad variety of urban environments, though the heterogeneity of urban structures leads to distinct thermal characteristics on local scales, i.e., hundreds of metres to several kilometres. One approach to overcome the aforementioned challenges of observation networks is to use data from weather stations that are maintained by citizens. The private company 'netatmo' (www.netatmo.com) produces and distributes such citizen weather stations (CWS) around the world. The stations automatically send their data to the netatmo server, and the user decides if data are publicly shared. Shared data can freely be retrieved via an application programming interface. We collected air temperature (T) data for the year 2015 for the city of Berlin, Germany, and surroundings with more than 1500 'netatmo' CWS in the study area. The entire data set was thoroughly quality checked, and filter techniques, involving data from a reference network, were developed to address different types of errors associated with CWS data. Additionally, the accuracy of 'netatmo' CWS was checked in a climate chamber and in a long-term field experiment. Since the terms 'urban' and 'rural' are ambiguous in urban climate studies, Stewart and Oke (2012) developed the 'local climate zone' (LCZ) concept to enhance understanding and interpretation of air temperature differences in urban regions. LCZ classification for the study region was conducted using the 'WUDAPT' approach by Bechtel et al. (2015). The quality-checked CWS data were used to analyse T characteristics of LCZ classes in Berlin and surroundings. Specifically, we analysed how LCZ classes are represented by CWS in 2015, how T varies within each LCZ class ('intra-LCZ variability'), and if significant

  6. Associations between Meteorological Parameters and Influenza Activity in Berlin (Germany, Ljubljana (Slovenia, Castile and Leon (Spain and Israeli Districts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radina P Soebiyanto

    Full Text Available Studies in the literature have indicated that the timing of seasonal influenza epidemic varies across latitude, suggesting the involvement of meteorological and environmental conditions in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we investigated the link between meteorological parameters and influenza activity in 9 sub-national areas with temperate and subtropical climates: Berlin (Germany, Ljubljana (Slovenia, Castile and León (Spain and all 6 districts in Israel.We estimated weekly influenza-associated influenza-like-illness (ILI or Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI incidence to represent influenza activity using data from each country's sentinel surveillance during 2000-2011 (Spain and 2006-2011 (all others. Meteorological data was obtained from ground stations, satellite and assimilated data. Two generalized additive models (GAM were developed, with one using specific humidity as a covariate and another using minimum temperature. Precipitation and solar radiation were included as additional covariates in both models. The models were adjusted for previous weeks' influenza activity, and were trained separately for each study location.Influenza activity was inversely associated (p<0.05 with specific humidity in all locations. Minimum temperature was inversely associated with influenza in all 3 temperate locations, but not in all subtropical locations. Inverse associations between influenza and solar radiation were found in most locations. Associations with precipitation were location-dependent and inconclusive. We used the models to estimate influenza activity a week ahead for the 2010/2011 period which was not used in training the models. With exception of Ljubljana and Israel's Haifa District, the models could closely follow the observed data especially during the start and the end of epidemic period. In these locations, correlation coefficients between the observed and estimated ranged between 0.55 to 0.91and the model

  7. Heimwerken als Protest. Instandbesetzer und Wohnungsbaupolitik in West-Berlin während der 1980er-Jahre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhild Kreis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1980s, hundreds of men and women in many West German and West European cities resorted to a rather unusual form of protest. In order to express their dissatisfaction with the local housing situation and policies, they occupied empty apartment buildings and, under the eyes of an astonished public, began renovating them themselves. Focusing on West Berlin as the most prominent case, this article interprets the performance of DIY home improvement tasks in occupied buildings (Instandbesetzer, as they called themselves as a form of protest, thus drawing attention to the manual work done by squatters and its impact on the housing policies of the 1980s. The DIY measures undertaken publicly by the squatters drew attention to serious political and social shortcomings while at the same time demonstrating possible solutions. The visible (or at least announced transformation of the built environment forced politicians, the public, and experts alike to discuss both housing policy in general and the idea of self-help as suggested by the squatters. Squatters thus accelerated the readjustment of a housing policy which now incorporated manual self-help by tenants into West Berlin’s city planning, but by the same token also undermined the potential for protest and provocation of such practices. * * * Zu Beginn der 1980er-Jahre griffen Hunderte von Männern und Frauen in vielen westdeutschen und westeuropäischen Städten zu einem ungewöhnlichen Mittel, um gegen ihre Wohnsituation und die Wohnungspolitik zu protestieren: Sie begannen, leerstehende Häuser eigenhändig und öffentlichkeitswirksam zu renovieren, die sie vorher besetzt hatten. Am besonders markanten West-Berliner Fall untersucht der Beitrag diese »Instandbesetzer« (so schon die zeitgenössische Selbstbezeichnung als »Heimwerker aus Protest« und fragt nach der Funktion der handwerklichen Praxis im Häuserkampf der 1980er-Jahre. Die Selbsthilfe der Instandbesetzer machte auf Missst

  8. Positive and negative flashbulb memories of the fall of the Berlin Wall among East- and West Germans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2006-01-01

    Flashbulb memories for the fall of the Berlin Wall were examined among 103 East and West Germans who considered the event as either highly positive or highly negative. Participants in the positive group rated their memories higher on measures of reliving and sensory imagery, whereas memory...... for facts was less accurate than in the negative group. Participants in the negative group had higher ratings on amount of consequences, but had talked less about the event and considered it less central to their personal and national identity than participants in the positive group. In both groups......, rehearsal and the centrality of the memory to the person's identity and life story correlated positively with memory qualities. The results suggest that positive versus negative emotions have different effects on the processing and long-term retention of flashbulb memories....

  9. Navigating the Waves of Change: Political Education and Democratic School Reform in Postwar West Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puaca, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    This article concentrates on two pieces of legislation promulgated in the early 1960s in order to investigate the broader ideas and concerns surrounding political education in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. These pieces of educational policy highlight the consensus for continued reform while recognizing the value of curricular and…

  10. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas.

  11. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops.

  12. New Estimates of the Duration and Risk of Unemployment for West-Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Ralf A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes changes in the risk of unemployment and changes in the distribution of unemployment duration for the 26 to 41 years old working population in West-Germany during the 1980ties and 1990ties. The comprehensive IAB employment subsample 1975- 1997 is used for the analysis. It contains employment and unemployment trajectories of about 500.000 individuals from West-Germany. The application of flexible nonparametric estimators yields results which are less sensitive to misspecific...

  13. Cultural differences between East and West Germany after 1991 : Communist values versus economic performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, A.A.J.; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Two decades after reunification substantial economic disparities between East and West Germany remain. With formal institutions being equalized, a typical explanation is that the partition of Germany created differences in economic values and attitudes that continue to feed differences in economic

  14. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  15. Democratic Education in West Germany: The Effects of the New Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Arlette C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the plight of children of foreign "guest workers" in West German schools. Discusses public nonrecognition of West Germany's immigrant-nation status, state-based governance of education, linguistic and cultural isolation of young minority children, failure of German immersion and pullout language programs, inadequate provision of…

  16. [The (in)ability to mourn in East and West Germany. What mourning could mean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitscherlich-Nielsen, M

    1992-05-01

    Together, the fall of the Berlin Wall, the reunification of Germany and the public reactions to the war in the Gulf form a syndrome that poses anew the question of the specifically German "ability to mourn". On the one hand, the author registers a continuing rejection of the onerous task of facing up to the reality of the past via recollection and mourning. On the other, she sees indications both on the individual and collective level that this rejection is beginning to crumble, thus encouraging the emergence of attitudes that challenge the validity of German "ideals" to an increasing extent.

  17. "Eurotrain for Training." Proceedings of a European Congress on Continuing Education and Training (4th, Berlin, Germany; Warsaw, Poland; Prague, Czechoslovakia; Budapest, Hungary; Vienna, Austria, October 5-9, 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, Ulrike, Ed.; Grootings, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A "travelling" congress was conducted in five European cities (Berlin, Warsaw, Prague, Budapest, and Vienna) to promote a mutual exchange of views between east and west. The participants stressed the growing European Community interest in current examples of cooperation with neighbors in central and eastern Europe. In addition to promoting…

  18. The integration of two health systems: social stratification, work and health in East and West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüschen, G; Niemann, S; Apelt, P

    1997-03-01

    This is an analysis of system integration, social stratification and work for health status and health care in East and West Germany. It is based on aggregate data and representative survey data of random samples of 2554 adults in both subsystems. Findings show that there were marked differences in life-expectancy prior to unification. The integration of the two systems, which occurred almost totally with regard to terms of West German health care organization, shows adjustment problems in the East for the public Health-Care-Funds and few if any for ambulatory care. The work situation has an impact on health, but there are no significant differences for East versus West. Social stratification variables show an influence on subjective health status for education (East) and for income, social status (West), while physician utilization (despite a preference of specialists by those with higher status) is not significantly determined by stratification variables in either East or West Germany. Beyond the central focus on work and stratification determinants a major finding pertains to a comparatively worse health situation for the aged and for women in what was the former East Germany. System models of Capitalism versus Socialism fit the results and recent history of the two systems to only a limited degree, as the West German corporate health system shows clear limits in following free market principles. The East German system, regardless of its centralized organization and move towards a socialist system, never fully abandoned the traditional model of German health care. Unlike the East German health system, that of West Germany, with its general expansion to 92% of the population, shows an increasing effect for social redistribution. The latter may be a reason why standard indicators of social stratification show less of an impact on health and health care than expected, while conditions at work clearly determine the health of people-the latter being the case in both

  19. Domestic Work and the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhhirt, Michael; Ludwig, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that household tasks prohibit women from unfolding their full earning potential by depleting their work effort and limiting their time flexibility. The present study investigated whether this relationship can explain the wage gap between mothers and nonmothers in West Germany. The empirical analysis applied fixed-effects…

  20. Retraining in Business German through the Goethe Institute in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gudrun; Schutte, Lilith

    A college language instructor recounts his experience in a retraining program in business German at the West Germany's Goethe Institute. Twenty-eight individuals from the United States and from five European countries participated in a program that offered (1) a 14-day immersion into business-related German, (2) establishment of German business…

  1. The Delay of Grandparenthood: A Cohort Comparison in East and West Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, T.; Skopek, J.

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the delay of grandparenthood in East and West Germany, investigating how the timing and life-course context of this transition have changed across cohorts. The authors estimated the timing of passages into the grandparent role as well as demographic overlap with worker, parent

  2. The 'One-Phase' Approach to Teacher Education in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Friedrich W.

    1982-01-01

    The "two-phase" structure of teacher education programs in the Federal Republic of West Germany has traditionally separated the theoretical from the practical aspects of teacher training. An experimental program developed at the University of Oldenburg in the 1970s appeared to overcome this problem, but was short-lived. (Author/PP)

  3. Retraining in Business German through the Goethe Institute in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gudrun; Schutte, Lilith

    A college language instructor recounts his experience in a retraining program in business German at the West Germany's Goethe Institute. Twenty-eight individuals from the United States and from five European countries participated in a program that offered (1) a 14-day immersion into business-related German, (2) establishment of German business…

  4. The Social Time-Bomb: Education of an Underclass in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Examines the transition from temporary migration to permanent settlement of immigrants in West Germany. Discusses the way the educational system works to keep second-generation generation immigrants at the lowest social and occupational levels of German society. (Author/GC)

  5. Participation in Ethnic Associations: The Case of Immigrants in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneberg, Ulrike

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings of a study that examined whether West Germany's Greek, Italian, and Turkish ethnic organizations hinder the assimilation of immigrants. Reports that social integration is affected by the distinctive characteristics of each organization and its participants, but their existence, in itself, is not simply an indicator of segregation…

  6. Cycles of Protest in West Germany: Experiences from Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushaben, Joyce Marie

    The effects of the West German peace movement over the past 30 years have led to the development of a new concept of political participation in that country. Since 1950, a proliferation of protest movements has reflected a wide range of ideological, social, and geographic perspectives. Pacifist Protestants and the German Trade Union began sporadic…

  7. A new body mass estimation of Brachiosaurus brancai Janensch, 1914 mounted and exhibited at the Museum of Natural History (Berlin, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-C. Gunga

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Body mass and surface areas are important in several aspects for an organism living today. Therefore, mass and surface determinations for extinct dinosaurs could be important for paleo-biological aspects as well. Based on photogrammetrical measurement the body mass and body surface area of the Late Jurassic Brachiosaurus brancai Janensch, 1914 from Tendaguru (East Africa, a skeleton mounted and exhibited at the Museum of Natural History in Berlin (Germany, has been re-evaluated. We determined for a slim type of 3D reconstruction of Brachiosaurus brancai a total volume of 47.9 m3 which represents, assuming a mean tissue density of 0.8 kg per 1,000 cm3, a total body mass of 38,000 kg. The volume distributions from the head to the tail were as follows: 0.2 m3 for the head, neck 7.3 m3, fore limbs 2.9 m3, hind limbs 2.6 m3, thoracic-abdominal cavity 32.4 m3, tail 2.2 m3. The total body surface area was calculated to be 119.1 m2, specifically 1.5 m2 for the head, 26 m2 neck, fore limbs 18.8 m2, hind limbs 16.4 m2, 44.2 m2 thoracic-abdominal cavity, and finally the tail 12.2 m2. Finally, allometric equations were used to estimate presumable organ sizes of this extinct dinosaur and to test whether their dimensions really fit into the thoracic and abdominal cavity of Brachiosaurus brancai if a slim body shape of this sauropod is assumed. doi:10.1002/mmng.200700011

  8. Tracking city CO2 emissions from space using a high-resolution inverse modelling approach: a case study for Berlin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Dhanyalekshmi; Buchwitz, Michael; Gerbig, Christoph; Koch, Thomas; Reuter, Maximilian; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Marshall, Julia; Burrows, John P.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, 52 % of the world's population resides in urban areas and as a consequence, approximately 70 % of fossil fuel emissions of CO2 arise from cities. This fact, in combination with large uncertainties associated with quantifying urban emissions due to lack of appropriate measurements, makes it crucial to obtain new measurements useful to identify and quantify urban emissions. This is required, for example, for the assessment of emission mitigation strategies and their effectiveness. Here, we investigate the potential of a satellite mission like Carbon Monitoring Satellite (CarbonSat) which was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) to retrieve the city emissions globally, taking into account a realistic description of the expected retrieval errors, the spatiotemporal distribution of CO2 fluxes, and atmospheric transport. To achieve this, we use (i) a high-resolution modelling framework consisting of the Weather Research Forecasting model with a greenhouse gas module (WRF-GHG), which is used to simulate the atmospheric observations of column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fractions (XCO2), and (ii) a Bayesian inversion method to derive anthropogenic CO2 emissions and their errors from the CarbonSat XCO2 observations. We focus our analysis on Berlin, Germany using CarbonSat's cloud-free overpasses for 1 reference year. The dense (wide swath) CarbonSat simulated observations with high spatial resolution (approximately 2 km × 2 km) permits one to map the city CO2 emission plume with a peak enhancement of typically 0.8-1.35 ppm relative to the background. By performing a Bayesian inversion, it is shown that the random error (RE) of the retrieved Berlin CO2 emission for a single overpass is typically less than 8-10 Mt CO2 yr-1 (about 15-20 % of the total city emission). The range of systematic errors (SEs) of the retrieved fluxes due to various sources of error (measurement, modelling, and inventories) is also quantified. Depending on the assumptions made, the SE

  9. Pleasantness bias in flashbulb memories: positive and negative flashbulb memories of the fall of the Berlin Wall among East and West Germans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dornhe

    2007-04-01

    Flashbulb memories for the fall of the Berlin Wall were examined among 103 East and West Germans who considered the event as either highly positive or highly negative. The participants in the positive group rated their memories higher on measures of reliving and sensory imagery, whereas their memory for facts was less accurate than that of the participants in the negative group. The participants in the negative group had higher ratings on amount of consequences but had talked less about the event and considered it less central to their personal and national identity than did the participants in the positive group. In both groups, rehearsal and the centrality of the memory to the person's identity and life story correlated positively with memory qualities. The results suggest that positive and negative emotions have different effects on the processing and long-term retention of flashbulb memories.

  10. National-, regional- and urban-scale population deconcentration in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontuly, T

    1992-01-01

    "Internal migration patterns during the second half of the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s are evaluated at a regional scale intermediate to those utilized in previous core-to-periphery and urbanization-to-counterurbanization studies of West Germany. A spatial deconcentration of the West German population is evident in the form of redistribution down the metropolitan size hierarchy....A spatial deconcentration of manufacturing and service employment partially explains the net migration losses experienced by the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhine-Main-Neckar [regions].... This study provides an alternative core-periphery delimitation scheme which can be applied to the metropolitan system in the western part of newly unified Germany." excerpt

  11. Weinmeisterhornweg row houses, Berlin, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhorn, H. [Fraunhofer Inst., fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The 60 residences in this project require significantly less heating than stipulated by regulations, thanks to a compact form, good thermal insulation of the building envelope and a deliberate use of solar energy by south-facing windows and sun spaces. Furthermore, hybrid solar systems were used in 36 residential units to store additional solar heat in the building. (author)

  12. Seasonal influenza risk in hospital healthcare workers is more strongly associated with household than occupational exposures: results from a prospective cohort study in Berlin, Germany, 2006/07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chris J; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Diner, Genia; Gerlach, Frank; Haaman, Frank; Krause, Gérard; Nienhaus, Albert; Buchholz, Udo

    2010-01-12

    Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection in healthcare workers in acute hospital care with that in non-healthcare workers over the same season. We conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study during the 2006/07 influenza season in Berlin, Germany. Recruited participants gave serum samples before and after the season, and completed questionnaires to determine their relevant exposures and possible confounding factors. The main outcome measure was serologically confirmed influenza infection (SCII), defined as a fourfold or greater rise in haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres to a circulating strain of influenza (with post-season titre at least 1:40).Weekly mobile phone text messages were used to prompt participants to report respiratory illnesses during the influenza season. A logistic regression model was used to assess the influence of potential risk factors. We recruited 250 hospital healthcare workers (mean age 35.7 years) and 486 non-healthcare workers (mean age 39.2 years) from administrative centres, blood donors and colleges.Overall SCII attack rate was 10.6%. Being a healthcare worker was not a risk factor for SCII (relative risk 1.1, p = 0.70). The final multivariate model had three significant factors: living with children (odds ratio [OR] 3.7, p = 0.005), immunization (OR 0.50, p = 0.02), and--among persons living in households without children--ownership of a car (OR 3.0, p = 0.02). Living with three or more children (OR 13.8, p risk than living with one or two children (OR 5.3, p = 0.02). 30% of participants with SCII reported no respiratory illness. Healthcare workers were at slightly higher risk of reporting any respiratory infection than controls (adjusted OR 1.3, p = 0.04, n = 850). Our results suggest that healthcare workers in hospitals do not have a higher risk of

  13. Seasonal influenza risk in hospital healthcare workers is more strongly associated with household than occupational exposures: results from a prospective cohort study in Berlin, Germany, 2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaman Frank

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection in healthcare workers in acute hospital care with that in non-healthcare workers over the same season. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study during the 2006/07 influenza season in Berlin, Germany. Recruited participants gave serum samples before and after the season, and completed questionnaires to determine their relevant exposures and possible confounding factors. The main outcome measure was serologically confirmed influenza infection (SCII, defined as a fourfold or greater rise in haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres to a circulating strain of influenza (with post-season titre at least 1:40. Weekly mobile phone text messages were used to prompt participants to report respiratory illnesses during the influenza season. A logistic regression model was used to assess the influence of potential risk factors. Results We recruited 250 hospital healthcare workers (mean age 35.7 years and 486 non-healthcare workers (mean age 39.2 years from administrative centres, blood donors and colleges. Overall SCII attack rate was 10.6%. Being a healthcare worker was not a risk factor for SCII (relative risk 1.1, p = 0.70. The final multivariate model had three significant factors: living with children (odds ratio [OR] 3.7, p = 0.005, immunization (OR 0.50, p = 0.02, and - among persons living in households without children - ownership of a car (OR 3.0, p = 0.02. Living with three or more children (OR 13.8, p Conclusions Our results suggest that healthcare workers in hospitals do not have a higher risk of influenza than non-healthcare workers, although their risk of any respiratory infection is slightly raised. Household contacts seem to be more important than exposure to patients. Car ownership is a

  14. "The Urban Leftover" open corner situations in the downtown area of berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Kienapfel, Christian

    2001-01-01

    "The Urban Leftover" The situation of the "Urban Leftover" caused by the errection of linear building types -the so called "Zeile"- after World War II is obvious in over 100 locations in the former West Berlin, Germany. The radical modern urban concepts of erasing the historic structure of the city -in which context the Zeile was erected were never completly realized. This mixed structure of the traditional Block and Zeile caused the open corner conditio...

  15. Mortality of Testicular Cancer in East and West Germany 20 Years after Reunification: A Gap Not Closed Yet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Bray, Freddie; Dieckmann, Klaus-Peter; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Rusner, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The decline of testicular cancer mortality in East Germany began in the 1980s, about 10 years later than that recorded in West Germany. We aimed at providing up-to-date time trends of testicular cancer mortality rates in Germany. Mortality data from East Germany (1971-2010) and West Germany (1954-2010) were provided by the Federal Bureau of Statistics. We estimated age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates using the World Standard Population. Despite the declining trend in the 2000s, the mortality rates of testicular cancer remained higher in East than in West Germany. These rates were 5.5 and 2.6 per million person-years in 2010, respectively. Age-specific mortality trends by period and birth cohort showed that the mortality decline was larger among younger (15-44 years) than elderly men. The mortality of testicular cancer is still higher in East than West Germany. Despite very similar densities of hospital beds, urologists and oncologist per million male population in both parts of Germany, we hypothesized that a paucity of centers of expertise for treating testicular cancers in the East could account for this particular pattern. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Construction of 110/30-kV-substation Abnehmeranlage West and replacement of 30-kV-switchgear in substation Unterwerk Halensee for improvement of power supply for S-Bahn Berlin; Neubau der 110/30-kV-Abnehmeranlage West und Ersatz der 30-kV-Schaltanlage im Unterwerk Halensee zur Verbesserung der Stromversorgung der S-Bahn Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, H. [ALSTOM Energietechnik GmbH, Hochspannungsanlagen, Berlin (Germany); Suckow, U. [DB Netz AG, Niederlassung Ost, Betriebsstandort Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The reunion of Germany in 1990 was for S-Bahn Berlin the start in a new period of its history. It was necessary to replace much equipment and to build some new plants by reason of the split of Berlin and the existing old equipment. The described project of the construction of a new 110-kV-power supply in the 30-kV-network of the S-Bahn is in the complexity and size one of the most important parts inside the rebuilding program. The basic concept, in combination with the use of modern equipment, ensures a safety power supply of the S-Bahn. The realization with much preparation work and close cooperation between all partners was the basic for closing the project within the time schedule and without any influence of the traffic. (orig.) [German] Die Wiedervereinigung Deutschlands im Jahr 1990 bedeutete fuer die S-Bahn Berlin den Beginn eines neuen Abschnitts in ihrer Geschichte. Aufgrund der Teilung und der vorhandenen veralteten Technik wurde eine Grunderneuerung der Energieversorgung mit dem Ersatz einer Vielzahl von alten und dem Neubau einiger zusaetzlicher Anlagen notwendig. Das im Aufsatz beschriebene Projekt der Errichtung einer neuen 110-kV-Einspeisestelle in das 30-kV-Netz der S-Bahn ist in seiner Komplexitaet und Groesse eines der bedeutendsten Einzelvorhaben innerhalb dieser Grunderneuerung. Die Grundkonzeption der Anlage, verbunden mit dem Einsatz von Komponenten, die dem heutigen Stand der Technik entsprechenden, gewaehrleistet einen sicheren Betrieb der Energieversorgung der S-Bahn. Die Realisierung erfolgte auf der Basis umfangreicher Vorbereitung und intensiver Zusammenarbeit aller beteiligten Partner innerhalb des vorgegebenen Zeitrahmens und ohne Beeintraechtigung des Zugverkehrs. (orig.)

  17. Mental constructs and the cognitive reconstruction of the Berlin wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijus, C A; Santolini, A

    1996-07-01

    In this study of how to change people's conceptions of certain facts (i.e., the position of the Berlin Wall), a surprising psychological phenomenon was discovered. In the trial test, instead of designing a wall to enclose West Berlin, most people described and drew a short and straight wall that divided the city from north to south. Two methods were created, based on two general information-processing components involved in problem solving, to study how people might repair their misconceptions by themselves. The do-it-yourself method consisted of providing people with the task of thinking about how to build the wall and then drawing it, instead of just asking them to draw it. The distance-to-goal evaluation method consisted of asking the participants how the wall they had drawn would actually prevent passage from East Germany to West Berlin. The results showed that both methods had important effects in repairing misconceptions, but improvement in performance with the distance-to-goal method was less significant for those participants who were first provided the task of thinking about how to build the wall. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that awareness of functional properties plays an important role in structuring and restructuring mental constructs.

  18. [Acquired--accepted--adopted? On the status of neonatology in West Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, M

    1988-01-01

    The worldwide reduction in infant mortality and low birthweight lethality has also been observed in the Federal Republic of Germany during the past two decades. In many countries, neonatology has emerged as a scientifically active subspecialty of pediatrics. Its main characteristic is an understanding of partially mature function and perinatal adaptation. In West Germany, however, education programs for neonatologists have not been inaugurated and neonatology has been identified with pediatric intensive care. Sophisticated neonatal transport systems, expensive special care units, and highly aggressive therapeutic approaches have resulted. Neither perinatal centers for high-risk deliveries nor regionalization programs for intrauterine transport to the neonatal special care unit have been created. Neonatology may drift towards obstetrics if established pediatrics continues to ignore educational, organizational and manpower needs of neonatal care.

  19. New interpretations of the facies of the Rhenish brown coal of West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, H.W.; Wolf, M.

    1987-05-01

    New ideas concerning the understanding of the facies of the Rhenish brown coal of West Germany are discussed. These new interpretations are based on a significantly larger number of samples and refined procedures for analysis within the field of paleobotany, palynology, coal petrology and organic geochemistry than were available to P.W. Thomson and M. Teichmuller. The light and dark bands in the coal are mainly the result of different degrees of plant decomposition. The influence of the peat-forming plant communities plays a subordinate role in the petrographical composition of these particular strata of the Rhenish brown coal. 28 refs.

  20. Inhaling Democracy: Cigarette Advertising and Health Education in Post-war West Germany, 1950s–1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the West German government was faced with the challenge of addressing a damaging health behaviour, smoking, in the context of an emerging late modern democracy, when the precedent for addressing that behaviour was set in the Nazi past. This paper details the two-pronged approach which the government took: seeking restrictions on cigarette advertising, whilst educating young people to adopt positive health behaviours in the face of pressure to smoke. This approach can be understood in the social and economic context of the time: an economic commitment to the social market economy worked against restrictions on the sale of cigarettes; whilst concerns about past authoritarian structures prompted the health authorities to seek novel ways of addressing smoking, emphasising choice. In a nuanced way, post-war anti-smoking strategies were a response to West Germany's National Socialist past, but more importantly, a signal of an increasingly international outlook. PMID:26217071

  1. Use of Competition ELISA for Monitoring of West Nile Virus Infections in Horses in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H. Groschup

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen of global importance and is considered to be the most widespread flavivirus in the World. Horses, as dead-end hosts, can be infected by bridge mosquito vectors and undergo either subclinical infections or develop severe neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to detect WNV specific antibodies in horses in Germany as an indicator for an endemic circulation of WNV. Sera from more than 5,000 horses (primarily fallen stock animals were collected in eight different federal states of Germany from 2010 to 2012. Sera were screened by a competitive ELISA and positive reactions were verified by an indirect IgM ELISA and/or by virus neutralization tests (VNT for WNV and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV in order to exclude cross-reacting antibody reactions. In essence WNV specific antibodies could not be detected in any of the horse sera. Not surprisingly, a small number of sera contained antibodies against TBEV. It is noteworthy that equine sera were often collected from horse carcasses and therefore were of poor quality. Nonetheless, these sera were still suitable for WNV ELISA testing, i.e., they did not produce a high background reaction which is a frequently observed phenomenon. According to these data there is no evidence for indigenous WNV infections in horses in Germany at present.

  2. Blood donor screening for West Nile virus (WNV) revealed acute Usutu virus (USUV) infection, Germany, September 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadar, Daniel; Maier, Philipp; Müller, Susanne; Kress, Julia; Chudy, Michael; Bialonski, Alexandra; Schlaphof, Alexander; Jansen, Stephanie; Jöst, Hanna; Tannich, Egbert; Runkel, Stefan; Hitzler, Walter E; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Wessiepe, Martina; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Between 1 June and 31 December 2016, 13,023 blood donations from the University Hospital Aachen in Germany were routinely screened for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA using the cobas TaqScreen WNV Test. On 28 September 2016, one blood donor was tested positive. Subsequent analysis revealed an acute Usutu virus (USUV) infection. During the ongoing USUV epizootics in Germany, blood transfusion services, public health authorities and clinicians should be aware of increased human USUV infections. PMID:28422005

  3. The Berlin Patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    LAST December,the science journal Blood published a paper claiming a cure for HIV had been found.While the announcement breathes new life into the AIDS research community,it’s not without caveats. The paper’s authors’ evidence came in the form of a 44-year-old man referred to as "The Berlin Patient." An American living in Germany,the man,whose real name is Timothy Ray Brown, was diagnosed with HIV around age 30.He spent a decade following a traditional drug regimen for the disease with success; he was healthy and had a high T-cell count.Then,in 2006, Brown was diagnosed with acute leukemia.His doctor,Gero H(u|¨)tter,decided to use the cancer as an opportunity to also rid Brown of his HIV.

  4. Who is at risk for diagnostic discrepancies? Comparison of pre- and postmortal diagnoses in 1800 patients of 3 medical decades in East and West Berlin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wittschieber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autopsy rates in Western countries consistently decline to an average of <5%, although clinical autopsies represent a reasonable tool for quality control in hospitals, medically and economically. Comparing pre- and postmortal diagnoses, diagnostic discrepancies as uncovered by clinical autopsies supply crucial information on how to improve clinical treatment. The study aimed at analyzing current diagnostic discrepancy rates, investigating their influencing factors and identifying risk profiles of patients that could be affected by a diagnostic discrepancy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all adult autopsy cases of the Charité Institute of Pathology from the years 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008, the pre- and postmortal diagnoses and all demographic data were analyzed retrospectively. Based on power analysis, 1,800 cases were randomly selected to perform discrepancy classification (class I-VI according to modified Goldman criteria. The rate of discrepancies in major diagnoses (class I was 10.7% (95% CI: 7.7%-14.7% in 2008 representing a reduction by 15.1%. Subgroup analysis revealed several influencing factors to significantly correlate with the discrepancy rate. Cardiovascular diseases had the highest frequency among class-I-discrepancies. Comparing the 1988-data of East- and West-Berlin, no significant differences were found in diagnostic discrepancies despite an autopsy rate differing by nearly 50%. A risk profile analysis visualized by intuitive heatmaps revealed a significantly high discrepancy rate in patients treated in low or intermediate care units at community hospitals. In this collective, patients with genitourinary/renal or infectious diseases were at particularly high risk. CONCLUSIONS: This is the current largest and most comprehensive study on diagnostic discrepancies worldwide. Our well-powered analysis revealed a significant rate of class-I-discrepancies indicating that autopsies are still of value. The identified risk

  5. A comparative analysis of leaving home in the United States, the Netherlands and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how leaving the parental home differs between three countries with different welfare-state and housing systems: the USA, the Netherlands and West Germany. Using longitudinal survey data, we examine the transitions of leaving home to live with and without a partner. We find that, much more than in the European countries, union formation has become separated from leaving home in the USA. We also find a different impact of level of education and employment status on leaving-home patterns in the European countries with their social-welfare state system than in the US system in which market forces prevail. The differences are not just related to welfare-state systems but also to the sizes of the countries and the geographical dispersion of jobs and educational opportunities.

  6. What can reunification of East and West Germany tell us about the cause of the allergy epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, U; Schmitz, R; Ring, J; Behrendt, H

    2015-01-01

    The increase of allergies in East Germany--reaching West German prevalence shortly after the reunification--is considered a model for the allergy epidemic in the western world. Whether such a pattern was observed in all comparison studies and for all allergic manifestations is not known because a complete overview is missing. Hints about possible causal factors for the allergy epidemic could be gained by identifying known risk factors, which explain the observed pattern of allergy development in Germany. Again, an overview about these efforts is missing. We identified 14 cross-sectional studies conducted after 1989 and calculated prevalence ratios (West/East) for asthma, hayfever, eczema and allergic sensitization. Additionally, a tabular overview about the explanatory power of risk factors hypothesized in the nineties and covering outdoor exposure, indoor factors, early childhood influences, nutrition as well as awareness is given. At the time of the German reunification, the prevalence ratio West/East was largest for hayfever and sensitization to birch pollen, less pronounced for the other phenotypes and even less than one for atopic eczema. Hayfever and sensitization to birch pollen also showed the steepest increase in East Germany afterwards. Single-room heating with fossil fuels and living as only child in a family were identified as explaining up to 23.5% of the excess trend in East compared to the trend in West. Hayfever as most typical atopic disease showed the difference in allergy pattern between East and West Germany clearest. Risk factors identified for these phenotypes are completely different (single child) or even act in the opposite direction (single-room heating) from classical risk factors for airway diseases. This might be the most important lesson from the West/East German experience. It already stimulated many other studies focussing on protective factors such as microbial stimulation.

  7. Best Practices: Intercultural Integration of Arabic Refugees in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuchukov, Hristo; New, William

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the work of a Berlin-based NGO (ANE) in Germany, which works with migrants and Arab refugees. The organisation has a strong record publishing a Parents Newsletter and conducting family counselling for migrants and refugees in Berlin. One of the major activities of the organisation in 2016 was an international conference with…

  8. Berlin Workshop Series 2010 : Climate Governance and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ansohn, Albrecht; Pleskovic, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This volume, Berlin workshop series 2010, contains a selection of papers presented at the 11th International Policy Workshop, held in Berlin, September 28-30, 2008. The workshop was jointly organized by Inwent-Capacity Building International, Germany, and the World Bank in preparation for the World Bank's World Development Report 2010. It provided a forum for an exchange of ideas and viewp...

  9. [Polar neutral organic compounds (POCN) in city aerosols. 2. Measuring of emissions from domestic fuel and vehicle exhaust and from immission particles in Berlin (West)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriske, H J; Freise, R; Schneider, C; Rüden, H

    1987-10-01

    During April and May 1985, some emission samples from private coal firing (domestic fuel) were taken and were fired with two different kind of coal (bituminous and brown coal). Also, measurements were done under different combustion conditions (low and high concentrations of oxygenium during the combustion process). In June and November 1985, some emission samples from heavy diesel-engines were taken in a special tunnel equipment, at different engine conditions. During September 1985, also suspended particulates in a highway traffic tunnel were taken. All these samples were taken using high volume cascade impactors which give a fractionation of the suspended particulates into different particle sizes, according to their retention behaviour in the human respiratory system. The results of these emission samples and samples in the highway tunnel were compared with prior immission measurements of urban suspended particulates in Berlin-West, during January 1984. The etherextractable organic matter (= EEOM) of the total suspended particulate matter (= TPM) was determined using ultrasonic extraction method. The EEOM was separated into an acidic (= AF), a basic (= BF) and a neutral fraction (= NF) by dissolution in acidic and basic agents. Of the neutral fraction (NF), further separation was done into aliphatic compounds (= AIP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (= PAH) and polar neutral organic compounds (POCN) by using thin layer chromatography. From the PAH and POCN, single compounds were identified by gas chromatographic analysis with dual capillary collumns and internal standard method. All organic fractions were tested to their mutagenic activity in the Salmonella typhimurium mammalian microsome bioassay by Ames. The following results were gained: the neutral fraction (NF) made the highest part of the EEOM (greater than or equal to 60%) whereas the part of the AF amounted to 10-25% and of the basic fraction (BF) to approximatively 5-20%. Making further separation of

  10. Microfilming of the Bach Manuscripts in the Staatsbibliothek Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzold, Leonhard

    1998-01-01

    Describes a microfilming project to preserve music manuscripts of Johann Sebastian Bach at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin (Germany), highlighting project goals, problems and peculiarities encountered filming the collection, color micrography, and black-and-white filming. (PEN)

  11. The role of soil quality and soil conservation for private gardening in South-West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Sandra; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In the past centuries, agriculture played a major role in the economy of Germany, and private gardening was common practice. With the shift from agriculture to (service-) industry, less people work in their own garden for subsistence purposes and thus are no longer in direct contact with soil. However, the "Kleingarten"- and "Schrebergarten"-movements still exist in Germany, within which gardeners use soil to provide themselves with fruit and vegetables. The gardeners spend their leisure time cultivating the soil, planting, and harvesting. We ask as to whether these gardeners have a specific relation to soil quality and soil conservation, and what it is they associate with soil. Moreover, how do they use soil? Is soil quality assessed prior to planting? How do private gardeners conserve their soil? Interviewer-administered questionnaires were carried out in the respective gardens. Additionally, management practices were observed, and the fertility of the topsoil was measured. The research area is located in South-West Germany between the Black Forest and the Swabian Jura in a rural district. However, the "Kleingärten" investigated belong to the regional centre there and thus developed in an urban context. The theoretical framework of the SFB 1070 ResourceCultures was used for the study. A small portion of the surveyed private gardeners used simple box kits to analyse soil quality. However, the majority relied on experience and traditional knowledge to determine their management practices. This behaviour complicates the establishment of up-to-date knowledge about sustainable soil use like no-till and raised vegetable beds. Many surveyed persons have an agricultural background inasmuch as their (grand-) parents were farmers or at least owned a garden. Soil conservation practices are common, like the use of green manure to prevent the soil from drying out and supplementing soil with compost. Soil pollution is related to the use of chemical fertilizers which many

  12. Caesarean Section Frequency among Immigrants, Second- and Third-Generation Women, and Non-Immigrants: Prospective Study in Berlin/Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias David

    Full Text Available The frequency of caesarean section delivery varies between countries and social groups. Among other factors, it is determined by the quality of obstetrics care. Rates of elective (planned and emergency (in-labor caesareans may also vary between immigrants (first generation, their offspring (second- and third-generation women, and non-immigrants because of access and language barriers. Other important points to be considered are whether caesarean section indications and the neonatal outcomes differ in babies delivered by caesarean between immigrants, their offspring, and non-immigrants.A standardized interview on admission to delivery wards at three Berlin obstetric hospitals was performed in a 12-month period in 2011/2012. Questions on socio-demographic and care aspects and on migration (immigrated herself vs. second- and third-generation women vs. non-immigrant and acculturation status were included. Data was linked with information from the expectant mothers' antenatal records and with perinatal data routinely documented in the hospital. Regression modeling was used to adjust for age, parity and socio-economic status.The caesarean section rates for immigrants, second- and third-generation women, and non-immigrant women were similar. Neither indications for caesarean section delivery nor neonatal outcomes showed statistically significant differences. The only difference found was a somewhat higher rate of crash caesarean sections per 100 births among first generation immigrants compared to non-immigrants.Unlike earlier German studies and current studies from other European countries, this study did not find an increased rate of caesarean sections among immigrants, as well as second- and third-generation women, with the possible exception of a small high-risk group. This indicates an equally high quality of perinatal care for women with and without a migration history.

  13. [Do daily newspapers of former West and East Germany cover crime in a different way?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Karlhans

    2007-01-01

    The question investigated in the presented paper is whether crime is discussed differently in the media of former East and West Germany, how it is weighted and whether the real crime situation provides an explanation for any differences in press coverage. The study showed that there are no significant differences in the press coverage and that violent crime is not overrepresented. Coverage of offences like robbery, damage to property, sexual assaults or bodily injury, which are also categorized as violent crime, was of average frequency, so that again there was no overrepresentation in the newspapers of the two cities compared in this study (Stuttgart and Dresden). Surprisingly, sexual offences such as rape or sexual abuse played a minor role in the daily newspapers. Further interesting results of the analysis were that offences in the field of "intelligent crime" (e. g. white-collar crime) were of no importance in the print media, whereas the number of reports on crimes for which the general public assumes a higher probability to become a victim itself (e. g. burglary and robbery) was disproportionately high in relation to the recorded number of cases. Reports on drug offences played a more important role in the newspapers analyzed by us than violent crime.

  14. Supply and Demand Factors in Understanding the Educational Earnings Differentials: West Germany and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulgun Bayaz Ozturk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from the March Current Population Survey and German Socio-Economic Panel to investigate the role of market forces and the institutional constraints in explaining the educational earnings differentials in the United States and West Germany. We make use of simple supply and demand framework to differentiate the effects of market forces from wage-setting institutions. Results indicate that differential growth in the relative employment of skilled workers is responsible for the differences in returns to skill in both countries over the period of analysis. In particular, rising educational attainment is the major factor underlying the changes in the employment of skilled workers in each country and it is followed by institutional factors. However, in addition to the differential growth in relative demand for skilled labor, differences in wage-setting institutions explain most of the cross-country differences in skill premia. We also provide evidence for polarization of jobs which is a recent phenomenon in both labor markets.

  15. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: a focus on contralateral testicular cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961-1989 and 1996-2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970-2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups.

  16. Walter Benjamins Berlin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter Benjamin (1892-1940). Tolkning af alle 33 kapitler i Benjamins bybarndomserindringer fra Berlin i begyndelsen af det 20. århundrede.......Walter Benjamin (1892-1940). Tolkning af alle 33 kapitler i Benjamins bybarndomserindringer fra Berlin i begyndelsen af det 20. århundrede....

  17. Objectively determined physical activity levels of primary school children in south-west Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, Sarah; Kobel, Susanne; Fischbach, Nanette; Drenowatz, Clemens; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Wirt, Tamara; Koch, Benjamin; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2013-09-28

    Only a small proportion of children and adolescents meet current recommendations of at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily. Most of the available data, however, relies on subjective reports; there is limited objective data on physical activity (PA) levels in German primary school children. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to accurately determine how much time children spend undertaking different intensities of PA and being sedentary during weekdays and weekend using objective assessment tools. Gender-specific and age-related differences were examined along with differences between normal weight and overweight/obese children. Children's height and weight were measured according to standard procedures and objective PA measurements were determined in a sub-cohort of 384 primary school children (20% of the whole cohort), participating in a large school-based intervention study in south-west Germany (n = 1947). Baseline data collection occurred on six consecutive days, including weekend days, using multi-sensor accelerometry (Actiheart, CamNtech Ltd., Cambridge UK). 318 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, male: 50%, first grade: 51%) provided data for at least 3 days including one weekend day. According to the amount of energy expended, defined as metabolic equivalents (METs), different activity intensities were categorised as follows: sedentary 6.0 METs. Average wear time was 1403 ± 94 min/day. Children spent 808 ± 97 min/day being sedentary; 497 ± 72 min/day in light; 128 ± 54 min/day in moderate, and 8 ± 10 min/day in vigorous intensity. 48% of children met the current MVPA guidelines. MVPA was significantly higher on weekdays compared to weekend days (144 ± 66 vs. 113 ± 66 min/day; p children in the study met current PA recommendations, emphasising the necessity for early intervention to promote PA. Consistent with previous research, PA levels were higher in boys and during weekdays. These results indicate that PA levels of

  18. [Contraception as an instrument against population growth: expert discussions and the public sphere in 1960s West Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silies, Eva-Maria

    2010-09-01

    Theoretically, the introduction of the contraceptive pill in the 1960s created new possibilities to control population growth on a global scale. Several of those involved in developing the pill belonged to the transnational population control movement. In the Federal Republic, demographic and medical experts in the 1960s debated the advantages and dangers of the new contraceptive, and they argued about whether it could be of benefit in West Germany and/or in developing countries. The paper examines the contemporary debate about the pill and the role it was awarded in the effort to solve what was considered a global population problem.

  19. Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Seidowski, Diana; Globig, Anja; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive.

  20. 2011 EFFoST Annual Meeting, Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFoST) conference took place in Berlin, Germany on 9-11 November. The conference programme centred on food process-structure-function relationships and the content was closely allied to the research agenda of the European Technology Platform: Food for Life. There were 16 keynote/review lectures, 38 other oral presentations, 260 posters, and close to 300 attendees. The oral sessions corresponded to the process-structure-function the...

  1. Public Relations of Scientific Libraries in the Federal Republic of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Y. A.

    1981-01-01

    Up until now, scientific libraries in the Federal Republic of Germany have been very reserved about public relations. One of the reasons for this attitude has been insecurity about the application of the specific methods used in public relations. For this reason the Deutsches Bibliotheksinstitut (West Berlin) organized a project in 1978 that is meant to create the methodological preconditions for public relations in scientific libraries. The methods are to be tried out first in a model of loc...

  2. Home-Bias-in-Consumption Based on Different Brand Preferences in the East and the West of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bahles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In international macroeconomics, there is a specific concept explaining deviations in international trade relations showing that countries have a bias and a strong preference for the consumption of their home-country goods. This article presents an application of the concept on brand preferences in West and East Germany, where a home-bias-inconsumption has been observed for the East of Germany. It is the first application of the concept on the territory of brand preference that explains the strong rootedness of the Eastern German consumers to their regionally known and familiar brands. The goal of the article is to elaborate more deeply the differences in attitudes towards brands between Eastern and Western German consumers. The main research method is secondary analysis of the data collected in two large research studies: (1 “West-East brand study”, and (2 “Consumer Analysis”. The results of the presented study have interesting managerial implications in brand management, showing that brands should utilize their local rootedness.

  3. The increasing unemployment gap between the low and high educated in West Germany. Structural or cyclical crowding-out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Markus

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses trends in education-specific unemployment risks at labor market entry in West Germany from the mid-1970s to the present. In line with previous research it shows that vocationally qualified school-leavers have relatively lower unemployment risks than school-leavers with general education. Over time, the gap in unemployment risks between the low-educated and medium- and highly educated labor market entrants substantially widened for both sexes. The literature identifies two different mechanisms for this trend: structural or cyclical crowding out. While in the former scenario low-educated become increasingly unemployed due to an oversupply of tertiary graduates and displacement from above, in the latter their relative unemployment risk varies with the business cycle. The results provide evidence for cyclical rather than structural crowding-out in West Germany. Since macroeconomic conditions became generally worse over time, this strongly explains the widening unemployment gap between the low-educated and all other education groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical and molecular heterogeneity among isolates of Yersinia ruckeri from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) in North West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yidan; Runge, Martin; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Schwarz, Stefan; Jung, Arne; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2013-10-21

    Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, is one of the most important infectious diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture in Europe. More recently, non-motile vaccine resistant isolates appear to have evolved and are causing disease problems throughout Europe, including Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation of biochemical and molecular characteristics of Y. ruckeri isolates collected in north west Germany as a basis for strain differentiation. The isolates originated mainly from rainbow trout and were characterised by biochemical profiling, 16S rDNA sequencing, repetitive sequence-based PCRs, including (GTG)5-PCR, BOX-PCR, ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 83 isolates were characterised, including 48 isolates collected during a field study in north west Germany. All isolates were confirmed as Y. ruckeri by the API 20E system. Five isolates were additionally confirmed as Y. ruckeri by Y. ruckeri-specific PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. Only 17 isolates hydrolyzed Tween 80/20. Sixty-six isolates (79.5%) were non-motile. Two different patterns were obtained by REP-PCR, five patterns by ERIC-PCR, four patterns by (GTG)5-PCR and three patterns by BOX-PCR. NotI-directed PFGE resulted in 17 patterns that differed from each other by 25-29 fragments. Isolates from the field study clustered together as PFGE type C. According to the results of API 20E, repetitive sequence-based PCRs and PFGE, these isolates could be subdivided into 27 different groups. The detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisation scheme developed in this study could be used to help trace the dissemination of Y. ruckeri isolates, and thus may represent part of improved disease monitoring plans in the future.

  5. Sedimentation architecture of the volcanically-dammed Alf valley in the West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Lange, Thomas; Engelhardt, Jörn; Polom, Ulrich; Pirrung, Michael; Büchel, Georg

    2015-04-01

    In the southeastern part of the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, the Alf valley with its morphologically wide (~ 500 m) and flat valley bottom is visibly outstanding. This flat valley bottom was formed during the Marine Isotope Stage 2 due to fluviolacustrine sediments which deposited upstream of a natural volcanic dam. The dam consisted of lava and scoria breccia from the Wartgesberg Volcano complex (Cipa 1958, Hemfler et al. 1991) that erupted ~ 31 BP (40Ar/ 39Ar dating on glass shards, Mertz, pers. communication 2014). Due to this impoundment, the Alf creek turned into a dendritic lake, trapping the catchment sediments. The overall aim is to create the sedimentation architecture of the Alf valley. In comparison to maar archives like Holzmaar or Meerfelder Maar in the vicinity, the fluviolacustrine sediments of the Alf valley show clay-silt lamination despite the water percolation. This archive covers the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to Early Holocene (Pirrung et al. 2007). Focus of this study is the creation of a 3D model by applying the program ESRI ArcGIS 10.2 to reconstruct the pre-volcanic Alf valley. Moreover, the sedimentation architecture is reconstructed and the sediment fill quantified. Therefore, the digital elevation model with 5 m resolution from the State Survey and Geobasis Information of Rhineland-Palatinate, polreduced magnetic data measured on top of the Strohn lava stream, shear seismic data and core stratigraphies were utilized. Summarizing previous results, Lake Alf had a catchment area of ~ 55 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 1.27 km²) and a surface area of 8.2 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 0.24 km²) considering a maximum lake water level of 410 m a.s.l.. In the deepest parts (~ 50 m) of Lake Alf, lake sediments are laminated, up to 21 m thick and show a very high sedimentation rate ~ 3 mm a-1 (Dehner Maar ~ 1.5 mm a-1, (Sirocko et al. 2013)). The sediments become coarser upstream und stratigraphically above the fine-grained lake sediments

  6. Workshop report. Children as a special subpopulation: focus on immunotoxicity. Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV), 15-16 November 2001, Berlin, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter-Reichhelm, H.-B.; Schulte, A.; Ewe, S.; Gundert-Remy, U. [Bundesinstitut fuer gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinaermedizin (BgVV), 14191 Berlin (Germany); Althoff, J.

    2002-07-01

    An international symposium on the impact of environmental hazards, chemicals and drugs on the developing immune system of children was held in Berlin (Germany) organized by the BgVV. Epidemiological evidence indicates that an immature immune system challenged early in life by bacterial antigens may prevent, to some extent, allergic reactions including asthma bronchiale triggered by environmental pollutants. However, the prevalence for infectious disease is increased in childhood, especially when exposure to contaminants takes place in the period of pregnancy and breast-feeding. The effects of chlorinated biphenyls, dioxin, endotoxins, hexachlorobenzene, and direct and indirect in utero tobacco smoke exposure are examples. All participants recommend comparative and follow-up epidemiological studies and clinical examination of infants and children at risk during upbringing. There is ample evidence from experimental studies that indicates adverse effects on the developing immune system after in utero and postnatal exposure to chemicals and drugs. The adverse reactions of aciclovir, benzodiazepines, hexachlorobenzene, organotins (di-n-octyltin dichloride, tributyltin oxide), pesticides (methoxychlor, heptachlor) and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) are presented and reviewed. To determine the predictive value of test data in risk assessment for neonates and children, development, differentiation and maturation of the immune system in humans and laboratory rodents is compared in their pre- and postnatal stages. Considering some differences in immunocompetence at birth and after lactation, and differences in the time frame for maturation of the immune system, reaction types are thought to be common, comparable and similar in human childhood and early adolescence and the postnatal lifetime of laboratory rodents. The participants of the symposium felt strongly that regulatory steps urgently need to be initiated to incorporate some

  7. Assessment of Pollution Risk for the Remaining Otter Populations in Lower Saxony, West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roechert R.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Little was known about the threat to West German otters from water-borne contaminants - heavy metals and organochlorines. Aktion Fischotter initiated a study to look at pollution levels in West German otter populations, and compared the results to Swedish data. In order to look at the amount of contaminants available to otters, the levels in roach were examined. Levels found seemed low, especially in the west, which may be the result of trophic conditions of western waters. From the results, otters in F.R.G. are restricted to waters low in PCBs, but the levels found even in the west are similar to levels that in Sweden seriously affected otter populations.

  8. Energy diplomacy: West Germany, the Soviet Union and the oil crises of the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Bösch, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes West German energy policy and negotiations with the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Archival sources from the West German government show that long-term energy diplomacy became a carefully built link which guaranteed cooperation even during political crises,such as the one in 1980/81. This article argues that energy diplomacy catalyzed Brandt’s Ostpolitik. In particular, natural gas pipelines implied mutual trust within a stable relationship, which led to further colla...

  9. Time-transgressive tunnel-valley infill revealed by a three- dimensional sedimentary model, Hamburg, north-west Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janszen, Adriaan; Moreau, Julien; Moscariello, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Deep, elongated incisions, often referred to as tunnel valleys, are among the most characteristic landforms of formerly glaciated terrains. It is commonly thought that tunnel valleys were formed by meltwater flowing underneath large ice sheets. The sedimentary infill of these features is often......-west Germany) were investigated using a dataset of 1057 deep wells containing lithological and geophysical data. The stratigraphic correlations and the resulting three-dimensional lithological model were used to assess the spatial lithological distributions and sedimentary architecture. The sedimentary...... of glacial recession appears to have been an important control on the sedimentary architecture of the tunnel-valley fill. During periods of stagnation, thick ice-proximal deposits accumulated at the ice margin, while during rapid recession, only a thin veneer of such coarse-grained sediments was deposited...

  10. Democracy as a Contested Concept in Postwar Western Europe: A Comparative Study of Political Debates in France, West Germany and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corduwener, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how political parties in France, West Germany, and Italy conceptualized democracy and challenged the conceptions of democracy of their political adversaries between the end of the 1940s and the early 1960s. It studies from a comparative perspective the different conceptions of

  11. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Sources of Professional Enthusiasm and Discouragement in Teaching in England, West Germany, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menlo, Allen; And Others

    A report is given of a study comparing the classroom, school, and community phenomena that secondary school teachers in the United States, England, and West Germany experience as sources of enthusiasm and discouragement in their professional work. The teachers were interviewed in groups of five to ten in their own schools. The open-end structured…

  12. The Politics of Modernizing Short-Range Nuclear Forces in West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    internal changes in Soviet behavior as basic prerequisites for the creation of what former West German chancellor Willy Brandt once termed a "European peace...and the new defense minister, Gerhard Stoltenberg, arrived in Washington to explain Bonn’s new position only to find an unenthusiastic U.S. response. In

  13. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  14. Psychedelic Fears. Drug Use as an Emotional Practice in West Germany around 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schleking

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies psychedelic drug consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Using ideas from the History of Emotions and Practice Theory, it offers a fresh look into the making of drug experiences. Doing drugs is analysed as a technology of the self that sought to marshal some feelings while avoiding others. Preparations were as much part of these emotional practices as recognizing and cultivating emotions, or trying to put them into words. The article aims to contribute to the historical study of drugs, emotions and the German counter culture.

  15. Drinking, Everyday Life Situations and Cultural Norms in Denmark, Finland and West Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpura, J.; Fahrenkrug, H.; Hyttinen, M.

    1990-01-01

    Finland has adopted strictest alcohol control policy. In nonactive role-playing, the respondents are given a brief written story for which they are asked to produce a written imagined continuation. On the surface, the material of this study seemed to repeat the stereotypical images of hedonistic Danes......, heavy-drinking Finns, and ritualistic Germans. Deeper, it seemed that drinking has greatest expressive power in Finland where references to drinking are more frequent and they are used effectively as social markers in the process of events described. In Denmark and Germany, drinking is more self...

  16. Berliner Philarmoniker ATLAS visit

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Berliner Philarmoniker in on tour through Europe. They stopped on June 27th in Geneva, for a concert at the Victoria Hall. An ATLAS visit was organised the morning after, lead by the ATLAS spokesperson Karl Jakobs (welcome and overview talk) and two ATLAS guides (AVC visit and 3D movie).

  17. Intellectual disabilities in East and West Germany: a brief comparative history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Barsch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reconstructs how the different parts of Germany began to rebuild a system of medical care and education for people with disabilities after WW II. Furthermore, the struggle between medicine and education will be addressed. Using the example of intellectual disabilities, the article examines how different ideological backgrounds influenced both, perceptions of disabilities as well as the professional ways in which they were dealt with. By analyzing several contemporary sources, this article will show how professionals thought about disabilities in general and intellectual disabilities in particular. The study will compare the different narratives about intellectual disabilities by analyzing psychological, medical and educational journals as well as reports of contemporary witnesses.

  18. The impact of deindustrialization and unemployment on family formation and fertility in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, J

    1995-01-01

    With the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, East Germany entered a process of transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Since then, the number of marriages and births in former East Germany have declined by 65% and 1.3 million people have migrated west. 0.36 million have migrated from West to East Germany. Indeed, the demographic situation in East Germany has fundamentally changed in many ways since 1989. The author analyzes these changes, noting that trends toward deindustrialization and a high level of unemployment especially among women are now basic features of demography in the East. The dismantling of industrial capacities accompanying the economic transformation process in East Germany was not only the result of differences in productivity between East and West Germany, but also of regional strains upon the environment. The author also points out that the economic policy of the former government of East Germany and the resulting environmental damage to the region have not lead to major changes in birth and mortality rates.

  19. Berichte von der „bauštela duha“. Die kroatische katholische Mission in Berlin zwischen Seelsorge und Identitätsstiftung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaden, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to ongoing endeavors to investigate organisations by and for working migrants in Germany. It particularly focuses on the Croatian Catholic Mission in West Berlin (HKMB, intending to help further illuminating its work as well as its goals from the late 1960s until the early 1980s. Departing from the assumption that all forms of group belonging are necessarily situational and contextual, identity politics as pursued by the mission shall be scrutinized. Furthermore, the paper investigates fractions and continuities regarding their representation paying close attention to temporal and spatial aspects. The author argues that from the late 1970s onwards the HKMB increasingly sought to articulate something that will be referred to as “Croatian identity in Berlin”. This development has to be understood against the background of both the demographic situation in Berlin as well as of concurrent efforts of the Yugoslav state to address “its” citizens abroad.

  20. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  1. [Results of a representative survey of family planning behavior in West Germany 1985].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, G; Baur, S; Frank, P; Freundl, G; Sottong, U

    1986-12-01

    A report on the result of a representative survey of family planning behavior in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1985. Interviewers from the EMNID Institute questioned 1267 German women aged between 15 and 45. Of the women interviewed, 6.1% had been sterilized, while in 1.3% of cases, their partner had been sterilized. Regarding the use of reversible methods of contraception, the following figures were established: pill, 37.1%; IUD, 10.3%; condom, 5.9%; rhythm method, 3.9%; withdrawal 3.4%; vaginal diaphragm, 2.1%; mini-pill, 1.3%; locally effective chemical substances, 0.8%. A few women (1.9%) stated that they used a mixture of methods. No information about family planning methods was offered by 13.4% of the women interviewed. The figures obtained were further differentiated according to age, marital status, school education, religion, number of children, desire for more children, profession, and net income. The authors' own questions concerned the early use of contraceptives, the reasons for abandoning a particular method, the reasons for choosing a certain type of contraceptive, sources of information about family planning, the frequency of changes from one type of contraceptive to another, and opinions about the rhythm method. Finally, the result of the EMNID survey is compared with that of known studies both at home and abroad.

  2. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  3. From youth protection to individual responsibility: addressing smoking among young people in post-war West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on health education material produced on smoking in the 1950s and 1960s in West Germany to question the extent to which smoking and health disappeared from the agenda in the post war decades, following the experience of anti-smoking propaganda during the Third Reich. It suggests that continuities can be seen in anti-smoking literature and campaigns both before and after the Third Reich around the notion of youth protection. In the early 1960s, there was a more decisive break with the past with the foundation of the Ministry of Health and a growing determination to make health education a federal responsibility. There was an evident shift towards notions of individual responsibility and rational choice, informed by a growing body of international epidemiological evidence on smoking and health. There were also some attempts to engage with youth culture in the 1960s, rather than seeing youth culture as a threat to the social order, as had been the case in older youth protection arguments against smoking.

  4. [Temporal and spatial phases in the development of the Berlin metropolis in the past and the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimm, A

    1991-01-01

    Six phases of Berlin's development related to political events in Germany since 1871 are identified, and their consequences for the city's population development analyzed. Particular attention is given to the demographic consequences of the abolition of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The author considers the impact of the situation in the surrounding region on the city's growth, Berlin's revived role as a national capital, and developments in Europe. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  5. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy.

  6. When Iron Crumbles: Berlin and the Wall. A Social Studies Unit Recommended for Grades 9-12 and Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adrian; And Others

    This unit, designed for use with high school and community college students, uses primary materials, literature, and interactive lesson plans to present the city of Berlin (Germany) as a case study of some of the 20th century's most significant events. In lesson 1, students take a pre-test, view a video about the Berlin Wall, and discuss the kinds…

  7. Results and observations from the reconstruction of continuous time series of mortality by cause of death: Case of West Germany, 1968-1997.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Pechholdova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Though many countries have been collecting cause-of-death information from death certificates for more than a century, these valuable data sources remain underexplored. This is certainly due in part to the frequent revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, which have caused breaks in data continuity. This paper describes the methodological background and the results of the transition between the eighth and the ninth revision of ICD for the territory of former West Germany. Using practical examples, we examine the difficulties encountered and discuss the solutions applied.

  8. Faunistic spider collections in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin: The collection of Erich Hesse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielhorn, Karl-Hinrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Hesse collection’ of spiders (Araneae and harvestmen (Opiliones in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin is documented. Biographical notes on Erich Hesse – a former arachnid curator at the museum (1921–1940 – are provided. The ‘Hesse collection’ was actually put together by other workers, and can be broadly divided into two parts. One comes from Bielinek (= Bellinchen on the Polish side of the Oder Valley (West Pommerania; now part of the ‘Unteres Odertal’ National Park. This Bielinek material includes notable records of Heriaeus oblongus Simon, 1918 and Gibbaranea ullrichi (Hahn, 1835. The other part of the collection comes from Colbitz-Letzlinger Heide in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Notable here are Pistius truncatus (Pallas, 1772 and Philodromus buchari Kubcová, 2004; the latter representing the first record of this species for Saxony-Anhalt.

  9. Multinational pharmaceutical companies gather in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosc, Y; Mullen, A; Otto, C

    1998-02-01

    The 39th Annual General Meeting of the Pharma Documentation Ring (PDR) was held in Berlin, Germany, on September 26, 1997. Common themes reported on included the impact and widespread use of intranet technology; expansion in end-user searching; experience with electronic journals; and programs for the development of electronic archiving and document management systems. Other sessions discussed aspects of chemistry systems; copyright; drug information systems on development products; information management, in-house management of databases; Intranet/Internet activities; and patents. The core topic presented at the meeting involved an overview on document delivery/electronic journals. There is considerable activity in this area by primary and secondary publishers with real momentum seen in the area of electronic document delivery services on the Internet. The 40th anniversary of the PDR will be celebrated at the upcoming AGM, to be held in Montpellier, France, September 30 October 2, 1998. (c) 1998 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  10. Trends in East-West German Migration from 1989 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show recent trends in regional migration from East to West Germany by combining data from the Statistisches Bundesamt from 1991 to 2002 with data from the Zentrales Einwohnerregister der DDR from 1989 to 1990. We document that annual gross outmigration rates peaked at the time of the Reunification, fell sharply thereafter, but rose steadily from the 1997 until 2001 to reach levels obtained prior to the Reunification. While Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Brandenburg experienced less outmigration before the Reunification compared to Thueringen, Sachsen, and Sachsen-Anhalt, they are the regions that have experienced the highest pace of outmigration since then. With the exception of the increasing popularity of the Berlin region, the distribution of East to West migrants across West Germany is fairly stable over time: migrants continue to favor the large industrial provinces of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Nordrhein-Westfalen, and Niedersachsen.

  11. "Josef K von 1963...": Orson Welles' ‘Americanized’ Version of The Trial and the changing functions of the Kafkaesque in Postwar West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Scholz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the reception of the American auteur and actor Orson Welles' adaptation of Franz Kafka's The Trial in West Germany in 1963. It argues that the film’s ambivalent reception by German critics was closely tied to the process of “Vergangenheitsbewältigung” (coming to terms with the past that had developed in Germany during the mid-1950s with the widespread circulation and publication of visual images of Nazi war crimes, and that was in the process of a more politicized transformation in the early sixties. Through the figure of Welles, this essay also explores the ways U.S. culture could influence this process. Welles’ reading of Kafka as a “prophet of fascism”, whose Josef K. actively resists his oppressors—even if to no apparent avail—set off a timely discussion among commentators about the meaning and function of Kafka’s works in post-war West Germany. In 1963, in the midst of spectacular court cases and “trials” that began to highlight the widespread complicity of Germans in National Socialist war crimes, the theme of “active resistance” to tyranny that Welles’ version of The Trial offered did not fit the picture. It was, as one critic suggested, a distorted, “Americanized” fantasy. Others, however, appreciated the didactic value of Welles’ international co-production, which coincided with the beginnings of the New German Cinema movement, a confrontational effort to engage with questions of the past through film.

  12. Cross-border comparison of antibiotic prescriptions among children and adolescents between the north of the Netherlands and the north-west of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Willem H. Dik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem and inappropriate prescriptions are a cause. Especially among children, prescriptions tend to be high. It is unclear how they differ in bordering regions. This study therefore examined the antibiotic prescription prevalence among children in primary care between northern Netherlands and north-west of Germany. Methods Two datasets were used: The Dutch (IADB comprises representative data of pharmacists in North Netherland and the German (BARMER GEK includes nationwide health insurance data. Both were filtered using postal codes to define two comparable bordering regions with patients under 18 years for 2010. Results The proportion of primary care patients receiving at least one antibiotic was lower in northern Netherlands (29.8 %; 95 % confidence interval [95 % CI]: 29.3–30.3, compared to north-west Germany (38.9 %; 95 % CI: 38.2–39.6. Within the respective countries, there were variations ranging from 27.0 to 44.1 % between different areas. Most profound was the difference in second-generation cephalosporins: for German children 25 % of the total prescriptions, while for Dutch children it was less than 0.1 %. Conclusions This study is the first to compare outpatient antibiotic prescriptions among children in primary care practices in bordering regions of two countries. Large differences were seen within and between the countries, with overall higher prescription prevalence in Germany. Considering increasing cross-border healthcare, these comparisons are highly valuable and help act upon antibiotic resistance in the first line of care in an international approach.

  13. A vast medieval dam-lake cascade in northern central Europe: review and new data on late Holocene water-level dynamics of the Havel River, Berlin-Brandenburg area (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Knut; Keller, Nora; Brande, Arthur; Dalitz, Stefan; Hensel, Nicola; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Kappler, Christoph; Michas, Uwe; Müller, Joachim; Schwalbe, Grit; Weiße, Roland; Bens, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study was carried out in order to trace the human transformation of the medium-scale Havel River in northeastern central Europe during the last c. 2000 years. This research was driven by the hypothesis that the present-day riverscape is widely a legacy of medieval and modern human transformation of the drainage system initiated essentially by damming for the operation of water mills. Recent opportunities to investigate the extent of this human impact arose during the course of archaeological rescue excavations and palaeoecologic studies, which significantly enhanced the amount of respective high-quality data. Along the middle course of the Havel, sedimentary sequences were analysed in order to explore the potential for reconstructing regional water-level dynamics. The river, draining the Berlin metropolitan area, forms a chain of dammed lakes and meandering river sections which were strongly modified by hydraulic engineering in the past. We have not only recorded new sections but also re-evaluated older ones, forming a total of sixteen sedimentary sequences along the river. Chronological control is provided by a multitude of palynological, dendrochronological, archaeological, and radiocarbon data. The sections upriver from the Brandenburg/H. and Spandau weirs, representing sites with historic water mills, reveal substantial water-level changes during the late Holocene. Generally, lower water levels before and higher levels parallel to the medieval German colonisation of that area (c. 1180/1250 AD) can be inferred. This water-level increase, which is attributed to be caused by medieval mill stowage, took place rapidly and amounted to a relative height of c. 1.5 m. It has caused the widening of river sections and the enlargement of existing lakes or its secondary formation when already aggraded, and thus a flooding of large portions of land. The rising water level has even influenced the settlement topography to a large degree. Several medieval

  14. Epidemic Spread of Usutu Virus in Southwest Germany in 2011 to 2013 and Monitoring of Wild Birds for Usutu and West Nile Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Jöst, Hanna; Müller, Kerstin; Fischer, Dominik; Rinder, Monika; Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Danner, Klaus-Jürgen; Becker, Norbert; Skuballa, Jasmin; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Bosch, Stefan; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2015-08-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. One of these viruses is Usutu virus (USUV), a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus group within the family Flaviviridae. Since the occurrence of USUV among wild birds in June, 2011, infected Blackbirds (Turdus merula) have frequently been found dead in southwest Germany, cumulating in a massive die-off. Moreover, other bird species (Strigiformes) in this region have been affected. In a first study, 209 of over 600 dead birds (wild birds and birds kept in aviaries) collected from 2011 to 2013 carried USUV, more than 88% of them Blackbirds. USUV had already been detected in 2010, one year before the epizooty, in a mosquito-based surveillance program in Germany. The main epidemic area of the USUV outbreak in wild birds in southwest Germany has been similar for the last three years. In a second study during 2011 to 2013, 902 live migratory and resident birds (representing 87 bird species belonging to 14 bird orders) from four different sampling sites were bled and tested serologically and by qPCR for West Nile virus (WNV) and USUV infections. No USUV or WNV genomes were detected. Some migratory birds (mainly long-distance migrants and some partial migrants) carried neutralizing antibodies against WNV as discriminated by USUV and WNV cross-neutralization tests. Only few resident birds showed relevant USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies. The occurrence of USUV in the Upper Rhine valley area of southwest Germany is a proof of principle for the incursion and spread of other arthropod-borne (arbo)-viruses along these routes. Therefore, monitoring studies in birds and mosquitoes for the presence of arboviruses in these areas are indispensable.

  15. Impacts of the solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 on routinely recorded meteorological and air quality data in south-west Germany

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    Dieter Ahrens

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 over Central Europe was also visible in Baden-Wuerttemberg, a state in south-west Germany. To investigate the impact of the total solar eclipse on the lower planetary boundary layer, meteorological and air quality data extracted from routine measurements at six sites in Baden-Wuerttemberg were examined. The meteorological data were recorded at the Plittersdorf meteorological station (in the path of totality of the total solar eclipse and at the Forest meteorological Site Hartheim (outside the path of totality of the total solar eclipse. The air quality data were obtained from four official air quality monitoring stations located at Freudenstadt, Karlsruhe-West, Rastatt and Welzheimer Wald, all of which lie within the path of totality of the total solar eclipse. Due to cloudiness, weather conditions on 11 August 1999 were not optimal in south-west Germany. However, the transient reduction (followed by a rise induced by the total solar eclipse on meteorological variables including global solar radiation, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, air temperature, horizontal wind speed, elevation angle of the three-dimensional wind vector as well as turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes was quite obvious. Despite unfavourable weather conditions, half-hourly mean values of ozone routinely measured at the above-mentioned standard official air quality monitoring stations showed a varying decline up to 27% at the urban station Rastatt and 37% at the background station Welzheimer Wald. This decline was owing mainly to the fall in global radiation during the total solar eclipse. However, additional influences by advection and deposition can not be precluded.

  16. The Mono-ethnic Tradition and the Education of Minority Youth in West Germany from an Australian Multicultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolicz, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines German policies concerning its "temporary" foreign guest-workers, particularly Turkish immigrants and their German-born children. Discusses legal, social, and cultural difficulties in obtaining citizenship and educational opportunities for aliens in Germany. Compares the German monoethnic ideal with Australian efforts to encourage…

  17. Vatenfall relies on biomass. Short rotation plantations shall secure the energy supply of a thermal power station in Berlin; Vattenfall setzt auf Biomasse. Kurzumtriebsplantagen sollen Versorgung eines Berliner Heizkraftwerkes sichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernath, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    The Vattenfall subsidiary Energy Crops (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) looks for farmers for contract farming of short rotation plantations in order to secure the energy supply of a thermal power station in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany). Energy Crops supports farmers with seedlings, equipment and consultancy. However, Energy Crops looks for the correct methods.

  18. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  19. Hostile environmental intellectuals? Critiques and counter-critiques of science and technology in West Germany after 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyler, Richard H

    2008-12-01

    Paul Forman, in his work on physics in Weimar Germany, advanced the thesis that an irrationalist current within German intellectual history was then suddenly exacerbated in a context of defeat and political crisis. After World War II, Germany's situation was if any thing even more catastrophic; nevertheless, a comparable climate of irrationalism arose only in a limited way. The collapse of National Socialism was, in effect, sufficiently explicable on rational grounds to resort to a philosophical fatalism. F. G. Jünger, as a possible exception, put forward a theory of autonomous, demonic technology as an explanation; many cultural critics of the time, however, found these views unrealistic and favored an integration of technical and humanistic approaches. Moreover, even a new wave of (sometimes apocalyptic) literature of environmental crisis focused on specific scientifically analyses rather than a diffuse cultural pessimism.

  20. Reconstruction of Berlin, in search of a new identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martínez Monedero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of Berlin in World War II left the city in ruins and divided into sectors. This division gave rise to different strategies and experiments to reconstruct or reinterpret the city, which left their mark in the second half of the 20th century. The reunification of Germany managed to suture the wound caused by the Berlin wall and to complete the reconstruction, with a new strategy added to the previous ones. The recent polemic about the mimetic reconstruction of the Stadtschloss is a sign that the work initiated in the postwar period has not yet been completed. This article addresses the course of the trials and essays carried out in search of the creation of a new identity after the war.

  1. Seasonal and diurnal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from the reed area of a fen in South-West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Merit; Lamers, Marc; Streck, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    About 45 million tons of CO2 equivalents are emitted yearly from peat soils in Germany, making it the second largest source of greenhouse gases after the energy sector. A large part of the emission consists of CH4. Nevertheless, carbon budgets of peatlands are not well represented in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Germany, required by the Kyoto Protocol. To fill this gap, we measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the reed area of the minerotrophic peatland 'Federseemoor' (3500 ha) in South-West Germany, by means of the Eddy Covariance method. It is expected that this reed area will release high emissions of CH4, due to the anoxic conditions in general and the capacity of reed vegetation to transport gas actively between soil and atmosphere in particular. The results of 2013 show that both CO2 and CH4 fluxes exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern. A clear diurnal pattern is visible for both CO2 and CH4 fluxes during the vegetation period. Overall, this fen system appears to be a sink for carbon dioxide (-4.7 tCO2 ha-1 yr-1), and a source for CH4 (0.3 tCH4 ha-1 yr-1). Although the site is a carbon sink, the GWP100 is slightly positive (1.9 tCO2eq ha-1 yr-1), considering CH4 as a 25 times stronger greenhouse gas than CO2. In our presentation, we will (i) introduce the experimental set up, (ii) summarize the key measurement results from 2013 and (iii) evaluate the main environmental variables affecting the temporal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes.

  2. Who Is Overeducated and Why? Probit and Dynamic Mixed Multinomial Logit Analyses of Vertical Mismatch in East and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Christina; Leppin, Julian Sebastian; Schömann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Overeducation potentially signals a productivity loss. With Socio-Economic Panel data from 1984 to 2011 we identify drivers of educational mismatch for East and West medium and highly educated Germans. Addressing measurement error, state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity, we run dynamic mixed multinomial logit models for three different…

  3. Equal Protection, Legitimacy, and the Legalization of Education: the Role of the Federal Constitutional Court in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hans N.

    To provide a comparative perspective on the legalization of education, the author analyzes the role of the West German Federal Constitutional Court in shaping educational policy. He identifies two constitutional norms the court uses to interpret the relationship between education and the state: equal protection and the legitimacy of educational…

  4. Implementation and enforcement of the 3Rs principle in the field of transgenic animals used for scientific purposes. Report and recommendations of the BfR expert workshop, May 18-20, 2009, Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretlow, Ariane; Butzke, Daniel; Goetz, Mario E; Grune, Barbara; Halder, Marlies; Henkler, Frank; Liebsch, Manfred; Nobiling, Rainer; Oelgeschlaeger, Michael; Reifenberg, Kurt; Schaefer, Bernd; Seiler, Andrea; Luch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, 2.7 million vertebrates were used for animal experiments and other scientific purposes in Germany alone. Since 1998 there has been an increase in the number of animals used for research purposes, which is partly attributable to the growing use of transgenic animals. These animals are, for instance, used as in vivo models to mimic human diseases like diabetes, cancer or Alzheimer's disease. Here, transgenic model organisms serve as valuable tools, being instrumental in facilitating the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases, and might contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Due to variable and, sometimes low, efficiency (depending on the species used), however, the generation of such animals often requires a large number of embryo donors and recipients. The experts evaluated methods that could possibly be utilised to reduce, refine or even replace experiments with transgenic vertebrates in the mid-term future. Among the promising alternative model organisms available at the moment are the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Specific cell culture experiments or three-dimensional (3D) tissue models also offer valuable opportunities to replace experiments with transgenic animals or reduce the number of laboratory animals required by assisting in decision-making processes. Furthermore, at the workshop an in vitro technique was presented which permits the production of complete human antibodies without using genetically modified ("humanised") animals. Up to now, genetically modified mice are widely used for this purpose. Improved breeding protocols, enhanced efficiency of mutagenesis as well as training of laboratory personnel and animal keepers can also help to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals. Well-trained staff in particular can help to minimise the pain, suffering and discomfort of animals and, at the same time, improve the quality of data obtained from animal

  5. Educational expansion and its consequences for vertical and horizontal inequalities in access to higher education in West Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, David; Pollak, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    education has become increasingly relevant for labour market prospects and life course opportunities. Our article studies the access to tertiary education of students with different social origins in light of educational expansion in Germany. First, we examine inequalities in access to four vertical...... alternatives of postsecondary education by means of multinomial regression with national data from four school-leaver surveys from 1983, 1990, 1994, and 1999. Second, for those students who enrol at a tertiary institution, effects of social origin on horizontal choices of fields of study are analysed. Results...

  6. Return of the Pink Rabbit? A Visit to a Jewish School in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodden, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes a day in the life of teachers and students at a Jewish elementary school in Berlin, Germany. On this 1994 mid-October morning, the school is under tight security, since skinheads began defacing Jewish graves, neo-Nazis started chanting in the streets, and Palestinian radicals began attacking German Jews. Education toward faith is the…

  7. Inverting Images of the 40s: The Berlin Wall and Collective Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loshitzky, Yosefa

    1995-01-01

    Examines images of World War II invoked in two live, international music concerts (one rock, one classical) celebrating the fall of the Berlin Wall. Argues that Western television's choice of imagery represented the Wall's demise as a marker of the end of the Cold War rather than a vanishing monument of Germany's conflicted struggle with Holocaust…

  8. [Social engineers--providers--bioethicists. Human genetics experts in West-Germany and Denmark between 1950 and 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaschke, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The author compares the history of human genetics in the Federal Republic of Germany and Denmark from the 1950s to the 1980s. The paper combines a discourse analysis with the exploration of human genetics experts' subject forms along the lines of current considerations within cultural studies. In the 1950s and 1960s, human geneticists acted in close cooperation with other political, judicial and administrative expert groups. They monitored the 'overall genetic development' of the population and cautioned about 'genetic crises'. Laypersons were supposed to submit to 'objectively reasonable' behavioral patterns--to their own as well as society's benefit. In the 1970s, the experts turned into 'providers' of a 'precise, purely medical, diagnostic service'. The patients mainly appeared as 'de-personalized' sources of a common human demand for 'safe eugenic information'. In the 1980s, the demand and supply paradigm manifested psychological and ethical side effects. Human geneticists became aware of the social and historical interrelations of their research and practices. The results of this study contribute to a more complex understanding of the dominant 'individualization narrative' of human genetics history. In this context, the development in Germany and Denmark displays two complementary forms of a transnational discourse.

  9. When East meets West: a longitudinal examination of the relationship between group relative deprivation and intergroup contact in reunified Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, Miriam; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Schmitt, Manfred

    2012-06-01

    Intergroup contact and group relative deprivation have both been shown to play a key role in the understanding of intergroup relations. Nevertheless, we know little about their causal relationship. In order to shed some light on the directionality and causality of the relationship between intergroup contact and group relative deprivation, we analysed responses by East and West Germans from k= 97 different cities, collected 6 (N(T)(1) = 1,001), 8 (N(T)(2) = 747), and 10 years (N(T)(3) = 565) after reunification. Multi-level cross-lagged analyses showed that group relative deprivation at T1 led to more (rather than less) intergroup contact between East and West Germans 2 years as well as 4 years later. We found no evidence for the reverse causal relationship, or moderation by group membership. Furthermore, admiration mediated the positive effect of relative deprivation on intergroup contact for both East and West Germans. This intriguing finding suggests that intergroup contact may be used as a proactive identity management strategy by members of both minority and majority groups. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  10. [Child psychiatric management since the fall of the Berlin wall and introduction of child and adolescent welfare regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, J M

    1994-04-01

    An analysis of a survey on public child and adolescent psychiatric services in Berlin shows that three years after the collapse of the Berlin Wall a psychosocial gap between the two cities still exists. After the reunification the new Child Help and Child Protection Law in Germany (Kinderund Jugendhilfegesetz) presented a common regulation for therapeutic and psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents. For the moment the advantages of this new legislation have no consequences in the daily practice of child psychiatrists in East Berlin. The consequences of these differences for child psychiatrists in the Public Health System are discussed in this article.

  11. GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic Fault Systems in the West Eifel (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-05-17

    In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group) sites and active tectonic faults. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases and potential magmas following the same orientation. At the same time, Variscan and Mesozoic fault zones are reactivated. The results showed linear alignments and clusters of approx. 3,000 RWA mounds. While linear mound distribution correlate with strike-slip fault systems documented by quartz and ore veins and fault planes with slickensides, the clusters represent crosscut zones of dominant fault systems. Latter can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. Gas analyses from soil air, mineral springs and mofettes (CO₂, Helium, Radon and H₂S) reveal limiting concentrations for the spatial distribution of mounds and colonization. Striking is further the almost complete absence of RWA mounds in the core area of the Quaternary volcanic field. A possible cause can be found in occasionally occurring H₂S in the fault systems, which is toxic at miniscule concentrations to the ants. Viewed overall, there is a strong relationship between RWA mounds and active tectonics in the West Eifel.

  12. GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic Fault Systems in the West Eifel (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schreiber

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group sites and active tectonic faults. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases and potential magmas following the same orientation. At the same time, Variscan and Mesozoic fault zones are reactivated. The results showed linear alignments and clusters of approx. 3,000 RWA mounds. While linear mound distribution correlate with strike-slip fault systems documented by quartz and ore veins and fault planes with slickensides, the clusters represent crosscut zones of dominant fault systems. Latter can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. Gas analyses from soil air, mineral springs and mofettes (CO2, Helium, Radon and H2S reveal limiting concentrations for the spatial distribution of mounds and colonization. Striking is further the almost complete absence of RWA mounds in the core area of the Quaternary volcanic field. A possible cause can be found in occasionally occurring H2S in the fault systems, which is toxic at miniscule concentrations to the ants. Viewed overall, there is a strong relationship between RWA mounds and active tectonics in the West Eifel.

  13. [The influenza pandemic 1968-1970: crisis management in separated Germany - "Vodka and Raspberry Tea"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, W

    2011-12-01

    The Hong Kong Flu in the years 1968-1970 challenged both German health care systems. This article intends to analyse the patterns of reaction to the pandemic. Both German states faced the threat according to their respective ideological orientation. This applied to the two parts of Berlin - West and East - as well. In the GDR the control of influenza was centrally organized. When the pandemic passed away an influenza guiding document ("Führungsdokument") was made obligatory for the fight against the plague. In the FRG hospital treatment maintained predominance while the outpatient sector was administrated by physicians in private practice. In West- Berlin outpatient clinics were declined by the Association of Physicians ("Kassenärztliche Vereinigung"). In 1970 a first concept of surveillance was presented on the level of the state in West Germany. In the years 1968-1970 vaccinations were not common in both German states. The essay is based on the analysis of archival sources, monographs, scientific and newspaper articles.

  14. [The University Institute of Legal Medicine in Berlin 1833-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, Gunther; Vendura, Klaus; Wirth, Ingo

    2008-11-01

    The university institute of legal medicine of the Charité in Berlin was founded on February 11th, 1833 as a "Praktische Unterrichtsanstalt für die Staatsarzneikunde (Practice-oriented School of Public Health and Medicine)" at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität (founded in 1810). In 1886 the oldest faculty in Germany obtained its own building in Berlin-Mitte. Starting with Wilhelm Wagner, Johann Ludwig Casper, Fritz Strassmann, Otto Prokop and their successors established the Berlin School of Legal Medicine, which has been playing an important role for the subject's progress in the German-speaking area until today. Since the visit of Kuniyoshi Katayama to Berlin in 1884 there have been productive relationships with Japanese forensic pathologists to this day. Regardless of the accepted scientific achievements the institute fell victim to the Berlin policy of austerity after 2003 leading to staff reduction and the closure of the historical location. Due to the new appointment to the chair in 2007 and the planned junction of the subject in Berlin-Moabit there is now the chance for a new impetus of forensic medicine in the German capital.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnath, Thomas; Mertes, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, particularly to third-generation cephalosporins, has been reported in many countries. We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p = 0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p = 0.08). No resistance and stable minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for cefixime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. High-level resistance was found for ciprofloxacin (39.6%) and tetracycline (20.0%) but not for azithromycin; 16.3% of the isolates produced betalactamase. Thus, cephalosporins can still be used for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the study area. To avoid further increasing resistance to azithromycin, its usage should be limited to patients allergic to cephalosporins, or (in combination with cephalosporins) to patients for whom no susceptibility testing could be performed or those co-infected with chlamydiae.

  16. Benchmarking attenuation correction procedures for six years of single-polarized C-band weather radar observations in South-West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Jacobi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced attenuation is a major source of underestimation for radar-based precipitation estimation at C-band. Unconstrained gate-by-gate correction procedures are known to be inherently unstable and thus not suited for unsupervised attenuation correction. In this study, we evaluate three different procedures to constrain gate-by-gate attenuation correction using reflectivity as the only input. These procedures are benchmarked against rainfall estimates from uncorrected radar data, using six years of radar observations from the single-polarized C-band radar in South-West Germany. The precipitation estimation error is obtained by comparing the radar-based estimates to rain gauge observations. All attenuation correction procedures benchmarked in this study lead to an effective improvement of precipitation estimation. The first method caps the corrections if the rain intensity increase exceeds a factor of two. The second method decreases the parameters of the attenuation correction iteratively for every radar beam calculation until attaining a stability criterion. The second method outperforms the first method and leads to a consistent distribution of path-integrated attenuation along the radar beam. As a third method, we propose a slight modification of Kraemer's approach which allows users to exert better control over attenuation correction by introducing an additional constraint that prevents unplausible corrections in cases of dramatic signal losses.

  17. Ninth International Conference draws 15000 to Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    On June 7-11, 1993, 15,000 people attended the Ninth International Conference on AIDS in Berlin, Germany. More than 1000 speakers led presentations, plenary sessions, and workshops on the 4 major conference topics: basic science, clinical science and care, epidemiology and prevention, and psychological and social impact and social response. During the basic science sessions, evidence was presented of extensive virus variation and migration which reinforced the need for a global vaccine. Also, new information about the pathogenesis of HIV and AIDS was presented which may influence new treatment and prevention approaches. A great deal of discussion about early treatment with zidovudine was generated in the clinical sciences sessions, but no breakthroughs were announced in drugs or vaccines. During the sessions on prevention, it was reported that a 4-year program of condom promotion among prostitutes in Thailand resulted in a 75% reduction in cases of sexually transmitted diseases. Behavior change programs among at-risk populations in many countries have been effective, but they have not had a noticeable effect on the AIDS pandemic because a lack of resources has prevented their replication. The newest at-risk group seems to be young people, especially adolescent girls. During this conference, women's issues were discussed more widely than at any previous conference. Female-controlled methods of prevention, especially a vaginal virucide, received a great deal of attention. People with AIDS participated in the conference by delivering fiery opening speeches, by demonstrating publicly near the former Berlin Wall, and by urging scientists to collaborate on finding a cure rather than competing with each other in order to win a Nobel prize. The fact that the media reports from the conference were pessimistic drew criticism from participants who believe that a general feeling of pessimism will lead governments, researchers, and health care workers to adopt an attitude of

  18. Attaining New Heights With Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The launch of inter-governmental consultation ushers in a new era for Sino-German relations During his recent visit to Germany,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao,together with German Chancellor Angela Merkel,inaugurated an inter-governmental cons ultation mechanism to enhance cooperation between the two countries.The two cochaired the first round of consultation in Berlin on June 28.This is a milestone in Sino-German relations since Germany is the first country to establish this kind of mecha-

  19. Additions to the family Miroviaceae (Coniferae) from the Lower Cretaceous of West Greenland and Germany: Mirovia groenlandica n. sp., Tritaenia crassa (Seward) comb, nov., and Tritaenia linkii Magdefrau et Rudolph emend.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Bose, Mahendra; Manum, Svein B.

    1991-01-01

    The genus Tritaenia with its type species T. linkii Magdefrau et Rudolph emend, from the Wealden of Germany has been referred to the family Miroviaceae Bose et Manum, comprising Mesozoic and mostly Arctic conifer foliage with ‘Sciadopitys-like’ stomatal distribution. Two other additions to the Miroviaceae, both from the Lower Cretaceous of West Greenland, arc Pityophyllum crassum Seward, now attributed to Tritaenia, and Mirovia groenlandica n. sp., described on leafy stems and detached leaves...

  20. Venereal Diseases in Germany and Austria,

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUSTRIA, *GERMANY(EAST AND WEST), *VENEREAL DISEASES, SENSITIVITY, DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), MEDICAL RESEARCH, SERODIAGNOSIS, CHEMOTHERAPY, ANTIBIOTICS, PENICILLINS, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, TREPONEMA PALLIDUM .

  1. Englemøtet over Berlin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørjasæter, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    This reading of Dag Solstads novel 16.07.41 (2002) is focussed on the presentation of Berlin in the text. The article also a discusses the angel-theme that can be find in this novel as well as in Wim Wenders Der himmel über Berlin (1987)....

  2. IKEA heats and cools with urban wase water. First energy saving furniture centre in Berlin-Lichtenberg; IKEA heizt und kuehlt mit staedtischem Abwasser. Erstes Energiespar-Einrichtungshaus in Berlin-Lichtenberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genath, Bernd

    2010-11-15

    In May 2010, the district major of Berlin-Lichtenberg (Federal Republic of Germany), Christina Emmrich, and the future boss of the Swedish furniture furniture IKEA, Jutta Iskalla, symbolically laid the foundation for the meanwhile 46th IKEA furniture store in Germany with a unique building engineering: The urban waste water heats and cools the office rooms and salesrooms via heat pump. The furniture centre is to be opened in December 2010.

  3. The Berlin emissivity database (BED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2008-03-01

    Remote-sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload, instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. Apart from measuring the reflected radiance, more and more spacecrafts are equipped with instruments measuring directly the emitted radiation from the planetary surface. The emitted radiation is not only a function of the composition of the material but also of its texture and especially the grain size distribution. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials in grain size fractions appropriate for planetary surfaces is needed. The Berlin emissivity database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing thereby a realistic basis for the interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. BED currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur, Martian analogue minerals and volcanic soils, and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from <25 to 250 μm. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer Bruker IFS 88 purged with dry air and equipped with a nitrogen-cooled MCT detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm -1. We are currently working on upgrading our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80 V) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 μm in a vacuum environment. This will be

  4. University Institute of Legal Medicine in Berlin celebrates its 175th anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, Gunther; Vendura, Klaus; Wirth, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    The University Institute of Legal Medicine of the University Hospital Charité in Berlin is the oldest faculty in Germany. On February 11, 1833 it was founded as a "Praktische Unterrichtsanstalt für Staatsarzneikunde (Practice-oriented School of Public Health and Medicine)" at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität (founded in 1810) and in 1886 it received its own building in Berlin-Mitte. Starting with Wilhelm Wagner, Johann Ludwig Casper, Fritz Strassmann, and their successors established the Berlin School of Legal Medicine, which has been playing an important role for the subject's progress in the German-speaking area until today. Regardless of the accepted scientific achievements, the institute fell victim to the Berlin policy of austerity after 2003 leading to staff reduction and the closure of the historical location. Since the new appointment to the chair in 2007 and the junction of the subject in Berlin-Moabit there is now the chance for a new impetus of forensic medicine in the German capital.

  5. Ecology in a walled city: researching urban wildlife in post-war Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmund, Jens

    2007-06-01

    The division of Berlin in the aftermath of World War II and the erection of the Wall in 1961 were not only of tremendous political, social and cultural significance, but also had implications for the way in which science was undertaken in this city. For ecologists living and working in the enclosed city part of West Berlin, the lack of accessible countryside motivated them to focus their fieldwork increasingly on urban sites and, thereby, to engage themselves in one of the most significant attempts to develop an ecology of the city.

  6. Political change and course of affective psychoses: Berlin 1989-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlken, J; Priebe, S

    1991-04-01

    In this study, the political change associated with the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 was examined as a shared life event for the population of West Berlin. Its influence on the course of affective psychoses was studied in 67 patients in long-term treatment. Recurrences from November 1989 to March 1990 were compared with the same period 1 year before. While patients with bipolar affective psychosis did not show a difference in recurrences between the two periods, patients with unipolar depression had a significantly better and those with schizoaffective psychosis a significantly worse course of illness after November 1989 than in the year before.

  7. When the Girls Still Wore Headscarves: Integration and Belonging in an After-School Center in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    This study is centered on a youth center in Berlin, Germany, that serves migrant females. It draws on the anthropology of performance and the concept of "friction" to argue for an understanding of performances of belonging, where migrant girls stage acts of inclusion through creative encounters with the forces of integration to negotiate…

  8. Berlin's medical students' smoking habits, knowledge about smoking and attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Kusma Bianca; Quarcoo David; Vitzthum Karin; Welte Tobias; Mache Stefanie; Meyer-Falcke Andreas; Groneberg David A; Raupach Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Diseases associated with smoking are a foremost cause of premature death in the world, both in developed and developing countries. Eliminating smoking can do more to improve health and prolong life than any other measure in the field of preventive medicine. Today's medical students will play a prominent role in future efforts to prevent and control tobacco use. Methods A cross-sectional, self-administered, anonymous survey of fifth-year medical students in Berlin, Germany ...

  9. Lateglacial and Early Holocene vegetation history of the northern Wetterau and the Amöneburger Basin (Hessen), central-west Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, J A.A.

    2001-06-01

    The Lateglacial and Early Holocene vegetation history of the northern Wetterau and Amöneburger Basin, two intra-montane basins in Hessen, central-west Germany, is reconstructed by means of pollen and macrofossil analyses. Regional pollen assemblage zones are defined for the Lateglacial and Early Holocene. After calibration of the radiocarbon dates and establishment of age/depth relationships, the ages of the pollen zone boundaries are calculated. The regional vegetation changes correlate closely with the major fluctuations in the delta18O curve of the Greenland ice cores spanning the same time period. During the early Lateglacial, the open herbaceous vegetation with dwarf shrubs in the northern Wetterau was replaced by woodlands. Initially these woodlands consisted of birch, but after the immigration of pine, mixed forests of pine and birch developed. Soon after its immigration pine became dominant and pine woodlands largely replaced the birch forests. Only on the locally wetter substrates of the river floodplain did Betula stands persist. Gradually the importance of herbaceous communities declined and the pine woodlands lost their open character. During the Lateglacial two regressive phases in the vegetation succession are reflected in the data which are equated with the Older- and Younger Dryas biozones. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas, the forest-limit was lowered and the importance of herbaceous communities increased. Later, pine woodlands thinned and Ericales became part of the vegetation, indicating the development of more acid, nutrient-poor soils. A subdivision of the Younger Dryas biozone into a wetter, colder first part and a drier, warmer second part is suggested. At the beginning of the Early Holocene, pine woodlands became more closed and soils more stabilised. The transition between the Younger Dryas and Preboreal biozones is indicated by a lithological change to organic (-rich) deposits. Betula stands persisted on the locally wetter substrates

  10. Pärt: Berliner Messe / Rob Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Berliner Messe. The Beatitudes. Annum per Annum. Magnificat. Seven Magnificat Antiphons. De profundis. Polyphony / Steven Layton with Andrew Lucas" Hyperion CDA66960 (74 minutes:DDD)

  11. Pärt: Berliner Messe / Rob Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Berliner Messe. The Beatitudes. Annum per Annum. Magnificat. Seven Magnificat Antiphons. De profundis. Polyphony / Steven Layton with Andrew Lucas" Hyperion CDA66960 (74 minutes:DDD)

  12. Frequency of trisomy 21 in Germany before and after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, K.; Pelz, J.; Wegner, R.D.; Schulzke, I.; Struck, E. (Institut fuer Humangenetik, Berlin (DE))

    1991-01-01

    For Berlin (West) the rate of trisomy 21 among newborn and all prenatally diagnosed cases can be almost completely recorded, including the maternal age distribution. During the 9-year-period from 1980 to 1988 the average number of trisomy 21 per month was about 2, following a Poisson distribution. A significant increase (P < 0.01) was observed in January 1987, excatly 9 months after the Chernobyl accident. In a supraregional study based on > 30 000 prenatal diagnoses performed in 1986, no significant effect could be observed. However, the highest rates of trisomy 21 were observed in the more heavily contaminated, southern part of Germany. The majority of these fetuses were conceived during the period of greatest radioactive exposure. The data are discussed with respect to the effect of low-dose radiation around the time of conception on the induction of non-disjunction in man.

  13. Ernährungsbildung an Berliner Grundschulen

    OpenAIRE

    Geest-Rack, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Diese Dissertation befasst sich mit Einflussfaktoren auf den Ernährungsunterricht an Berliner Grundschulen und untersucht Quantität sowie Qualität des Ernährungsunterrichts in den Fächern Sachunterricht und Naturwissenschaften der Klassenstufen eins bis sechs. Mit einem umfassenden Fragebogen wurden 122 Lehrer an Berliner Grundschulen schriftlich zu ihrer Aus- und Fortbildung, zur schulinternen Zusammenarbeit, zu Inhalten ihres Ernährungsunterrichts, zum Einsatz von Unterrichtsmaterialien und...

  14. Regression analysis of Berlin housing market

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurde ein hedonisches Preisberechnungsmodell für den Berliner Immobilienmarkt auf Basis der Immobilienverkäufe von 2003 bis 2013 erstellt. Dazu wurden aggregierte Daten für Berliner Ortsteile verwendet. Es wurden deskriptve Statistiken durchgeführt und graphisch mit Karten veranschaulicht. Es wurde gezeigt, dass das durchschnittliche Stockwerk, in dem die Wohnungen durchschnittlich liegen, Raumanzahl, Wohnfläche und Anteil der Sozialmietwohnungen an allen Wohnungen einen star...

  15. [Changes in life expectancy and mortality in East Germany after reunification (1989-1992)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, B; Hempel, E; Reschke, P

    1995-07-01

    Whereas some arguments can be advanced suggesting that the life expectancy in east Germany should have declined directly after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, other arguments suggest an increase. The aim of this study was to identify the actual developments and to explain the findings. Census data and mortality statistics from East and West Germany before unification were used to calculate standardized mortality ratios and life expectancies for various population groups. The differences in life expectancy between East and West were broken down according to age groups. The main finding was that the life expectancy of east German men declined in 1990 by 0.9 years, and only reached the 1989 level again in 1992. This was due solely to an increase in mortality for men under the age of 65. In 1990 and 1991, there were 3,400 more deaths among men under the age of 65 than would have been expected on the basis of the mortality rates of 1989. In contrast, the life expectancy of women hardly declined at all in 1990, and in 1992 it was already one year more than for 1989. The most important reasons for the increased numbers of deaths of men under the age of 45 were motor vehicle accidents, whereas ischaemic heart disease and cirrhosis of the liver were more significant for men between the ages of 45 and 65. Suicides did not increase after the fall of the Berlin Wall. It could be shown that the findings were not the results of artifacts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Collapsing (New Buildings: Town Planning, History and Music in Hubertus Siegert's Berlin Babylon (2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hurley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hubertus Siegert’s impressionistic documentary, Berlin Babylon, illuminates the demolition and urban renewal of Berlin during the mid-late 1990s. This was a critical phase in the city’s history, as it prepared, amidst a flurry of excitement and anticipation, to become the united Germany's seat of power. Siegert's film seeks to give pause for thought, but deliberately eschews a “voice of god” voiceover, opting instead for a poetic audiovisual montage. This includes shots of the cityscape (and its lacunae, archival footage documenting the wartime devastation and subsequent dynamiting of buildings, observational cinema of the city’s busy building sites, and of verbal snippets from various architects, developers and politicians––following the film title’s cue, the agents in a rerun of the construction of the Tower of Babel––as well as epigraphs from the Bible and Walter Benjamin, and a prominent soundscape and musical score. As this article will demonstrate, the film’s (mostly sombre soundtrack plays a critical role here, commenting on the footage, and beyond that on the whole project of the new ‘Berlin Republic’ and its attitude to architectural heritage and twentieth century history. Re-figuring the theme of this volume, Berlin Babylon’s music is a form of writing about (collapsing, old architecture and history. And yet, the soundtrack is not as unambiguous as a voiceover might have been, and thereby allows creative space for the audience’s interpretation, a matter that was very important to the film’s director. This article will focus, in particular, on three elements: the use (and treatment of historical recordings in the film; the use of silence; and finally the way in which tracks from the Berlin band Einstürzende Neubauten use music, noise and text to comment on the project of the new Berlin.

  17. Energy-related renovation in the world heritage. Retrofitting 'Glas-Hoffmann' buildings, Berlin; Energetische Sanierung im Weltkulturerbe. Sanierung 'Glas-Hoffmann'-Bauten, Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brensing, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Between 1955 and 1959, the housing estate at the Schiller park in Berlin-Wedding (Federal Republic in Germany) established in the 1920ies was expanded by four-storey house lines, the so-called Glas-Hoffmann buildings. Since 2008, this ensemble belongs to the Unesco World Heritage. In improving the thermal insulation of the building envelope and the adaptation of the building services to today's standards, therefore the architectural aesthetics of these buildings should not be endangered. The retrofitting was a pilot project of the research project ''Monument and energy - Postwar Modernism''.

  18. Bazaar Pagodas – Transnational Religion, Postsocialist Marketplaces and Vietnamese Migrant Women in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Huwelmeier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the breakdown of the East German Socialistgovernment, thousands of former contract workers from Vietnam stayedin the then reunified Germany. Due to their resulting precarious economicsituation, a large number of these migrants became engaged in small businessand petty trade. Some of them, women in particular, have become successfulentrepreneurs and wholesalers in recently built bazaars in the eastern parts ofBerlin. Most interestingly, parts of these urban spaces, former industrial areason the periphery of Germany’s capital, have been transformed into religiousplaces. This article explores the formation of female Vietnamese Buddhistnetworks on the grounds of Asian wholesale markets. It argues that transnationalmobilities in a post-socialist setting encourage border-crossing religious activities,linking people and places to various former socialist countries as well as to theSocialist Republic of Vietnam. Further, by considering political tensions betweenVietnamese in the eastern and western part of Berlin, this contribution illustratesthe negotiation of political sensitivities among diasporic Vietnamese in reunitedGermany. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among female lay Buddhists, itfocuses on entrepreneurship and investigates the relationship between business,migration and religious practices.

  19. Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000…

  20. From Parents to Children: The Impact of Mothers' and Fathers' Educational Attainments on Those of Their Sons and Daughters in West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minello, Alessandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have repeatedly shown that in Germany educational success still strongly depends on the social origin of individuals. Using the National Educational Panel Study, we analyse the effects of fathers' and mothers' education levels on their sons' and daughters' educational attainments across three successive birth cohorts in West…

  1. [Staging of scientific facts in syphilis education. "The Shipwrecked" in the Berlin German Theater (1913)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazardzig, J

    2002-04-01

    The "Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Bekämpfung der Geschlechtskrankheiten" (DGBG) used plays as a means of public education. The play "Damaged Goods" (Les Avariés) by the French dramatist Eugéne Brieux (1858-1932) was used extensively for this purpose in Germany between 1910 and 1920. By proliferating a specific image of both the medical profession and the syphilis, it helped established the self-confidence of the then new dermatological discipline. The teaching of Alfred Fournier (1832-1914) provided the medical background for the play. In "The Inheritance of Syphilis" (1882) Fournier had laid the dramatic framework for Brieux' play. Analyzing the Berlin premiere of "Damaged Goods" on June 25 1913 in the German Theatre/Berlin, the interplay between scientific facts and theatrical license and their diverse influences on the public becomes obvious.

  2. Berlins Alexanderplatz mellem opbrud og erindring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Hans Christian

    Denne bog undersøger den byarkitektoniske idékonkurrence i 1993 for Berlins Alexanderplatz. I hidtidige arkitekturfaglige og videnskabelige artikler og værker er konkurrencen blevet udlagt som en bestræbelse på at annullere DDR-tiden og vende tilbage til den byrumlige situation, der herskede i fø...

  3. Berlin – Paris – Tokyo. KARTOGRAFI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2010-01-01

    og bevægelse (2008). Resultaterne er blevet publiceret i bogen: Kartografi – Morfologi – Topologi. Arkitektskolens Forlag 2009. Dette forskningsarbejde er blevet fulgt op med en række nye studier, der i stedet for at have Hydra som topografisk udgangspunkt arbejder med tre udsnit af Berlin, Paris og...

  4. The gas supply of East Berlin. Die Gasversorgung von Ost-Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.D.; Skodowski, U. (Berliner Erdgas-AG, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    This article deals with the development of gas supply in East Berlin from a historic point of view. The transition to social market economy is illustrated, and a forecast of future developments is given. (orig.).

  5. Solar alligator. Berlin company introduces novel collector assembly system; Solarer Alligator. Berliner Unternehmen setzt auf neues Kollektor-Montagesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, M.

    2001-01-01

    A Berlin company presented a new assembly system for solar collectors which will facilitate installation. [German] Ein Berliner Unternehmen setzt auf ein neues Montagesystem fuer Sonnenkollektoren, das vor allem die Handwerker begeistern soll. (orig.)

  6. How Did the Tree of Knowledge Get Its Blossom? The Rise of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, with an Eye on Berlin and Leipzig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Bretislav

    2016-04-25

    "Physical chemistry is not just a branch on but the blossom of the tree of knowledge," declared Ostwald, a most vocal advocate of his field, conceived as the basis for all of chemistry. This Essay describes the historical development of physical and theoretical chemistry with a focus on Berlin and Leipzig, its foremost centers in Germany.

  7. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...

  8. Aerospace medicine in Germany: from the very beginnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, V

    2000-04-01

    The roots of German Aerospace Medicine are in Berlin. High altitude research was performed by physiologists like Nathan Zuntz and the very first Army flight surgeons, Koschel and Flemming. With the founding of the Scientific Society for Aeronautics in 1912, a medical committee was established to determine guidelines for the physical examination of flyers. In World War I aviation medicine became a military science, which came to an end with the Treaty of Versailles. In 1927, with the establishment of the first Aeromedical Institute in Hamburg, Ludolph Brauer restarted the civilian academic aeromedical research effort, which, thereafter, fell more and more under military influence. At the end of World War II, German scientists were invited to work at the USAAF Aero Medical Center (AMC) in Heidelberg (1945-47), to gather the results of German aeromedical research performed before and during the war. Some of this group of German scientists were invited to work in the USA. In Germany, on the other hand, the effect of this "brain drain" was a period of stagnation. In the 1950's, a new civilian institute of aviation medicine was established in Bonn. It grew to be the nucleus of the DLR Institute of Aviation Medicine in Cologne. The German Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine was founded in Fuerstenfeldruck in 1959, and in the GDR the Institute of Aviation Medicine was established in 1961: the first East German cosmonaut S. Jaehn 1978 (Soyuz-31), was succeeded by the first West German astronaut, U. Merbold in 1983 (Spacelab).

  9. The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Desmond

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

  10. American Rock with a European Twist: The Institutionalization of Rock’n’Roll in France, West Germany, Greece, and Italy (20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kouvarou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the practices developed in France, Italy, Greece, and Germany in order to accommodate rock’n’roll music and bring it closer to their own music styles and societal norms, as these are heard in the initial attempts of their music industries to create their own versions of it. The paper deals with these practices as instances of the French, German, Greek and Italian contexts to institutionalize rock’n’roll according to their positions regarding the USA, their historical and political situations, and their cultural and musical past and present.

  11. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  12. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...... reunification. Implications for marketing management are drawn by proposing nine bipolar constructs....

  13. Design Archeology: Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg, Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Design Archeology combines communication design with archeological methods for evaluating material culture to produce new forms of graphic identity. It is a research methodology for examining cultural practices and activities of the moment in order to create a “snapshot” of a community’s identity from its material culture. Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg Berlin is a graphic identity developed from ephemera (receipts, tickets, posters and flyers) collected from the streets of Kreuzberg, B...

  14. Design Archeology: Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg, Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Design Archeology combines communication design with archeological methods for evaluating material culture to produce new forms of graphic identity. It is a research methodology for examining cultural practices and activities of the moment in order to create a “snapshot” of a community’s identity from its material culture. Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg Berlin is a graphic identity developed from ephemera (receipts, tickets, posters and flyers) collected from the streets of Kreuzberg, B...

  15. High-speed train Oslo-Berlin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann

    Indlæggets baggrund og formål I det såkaldte COINCO-projekt, et INTERREG-projekt støttet af regioner og byer mellem Oslo og Berlin, er der udviklet en strategi for et tættere samarbejde i korridoren (Jespersen et al. 2007). Udbygning af infrastrukturen for passagerer og gods er en væsentlig del h...

  16. Contemporary Ideas in a Traditional Mind-Set: The Nature Conservation Movement in Post War West-Germany (1945-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Mignon Kirchhof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In winter 1947 the Association for the Protection of the German Forest wasfounded to prevent the eradication of the forest across Germany after sufferingwartime destruction, overuse and firewood logging. Especially the occupyingforces faced harsh criticism from the German people for their widespreaddeforestation even though it seems that the Allied Powers used the woodresources quite responsibly. This article argues that the uproar by natureconservationists, politicians and “normal people” reflected a German sense ofpowerlessness, and revealed images and convictions of the forest as a nationalsymbol that was supposedly endangered in post-war Germany. These post-wardiscussions referred back to the discourse of the 19th century, when Germanintellectuals declared the forest to be the myth of the German people anddeveloped a notion of “Heimat” that saw a close connection between nation andnature. The post-war discussions involved many of those images andconvictions. Nevertheless, the discussions were not only retrospective: they alsoreacted to the contemporary political situation and adapted their answers andsolutions accordingly.

  17. The first international leprosy conference, Berlin, 1897: the politics of segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, S S

    2004-01-01

    The present paper examines the first attempts to internationalise the problem of leprosy, a subject hitherto overlooked by historians of imperialism and disease. The last decade of the nineteenth century saw many in the civilised countries of the imperialist West gripped by a paranoia about an invasion of leprosy via germ-laden immigrants and returning expatriates who had acquired the infection in leprosy endemic colonial possessions. Such alarmists clamoured for the adoption of vigorous leper segregation policies in such colonies. But the contagiousness of leprosy did not go unquestioned by other westerners. The convocation in Berlin of the first international meeting on leprosy revealed the interplay of differing and sometimes incompatible views about the containment of leprosy by segregation. The roles of officials from several countries, as well as the roles of five protagonists (Albert Ashmead, Jules Goldschmidt, Edvard Ehlers. Armauer Hansen, and Phineas Abraham) in the shaping of the Berlin Conference are here examined.

  18. Comparative analysis of the cost of waste management options for Berlin; Kostenvergleich der Abfallwirtschaftsalternativen fuer Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oetjen-Dehne, R. [u.e.c., Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The Berlin/Brandenburg region is getting under pressure as the waste treatment deadline of 1 June 2005 is getting closer and sufficient plant capacities are lacking. The contribution presents a chronology of the discussion of the available plant variants. [German] Die Sicherung der gesetzlich geforderten Abfallbehandlung ab dem 01.06.2005 geraet in der Region Berlin/Brandenburg immer mehr unter Zeitdruck, da ausreichende Anlagenkapazitaeten nicht zur Vefuegung stehen. Waehrend im Land Brandenburg die benoetigten Kapazitaeten weitgehend erst nach Durchfuehrung von VOB- oder VOL-Ausschreibungen (ueberwiegend im Jahr 2002) geschaffen werden, hat der Berliner Senat im Sommer 2001 auf der Basis eines Konzeptes der Berliner Stadtreinigung (sog. STAB-Modell) ein Behandlungskonzept beschlossen, das sich nun in der Umsetzung befindet. Dem Senatsbeschluss gingen umfangreiche gutachterliche Analysen und kontroverse Diskussionen, natuerlich auch ueber die kuenftig zu erwartenden Kosten, voraus. Nachdem im folgenden zunaechst auf einige fast schon banale allgemein gueltige Voraussetzungen fuer eine sachliche Kostendiskussion eingegangen wird, wird ein chronologischer Ueberblick zur Variantendiskussion in Berlin gegeben. (orig.)

  19. Specialist nectar-yeasts decline with urbanization in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Jeannine; Mittelbach, Moritz; Rillig, Matthias C.; Verbruggen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Nectar yeasts are common inhabitants of insect-pollinated flowers but factors determining their distribution are not well understood. We studied the influence of host identity, environmental factors related to pollution/urbanization, and the distance to a target beehive on local distribution of nectar yeasts within Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Tilia tomentosa Moench in Berlin, Germany. Nectar samples of six individuals per species were collected at seven sites in a 2 km radius from each target beehive and plated on YM-Agar to visualise the different morphotypes, which were then identified by sequencing a section of the 26S rDNA gene. Multivariate linear models were used to analyze the effects of all investigated factors on yeast occurrence per tree. Yeast distribution was mainly driven by host identity. The influence of the environmental factors (NO2, height of construction, soil sealing) strongly depended on the radius around the tree, similar to the distance of the sampled beehive. Incidence of specialist nectar-borne yeast species decreased with increasing pollution/urbanization index. Given that specialist yeast species gave way to generalist yeasts that have a reduced dependency on pollinators for between-flower dispersal, our results indicate that increased urbanization may restrict the movement of nectar-specialized yeasts, via limitations of pollinator foraging behavior. PMID:28358006

  20. Environmental and economic report 2011. Data and facts for Germany; Umweltwirtschaftsbericht 2011. Daten und Fakten fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The environmental and economic report 2011 published by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) and Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the economic factor environmental protection, sustainable economic management, green future markets as well as on resource conservation.

  1. Failed solutions to the energy crises: nuclear power, coal conversion, and the chemical industry in West Germany since the 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Marx, Christian

    2014-01-01

    By the end of the economic boom in the 1960s, the oil crisis caused an enormous rise in energy prices. Chemical companies, especially, faced a huge challenge due to their dependency on oil as an energy resource and raw material. This paper explores the reaction of West German chemical corporations to the energy crises of the 1970s and their attempts to anticipate future energy crises. First, the companies tried to implement their own industrial nuclear power stations to cut costs and to becom...

  2. German authors on Estonian minority rights : Selbstbestimmungsrecht und Minderheitenschutz in Estland, by Carmen Thiele. Berlin : Springer, 1999 ; Das Recht der nationalen Minderheiten in Osteuropa, edited by Georg Brunner and Boris Meissner. Berlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annus, Taavi, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Thiele, Carmen. Selbstbestimmungsrecht und Minderheitenschutz in Estland. Berlin : Springer, 1999 ; Das Recht der nationalen Minderheiten in Osteuropa. Berlin : Berlin Verlag Arno Spitz, 1999

  3. German authors on Estonian minority rights : Selbstbestimmungsrecht und Minderheitenschutz in Estland, by Carmen Thiele. Berlin : Springer, 1999 ; Das Recht der nationalen Minderheiten in Osteuropa, edited by Georg Brunner and Boris Meissner. Berlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annus, Taavi, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Thiele, Carmen. Selbstbestimmungsrecht und Minderheitenschutz in Estland. Berlin : Springer, 1999 ; Das Recht der nationalen Minderheiten in Osteuropa. Berlin : Berlin Verlag Arno Spitz, 1999

  4. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, V Marco; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Ferguson, Niall D; Caldwell, Ellen; Fan, Eddy; Camporota, Luigi; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-06-20

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P Definition for ARDS addresses a number of the limitations of the AECC definition. The approach of combining consensus discussions with empirical evaluation may serve as a model to create more accurate, evidence-based, critical illness syndrome definitions and to better inform clinical care, research, and health services planning.

  5. Power requirements of the Berlin-Hamburg maglev railway; Energiebedarf fuer die Magnetschnellbahn Berlin-Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerst, R. [Transrapid International GmbH und Co. KG, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    The paper describes the basic mode of operation of the Transrapid system, the design and construction of the drive system for the Berlin-Hamburg line and the efficiency profile between the power station and the air gap of the linear motor under the vehicle floor. After this introduction, the vehicle properties affecting the power requirements (components due to train resistance/auxiliary service supply) are discussed. Using these system parameters as a basis, the power requirements for the proposed mode of operation of the Berlin-Hamburg line are specified. (orig.) [German] Der Autor beschreibt zunaechst die prinzipielle Funktionsweise des Transrapid-Systems sowie den Aufbau und die Auslegung des Antriebs fuer die Strecke Berlin-Hamburg. Die Wirkungsgradkette vom Kraftwerk bis zum Luftspalt des Linearmotors unter den Fahrzeugen wird dargestellt. Anschliessend werden die fuer den Energiebedarf relevanten Eigenschaften der Fahrzeuge selbst (Fahrwiderstandsanteile/Eigenbedarf) besprochen. Mit diesen Systemparametern wird der Energiebedarf der Magnetschnellbahn Berlin-Hamburg fuer die geplante Betriebsweise dargestellt. (orig.)

  6. The combined heating and power station of Moabit. Circulating fluidized-bed combustion for better air in Berlin; Das Heizkraftwerk Moabit. Zirkulierende Wirbelschichtfeuerung fuer bessere Luft in Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bade, H.

    1993-08-01

    One main focus of the comprehensive environmental protection programme of the BEWAG (Berliner Kraft- und Licht Aktiengesellschaft) in order to reduce the emissions of the power stations was the modernisation of the combined heating and power station of Moabit. One heating block that had been erected in the middle of the fifties was replaced by a modern plant with the new technique of circulating fluidized bed combustion. The tradition of using the oldest power station of Berlin as a testing field for new directional technologies was carried on. Hence a new power station was erected that did not achieve the reduction of emissions by an additionally connected flue gas dust collector plant but by an environmentally harmless fuel engineering. Since the plant works according to the method of a combined heat and power generation the fuel utilisation is considerably higher than in the case of a pure current generation. The 100-MW heating and power station block with the circulating fluidized bed combustion is the largest plant of this kind in Germany at the present. (orig./KO). [Deutsch] Ein Schwerpunkt des umfassenden Umweltschutzprogrammes der BEWAG zur Senkung der Emissionen der Kraftwerke war die Modernisierung des Heizkraftwerkes Moabit. Als Ersatz fuer einen aus der Mitte der fuenfziger Jahre stammenden Block wurde hier mit der neuen Technik der zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung (ZWS) eine moderne Anlage errichtet. Der Tradition des aeltesten Kraftwerkes Berlins als Versuchsfeld fuer neue richtungsweisende Techniken folgend entstand ein Kraftwerk, in dem die Emissionsreduzierung nicht durch nachgeschaltete Rauchgasreinigungsanlagen, sondern durch eine besonders umweltschonende Feuerungstechnik erreicht wurde. Da die Anlage nach dem Prinzip der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung arbeitet, ist auch die Brennstoffausnutzung bedeutend hoeher als bei reiner Stromerzeugung. Der 100-MW-Heizkraftwerksblock mit ZWS-Feuerung ist die gegenwaertig groesste Anlage dieser Art in

  7. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  8. Conserving water and preserving infrastructures between dictatorship and democracy in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Moss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper sheds a long-term perspective on the politics of water infrastructure in 20th century Berlin, focusing on how water conservation became enrolled in the political agendas of very diverse regimes, from the Weimar Republic to the present day. The paper poses the following three questions: firstly, in what socio-technical and political contexts have strategies of water conservation emerged (and disappeared in Berlin? Secondly, what meanings have been attributed to these strategies and how were they politically appropriated? Thirdly, what continuities and changes to water-saving strategies can be traced across Berlin’s turbulent 20th century history? These questions are addressed with an empirical analysis of four periods of Berlin’s water infrastructure history: a an era of expansion (1920-1935 about harnessing (regional water for (urban prosperity, b an era of national autarky (1936-1945 about enrolling urban water in the Nazi cause, c an era of division (1948-1989 about reordering truncated water flows in divided West and East Berlin, and d an era of reunification (1990-present in which expansionism has confronted environmentalism, giving rise to contestation over the desirability of water conservation. This empirical analysis is framed conceptually in terms of a dialogue between notions of obdurate socio-technical systems and dynamic socio-material assemblages.

  9. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  10. The Berlin Wall: A Simulation for the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William B., III

    2010-01-01

    November 9, 2009, marked the twentieth anniversary of the opening of the Berlin Wall. The Wall, a symbol of the Cold War, separated the German people for 28 years (1961-1989), keeping those on the East side isolated. Although the construction and dismantling of the Berlin Wall is a significant part of history, the topic is little covered in the…

  11. The Berlin Wall: A Simulation for the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William B., III

    2010-01-01

    November 9, 2009, marked the twentieth anniversary of the opening of the Berlin Wall. The Wall, a symbol of the Cold War, separated the German people for 28 years (1961-1989), keeping those on the East side isolated. Although the construction and dismantling of the Berlin Wall is a significant part of history, the topic is little covered in the…

  12. Regression analysis of time trends in perinatal mortality in Germany 1980-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, H; Weigelt, E; Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    2000-02-01

    Numerous investigations have been carried out on the possible impact of the Chernobyl accident on the prevalence of anomalies at birth and on perinatal mortality. In many cases the studies were aimed at the detection of differences of pregnancy outcome measurements between regions or time periods. Most authors conclude that there is no evidence of a detrimental physical effect on congenital anomalies or other outcomes of pregnancy following the accident. In this paper, we report on statistical analyses of time trends of perinatal mortality in Germany. Our main intention is to investigate whether perinatal mortality, as reflected in official records, was increased in 1987 as a possible effect of the Chernobyl accident. We show that, in Germany as a whole, there was a significantly elevated perinatal mortality proportion in 1987 as compared to the trend function. The increase is 4.8% (p = 0.0046) of the expected perinatal death proportion for 1987. Even more pronounced levels of 8.2% (p = 0. 0458) and 8.5% (p = 0.0702) may be found in the higher contaminated areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), including West Berlin, and of Bavaria, respectively. To investigate the impact of statistical models on results, we applied three standard regression techniques. The observed significant increase in 1987 is independent of the statistical model used. Stillbirth proportions show essentially the same behavior as perinatal death proportions, but the results for all of Germany are nonsignificant due to the smaller numbers involved. Analysis of the association of stillbirth proportions with the (137)Cs deposition on a district level in Bavaria discloses a significant relationship. Our results are in contrast to those of many analyses of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident and contradict the present radiobiologic knowledge. As we are dealing with highly aggregated data, other causes or artifacts may explain the observed effects. Hence, the findings

  13. Touristification in Berlin. Ein Bericht zur Workshop-Reihe des Vereins Kritische Geographie Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritische Geographie Berlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Die Gruppe Kritische Geographie Berlin beschäftigt sich seit Längerem mit Phänomenen, Ursachen, Akteuren und Wirkungsweisen des neuen touristischen Interesses an Berliner ‚Trend-Bezirken’ wie etwa Mitte, Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg und den nördlichen Teilen Neuköllns. Nachdem zunächst in mehreren Diskussionen und internen Workshops ein Überblick über das Thema und einzelne Facetten jener ‚Touristifizierung der Stadt’ erarbeitet wurde, folgte in den Jahren 2012/13 eine öffentliche Workshop-Reihe. Hier wurde der Versuch unternommen, in einer strukturierten Annäherung an unterschiedliche Dimensionen der ‚Touristification’ diese in ihrem komplexen Charakter lesbarer zu machen und sich über Fragen der Analyse und Bewertung, aber auch zu möglichen Interventionen und Initiativen auszutauschen.

  14. Psychological and endocrine abnormalities in refugees from East Germany: Part I. Prolonged stress, psychopathology, and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M; Priebe, S; Kürten, I; Gräf, K J; Baumgartner, A

    1994-01-01

    The influence of prolonged psychological stress on hormonal secretion was investigated in 84 East Germany refugees suffering from psychiatric disorders within 6 weeks of their arrival in West Berlin shortly before or after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Before leaving the German Democratic Republic, these patients had already experienced prolonged stress, which continued after migration. In most cases, the diagnosis was anxious-depressive syndrome with vegetative complaints and symptoms of increased arousal. Their formal DSM-III-R diagnoses (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) included adjustment disorders, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders (the latter including posttraumatic stress disorder). Serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and reverse triiodothyronine) were measured and compared with those of 20 healthy control subjects. TSH and all thyroid hormone concentrations were significantly reduced in the patient group. Fifty-two of the patients (62%) were in the hypothyroid range but did not show any clinical signs of hypothyroidism. These disturbances in hormonal secretion were not correlated to any psychiatric diagnosis or to the severity of acute or chronic stress. The marked abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis seen in these refugees differ from those reported in depression and would seem to reflect severe chronic stress rather than specific psychiatric disorders. The underlying neurochemical mechanisms remain to be investigated.

  15. Review of Berliner & Biddle "The Manufactured Crisis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C. Stedman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In a provocative new book, The Manufactured Crisis, David Berliner and Bruce Biddle make four sweeping claims about U.S. achievement: there never was a test score decline, today's students are "out-achieving their parents substantially" (p. 33, U.S. students "stack up very well" in international assessments (p. 63, and the general education crisis is a right-wing fabrication. As a progressive, I'm sympathetic to their concerns, but as a scholar who specializes in this material, I find their analysis deeply flawed and misleading. They mischaracterize the test score decline data, mishandle the international findings, and fail to acknowledge students' continuing low levels of academic achievement.

  16. Germany's Population: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future

    OpenAIRE

    Heilig, G.K.; Büttner, T; W. Lutz

    1990-01-01

    When the two Germanies were reunited in 1990, 16 million East Germans were added to the West German population, giving it a 20 million person advantage over Italy, France and the United Kingdom. This report traces the history of German population growth from the 1870s through World War II and up to the present. The authors examine the demographic trends of the new Germany and the prospects for future growth. Until 1990, marriage, fertility, and mortality followed different paths in the...

  17. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-18

    member states are to be brought together. The COMETT Program has elicited great interest within the EC. According to Volker Gehmlich, who is active...of a brand name, an efficient distribution mechanism and a com- petitive cost price. The European "winners" are espe- cially West Germany, which has

  18. Germany: Twenty Years After The Union

    OpenAIRE

    Pete Mavrokordatos; Stan Stascinsky; Andrew Michael

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important events in the world after World War II was the reunification of Germany, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The aim of this paper is to discuss the general economic conditions in Germany, before and after the reunification. This paper is divided into four parts. The introductory section provides a summative discussion of the economic conditions in East and West Germany from World War II until the time of reunification. The second section presents an evaluation of...

  19. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  20. Effects of natural attenuation processes on groundwater contamination caused by abandoned waste sites in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerndorff, Helmut; Kühn, Stephan; Minden, Thomas; Orlikowski, Dagmar; Struppe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this research project is to identify, characterize and quantify natural attenuation (NA) processes in groundwater affected by emissions of abandoned waste disposal sites in Berlin-Kladow/Gatow, Germany. It is part of the funding priority called KORA established by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) to explore the extent to which NA can be used for remedial purposes for varied forms of soil and groundwater contamination. Information on the emission behaviour of individual parameters is generated on the basis of hydrogeochemical comparison of 20 years old and new data. Using groundwater-modelling and CFC-analysis, information on the transport and retention of pollutants in groundwater is compiled. The microbial colonization of contaminated aquifers is characterized by molecular biological methods [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] to differentiate between contaminated and not contaminated zones.

  1. Theme section for 36th International Symposium for Remote Sensing of the Environment in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, John; Waske, Björn

    2016-09-01

    The International Symposium for Remote Sensing of the Environment (ISRSE) is the longest series of international conferences held on the topic of Remote Sensing, commencing in Ann Arbor, Michigan USA in 1962. While the name of the conference has changed over the years, it is regularly held approximately every 2 years and continues to be one of the leading international conferences on remote sensing. The latest of these conferences, the 36th ISRSE, was held in Berlin, Germany from 11 to 15 May 2015. All complete papers from the conference are available in the ISPRS International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences at http://www.int-arch-photogramm-remote-sens-spatial-inf-sci.net/XL-7-W3/index.html.

  2. ISN Nexus 2016 Symposia: Translational Immunology in Kidney Disease—The Berlin Roadmap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Anders

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, the treatment of immune-mediated kidney diseases has only marginally benefited from highly specific biological drugs that have demonstrated remarkable effects in many other diseases. What accounts for this disparity? In April 2016, the International Society of Nephrology held a Nexus meeting on Translational Immunology in Nephrology in Berlin, Germany, to identify and discuss hurdles that block the translational flow of target identification, and preclinical and clinical target validation in the domain of immune-mediated kidney disease. A broad panel of experts including basic scientists, translational researchers, clinical trialists, pharmaceutical industry drug developers, and representatives of the American and European regulatory authorities made recommendations on how to overcome such hurdles at all levels of the translational research process. The results of these discussions are presented here, which may serve as a roadmap for how to optimize the process of developing more innovative and effective drugs for patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases.

  3. Symbolic Uses of the Berlin Wall, 1961-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines samples from public discourse during the period 1961-1989, which reveal several different symbolic uses of the Berlin Wall. Suggests these differences reflect the never-completed struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. (KEH)

  4. Literature in focus: A Berlin Romance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The CERN staff have many hidden talents. Who knows, maybe a colleague you see every day is actually a virtuoso violinist, an accomplished sportsman or an internationally renowned collector. Mathilde Fontanet, a translator in the CERN Translation and Minutes Service, is a writer in her spare time. Those who read her first essays in the Graviton no doubt spotted her talent. Following the publication of four short stories, her first novel, 'Rabenstrasse 5', was published in Switzerland in May 2005. Its backdrop is the busy Berlin arts faculty in the early 1980s. Lydia, a student, meets a young woman who leads her into some rather unusual activities. In parallel, two friends, both professors of literature, each record their thoughts and emotions in a diary. The paths of Lydia and the two professors are to cross... The novel will be published in France on 14 October. Mathilde Fontanet will present it in the framework of a forthcoming 'Literature in Focus' event in the CERN Library. Mathilde Fontanet'Rabenstras...

  5. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  6. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  7. The Economic Performance of Germany's East European Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Germany has experienced a substantial influx of German immigrants from Eastern Europe after World War II and expects several million more as a consequence of the demise of socialism. This paper analyses the economic performance of ethnic German migrants to West Germany in comparison with native born West Germans. Ethnic German immigrants from Eastern Europe display lower levels of education, lower rates of self-employment and higher unemployment rates than natives and immigrants from East Ger...

  8. [Alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, and subjective feeling: a representative inquiry in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerlein, W; Küfner, H

    1977-10-11

    The investigation was carried out in a representative sample of subjects of the Federal Republic of Germany, including West Berlin (n = 1952). The subjects were 20--64 years old. The following were investigated: 1. Social and abusive drinking patterns 2. Relations between drinking behavior and sociodemographic data 3. Relations between drinking behavior and subjective feeling. Of the subjects, 47% consumed alcohol daily or several times a week, 6% called themselves teetotallers. Beer was the preferred beverage. The drinking behavior varied among income classes and vocational groups. Of the whole sample, 8% drank regularly whilst working; 25% of the skilled workers did so. Comparing alcohol consumption and subjective feeling, there was a slight association between elevated mood and frequent alcohol consumption. Of the subjects, 4% were identified as alcohol misusers (7% of the males, 1% of the females). Persons at high risk were men living alone (especially widowed and divorced subjects) and persons of medium income. Regular consumers of hard liquor were at higher risk than consumers of beer or wine. The highest percentage of misuse was found among unskilled and skilled workers and among inhabitants of large cities. There was a slight association between high alcohol misuse index and depressive states, subjective complaints, and paranoid attitudes.

  9. The Changing Family in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Charlotte; Luscher, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the family in West Germany. Examines family demographics; provides an overview of the main institutional forces, laws, and family policy; and refers to the organizational aspects of demography. Describes trend in Germany of shrinking household size and increasing share of one-person households. Describes statistics…

  10. Biomaterials Research in West Germany: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Resorbierbar- Plenk, Jr., and G. Punzet, "Biokeram- en Trikalciumphosphat-Keramikgranula ische Endoprothesen," Med. Orthop. Durch die Verwendung Loslicher Uber ...liminary Clinical Experience With Ab- Rehm, H. Ecke, H.G. Schiefer, and H. sorbable Calcium Phosphate Granules Breithaupt, Untersuchungen uber die

  11. [Hedonism and revolution. The reception of psychoanalysis in the Berlin student movement in the 1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The article takes hedonism and revolution as a vantage point to discuss the Kommune 2, an experiment in collective living, the anti-authoritarian kindergardens for the under-fives, and, last but not least, a speech in 1968 that spurred the women's movement in Western Germany. The author's interest is on the materials documenting how the Berlin student movement saw psychoanalysis: One point was that the pleasure principle should replace the reality principle for the sake of humankind, another that the authoritarian character structure has its roots in the denial of sexuality. Kindergarden children supposedly need "de-individualized identification" to develop ego-strength, when boys and girls differ in their superego organization. An important accomplishment was a group analysis conducted without an analyst, an experiment that worked amazingly well in the Kommune 2. In all, these various experiments in emancipation, with psychoanalysis a guide to interpersonal understanding, may be deemed spectacular when their aftereffects on everyday life in Germany have been tremendous.

  12. Germany’s Chosen Path: Domestic Security Institutions in the Berlin Republic 1990-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    wird vom Neorealismusparadigma unterstotzt, hier dargestel It durch Kenneth Waltz. Das liberate Paradigma unterstUtzt die Perspektive der "Kultur von Zur... Paradigma folgen. Urn diesen aktuellen Weg in Richtung Realismus zu andern, mul$ Deutschland bestimmte Institutionen verandern oder abschaffen. In der

  13. The Cholinergic Synapse International Symposium Held in Berlin, Germany on 23-27 September 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-27

    spinal cord. -R The PCR wait timed with degenerate oligonucleotide-primeru to amplify m 34 nucleotid" segment from chick brain poly A’ mAMA that encodes 11...BCHE) has been found in DNA from individuals with the "atypical" BCHE phenotype (McGuire et al., 1989) and from glioblastoma and neuroblastoma tumors ...question, the appearance of the mutation causing the Asp70 --> Gly substitution was pursued in DNA samples from various tumors and blood cell disorders

  14. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Berlin., Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Englert, N.; Babisch, W.; Hoek, G.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a multicentre European investigation on effects of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms (the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) project),a panel study was carried out in two locations in

  15. Eugen Goldstein and his Laboratory Work at the Berlin Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenus, Michael

    At the end of the 19th century the astronomer and director of the Berlin Observatory, Wilhelm Foerster, started an extraordinary research project: He asked the physicist Eugen Goldstein to examine the nature of electricity in space experimentally. Eugen Goldstein (1850-1930) was one of the most deserving pioneers in the field of electricity, e. g. he discovered the canal rays and he introduced the term ``cathode ray''. He became assistent at the Berlin Observatory and his official duty was the research on relations between electricity and cosmic phenomena. As a result Goldstein successfully reproduced comet tails in gas discharge tubes. My speech is about the biography of Eugen Goldstein and his work at the Berlin Observatory. I will discuss some of his experiments and show a reproduction of his artificial comet tails.

  16. 100 years of public electricity supply in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersdorff, B. von

    1984-05-08

    On May, 8sup(th), 1884, Emil Rathenau founded Germany's first power utility company, the Municipal Electricity Works, Berlin, the predecessor of today's Berlin Power and Light Co. (Bewag). Rathenau had recognised the significance of Thomas Alva Edison's light bulb for a broad application of electricity. Block power plants with machine outputs of 150 PS were at the beginning of their development in 1884. Today, in nuclear power plants with machine outputs of around 1300 MW, the technology of power supply has reached the ''large technology'' prophesied by Rathenau at the start of the century. With today's challenge of environment conservation the power utilities are confronted with new tasks for the future.

  17. Mobile Technology in the Lives of Thai Immigrants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Thongsawang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile technology in the lives of Thai immigrants in Berlin. By using qualitative research methods, this research investigates how new digital and social media applications have affected the organization of Thai immigrants on both individual and institutional levels, with a particular focus on the Royal Thai Embassy in Berlin. Mobile technologies today are widely used in the diaspora, by both individuals and social institutions, to maintain relationships with the homeland and to promote national affairs. Both individual Thai immigrants and official staff of the embassy rely significantly on Internet sites, particularly on social networking sites such as Facebook, to gain information on Thailand and to expand their networks. This paper explores changes in communication and their implications for Thais and their respective institutions in Germany.

  18. Eugen Goldstein and his laboratory work at Berlin Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenus, M.

    2002-07-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the astronomer Wilhelm Foerster, director of Berlin Observatory, initiated an extraordinary research project: He asked the physicist Eugen Goldstein to examine experimentally the nature of electricity in space. Eugen Goldstein (1850-1930) was one of the most deserving pioneers in the field of electricity. He discovered, e.g., the canal rays, and he introduced the term cathode ray. He became assistent at Berlin Observatory, and his official duty was the research on relations between electricity and cosmic phenomena. As a result, Goldstein successfully reproduced comet tails in gas discharge tubes.

  19. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    was no tabula rasa politically. He had worked with EEC Commissioners Sicco Mansholt and Henri Simonet, had represented the Young Socialists in the...OF GERMANY Civil-Military Facilitator Role Proposed for Territorial Army (Hans-Lothar Stegmann; TRUPPENPRAXIS, Mar 87) 80 FRANCE GIAT Problems...supportable. The attitude that Mikhail Gorbachev represents the same type of evil helps them to formulate a specific West German role in the Western world

  20. Alaria alata mesocercariae in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida Melina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Michler, Frank-Uwe; Michler, Berit Annika; Lücker, Ernst; Stier, Norman; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Riehn, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    Alaria alata is a trematode of carnivores from Europe. The mesocercarial stage was recently identified in wild boar meat from Europe. Previous histopathologic studies showed the presence of unidentified parasitic cysts within the tongues of raccoons from northern Germany. For identification of the parasite species, tissue samples of 105 raccoons originating from a National Park in northern Germany and from Berlin metropolitan area were collected. Histological examination of cryotome sections of frozen as well as paraffin-embedded tongues were used to identify parasite cysts. These were located in the connective and adipose tissue and in close proximity to small arterioles, suggesting a hematogenous spread of the parasite. Often, cysts were surrounded with mild infiltration by inflammatory cells. Additionally, mesocercariae were isolated from defrosted tongue samples of 11 raccoons. Molecular-biology assays confirmed the parasite species as A. alata. Except for one positive raccoon from Berlin City, all other positive raccoons originated from the sylvan Müritz National park, indicating an abundance of intermediate hosts in this area. Our results show that raccoons can act as paratenic hosts for A. alata and extend the broad host range of this parasite to a species introduced into Germany.

  1. Influence of shallow flow on the deep geothermal field of Berlin - Results from 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Maximilian; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Cacace, Mauro; Hassanzadegan, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the influence of fluid-driven heat transport on the subsurface temperature distribution of the city of Berlin, Germany. Berlin is located in the Northeast German Basin filled with several kilometers of sediments. Two of the clastic sedimentary units, namely the Middle Buntsandstein and the Sedimentary Rotliegend are of particular interest for geothermal exploration. Previous studies in the Northeast German Basin have already shown that subsurface temperature distributions are highly dependent on the geometries and properties of the geological units. Our work benefits strongly from these studies that involve numerical modeling of coupled conductive and convective heat transport. We follow a two-step approach where we first improve an existing structural model by integrating newly available 57 geological cross-sections, well data and deep seismics (down to ~4 km). Secondly, we perform a sensitivity analysis in which we investigate the effects of varying physical fluid and rock properties as well as hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions on the resulting temperature configuration. Computed temperatures are validated via comparison with existing well temperature measurements in the area. Of special interest for this study is the influence of the shallow aquifer systems on the subsurface temperature field. The major constituents of this system are the Quaternary silts and sands, the Tertiary Rupelian clay and the Tertiary sands beneath the Rupelian. These units have different hydraulic properties. The Rupelian clay represents a major aquitard in this respect hydraulically disconnecting the pre- and post-Rupelian succession. This aquitard shows a heterogeneous thickness distribution locally characterized by different hydrogeological windows (i.e. domains of no thickness) enabling intra-aquifer groundwater circulation at depth thus having a first-order effect on the shallow thermal field. As result of the simulations, we present

  2. Chemistry and oxidation capacity of the nitrate radical in the continental boundary layer near Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Andreas; Alicke, BjöRn; Konrad, Stephan; Schmitz, Thomas; Stutz, Jochen; Platt, Ulrich

    2001-04-01

    The nitrate radical is in many situations the most important nighttime oxidizing species, removing, for example, hydrocarbons, which would otherwise be available to daytime ozone formation. In spite of its importance in the night and probably also under certain conditions during the day, our understanding of the NO3 chemistry and its impact on the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere is still incomplete. Here we present measurements of NO3 by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and a number of other atmospheric trace gases performed during the Berliner Ozonexperiment (BERLIOZ) campaign at Pabstthum near Berlin, Germany, to quantify the contribution of NO3 to the atmospheric oxidation rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx removal. The measurements show that only two NO3 sinks were of importance: (1) About 50-30% (depending on the distance (0.1-3 km) to a near forest) of the NO3 was lost due to reaction with biogenic hydrocarbons. (2) The major part of the remaining loss probably can be attributed to the indirect loss via the reaction of N2O5 on aerosol surfaces. Assuming that heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 is occurring, the nonphotolytical conversion of NOx to HNO3 via N2O5 was found to be comparable with daytime conversion by the reaction of OH with NO2. In combination with measurements of the OH concentration, it was possible for the first time to derive a relative contribution of 28% (24-hour average) for the NO3-initiated oxidation to the total VOC degradation.

  3. Marble Deterioration and Climate: Examples from the Schlossbrücke Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirskawetz, S.; Siegesmund, S.; Weise, F.; Rieffel, Y.; Plagge, R.

    2012-04-01

    Protective structures for works of art or antique artefacts have a long architectural tradition and have been known in Germany since the 19th century. The effect of such covers on the microclimate around artworks of natural stone, and hence, their protective capability are insufficiently documented and understood. In 2007, an inter-disciplinary model project and part of a pilot study coordinated by the Berlin State Office for the Protection of Monuments was planned with the aim of developing an innovative winter covering system for marble statuaries located on the Schlossbrücke in Berlin. Such a system would need to fulfil the various requirements for structural stability, aesthetics, climate and practical use. This applied research represents the first complex scientific study of the sustainability of a winter covering system. A climate monitoring system was designed to create a dense database for the numerical prediction of the effect of protective systems, and to compare the given climate conditions to the known factors influencing the marble deterioration. Based on these findings a prototype of an innovative shelter was designed and tested. The project shows, that beside a temporary covering regular inspection and maintenance combined with regular cleaning ensures an effective and sustainable protection of marble sculptures. Such a maintenance program is the precondition for preserving the sculptures of the Schlossbrücke as a historical ensemble. Important scientific results of the project are transferable to similar objects of Carrara marble. The results throw a new light on the conventional protection of such objects and leads to a discussion on the necessity of an all-season protection.

  4. Battling Creaticide: An Interview with David C. Berliner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Don

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with David C. Berliner, a Regents' Professor in the College of Education at Arizona State University. His books include "Educational Psychology," "The Manufactured Crisis," and "The Handbook of Educational Psychology." He has served as president of the American Educational Research Association and of the…

  5. Battling Creaticide: An Interview with David C. Berliner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Don

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with David C. Berliner, a Regents' Professor in the College of Education at Arizona State University. His books include "Educational Psychology," "The Manufactured Crisis," and "The Handbook of Educational Psychology." He has served as president of the American Educational Research Association and of the…

  6. [Herzberge - a chapter in the history of psychiatry in Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, V

    1979-02-01

    This paper gives an outline of the work done at the insane asylum at Herzberge, Berlin, from 1893, the year when the asylum was established, through to World War 1. The then concept of therapy includes many basic principles that are now embraced in the term sociotherapy.

  7. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial.

  8. Berlin in Television Drama Series: A Mediated Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eichner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the early days of film Berlin and the film studios in its suburbs was an important site of production. Signature films for film historians such as Metropolis and The Blue Angel were shot at the UFA studios in Babelsberg. Throughout its history Berlin was and is a popular place for media productions with the city functioning as a text, full of meaning that turns into branded value. The article will investigate the complex relationship of historical and societal events and Berlin as a production site and an imaginary landscape respectively cityscape. Based on the analysis of national and international drama series we will argue that the increasing importance of Berlin as production site and location goes hand in hand with an increasing mediated imagination of the city as a cinematic respectively televisual space that is able to represent past events such as the Nazi regime and the cold war and actual events such as organised crime, counter terrorist activities, and an intercultural life in a modern metropolis.

  9. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  10. Zur Geschichte der Geowissenschaften im Museum für Naturkunde zu Berlin. Teil 6: Geschichte des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Instituts und Museums der Universität Berlin 1910–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gross

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Entwicklung des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Instituts und Museums der Universität Berlin von einer Institution, die Geologie zusammen mit Paläontologie als eine Einheit vertrat, über eine Institution, die eine geotektonische Ausrichtung hatte, zu einer auf Paläontologie konzentrierten Institution wird nachvollzogen. Die beiden Institutsdirektoren am Anfang des 20sten Jahrhunderts waren Vertreter der allumfassenden Geologie des 19ten Jahrhunderts, während die beiden folgenden Direktoren eine Geologie ohne Paläontologie vertraten. Das führte zu einer Trennung der beiden Richtungen, und nach der III. Hochschulreform der DDR 1968 verblieb allein die sammlungsbezogene Paläontologie am Museum. Nach der Wiedervereinigung wurde ein Institut für Paläontologie mit biologischer Ausrichtung mit zwei Professuren, einer für Paläozoologie und einer für Paläobotanik, eingerichtet. The development of the Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut und Museum of the Museum für Naturkunde at the Humboldt University (formerly Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität in Berlin from a geology-paleontology institution to a pure paleontology institution is described. The first two directors of the department in the beginning of the 20th century, Prof, von Branca and Prof. Pompeckj, represented a 19th century concept of a geology, which included paleontology, even vertebrate paleontology as the crown jewel of geology. They fought sometimes vigorously against a separation of paleontology from geology. The next two directors. Prof. Stille and Prof, von Bubnoff, were the leading geologists in Germany; to be a student of Stille was a special trade mark in geology of Germany. They represented a geology centered on tectonics. The separation of paleontology as separate section was prepared. The destructions of the Second World War, the following restaurations and the division of Germany into two States influenced strongly their directorships. The education of geologists

  11. The geography of stock exchanges in Imperial Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Burhop, Carsten; Lehmann-Hasemeyer, Sibylle H.

    2014-01-01

    23 Stock Exchanges were in operation in Germany in 1913. We provide new data about the number of listed firms, their market value, and the number of IPOs between 1897 and 1913 for all exchanges. We assess reasons why a firm opts to be listed at a certain exchange. Large firms tend to be listed and tend to go public at the Berlin Stock Exchange, while the regional stock exchanges were important hosts for small and medium-sized firms. Borders and distance affect listing decisions, suggesting th...

  12. F87. My home - my car - my petrol station; F87. Mein Haus - mein Auto - meine Tanksstelle. Das Effizienzhaus Plus mit Elektromobilitaet in Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaely, Petra [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Schroth, Juergen; Schuster, Heide; Thuemmler, Thomas [WSGreen Technologies GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Sobek, Werner [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Leichtbau Entwerfen und Konstruieren

    2012-07-01

    In the presence of Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel, the efficient house Plus was inaugurated in December 2011 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany). This building is a temporary dwelling with a floor space of approximately 130 square meters. This building generates all the necessary energy for the operation and comfort by itself. The generated energy also is sufficient for the annual energy demand of two electric cars and an electric bicycle. The building also serves as a showcase to inform the general public.

  13. CAS and MPS Celebrate the 30th Anniversary of Cooperation in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Berlin witnesses a grand reunion between Chinese and German scientists to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the rewarding cooperation between the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Max Planck Society (MPS) in Germany. A series of celebrations were held on Nov. 8 and 9, 2004 to mark this historic moment,not only renewing old friendships but also seeking new approaches to higher quality of collaboration.

  14. Methods for the examination of cattle, sheep and goat dung in prehistoric wetland settlements with examples of the sites Alleshausen-Täschenwiesen and Alleshausen-Grundwiesen (around cal 2900 BC) at Lake Federsee, south-west Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, Marlu; Maier, Ursula; Herbig, Christoph; Ismail-Meyer, Kristin; Le Bailly,Matthieu; Wick, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    There has been evidence of dung in lakeside and moorland settlements since the beginning of wetland archaeology in the 19th century. While evidence has been found for the easily discernible faecal pellets of sheep and goats, recognition of cattle dung has proven to be considerably more difficult. In this study, we give an overview of evidence for dung remains in prehistoric wetland settlements in Germany, Switzerland and eastern France. Various methods for the analysis of uncharred dung remai...

  15. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: a review of the Berlin definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis Cabezón, N; Sánchez Castro, I; Bengoetxea Uriarte, U X; Rodrigo Casanova, M P; García Peña, J M; Aguilera Celorrio, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is due to many causes. The absence of a universal definition up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive diagnosis. The incidences of ARDS and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) vary widely in the current literature. The American-European Consensus Conference definition has been applied since its publication in 1994 and has helped to improve knowledge about ARDS. However, 18 years later, in 2011, the European Intensive Medicine Society, requested a team of international experts to meet in Berlin to review the ARDS definition. The purpose of the Berlin definition is not to use it as a prognostic tool, but to improve coherence between research and clinical practice.

  16. Scientific Cooperation Between the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin (DAW) and Cuba in the 1960s and 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Helge

    After the ratification of its constitution in 1959, the young Cuban Republic sought new cooperation partners in a number of different fields. One of these fields was scientific cooperation. It seems the Cubans quickly found partners in the academies of science of the USSR, Czechoslovakia and China, whereas the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin (DAW) was reluctant to engage in long-term cooperative projects. In the early 1960s, the universities of East Germany (GDR) began to send docents and scientists to Cuba where they participated in the summer schools, taught for one semester or more in one of the universities and undertook research that would be useful for their home institutions. However, the DAW carefully observed the reestablishment of Cuba's own academy of science before becoming involved in common projects with Cuban partners.

  17. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects.

  18. Banal diasporic nationalism. The Ghana@50 celebrations in Berlin.

    OpenAIRE

    Nieswand, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although it has been highlighted by several authors that the notion of diaspora has become a politicised identity discourse, little is known about how it becomes a banal part of migrants? everyday lives. Based on a theoretical understanding of banality, the article focuses on the interaction of the banal and the non-banal within this context of the fiftieth anniversary of Ghanaian Independence in Berlin in 2007. It is argued that diasporic nationalist rituals are spaces of...

  19. Infrared Technology And Public Schools: Applications In Berlin, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Alan F.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared technology played an important part in dealing with school energy problems in Berlin, New Hampshire. It provided the school board and administration with information and data which proved useful in prioritizing the expenditure of limited capital improvement funds. It enabled the board and administration to diagnose the extent of building heat loss problems and compare the heating oil component of our energy problems with independently diagnosed electricity and gasoline components. Since seventy (70) percent of school energy expenditures are on heating oil, infrared assumed the role of a very important diagnostic tool. The Berlin (NH) Public Schools manifest problems faced by public schools in many areas of the country; declining enrollments, inflation, and taxpayer resistance to increasing public expenditures. With eight buildings to heat and light (six schools, a bus garage, and a vocational forestry building), rapidly escalating energy prices threatened to raise total school energy costs as a percentage of total budget from less than seven (7) percent to almost twenty (20) percent, unless consumption reductions were effected. There were minimal obstacles to infrared implementation in Berlin, for a number of reasons. First, the cost was not prohibitive. Second, there was little community understanding of the technology along with an historic separation of specific, relatively low cost school expenditures from close public scrutiny. Finally, the school board and administration realized that, if the energy problem was to be adequately dealt with, a clear understanding of the problem was necessary. The best way for that understanding to be developed was through professional examination of our buildings using the most modern techniques. At this juncture, after only one winter, it is clear that the payback period for Berlin's investment in infrared technology has been surpassed.

  20. Lambayeque-style textiles in the Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerregaard, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The Ethnologisches Museum in Berlin has a large collection of Lambayeque-style textiles from Pachacamac, most of which were collected by Wilhelm Gretzer, a German textile merchant, around 1900. Not many Lambayeque textiles have survived in their area of origin on the north coast of Peru because of unfavourable climatic conditions, but preservation is better at Pachacamac, which is on the central coast. The Lambayeque style had its greatest period between about A.D. 900 and 1100.Many of the ta...

  1. Measles outbreak spreading from the community to an anthroposophic school, Berlin, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillesberg Lassen, S; Schuster, M; Stemmler, M; Steinmüller, A; Matysiak-Klose, D; Mankertz, A; Santibanez, S; Wichmann, O; Falkenhorst, G

    2014-04-01

    Between April and July 2011 there was an outbreak of measles virus, genotype D4, in Berlin, Germany. We identified 73 case-patients from the community and among students of an anthroposophic school, who participated in a 4-day school trip, as well as their family and friends. Overall, 27% were aged ≥ 20 years, 57% were female and 15% were hospitalized. Of 39 community case-patients, 38% were aged ≥ 20 years, 67% were female and 63% required hospitalization. Unvaccinated students returning from the school trip were excluded from school, limiting transmission. Within the group of 55 school-trip participants, including 20 measles case-patients, a measles vaccine effectiveness of 97.1% (95% confidence interval 83.4-100) for two doses was estimated using exact Poisson regression. Our findings support school exclusions and the recommendation of one-dose catch-up vaccination for everyone born after 1970 with incomplete or unknown vaccination status, in addition to the two-dose routine childhood immunization recommendation.

  2. Otto Brahm's Ibsen cycle at the Lessing-Theater in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens-Morten Hanssen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1909, an Ibsen cycle comprising all of Ibsen’s thirteen contemporary dramas, from The League of Youth to When We Dead Awaken, was presented at the Lessing-Theater in Berlin. The plays were performed consecutively, in chronological order, in the course of six weeks. The cycle was theatre director Otto Brahm’s grand summing-up of his enduring efforts of promoting Ibsen and his works in Germany. The paper examines this performance cycle from different angles. Why did Brahm present the plays as a cycle? What happens when a cyclic pattern is applied on Ibsen’s works? Research has revealed a great number of Ibsen cycles in German-speaking theatres in the period before World War II. Brahm’s Ibsen cycle was the most prominent, but not by far the only of its kind. The paper points out how thoroughly Brahm planned the cycle, his clever media strategies and how he in the end designed the cycle as a monument of Ibsen and – not least – of his own achievements as the foremost German champion of Ibsen. How was the critical reception of the cycle? Measured both by audience response and critical reception, the cycle was a success. The cycle concept as such, however, was not judged critically. The cyclic take on Ibsen’s works was neither confirmed nor rejected.

  3. Rearticulating the Experience of War in Anonyma: Eine Frau in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pötzsch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Situating itself in the field of cultural memory studies, this article traces the slow emergence in German historical discourse of the narrative of an anonymous German woman who survived the Soviet occupation of Berlin in 1945. I will, firstly, conceptualize the historical condition of the Anonyma as a precarious liminal sphere of transition between competing sovereignties that dislodged her political status as citizen and reconstituted her as bare life in the sense of Agamben. Secondly, I direct focus to the relationship between the personal story of the Anonyma and a historical Master narrative pertaining to the period. The article argues for a close connection between the woman’s form of resistance that aimed at replacing unchecked rape with a form of coerced prostitution to reassert limited control over the borders of her body, and the negative reception her diary received after a first publication in Germany in 1959. Her story implicitly challenges a hegemonic discourse of war that treats mass rape as mainly an assault on the nation’s male defenders and that silences the victims’ traumatic experiences with reference to collective guilt and individual shame or treason.

  4. [The history of medical physics and biophysics at the Humboldt University in Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, P

    2001-01-01

    The present Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics (former Institute of Radiation Research) was established on September 1st in 1923 by Walter Friedrich (1883-1968). It was after the Institute in Frankfurt A.M. (founded by Friedrich Dessauer in 1921) - the second Institute of its kind in Germany. As a physicist who wrote his dissertation under Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, he did research together with a Gynecologist in Friedburg on problems of radiation therapy and the prevention of radiation injuries. Thus Friedrich became one of the first German Biomedical Physicists and was appointed to a professorship at the university of Berlin and its faculty of medicine. The paper gives a survey of the history of the Institute of Radiation Research in the twenties, in the time of Nazi-rule, the period after the World War II and in the era of GDR until 1990 and up to the present time. The succession of directorship of the Institute and the main research subjects in medical physics and biophysics have been sketched.

  5. Berlin prehospital or usual delivery of acute stroke care - Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Martin; Harmel, Peter; Nolte, Christian H; Grittner, Ulrike; Siegerink, Bob; Audebert, Heinrich J

    2017-08-01

    Rationale Prehospital stroke care in specialized ambulances increases thrombolysis rates, reduces alarm-to-treatment times, and improves the prehospital triage. Preliminary analyses suggest cost-effectiveness. However, scientific proof of better functional outcome compared to usual care is still lacking. Aim To prove better functional outcomes after deployment of the Stroke Emergency Mobile compared to regular ambulances. Sample size estimates A sample size of 686 patients will be required in each arm (Stroke Emergency Mobile group vs. regular care) to detect a difference regarding the primary outcome with 80% power at a two-sided significance level of 0.05. Methods and design This is a pragmatic, prospective study with blinded outcome assessment. Primary outcome will be functional status as defined by modified Rankin Scale score three months after the incident event. We will include cerebral ischemia patients within a predefined catchment area in Berlin, Germany. The study population consists of patients who might be candidates for acute recanalizing treatments, with onset-to-alarm time ≤4 h, symptoms not resolved at time of ambulance arrival, and able to walk without assistance prior to the qualifying incident. About 45% of Stroke Emergency Mobile dispatches are expected to be handled by regular ambulances, since Stroke Emergency Mobile will be already in operation creating the control group. Primary outcome Functional outcome after three months measured by the modified Rankin Scale over the entire range. Discussion The results will inform decision makers on the effectiveness of Stroke Emergency Mobile.

  6. Time-of-flight Extreme Environment Diffractometer at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhnenko, Oleksandr; Stein, Wolf-Dieter; Bleif, Hans-Jürgen; Fromme, Michael; Bartkowiak, Maciej; Wilpert, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The Extreme Environment Diffractometer (EXED) is a new neutron time-of-flight instrument at the BER II research reactor at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Germany. Although EXED is a special-purpose instrument, its early construction made it available for users as a general-purpose diffractometer. In this respect, EXED became one of the rare examples, where the performance of a time-of-flight diffractometer at a continuous source can be characterized. In this paper, we report on the design and performance of EXED with an emphasis on the unique instrument capabilities. The latter comprise variable wavelength resolution and wavelength band, control of the incoming beam divergence, the possibility to change the angular positions of detectors and their distance to the sample, and use of event recording and offline histogramming. These features combined make EXED easily tunable to the requirements of a particular problem, from conventional diffraction to small angle neutron scattering. The instrument performance is demonstrated by several reference measurements and user experiments.

  7. The evaluation of rainfall influence on combined sewer overflows characteristics: the Berlin case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, S; Torres, A; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Riechel, M; Caradot, N

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between rainfall variables and water quality/quantity characteristics of combined sewer overflows (CSOs), by the use of multivariate statistical methods and online measurements at a principal CSO outlet in Berlin (Germany). Canonical correlation results showed that the maximum and average rainfall intensities are the most influential variables to describe CSO water quantity and pollutant loads whereas the duration of the rainfall event and the rain depth seem to be the most influential variables to describe CSO pollutant concentrations. The analysis of partial least squares (PLS) regression models confirms the findings of the canonical correlation and highlights three main influences of rainfall on CSO characteristics: (i) CSO water quantity characteristics are mainly influenced by the maximal rainfall intensities, (ii) CSO pollutant concentrations were found to be mostly associated with duration of the rainfall and (iii) pollutant loads seemed to be principally influenced by dry weather duration before the rainfall event. The prediction quality of PLS models is rather low (R² < 0.6) but results can be useful to explore qualitatively the influence of rainfall on CSO characteristics.

  8. How to express mental health problems: Turkish immigrants in Berlin compared to native Germans in Berlin and Turks in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, A; Kluge, U; Penka, S

    2012-06-01

    The paper explores expressions used by Turkish immigrants in Berlin to delineate psychiatric illnesses and psychological problems. These are compared to expressions used by native Germans in Berlin and Turks in Istanbul to assess possible cultural differences in articulating mental disorders. For this purpose, results of a Free Listing carried out with the three above mentioned groups are presented. The data suggest that relevant items which are connected to mental health issues vary between the groups as well as within the groups, thus showing dependency on factors such as education. For the group of Turkish immigrants the data further suggest that this group connects psychic stress to family problems. Concerning help seeking, Turkish immigrants, like members of the other groups, mention professional psychological/psychiatric help as useful for solving mental health problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Bridging to Heart Transplantation from the Biventricular Pulsatile Berlin Heart EXCOR Assist Device Support in a Patient with Advanced End-Organ Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumrut Tuba Demirozu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term mechanical circulatory support is a life-saving technology while briding to heart transplantation. It increases the quality of life and preserves end-organ function for patients with  advanced heart failure. The number of patients with advanced heart failure scheduled for heart transplantation before comorbidities escalate is on the rise. However, the device function is complicated by the bleeding-thrombosis and infection paradigm, hence the interest in understanding device thrombosis and infection. We describe a 27-year-old man with idiopathic cardiomyopathy, advanced end-organ failure, and severe infection, who was bridged to heart transplantation after 8 months on the Berlin Heart EXCOR (Berlin Heart AG, Berlin, Germany biventricular support. The patient was discharged from the hospital in the third postoperative week after the recovery of his end-organ functions. At 29 months’ post-transplantation follow-up, his last cardiac biopsy was grade 0, his ejection fraction was 60%, and he was enjoying a good quality of life.

  10. Bridging to Heart Transplantation from the Biventricular Pulsatile Berlin Heart EXCOR Assist Device Support in a Patient with Advanced End-Organ Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuba Demirozu, Zumrut; Suha Kucukaksu, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Long-term mechanical circulatory support is a life-saving technology while briding to heart transplantation. It increases the quality of life and preserves end-organ function for patients with advanced heart failure. The number of patients with advanced heart failure scheduled for heart transplantation before comorbidities escalate is on the rise. However, the device function is complicated by the bleeding-thrombosis and infection paradigm, hence the interest in understanding device thrombosis and infection. We describe a 27-year-old man with idiopathic cardiomyopathy, advanced end-organ failure, and severe infection, who was bridged to heart transplantation after 8 months on the Berlin Heart EXCOR (Berlin Heart AG, Berlin, Germany) biventricular support. The patient was discharged from the hospital in the third postoperative week after the recovery of his end-organ functions. At 29 months’ post-transplantation follow-up, his last cardiac biopsy was grade 0, his ejection fraction was 60%, and he was enjoying a good quality of life. PMID:26985209

  11. Chronicle of the Hahn-Meitner-Institute at Berlin; Chronik des Hahn-Meitner-Instituts in Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tode, S.

    2005-07-01

    Historically lined up are the following topics: Material structure and dynamics, materials analysis, applications of ion beams in fabrications, nuclear physics, neutron activation analysis, accelerator operations and technical developments, eye tumor therapy. In this chronicle the tasks at Hahn-Meitner Institute are arranged according to political and sociological connections, focussed the internal structures also as the influence of the difficult geopolitical situation of Berlin. (GL)

  12. A statistical downscaling approach for roadside NO2 concentrations: Application to a WRF-Chem study for Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuik, Friderike; Lauer, Axel; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Butler, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Many European cities continue to struggle with meeting the European air quality limits for NO2. In Berlin, Germany, most of the exceedances in NO2 recorded at monitoring sites near busy roads can be largely attributed to emissions from traffic. In order to assess the impact of changes in traffic emissions on air quality at policy relevant scales, we combine the regional atmosphere-chemistry transport model WRF-Chem at a resolution of 1kmx1km with a statistical downscaling approach. Here, we build on the recently published study evaluating the performance of a WRF-Chem setup in representing observed urban background NO2 concentrations from Kuik et al. (2016) and extend this setup by developing and testing an approach to statistically downscale simulated urban background NO2 concentrations to street level. The approach uses a multilinear regression model to relate roadside NO2 concentrations observed with the municipal monitoring network with observed NO2 concentrations at urban background sites and observed traffic counts. For this, the urban background NO2 concentrations are decomposed into a long term, a synoptic and a diurnal component using the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filtering method. We estimate the coefficients of the regression model for five different roadside stations in Berlin representing different street types. In a next step we combine the coefficients with simulated urban background concentrations and observed traffic counts, in order to estimate roadside NO2 concentrations based on the results obtained with WRF-Chem at the five selected stations. In a third step, we extrapolate the NO2 concentrations to all major roads in Berlin. The latter is based on available data for Berlin of daily mean traffic counts, diurnal and weekly cycles of traffic as well as simulated urban background NO2 concentrations. We evaluate the NO2 concentrations estimated with this method at street level for Berlin with additional observational data from stationary measurements and

  13. For largest space flexibility and largest energy efficiency. Modern room automation enables an open-space solution in the arched structures of the central railway station; Fuer groesste Raumflexibilitaet und hoechste Energieeffizienz. Moderne Raumautomation ermoeglicht Open-Space Loesung in den Buegelbauten des Berliner Hauptbahnhofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottilinger, Werner [Sauter Deutschland, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    A feature of the central railway station in Berlin are the 46 meters high arched structures that span the railway station and accommodate more than 1,500 employees of the Deutsche Bahn AG (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). A total of 42,000 square meters of office space and a large business and conference center spread on twelve floors. Within the commissioning of this central railway station, this vast area should be designed technically variable in order to hold the time and cost as low as possible for the reconstruction or change of tenants.

  14. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  15. 'O{sub 2} World' in Berlin. A multifunctional arena of the fifth generation. Air conditioning for all types of events; 'O{sub 2} World' in Berlin. Eine Multifunktionsarena der 5. Generation. Die Klimaanlage wird zum Stimmungsmacher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krischausky, Lutz [Wolf GmbH, Mainburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The Anschutz Entertainment Group invested about 165 million Euros in their new multifunctional arena 'O{sub 2} World' in Berlin. The arena has 17,000 seats and is Germany's most state-of-the-art arena building. It can be converted over night into an ice arena, a basketball stadium, a concert hall, or an opera house as desired. The technical facilities are equipped with so-called set-ups that ensure that air conditioning systems follow a specific scenario for each type of event. (orig.)

  16. Germany, Europe and the Euro Crisis: Economy, State and Society in the Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    WORLD WAR II: FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY ....................37  A.  THE MORGENTHAU PLAN AND THE MARSHALL PLAN ...............39  B.  WEST GERMAN...London: Routledge, 1990), 176. 137 Hardach, The Political Economy of Germany in the Twentieth Century, 142. 39 A. THE MORGENTHAU PLAN AND THE...although attempts to do just that occurred through plans such as the Morgenthau Plan. The plan set the standard of living in Germany back to the

  17. The Right to Education: The Case of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufner, Klaus

    This paper investigates the extension of educational rights to girls, working class children, and the children of migrant workers in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The first section discusses the theoretical basis of affirmative action in West Germany, legal provisions for attaining equality in education, and basic features of the West…

  18. Working Women in Contemporary Germany. Roles, Attitudes, and a Handful of Success Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Susan

    1997-01-01

    In 1977, when women in West Germany (the Fedeal Republic of Germany) got the legal right to be employed outside the family against their husband's will, paragraph 1356 of the Civil Code, defining housework as the woman's duty, was abolished. Until then, heavy social pressure kept women close to home; in most cases, the choice of an outside…

  19. Zur Soziolinguistik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Sociolinguistics in the Federal Republic of Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachnow, Helmut

    1975-01-01

    Traces the history of sociolinguistic studies in West Germany from the early nineteenth century with Humboldt and reports on the state and purposes of sociolinguistic studies in present-day Federal Republic of Germany. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden (Text is in German.) (TL)

  20. Zur Soziolinguistik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Sociolinguistics in the Federal Republic of Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachnow, Helmut

    1975-01-01

    Traces the history of sociolinguistic studies in West Germany from the early nineteenth century with Humboldt and reports on the state and purposes of sociolinguistic studies in present-day Federal Republic of Germany. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden (Text is in German.) (TL)

  1. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  2. La primavera de Praga en el diario comunista Berliner Zeitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Martos Contreras

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo pretende analizar el tratamiento informativo dado por el diario comunista Berliner Zeitung a la llamada Primavera de Praga. El gobierno de la República Democrática Alemana fue uno de los más alarmista y crítico con las medidas reformista de Alexander Dubcek en Checoslovaquia. Temeroso de que las “medidas liberalizadoras” cruzaran la frontera utilizó todas sus armas, entre ellas los Medios de Comunicación, no sólo para acabar con las reformas, sino sobre todo mostrarles a sus ciudadanos lo peligrosas y erróneas que eran._____________________ABSTRACT:The following article pretends to analyze the treatment informative of the Spring of Prague, by the communist newspaper Berliner Zeitung. The government of the Democratic Republic German was one of the most critical with the democratic reforms of Alexander Dubcek in Czechoslovakia. The Central Committee was afraid of the democratic measure spreading out to his country. Because of this, it used all his power, between them the Mass Media, to finish with the reforms, and specially to show to germans citizens, how dangerous and erroneous they were.

  3. Martian Analogues Emissivity Spectra From the Berlin Emissivity Database (BED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to bodies in the solar system include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analog materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, and Martian analogue minerals, measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 microns as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from 0 to 250 microns. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker IFS 88), purged with dry air and equipped with a cooled detector (MCT). All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm-1. We present here the results of our analysis on well knew and characterized Martian analogue minerals: JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, and Palagonite from Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We are currently working to upgrade our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80v) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 microns, even in a vacuum environment.

  4. 20 Years of engagement for renewable resources in Germany. 20 Years FNR; 20 Jahre Einsatz fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe in Deutschland. 20 Jahre FNR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-01

    The Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) presents an survey on the thematically widespread field of 'Renewable resources in Germany'. The main part of this magazine includes a specialist article of a guest author as well as a report to the main sub-themes: bio-energy, material use, and some superior aspects. The last part of this magazine is devoted to the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. and its history of origin, its structure and tasks in the course of time. A survey by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) completes this topic.

  5. Teacher Union Blitz in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Expansion of the powerful former West German teacher union (the Trade Union for Educators and Scholars) into the former East Germany is chronicled, and potential problems of the recruitment effort are examined. Declining teacher morale and unfulfilled promises of opportunity and freedom of speech are seen as serious threats to positive change.…

  6. Children's School Placement in Germany: Does Kindergarten Attendance Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Buchel, Felix; Wagner, Gert G.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between kindergarten attendance and seventh-grade school placement of children in West Germany, differentiating associations for children of citizens from those of immigrants' children. Found a significant relationship between kindergarten attendance and later school placement for children in immigrant households but not…

  7. Germany in Europe, 1945-92: A Historical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, David Clay

    1993-01-01

    Presents a historical review of German relations with European nations from the end of World War II until 1992. Claims that Chancellor Willy Brandt's efforts to improve East-West relations set the stage for German reunification. Contends that Germany's role in a united Europe has yet to be determined. (CFR)

  8. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  9. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  10. EMI in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  11. Social science studies accompanying the two Berlin research projects for energy-oriented modernisation of domestic buildings; Sozialwissenschaftliche Begleitung der beiden Berliner Forschungsvorhaben zur energiegerechten Sanierung von Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerth, H. [Weeber und Partner, Inst. fuer Stadtplanung und Sozialforschung, Berlin/Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The initial and environment situations of the two apartment buildings in central Berlin and at Berlin-Marzahn are described including the structure of households. The procedure adopted in this social science project is also dealt with: participation and information of residents. The results of the survey among residents concerning satisfaction with redevelopment, thermal comfort prior to and after redevelopment, heating habits, and experience with automatic heating control are reported. (MSK) [Deutsch] Im Folgenden wird die Ausgangs-und Umgebungssituation der beiden Wohnhaeuser in Berlin-Mitte und Berlin-Marzahn geschildert. Dabei wird Auskunft ueber die Struktur der Haushalte gegeben. Ebenso wird die Vorgehensweise des sozialwissenschaftlichen Projekts beschrieben: Bewohnerbeteiligung und -information. Die Ergebnisse der Bewohnerbefragungen zu Zufriedenheit mit der Sanierung, zum Waermeempfinden vor und nach der Sanierung, zu Gewohnheiten in der Heizperiode, sowie zum Umgang mit der Heizungsregelungstechnik werden dargelegt.

  12. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  13. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  14. Discourse, Ideology and Violence Between Young People of Different Nationalities in Germany During the Unification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arim Soares do Bem

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The thematic focus of this paper is the process of constitution of identity between East and West German youth and young people of foreign origin who were born in Berlin before, during and after the unification. Interviews achieved between 1989 and 1994 were made to analyze the cultural processes of inclusion and exclusion, beyond experiences, dynamics and discursive practices during the moment of the “asylum debate”.

  15. Berlin-Hamburg maglev train, an integral element of the Deutsche Bahn AG high-speed network; Die Magnetschnellbahn Berlin-Hamburg als integraler Bestandteil des Hochgeschwindigkeitsnetzes der Deutschen Bahn AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fechner, H. [Magnetschnellbahn-Planungsgesellschaft mbH, Schwerin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Berlin will soon be a turntable of traffic in Europa and a gateway to Eastern Europe. The Deutsche Bahn AG high-speed network is an important element. In September 1998, the Berlin-Hanover ICE connection was finished; the Berlin-Hamburg maglev connection will follow by 2005. Berlin will be the linking point of the two systems. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bereits in wenigen Jahren wird Berlin europaeische Verkehrsdrehscheibe und Tor zu Osteuropa sein. Eine Voraussetzung dafuer ist die Anbindung an das Hochgeschwindigkeitsstreckennetz der Deutschen Bahn. Ein wichtiger Schritt dahin ist die Inbetriebnahme der ICE-Verbindung Berlin - Hannover im September 1998; ein folgender wird die Magnetschnellbahnverbindung Berlin - Hamburg im Jahr 2005 sein. Im Hochgeschwindigkeitskonzept der Deutschen Bahn AG wird Berlin die Schnittstelle zwischen Rad/Schiene- und Magnetschwebetechnik bilden und die Verknuepfung der beiden Systeme erstmals demonstrieren. (orig.)

  16. 柏林——历史的见证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越

    2006-01-01

    Berlin is the capital of Germany.It is famousfor its beautiful scenes and complex history.In1948,Berlin was divided into2two parts:East Berlin and West Berlin.The Communist3government of the east built100miles BerlinWall in1961.On October3,1990,the east andthe west got unified4again.The Berlin Wall waspulled down.A few sections of the wall were leftto remind the28-year division of the city.There are many museums in Berlin.TheCheckpoint Charlie Museum is one of the mostvisited museums.There are a lot of pict...

  17. Dynamics of Sub-urbanisation - The Growing Periphery of the Metropolis. Berlin 1890 - 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Reif (Heinz)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhat controls the secular process of sub-urbanisation of Berlin to garden and satellite cities and what were the effects? Through the massive retreat of its wealthy and academic bourgeoisie from the centre, Berlin became a bipolar city. On this side of the "railway ring", stood the "ston

  18. Los conceptos de libertad negativa y de pluralismo en el liberalismo de Isaiah Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Abril Martínez, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Se trata de una tesis doctoral donde se pretende evaluar la importancia de los conceptos de libertad negativa y de pluralismo en el liberalismo defendido por Isaiah Berlin. Asimismo se trata de trazar ciertos paralelismos entre dicho liberalismo de Isaiah Berlin y el pragmatismo de Richard Rorty.

  19. Dynamics of Sub-urbanisation - The Growing Periphery of the Metropolis. Berlin 1890 - 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Reif (Heinz)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhat controls the secular process of sub-urbanisation of Berlin to garden and satellite cities and what were the effects? Through the massive retreat of its wealthy and academic bourgeoisie from the centre, Berlin became a bipolar city. On this side of the "railway ring", stood the

  20. Individuality and modernity in Berlin: self and society from Weimar to the Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Föllmer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Moritz Föllmer traces the history of individuality in Berlin from the late 1920s to the construction of the Berlin Wall in August 1961. The demand to be recognised as an individual was central to metropolitan society, as were the spectres of risk, isolation and loss of agency. This was true under al

  1. Sports behaviour among HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals in a Berlin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L; Hechler, D; Jessen, A B; Neumann, K; Jessen, H; Beneke, R

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity has been recommended based on beneficial effects described in HIV-infected patients. However, such guidelines do not take into account actual sport behaviours and general attitudes towards physical activity. To evaluate actual sport activity and attitudes towards sport in HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals we conducted an anonymous questionnaire investigating the prevalence, as well as possible changes, in sports engagement and the overall attitude to physical activity. A total of 283 patients of a general care facility specialized in the treatment of HIV/AIDS in Berlin, Germany, participated; 124 were HIV infected and 159 were non-infected, mostly men who have sex with men (MSM) (88%), with a median age of 35 years. The HIV-infected participants had a median CD4+ count of 554 cells/µL and 48.8% of them were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of survey. The proportion of patients actually performing physical activity was significantly lower (P = 0.028) within the HIV-infected group (61.3%) than within the non-infected group (74.2%). This difference remained significant after accounting for possible confounders such as age, gender, injecting drug use and sexual preferences. Previously reported sport activity prevalence was similar in both groups on leaving school. From our data we could not identify an association between the time of HIV diagnosis and changes in sports activity. In conclusion, fewer HIV-infected individuals report physical activity than non-infected individuals. Sociodemographic studies to evaluate potential differences in sports behaviour are required in order to inform exercise guidelines for HIV-infected patients.

  2. Environmental awareness in Germany 2010. Results of a representative population survey; Umweltbewusstsein in Deutschland 2010. Ergebnisse einer repraesentativen Bevoelkerungsumfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, Silke; Christ, Tamina [Sinus-Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Reusswig, Fritz [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    In the background paper under consideration, the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the results of a representative population survey on the environmental awareness in Germany. The topics of this paper are: (a) Environmental policy as a organisational task; (b) Environmental quality, health and risk perception; (c) Climatic change as a cultural change?; (d) Technological and cultural innovations; (e) Environment engagement between personal responsibility and delegation; (f) Milieu-specific potentials for environmentally sensitive consumer behaviour.

  3. Berlin air for the Chancellor. The Berlin Bundeskanzleramt building: High precision in building construction; Berliner Luft fuer den Kanzler. Leitidee Bundeskanzleramt: Praezision in der bautechnischen Ausfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellhorn, M. [Fachpresseagentur Kommunikations-Management Schellhorn, Haltern am See (Germany); Fachpresseagentur Kommunikations-Management Schellhorn, Herne (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    The architectural design of the new government seat in Berlin was a Europe-wide competition of experts, with more than 100 decision makers working together in 1994. Although less obvious, the technical facilities have the same high standard. The contractors, Ingenieurgesellschaft Schmidt Reuter und Partner of Cologne, used only state-of-the-art materials and technologies. Energy consumption is optimised by a cogeneration system fuelled with bio-diesel and roof-mounted PV system, while the ventilation system ensures high-efficiency heat recovery. [German] Die Gestaltung des neuen Regierungssitzes wurde zu einem Europa-umspannenden Mammut-Wettbewerb. Ueber 100 Personen waren 1994 an der Entscheidungsfindung beteiligt. Etwas stiller in der Oeffentlichkeit aber mit genauso hohen Anspruechen wurde ein Konzept fuer die Anlagentechnik entwickelt. Entsprechend der Vorgabe des Leitbildes wurden in der Ausfuehrungsplanung durch die Ingenieurgesellschaft Schmidt Reuter und Partner aus Koeln nur zukunftsweisende Materialien und Technologien verwendet. Vorbildliche Ansaetze im Hinblick auf die Optimierung des Energieverbrauchs stellen das mit Biodiesel betriebene Blockheizkraftwerk und die grossflaechige Photovoltaikanlage auf den Daechern der Verwaltungsfluegel dar. Einen erheblichen Beitrag zur umweltgerechten Energiebilanz der gesamtenAnlage liefert auch die Klimatechnik durch den Einsatz von Zentrallueftungsgeraeten mit hoch effizienter Waermerueckgewinnung. (orig.)

  4. A DYSTOPIAN VIEW OF BERLIN IN 2039: THE DYSTOPIAN REFLECTIONS IN THE WORK WIR WAREN HIER BY NANA RADEMACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge ARSLAN KARABULUT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to introduce Nana Rademacher, one of the contemporary female science fiction writers in Germany, and to study her work Wir Waren Hier (We Were Here, 2016 which has been seen as an anti-utopian fiction by different critics. In this study, the focus is on anti-utopia which has become a popular literary genre as a result of social, economic and political disappointment experienced in the 20th and 21st centuries. The protagonist, fifteen-year-old Anna, lives in a devastated Berlin which lies in ruins following several years of inter-state conflict which has now been under the hegemony of civil war and military rule. Self-preservation and lawlessness has become the order of the day. Anna’s perspective on her broken world is passionate, strange, harsh and desperate, but also full of hope. This is the story of a girl searching for a way forward in spite of all the obstacles, and who is fighting for life, love and freedom. The struggle for existence/survival in an authoritarian-totalitarian system, as an important characteristic of an anti-utopian society, is one of the basic topics which is fictionalized by Rademacher and narrated by Anna within the work. Extremities, hopelessness, violence, war and the end of the mankind as a result of technology take place in this work. This study aims to determine whether and to what extent the work of Rademacher occurs as an anti-utopian book and how it makes Berlin a part of anti-utopian world.

  5. Trasplante cardiaco con éxito tras asistencia biventricular tipo Berlin-Heart EXCOR en pacientes adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Díez-Villanueva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las asistencias ventriculares son dispositivos mecánicos de asistencia circulatoria capaces de generar un flujo sanguíneo que permite apoyar o sustituir la función cardíaca en situaciones de insuficiencia cardiaca terminal y refractaria. El uso de estos dispositivos como puente al trasplante es cada vez mayor en nuestro país. La asistencia ventricular tipo Berlin-Heart EXCOR (Berlin−Heart AG, Berlin, Germany es un dispositivo de asistencia pulsátil que se utiliza principalmente como puente al trasplante cardiaco cuando se requiere asistencia biventricular en pacientes adultos, en presencia de disfunción ventricular derecha importante. La experiencia con estos pacientes en nuestro país, dada su complejidad y frecuentes complicaciones, ha sido malos hasta la fecha. Presentamos los tres primeros casos de pacientes adultos trasplantados con éxito en España tras el implante de una asistencia biventricular de media duración tipo Berlin−Heart EXCOR. Los tres pacientes eran varones, con edad media de 65 años, y el tiempo medio de asistencia fue de 150 días. El implante de este tipo de asistencia permitió estabilizar la situación hemodinámica del primero de los pacientes (previamente en soporte con ECMO veno-arterial en situación de shock cardiogénico refractario y normalizar las resistencias vasculares pulmonares de los otros dos (hipertensión pulmonar severa previa al implante que contraindicaba el trasplante cardiaco permitiendo realizar el trasplante con éxito.

  6. Martin Luther in Primetime. Television Fiction and Cultural Memory Construction in Cold War Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    abstractIn 1983, both East and West Germany celebrated Martin Luther’s 500th birthday with great fanfare.  Nowhere was this competition more provocative and visually arresting, however, than in two multi-part television plays which depicted Luther’s life: the West German Martin Luther, broadcast by

  7. Music and politics after the Holocaust: Menuhin’s Berlin concerts of 1947 and their aftermath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frühauf, Tina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Between September 27 and October 3, 1947, Yehudi Menuhin gave six performances in Berlin, two of them together with Wilhelm Furtwängler, who had just been cleared by the denazification tribunals in Austria and Germany. Because of the German audience and the Furtwängler collaboration, these concerts led to a scandal in the Jewish community and the Displaced Persons camp in Germany as well as Jewish communities abroad. I turn first to the historical background of these performances, specifically the position of Menuhin and Furtwängler toward each other and their roles in postwar Germany. I will then chronicle the events of September and October 1947 through the lenses of Abraham S. Hyman, legal consultant to the American Advisers on Jewish Affairs in Germany, and Yehudi Menuhin and his biographers, to reveal the complexity of the events. Lastly, I will scrutinize the reception of the concerts to shed light on the reasons for and impact of the scandal. I argue that these concerts were mishandled in their organization and aims, in that politics played too large a role in the events during a time when the Jewish people suffered severe trauma in the aftermath of the Holocaust.

    Entre el 27 de septiembre y el 3 de octubre del 1947, Yehudi Menuhin ofreció seis conciertos en Berlín, dos de ellos con Wilhelm Furtwängler, quien acababa de ser declarado inocente por los tribunales de “desnazificación” en Austria y Alemania. Debido a que el público era alemán y a la participación de Furtwängler, estos conciertos provocaron un fuerte escándalo entre la comunidad judía y la población desplazada de los campos en Alemania, así como entre las comunidades judías en el extranjero. Mi investigación se centra, primero, en el contexto histórico de estos conciertos y, concretamente, la posición de Menuhin y Furtwängler hacia el uno al otro, así como sus respectivos papeles en la Alemania de la postguerra. Posteriormente ofrezco una relaci

  8. Measurements of organic acids over central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. R.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    During three flights over central western Germany, air samples were taken for determination of organic acids. In air masses rapidly adverting from the west, between 0.15 and 3 km altitude mixing ratios of 0.17±0.06 ppbv formic acid and 0.72±0.08 ppbv acetic acid were found. In a local high pressure system mixing ratios increased up to 2.76 ppbv for formic acid and 2.20 ppbv for acetic acid.

  9. Gender, culture, and architecture in Ahmedabad and Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakad, K

    2000-01-01

    Spatial and social processes are inextricably linked. Hence gender relations as an inherent part of social relations get built into the spatial forms of any society. Spatial segregation by sex was a mark of traditional societies. This has diminished somewhat in contemporary societies due to various factors, perhaps the most important being the entry of women into the public sphere and their participation in income-earning activities. This paper looks at traditional, modern and postmodern housing in two cities--Ahmedabad and Berlin--through the lens of gender and culture. While there have been changes in housing over time, these changes have not been in proportion with the changes in gender relations in society which, in turn, have not kept pace with the way women's needs and priorities have changed. Housing must necessarily reflect the current needs of a society, and that entails reflecting the needs of both women and men equally.

  10. [Nematode infections of the respiratory tract in dogs in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutzki, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the risk of lungworm infection may have increased in dogs in Germany in recent years. Analysis of the fecal examination of dogs has shown that Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus are endemic in Germany. Infections with A. vasorum were diagnosed in 223 of the examined dogs. A total of 102 A. vasorum-positive dogs were located in Baden-Wuerttemberg, 65 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 27 in Saarland, 15 in Bavaria, 7 in Rhineland-Palatinate, 5 in Hessen and 2 in Brandenburg. A total of 170 dogs were infected with C. vulpis, 54 of which came from North Rhine-Westphalia, 40 from Baden-Wuerttemberg, 30 from Bavaria, 17 from Rhineland-Palatinate, 17 from Saarland, 9 from Hessen and 1 each from Lower Saxony, Berlin and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Infections with E. aerophilus were detected in 83 dogs, of which 23 lived in Baden-Wuerttemberg, 20 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 17 in Bavaria, 11 in Rhineland-Palatinate, 7 in Hessen, 4 in Saarland and 1 in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Lungworm infections in dogs appear to be well established in Germany. The aim of the study presented was to assess the main facts, occurrence, geographical distribution, clinical signs, diagnosis and therapy of lungworm infections in dogs.

  11. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945.

  12. Geological characterization of deep reservoir and barrier horizons in Germany. Storage Catalogue of Germany; Geologische Charakterisierung tiefliegender Speicher- und Barrierehorizonte in Deutschland. Speicher-Kataster Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christian [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Berlin (Germany); Reinhold, Klaus (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within the series of publication under consideration of the German Society for Geosciences e.V. (Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions are presented: (1) Storage potential of the deeper subsurface - Overview and results from the project Storage Catalogue of Germany (K. Reinhold); (2) Information system on geological reservoir and barrier rock units (Storage Catalogue of Germany) (C. Riesenberg); (3) Distribution and properties of Mesozoic sandstones and barrier rocks in Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg- Basic information on possible energetic utilisation of the deeper subsurface (H. Kaufhold); (4) Geological characterization of potential reservoir and barrier rock units in Mecklenburg - Western Pomerania (J. Brandes); (5)Reservoir and barrier rocks in the deep underground of Brandenburg and Berlin (A. Bebiolka); (6) Deep aquifers in Saxony-Anhalt and their potential for the underground storage (K. Reinhold); (7) Distribution and characterization of deep reservoir and barrier horizons in Lower Saxony and Bremen (S. Knopf); (8) Geological characterization of reservoir and barrier rocks in North Rhine-Westphalia (M. Doelling); (9) CO{sub 2} storage potential in deep saline aquifers in the state of Hesse, Germany (A. Koett); (10) Geological characterization of reservoir and barrier rocks in the deeper subsurface of the Free State of Thuringia (Germany) (H. Huckriede); (11) Storage potential in the deeper subsurface of Saarland and Rhineland-Palatina (J. Haneke); (12) Storage potential in the deeper subsurface of Saarland and Baden-Wuerttemberg (C. Fehn); (13) Deep reservoir and barrier rock units in Bavaria - an overview (G.W. Diepolder).

  13. PM measurement campaign HOVERT in the Greater Berlin area: model evaluation with chemically specified particulate matter observations for a one year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beekmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The HOVERT (HOrizontal and VERtical Transport of ozone and particulate matter campaign held in the Berlin Brandenburg area in Eastern Germany from September 2001 to September 2002 allowed to collect a unique data set of the aerosol chemical speciation (daily averages at traffic, urban and rural sites. These observations are used for a thorough evaluation of the aerosol part in the REM-CALGRID model (RCG developed at the Free University of Berlin (FUB. For inorganic ions (sulphate, nitrate and ammonium, simulated annual averages agree to observations within ±30% at more than half of the sites and always within a factor of two. Correlation coefficients are larger than in previous studies for SO42− and NH4+ (>0.7. For nitrate, less elevated correlations, 0.4–0.7 in the cold season, 0.2–0.4 in the warm season, are encountered. To our knowledge, this is one of the first comparisons of air quality model simulated elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC with daily observations for a whole year. It suggests an overestimation of EC and OC emissions in the Berlin area (through a scaling techniques between EC, OC and NOx and when assuming correct NOx emissions, and an underestimation of EC and OC at rural sites. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation, recently introduced into the model (SORGAM module, Schell et al., 2001, is simulated as a very variable process, SOA levels varying from close to zero for most days to more than 5 μg/m3. Correlation between simulated SOA to observed OC is about 0.6, indicating that simulated variability partly corresponds to reality.

  14. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dathe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  15. To Save a City: The Berlin Airlift, 1948-1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    minute inter- vals was about as musical to them as acid rock to the ears of a connoisseur of Mozart . Indeed, it appeared to some of Marshal Sokolovsky’s...Soviet success or a Soviet-spon- sored future.18 Stalin’s policy had another unintended, but important effect . The tremen- dous destruction during the...would work effectively to prevent a united Germany dominated by the Soviet Union. "It would regard such an eventuality as the greatest threat to

  16. [The Current State of Intercultural Opening in Psychosocial Services--The Results of an Assessment in an Inner-City District of Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, Simone; Faißt, Hanna; Vardar, Azra; Borde, Theda; Mösko, Mike Oliver; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Koch, Uwe; Kluge, Ulrike; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The need for intercultural opening of supply facilities for improving access and treatment of people with migration background is acknowledged in Germany. The purpose of the survey was to determine the current state of intercultural opening of psychosocial services in one Berlin district. 127 representatives of institutions were interviewed using a semi-structured assessment tool. The response rate was very high. The cross-cultural opening was implemented on a small scale. Staff as well as users with migration background were underrepresented. Varying and missing standardized documentation as well as problems in assessing users with migration background might be responsible for their low utilization rates. The use of professional interpreters was often not implemented. To judge the low level of implementation of cross-cultural opening in the psychosocial supply system in general, a review of responsible causes is required. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner conforming to the morphological and biochemical..., prior to the addition of other materials, shall be tested by subcutaneous injection of at least 1...

  18. The Berlin tradition in Chicago: Franz Alexander and the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Erika S

    2010-01-01

    Freud considered Franz Alexander, the first graduate of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute and an assistant in the Berlin Polyclinic, to be "one of our strongest hopes for the future." Alexander went on to become the first director of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis in 1932 and modeled some of the Chicago Institute's mission on his Berlin experiences. He was also a researcher in psychosomatic medicine, a prolific writer about psychoanalysis and prominent in psychoanalytic organizations. As he proposed modifications in psychoanalytic technique, he became a controversial figure, especially in the elaboration of his ideas about brief therapy and the corrective emotional experience. This paper puts Alexander's achievements in historical context, draws connections between the Berlin and Chicago Institutes and suggests that, despite his quarrels with traditional psychoanalysis, Alexander's legacy may be in his attitude towards psychoanalysis, characterized by a commitment to scientific study, a willingness to experiment, and a conviction about the role of psychoanalysis within the larger culture.

  19. Bier macht uns zu Freunden! -- Berliner Bierfestival 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继烈

    2011-01-01

    “Bier macht uns zu Freunden!”让我们啤酒会友。这是2010年德国柏林啤酒节(Berlin2010“TagsdesBieres”)的标致性口号。德国2010年啤酒总销量为九千八百三十万百升(Hektoliter)。说到德国啤酒节,国人必想到慕尼黑啤酒节(OKTOBERFEST in Munchen.)德国人称其十月节。每年九月末到十月初在德国的慕尼黑举行,是慕尼黑传统民间节日。节日期间主要饮料是啤酒,啤酒消耗高达六百万公升。世界上再也找不到比德国人更热爱啤酒的民族了!这也许就是中国人习惯称慕尼黑十月节为啤酒节的缘故吧。

  20. BERLinPro Booster Cavity Design, Fabrication and Test Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrill, Andrew [HZB; Anders, W [HZB; Frahm, A. [HZB; Knobloch, Jens [HZB; Neumann, Axel [HZB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Turlington, Larry D. [JLAB

    2014-12-01

    The bERLinPro project, a 100 mA, 50 MeV superconducting RF (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is under construction at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for the purpose of studying the technical challenges and physics of operating a high current, c.w., 1.3 GHz ERL. This machine will utilize three unique SRF cryomodules for the injector, booster and linac module respectively. The booster cryomodule will contain three 2-cell SRF cavities, based on the original design by Cornell University, and will be equipped with twin 115 kW RF power couplers in order to provide the appropriate acceleration to the high current electron beam. This paper will review the status of the fabrication of the 4 booster cavities that have been built for this project by Jefferson Laboratory and look at the challenges presented by the incorporation of fundamental power couplers capable of delivering 115 kW. The test plan for the cavities and couplers will be given along with a brief overview of the cryomodule design.

  1. Climate to measure. Facility management for Universal Music at Berlin; Klima nach Mass. TGA-Planung fuer Universal Music in Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLead, E.A.

    2002-07-01

    Designing and constructing the technical facilities for a historical building like the 'Spreespeicher' in Berlin is a difficult but interesting task. The building is owned by Universal Music. Each department has its own office structure, and all offices and structures were integrated in a functional overall concept by the planners of Happold Ingenieure. [German] Klima, Lueftung und Elektroinstallation fuer ein historisches Gebaeude wie den Berliner Spreespeicher zu entwickeln, ist eine schwierige, aber reizvolle Aufgabe. Besonders, wenn der Nutzer Universal Music heisst: Jede Abteilung besitzt ihre eigene Buerostruktur, und alle mussten die TGA-Planer von Happold Ingenieure in ein funktionierendes Gesamtkonzept integrieren. (orig.)

  2. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Wartime Military Burns: Application of the Berlin Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome in wartime military burns: Application of the Berlin criteria Slava M. Belenkiy, MD, Allison R. Buel, DO, Jeremy...Andriy I. Batchinsky, MD, Leopoldo C. Cancio, MD, and Kevin K. Chung, MD, San Antonio, Texas BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS...EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III. KEY WORDS: Mechanical ventilation; adult respiratory distress syndrome ; the Berlin definition; combat

  3. NATO, From Berlin to Bosnia. Trans-Atlantic Security in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    since the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989-described at the time by a NATO officer as "the bonfire of the certainties" events in Europe have...of the Berlin Wall through the first use of NATO forces in combat in Bosnia in 1994, NATO has found itself in a race to keep up with these dramatic changes in the trans-Atlantic security environment.

  4. Berlin is not a foreign country, stupid!'—Growing up ‘global’ in Eastern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Hörschelmann; Nadine Schäfer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how young East Germans come to be differentially placed in global network space through their socioeconomically and culturally specific engagements with globalised mediascapes and ethnoscapes. We call for greater awareness of the power differentials which shape globalisation, and draw on the theoretical work of Pierre Bourdieu to show how unequal access to social and cultural capital influences and is reflected in the ‘glocal’ connections through which young people de...

  5. Designing a knowledge co-production operating space for urban environmental governance lessons from Rotterdam, Netherlands and Berlin, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Frantzeskaki (Niki); N. Kabisch (Nadja)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChallenges for a sustainable urban development are increasingly important in cities because urbanization and related land take come up with negative challenges for the environment and for city residents. Searching for successful solutions to environmental problems requires combined

  6. Designing a knowledge co-production operating space for urban environmental governance lessons from Rotterdam, Netherlands and Berlin, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Frantzeskaki (Niki); N. Kabisch (Nadja)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChallenges for a sustainable urban development are increasingly important in cities because urbanization and related land take come up with negative challenges for the environment and for city residents. Searching for successful solutions to environmental problems requires combined effor

  7. Determinants and Outcomes of Marketing Capabilities in New Technology Based Firms in Berlin, Germany: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Unternehmen sehen sich heute verstärkt mit immer schwierigeren Rahmenbedingungen konfrontiert. Verschwimmende Unternehmens- und Industriegrenzen, wachsende Unsicherheit und abnehmende Planbarkeit haben ein turbulentes Umfeld geschaffen, welches durch Veränderung, Komplexität, Chaos und Widersprüchlichkeit charakterisiert ist (Hitt und Reed 2000). Durch sich ständig verschiebende und überlappende Märkte treten Unternehmen gleichzeitig als Wettbewerber, Kunden und Kollaborateure auf. Bestehende...

  8. Aspects of decision support in water management--example Berlin and Potsdam (Germany) II--improvement of management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ute; Brüggemann, Rainer; Pudenz, Stefan

    2004-11-01

    Methods related to partial order theory such as the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) are increasingly used in the field of multi-criteria decision support. The HDT has the advantage of being a transparent evaluation tool, supported by several data analysis tools such as the concept of antagonistic indicators. However, the evaluation usually does not lead to a clear decision, because more than one possible solution is offered. In the example presented here, three of the nine water management strategies (scenarios) evaluated by HDT were identified as winners. However, these strategies were not comparable with each other because of the conflicting evaluation of at least two different indicators. Such antagonisms describe the advantage and disadvantage of each scenario. Based on this background information, a new innovative approach is demonstrated, enabling the stakeholders to design new, modified management strategies, with reduced negative effects. After improvement of the three potential solutions, one clear winner scenario could be identified.

  9. Frequent combination of antimicrobial multiresistance and extraintestinal pathogenicity in Escherichia coli isolates from urban rats (Rattus norvegicus in Berlin, Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Guenther

    Full Text Available Urban rats present a global public health concern as they are considered a reservoir and vector of zoonotic pathogens, including Escherichia coli. In view of the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and the on-going discussion about environmental reservoirs, we intended to analyse whether urban rats might be a potential source of putatively zoonotic E. coli combining resistance and virulence. For that, we took fecal samples from 87 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus and tested at least three E. coli colonies from each animal. Thirty two of these E. coli strains were pre-selected from a total of 211 non-duplicate isolates based on their phenotypic resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes, thus fulfilling the definition of multiresistance. As determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, these 32 strains belonged to 24 different sequence types (STs, indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. We identified STs, which frequently occur among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC, such as STs 95, 131, 70, 428, and 127. Also, the detection of a number of typical virulence genes confirmed that the rats tested carried ExPEC-like strains. In particular, the finding of an Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing strain which belongs to a highly virulent, so far mainly human- and avian-restricted ExPEC lineage (ST95, which expresses a serogroup linked with invasive strains (O18:NM:K1, and finally, which produces an ESBL-type frequently identified among human strains (CTX-M-9, pointed towards the important role, urban rats might play in the transmission of multiresistant and virulent E. coli strains. Indeed, using a chicken infection model, this strain showed a high in vivo pathogenicity. Imagining the high numbers of urban rats living worldwide, the way to the transmission of putatively zoonotic, multiresistant, and virulent strains might not be far ahead. The unforeseeable consequences of such an emerging public health threat need careful consideration in the future.

  10. Germany at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  11. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany.

  12. An explorative cross-sectional study examining self-reported health and nutritional status of disadvantaged people using food banks in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Depa, Julia; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Tinnemann, Peter; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Background Even in high-income countries some population groups depend on food banks to support their food intake. We aimed to explore and compare health and nutritional status of food bank clients (Tafel e.V.) in different cities in Germany. Methods In a cross-sectional study, self-reported health and nutritional status of food bank clients living in three cities (Berlin - capital, Ludwigsburg- affluent city, Fulda - small town) which differ in size, available income and poverty rate, were a...

  13. A comparative study on family environment, self-concept and school performances of Turkish, German and foreign students living in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Somcelik-Köksal, Aysegül

    2008-01-01

    There are 1.998.534 Turkish people living in Germany (Beauftragte der Bundesregierung für Ausländerfrage, 2002). According to Educational Department of Turkish Embassy in Berlin (2001), it is indicated that 517 552 Turkish students are attending to preschools, elementary schools, special education schools, and vocational schools. The most common problems of Turkish children, living as an immigrant, are feeling of insecurity, shyness, sociability, need for affection and feeling of loneliness ...

  14. Female suicides in Berlin with the use of firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, A; Strauch, H; Rothschild, M A

    2001-12-27

    The Statistical Office of Berlin recorded a total of 5488 suicides within the 10-year period 1990-1999 (3550 males, 1938 females). Firearms were used in 238 cases (218 males, 20 females). An autopsy was performed in 19 of the 20 female cases. The women's ages ranged from 21 to 88 years. Their marital status was single (n=6), married (n=5), divorced (n=5) and widowed (n=3). Eight of the women had one or more children. A suicide note was found in eight cases; six women had a history of psychiatric illness, and six had previously attempted suicide. Predominant among the suicide motives were mental (n=5) and organic (n=4) disorders as well as relationship problems (n=3) and financial difficulties (n=2). Most of the women (n=16) committed suicide in their own apartment, mainly in the bedroom. The weapons used were pistol (n=10), revolver (n=6), rifle (n=2) and a blank cartridge gun (n=1). In 16 cases we found a contact discharge at point blank range. Six of the dead women were found with the weapon still in their hands. The site of bullet-entry was the right temple (n=11), high-parietal (n=2), mouth (n=3), neck (n=1), and chest (n=2). A comparison of our results with the data of other authors for male or predominantly male collectives did not indicate any sex-specific differences regarding the type of weapon, location of the entry wound or the scene. However, alcohol was detected at a lower frequency compared with male gunshot suicides.

  15. Berlin Heart EXCOR use in patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, David L S; Zafar, Farhan; Almond, Christopher S; Canter, Charles; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Conway, Jennifer; Adachi, Iki; Lorts, Angela

    2017-02-08

    Management of mechanical circulatory support in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) is challenging due to physiologic variations and anatomic limitations to device placement. In this study we examine the use of Berlin Heart EXCOR in CHD patients. CHD patients were identified from the EXCOR Pediatric Study data set (2007 to 2010). Mortality and serious adverse events were compared between CHD and non-CHD cohorts, and predictors of poor outcomes in the CHD cohort were identified. CHD was present in 29% (n = 59, 18 with 1-ventricle physiology) of all EXCOR patients (N = 204). Successful bridge (transplant or wean) was less likely in CHD patients compared with non-CHD patients (48% vs 80%; p 1 year) were successfully bridged. Pre-implant congenital heart surgery (CHS) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on the same admission occurred in 60% of children ≤1 year of age (83% of neonates, 50% of infants), with 8% survival. Regardless of age, patients who did not have CHS and ECMO had 61% survival. Smaller pump, pre-implant bilirubin >1.2 mg/dl and renal dysfunction were independently associated with mortality. End-organ function at implant reliably predicts adverse outcomes and should be considered when making implant decisions. EXCOR use in neonates and infants with CHD should be approached cautiously. If patients have undergone pre-implant CHS and ECMO, EXCOR support may not provide any survival benefit. EXCOR support in non-infants with CHD is challenging but can be consistently successful with appropriate patient selection. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD.

  17. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  18. Baumholder, Germany (West), Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-09

    precipitatiou, falling to the ground, not freezing. Freezing rain and/or freez4 ’!_Gdrizzle ( glaze ) - Precipitation falling in liquid form, but freezing...HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 1-l9c SAU𔃾HOLDER DL CF__________________ *flTW Stat. MAS nsa nUT ALL WEATHER CLALOG anN-i I-.0-k SPEED Ml1~7 1 7~ sAEAN (KNtS) 1.3 7

  19. Economic Assimilation and Outmigration of Immigrants in West-Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.

    2003-01-01

    By analyzing earnings of observed immigrants workers, the literature on the economic assimilation of immigrants has generally overlooked two potentially important selectivity issues.First, earnings of immigrant workers may di¿er substantially from those of non-workers.Second, earnings of immigrants

  20. France, West Germany, and the Security of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    after World War II, the most important oil area in the world—Saudi Arabia. When, in 1946-47, Socal and Texaco proceeded to organize ARAMCO (Arabian...23.6 358 12.0 OAPSC 2068 76.3 19 56 70.8 1578 71.9 1207 40.6 Ecuador negl. negl. Gabon 48 1.8 29 1.0 26 1.1 18 Indonesia negl . 2 negl. 9 Iran 216 8 140

  1. Absence as Presence, Presence as Absence: Museological Storytelling in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Parker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a long history of objects’ use in “telling stories,” and speculates on how museums and other art forms might encourage “narrations” while leaving story-telling to visitors or viewers. David Chipperfield’s 2009 “restoration” of Berlin’s Neues Museum made great efforts to preserve traces not only of the objects displayed inside, but to present an open-ended “narrative” of the building’s own history. Attempts at making historical sites “tell” stories have, meanwhile, also extended into other visual arts in Germany, of which the article examines several, discussing them in relation with the concept of “postmemory” and national narratives of identity.

  2. Kulturelle und strukturelle Faktoren bei der Rückkehr in den Beruf: ostdeutsche, westdeutsche und ost-west-mobile Mütter im Vergleich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunow, D.; Müller, D.; Huinink, J.; Kreyenfeld, M.; Trappe, H.

    2012-01-01

    Transition back to work: Comparing mothers in Eastern Germany, Western Germany, and East-West mobile mothers. We assess the relative impact of cultural norms and structural conditions on employment interruption patterns of new mothers in reunified Germany, 1992-2009. During this time, Eastern and We

  3. [The historiography of medicine in postwar Germany: a self-examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the history of medical historiography in postwar Germany. The two decades after 1945 were crucial for the further development of the historiography of medicine in both parts of Germany. Among the issues that need to be investigated in more detail are the coming to terms with the Nazi past, the ideological rivalry between East and West Germany, and the role of individual scientists. The paper invites medical historians to become more deeply engaged with the recent history of their field.

  4. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  5. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  6. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  7. First-time home-ownership in the family life course: a West German - Dutch comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Wagner, M.

    1998-01-01

    The transition to first-time home-ownership is made at increasingly younger ages inboth West Germany and the Netherlands. This trend is stronger in the Netherlands than inGermany, however. There are also marked differences between the two countries in the extentto which first-time home-ownership is

  8. Zweiwegintegration durch zweisprachige Bildung? Ergebnisse aus der Staatlichen Europa-Schule Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Gabriela

    2012-06-01

    While there is no simple recipe of how to respond to the multitude of languages present in many European schools, this article presents a promising alternative to monolingual education. The focus is on Staatliche Europa-Schule Berlin (SESB), a two-way immersion (TWI) model that unites children whose mother tongue is German with children whose mother tongue is another locally spoken language in one class and teaches them together in two languages. Thus in this model, offered by 17 primary schools and 13 secondary schools in Berlin, pupils learn in two languages from and with each other. Based on a largely quantitative, quasi-experimental study with 603 students, evidence is provided that there are a number of peace-linguistic benefits that can promote two-way social integration, besides fostering personal and societal multilingualism. This suggests that TWI education as practised in Berlin could serve as an educational model for other multilingual parts of Europe.

  9. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    -scale terrorism, and the new US emphasis on pre-emptive strikes. Based on an analysis of Germany's strategic culture, it portrays Germany as a security actor and indicates the conditions and limits of the new German willingness to participate in international military crisis management that developed over...

  10. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  11. [Smoking cessation therapies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, C; Gradl, S

    2010-02-01

    Reducing the consumption of tobacco products in Germany is a health objective that is achievable with smoking cessation treatments for smokers. This objective turns out to be more successful when using different interventions for smoking cessation than with self-initiated smoking cessation methods. This survey describes the range of smoking cessation treatments in Germany and evaluates them on the basis of international guidelines.

  12. Germany: Europe’s China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dobrescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Germany's ascent not only as Europe's most important economic power, but also as its leader. Figures show that Germany overcame the crisis; in fact the crisis legitimized its development model. Which would be Germany's main strategic choices, confirmed by the historic evolution of the recent years? First, its option for manufacturing, which allowed Germany to turn into Europe's factory. Second, the option for reform. "Agenda 2010", initiated by Gerhard Schroeder in 2003, is a crucial moment in the country's evolution. Special attention is paid to Germany's position on the single currency. Germany's performance is that it managed to turn the euro into a kind of European Dmark. The euro now formally "obeys" German rules, agreed upon from the very beginning, and is mainly coupled to the evolution of German economy. Germany is now sitting its most important exam: the European one. Today, Germany is Europe's most powerful state, but it must become its leader, whose development model would be accepted throughout the continent. Some German economic options are strikingly similar to China's.

  13. The 1000-roofs programme. World`s biggest practical performance test of grid-connected photovoltaic systems. Evaluation of the Berlin results; Das 1000-Daecher-Programm. Weltweit groesster Breitentest fuer netzgekoppelte Photovoltaik-Anlagen - Auswertung der Berliner Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, U. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Sonnenenergie, Landesverband, Berlin-Brandenburg e.V. (Germany); Wuest, R.; Hielscher, T.

    1994-12-31

    The world`s biggest practical performance test of grid-connected photovoltaic systems is discussed on the basis of the Berlin results. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der weltweit groesste Breitentest fuer netzgekoppelte Photovoltaik-Anlagen wird anhand der Berliner Ergebnisse vorgestellt. (orig.)

  14. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  15. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  16. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  17. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  18. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  19. Todd Berliner. Hollywood Incoherent. Narration in Seventies Cinema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Lefèvre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Todd Berliner. Hollywood Incoherent. Narration in Seventies Cinema.

    Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.

    ISBN-10: 0292722796

    ISBN-13: 978-0292722798

     

     

  20. Migration and symptom reporting at menopause: a comparative survey of migrant women from Turkey in Berlin, German women in Berlin, and women in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boral, Şengül; Borde, Theda; Kentenich, Heribert; Wernecke, Klaus D; David, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to compare perceptions of menopausal symptoms among migrant women from Turkey in Berlin (TB), German women in Berlin (GB), and women in Istanbul (TI). The aim was to analyze findings in light of the possible influences of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and migration-related aspects. The study participants (aged 45-60 y) were recruited via random and snowball sampling and surveyed with a structured questionnaire in the German and Turkish languages, which contained questions about their experiences with the menopausal phase and related symptoms (Menopause Rating Scale II), menopausal hormone therapy, and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and migration-related aspects. Statistical analysis was performed with univariate Fisher's exact test, factor analysis, and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 963 women participated in the study. Premenopausal/perimenopausal migrant women from Turkey in Berlin most frequently reported severe vegetative complaints (TB, 49.9%; GB, 34.9%; TI, 34.9%) and genital complaints (TB, 39.2%; GB, 32.3%; TI, 29.4%), as defined by factor analysis. In postmenopausal migrant women from Turkey in Berlin, the most frequently reported symptoms belonged to the domain of psychological complaints (TB, 52.7% vs GB, 24.0%; TI, 55.7%). Gradual multivariate logistic regression revealed sociodemographic and health-related risk factors as predictive factors for the defined menopausal complaints. Migration-related factors might be decisive for women's experience of menopause. Improvement of population-tailored access to factual information about menopause and treatment options is an area of great potential to support women in this phase.

  1. [Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794)--distribution, biology and vector for Babesia canis in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heile, Cornelia; Heydorn, Alfred-Otto; Schein, Eberhard

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with occurrence, distribution as well as biology and vectorial capacity of the ornate dog tick (Dermacentor (D.) reticulatus). Until 30 years ago this tick has only been described in a few natural foci in southern Germany. Its distribution has however expanded in the course of the last years. With the exception of northern Germany it is now covering large areas of Germany. This is particularly the case in the Upper Rhine Valley, Saarland and the Mark Brandenburg. However, it is endemic in many other areas of Germany as well. The transformation of agricultural land into fallow land, an increase in host reservoirs and climatic changes are discussed as main contributors to this change. Little is known about the role of this species as a vector for virus, rickettsia, bacteria and protozoa as well as its medical and veterinary importance. D. reticulatus is a vector for Babesia canis canis. It is reported here about a case of autochthonous babesiosis in a dog from Berlin/Brandenburg.

  2. Von Baudenkmälern zu Baudenkmalen: Die Entwicklung des Denkmalrechts im Land Berlin von 1949 bis heute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nellessen, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis “From Historical Buildings to Listed Landmarks – The Development of Heritage Legislation in the State of Berlin from 1949 to the Present Day” outlines the material progress of preservation provisions with reference to the building regulations for Berlin enacted in 1958, 1966 and 1971, al

  3. Romanistik ohne Latein? Zu einer Empfehlung der Konferenz der Romanischen Seminare (Romance Studies without Latin? On a Recommendation from the Conference of Romance Seminars)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeister, Sebastian

    1973-01-01

    Reaction to a February 19, 1972 recommendation of the Konferenz der Romanischen Seminare der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und West-Berlins in Deutschen Romanistenverband'' (Conference of Romance Seminars of the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin of the German Association of Romance Philologists) to discontinue the Latin prerequisite for…

  4. Air quality modelling in the Berlin-Brandenburg region using WRF-Chem v3.7.1: sensitivity to resolution of model grid and input data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuik, Friderike; Lauer, Axel; Churkina, Galina; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Fenner, Daniel; Mar, Kathleen A.; Butler, Tim M.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is the number one environmental cause of premature deaths in Europe. Despite extensive regulations, air pollution remains a challenge, especially in urban areas. For studying summertime air quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg region of Germany, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is set up and evaluated against meteorological and air quality observations from monitoring stations as well as from a field campaign conducted in 2014. The objective is to assess which resolution and level of detail in the input data is needed for simulating urban background air pollutant concentrations and their spatial distribution in the Berlin-Brandenburg area. The model setup includes three nested domains with horizontal resolutions of 15, 3 and 1 km and anthropogenic emissions from the TNO-MACC III inventory. We use RADM2 chemistry and the MADE/SORGAM aerosol scheme. Three sensitivity simulations are conducted updating input parameters to the single-layer urban canopy model based on structural data for Berlin, specifying land use classes on a sub-grid scale (mosaic option) and downscaling the original emissions to a resolution of ca. 1 km × 1 km for Berlin based on proxy data including traffic density and population density. The results show that the model simulates meteorology well, though urban 2 m temperature and urban wind speeds are biased high and nighttime mixing layer height is biased low in the base run with the settings described above. We show that the simulation of urban meteorology can be improved when specifying the input parameters to the urban model, and to a lesser extent when using the mosaic option. On average, ozone is simulated reasonably well, but maximum daily 8 h mean concentrations are underestimated, which is consistent with the results from previous modelling studies using the RADM2 chemical mechanism. Particulate matter is underestimated, which is partly due to an underestimation of secondary organic aerosols

  5. Dispersion of traffic-related exhaust particles near the Berlin urban motorway – estimation of fleet emission factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Birmili

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particle number size distributions of airborne particles (diameter range 10–500 nm were collected over ten weeks at three sites in the vicinity of the A100 urban motorway in Berlin, Germany. The A100 carries about 180 000 vehicles on a weekday. The roadside particle distributions showed a number maximum between 20 and 60 nm clearly related to the motorway emissions. The average total number concentration at roadside was 28 000 cm−3 with a total range of 1200–168 000 cm−3. At distances of 80 and 400 m from the motorway the concentrations decreased to mean levels of 11 000 and 9000 cm−3, respectively. An obstacle-resolving dispersion model was applied to simulate the 3-D flow field and traffic tracer transport in the urban environment around the motorway. By inverse modelling, vehicle emission factors were derived that are representative of a fleet with a relative share of 6% lorry-like vehicles, and driving at a speed of 80 km h−1. Three different calculation approaches were compared, which differ in the choice of the experimental winds driving the flow simulation. The average emission factor per vehicle was 2.1 (±0.2 · 1014 km−1 for particle number and 0.077 (±0.01 · 1014 cm3 km−1 for particle volume. Regression analysis suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit 123 (±28 times more particle number than passenger car-like vehicles, and lorry-like vehicles account for about 91% of particulate number emissions on weekdays. Our work highlights the increasing applicability of 3-D flow models in urban microscale environments and their usefulness for determining traffic emission factors.

  6. A Doubled Heterotopia: Shifting Spatial and Visual Symbolism in the Jewish Museum Berlin's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Brent Allen

    2012-01-01

    This essay considers the rhetoric of space in a rapidly transforming culture. Using Michel Foucault's concept of "heterotopias" to understand the rhetorical power of a building's disposition, it is argued that the Jewish Museum Berlin contains two heterotopias, one within the other. The first is Daniel Libeskind's original building design in…

  7. The Impactite Collection at Museum für Naturkunde Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. T.

    2016-08-01

    The Impactite collection at Museum für Naturkunde Berlin was established in 1994 by Dieter Stöffler and hosts actually ~4,815 samples from 75 of the worldwide known 188 impact structures arranged in geographical order.

  8. [The response to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery in Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttmann, W

    1995-01-01

    In early January 1896 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen sent offprints to several colleagues of his to make them acquainted with his discovery of the X-rays. From January 5, 1896 newspapers started reporting on that discovery worldwide from Vienna. In several cities the news immediately set off corresponding scientific activities among specialists. This paper looks into such activities carried out in Berlin to show how promptly Röntgen's discovery was taken up, with a number of priorities having been set in the capital of the German Reich. The X-ray photographs which Röntgen had forwarded together with his offprints were displayed and discussed at a meeting of the Berlin Physical Society as early as on January 4, 1896, making his discovery known to the public for the first time. On January 6, 1896 the discovery and photographs were presented at a session of the Berlin Association of Internal Medicine and its diagnostic application was discussed in the medical community for the first time. A few days after that, the first photographs shot by other authors after Röntgen, and their diagnostic use, were demonstrated in Berlin. Finally, Röntgen's early visit to Emperor William II on January 12, 1896, which led to the speedy introduction of the X-day technique into German military medicine, is discussed in detail.

  9. A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Keat, Tan Soon; Gersberg, Richard M

    2010-05-01

    A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection.

  10. Reciprocal Relationships and Lifelong Learning: Twenty Years of Duke in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, William Collins; Wohlfeil, Jochen

    2007-01-01

    DepaeThe new conditions of the study abroad "market" have impelled us to rethink the costs and benefits of a small, selective US-based program, such as Duke in Berlin. The principal advantage, we argue, is an environment of "academic intimacy," a generous teacher/student ratio, which in turn fosters additional undergraduate…

  11. Largest fluidized bed power plant unit for power and district heat supply for Berlin (Part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abroell, G.; Bade, H.; Bietz, K.H.; Jahn, P. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany))

    1991-11-01

    The Berlin Power and Light Company (Bewag) has decided to install, on the inner city site of Moabit, for the supply of electricity and district heating, a new unit with circulating atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The plant will be designed for a thermal capacity of 240 MW. The basis for this decision, and also the technical implementation, will be made public.

  12. Key papers by the Working Group on Energy. Hauptvortraege des Arbeitskreises Energie; 56. Physikertagung Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, H. (ed.) (Bochum Univ. (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    The eight key papers given by the Working Group on Energy at the 56 th conference of physicists in Berlin, 30th March to 3rd April 1992, focussed on issues of future energy supply, while using polluting fuels at a reduced rate. Each of the papers was abstracted separately. (BWI)

  13. A Local Dimension of Integration Policies? A Comparative Study of Berlin, Malmö, and Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rianne); H. Emilsson (Henrik); B. Krieger (Bernhard); P.W.A. Scholten (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines three theses on local integration policies by a qualitative comparative case study of integration policies in three cities in three different countries (Berlin, Malmö, and Rotterdam). We found little evidence of a congruent local dimension of integration policies. Loc

  14. A Doubled Heterotopia: Shifting Spatial and Visual Symbolism in the Jewish Museum Berlin's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Brent Allen

    2012-01-01

    This essay considers the rhetoric of space in a rapidly transforming culture. Using Michel Foucault's concept of "heterotopias" to understand the rhetorical power of a building's disposition, it is argued that the Jewish Museum Berlin contains two heterotopias, one within the other. The first is Daniel Libeskind's original building…

  15. L. Harrison: Mass (to St. Anthony); A. Pärt: Berliner Messe / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "L. Harrison: Mass (to St. Anthony); A. Pärt: Berliner Messe. Oregon Repertory Singers / Gilbert Seeley. Koch International Classics CD 37 177-2; Pärt - comparative version: Estonian Phil. Chbr. Ch., Tallinn CO / Kaljuste" (11/93)(ECM) 439 162-2

  16. Globalization of markets for contemporary art: why local ties remain dominant in Amsterdam and Berlin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Velthuis

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on both qualitative and quantitative data, this article explores the extent to which Western art markets are globalized by focusing on the nationality of contemporary artists represented by art galleries in Amsterdam and Berlin. Far from the borderless world presupposed in the globalization

  17. L. Harrison: Mass (to St. Anthony); A. Pärt: Berliner Messe / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "L. Harrison: Mass (to St. Anthony); A. Pärt: Berliner Messe. Oregon Repertory Singers / Gilbert Seeley. Koch International Classics CD 37 177-2; Pärt - comparative version: Estonian Phil. Chbr. Ch., Tallinn CO / Kaljuste" (11/93)(ECM) 439 162-2

  18. At home, I’m a tourist: Musical migration and affective citizenship in Berlin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, Luis-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which musical, sonic, and more broadly sensory experiences of Berlin provide the ground for an ambivalent sense of civic belonging for a cadre of migrants affiliated with the city’s local electronic dance music scenes. Drawn from ethnographic fieldwork, the accounts

  19. Globalization of markets for contemporary art: why local ties remain dominant in Amsterdam and Berlin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, O.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on both qualitative and quantitative data, this article explores the extent to which Western art markets are globalized by focusing on the nationality of contemporary artists represented by art galleries in Amsterdam and Berlin. Far from the borderless world presupposed in the globalization

  20. A Doubled Heterotopia: Shifting Spatial and Visual Symbolism in the Jewish Museum Berlin's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Brent Allen

    2012-01-01

    This essay considers the rhetoric of space in a rapidly transforming culture. Using Michel Foucault's concept of "heterotopias" to understand the rhetorical power of a building's disposition, it is argued that the Jewish Museum Berlin contains two heterotopias, one within the other. The first is Daniel Libeskind's original building…

  1. Molecules at surfaces: 100 years of physical chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Gerhard

    2013-01-02

    Scratching the surface: for over 100 years the interactions of molecules at surfaces have been studied at the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin. Nobel Laureate Gerhard Ertl looks back at some of the key developments in this time, and the people who made them. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Local Belonging and "Geographies of Emotions": Immigrant Children's Experience of Their Neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Besten, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that a sense of local belonging and emotional attitudes to one's neighbourhood are inherently interconnected. It explores immigrant children's emotional experiences of their neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin through subjective maps drawn by the children. The article highlights the social and spatial nature of immigrant…

  3. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  4. Residential and Community Provisions for the Frail Elderly in Germany: Current Issues and Their History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, Margret

    1980-01-01

    The position of the "home for the aged" in the total social support network of West Germany is controversial. Senior citizen housing provides a more favorable atmosphere for older adults. Old age homes will have to offer better conditions and more independence. (JAC)

  5. Competence, Control, and Work Redesign. "Die Angestellten" in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littek, Wolfgang; Heisig, Ulrich

    1991-01-01

    Deskilling of commercial and technical occupations in West Germany during the 1960s and 1970s was apparently a short-lived phenomenon. Since the 1970s, employers have adopted a skill-based modernization policy. Skilled administrative workers have used their qualifications as a means of influencing the process of work redesign. (SK)

  6. The AFS Volunteer Resources Study: Summary of Findings from Germany Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeutschel, Uli; Hansel, Bettina

    An ongoing debate exists on the issue of volunteering and its political implications in West Germany. Critics of the social welfare system have a direct impact on volunteerism. The ruling coalition aims to limit public spending in the social services sector while the "grassroots" movement emphasizes the danger of state-provided services…

  7. Comparing Episodes of Mathematics Teaching for Higher Achievers in England and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Kotthoff, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate similarities and differences in lower secondary level mathematics teaching with higher achievers and thereby explore privileging processes, we contrast a teaching episode in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with one in South West England. These have been selected from a larger study as typical within each region for higher achieving…

  8. The AFS Volunteer Resources Study: Summary of Findings from Germany Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeutschel, Uli; Hansel, Bettina

    An ongoing debate exists on the issue of volunteering and its political implications in West Germany. Critics of the social welfare system have a direct impact on volunteerism. The ruling coalition aims to limit public spending in the social services sector while the "grassroots" movement emphasizes the danger of state-provided services…

  9. New Trends in Specialised Information Policy within the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czermak, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews European attitudes toward information policy developments in West Germany, and describes recent activities undertaken by the German private sector, plans to reorganize the Society for Information and Documentation, and the federal government's specialized information program. The policies, structure, and activities of the Scientific and…

  10. Democratic Orientations among High School Seniors in the United States and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, William L.; Payne, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates strength of national identity and degrees of democratic orientation among honors high school seniors taking advanced political science courses in 1986 in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. Finds West German students less tolerant of minority free speech, more fearful of consequences of dissent, and less politically…

  11. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  12. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  13. Berlin: Sustainability and Tour Guides in a Partial Dark Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaf Leshem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When guiding in Berlin about the Holocaust or about the Cold War, tour guides often hear the phrase: “I didn’t come here for that, but I want to see that as well...” Many of Berlin’s 10 Million visitors per year claim to have an attraction towards both the morbid and the lighter side of the city. Following from that popular sentiment it is argued that Berlin can be defined as a Partial Dark Tourism Destination. As such, it is further argued that Berlin is prone to an increase of socio-economic and socio-cultural negative impacts. The premise of the research is that Berlin’s tour guides function as a link between the residents of the city and the visitors. The thesis, then, is that tour guides play a role and can contribute to development of social, cultural and economic urban tourism sustainability. An analysis of tourism impacts and tourists-residents relations is presented, in which the tour guide plays a role in influencing the visitor’s behaviour. I conclude that tour guides have greater influence on social, cultural and economic behaviour of the tourist than previously considered, and therefore a potential to enhance sustainable tourism development in Berlin. The significance of this research is in the way it points out to the roles Berlin tour guides play in facilitation of sustainable tourism development in the city. Furthermore, the research shows the ways in which tour guides contribute to increasing responsible tourist behaviour.

  14. L'enseignement du francais en Republique Federale d'Allemagne (The Teaching of French in the Federal Republic of Germany). L'enseignement du francais dans les classes terminales des lycees allemands (The Teaching of French in the Final Year in German Schools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Fritz; Lang, Jurgen

    Two papers describe two aspects of French foreign language instruction in West Germany. The first, "L'enseignement du francais en Republique Federale d'Allemagne" by Abel, deals with the institutional framework for French instruction in West Germany. A discussion of the instructional situation looks first at the history of French instruction since…

  15. Was ist so Berlin? Eine kritische Rezension aktueller Linien und Fragestellungen der Stadtforschung in der deutschen Hauptstadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Merrill

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ende 2012 hat das Zitty Magazin des Tagesspiegels seine Werbekampagne „Das ist so Berlin“ gestartet. Seither sind kleine rot-weiße Aufkleber mit dieser Aussage überall in der Stadt aufgetaucht, auf Mülleimern, U-Bahn-Schildern und Bushaltestellen. Zum Teil als Reaktion auf diese Kampagne, fragt diese kritische, bilinguale Rezension Was ist so Berlin? um die aktuellen Linien und Fragestellungen der Stadtforschung in Berlin zu diskutieren. Dazu werden die Berlin-Sitzungen zweier internationaler Tagungen des Jahres 2013 rezensiert, die Sitzungen der Jahreskonferenz der Association of American Geographers (Los Angeles 9-13 April und es Jahrestreffen des Research Committee 21 (Berlin 29-31, sowie der Sammelband – The Berlin Reader: A Compendium on Urban Change and Activism (Transcript, 2013, herausgegeben von Matthias Bernt, Britta Grell und Andrej Holm. Im Anschluss betont die Rezension die Notwendigkeit die Vorstellungen zu Berlin und Berlins exceptionalism, die in der Stadtforschung entwickelt werden, fortlaufend so zu beleuchten, dass eine pluralistische Rhetorik, die Position und Verantwortung von Forscher_innen und wissenschaftliche Forschungslücken, berücksichtigt werden.

  16. Sexual Behavior in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haversath, Julia; Gärttner, Kathrin M; Kliem, Sören; Vasterling, Ilka; Strauss, Bernhard; Kröger, Christoph

    2017-08-21

    There have not been any population-based surveys in Germany to date on the frequency of various types of sexual behavior. The topic is of interdisciplinary interest, particularly with respect to the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Within the context of a survey that dealt with multiple topics, information was obtained from 2524 persons about their sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual contacts outside relationships, and contraception. Most of the participating women (82%) and men (86%) described themselves as heterosexual. Most respondents (88%) said they had engaged in vaginal intercourse at least once, and approximately half said they had engaged in oral intercourse at least once (either actively or passively). 4% of the men and 17% of the women said they had been the receptive partner in anal intercourse at least once. 5% of the respondents said they had had unprotected sexual intercourse outside their primary partnership on a single occasion, and 8% said they had done so more than once; only 2% of these persons said they always used a condom during sexual intercourse with their primary partner. Among persons reporting unprotected intercourse outside their primary partnership, 25% said they had undergone a medical examination afterward because of concern about a possible sexually transmitted infection. Among some groups of persons, routine sexual-medicine examinations may help contain the spread of sexually transmitted infections. One component of such examinations should be sensitive questioning about the types of sexual behavior that are associated with a high risk of infection. Information should be provided about the potential modes of transmission, including unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse outside the primary partnership.

  17. Historical perspective on neurosurgery in Germany after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmann, Hartmut; Vitzthum, Hans-Ekkehart

    2008-11-01

    AFTER THE COLLAPSE of the Third Reich, the specialty of neurosurgery in Germany, although well developed in the late 1930s, had to start anew, and for decades to come, had to deal with the physical and political consequences of World War II. Because of the division of the country, neurosurgery developed separately in the two independent states. In West Germany, the evolution was promoted by a few personalities who represented different schools according to their own training: these "surgical neurologists" emphasized the neurological basis of neurosurgery and were represented by Traugott Riechert and the students of Otfrid Foerster, such as Arist Stender and Hans Kuhlendahl. In contrast, the "neurological surgeons" stressed their origins in general surgery. Their main proponent was Wilhelm Tönnis, who gained particular merit for promoting neurosurgical teaching, the development of new neurosurgical units, and the recognition of neurosurgery as an autonomous specialty. In East Germany, progress was delayed by a weak economy and a repressive political system. Yet several excellent neurosurgeons won international recognition, predominantly Georg Merrem, who came from the school of Fedor Krause. Following a worldwide trend, the number of neurosurgical units in West Germany increased dramatically from 18 in 1950 to 85 in 1988. In 2006, in the unified nation, 1200 certified neurosurgeons in 138 hospital departments and 75 private practices served 82 million people. Since its founding in 1949, the German Neurosurgical Society has promoted the idea of reconciliation and has focused on international collaboration in both science and education. This idea, shared by other European nations, eventually gave rise to the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. At present, escalating costs in the health sector pose a problem to neurosurgical services and have led to reconsiderations about their structure and financing.

  18. Heavy metal pollution in selected sewage farm soils in the south of Berlin; Schwermetalle in Boeden der Rieselfelder Berlin-Sued

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burhenne, M. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Schneider, I. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologie und Naturschutz; Bukowsky, H. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1997-05-01

    Soils of the large sewage farm area south of Berlin are contaminated with heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn. Based on earlier studies the total amount and the bioavailable proportions of heavy metals in soils samples were analysed. In some samples very high levels of total heavy metal concentrations were detected. For Pb, Cd, Cu and Hg the maximum values were 1360, 29.7, 817 and 40.8 mg/kg soil dry matter, respectively. The biovailable fractions of heavy metals which were found primarily in the acetate and EDTA fractions and to a lesser degree in the water extract account for about 50% (Pb, Ni), 70% (Cd) or 90% (Zn) of their total amount and may therefore pose a considerable environmental risk. (orig.) [Deutsch] Boeden der Rieselfelder Berlin-Sued sind teilweise erheblich mit den Schwermetallen Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink kontaminiert. In Bodenproben aus den Rieselfeldern im Sueden Berlins wurden sowohl die Gesamtgehalte als auch die bioverfuegbaren Anteile der Schwermetalle Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb und Zn bestimmt. Die maximalen Konzentrationen lagen bei 1 360 mg/kg TS fuer Blei, 29,7 mg/kg TS fuer Cadmium, 817 mg/kg TS fuer Kupfer und 40,8 mg/kg TS fuer Quecksilber. Die bioverfuegbaren Anteile waren besonders in der Acetat- und EDTA-Fraktion aber weniger im Wasserextrakt vorhanden. Mit Anteilen bis zu 50% (Pb, Ni), 70% (Cd) oder 90% (Zn) am jeweiligen Gesamtgehalt stellen sie ein nicht vernachlaessigbares Gefaehrdungspotential dar. (orig.)

  19. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  20. Green energy. Germany 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Petrescu, Florian Ion

    2012-07-01

    around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.

  1. Die Medizinische Bibliothek der Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin – eine Bibliothek im Wandel / The Medical Library of the Charité - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin – a library in a time of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paepcke, Ulf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief outline of the history of the Medical Library of the Charité - University Medicine Berlin. It then describes the library’s organizational status within the Charité and its relation to the Free University and the Humboldt University of Berlin. Then follows a detailed description of its mission and tasks, the wide range of the different sources of information and other services it offers.

  2. Review: Holger Stoecker: Afrikawissenschaften in Berlin von 1919 bis 1945. Zur Geschichte und Topographie eines wissenschaftlichen Netzwerkes (2008 Buchbesprechung: Holger Stoecker: Afrikawissenschaften in Berlin von 1919 bis 1945. Zur Geschichte und Topographie eines wissenschaftlichen Netzwerkes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Bromber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Holger Stoecker: Afrikawissenschaften in Berlin von 1919 bis 1945. Zur Geschichte und Topographie eines wissenschaftlichen Netzwerkes, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 2008, ISBN 978-3-515-09161-9, 359 pages. Besprechung der Monographie: Holger Stoecker: Afrikawissenschaften in Berlin von 1919 bis 1945. Zur Geschichte und Topographie eines wissenschaftlichen Netzwerkes, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 2008, ISBN 978-3-515-09161-9, 359 Seiten.

  3. Becoming-Black: Patterns and Politics of West-German ‘Afro-Americanophilia’ in the Late 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Ege

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1960s, African American culture and politics provided ‘lines of flight’ (Deleuze and Guattari from outdated modes of subjectivity for many ‘white’ Germans; appropriating culture politics, and experimenting with forms of symbolically ‘becoming black’ represented a major cultural theme of the time. These tendencies resonated with: radical, anti-imperialist politics; countercultural sensibilities, where African American culture provided a radically contemporary critique of European modernity; the racialized, erotically charged logics of primitivism and romanticism in which ‘the repressed’ was to be brought back to the surface; and with a consumer-based economy and pop culture that supported the incorporation, domestication and aestheticisation of difference, desire and conflict.  This article sketches the patterns, forms and politics of the cultural theme of Afro-Americanophilia in Germany at the time, stressing the links between politics and corporeality.  In doing so, it illustrates that questions of race and racism were crucial for the 1968 conjuncture in Germany and it critically reviews the assumptions and implications of a specific form of hedonistic anti-racism in which ‘white’ European protagonists claimed ‘chains of equivalence’ (Laclau and Mouffe between their position and that of people oppressed by racism and white supremacy.  Two case studies illustrate different forms and common patterns.  The first concerns a West Berlin network of radical-left groups that called itself ‘The Blues’ and combined militant political action (partly modelled on the activities of the Black Panther Party, according to some of its participants with a countercultural sensibility. This included a felt connection to African American culture and stylistic practices. The second case study reviews the reception of soul music in the German music press and in countercultural circles, contrasting different readings of the

  4. FIRST REPORT OF 'CANDIDATUS PHYTOPLASMA ULMI' IN ULMUS LAEVIS IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, A M; Kube, M; Holz, S; Büttner, C

    2015-01-01

    The wall-less bacteria of the provisory taxon 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' are obligate parasites and associated to diseases in many important crops and trees worldwide. 'Ca. Phytoplasma ulmi', assigned to 16SrV-A subgroup, is a quarantine pest and described to be associated to elm phloem necrosis, leaf yellowing, stunting, witches broom and decline in various elm species. Elm yellows phytoplasmas (EY) have been reported in several European countries but not in Ulmus laevis in Germany so far. Leaf samples from European white elms (Ulmus leavis PALL.) with and without chlorotic symptoms were investigated for EYs infection in Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany, through performing diagnostic nested PCR targeting partial rRNA operon of phytoplasmas. Specific PCR-products were obtained from 30 out of 59 samples. Partial 16S-rDNA sequences were assigned to 'Ca. P. ulmi' through sequence analysis, while sequence variation was observed. This is the first report of U. laevis infected with 'Ca. P. ulmi' in Germany.

  5. BAERLIN2014 - the influence of land surface types on and the horizontal heterogeneity of air pollutant levels in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Boris; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Andrich, Dorota; Quedenau, Jörn; Gerwig, Holger; Lüdecke, Anja; Kura, Jürgen; Pietsch, Axel; Ehlers, Christian; Klemp, Dieter; Kofahl, Claudia; Nothard, Rainer; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Grote, Rüdiger; Pohl, Tobias; Weber, Konradin; Lode, Birgit; Schönberger, Philipp; Churkina, Galina; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-06-01

    Urban air quality and human health are among the key aspects of future urban planning. In order to address pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, efforts need to be made to quantify and reduce their concentrations. One important aspect in understanding urban air quality is the influence of urban vegetation which may act as both emitter and sink for trace gases and aerosol particles. In this context, the "Berlin Air quality and Ecosystem Research: Local and long-range Impact of anthropogenic and Natural hydrocarbons 2014" (BAERLIN2014) campaign was conducted between 2 June and 29 August in the metropolitan area of Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. The predominant goals of the campaign were (1) the characterization of urban gaseous and particulate pollution and its attribution to anthropogenic and natural sources in the region of interest, especially considering the connection between biogenic volatile organic compounds and particulates and ozone; (2) the quantification of the impact of urban vegetation on organic trace gas levels and the presence of oxidants such as ozone; and (3) to explain the local heterogeneity of pollutants by defining the distribution of sources and sinks relevant for the interpretation of model simulations. In order to do so, the campaign included stationary measurements at urban background station and mobile observations carried out from bicycle, van and airborne platforms. This paper provides an overview of the mobile measurements (Mobile BAERLIN2014) and general conclusions drawn from the analysis. Bicycle measurements showed micro-scale variations of temperature and particulate matter, displaying a substantial reduction of mean temperatures and particulate levels in the proximity of vegetated areas compared to typical urban residential area (background) measurements. Van measurements extended the area covered by bicycle observations and included continuous measurements of O3, NOx, CO, CO2 and point-wise measurement of volatile

  6. Forschungsdatenmanagement an Hochschulen: das Beispiel der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Kindling

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wie nahezu jede wissenschaftliche Einrichtung steht auch die Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin heute vor der Herausforderung mit den zunehmend in digitaler Form vorliegenden Forschungsdaten umzugehen. Basierend auf den Ergebnissen einer im Jahr 2013 durchgeführten Umfrage zum Umgang mit digitalen Forschungsdaten werden die Ausgangssituation charakterisiert, der Status Quo eingeordnet und strategische Überlegungen für das Forschungsdatenmanagement vorgestellt. Nearly all academic institutions are presently facing the challenge of ever-growing amounts of digital research data. A comprehensive survey on current research data holdings and researchers needs in supporting their path to good research data management was run at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin in the first quarter of 2013. In this paper we present the initial situation, evaluate the status quo and reflect about the next strategic steps.

  7. Sandor Rado and the fate of the Berlin model in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, W Craig

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of the Berlin model on psychoanalytic education in New York through the person of Sandor Rado, who was recruited from Berlin to become the first Education Director at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute in 1931, and later went on to found the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research. While the basic elements of the so-called tripartite model of psychoanalytic education were adopted in principle in New York prior to Rado's arrival, he had an enormous impact on the development and implementation of that curriculum, while attempting to modify it both theoretically and clinically, and became one of the focal points of the controversies that led to the break-up of that institute. He also sought to expand ties to American medicine and psychiatry and to research in general.

  8. First Considerations Concerning an Optimized Cavity Design for the Main Linac of BERLinPro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Riemann, T. Weis, W. Anders, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann, H.-W. Glock, C. Potratz, U. van Rienen, F. Marhauser

    2011-09-01

    The Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (BERLinPro) is designed to develop and demonstrate CW linac technology and expertise required to drive next-generation Energy Recovery Linacs. Strongly HOM-damped multicell 1.3 GHz cavities are required for the main linac. The optimization of the cavities presented here is primarily based on the CEBAF 1.5 GHz 5-cell high-current cavity design, including HOM waveguide couplers. The cavity was scaled to 1.3 GHz and extended to 7 cells. Modifications to the end group design have also been studied. An effort was also made to reduce the ratio Epk/Eacc while still permitting HOMs to propagate.

  9. Der Umlauf der spanischen Handschriften aus dem Antiquariat Leo Liepmannssohns in Paris und Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Naranjo, Francisco Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the antique libraries most representative of the second half of the 19th century was that of Leo Liepmannssohn, with branches in Paris and Berlin. Its importance grew over time due to its auctions of many manuscripts by J. S. Bach, Handel, Mozart, Beethoven and other composers, a fact that explains how the author came across it during his investigation into the referred manuscripts. The object of this investigation is a collection of more than 300 folders that can be consulted in the Music Department in the Staatsbibliothek Preußischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin. The folders contain the annual catalogues from the antique library of Liepmannssohn (Berlin comprising the years 1866 to 1923. Each catalogue consists of a list of all the sales from the corresponding year in alphabetical order and contains, besides manuscripts, literature, musical treatises and the portraits of several composers. There are many Spanish manuscripts included in these catalogues whose distribution was so important that in 1900 Liepmannssohn published an exclusive catalogue for Spanish and Portuguese manuscripts, 291 of which the librarian had sold during that year. During the celebration of those auctions many documents, musical treatises and manuscripts, both known and unknown, were brought to light. The investigation earned out contributes to our knowledge about the works of different Spanish composers from the 16th to the 19th centuries and their distribution abroad, especially in Berlin.

    [de] Eines der repräsentativsten Antiquariate der zweiten Hälfte des XIX Jh. und des Anfangs des XX Jh. wurde von Leo Liepmannssohn in den Städten Paris und Berlin verwaltet. Durch die Versteigerung vieler Handschriften von J.S. Bach, Händel, Mozart, Beethoven und anderer Komponisten gewann das Antiquariat zusatzlich an Bedeutung. Deswegen ist es verstandlich, dass der Autor auf das Antiquariat stieß, als er Nachforschungen über den

  10. Professor Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928) of Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin: neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, pianist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the life and work of Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928), a pioneer neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, and world-class pianist. In 1897, Pollack published the first standard manual on staining methods for the nervous system. Born into a Prussian-Jewish family, he received his piano education from the composer Moritz Moszkowski and his pathology education from Carl Weigert. Pollack worked in the Institutes of Wilhelm Waldeyer (anatomy), Emanuel Mendel (neuropsychiatry), the later Nobel laureate Robert Koch (infectious diseases), and the Eye Policlinic of Paul Silex (ophthalmology), becoming a Professor of Ophthalmology at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in 1919. The study also chronicles the founding by Pollack of the Berlin Doctors' Orchestra in 1911.

  11. By bus and by train into the past. Berlin and its legacy in Annett Gröschner’s writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pytel-Bartnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the strategies of reconstructing the past as  inscribed into the urban space of Berlin and discussed within the literary field. Developed by the German writer Annett Gröschner, they have been used to reexamine the history of the city – only dimly reflected in the present urban landscape. Her perspective emphasizes the distinctive spatial and architectural organization of the city, particularly after the fall of the Berlin Wall. In order to harness her dialec-tical composition of the spacing of-the-past, Gröschner uses the map of various routes on the Berlin public transport network, some inner-city artefacts set along those lines, and also the city map with its constant modifications to create appropriate landmarks through which she [re]constructs Berlin's past-present.

  12. [Homicides in East Berlin from 1980 to 1989. Part I: victimology and phenomenology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Ingo; Strauch, Hansjürg

    2006-01-01

    At the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Humboldt-University in Berlin 8,580 autopsies were carried out in the period of analysis from 1980 to 1989 - including 139 homicides (= 1.6 %). The first part of this study deals with the victim-related analysis. Furthermore, the criminologically relevant aspects of the phenomenology of crime are described. Apart from the low frequency, the mainly short latency period and the low rate of homicides with removal of the victim are noteworthy.

  13. Review: Ingrid Miethe, Claudia Kajatin & Jana Pohl (Eds. (2004. Geschlechterkonstruktionen in Ost und West. Biografische Perspektiven [Gender Constructions in East and West. Biographical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Döring

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This reader contains analyses of gender constructions in East and West Germany from biographical perspectives. It is based on narrative interviews with women and men living in the former East and West. By means of case reconstructions and case comparisons the authors reveal how individuals deal actively with specific societal gender roles. Historical differences between women's movement and feminism in East Germany versus West Germany are knowledgeably described. The book offers a very complex and multilayered theoretical and empirical construction of gender in its diverse dimensions, but men's biographies and men's studies remain marginalized. Men's movements as well as the gay rights movement are blind spots. The gendering of work and the context of European unification are emphasized. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602353

  14. Berlin, Maryland - How One Small City is Using Science to Change its World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L.; Silbergeld, E.

    2016-12-01

    Small cities are uniquely challenged to mitigate environmental issues in their communities because they usually lack the financial resources and technical expertise to address them. The Town of Berlin, population 4,500, recently purchased approximately 60 acres of private property located at 9943 Old Ocean City Boulevard. The property was previously owned by Tyson Chicken, Inc. and contains a chicken processing plant which has not been in use for over 10 years. Historically the plant emitted significant odors which limited the Town's ability to diversify its economic base. The plant closure provided an opportunity to convert the property to another use, but the downturn in the economy delayed that change. The Town intends to establish recreation oriented uses on the property with the following goals in mind: Create a common ground for the people of Berlin that will unite various neighborhoods. Create synergy between ecological sustainability and community resilience Upgrade the ponds on the property to make them the design focal point Through the Thriving Earth Exchange, the Town of Berlin connected with Dr. Ellen Silbergeld to resolve the question of how to remediate the ponds. Dr. Silbergeld is trained as an environmental engineer and public health researcher, with substantial experience in environmental issues in the poultry industry. This case study will show how one small city is working with a volunteer scientist to convert a blighted piece of property into a multi-use public space for the benefit of its residents and guests.

  15. POLARIZATION, STIGMATIZATION, RADICALIZATION. COUNTERTERRORISM AND HOMELAND SECURITY IN FRANCE AND GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mucha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the commonalities and differences of counterterrorism (CT practices applied by governments in France and Germany and their effects on the local ground. Altogether, there has been a qualitative difference of CT responses. Paris has launched more extensive measures than Berlin. Regardless of the differences, the policies of both governments lack attention towards the unintended effects of these specific measures. For instance, the concern raised by human rights organizations such as Amnesty International (AI about the prolongation of the state of emergency in France is one starting point of analysis. AI accused the French authorities of abetting home-grown radicalization as a result of the discriminate repression in marginalized suburbs of Paris. The paper’s argument is twofold: First, decision-makers in Paris and Berlin respond to terrorist threats in a one-sided and linear way. Second, they disregard that the very CT measures are likely to fuel radicalization. In this light, polarization and stigmatization breed radicalization. Based on this discussion, policy recommendations will be presented. Amongst other things, these recommendations include a more symmetric integration of local actors in the overall de-radicalization effort. This refers to the content and tone of public debates as well as to the equal treatment of prison imams.

  16. Using Airborne LiDAR and QuickBird Data for Modelling Urban Tree Carbon Storage and Its Distribution—A Case Study of Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schreyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While CO2 emissions of cities are widely discussed, carbon storage in urban vegetation has been rarely empirically analyzed. Remotely sensed data offer considerable benefits for addressing this lack of information. The aim of this paper is to develop and apply an approach that combines airborne LiDAR and QuickBird to assess the carbon stored in urban trees of Berlin, Germany, and to identify differences between urban structure types. For a transect in the city, dendrometric parameters were first derived to estimate individual tree stem diameter and carbon storage with allometric equations. Field survey data were used for validation. Then, the individual tree carbon storage was aggregated at the level of urban structure types and the distribution of carbon storage was analysed. Finally, the results were extrapolated to the entire urban area. High accuracies of the detected tree locations were reached with 65.30% for all trees and 80.1% for dominant trees. The total carbon storage of the study area was 20,964.40 t (σ = 15,550.11 t. Its carbon density equaled 13.70 t/ha. A general center-to-periphery increase in carbon storage was identified along the transect. Our approach methods can be used by scientists and decision-makers to gain an empirical basis for the comparison of carbon storage capacities between cities and their subunits to develop adaption and mitigation strategies against climate change.

  17. [Intellectual exchange between Germany and Latin America: an interview with Stefan Rinke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Stefan; da Silva, André Felipe Cândido; Junghans, Miriam; Cavalcanti, Juliana Manzoni; de Muñoz, Pedro Felipe Neves

    2014-01-01

    Current and former students of the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz interviewed German historian Stefan Rinke, of the Freie Universität Berlin, who specializes in examining the historical development of Latin America as it fits into the international context. Rinke's work uses dimensions such as economic and diplomatic relations, migratory flows, and ethnic conflict as tools in his analyses of the networks of interdependence that have tied Latin America to Europe and the USA. His lens goes beyond the Latin American continent to approach globalization as a historical process, with national and regional contexts placed within a general framework. In this interview, Rinke talks about his academic career, global and transnational history, and joint projects between Germany and Latin America.

  18. Energy efficiency 2008 - a flare-up of the most important trend of energy in Germany? Lectures; Energieeffizienz 2008 - Strohfeuer oder Deutschlands wichtigster Energietrend? Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 2st ICG meeting of Innovation Congress GmbH (Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th April, 2008 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) The course of the European Union to energy efficiency (Hans-Joachim Ziesing); (2) Energy efficiency in Berlin - the impact in the integrated climatic protection and energy program (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (3) The national energy efficiency action plan in the Federal Republic of Germany (Wolfgang Stinglwagner); (4) Energy efficiency at public utilities (Stefan Sagmeister); (5) The program 'Energy and climate 2020' of RheinEnergie AG (Stefan Wilbert); (6) Energy efficiency - The customer at a glance (Michael Klueser); (7) The energy efficiency package of RWE Rhein-Ruhr (Winfried Bappert); (8) The gas industry as a partner - The climate protection program of E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Klaus Robert Kabelitz); (9) The enercity fonds proKlima - Customer commitment by means of measures and offers of energy efficiency (Matthias von Oesen); (10) Municipal utility Duesseldorf AG contracting distribution (Thomas Nemitz); (11) Energy efficiency in the area of unbundling and economic efficiency (Ulrich Schlack); (12) Energy efficiency without much money: User behaviour and low investive measures (Cornelis Rasmussen); (13) You make the investment - we make the financing: KfW. (Eckard von Schwerin).

  19. Schooling in Germany : Structural Deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiiver, H.

    2010-01-01

    The German educational system is battling with a range of challenges exposed by the PISA studies and other publications such as the OECD's "Education at a glance". This dissertation discusses four distinct topics, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Data. In Germany, the socio-economic b

  20. Detection of Spina Bifida by First Trimester Screening - Results of the Prospective Multicenter Berlin IT-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frank Chih-Kang; Gerhardt, Janine; Entezami, Michael; Chaoui, Rabih; Henrich, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To evaluate the potential of routine assessment of intracranial translucency (IT) and other posterior brain parameters in the early detection of open spina bifida during the 11 - 14 weeks screening examination. Materials and Methods This prospective, multicenter longitudinal study was conducted with the participation of 20 certified DEGUM II or III experts in Berlin, Germany, between June 2010 and October 2013. All pregnant women undergoing a first trimester screening were included in the study and in every patient were the IT, brain stem (BS), cisterna magna (CM), BS to occipital bone distance (BSOB) and BS/BSOB ratio measured. All patients with continuing pregnancy underwent a second trimester scan. Our data was used to develop our own reference ranges. The primary outcome parameter was the presence of open spina bifida. Results A total of 15 526 women with 16 164 fetuses were examined. Median of the IT was 2.1 mm, of the CM 1.6 mm, of the BS 2.7 mm, of the BSOB 5.5 mm, and of the BS/BSOB ratio 0.49. There were 11 cases with open spina bifida (incidence of 6.8/10 000). The detection rate was 100 % and in all cases of spina bifida, the anomaly was detected either at the first examination (n = 8) or considered suspicious and the lesion then detected a few weeks later (n = 3). Considering individual measurements, however, the detection rate was 18 % with the complete absence of the IT and 45 % with cut-off values. For the CM measurement, the detection rate was 64 % with the absence of the CM and 73 % with cut-off values. The other parameters proved not to be predictive of open spina bifida. Conclusion In the hands of an expert, open spina bifida can be reliably diagnosed early in gestation during the 11 - 14 weeks screening. The measurement of different parameters of the posterior brain, especially the CM and the use of cut-off values are of tremendous benefit in achieving a high sensitivity in the detection

  1. [Hospitalization of Migrants without Health Insurance: An Explorative Study of Hospital Healthcare in Lower Saxony, Berlin and Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, M

    2016-04-01

    Different reasons prevent migrants from obtaining health insurance resulting in their exclusion from regular medical care in Germany. In case of medical emergency, hospitals are obliged by law to provide treatment. In addition, hospitals might get reimbursed for treatment expenses by social welfare authorities. This includes undocumented migrants who should not be reported to the police. However, actual legislation regarding the level of medical intervention, the principles of medical confidentiality and the conditions of reimbursement by the authorities is unclear. Thus, migrants without health insurance may be precluded from receiving urgent medical treatment. A first assessment of hospital health care for migrants without health insurance in three federal states with the intention to identify obstacles in access to in- and out-patient emergency treatment. Electronic mail survey of all non-specialized general hospitals located in the federal states of Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony, n=129), Berlin (n=46) and Hamburg (n=24). Data was anonymized and descriptively analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Rate of questionnaire return was 31.2% (n=62). Almost all hospitals had already encountered migrants without health insurance in their emergency wards (82.3%) including 72.5% undocumented migrants. 76.7% of all hospitals had submitted a subsequent emergency aid proposal to the social welfare authorities. 17.1% of them confirmed that they were reimbursed in most cases. 8.5% of all participating hospitals mostly consult the police in case migrants are not able to provide any means of identification, whereas 43.6% consult the police only in rare cases. 64.5% of all hospitals reported non-reimbursed expenses for 2011 - 2014 ranging from € 4 000 - €1.01 million. RESULTS indicate that the provision of care for people without health care insurance represents an important issue for a majority of the assessed hospitals since they have to take the responsibility for

  2. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  3. Electromobility in metropolitan regions. The case study MINI E Berlin powered by Vattenfall; Elektromobilitaet in Metropolregionen. Die Feldstudie MINI E Berlin powered by Vattenfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krems, Josef F.; Weinmann, Oliver; Weber, Julian; Westermann, Dirk; Albayrak, Sahin (eds.)

    2013-04-01

    One promising option of the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases and the promotion of the climate protection is the utilization of electric-powered vehicles. The customer acceptance and practical suitability of electric-powered vehicles are essential factors of success which are investigated within the Berlin field test 'MINI E 1.0 powered by Vattenfall' from the perspective of energy industry, vehicle manufacturer and the science. Beside the hurdles up to the establishment in the mass market, it is shown how the users with aspects specific for electric-powered vehicles interact, and how the controlled loading facilitates the optimal integration of wind power. The comprehensive collection of subjective and objective data as well as detailed information on the conception of the case study complete the contribution under consideration.

  4. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference. Papers of the Special Libraries Division: Geographical and Map, Science and Technology and Social Science Libraries Sections (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprudzs, Adolf; And Others

    This set of eight papers includes papers presented by participants from the United States, France, East Germany, the United Kingdom, West Germany, and the USSR: "Problems with Sources of Information in International Law and Relations: The Case of the World-Wide Treaty Jungle," by Adolf Sprudzs; "French Map Libraries and National and…

  5. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference. Papers of the Special Libraries Division: Geographical and Map, Science and Technology and Social Science Libraries Sections (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprudzs, Adolf; And Others

    This set of eight papers includes papers presented by participants from the United States, France, East Germany, the United Kingdom, West Germany, and the USSR: "Problems with Sources of Information in International Law and Relations: The Case of the World-Wide Treaty Jungle," by Adolf Sprudzs; "French Map Libraries and National and…

  6. [Effects of the MMR vaccination on the epidemiology of mumps in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J; Takla, A

    2013-09-01

    Mumps is an acute viral infectious disease characterized by fever and swelling and tenderness of one or more salivary glands, usually the parotid gland. Since 1976, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) has recommended a mumps vaccination as part of the routine immunization schedule in former West Germany. In East Germany, the vaccination was only introduced in 1991 after reunification. In the preceding decades, no comprehensive surveillance system existed in Germany. However, for East Germany and the successional federal states of former East Germany, data on mumps incidence are available from different Eastern surveillance systems for the time period 1968-2012. According to these data, the incidence of mumps has dropped from > 200 cases/100,000 annually in the pre-vaccine era to currently epidemiology and the increase of outbreaks among adolescents and young adults, the implementation of a nationwide mandatory notification was initiated and came into effect in March 2013. Mandatory notification enables the early detection of outbreaks and obtainment of comprehensive data for evaluation of the immunization program in place. Regarding the long-term prevention of mumps in Germany, it is hoped that--as part of the measles and rubella elimination effort--coverage rates for the second MMR dose among children will increase nationwide above 95% and existing vaccination gaps among adults will be closed.

  7. West Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    their "protecting the environment." But that was not part of the script. Heinz Fischer is standing in the background with his hands in his pockets and...political imagination still exists. Sinowatz tried to come up with same by conducting marathon meetings with his deputies—Karl Blecha, Heinz Fischer and...gov- ernment ministers Hans Apel and Volker Hauff, now candidates for mayoral posi- tions in Berlin and Frankfurt. Wolfgang Roth , one-time chairman

  8. Vocational Education and Training for the Hotel and Catering Industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. Report of a Visiting Party. Studies in Vocational Education and Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. Number Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripper, Chris, Ed.; Russell, Russ, Ed.

    A party of vocational educators from the United Kingdom (UK) traveled to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to examine West German vocational education and training for the hotel and catering industry. During the study, the investigators examined the training with respect to regulations, the content of training, and the structure of the…

  9. Vocational Education and Training for the Hotel and Catering Industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. Report of a Visiting Party. Studies in Vocational Education and Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. Number Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripper, Chris, Ed.; Russell, Russ, Ed.

    A party of vocational educators from the United Kingdom (UK) traveled to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to examine West German vocational education and training for the hotel and catering industry. During the study, the investigators examined the training with respect to regulations, the content of training, and the structure of the…

  10. Environmental contaminants in liver and kidney of free-ranging northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from three regions of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenntner, N; Krone, O; Altenkamp, R; Tataruch, F

    2003-07-01

    The northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is a top predator in the terrestrial food web of large parts of the Holarctic. Due to its sedentary nature and well-investigated feeding ecology, it represents the most suitable bird of prey species in continental Europe for monitoring environmental pollutants. We analyzed the levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and nonessential heavy metals in organ samples of 62 free-ranging northern goshawks found dead or injured in Germany from 1995 to 2001. Our results indicate significant differences in the contaminant burden of northern goshawks between three regions in Germany. Presumably, these differences were caused by different application periods and legislative restrictions before the German reunion, especially for the use of DDT in agriculture and forestry. Extraordinarily high residues of PCBs and DDE, the main metabolite of DDT, were found mainly in livers of northern goshawks inhabiting Berlin. Body condition is highly negatively correlated with the contamination level of the individual, especially for the persistent and lipophilic organochlorines and for mercury. PCB concentrations in hepatic tissue increase rapidly with age, and birds in their first summer had significantly lower levels than birds in their first winter or older. Adult female northern goshawks from Berlin had significantly higher hepatic concentrations of most of the higher-chlorinated PCBs and of cadmium than males from the same region. Cadmium residues were in general higher in renal tissue than in hepatic tissue, and cadmium levels in kidneys increased with age. Lead concentrations indicative of acute lead poisoning were detected in one bird and suggested in two others. All other heavy metal concentrations were low and represent background levels for birds of prey in Germany.

  11. Reappearance of Galerix (Erinaceomorpha, Mammalia) at the Middle to Late Miocene transition in South Germany: biostratigraphic and palaeoecologic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prieto, J.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Böhme, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of Galerix molars in the South German fossil locality Hammerschmiede 3 is interpreted as evidence for a reimmigration of West European origin into the North Alpine Foreland Basin at the transition of the Middle to Late Miocene. The brief re-appearence of Galerix in southern Germany can

  12. Changes in vegetation types and Ellenberg indicator values after 65 years of fertilizer application in the Rengen Grassland Experiment, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Hejcman, M.; Hennekens, S.M.; Schellberg, J.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does semi-natural grassland diversify after 65 years of differential application of Ca, N, P, and K fertilizers? Is fertilizer application adequately reflected by the Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs)? Location: Eifel Mountains, West Germany. Methods: The Rengen Grassland Experiment (R

  13. Radiobrightness validation on different spatial scales during the SMOS validation campaign 2010 in the Rur catchment, germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montzka, C.; Bogena, H.; Weihermueller, L.;

    2011-01-01

    with microwave emission radiometers at L-band (1.4 GHz). In this paper we present the activities performed in the Rur and Erft catchment, which is situated in the very west of Germany close to the borders to Belgium and The Netherlands. Measurements of the L-band sensors EMIRAD and HUT-2D on board a Skyvan...

  14. Changes in vegetation types and Ellenberg indicator values after 65 years of fertilizer application in the Rengen Grassland Experiment, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Hejcman, M.; Hennekens, S.M.; Schellberg, J.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does semi-natural grassland diversify after 65 years of differential application of Ca, N, P, and K fertilizers? Is fertilizer application adequately reflected by the Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs)? Location: Eifel Mountains, West Germany. Methods: The Rengen Grassland Experiment

  15. "I Asked My Parents Why a Wall Was so Important": Teaching about the GDR and Post-Reunification Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitwieser, Bernhard; Lys, Franziska

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen years after the "peaceful revolutions" brought about the collapse of communism and the reunification of East and West Germany, a heated debate rages over the legacy of communism and the continuing impact of 1989. This paper describes a new course that explores the contentious issues in this debate through the innovative use of the course…

  16. Weltkulturerbe Konstantinbasilika Trier. Wandmalerei in freier Bewitterung als konservatorische Herausforderung (ICOMOS Hefte des Deutschen Nationalkomitees LV), hg. v. Nicole Riedl, Berlin 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Wedekind, Wanja

    2013-01-01

    Weltkulturerbe Konstantinbasilika Trier. Wandmalerei in freier Bewitterung als konservatorische Herausforderung (ICOMOS Hefte des Deutschen Nationalkomitees LV, hg. v. Nicole Riedl, Berlin 2013, rezensiert von Wanja Wedekind

  17. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kowalik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said

  18. Meta Isæus-Berlin: De animerade installationerna /The Animated Installations

    OpenAIRE

    Weimarck, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    Meta Isæus-Berlin: The Animated Installations Torsten Weimarck At about the same time that I saw Meta Isæus-Berlin’s remarkable installation Ett vattenhem (A Water Home) at the Bo01 Housing Fair in Malmö I also happened to see Johannes Stjärne Nilsson and Ola Simonsson’s film Music for one appartment and six drummers which was shown as a supporting film in the cinema. It struck me that these works had interesting things to say about each other; that in spite of their manife...

  19. 125 Jahre Berliner Afrika-Konferenz : Bedeutung für Geschichte und Gegenwart

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    "Die Berliner Afrika-Konferenz vom 15. November 1884 bis zum 26. Februar 1885 im Reichstagspalais in der Wilhelmstraße jährt sich zum 125. Mal. Das öffentliche Echo ist gering; das offizielle Gedenken ist weitgehend ausgefallen. Das Auswärtige Amt sieht von Gedenkveranstaltungen ab. Kritiker wiederholen, dass eine kritische Aufarbeitung des Kolonialismus immer noch ausbleibe. In Afrika ist bis heute die Ansicht verbreitet, dass die Konferenz das 'freie Afrika' zerstört habe, künstliche Grenze...

  20. Liberdade: Hegel e os contrapontos de Ernst Tugendhat e Isaiah Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Emerson Baldotto

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo descreve e analisa o conceito hegeliano de liberdade e o contrapõe ao enfoque de dois de seus críticos: Ernst Tugendhat e Isaiah Berlin. O objetivo é a compreensão das implicações dos conceitos expostos à realidade atual, como ferramenta de interpretação dos limites de liberdade individual e social presentes nas sociedades modernas. O eixo da análise é o sistema de filosofia prática de Hegel, que mostra o conceito de liberdade como efetivação do Espírito Absoluto que só alcança su...

  1. Understanding chemical binding using the Berlin function and the reaction force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debajit; Cárdenas, Carlos; Echegaray, Eleonora; Toro-Labbe, Alejandro; Ayers, Paul W.

    2012-06-01

    We use the derivative of the electron density with respect to the reaction coordinate, interpreted through the Berlin binding function, to identify portions of the reaction path where chemical bonds are breaking and forming. The results agree with the conventional description for SN2 reactions, but they are much more general and can be used to elucidate other types of reactions also. Our analysis offers support for, and detailed information about, the use of the reaction force profile to separate the reaction coordinates into intervals, each with characteristic extents of geometry change and electronic rearrangement.

  2. Prediction and interpretation of the performance of a deep excavation in Berlin sand

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolinakou, Maria A.; Whittle, Andrew; Schran, Ute

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a generalized effective stress soil model, MIT‐S1, within a commercial finite element program, for simulating the performance of the support system for the 20m deep excavation of the M1 pit adjacent to the main station “Hauptbahnhof” in Berlin. The M1 pit was excavated underwater and supported by a perimeter diaphragm wall with a single row of prestressed anchors. Parameters for the soil model were based on an extensive program of laboratory tests on th...

  3. The Blaschka models of the Humboldt University of Berlin and their historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackethal, Sabine

    2008-03-01

    The Humboldt University of Berlin has a collection of Blaschka models which came from the teaching collection of the Zoological Institute and the former exhibition of the Museum of Natural History. Besides those from the Blaschkas other models from model makers like Adolf and Friedrich Ziegler in Freiburg, Rudolf Weisker and Paul Loth in Leipzig, Paul Osterloh, Marcus Sommer, and others were used for teaching purposes in the Zoological Institute. They were created in close cooperation between scientists, craftsmen, and artists and tell us about anatomical and zoological research of their time. The origin, history and application of different types of models are explained and compared.

  4. Competing Visions of Area Studies in the Interwar Period: The School of Oriental Languages in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Schmid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the Seminar for Oriental Languages in Berlin, the article explores competing visions on the role of area studies between two prominent Orientalists in the interwar period. It shows that tensions between blue-sky research, applied research and the provision of educational services were at the centre of this argument. In sketching the development of the academic community of Orientalists since Germany’s imperial period, it will be argued that concepts of area studies continued to be linked to visions of nationalist and expansionist foreign policies, even after 1918.

  5. Meta Isæus-Berlin: De animerade installationerna /The Animated Installations

    OpenAIRE

    Weimarck, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    Meta Isæus-Berlin: The Animated Installations Torsten Weimarck At about the same time that I saw Meta Isæus-Berlin’s remarkable installation Ett vattenhem (A Water Home) at the Bo01 Housing Fair in Malmö I also happened to see Johannes Stjärne Nilsson and Ola Simonsson’s film Music for one appartment and six drummers which was shown as a supporting film in the cinema. It struck me that these works had interesting things to say about each other; that in spite of their manife...

  6. A "Science across Europe" Link between Schools in London and Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Trevor

    1997-01-01

    Describes a project in which students exchange research and information about renewable energy. Describes exchange visits including conferences and field trips to relevant places of interest. Reveals that great Britain lags behind Germany in the use of renewable resources. (DDR)

  7. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  8. Zero-Acreage Farming in the City of Berlin: An Aggregated Stakeholder Perspective on Potential Benefits and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Specht

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available How can buildings be combined with agricultural production and what are the major potential benefits and challenges for the introduction of zero-acreage farming (ZFarming in Berlin from the relevant stakeholders’ perspectives? These questions were explored through a series of interviews and stakeholder workshops held between 2011 and 2013. The aim was to identify the most suitable building-integrated farming model for the Berlin metropolitan area and to develop guidelines for the model’s successful and sustainable implementation through a stakeholder-driven approach. This paper provides an aggregated synthesis of the outcomes derived from the qualitative interviews and stakeholder workshops. As the results reveal, the stakeholders perceive potential benefits and challenges related to the issue of ZFarming in all dimensions (economic, social, environmental and political. They largely agreed on the importance of focusing on local resources, using energy-efficient production—including social and educational aspects—and developing new market structures when introducing ZFarming to the city of Berlin. The stakeholders identified urban rooftop greenhouses (RTG as the most promising farming model for Berlin. In a joint collaboration of all stakeholders, a manual for RTG was developed within the participatory innovation process that addresses the identified problems and challenges associated with future implementation and governance of RTG in Berlin and beyond.

  9. EMAS declaration 2010 of the Federal Office for Environment Protection in Bad Elser and the updated EMAS declaration 2010 for the sites Dessau-Rosslau, Berlin-Bismarckplatz, Berlin-Marienfelde, Langen and the house 23 in Berlin-Dahlem; EMAS-Umwelterklaerung 2010 des Umweltbundesamtes in Bad Elster und aktualisierte EMAS-Umwelterklaerung 2010 fuer die UBA-Standorte Dessau-Rosslau, Berlin-Bismarckplatz, Berlin-Marienfelde, Langen und das Haus 23 in Berlin-Dahlem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckestein, Burkhard (comp.)

    2010-07-01

    Since the Federal Office for Environment Protection (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) introduced the EMAS regulation in 2001, the environmental management system continuously developed further. Since 2008, five locations fulfil the requirements of EMAS. The contribution under consideration combines the various activities according to the introduction of the EMAS regulation to Bad Elster (Federal Republic of Germany). The most important developments are described on the basis of key environmental indicators. The environmentally relevant goals and the planned measures are stated for this site. Besides this, this contribution contains the updated environmental explanation for the remaining five EMAS locations of the Federal Office for Environment Protection including the new developments of our environmental management system altogether as well as of updated environmental indicators.

  10. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Puberty Train Your Temper What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  11. East-West Couples: Distribution, Characteristics and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche Beiträge.SOEP data were used to examine relationships consisting of one partner socialised in West Germany and one in East Germany and who presently reside in the “old” (former West German or “new” (newly formed East German federal states. The estimated share of east-west couples among all marriages or cohabiting couples rises continuously within the observed period reaching approximately two and eleven percent respectively by 2009. The specific characteristics of east-west couples are that their employment-related division of labour is relatively egalitarian, above-average the partners are of different confessions and practice different religions, at least one of the partners is frequently divorced and there is also a strong tendency towards unmarried cohabitation. Besides the place of socialisation, the present place of residence has an independent impact on the economic situation, division of labour and marriage propensity. Analyses of relationship stability reveal that east-west couples exhibit a relatively high risk of separation. This is partly due to religious differences between the partners, but primarily to the low marriage propensity and the overrepresentation of divorced persons within this type of relationship.

  12. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhlke, W

    1989-01-01

    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  13. The Transformation of Agricultural Production Cooperatives in East Germany and Their Future

    OpenAIRE

    WOLZ Axel; Kopsidis, Michael, 1964-; Reinsberg, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    With the break-down of the socialist regime in East Germany in 1989/90 the collective farms had to be transformed or to be dissolved. At that time, it had been anticipated by (mostly West German) politicians and agricultural economists alike that collective farms would soon wither away and be replaced by family farms. However, even more than 15 years after transition, transformed agricultural production cooperatives (APCs) and other corporate farms dominate agricultural production. Based on l...

  14. Photovoltaic systems for Berlin. A presentation of 107 photovoltaic systems funded in the framework of the `1000 roofs` programme; Photovoltaik fuer Berlin. Eine Praesentation von 107 Photovoltaik-Anlagen gefoerdert im 1000-Daecher-Programm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, R. [comp.] [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Sonnenenergie e.V. DG, Berlin (Germany). Landesverband Berlin Brandenburg; Hielscher, T. [comp.] [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Sonnenenergie e.V. DG, Berlin (Germany). Landesverband Berlin Brandenburg

    1995-12-31

    This publication informs on PV systems installed in Berlin in the course of the `1000 roofs` programme. It is to provide information on the different variants of solar power generation systems for one-family and two-family dwellings. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Publikation informiert ueber die im 1000-Daecher-Programm in Berlin errichteten Anlagen. Sie soll Anschauungsmaterial liefern fuer die verschiedenen Varianten einer solaren Stromerzeugung, die in diesem Fall programmgemaess auf Ein- und Zweifamilienhaeuser begrenzt gewesen ist. (orig./HW)

  15. Completion of electrification between Aachen West and Montzen; Durchgehende Elektrifizierung Aachen West-Montzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzen, A. [DB Netz AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Internationale Infrastrukturangelegenheiten

    2007-05-15

    The railway line between Aachen West and Montzen (and from there on to Antwerp) is one of the most important long-distance freight lines in Europe and today carries all the rail freight moved directly between Germany and Belgium. Despite that, a part of it has still not been electrified. The line was built during the First World War, when the territory was under German occupation. The two railway infrastructure managers concerned, Infrabel (Belgium) and DB Netz (Germany), are working on plans to plug this gap in the electrification of the European freight network ready for the timetable change in December 2008. This article, penned by a specialist, describes the vicissitudes of the line's history as well as the studies and project planning for its electrification. (orig.)

  16. Enquêter sur la « diversité » à Berlin. Le cas de l’inspecteur Bobkowski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Thériault

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Comment traiter de diversité dans une organisation qui est réputée y être hostile ? Se réglant sur une démarche wébérienne, je présente dans cet article un cas, celui du commissaire Klaus Bobkowski, un enseignant responsable de la section « éducation politique » à l’Académie de police de Berlin et historien amateur. En considérant ce cas, ainsi que d’autres efforts pour composer avec la différence sous la République de Weimar (1918-1933 que j’ai enregistrés durant mon travail de terrain, je tente de faire saillir les motifs qui sous-tendent l’action des commissaires ayant contribué à la reconnaissance et à la promotion de la différence au sein des services policiers en Allemagne depuis les années 1990. En enquêtant sur ces motifs d’action, je suis en mesure de construire un idéaltype d’un « porteur de la diversité », qu’on peut lier, comme je le soutiens, à un programme libéral d’égalité civique.Investigate the “diversity” in Berlin. The case of the Inspector BobkowskiHow can one consider diversity in an organisation having a reputation for being against it? Following a weberian perspective, I present in this article such a case, that of Inspector Bobkowski, a teacher in charge of the “political education” section of the “Police Academy” of Berlin and amateur historian. In considering this case, along with other efforts to take differences into account during the Weimar Republic (1918-1933 that I recorded during my field work, I attempt to bring out the motifs which underline those actions of the police inspectors that contributed to the recognition and to the promotion of difference within the police services in Germany since the 1990s. By investigating these motifs of action, I am able to construct an ideal type of a “diversity messenger” that one can link, as I argue, to a liberal program of civic equality.Hacer encuestas en Berlín sobre la «diversidad». El caso del

  17. [Protestant healthcare? The building of denominational hospitals in Berlin during the Weimar Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangerding, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    This essay tries to show that, in the Berlin of the Weimar Republic, Protestant hospitals were built not only to relieve the suffering of the population, but also out of a sense of inferiority to a reinvigorated Catholicism. Hospitals were consequently not only places of care and healing but also of denominational self-assertion. Based on Olaf Blaschke's thesis of a "second denominational age," this contribution tries to demonstrate that the responsible Protestant agents did not make anti-Catholic proclamations at every occasion and in all the media. The founders of the "Protestant Hospital Building Association," which this essay investigates, made deliberate use of anti-Catholic resentment, expressing it boldly when approaching the Protestant elites, while playing it down deliberately when addressing the people of Berlin. With a view to the severe economic crisis and mass unemployment prevailing from 1930, they justified the building of new hospitals with the need to create work places, without making recourse to the denomination argument. The political situation, the addressees and the hope for economic success seem to have informed the representation of denominational resentments decisively. Confessionalism therefore seemed to have been not as much a question of ideology as one of strategy.

  18. Vom Geschäftsgang zum Prozess: Prozessmanagement in Bibliotheken am Beispiel der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Vonhof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag skizziert den Weg der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin bei der Implementierung eines systematischen Prozessmanagements. Basierend auf den Erfahrungen aus einem Pilotprojekt werden Vorgehensweisen und Methoden reflektiert und weiterentwickelt, die sich eignen, in einer großen, arbeitsteiligen Organisation eingesetzt zu werden. Beleuchtet werden Motivationsfaktoren für Prozessmanagement sowie neue Ansätze wie Service Blueprint und Adaptiv Case Management, die das klassische Verständnis von Prozessmanagement erweitern. The article outlines the path of the Berlin State Library working towards the implementation of a systematic process management. Based on the experience of a pilot project procedures and methods are reflected and further developed to be suitable for a large, work-sharing organization. Motivating factors for process management as well as new approaches such as Service Blueprint and Adaptive Case Management, that expand the classical understanding of process management, are covered.

  19. Restoration of artworks in the Berlin royal picture collection between 1797 and 1830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Skwirblies

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En Prusse, dans les collections royales, l'attention portée à la conservation et à la restauration des peintures s’accroît au début du XIXe siècle. L’expertise des personnes impliquées se transforme considérablement à cette époque. Les peintres vernaculaires traditionnellement employés sont remplacés par des restaurateurs français et italiens recevant des commandes. Des peintres-restaurateurs allemands prennent ensuite leurs places et se regroupent dans un atelier lié au nouveau musée de Berlin. Après une période de négligence caractérisée par des actions très limitées, des restaurations plus systématiques et contrôlées sont ainsi supervisées par les autorités dans l’institution naissante.The efforts on conservation and restoration of pictures in the Prussian royal collections increased in the first decades of the 19th century. Local painters were replaced first by French and Italian restorers, then by German professionals that founded an own workshop, related to the new public art museum in Berlin. Systematic, frugal restorations and control by the authorities superseded former disregard and selective measures.  

  20. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Douros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb-induced liver injury (HILI has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once. Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed.

  1. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  2. Investing in Germany's nuclear expertise can reap international awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    At the international expert conference, Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) in Berlin in May, there was a very welcome public admission from one of the German government's key policymakers. The director-general of the energy policy department at the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Energie - BMWi), Thorsten Herdan, said the high level of expertise available throughout Germany's nuclear energy industry was greatly valued at home and abroad and must be retained. He rightly said that the country's technical competence and know-how ''will still be needed'' - despite the country's commitment to phasing out the use of nuclear at home under the politically-inspired 'energy transition' (Energiewende). The nuclear energy industry's commitment to identifying, training and nurturing a new generation of nuclear professionals is self evident. Perhaps what is needed now is for governments such as Germany's, whether supporters of nuclear power generation or not, to do more to endorse the importance of developing nuclear expertise. In the nuclear industry, governments will find a more than willing partner in supporting the training and education of the nuclear engineers and regulators of the future.

  3. [Domestic and sexual violence against women. Implications of WHO guidelines for Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieners, Karin; Winterholler, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Domestic violence and sexual violence are widespread and have serious health effects for those affected. If the problem is identified and confidence in responding exists, healthcare providers can make a significant contribution to support and intervention. In 2013 the WHO published evidence-based guidelines for responding to the issue in healthcare, training of healthcare providers and health policy. In principle, the guidelines confirm existing recommendations, best-practice guidelines and handbooks. They also encourage a review and further development-for example, regarding the issue of sexual violence. If and how the present recommendations are put into practice in healthcare and training of healthcare staff can currently be looked at only with the use of examples, given the lack of data in Germany. Examples from Berlin show that implementation is quite possible. However, there is a lack of clear mandate, of sustainability and of obligation. Existing good practice models are highly reliant on organisations' and employees' commitment. For Germany, the WHO guidelines indicate the need to develop national standards for healthcare in cases of domestic and sexual violence. A (legal) obligation for the healthcare system should be drawn up. A systematic embedding in training curricula of health care professions is needed. Quality assurance and a systematic evaluation of the practical implementation are required.

  4. From Socialist Showcase to Mezzogiorno? Lessons on the Role of Technical Change from East Germany's Post-World War II Growth Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we emphasize the contribution of technical change, broadly defined, towards productivity growth in explaining the relative East Germany-West Germany performance during the post-World War II era. We argue that previous work was excessively focused on physical capital investments determining productivity differentials, which consequently led to an overestimation of the East German performance during the Socialist era, and an overly pessimistic assessment of the East German prospec...

  5. Wohnungsmärkte im deutschen Ost-West-Vergleich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Rothenwallner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite equal conditions after World War II, housing markets in East and West Germany had, according to the political and economic systems, developed completely different. State controlled mass production of dwellings due to planned economy is faced with house building under control of market principles. Bringing together both housing mar-kets is one of the most urgent political tasks since reunification.

  6. Zur Geschichte der Geowissenschaften im Museum für Naturkunde zu Berlin Teil 1: Aus der Vorgeschichte bis zur Gründung der Berliner Bergakademie im Jahre 1770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hoppe

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Geschichte der beiden Institute für Mineralogie und für Paläontologie des Berliner Museums für Naturkunde mit ihren sehr großen Sammlungen beginnt mit ihrer direkten Vorgängerin, der Berliner Bergakademie, die 1770 gegründet worden ist. Aber bereits vor dieser Zeit hat es in Berlin geowissenschaftliche Interessen und Betätigungen gegeben. Diese Vorgeschichte wird mit einer Zeit begonnen, in der es den Ort Berlin noch längst nicht gab. Aus der La-Tene-Zeit, die der Zeit der griechischen Antike entspricht, stammt eine Aschenurne mit einer Sammlung fossiler Mollusken, die im norddeutschen Flachland bei Bernburg gefunden wurde. Die Zusammensetzung dieser Sammlung läßt bereits ein wissenschaftliches Herangehen erkennen. Für Berlin selbst ist kurz nach Georg Agricola eine Persönlichkeit der Renaissance zu verzeichnen, Leonhard Thurneysser zum Thurn, in dessen vielfältigen Aktivitäten auch Mineralien einen Platz hatten. In gleicher Zeit war in Berlin am brandenburgischen Hofe eine Raritätenkammer vorhanden, die spätere Kunst- und Naturalienkammer. Sie existierte bis über das Jahr 1770 hinaus und enthielt auch Mineralien und Versteinerungen. Das sich hierdurch zeigende Interesse an solchen Objekten war noch recht oberflächlich. Erst die Sammlungen privater Personen, die in Berlin seit Ende des 17. Jahrhunderts entstanden sind, zeigen ein tieferes und wissenschaftliches Interesse, wenn auch in verschiedenem Maße und in unterschiedlicher Spezialisierung. Unter ihnen ragt besonders Johann Gottlob Lehmann heraus. Als vielseitiger Naturwissenschaftler und Bergrat hielt er privat Vorlesungen in Mineralogie und Bergbaukunde. Der Siebenjährige Krieg verhinderte den Ausbau und die Fortsetzung. Erst Jahre danach, 1768, reorganisierte König Friedrich II. das preußische Bergwesen und richtete 1770 die Berliner Bergakademie ein. Hierbei kam dem Arzt und Bergrat Carl Abraham Gerhard bei der Einrichtung und als Lehrkraft eine wesentliche

  7. L’œuvre d’Alan Berliner ou l’autobiographie comme l’affaire de tous

    OpenAIRE

    Lioult, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Cinéaste indépendant fascinant et inclassable, Alan Berliner a consacré 25 ans à la réalisation de films qui le conduisent d’une réflexion sur la famille en général, à la mise en question de la sienne propre, puis à une interrogation sur son identité et enfin à son autoportrait en tant qu’artiste. Ces œuvres ne se conforment pas totalement aux normes habituelles des documentaires subjectifs ou autobiographiques. Historiquement parlant, Berliner ...

  8. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  9. Regional and temporal variations in coding of hospital diagnoses referring to upper gastrointestinal and oesophageal bleeding in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbe Edeltraut

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health insurance claims data are increasingly used for health services research in Germany. Hospital diagnoses in these data are coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, German modification (ICD-10-GM. Due to the historical division into West and East Germany, different coding practices might persist in both former parts. Additionally, the introduction of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs in Germany in 2003/2004 might have changed the coding. The aim of this study was to investigate regional and temporal variations in coding of hospitalisation diagnoses in Germany. Methods We analysed hospitalisation diagnoses for oesophageal bleeding (OB and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB from the official German Hospital Statistics provided by the Federal Statistical Office. Bleeding diagnoses were classified as "specific" (origin of bleeding provided or "unspecific" (origin of bleeding not provided coding. We studied regional (former East versus West Germany differences in incidence of hospitalisations with specific or unspecific coding for OB and UGIB and temporal variations between 2000 and 2005. For each year, incidence ratios of hospitalisations for former East versus West Germany were estimated with log-linear regression models adjusting for age, gender and population density. Results Significant differences in specific and unspecific coding between East and West Germany and over time were found for both, OB and UGIB hospitalisation diagnoses, respectively. For example in 2002, incidence ratios of hospitalisations for East versus West Germany were 1.24 (95% CI 1.16-1.32 for specific and 0.67 (95% CI 0.60-0.74 for unspecific OB diagnoses and 1.43 (95% CI 1.36-1.51 for specific and 0.83 (95% CI 0.80-0.87 for unspecific UGIB. Regional differences nearly disappeared and time trends were less marked when using combined specific and unspecific diagnoses of OB or UGIB, respectively. Conclusions During the study

  10. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  11. Perspectives for Germany's Energy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann

    2006-01-01

    For various reasons, the policies governing the energy sector have a central role to play in Germany. Thus, for example, competition on the electricity and gas markets will have to be increased considerably in the course of the market's liberalization. At the same time, a secure supply of energy must also be ensured, in other words, the matters of preventing short-term power outages while ensuring the long-term availability of energy resources must be dealt with. Last but not least, the envir...

  12. WAT Office building, Karlsruhe, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, the WAT (Wasser-und Abfalltechnik GmbH) office building, with various energy-saving features, was erected in Karlsruhe, Germany. The office building, net area 1,500 m{sup 2}, incorporates: facade-integrated solar air collectors preheating the ventilation air; exhaust air extraction through a solar chimney; heat recovery from ventilation air; concrete floors with integrated air ducts and no suspended ceilings. During the design phase, TRNSYS was used to determine the performance of the building and the solar system. (author)

  13. Implications of Germany's declining defense spending

    OpenAIRE

    Merrath, Jurgen

    2000-01-01

    With its reunification on 3 October 1990, Germany regained its full sovereignty and stands now in a position of greater global responsibility. Faced with dramatically increased demands on and expectations for Germany's armed forces, it must answer the question of how much it is willing to invest for safety and stability in Europe and for protection of peace in the world. In determining the level of commitment behind Germany's foreign and security policy, defense spending is an important indic...

  14. Energy efficiency - Germany's most important energy source with an elevated potential of marketing. Lectrures; Energieeffizienz - Deutschlands wichtigste Energiequelle mit hohem Marketingpotenzial. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    At the ICG Conference of the Innovation Congress GmbH (Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany), held at the Hotel Centrovital, Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) on 31 May and 1 June 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Energy efficiency at the European level (DG TREN, Brussels, Belgium); (2) Energy efficiency as a ''highlight'' of the German EU and G8 presidency - The action plans ''Energy efficiency'' from Brussels and Berlin (F. Schafhausen); (3) Potentials of energy efficiency - Industrial customers are targeted (H. Bradtke); (4) Energy Agencies as a partner for projects of energy efficiency (N. Huettenhoelscher); (5) Energy efficiency in practice - concepts and campaigns (S. Kohler); (6) Failure of the politics in the energy efficiency - the consumer is footing the bill. (H. Krawinkel); (7) The capital goods industry as an offerer of energy efficient technology (M.F. Zelinger); (8) Customer orientation and energy efficiency in focus (J. Hogrefe); (9) Energy efficiency measures as a new area of business for public utilities (D. Attig); (10) Energy efficiency in household, commerce, and industry - chances for market partnerships (H. Meixner); (11) Energy efficiency from the view of the heating industry (H. Schulte); (12) JI and CDM - Approaches for the marketing of energy efficient solutions (M.F. Zelinger).

  15. Large fluidized bed combustion power plant unit for the supply of electricity and heat for Berlin. Pt. 1. Groesster Wirbelschicht-Kraftwerksblock zur Strom- und Fernwaermeversorgung fuer Berlin. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abroell, G. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany)); Bade, H. (Berliner Kraft- und Licht (BEWAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany)); Bietz, K.H. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Jahn, P. (EAB Energie-Anlagen Berlin GmbH (Germany))

    1991-11-01

    The Berlin Power and Light Company (Bewag) has decided to install, on the inner city site of Moabit, for the supply of electricity and district heating, a new unit with circulation atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The plant will be designed for a thermal capacity of 240 MW. The basis for this decision, and also the technical implementation, will be made public. (orig.).

  16. Large fluidized bed combustion power plant unit for the supply of electricity and heat for Berlin. Pt. 2. Groesster Wirbelschicht-Kraftwerksblock zur Strom- und Fernwaermeversorgung fuer Berlin. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abroell, G. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany)); Bade, H. (Berliner Kraft- und Licht (BEWAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany)); Bietz, K.H. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Jahn, P. (EAB Energie-Anlagen Berlin GmbH (Germany))

    1991-12-01

    The Berlin Power and Light Company (Bewag) has decided to install, on the inner city site of Moabit, for the supply of electricity and district heating, a new unit with circulation atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The plant will be designed for a thermal capacity of 240 MW. The bases for this decision, and also the technical implementation, will be made public. (orig.).

  17. 柏林中国移民调查与研究%A Survey and Study of Chinese Emigrants to Berlin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周大鸣

    2012-01-01

    以柏林中国移民为对象,深入研究其生存状态、组织状况、移民目的及意愿,展现中国移民在柏林的历史与现状。结合对德国移民政策与管理的分析,发现政策的严格与管理的不合理使中国人很难将德国视为理想的移民目标国。在丰富欧洲与德国华人移民研究的同时,指出还应当突破传统欧洲华侨华人的研究范畴。此外,认为中国应在移民研究的基础上制定合理的移民政策,促进移民与移民国的共同发展。%Focusing on the living status,composition,and emigration purposes of the Chinese emigrants to Berlin,this paper illustrates the history and present situation of these emigrants.Through the analysis of the German policies and immigration management,the study finds that the strict policies and unreasonable management make it hard for the Chinese to take Germany as an ideal immigration destination.This study not only adds to the previous studies on Chinese emigrants in Europe but also goes beyond the traditional research scope.In addition,it is proposed that China should stipulate rational emigration policies on the basis of academic studies so as to promote the common development of our emigrants and the recipient countries.

  18. Seismic risk mapping for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagunov, S.; Grünthal, G.; Wahlström, R.; Stempniewski, L.; Zschau, J.

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII-IX (EMS-98). Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with high concentration of exposed assets, the damaging implications from earthquakes must be taken seriously. In this study a methodology is presented and pursued to calculate the seismic risk from (1) intensity based probabilistic seismic hazard, (2) vulnerability composition models, which are based on the distribution of residential buildings of various structural types in representative communities and (3) the distribution of assets in terms of replacement costs for residential buildings. The estimates of the risk are treated as primary economic losses due to structural damage to residential buildings. The obtained results are presented as maps of the damage and risk distributions. For a probability level of 90% non-exceedence in 50 years (corresponding to a mean return period of 475 years) the mean damage ratio is up to 20% and the risk up to hundreds of millions of euro in the most endangered communities. The developed models have been calibrated with observed data from several damaging earthquakes in Germany and the nearby area in the past 30 years.

  19. Germany Readies For Chinese IPOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TARA; TAO

    2007-01-01

    Even the freezing cold of a Beijing winter could not stop Duke Alexander’s China visit last December. As the IPo divisional director of Deutsche Boerse AG, Alexander visited China five times in six months, with the aim of helping the first Chinese enter-prises in history to launch their IPOs on Deutsche Boerse AG. He revealed that “in the first quarter of 2007, the first Chinese enterprise will trade on the Deutsche Boerse AG.”Deutsche Boerse AG’s IPO seminar, held in Beijing, attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs looking into listing their companies in Germany. The vice president of a Beijing investment company said that his company was considering an IPO through either the London AIM or Deutsche Boerse AG. “Deutsche Boerse AG’ sfee for launching an IPO is 20 percent lower than that of AIM, but also involves addressing the requirement that the company must be estab-lished in Germany,” he said. The businessman said he was still undecided on the final destination of his company’s IPO launch. Why have there been no Chinese IPOs on the Deutsche Boerse AG in the past?Why would a Chinese enterprise want to list on the Deutsche Boerse AG? What strategies has Deutsche Boerse AG implemented to compete with other prestigious global stock exchanges? We explored these questions in an exclusive interview with Alexander.

  20. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  1. Using Machine learning method to estimate Air Temperature from MODIS over Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, F.; Preusker, R.; Sodoudi, S.; Taheri, H.; Allahbakhshi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is defined as the temperature of the interface between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere and thus it is a critical variable to understand land-atmosphere interactions and a key parameter in meteorological and hydrological studies, which is involved in energy fluxes. Air temperature (Tair) is one of the most important input variables in different spatially distributed hydrological, ecological models. The estimation of near surface air temperature is useful for a wide range of applications. Some applications from traffic or energy management, require Tair data in high spatial and temporal resolution at two meters height above the ground (T2m), sometimes in near-real-time. Thus, a parameterization based on boundary layer physical principles was developed that determines the air temperature from remote sensing data (MODIS). Tair is commonly obtained from synoptic measurements in weather stations. However, the derivation of near surface air temperature from the LST derived from satellite is far from straight forward. T2m is not driven directly by the sun, but indirectly by LST, thus T2m can be parameterized from the LST and other variables such as Albedo, NDVI, Water vapor and etc. Most of the previous studies have focused on estimating T2m based on simple and advanced statistical approaches, Temperature-Vegetation index and energy-balance approaches but the main objective of this research is to explore the relationships between T2m and LST in Berlin by using Artificial intelligence method with the aim of studying key variables to allow us establishing suitable techniques to obtain Tair from satellite Products and ground data. Secondly, an attempt was explored to identify an individual mix of attributes that reveals a particular pattern to better understanding variation of T2m during day and nighttime over the different area of Berlin. For this reason, a three layer Feedforward neural networks is considered with LMA algorithm

  2. Chemometric source identification of PCDD/Fs and other POPs in sediment cores of North-East Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M. [Ecofys GmbH (Germany); Ricking, M. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Rotard, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    A broad range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and selected heavy metals has been analysed in sediment cores of North-East Germany. The pollutants analysed include polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), several pesticides (DDT, HCH, CBz) and its metabolites as well as selected heavy metals. The sediment cores were sampled at five locations, reflecting a range of anthropogenic influences and background contamination: Arkona Basin (AK) representing a remote marine site, Lake Bugsin (BS) a background location only with atmospheric deposition, Lake Quenz (QS) close to the industrial city of Brandenburg, Teltowkanal (TK) in the suburban-industrial zone of Berlin and Lake White (WS) in the centre of Berlin. The age of the lower part of the AK, BS and TK cores were dated at 100-150 years. Results of selected pollutants (PCDD/Fs) have been presented earlier, focussing on the depth profile and the pollutant patterns. Here, a comprehensive overview of the source identification of all pollutants and the related applications of chemometric methods is presented.

  3. Gastrointestinal failure in intensive care: a retrospective clinical study in three different intensive care units in Germany and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkopf Joel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While gastrointestinal problems are common in ICU patients with multiple organ failure, gastrointestinal failure has not been given the consideration other organ systems receive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of gastrointestinal failure (GIF, to identify its risk factors, and to determine its association with ICU mortality. Methods A retrospective analysis of adult patients (n = 2588 admitted to three different ICUs (two ICUs at the university hospital Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany and one at Tartu University Clinics, Estonia during the year 2002 was performed. Data recorded in a computerized database were used in Berlin. In Tartu, the data documented in the patients' charts was retrospectively transferred into a similar database. GIF was defined as documented gastrointestinal problems (food intolerance, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and/or ileus in the patient data at any period of their ICU stay. ICU mortality, length of stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation were assessed as outcome parameters. Results GIF was identified in 252 patients (9.7% of all patients. Only 20% of GIF patients were identifiable at admission. GIF was related to significantly higher mortality (43.7% vs. 5.3% in patients without GIF, as well as prolonged length of ICU stay (10 vs. 2 days and mechanical ventilation (8 vs. 1 day, p Conclusion Gastrointestinal failure represents a relevant clinical problem accompanied by an increased mortality, longer ICU stay and mechanical ventilation.

  4. Incidence of anogenital warts in Germany: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajczyk Rafael T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papilloma virus (HPV types 6 and 11 account for 90 percent of anogenital warts (AGW. Assessment of a potential reduction of the incidence of AGW following introduction of HPV vaccines requires population-based incidence rates. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence rates of AGW in Germany, stratified by age, sex, and region. Additionally, the medical practitioner (gynaecologist, dermatologist, urologist etc. who made the initial diagnosis of AGW was assessed. Methods Retrospective cohort study in a population aged 10 to 79 years in a population-based healthcare insurance database. The database included more than 14 million insurance members from all over Germany during the years 2004-2006. A case of AGW was considered incident if a disease-free period of twelve months preceded the diagnosis. To assess regional variation, analyses were performed by federal state. Results The estimated incidence rate was 169.5/100,000 person-years for the German population aged 10 to 79 years. Most cases occurred in the 15 to 40 years age group. The incidence rate was higher and showed a peak at younger ages in females than in males. The highest incidence rates for both sexes were observed in the city-states Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen. In females, initial diagnosis of AGW was most frequently made by a gynaecologist (71.7%, whereas in males, AGW were most frequently diagnosed by a dermatologist (44.8% or urologist (25.1%. Conclusions Incidence of AGW in Germany is comparable with findings for other countries. As expected, most cases occurred in the younger age groups. The frequency of diagnoses of AGW differs between sexes and women and men receive treatment by doctors of different specialties.

  5. Aerospace Technologies of the 21st Century: New Technologies of Experimental Research and Simulation Held in Berlin, Germany on 8-9 June 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    air contours. Maxi - mal air pressure in the internal contour is 220 atm, in the middle contour- 12 atm. Maximum speed of air in the external... SWOT -**. Partner programme (corporate, major, minor partners) -t* Market overview (dynamic list) ■+■ Portfolio management (which

  6. European Symposium on X-Ray Topography and High Resolution Diffraction (2nd) Held in Berlin, Germany on 5-7 September 1994. Programme and Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-07

    N L Andrew Philips Research Laboratories, Cross-Oak Lane, Redhill, RH! 5HA, U.K. A Saced6n, E Calleja Dept. Ingenieria Electr6nica, E. T. S. I. T.. U...Matematica e Fisica - 62032 CAMERINO (Italy) * I lnst. Cryst. Russian Acad. of Science, MOSCOW (Rlussia) Si/Ge superlattices (SL) have recently

  7. 7TH International Workshop on Laser Physics (LPHYS󈨦) Berlin, Germany July 6-10, 1998 Program and Book of Abstracts: Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Russia)"Laser refractometry of biological media" Tuesday, July 7 Chairs: S. Gonchukov (Russia) and D. Sliney (USA) A. Priezzhev (Moscow, Russia) 11.00...application to the evaluation of blood flow. Optics and Laser Technology, Vol.23, No.4, p.205, 1991. LASER REFRACTOMETRY OF BIOLOGICAL MEDIA S.A. Gonchukov...measuring (fast-action). Refractometry is a classical technique. The sensitivity of traditional measuring is usually 10-4-10-7. That’s no bad. But

  8. International Workshop on Discrete Time Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Fields and Networks (2nd) Held in Berlin, Germany on October 28-29, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-29

    Diakoptics and System identification algorithms have the potential of reducing the computational cost effectively through reducing the memory requirements and...Lawton, Piano W.A. Mozart Sonate d-dur, KV. 311 Allegro con spirito Andante con espressione Rondo II C. Debussy L’Isle Joyeuse Intermission III F...of lossy, dispersive, nonlinear, and active regions as well as the skin effect and absorbing boundary conditions are treated. Emphasis is put on

  9. The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in the prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomised trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suess Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous controlled studies on the effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI - namely the use of facemasks and intensified hand hygiene - in preventing household transmission of influenza have not produced definitive results. We aimed to investigate efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of NPI in households with influenza index patients. Methods We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial during the pandemic season 2009/10 and the ensuing influenza season 2010/11. We included households with an influenza positive index case in the absence of further respiratory illness within the preceding 14 days. Study arms were wearing a facemask and practicing intensified hand hygiene (MH group, wearing facemasks only (M group and none of the two (control group. Main outcome measure was laboratory confirmed influenza infection in a household contact. We used daily questionnaires to examine adherence and tolerability of the interventions. Results We recruited 84 households (30 control, 26 M and 28 MH households with 82, 69 and 67 household contacts, respectively. In 2009/10 all 41 index cases had a influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 infection, in 2010/11 24 had an A (H1N1 pdm09 and 20 had a B infection. The total secondary attack rate was 16% (35/218. In intention-to-treat analysis there was no statistically significant effect of the M and MH interventions on secondary infections. When analysing only households where intervention was implemented within 36 h after symptom onset of the index case, secondary infection in the pooled M and MH groups was significantly lower compared to the control group (adjusted odds ratio 0.16, 95% CI, 0.03-0.92. In a per-protocol analysis odds ratios were significantly reduced among participants of the M group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.30, 95% CI, 0.10-0.94. With the exception of MH index cases in 2010/11 adherence was good for adults and children, contacts and index cases. Conclusions Results suggest that household transmission of influenza can be reduced by the use of NPI, such as facemasks and intensified hand hygiene, when implemented early and used diligently. Concerns about acceptability and tolerability of the interventions should not be a reason against their recommendation. Trial registration The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT00833885.

  10. Only part of the protoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. berliner 1715 is necessary for insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabiko, H; Held, G A; Bulla, L A

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains harboring deletion mutations of the insecticidal protoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. berliner 1715 were constructed. Although these strains did not produce intact protoxin, cell extracts from one of the mutants were extremely toxic to tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) larvae, indicating that only a part of the protoxin gene is required for insecticidal activity. Images PMID:3888110

  11. Cities and the politics of immigrant integration: a comparison of Berlin, Amsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graauw, E.; Vermeulen, F.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how the urban context, rather than national or regional context, shapes local immigrant integration policies. We draw on the integration experiences of four large European and American cities—Berlin, Amsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco—to develop a basic inductive

  12. Suspect communities—targeting violent extremism at the local level: policies of engagement in Amsterdam, Berlin, and London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout Europe, authorities have set up new policy measures and programs to curb homegrown violent extremists. This article describes local policy responses to violent Islamic extremism—and/or the mere threat of it—in the neighborhoods Oost in Amsterdam, Moabit and Soldiner Kiez in Berlin, and

  13. Great Blunders?: The Great Wall of China, the Berlin Wall, and the Proposed United States/Mexico Border Fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerbein, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the Great Wall of China and the Berlin Wall which reveals that both grew from unique political, historical, geographical, cultural, and economic circumstances. The purpose of this article is to provide new arguments for a debate that all too often has been waged with emotions, polemics, and misinformation. The…

  14. Towards a 100mA Superconducting RF Photoinjector for BERLinPro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Axel; Anders, W; Burrill, Andrew; Jankowiak, Andreas; Kamps, T; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver; Lauinger, P; Matveenko, A N; Schmeisser, M; Volker, J; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Nietubyc, R; Schubert, S G; Smedley, John; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Volkov, V; Will, I; Zaplatin, Evgeny

    2013-09-01

    For BERLinPro, a 100 mA CW-driven SRF energy recovery linac demonstrator facility, HZB needs to develop a photo-injector superconducting cavity which delivers a at least 1mm*mr emittance beam at high average current. To address these challenges of producing a high peak brightness beam at high repetition rate, at first HZB tested a fully superconducting injector with a lead cathode*,followed now by the design of a SC cavity allowing operation up to 4 mA using CW-modified TTF-III couplers and inserting a normal conducting high quantum efficiency cathode using the HZDR-style insert scheme. This talk will present the latest results and an overview of the measurements with the lead cathode cavity and will describe the design and optimization process, the first production results of the current design and an outlook to the further development steps towards the full power version.

  15. Fitness as 'social heritage': a study of elementary school pupils in Berlin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud; Reeg, Annemarie

    2006-01-01

    Health and fitness among children and adolescents is a subject currently receiving public attention. This article focuses on the fitness of German pupils (third and fourth grades) in five schools in Berlin with widely differing social catchment areas as well as children from differing social...... information on attitudes towards the issue of sport and health as well as on sporting activities. In this contribution, we concentrate on the influence of parents and schools on the fitness and motor competencies of the children. The results of the test and the survey clearly showed correlations between...... backgrounds. Besides an orthopaedic examination and measurements of height and weight, we tested the children's motor skills. In addition, a survey was carried out among pupils and their parents. For this purpose, questionnaires were developed which, besides furnishing demographic data, also provided...

  16. Die Stadt tanzt! Über den Prozess der Raumproduktion durch illegale Partys in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Remmert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wer an einem sonnigen Sonntagnachmittag durch die nahe Peripherie Berlins streift, hat große Chancen, auf eine unangemeldete, sogenannte illegale Party zu stoßen. Diese werden von unterschiedlichen Akteur_innen veranstaltet und besucht, die sich aktiv an einem Prozess der Aneignung des städtischen Raums beteiligen. Eine weitere Akteurin ist die Polizei, deren Aufgabe ist es, die Partys aufzulösen und zu unterbinden. Die Interaktion der verschiedenen Akteur_innen sowie ihre Rolle und Wirkung im Prozess der Entstehung, der Durchführung und Auflösung dieser räumlichen Situation sollen hier näher untersucht werden. Die These, dass illegale Partys Prozesse der Raumproduktion mit subversivem Potenzial sind, stützt sich auf empirische Beobachtungen sowie auf theoretische Überlegungen.

  17. De vide à espace, construire le Marx-Engels-Forum à Berlin (D)

    OpenAIRE

    Brisson, Germain; Rufer, Anne-Chantal

    2009-01-01

    «A hole has appeared in the center of town here. The symbolism is impossible to miss»1. En plein centre de Berlin, là où le siège du parlement est-allemand vient d'être éliminé, la ville veut reconstruire le château qui avait dû lui céder sa place soixante ans plus tôt. Cette initiative veut clore un débat qui dure depuis plus de quinze ans et a toujours été centré sur le Schlossareal 2, opposant les partisans d'une réutilisation du Palais de la République à ceux d'une reconstruction historiq...

  18. The Einstein dossiers science and politics - Einstein's Berlin period with an appendix on Einstein's FBI file

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Siegfried

    2004-01-01

    In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern. Siegfried Grundmann's thorough study of Einstein's participation on a committee of the League of Nations, based on archival research in Geneva, is also new. This book outlines Einstein's image in politics and German science policy. It covers the period from his appointment as a researcher in Berlin to his fight abroad against the "boycott of German science" after World War I and his struggle at home against attacks on "Jewish physics" of which he was made...

  19. Mainstreaming Urban Interventionist Practices: the Case of the BMW Guggenheim Lab in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Grubbauer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how practices of urban intervention have entered the mainstream by discussing the case of the BMW Guggenheim Lab. Financed by the German BMW group and realised by the Solomon Guggenheim Foundation, the project addresses issues of contemporary urban life in the form of a ‘mobile laboratory’ with an explicit emphasis on participatory forms of urban intervention. The Lab’s temporary residence in Berlin in 2012 encountered fierce protests from residents and activist groups.I revisit the ensuing public debates and discuss the impact they had on the project. Drawing on in-depth interviews with people involved in the Lab the various notions of participation underlying the project are examined. It is shown that the Lab generated new and unexpected encounters and individual experiences. However, for solving actual problems the debates and experiments held at the Lab were too general, too exclusive and too short-lived to be of lasting relevance.

  20. Canine distemper outbreak in raccoons suggests pathogen interspecies transmission amongst alien and native carnivores in urban areas from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida; Förster, Christine; Aue, Angelika; Wittstatt, Ulrich; Wibbelt, Gudrun; König, Matthias

    2014-11-07

    From December 2012 to May 2013, an outbreak occurred among urban wild carnivores from Berlin. We collected 97 free-ranging raccoons from the city area. PCR assays, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in 74 raccoons. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene fragments (1767 nucleotides) of CDV isolated from four raccoons showed close relation to CDV isolates from foxes from Germany and a domestic dog from Hungary; all belonging to the "Europe" lineage of CDV. These study results suggest an inter-species transmission of CDV as the origin for the outbreak among the raccoon population. Implications for domestic pets and suggested interspecies transmission between urban wildlife and raccoons are discussed. This is the first major outbreak of CDV amongst free-ranging raccoons in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.