WorldWideScience

Sample records for berkelium 240

  1. Chemistry of berkelium: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Peterson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Element 97 was first produced in December 1949, by the bombardment of americium-241 with accelerated alpha particles. This new element was named berkelium (Bk) after Berkeley, California, the city of its discovery [Thompson, Ghiorso, and Seaborg, Phys. Rev. 77, 838 (1950); 80, 781 (1950)]. In the 36 years since the discovery of Bk, a substantial amount of knowledge concerning the physicochemical properties of this relatively scarce transplutonium element has been acquired. All of the Bk isotopes of mass numbers 240 and 242 through 251 are presently known, but only berkelium-249 (β - decay, 0.125 MeV, t/sub 1/2/ = 325 days) is available in sufficient quantities for bulk chemical studies. About 0.7 gram of this isotope has been isolated at the HFIR/TRU Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in the last 18 years. Over the same time period, the scale of experimental work using berkelium-249 has increased from the tracer level to bulk studies at the microgram level to solution and solid state investigations with milligram quantities. Extended knowledge of the physicochemical behavior of berkelium is important in its own right, because Bk is the first member of the second half of the actinide series. In addition, such information should enable more accurate extrapolations to the predicted behavior of heavier elements for which experimental studies are severely limited by lack of material and/or by intense radioactivity

  2. Citric complexes of trivalent cerium and berkelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulhassa, S.

    1977-01-01

    The extraction by thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in benzene of trivalent cerium, berkelium and californium, at the indicator scale, hydrolysis and complexation by citric acid of these cations are studied. The radionuclides used were 144 Ce, 249 Bk and 249 Cf respectively γ, β and α emitters. The solvent extraction technique of the elements by TTA in benzene from a perchloric medium at the ionic stength 0.1 was employed. The distribution coefficients D were measured by the γ, β or α radiometry. Cerium and berkelium, which have a comparable redox behavior, show in solution a relatively stable valency IV. Therefore the study by solvent extraction of their trivalent form required the standing up of complete reducing conditions of these elements and their stabilization in solution at the valency III. The thermodynamic data obtained for berkelium and californium contribute to understand the chemistry of these elements and permit to complete the third 'tetrad branch' of 5f elements from Cm 3+ to Es 3+ . This tetrad effect is a manifestation of thermodynamic consequence of the 'nephelauxetic effect'. As for Ce(III), the data confirm the pronounced acid property and may be show no neglected ligand effect for f 1 configuration [fr

  3. Berkelium (4) and cerium (4) extraction with tertiary amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukova, M.S.; Malikov, D.A.; Myasoedov, B.V.

    1978-01-01

    Oxidation of indicator quantities of berkelium and cerium by a mixture of silver nitrate and ammonium persulfate in the solutions of nitric and sulfuric acid has been examined. The stability of the elements in a tetravalent state and their extraction by the solutions of ternary amines have been investigated. It has been established that berkelium and cerium oxidation under these conditions occurs under the effect of ions of divalent silver which is formed owing to oxidation of monovalent silver by peroxide sulfate ions. The following supposition has been put forward: a difference in the behaviour of tetravalent berkelium and cerium during their extraction by ternary amines is explained by their different stability in this state, but not by the formation of complex compounds with nitrate ions

  4. Chelation and stabilization of berkelium in oxidation state +IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblonde, Gauthier J.-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Rupert, Peter B.; An, Dahlia D.; Illy, Marie-Claire; Ralston, Corie Y.; Brabec, Jiri; de Jong, Wibe A.; Strong, Roland K.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2017-09-01

    Berkelium (Bk) has been predicted to be the only transplutonium element able to exhibit both +III and +IV oxidation states in solution, but evidence of a stable oxidized Bk chelate has so far remained elusive. Here we describe the stabilization of the heaviest 4+ ion of the periodic table, under mild aqueous conditions, using a siderophore derivative. The resulting Bk(IV) complex exhibits luminescence via sensitization through an intramolecular antenna effect. This neutral Bk(IV) coordination compound is not sequestered by the protein siderocalin—a mammalian metal transporter—in contrast to the negatively charged species obtained with neighbouring trivalent actinides americium, curium and californium (Cf). The corresponding Cf(III)-ligand-protein ternary adduct was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Combined with theoretical predictions, these data add significant insight to the field of transplutonium chemistry, and may lead to innovative Bk separation and purification processes.

  5. Possible stabilization of the tetravalent oxidation state of berkelium and californium in acetonitrile with triphenylarsine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.F.; Peterson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that we may have prepared Bk(IV) nitrate.nTPAs0 and Bk(IV) perchlorate.nTPAs0 complexes which formed the corresponding Cf(IV) complexes through the beta decay of Bk-249. Definitive proof should come from similar experiments with quantities of Bk-249 large enough to allow spectrophotometric detection of the characteristic f→f transitions in these berkelium and californium species. It is clear, however, that TPAs0 and acetonitrile can play a pivotal role in the stabilization of lanact(IV) species

  6. Peaceful berkelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabesinger, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The first new element produced after the Second World War has led a rather peaceful life since entering the period table -- until it became the target of those producing superheavy elements, as Andreas Trabesinger describes.

  7. 40 CFR 240.203 - General design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General design. 240.203 Section 240.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR... design. ...

  8. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in...

  9. 40 CFR 240.209 - Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety. 240.209 Section 240.209 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.209 Safety. ...

  10. 8 CFR 240.63 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 240.63 Section 240.63 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE... Cancellation of Removal Under Section 203 of Pub. L. 105-100 § 240.63 Application process. (a) Form and fees...

  11. 40 CFR 240.207 - Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aesthetics. 240.207 Section 240.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.207 Aesthetics. ...

  12. 46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas systems. 184.240 Section 184.240 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems... requirements: (a) The design, installation and testing of each LPG system must meet ABYC A-1, “Marine Liquefied...

  13. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality. ...

  14. 7 CFR 57.240 - Detaining product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detaining product. 57.240 Section 57.240 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Administrative Detention § 57.240...

  15. 16 CFR 240.15 - Cost justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost justification. 240.15 Section 240.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.15 Cost justification. It is no defense to a...

  16. 16 CFR 240.14 - Meeting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meeting competition. 240.14 Section 240.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.14 Meeting competition. A seller charged with...

  17. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b) The...

  18. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term interstate...

  19. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality. ...

  20. 46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements: (a) The design, installation and testing of each LPG system must meet ABYC A-1, “Marine Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Systems... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas systems. 121.240 Section 121.240 Shipping COAST...

  1. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents...

  2. 17 CFR 201.240 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 201.240 Section... of Practice Initiation of Proceedings and Prehearing Rules § 201.240 Settlement. (a) Availability... party to a proceeding already instituted, may, at any time, propose in writing an offer of settlement...

  3. 9 CFR 590.240 - Detaining product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detaining product. 590.240 Section 590.240 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Administrative...

  4. Fabrication of 12% 240Pu calorimetry standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.M.; Hildner, S.; Gutierrez, D.; Mills, C.; Garcia, W.; Gurule, C.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the DOE complex, laboratories are performing calorimetric assays on items containing high burnup plutonium. These materials contain higher isotopic range and higher wattages than materials previously encountered in vault holdings. Currently, measurement control standards have been limited to utilizing 6% 240 Pu standards. The lower isotopic and wattage value standards do not complement the measurement of the higher burnup material. Participants of the Calorimetry Exchange (CALEX) Program have identified the need for new calorimetric assay standards with a higher wattage and isotopic range. This paper describes the fabrication and verification measurements of the new CALEX standard containing 12% 240 Pu oxide with a wattage of about 6 to 8 watts

  5. 14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... lands, buildings, equipment, accounts, records, memorandums, papers or correspondence shall include the... other duties imposed upon him by law. Under the Federal Aviation Act and part 240 of the Economic...

  6. 33 CFR 240.5 - Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CREDIT FOR FLOOD CONTROL § 240.5 Discussion. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the Conference Report, H.R. Rpt. No. 99-1013, which accompanies H.R. 6. The House passed version of the bill... compatible work completed by local interests. The Senate passed version authorized crediting of compatible...

  7. 17 CFR 240.16c-4 - Derivative securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16c-4 Section 240.16c-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(c) § 240.16c-4 Derivative securities...

  8. 21 CFR 1.240 - What other registration requirements apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What other registration requirements apply? 1.240 Section 1.240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Registration of Food Facilities Additional Provisions § 1.240 What other...

  9. 7 CFR 240.7 - Payments to States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... designated State Officials of a Payment Voucher on Letter of Credit (Treasury Form GFO 7578) in accordance... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments to States. 240.7 Section 240.7 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CASH IN LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.7 Payments to States. (a) Funds to be paid...

  10. 16 CFR 240.12 - Checking customer's use of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking customer's use of payments. 240.12 Section 240.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.12 Checking customer's use of...

  11. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer's and third party liability. 240.13 Section 240.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.13 Customer's and third party...

  12. 16 CFR 240.2 - Applicability of the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of the law. 240.2 Section 240.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.2 Applicability of the law. (a) The...

  13. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms. (a...

  14. 16 CFR 240.3 - Definition of seller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of seller. 240.3 Section 240.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.3 Definition of seller. Seller includes any...

  15. 16 CFR 240.1 - Purpose of the Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose of the Guides. 240.1 Section 240.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.1 Purpose of the Guides. The purpose of these...

  16. 16 CFR 240.7 - Services or facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Services or facilities. 240.7 Section 240.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.7 Services or facilities. The terms services...

  17. 16 CFR 240.8 - Need for a plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Need for a plan. 240.8 Section 240.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.8 Need for a plan. A seller who makes payments...

  18. 16 CFR 240.4 - Definition of customer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of customer. 240.4 Section 240.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.4 Definition of customer. A customer is any...

  19. 17 CFR 240.16c-1 - Brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brokers. 240.16c-1 Section 240... Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(c) § 240.16c-1 Brokers. Any transaction... a broker of an order for an account in which the broker has no direct or indirect interest. ...

  20. Nuclear viscosity of hot rotating 240Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, N. P.; Dioszegi, I.; Mazumdar, I.; Buda, A.; Morton, C. R.; Velkovska, J.; Beene, J. R.; Stracener, D. W.; Varner, R. L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2000-01-01

    The absolute γ-ray/fission multiplicities from hot rotating 240 Cf, populated at seven bombarding energies using the reaction 32 S+ 208 Pb, are reported. Statistical model calculations including nuclear dissipation have been performed to extract the dependence of the nuclear viscosity on temperature and/or nuclear deformation. The extracted nuclear dissipation coefficient is found to be independent of temperature. Large dissipation during the saddle to scission path provides a good fit to the γ-ray spectra. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. TRAP230/ARC240 and TRAP240/ARC250 Mediator subunits are functionally conserved through evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Camilla O; Baraznenok, Vera; Khorosjutina, Olga

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator, a subgroup of proteins (Srb8, Srb9, Srb10, and Srb11) form a module, which is involved in negative regulation of transcription. Homologues of Srb10 and Srb11 are found in some mammalian Mediator preparations, whereas no clear homologues have been reported...... for Srb8 and Srb9. Here, we identify a TRAP240/ARC250 homologue in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and demonstrate that this protein, spTrap240, is stably associated with a larger form of Mediator, which also contains conserved homologues of Srb8, Srb10, and Srb11. We find that spTrap240 and Sch. pombe Srb8 (sp......Srb8) regulate the same distinct subset of genes and have indistinguishable phenotypic characteristics. Importantly, Mediator containing the spSrb8/spTrap240/spSrb10/spSrb11 subunits is isolated only in free form, devoid of RNA polymerase II. In contrast, Mediator lacking this module associates...

  2. 20 CFR 627.240 - On-the-job training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false On-the-job training. 627.240 Section 627.240... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.240 On-the-job training. (a) General—(1) On-the-job training (OJT) means training by an employer in the private or public sector given...

  3. 40 CFR 240.205-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air pollution control technology. (b) All emissions, including dust from vents, should be controlled. ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.205-2 Section 240.205-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  4. 17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b... Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities...). Note to paragraph (b): The exercise or conversion of a derivative security that does not satisfy the...

  5. 17 CFR 240.16a-6 - Small acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (including securities underlying derivative securities, but excluding acquisitions exempted by rule from... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small acquisitions. 240.16a-6 Section 240.16a-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  6. 49 CFR 240.3 - Application and responsibility for compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of transportation; or (2) Rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not connected to the... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application and responsibility for compliance. 240.3 Section 240.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  7. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of Interest Review Board to assist in resolving organizational conflicts of interest. (b) Resolution: Resolution of...

  8. 40 CFR 240.202-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240... § 240.202-2 Recommended procedures: Design. (a) Whenever possible, thermal processing facilities should be located in areas zoned for industrial use and having adequate utilities to serve the facility. (b...

  9. 40 CFR 240.211-3 - Recommended procedures: Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 240.211-3 Section 240.211-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., quality, production totals and consumption rates should be recorded. (9) Auxiliary fuel used each shift... instruments. (13) Problems encountered and methods of solution. (d) An annual report should be prepared which...

  10. 16 CFR 240.5 - Definition of competing customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of competing customers. 240.5... ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.5 Definition of competing customers. Competing customers are all businesses that compete in the resale of the seller's products of like grade and...

  11. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-3 - Limitations on expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on expansion. 240... expansion. (a) Any registered transfer agent which is required to file any notice pursuant to § 240.17Ad-2 (c) or (d) for each of three consecutive months shall not from the fifth business day after the end...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 240 - Medical Standards Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical Standards Guidelines F Appendix F to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... F Appendix F to Part 240—Medical Standards Guidelines (1) The purpose of this appendix is to provide...

  13. Processing of Niobium-Lined M240 Machine Gun Barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Fig. 5 Finished niobium-lined M240 machine gun barrel with flash suppressor attached ..........11 Fig. 6 End of barrel 1 showing small amount of...the finished barrel is shown in Fig. 5. 11 Fig. 5 Finished niobium-lined M240 machine gun barrel with flash suppressor attached Firing tests

  14. 40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.240-94 Section 86.240-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium...

  15. 17 CFR 240.13d-5 - Acquisition of securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of each member's business and not with the purpose nor with the effect of changing or influencing... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquisition of securities. 240.13d-5 Section 240.13d-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  16. 31 CFR 240.13 - Indorsement by payees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indorsement by payees. 240.13 Section 240.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... indorsed by the payee in a form recognized by general principles of law and commercial usage for...

  17. D2-40/podoplanin expression in the human placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Sun, Jingxia; Gu, Yang; Zhao, Shuang; Groome, Lynn J.; Alexander, J. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Placental tissue expresses many lymphatic markers. The current study was undertaken to examine if D2-40/podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial marker, was expressed in the human placentas, and how it is altered developmentally and pathologically. We studied D2-40/podoplanin and VEGFR-3 expressions in placentas from normotensive pregnancies at different gestational ages and in placentas from women with clinically defined preeclampsia. D2-40 expression in systemic lymphatic vessel endothelium served as a positive control. Protein expression for D2-40, VEGFR-3, and β-actin were determined by Western blot in placentas from normotensive (n=6) and preeclamptic (n=5) pregnancies. Our results show that D2-40/podoplanin was strongly expressed in the placenta, mainly as a network plexus pattern in the villous stroma throughout gestation. CD31 was limited to villous core fetal vessel endothelium and VEGFR-3 was found in both villous core fetal vessel endothelium and trophoblasts. D2-40/podoplanin expression was significantly decreased, and VEGFR-3 significantly increased in preeclamptic placental tissues compared to normotensive placental controls. Placental villous stroma is a reticular-like structure, and the localization of D2-40 to the stroma suggests that a lymphatic-like conductive network may exist in the human placenta. D2-40/podoplanin is an O-linked sialoglycoprotein. Although little is known regarding biological functions of sialylated glycoproteins within the placenta, placental D2-40/podoplanin may support fetal vessel angiogenesis during placenta development and reduced D2-40/podoplanin expression in preeclamptic placenta may contribute to altered interstitial fluid homeostasis and impaired angiogenesis in this pregnancy disorder. PMID:21095001

  18. 17 CFR 240.10A-2 - Auditor independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Auditor independence. 240.10A... Exchange Act of 1934 Reports Under Section 10a § 240.10A-2 Auditor independence. It shall be unlawful for an auditor not to be independent under § 210.2-01(c)(2)(iii)(B), (c)(4), (c)(6), (c)(7), and § 210.2...

  19. 17 CFR 240.17h-2T - Risk assessment reporting requirements for brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for brokers and dealers. 240.17h-2T Section 240.17h-2T Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Organizations § 240.17h-2T Risk assessment reporting requirements for brokers and dealers. (a) Reporting requirements of risk assessment information required to be maintained by section 240.17h-1T. (1) Every broker...

  20. Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/ Pu-239 atom ratios in the water column off Sanriku, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo

    2013-04-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami occurred in the Pacific Ocean off northern Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 which caused severe damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has resulted in a substantial release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and ocean, and has caused extensive contamination of the environment. However, no information is available on the amounts of radionuclides such as Pu isotopes released into the ocean at this time. Investigating the background baseline concentration and atom ratio of Pu isotopes in seawater is important for assessment of the possible contamination in the marine environment. Pu-239 (half-life: 24,100 years), Pu-240 (half-life: 6,560 years) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 years) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater samples collected in the western North Pacific off Sanriku before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant will provide useful background baseline data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing additional Pu sources. Seawater samples were collected with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the KH-98-3 cruise of the R/V Hakuho-Maru. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations were 2.07 and 1.67 mBq/m3 in the surface water, respectively, and increased with depth; a subsurface maximum was identified at 750 m depth, and the concentrations decreased with depth, then increased at the bottom layer. The total Pu-239+240 inventory in the entire water column (depth interval 0

  1. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a....16a-4 Derivative securities. (a) For purposes of section 16 of the Act, both derivative securities and... securities, except that the acquisition or disposition of any derivative security shall be separately...

  2. 16 CFR 240.10 - Availability to all competing customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are furnished by the seller, or payments by the seller to customers for their advertising or promotion... GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.10 Availability to... advertising on radio, TV, or in newspapers of general circulation. Because the purchases of some of the...

  3. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-15 - Signature guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-15 Signature... Securities Exchange Act of 1934; (2) Eligible Guarantor Institution means: (i) Banks (as that term is defined... the transfer agent maintains a list of people authorized to act on behalf of that guarantor...

  4. Evaluation of the neutron cross sections for Pu-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, L.W.; Arthur, E.D.

    1987-04-01

    The present evaluation is proposed to supersede the ENDF/B-V, Revision 2 file for 240 Pu. In this work, resonance parameters, cross sections, energy distributions, and angular distributions have been modified. These changes are outlined in detail and appropriate references included. 37 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  5. 17 CFR 240.15d-2 - Special financial report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special financial report. 240....15d-2 Special financial report. (a) If the registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933 did... registration statement, file a special report furnishing certified financial statements for such last full...

  6. Polarization observations of DA240: structure of a hotspot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsien, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    We present observations of the large-scale structure of the giant radio galaxy DA 240 at 0.15 and 1.4 GHz and high-resolution observations of the hotspot in its eastern lobe at 2.7 and 5.0 GHz. It is shown that the large-scale structure of DA 240 at 0.15 GHz is closely similar to that at 1.4 GHz. An age of about 4 x 10 7 yr is estimated from the spectral index. The hotspot contains a compact component of approximately 2 in size, and is strongly polarized, up to 50 to 60 per cent in its south-east region. The projected magnetic field in the hotspot runs nearly parallel to the two main elongated subcomponents. The thermal electron density in the hotspot is estimated to be -5 cm -3 . (author)

  7. Unsafe Coulomb excitation of $^{240-244}Pu$

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedenhöver, I; Hackman, L; Ahmad, I; Greene, J P; Amro, H; Carpenter, M P; Nisius, D T; Reiter, P; Lauritsen, T; Lister, C J; Khoo, T L; Siem, S; Cizewski, J A; Seweryniak, D; Uusitalo, J; Macchiavelli, A O; Chowdhury, P; Seabury, E H; Cline, D; Wu, C Y

    1999-01-01

    The high spin states of /sup 240/Pu and /sup 244/Pu have been investigated with GAMMASPHERE at ATLAS, using Coulomb excitation with a /sup 208/Pb beam at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Data on a transfer channel leading to /sup 242/Pu were obtained as well. In the case of /sup 244/Pu, the yrast band was extended to 34h(cross), revealing the completed pi i/sub 13/2/ alignment, a "first" for actinide nuclei. The yrast sequence of /sup 242/Pu was also extended to higher spin and a similar backbend was delineated. In contrast, while the ground state band of /sup 240/Pu was measured up to the highest rotational frequencies ever reported in the actinide region (~300 keV), no sign of particle alignment was observed. (11 refs).

  8. Dynamic effect analysis in 240Pu fission at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patin, Y.; Lachkar, J.; Sigaud, J.

    1975-01-01

    The variations of kinetic and excitation energies and fragment masses have been analyzed as a function of the fissioning nucleus excitation energy. Most interest has been taken in the fission of 240 Pu where many experimental data have been reported. The results tend, in the whole, to illustrate the existence of two modes of fission; the first one is superfluid, the other is strongly damped in the last stage of the fission process [fr

  9. 239,240Pu distribution in the Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi

    1996-01-01

    Distribution of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the Japanese were reviewed, and compared with those estimated with ICRP metabolic models. Inhalation and ingestion amount of these nuclides were calculated from simple models, and used as input to the ICRP metabolic models. ICRP-30 model or the combination of ICRP-66 lung model and ICRP-67 metabolic model were used for the calculation. The estimated 239,240 Pu concentrations in lung, liver, skeleton, kidney and muscle by using of the combination of ICRP-66 and 67 models agreed well with the measured data in most cases. The contribution of ingestion intake to body burden of 239,240 Pu was estimated to be 12% with 5 x 10 -4 as f 1 value. The combination of ICRP-66 and 67 model could described fairly well the organ burden of 241 Am measured in Akita and Niigata district. The 241 Am grown from 241 Pu in the human body was calculated to contribute 90% of the burden. (author)

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1e - Deductions for market and credit risk for certain brokers or dealers (Appendix E to 17 CFR 240...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... credit risk for certain brokers or dealers (Appendix E to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1e Section 240....15c3-1(c)(2)(vi) and (c)(2)(vii) and to compute deductions for credit risk pursuant to this Appendix E... the broker or dealer will use to calculate deductions for market and credit risk on those categories...

  11. 17 CFR 240.13b2-1 - Falsification of accounting records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Falsification of accounting records. 240.13b2-1 Section 240.13b2-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Reports § 240.13b2-1 Falsification of accounting records. No person shall directly or indirectly...

  12. 49 CFR 240.211 - Procedures for making the determination on performance skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance skills. 240.211 Section 240.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... determination on performance skills. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially certifying or recertifying any person... demonstrated, in accordance with the requirements of § 240.127 of this part, the skills to safely operate...

  13. 17 CFR 240.16a-3 - Reporting transactions and holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Act, except: (A) Exercises and conversions of derivative securities exempt under either § 240.16b-3 or... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting transactions and holdings. 240.16a-3 Section 240.16a-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  14. 17 CFR 240.3b-13 - Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument. 240.3b-13 Section 240.3b-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-13 Definition of eligible OTC derivative...

  15. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-21T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.17Ad-21T Section 240.17Ad-21T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-21T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies...

  16. 17 CFR 240.12f-3 - Termination or suspension of unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-3 Section 240.12f-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-3 Termination or suspension of unlisted trading privileges. (a) The issuer of any security for which unlisted trading privileges...

  17. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate unlisted...

  18. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments. 27.240 Section 27.240 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.240 Review and approval...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15g-6 - Account statements for penny stock customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stock customers. 240.15g-6 Section 240.15g-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 240.15g-6 Account statements for penny stock customers. (a) Requirement. It shall be unlawful for any broker or dealer that has effected the sale to any customer, other than in a transaction that is exempt...

  20. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-13 - Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal accounting control. 240.17Ad-13 Section 240.17Ad-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-13 Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control. (a) Accountant's... accountant concerning the transfer agent's system of internal accounting control and related procedures for...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15d-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.15d-20 Section 240.15d-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.15d-20 Plain English presentation of...

  2. 17 CFR 240.13a-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.13a-20 Section 240.13a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-20 Plain English presentation of...

  3. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation. 240.15c1-2 Section 240.15c1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and...

  4. 33 CFR 96.240 - What functional requirements must a safety management system meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a safety management system meet? 96.240 Section 96.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.240 What functional...

  5. 17 CFR 240.16b-7 - Mergers, reclassifications, and consolidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial statements for a 12 month period before the merger, reclassification or consolidation, or such..., and consolidations. 240.16b-7 Section 240.16b-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...) § 240.16b-7 Mergers, reclassifications, and consolidations. (a) The following transactions shall be...

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ an...

  7. 40 CFR 436.240 - Applicability; description of the diatomite subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the diatomite subcategory. 436.240 Section 436.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Diatomite Subcategory § 436.240 Applicability;...

  8. 17 CFR 240.15b2-2 - Inspection of newly registered brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brokers and dealers. 240.15b2-2 Section 240.15b2-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Registration of Brokers and Dealers § 240.15b2-2 Inspection of newly registered brokers and dealers. (a) Definition. For the purpose of this section the term...

  9. 17 CFR 240.15g-4 - Disclosure of compensation to brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brokers or dealers. 240.15g-4 Section 240.15g-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 240.15g-4 Disclosure of compensation to brokers or dealers. Preliminary Note: Brokers and dealers may..., and dominated and controlled markets. (a) Disclosure requirement. It shall be unlawful for any broker...

  10. 17 CFR 240.17a-7 - Records of non-resident brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brokers and dealers. 240.17a-7 Section 240.17a-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-7 Records of non-resident brokers and dealers. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each non-resident broker or dealer registered or applying for...

  11. 17 CFR 240.17a-11 - Notification provisions for brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brokers and dealers. 240.17a-11 Section 240.17a-11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-11 Notification provisions for brokers and dealers. (a) This section shall apply to every broker or dealer registered with the Commission pursuant to section 15 of the Act. (b)(1...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15b1-1 - Application for registration of brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of brokers or dealers. 240.15b1-1 Section 240.15b1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Registration of Brokers and Dealers § 240.15b1-1 Application for registration of brokers or dealers. (a) An application for registration of...

  13. 17 CFR 240.15a-1 - Securities activities of OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... options, forwards, futures, swap agreements, or collars involving currencies, interest or other rates... derivatives dealers. 240.15a-1 Section 240.15a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Otc Derivatives Dealers § 240.15a-1...

  14. Electronic structure and static dipole polarizability of C60-C240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zope, Rajendra R

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure of C 60 -C 240 and its first-order response to a static electric field is studied by an all-electron density functional theory calculation using large polarized Gaussian basis sets. Our results show that the outer C 240 shell almost completely shields the inner C 60 as inferred from the practically identical values of dipole polarizability of the C 60 -C 240 onion (449 A 3 ) and that of the isolated C 240 fullerene (441 A 3 ). The C 60 -C 240 is thus a near-perfect Faraday cage

  15. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1d - Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfactory Subordination...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-1d Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). (a) Introduction. (1) This Appendix sets forth minimum and non-exclusive requirements for satisfactory...

  16. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Data Analysis Guide - Berkelium Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This is a data analysis guide to the JINR system developed by Roger Henderson. It is intended as a complete guide to the data format and the calibration parameters utilized for the analysis of the data. This guide will provide the basic structure of the data files, the description of the individual data items, and the basic equations developed for the calculation of the results. Currently (7/17/2009), calculation of the calibration parameters is not a covered topic. It is intended that this will be covered in a future update

  17. Chelation and stabilization of berkelium in oxidation state +IV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deblonde, G. J.-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M.; Rupert, P. B.; An, D. D.; Illy, M.-C.; Ralston, C. Y.; Brabec, Jiří; de Jong, W. A.; Strong, R. K.; Abergel, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2017), s. 843-849 ISSN 1755-4330 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : bioorganic chemistry * chemical bonding * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 25.870, year: 2016

  18. Unsafe Coulomb excitation of 240-244Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Cizewski, J.; Cline, D.; Greene, J. P.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Nisius, D. T.; Reiter, P.; Seabury, E. H.; Seweryniak, D.; Siem, S.; Uusitalo, J.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Wu, C. Y.

    1999-01-01

    The high spin states of 240 Pu and 244 Pu have been investigated with GAMMASPHERE at ATLAS, using Coulomb excitation with a 208 Pb beam at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Data on a transfer channel leading to 242 Pu were obtained as well. In the case of 244 Pu, the yrast band was extended to 34h b ar revealing the completed πi 13/2 alignment, a ''first'' for actinide nuclei. The yrast sequence of 242 Pu was also extended to higher spin and a similar backbend was delineated. In contrast, while the ground state band of 240 Pu was measured up to the highest rotational frequencies ever reported in the actinide region (approximately300 keV), no sign of particle alignment was observed. In this case, several observable such as the large B(E1)/B(E2) branching ratios in the negative parity band, and the vanishing energy staggering between the negative and positive parity bands suggest that the strength of octupole correlations increases with rotational frequency. These stronger correlations may well be responsible for delaying or suppressing the πi 13/2 particle alignment

  19. Energy balance and deformation at scission in 240Pu fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Caamaño

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental determination of the total excitation energy, the total kinetic energy, and the evaporation neutron multiplicity of fully identified fragments produced in transfer-induced fission of 240Pu, combined with reasonable assumptions, permits to extract the intrinsic and collective excitation energy of the fragments as a function of their atomic number, along with their quadrupole deformation and their distance at scission. The results show that the deformation increases with the atomic number, Z, except for a local maximum around Z=44 and a minimum around Z=50, associated with the effect of deformed shells at Z∼44, N∼64, and spherical shells in 132Sn, respectively. The distance between the fragments also shows a minimum around Z1=44, Z2=50, suggesting a mechanism that links the effect of structure with the length of the neck at scission.

  20. Detailed spectroscopy in the superdeformed second minimum of 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirolf, P.G.; Gassmann, D.; Habs, D.; Chromik, M.J.; Eisermann, Y.; Graw, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Maier, H.J.; Metz, A.; Reiter, P.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Superdeformed prolate nuclei, having an axis ratio of about 2:1, have first been discovered in fission isomers in the actinide region almost 40 years ago by Polikanov et al.. Their interpretation of being the result of microscopic shell corrections on top of the macroscopic liquid drop potential leading to a second minimum in the nuclear potential energy surface is well established. 240 Pu with its 3.7 ns fission isomer may be regarded as the prototype nucleus for spectroscopic studies of superdeformed actinide nuclei since the identification of the ground state rotational band in conversion electron measurements [1]. Though from the knowledge on excited states in the first minimum and previous measurements in the second minimum low-lying collective excitations in the second minimum low-lying collective excitations in the second well of 240 Pu can be expected, none of them has been experimentally identified so far. Quite surprisingly, no low-lying collective quadrupole excitations could be observed in a recent detailed high-resolution and high-efficiency γ-spectroscopy experiment [2]. Complementary information could be obtained in conversion electron measurements in coincidence with isomeric fission performed at the Garching Accelerator Laboratory, resulting in the first identification of the lowest β-vibrational band [3]. In a combined analysis of the γ-spectroscopic and conversion electron data conversion coefficients α K or limits on α K could be deduced, thus allowing to determine the multipolarities of the transitions. A predominant population of negative parity states in the second well could be observed that can be explained by the filtering function of the inner and outer fission barrier. Complementary transmission resonance measurements have been performed, yielding new information on the fine structure of (β-)vibrational multi-phonon states. A new method could be established to determine the excitation energy of

  1. Expansion and contraction of the DUP240 multigene family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Leh-Louis, Véronique; Wirth, Bénédicte; Potier, Serge; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Despons, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    The influence of duplicated sequences on chromosomal stability is poorly understood. To characterize chromosomal rearrangements involving duplicated sequences, we compared the organization of tandem repeats of the DUP240 gene family in 15 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of various origins. The DUP240 gene family consists of 10 members of unknown function in the reference strain S288C. Five DUP240 paralogs on chromosome I and two on chromosome VII are arranged as tandem repeats that are highl...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  3. 17 CFR 240.36a1-2 - Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.36a1-2 Section 240.36a1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations...

  4. 17 CFR 240.16a-13 - Change in form of beneficial ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exercise or conversion of a derivative security or deposit into or withdrawal from a voting trust, that... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in form of beneficial ownership. 240.16a-13 Section 240.16a-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  5. 17 CFR 240.3a51-1 - Definition of “penny stock”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), including hybrid products and derivative securities products, the national securities exchange or registered... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âpenny stockâ. 240.3a51-1 Section 240.3a51-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  6. 17 CFR 240.17d-1 - Examination for compliance with applicable financial responsibility rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cooperation and coordination among self-regulatory organizations, and the development of a national market... with applicable financial responsibility rules. 240.17d-1 Section 240.17d-1 Commodity and Securities... financial responsibility rules. (a) Where a member of SIPC is a member of more than one self-regulatory...

  7. 17 CFR 240.16b-5 - Bona fide gifts and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bona fide gifts and inheritance. 240.16b-5 Section 240.16b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... gifts and inheritance. Both the acquisition and the disposition of equity securities shall be exempt...

  8. 17 CFR 240.3b-15 - Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... governing body of the dealer and included in the internal risk management control system for the dealer... of incidental trading activities for portfolio management purposes; and (3) Are limited to risk... portfolio management securities activities. 240.3b-15 Section 240.3b-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  9. 17 CFR 240.12d2-1 - Suspension of trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of trading. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Suspension of Trading, Withdrawal, and Striking from Listing and Registration § 240.12d2-1 Suspension of trading. (a) A national securities exchange may suspend from trading a...

  10. Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    ARL-TR-7662 ● APR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25...Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25 by William S de Rosset and Sean Fudger Weapons and Materials Research...

  11. 17 CFR 240.10b-5 - Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fraud or deceit upon any person, in connection with the purchase or sale of any security. (Sec. 10; 48... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices. 240.10b-5 Section 240.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  12. 16 CFR 240.11 - Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations. 240.11 Section 240.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES...

  13. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative percent... later than every three years from the year the limits of liability were last adjusted for inflation, the...

  14. 17 CFR 240.3b-2 - Definition of “officer”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âofficerâ. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-2 Definition of “officer”. The term officer means a... accounting officer, and any person routinely performing corresponding functions with respect to any...

  15. Electronic structure and static dipole polarizability of C{sub 60}-C{sub 240}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zope, Rajendra R [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79958 (United States)

    2008-04-28

    The electronic structure of C{sub 60}-C{sub 240} and its first-order response to a static electric field is studied by an all-electron density functional theory calculation using large polarized Gaussian basis sets. Our results show that the outer C{sub 240} shell almost completely shields the inner C{sub 60} as inferred from the practically identical values of dipole polarizability of the C{sub 60}-C{sub 240} onion (449 A{sup 3}) and that of the isolated C{sub 240} fullerene (441 A{sup 3}). The C{sub 60}-C{sub 240} is thus a near-perfect Faraday cage.

  16. 240 nm UV LEDs for LISA test mass charge control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunde, Taiwo; Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Serra, Paul; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2015-05-01

    Test Masses inside the LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor must maintain almost pure geodesic motion for gravitational waves to be successfully detected. LISA requires residual test mass accelerations below 3 fm/s2/√Hz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. One of the well-known noise sources is associated with the charges on the test masses which couple to stray electrical potentials and external electromagnetic fields. LISA Pathfinder will use Hg-discharge lamps emitting mostly around 254 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission in its 2015/16 flight. A future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV-LEDs. Presented here is a preliminary study of the effectiveness of charge control using latest generation UV-LEDs which produce light at 240 nm with energy above the work function of pure Au. Their lower mass, better power efficiency and small size make them an ideal replacement for Hg lamps.

  17. 240 nm UV LEDs for LISA test mass charge control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olatunde, Taiwo; Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Serra, Paul; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2015-01-01

    Test Masses inside the LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor must maintain almost pure geodesic motion for gravitational waves to be successfully detected. LISA requires residual test mass accelerations below 3 fm/s 2 /√Hz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. One of the well-known noise sources is associated with the charges on the test masses which couple to stray electrical potentials and external electromagnetic fields. LISA Pathfinder will use Hg-discharge lamps emitting mostly around 254 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission in its 2015/16 flight. A future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV-LEDs. Presented here is a preliminary study of the effectiveness of charge control using latest generation UV-LEDs which produce light at 240 nm with energy above the work function of pure Au. Their lower mass, better power efficiency and small size make them an ideal replacement for Hg lamps. (paper)

  18. Oromandibular Dystonia: Demographics and Clinical Data from 240 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Slaim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report demographic data from a large cohort of patients with oromandibular dystonia (OMD. Methods This is a retrospective review of patients with OMD referred to our institution between 1989 and 2015. Demographic (age of onset, gender, and familial history of dystonia and clinical (type of OMD, associated dystonia, and etiology of dystonia data were collected from a cohort of 240 individuals. Results The mean age of onset of OMD was 51.6 years old, with a female predominance (2:1. A family history of dystonia was found in 6 patients (2.5%. One hundred and forty-nine patients (62.1% had the jaw-opening type of OMD, 48 patients (20.0% had the jaw-closing type, and 43 patients (17.9% had a mixed form of OMD. Lingual dystonia was also present in 64 (26.7% of these patients. Eighty-two patients (34.2% had a focal dystonia, 131 patients (54.6% had a segmental dystonia, and 27 patients (11.3% had a generalized dystonia. One hundred and seventy-one patients (71.3% had idiopathic OMD. Conclusion OMD is a chronic and disabling focal dystonia. Our study found a prevalence of female patients, an onset in middle age and a predominantly idiopathic etiology. Unlike other studies, jaw-opening was found to be the most frequent clinical type of OMD.

  19. Giant Double Radio Source DA 240: Purveyor of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-Rong; Strom, Richard; Peng, Bo

    2018-05-01

    Galaxies of stars are building blocks of the baryonic universe. Their composition, structure, and kinematics have been well studied, but details of their origins remain sketchy. The collapse of gas clouds, induced by external forces whereby gravity overcomes internal pressure to form stars, is the likely starting point. Among the perturbing initiators of galaxy formation, radio source beams (jets) are quite effective. Typically, a beam may spawn one galaxy, though instances of several aligned with the radio axis are known. Recently, we found an impressive 14 companions in the lobes of the giant radio galaxy DA 240, which we argue formed as the result of jet instigation. This conclusion is bolstered by the fact that the galaxy groups display Z-shaped symmetry with respect to the radio axis. There is some evidence for star formation among the aligned companions. We also conclude that galaxy alignments at low redshift may derive from line-emitting gas observed in radio components of high-redshift galaxies.

  20. Restaurant No. 1 seating capacity increases by 240

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    These days you need patience when looking for a seat in Restaurant No. 1 to eat your lunch. The opening of the new dining room, which will increase the restaurant’s seating capacity by 240, should alleviate the problem and improve service.   The new restaurant area. For the past several years the number of people using Restaurant No. 1 has grown steadily. Now, for a change, the restaurant itself is growing. Luz Lopez-Hernandez, leader of the project in the GS Department, explains: “Enlarging the restaurant has been on the GS Department's agenda for several years, but the project really got off the ground in 2009. Once it was approved and the design completed, construction itself only took seven months.” Seven months later, the restaurant extension is indeed on the verge of opening. One of the people who will be particularly happy is Joël Nallet, who manages the Novae restaurant: “I am thrilled, because until now, even if we managed to increase...

  1. The concentrations of sup(239.240)Pu in foods of the Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabayashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Mineo; Takizawa, Yukio.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the amounts of sup(239.240)Pu in total daily diet and in marine foods were conducted to estimate the dietary intake of sup(239.240)Pu in the Japanese. The average concentrations of sup(239.240)Pu in total diet of various places in Japan were 96 fCi/day/person in 1968 and 50 fCi/day/person in 1969. It was found that the concentration of sup(239.240)Pu in total diet decreased with the decrease of radioactive fallout. The concentrations of sup(239.240)Pu in viscera and bone of marinefishes and in seaweeds were high. The average amount of dietary intake of sup(239.240)Pu from marine foods by the Japanese at present was about 9 fCi/day/person. It was estimated that the greater part of sup(239.240)Pu in total diet of the Japanese was due to the marine foods. (author)

  2. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu inventories and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the equatorial Pacific Ocean water column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masatoshi, E-mail: myamada@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Zheng, Jian [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    The {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios were determined by alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for seawater samples from two stations, one at the equator and the other in the equatorial South Pacific. To better understand the fate of Pu isotopes, this study dealt with the contribution of the close-in fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in water columns of the Pacific Ocean. The {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 239+240}Pu inventories over the depth interval 0-3000 m at the equator station were 10.4, 8.9 and 19.3 Bq m{sup -2}, respectively. Further, no noticeable difference was observed in {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 239+240}Pu inventories over the depth interval 0-3000 m between the two stations. The total {sup 239+240}Pu inventories were significantly higher than the expected cumulative deposition density of global fallout. Water column {sup 239+240}Pu inventories measured in this study were lower than those reported for comparable stations in the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study, indicating that these inventories have been decreasing at average rates of 0.89 {+-} 0.07 and 0.16 {+-} 0.07 Bq m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} at the equator and equatorial South Pacific stations, respectively, from 1973 to 1990. The obtained {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios were higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18. These high atom ratios proved the existence of close-in tropospheric fallout Pu from the PPG in the Marshall Islands. The {sup 239+240}Pu inventories originating from the close-in fallout in the entire water column were estimated to be 11.1 Bq m{sup -2} at the equator station and 7.1 Bq m{sup -2} at the equatorial South Pacific Ocean station, and the relative percentages of close-in fallout Pu were 40% at the former and 34% at the latter. A significant amount of close-in fallout Pu originating from the PPG has been transported to deep layers below the 1000 m depth in the equatorial

  3. 17 CFR 240.15g-2 - Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market. 240.15g-2 Section 240.15g-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 15(d) of the Act § 240.15g-2 Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market...

  4. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in misappropriation insider trading cases. 240.10b5-2 Section 240.10b5-2 Commodity and Securities... Devices and Contrivances § 240.10b5-2 Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading... of insider trading under Section 10(b) of the Act and Rule 10b-5. The law of insider trading is...

  5. 17 CFR 240.19c-5 - Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of options on national securities exchanges. 240.19c-5 Section 240.19c-5 Commodity and Securities... of Exchange Members § 240.19c-5 Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges. (a) The rules of each national securities exchange that provides a trading market in standardized...

  6. 17 CFR 240.19c-3 - Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-3 Section 240.19c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Members § 240.19c-3 Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide as follows: (a) No rule, stated policy or practice of...

  7. 17 CFR 240.10b-3 - Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices by brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deceptive devices by brokers or dealers. 240.10b-3 Section 240.10b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Contrivances § 240.10b-3 Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices by brokers or dealers. (a) It shall be unlawful for any broker or dealer, directly or indirectly, by the use of any means or...

  8. 17 CFR 240.15c1-7 - Discretionary accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions or purchase or sale which are excessive in size or frequency in view of the financial resources... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-7 Discretionary...

  9. Attosecond time delay in the valence photoionization of C240 versus C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Kele; Magrakvelidze, Maia; Anstine, Dylan; Chakraborty, Himadri; Madjet, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We investigate effects of electron correlations on the attosecond time delay of the photoionization from HOMO and HOMO-1 electrons in C 240 . A comparison with earlier C 60 results assesses the molecular size effect. (paper)

  10. Peculiarities of natural electromagnetic field variations in the interval of periods of 60-240 min

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtun, A.A.; Smirnov, M.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    Intensification of the oscillation amplitude of the natural electromagnetic field within 60-240 min period interval at practically all the latitudes was observed during the Earth re-entry to plasma high-speed flow

  11. 17 CFR 240.14d-10 - Equal treatment of security holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: (1) Affect dissemination under Rule 14d-4 (§ 240.14d-4); or (2) Prohibit a bidder from making a... protection of investors. [51 FR 25882, July 17, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 65408, Nov. 8, 2006] ...

  12. 17 CFR 240.17a-1 - Recordkeeping rule for national securities exchanges, national securities associations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... national securities exchanges, national securities associations, registered clearing agencies and the... Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-1 Recordkeeping rule for national securities exchanges, national...) Every national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing agency and the...

  13. Kasiinomeistri Playtechi omanikud müüvad aktsiaid 240 miljoni dollari eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Iisraeli ärilehe Globes andmeil müüvad internetikasiinode arendamise ja haldamisega tegeleva Playtechi omanikud esmase avaliku müügi käigus aktsiaid 240 milj. USA dollari eest. Lisa: Kasumlik äritegevus

  14. Worldwide data on fluxes of 239,240Pu, 238Pu to the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1987-04-01

    According to measurements (GEOSECS) the world's oceans contain approximately 16 PBq 239,240 Pu, of which one-fourth is in the Atlantic and three-fourths in the Pacific Ocean. The expected inventory (from nuclear weapons testing) in the world's oceans is 12 PBq 239,240 Pu including local fallout at the test sites. In the Irish Sea a local contamination of 0.3 PBq 239,240 Pu from the Sellafield reprocessing plant resides in the sediments. No other sources than fallout and reprocessing add significantly to the 239,240 Pu inventories in the oceans. The discrepancy between measurements and expectations are assumed to be due to an underestimate of the rainfall and dry fallout (seaspray) and thus of the Pu-deposition over the oceans, but may also to some degree be due to inadequate sampling

  15. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a price...

  16. Hydrogeology of the rock mass encountered at the 240 level of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, E.T.; Davison, C.C.

    1992-09-01

    The rock mass surrounding the 240 level of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) has been hydrogeologically characterized through observations made in the tunnel and room excavations and from a network of radiating low-dipping boreholes. The 240 level complex sits in a wedge of grey-to-pink granite between two important, low-dipping, hydraulically active fracture zones, known as Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2) and Fracture Zone 2.5 (FZ2.5), a splay of FZ2. There is no apparent seepage into the 240 level room and tunnel network from the surrounding rock mass except from a vertical fracture intersected by the Room 209 tunnel. Extensive hydraulic and geomechanical tests have been conducted in boreholes intersecting the Room 209 vertical fracture, and transmissivities were found to range from 10 -10 to 10 -6 m 2 /s. FZ2 and FZ2.5 occur at the 240 m depth approximately 10 m to the west and 100 m to the south respectively of the 240 level tunnel network. Hydraulic testing within packer-isolated boreholes intersecting these fracture zones showed that transmissivities ranged from 10 -7 to 10 -5 m 2 /s in FZ2, and 10 -9 to 10 -7 m 2 /s in FZ2.5. No naturally-occurring fractures were encountered east of the 240 level complex up to 300 m away. The rock mass to the north of the 240 level is dominated by the Room 209 vertical fracture, which tends to splay with distance and has been intersected 95 m from the Room 209 tunnel. (Author) (50 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs.)

  17. Extension of 239+240Pu sediment geochronology to coarse-grained marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven A.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Sediment geochronology of coastal sedimentary environments dominated by sand has been extremely limited because concentrations of natural and bomb-fallout radionuclides are often below the limit of measurement using standard techniques. ICP-MS analyses of 239+240Pu from two sites representative of traditionally challenging (i.e., low concentration) environments provide a "proof of concept" and demonstrate a new application for bomb-fallout radiotracers in the study of sandy shelf-seabed dynamics. A kasten core from the New Zealand shelf in the Southern Hemisphere (low fallout), and a vibracore from the sandy nearshore of North Carolina (low particle surface area) both reveal measurable 239+240Pu activities at depth. In the case of the New Zealand site, independently verified steady-state sedimentation results in a 239+240Pu profile that mimics the expected atmospheric fallout. The depth profile of 239+240Pu in the North Carolina core is more uniform, indicating significant sediment resuspension, which would be expected in this energetic nearshore environment. This study, for the first time, demonstrates the utility of 239+240Pu in the study of sandy environments, significantly extending the application of bomb-fallout isotopes to coarse-grained sediments, which compose the majority of nearshore regions.

  18. Determination of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio and its significance in environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of Pu concentrations and its isotopic ratios in environmental samples were developed by using ICP-MS. Detection limit of Pu by ICP-MS was about 0.02 pg ml{sup -1} (0.05 mBq ml{sup -1} for {sup 239}Pu; 0.17 mBq ml{sup -1} for {sup 240}Pu) in the sample solution. Analytical results of {sup 239+240}Pu in IAEA standard reference materials indicated that the accuracy of this method was satisfactory. Data on the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, which are rare in the literature, were also obtained for soil and sediment samples (including IAEA standard reference materials) from different areas such as Irish Sea, Mururoa Atoll, Marshall Islands, Chernobyl, Kyshtym, Nagasaki and some other places in Japan. The range of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios was about 0.04-0.4, and the ratios are depending on the origin of the materials. Analytical results for the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios provide information about the source of the contamination and the transfer of plutonium in the environment. (author)

  19. Measurement of the {sup 240}Pu concentration of a plutonium sample by the spontaneous fission method (1960); Mesure de la teneur d'un plutonium en {sup 240}Pu par la methode des fissions spontanees (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caizergues, R; Clouet d' Orval, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It is very important to know the plutonium-240 content of the plutonium formed in piles. The method of measurement described here consists in counting the number of spontaneous fissions produced in a known quantity of plutonium. This measurement is carried out in a multiple-plate ionisation chamber, the plutonium being deposited on the plates. The disintegration constant of plutonium-240 by spontaneous fission being known the plutonium-240 content in the sample can be calculated. (author) [French] La connaissance de la teneur en plutonium-240 du plutonium forme dans les piles est une question importante. La methode de mesure presentee ici consiste a compter le nombre de fissions spontanees issues d'une quantite connue de plutonium. Cette mesure est effectuee dans une chambre d'ionisation a plateaux multiples sur lesquels est depose le plutonium. La connaissance de la constante de desintegration du plutonium-240 par fissions spontanees permet de calculer la teneur en plutonium-240. (auteur)

  20. Validation of new 240Pu cross section and covariance data via criticality calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Heon; Gil, Choong-Sup; Kim, Hyeong Il; Lee, Young-Ouk; Leal, Luiz C.; Dunn, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent collaboration between KAERI and ORNL has completed an evaluation for 240 Pu neutron cross section with covariance data. The new 240 Pu cross section data has been validated through 28 criticality safety benchmark problems taken from the ICSBEP and/or CSEWG specifications with MCNP calculations. The calculation results based on the new evaluation have been compared with those based on recent evaluations such as ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1.1, and JENDL-4.0. In addition, the new 240 Pu covariance data has been tested for some criticality benchmarks via the DANTSYS/SUSD3D-based nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of k eff . The k eff uncertainty estimates by the new covariance data has been compared with those by JENDL-4.0, JENDL-3.3, and Low-Fidelity covariance data. (author)

  1. Towards saturation of the electron-capture delayed fission probability: The new isotopes 240Es and 236Bk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Konki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new neutron-deficient nuclei 240Es and 236Bk were synthesised at the gas-filled recoil separator RITU. They were identified by their radioactive decay chains starting from 240Es produced in the fusion–evaporation reaction 209Bi(34S,3n240Es. Half-lives of 6(2s and 22−6+13s were obtained for 240Es and 236Bk, respectively. Two groups of α particles with energies Eα=8.19(3MeV and 8.09(3MeV were unambiguously assigned to 240Es. Electron-capture delayed fission branches with probabilities of 0.16(6 and 0.04(2 were measured for 240Es and 236Bk, respectively. These new data show a continuation of the exponential increase of ECDF probabilities in more neutron-deficient isotopes.

  2. Estimating Full IM240 Emissions from Partial Test Results: Evidence from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W; Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia

    1999-10-01

    The expense and inconvenience of enhanced-vehicle-emissions testing using the full 240-second dynamometer test has led states to search for ways to shorten the test process. In fact, all states that currently use the IM240 allow some type of fast-pass, usually as early in the test as second 31, and Arizona has allowed vehicles to fast-fail after second 93. While these shorter tests save states millions of dollars in inspection lanes and driver costs, there is a loss of information since test results are no longer comparable across vehicles. This paper presents a methodology for estimating full 240-second results from partial-test results for three pollutants: HC, CO, and NO x . If states can convert all tests to consistent IM240 readings, they will be able to better characterize fleet emissions and to evaluate the impact of inspection and maintenance and other programs on emissions over time. Using a random sample of vehicles in Arizona which received full 240-second tests, we use regression analysis to estimate the relationship between emissions at second 240 and emissions at earlier seconds in the test. We examine the influence of other variables such as age, model-year group, and the pollution level itself on this relationship. We also use the estimated coefficients in several applications. First, we try to shed light on the frequent assertion that the results of the dynamometer test provide guidance for vehicle repair of failing vehicles. Using a probit analysis, we find that the probability that a failing vehicle will pass the test on the first retest is greater the longer the test has progressed. Second, we test the accuracy of our estimates for forecasting fleet emissions from partial-test emissions results in Arizona. We find forecasted fleet average emissions to be very close to the actual fleet averages for light-duty vehicles, but not quite as good for trucks, particularly when NO x emissions are forecast.

  3. Peculiarities of 239,240Pu behaviour in flood-plain soils of the Techa river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskaya, L.N.; Molchanova, I.V.; Karavaeva, E.N.

    2004-01-01

    The Techa river was contaminated with the liquid nuclear waste discharged from the nuclear plant 'Mayak' within 1949-1956 years. In 1999-2002 flood-plain soils of the Techa river were investigated and the levels of content, a migration and a vertical distribution of 239,240 Pu in the flood-plain soils were studied. Reference plots were located in the pre-bed and in central flood plain at different distances from the source of contamination (78-240 km). It was shown that in the soils of the pre-bed the content of Pu isotopes was decreasing from 10.5 to 2.8 kBq/m 2 with the distance from the plant 'Mayak'. Besides, a non-uniform spatial distribution of 239,240 Pu was found in those plots, which were at the same distance from the source of the contamination. As a rule, the central flood plain (25-100 m from the river-bed) was contaminated with 239,240 Pu less than the area in the pre-bed (5-20 m from the the river-bed). Thus, in the area of the middle length of the river the density of the soil contamination with 239,240 Pu of the central flood plain is 0.3 to 0.8 kBq/m 2 and that of the pre-bed is 1.0 to 4.7 kBq/m 2 at a maximum migration depth being 25 to 30 cm and 40 to 50 cm, respectively. The determined value of the 239,240 Pu/ 137 Cs ratio proves that rates of the vertical migration of the Pu isotopes in the flood plain soils of the Techa river are comparable and higher (in some cases) than those of 137 Cs. (author)

  4. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to every...

  5. New Members in the Galaxy Group Around Giant Radio Galaxy DA 240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-Rong; Peng, Bo; Strom, Richard

    2018-05-01

    With new spectroscopic observations of group candidates around the giant radio galaxy DA 240, we have identified five new group members, increasing the number to twenty-five. While all the new members are located some distance from the host galaxy, two of them lie in one of the radio lobes, and the rest are found at a distance from the radio components. The new group members reinforce our earlier conclusion that the distribution of the DA 240 group with respect to the radio lobes is unusual among giant radio galaxy host environments.

  6. 137Cs and 239+240Pu levels in the Asia-Pacific regional seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; Povinec, P.P.; Fowler, S.W.; Airey, P.L.; Hong, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    137 Cs and 239+240 Pu data in seawater, sediment and biota from the regional seas of Asia-Pacific extending from 50 deg. N to 60 deg. S latitude and 60 deg. E to 180 deg. E longitude based on the Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database (ASPAMARD) are presented and discussed. 137 Cs levels in surface seawater have been declining to its present median value of about 3 Bq/m 3 due mainly to radioactive decay, transport processes, and the absence of new significant inputs. 239+240 Pu levels in surface seawater are much lower, with a median of about 6 mBq/m 3 . 239+240 Pu appears to be partly scavenged by particles and is therefore more readily transported down the water column. As with seawater, 239+240 Pu concentrations are lower than 137 Cs in surface sediment. The median 137 Cs concentration in surface sediment is 1.4 Bq/kg dry, while that of 239+240 Pu is only 0.2 Bq/kg dry. The vertical profiles of both 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu in the sediment column of coastal areas are different from deep seas which can be attributed to the higher sedimentation rates and additional contribution of run-offs from terrestrial catchment areas in the coastal zone. Comparable data for biota are far less extensive than those for seawater and sediment. The median 137 Cs concentration in fish (0.2 Bq/kg wet) is higher than in crustaceans (0.1 Bq/kg wet) or mollusks (0.1 Bq/kg wet). Benchmark values (as of 2001) for 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu concentrations in seawater, sediment and biota are established to serve as reference values against which the impact of future anthropogenic inputs can be assessed. ASPAMARD represents one of the most comprehensive compilations of available data on 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu in particular, and other anthropogenic as well as natural radionuclides in seawater, sediment and biota from the Asia-Pacific regional seas

  7. Inter-data center 28 Gbaud 4-PAM transmission over 240 km standard single mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2018-01-01

    We report on achieving 28 Gbaud 4-PAM transmission with post-equalization over a 240 km SSMF link without re-engineering the transmission link design. The results demonstrate the prospect of re-using conventional links for inter data center connections.......We report on achieving 28 Gbaud 4-PAM transmission with post-equalization over a 240 km SSMF link without re-engineering the transmission link design. The results demonstrate the prospect of re-using conventional links for inter data center connections....

  8. 17 CFR 240.14e-1 - Unlawful tender offer practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful tender offer... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14e § 240.14e-1 Unlawful tender offer practices. As a means... section 14(e) of the Act, no person who makes a tender offer shall: (a) Hold such tender offer open for...

  9. 17 CFR 240.3b-14 - Definition of cash management securities activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derivative instruments or other financial instruments; (b) Cash management, in connection with any securities... § 240.15a-1 or any non-securities activities that involve eligible OTC derivative instruments or other... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of cash management...

  10. 17 CFR 240.17a-5 - Reports to be made by certain brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and... market risk; (B) A graph reflecting, for each business line, the daily intra-month VaR; (C) The aggregate... Relating to the Possession or Control Requirements Under § 240.15c3-3 and shall be filed with said report...

  11. 29 CFR 1952.240 - Description of the plan as initially approved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occupational safety and health issues as defined by the Secretary of Labor in § 1902.2(c)(1) of this chapter... Section 1952.240 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... provisions of section 4(b)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. (84 Stat. 1592, 29 U.S.C...

  12. 17 CFR 240.14a-12 - Solicitation before furnishing a proxy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... it contains important information. The legend also must explain to investors that they can get the... language advising security holders where they can obtain that information; and (ii) A prominent legend in... of the material specified by § 240.14a-12(c)(1) need be filed. 2. Any communications made under this...

  13. 7 CFR 1951.240 - State Director's additional authorizations and guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the recipient's legal organizational structure must be approved by OGC. (2) Consent to requests by the...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.240 State Director's additional...

  14. High-240Pu fuel worth in the Fast Test Reactor Engineering Mockup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughtry, J.W.; Dobbin, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    Reactivity effects associated with the replacement of low- 240 Pu fuel with high- 240 Pu fuel were calculated and compared to measurements made in the FTR Engineering Mockup Critical (EMC). When the Pu and U isotopic compositions were changed in a way that increased the amounts of 240 Pu and 241 Pu and reduced the amounts of 239 Pu and 238 U while conserving total fissile mass and total fertile mass, the reactivity effect was positive. Calculation-to-experiment bias factors were obtained for this type of change and for the replacement of Fe 2 O 3 with U 3 O 8 in subassembly-size zones of the EMC. The k/sub e/--k/sub c/ bias decreased when high- 240 Pu fuel was introduced and increased when Fe 2 O 3 was replaced with U 3 O 8 . When the two changes were combined, their effects on the k/sub e/ --k/sub c/ bias tended to cancel out. The work described is related to plans for the utilization of light water reactor discharge Pu in the FTR

  15. 17 CFR 240.11a-1 - Regulation of floor trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of floor trading... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Floor Trading Regulation (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a-1 Regulation of floor trading. (a) No member of a national securities exchange, while on the floor of such exchange...

  16. Determination of 239Pu/240Pu isotopic ratio by high resolution alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoudry, F.; Burger, P.

    1983-05-01

    The development of passivated ion-implanted silicon detectors and of very thin alpha-particle sources improves the resolution of alpha-particle spectra and allows to separate energy pics up to now unseparate. The 239 Pu/ 240 Pu isotopic ratio of a mixture has been measured using the alpha spectrometry deconvolution code DEMO [fr

  17. 17 CFR 240.8c-1 - Hypothecation of customers' securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hypothecation of customers... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Hypothecation of Customers' Securities § 240.8c-1 Hypothecation of customers... any customer under circumstances: (1) That will permit the commingling of securities carried for the...

  18. Volikogu kergitas kruntide alghinna Olümpia vastas 240 miljoni kroonini / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna linnavolikogu tõstis 26. jaanuari istungil Juhkentali 1b, 3d ja 3e kruntide avaliku enampakkumise alghinna 78 miljonilt kroonilt 240 miljonile. Kruntidele on lubatud ehitada üks kuni 30-korruseline ning mitu 3-8 korruselist hoonet. Kaart: Ala detailplaneering

  19. Presence of plutonium isotopes, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, in soils from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M., E-mail: manugar@us.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes sn, 41012 Seville (Spain); Peruchena, J.I., E-mail: jiperuchena@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Cereceda, F., E-mail: francisco.cereceda@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Vidal, V., E-mail: victor.vidal@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Pinilla, E., E-mail: epinilla@unex.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas sn, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Miro, C., E-mail: cmiro@unex.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad sn, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20-40 Degree-Sign Southern latitude range, with {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30-53 Degree-Sign S latitude range (0.185 {+-} 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The {sup 239+240}Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  20. Activity concentrations of 239+240 Pu in sediment at Sabah and Sarawak coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Hidayah Shahar

    2009-01-01

    The coastal sediment sampling was carried out in July 2004 as part of the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. The determination of plutonium, 239+240 Pu activity concentration and their distributions along the coastal areas of Sabah and Sarawak was by the alpha spectrometry counting system. Prior to counting, the radionuclides were isolated from the samples using radiochemical separation technique and mounted on a stainless steel disc by using electro-deposition. The results show that the distribution of 239+240 Pu activity concentration in coastal sediment is consistent, ranging from BDL - 1.83 Bq/kg and 0.11 - 0.84 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Lubok Sabanan, SB 15, in Sabah and Sungai Similajau, SR 13, in Sarawak were sampling stations that gave highest 239+240 Pu activity concentration. Overall, the 239+240 Pu activity concentration of Sabah and Sarawak are slightly higher in comparison the West Coast coastal stations of Peninsular Malaysia, and can be used as database. (Author)

  1. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner or...

  2. Activities concentration of 239+240Pu in sediment in Sabah and Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Norfaizal Mohamed; Kamarozaman Ishak; Zulkifli Daud

    2008-08-01

    The determination of plutonium, 239+240 Pu activity concentration and their distributions along the coastal area of the Sabah and Sarawak have been performed using alpha spectrometry counting system. The sampling coastal sediment for this study was carried out in July 2004 as part of the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. This results show that the distribution of Plutonium, 239+240 Pu radionuclides in coastal sediment is consistent, their activities are depending on the sampling locations. Generally, the 239+240 Pu activities measured in Sabah and Sarawak coastal sediment are in the range of BDL - 1.83 Bq/kg and 0.11 - 0.841 Bq/kg dry weights, respectively. The sampling stations, Persisiran Lubok Sabanan, SB 15 and Sungai Similajau, SR 13 showed the highest plutonium, 239+240 Pu radionuclides isotopes activity in Sabah and Sarawak. Meanwhile, these two stations shows higher activity compare to West Coast of Peninsular of Malaysia station for the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. (Author)

  3. Presence of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, in soils from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo, E.; García-León, M.; Peruchena, J.I.; Cereceda, F.; Vidal, V.; Pinilla, E.; Miró, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global 239 Pu and 240 Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of 239 Pu and 240 Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20–40° Southern latitude range, with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30–53°S latitude range (0.185 ± 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The 239+240 Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  4. Isotope ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in soil samples from different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Shinnosuke

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soil samples from Japan and other areas in the world (including IAEA standard reference materials) were determined by ICP-MS. The range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios observed in 21 Japanese soil samples was 0.155 - 0.194 and the average was 0.180 ± 0.011, which is comparable to the global fallout value. A low ratio of about 0.05, which is derived from Pu-bomb, was found in samples from Nishiyama (Nagasaki) and Mururoa Atoll (IAEA-368), while a high ratio of about 0.31 was found in a sample from Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands). The ratio for Irish Sea sediment (IAEA-135) was 0.21, which was higher than the global fallout value, suggesting the influence by the contamination from the Sellafield facility. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soils from the Chernobyl area were determined, and the ratio was found to be very high (about 0.4), indicating the high burn-up grade of the reactor fuel. These results show that the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio can be used as a finger print to identify the source of the contamination. (author)

  5. 47 CFR 10.240 - Notification to new subscribers of non-participation in CMAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... availability of this service and wireless emergency alert capable devices, please ask a sales representative... COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Election to Participate in Commercial Mobile Alert System § 10.240... to provide Alert messages at the point-of-sale. (b) The point-of-sale includes stores, kiosks, third...

  6. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to options, forwards, futures, swap agreements, or collars involving currencies, interest or other... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC...

  7. Quantitative Assay of Pu-239 and Pu-240 by Neutron Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E

    1971-04-15

    A method for quantitative assay of 239Pu and 240Pu has been tested at the reactor R1 in Stockholm. The method makes use of a fast chopper to measure the neutron transmission through a sample around the main resonances of these two isotopes - at 0.296 eV in 239Pu and at 1.056 eV in 240Pu. The transmission data measured are then combined with the known resonance cross sections to give the content of the isotopes. The method is nondestructive, i.e., one can use fuel pins as samples, even highly irradiated ones. A time-of-flight spectrometer of moderate capacity, like our fast chopper, is sufficient as the resonances are located at low energy. Altogether five samples have been used in the tests of the method. The results have been compared with mass spectrometer values. This comparison came out quite well for 239Pu whereas the chopper results for 240Pu were more than 10 per cent higher than the mass spectrometer results. This large deviation might be due to errors in the resonance cross section for 240Pu used in the analysis of the transmission data from the chopper. The best possible accuracy for a 15-hour run with our equipment is +- 1 per cent for 239Pu and +- 2 per cent for 240Pu, obtained for thick samples - about 3 x 1020 atoms per cm2 for each isotope. The accuracy corresponds to 68 per cent confidence level and does not include any contribution from the uncertainty in the resonance cross section

  8. 17 CFR 240.14e-2 - Position of subject company with respect to a tender offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disclosing that the subject company: (1) Recommends acceptance or rejection of the bidder's tender offer; (2... accordance with such laws, regulations and policies. (d) Exemption for cross-border tender offers. The... with respect to a tender offer. 240.14e-2 Section 240.14e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  9. 17 CFR 240.36a1-1 - Exemption from Section 7 for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from Section 7 for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.36a1-1 Section 240.36a1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15b9-2 - Exemption from SRO membership for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from SRO membership for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.15b9-2 Section 240.15b9-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934...

  11. 17 CFR 240.11a1-6 - Transactions for certain accounts of OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transactions for certain accounts of OTC derivatives dealers. 240.11a1-6 Section 240.11a1-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... effected by a member of a national securities exchange for the account of an OTC derivatives dealer that is...

  12. Behavior and distribution of 239+240Pu and 241Am in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Hidayah Shahar; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    The present distributions of 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and activity ratio of 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu in surface seawater of the Peninsular Malaysia east coast were studied. The surface seawater samples were collected at 30 identified stations during the expedition conducted in 2008. 239+240 Pu activity concentrations in surface seawater of the studied area were in the range of 2.33 ± 0.20-7.95 ± 0.68 mBq/m 3 , meanwhile 241 Am activity concentrations ranged from MDA to 1.90 ± 0.23 mBq/m 3 . The calculated activity ratios of 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu were varied and disperse distributed with the ranged of 0.12-0.53. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclide and oceanographic parameters such as turbidity and salinity were examined. The linearly relationships between 239+240 Pu and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of its transport processes and behavior in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia marine environment. Thus, the differ of distribution of 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu in the studied area mainly due to high affinity of 239+240 Pu to associate with sinking particles, mobility nature of 241 Am, degree of particle reactive of both anthropogenic radionuclides, scavenging and removal process; and others. (author)

  13. 17 CFR 240.17a-23 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems. 240.17a-23 Section 240.17a-23 Commodity and Securities... relating to broker-dealer trading systems. (a) Scope of section. This section shall apply to any registered broker or dealer that acts as the sponsor of a broker-dealer trading system. (b) Definitions. For...

  14. 17 CFR 240.3a12-8 - Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading. 240.3a12-8 Section 240.3a12-8 Commodity and... trading. (a) When used in this Rule, the following terms shall have the meaning indicated: (1) The term...

  15. 17 CFR 240.19c-1 - Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-1 Section 240.19c-1 Commodity... members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide as...

  16. 17 CFR 240.19c-4 - Governing certain listing or authorization determinations by national securities exchanges and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authorization determinations by national securities exchanges and associations. 240.19c-4 Section 240.19c-4... determinations by national securities exchanges and associations. (a) The rules of each exchange shall provide as... national securities exchange, registered as such with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to...

  17. Variation of 137Cs and 239,240Pu concentrations in shellfishes on the coast of Ibaraki prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Nakano, Masanao

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in shellfishes collected from the coast around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) from 1975 to 2005 were analyzed for environmental radiological monitoring. The measured concentrations of 238 Pu were under the detection limits and these concentrations of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu showed no significant short-term increase tendency. It was confirmed that 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in shellfishes around the TRP were derived from the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Also the probability plot of 239,240 Pu concentration was dependent on the shellfish species (bivalve and abalone). It was presumed that the different of feeding behavior of bivalve and abalone caused the difference of the probability plot of 239,240 Pu concentration. (author)

  18. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael; Park, Ji-Hyung; Sandor, Tarjan; Porto, Paolo; Alewell, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes 239 Pu and 240 Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex . As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (> 25 t ha −1 yr −1 ). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratios and 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of 239+240 Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of 137 Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of 137 Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of 239+240 Pu through less preferential transport compared to 137 Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, 239+240 Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the soil and lateral transport during water erosion was shown to differ from that of 137 Cs, there is a clear need for a

  19. 239 240Pu and 238Pu in sediments of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.; Singh, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    Plutonium-239,240 and plutonium-238 were determined in 59 Hudson River sediment dredge samples collected during 1973-77 in the vicinity of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station. Acid leaching followed by solvent extraction, electrodeposition, and alpha-spectrometry were used to extract, purify, and quantitate plutonium isotopes present in these samples. Annual median plutonium-238/plutonium-239,240 isotopic activity ratios in surficial sediments were 0.032 (1973-74), 0.035 (1975), 0.042 (1976), and 0.040 (1977). The source of these nuclides in the estuary was identified by analysis of the sample isotopic activity ratios. On the basis of the sampling regimen and the methods used, it is concluded that no input, other than that of fallout, has contributed significantly to the plutonium burden in Hudson sediments

  20. Improved MOX fuel calculations using new Pu-239, Am-241 and Pu-240 evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguere, G.; Bouland, O.; Bernard, D.; Leconte, P.; Blaise, P.; Peneliau, Y.; Vidal, J.F.; Saint Jean, C. de; Leal, L.; Schilleebeeckx, P.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library show a systematic over-estimation of the critical keff for core configurations of MOX fuel assemblies. The present work investigates possible improvements of the C/E results by using new evaluations for Am-241, Pu-239 and Pu-240. The work reported in this paper demonstrates the performances of the new Am-241 evaluation based on capture and transmission data measured at the IRMM. For Pu-239, the new evaluation, established in the frame of the WPEC/SG-34, is able to explain a systematic discrepancy observed between different EOLE experiments. The combination of the Am-241 and Pu-239 evaluations demonstrates the necessity to improve the radiation width of the first resonance of Pu-240

  1. RF Behavior of Cylindrical Cavity Based 240 GHz, 1 MW Gyrotron for Future Tokamak System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Udaybir; Bera, Anirban; Sinha, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we present the RF behavior of conventional cylindrical interaction cavity for 240 GHz, 1 MW gyrotron for futuristic plasma fusion reactors. Very high-order TE mode is searched for this gyrotron to minimize the Ohmic wall loading at the interaction cavity. The mode selection process is carried out rigorously to analyze the mode competition and design feasibility. The cold cavity analysis and beam-wave interaction computation are carried out to finalize the cavity design. The detail parametric analyses for interaction cavity are performed in terms of mode stability, interaction efficiency and frequency. In addition, the design of triode type magnetron injection gun is also discussed. The electron beam parameters such as velocity ratio and velocity spread are optimized as per the requirement at interaction cavity. The design studies presented here confirm the realization of CW, 1 MW power at 240 GHz frequency at TE46,17 mode.

  2. Contactless Investigations of Yeast Cell Cultivation in the 7 GHz and 240 GHz Ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessel, J; Schmalz, K; Meliani, C; Gastrock, G; Cahill, B P

    2013-01-01

    Using a microfluidic system based on PTFE tubes, experimental results of contactless and label-free characterization techniques of yeast cell cultivation are presented. The PTFE tube has an inner diameter of 0.5 mm resulting in a sample volume of 2 μ1 for 1 cm sample length. Two approaches (at frequencies around 7 GHz and 240 GHz) are presented and compared in terms of sensitivity and applicability. These frequency bands are particularly interesting to gain information on the permittivity of yeast cells in Glucose solution. Measurements from 240 GHz to 300 GHz were conducted with a continuous wave spectrometer from Toptica. At 7 GHz band, measurements have been performed using a rat-race based characterizing system realized on a printed circuit board. The conducted experiments demonstrate that by selecting the phase as characterization parameter, the presented contactless and label-free techniques are suitable for cell cultivation monitoring in a PTFE pipe based microfluidic system.

  3. A 240W Monolithic Class-D Audio Amplifier Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Kaya, Cetin; Risbo, Lars

    2006-01-01

    A single-channel class-D audio amplifier output stage outputs 240W undipped into 4Omega 0.1% open-loop THD+N allows using the device in a fully-digital audio signal path with no feedback. The output current capability is plusmn18A and the part is fabricated in a 0.4mum/1.8mum high-voltage Bi...

  4. Highly polarized emission from the E-hotspot in DA240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsien, S.C.; Saunders, R.

    1982-01-01

    The hotspot in the eastern lobe of the nearby giant radio galaxy DA240 (z=0.0356) provides a rare opportunity to examine the detailed polarization structure of a hotspot. Maps have been made with the Cambridge 5-km telescope at 2.7 and 5.0 GHz and the 5.0-GHz maps are shown here. The main characteristics are discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  5. Sediment budget for Murder Creek, Georgia, USA, from Pu239+240 - determined soil erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, A. P.; Matissoff, G.; Ketterer, M. E.; Whiting, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Soil inventories of the radionuclides Cs137 and Pb210 have been used in a variety of environments as indicators for erosion and depositional processes. Development of sediment budgets for entire watersheds from radionuclide data has been somewhat constrained because limited sample numbers may not adequately characterize the wide range of geomorphic conditions and land uses found in heterogeneous environments. The measurement of Pu239+240 shows great potential for developing quantitative watershed sediment budgets. With inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, hundreds of samples may be processed in dramatically shorter times than the gamma spectrometry method used for Cs137 or alpha spectrometry method used for Pb210. We collected surface soil samples from Murder Creek in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA, to compare Pu239+240 inventories with Cs137 and Pb210 inventories for a range of land uses in a predominantly forested watershed. Excellent correlations were found for radionuclide inventories (r2 =0.88, n = 38) and high resolution (4 mm) depth profiles. The second objective was to generate a sediment budget using the full Pu239+240 dataset (n = 309). Average Pu239+240 inventories were 70.0 Bq/m2 for hardwood forest, 60.0 Bq/m2 for pine plantation, 65.1 Bq/m2 for pine forest, 66.7 Bq/m2 for row crop agriculture and 67.9 Bq/m2 for pasture. The sediment budget will be constructed by converting inventories into site-specific erosion rates. Erosion rates will be scaled up to the watershed scale using GIS coverages of land use, soil, slope, and slope position. Results will be compared with Murder Creek sediment budgets in the scientific literature generated from RUSLE erosion modeling, USGS monitoring networks and reservoir sedimentation.

  6. Baseline Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 inventory assessment for Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Borelli, Pasquale; Evrard, Olivier; Ketterer, Michael; Mabit, Lionel; van Oost, Kristof; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Artificial fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 released as products of the thermonuclear weapons testing that took place from the mid-1950s to the early 1980s and from nuclear power plant accidents (e.g. Chernobyl) are useful tools to quantify soil redistribution. In combination with geostatistics, FRNs may have the potential to bridge the gap between small scale process oriented studies and modelling that simplifies processes and effects over large spatial scales. An essential requirement for the application of FRNs as soil erosion tracers is the establishment of the baseline fallout at undisturbed sites before its comparison to those inventories found at sites undergoing erosion/accumulation. For this purpose, undisturbed topsoil (0-20cm) samples collected in 2009 within the framework of the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) have been measured by gamma-spectrometry and ICP-MS to determine 137Cs (n=145) and 239+240Pu (n=108) activities. To restrict the analysis to undisturbed reference sites a geospatial database query selecting only sites having a slope angle <2 degree, outside riparian zones (to avoid depositional sites) and under permanent grassland cover (according to CORINE Land Cover and Landsat) was applied. This study reports preliminary results on the feasibility of establishing a 137Cs and 239+240Pu baseline inventory map for Central Europe. The 137Cs/239+240Pu activity ratios will further allow assessing the rate and the spatial variability of 137Cs Chernobyl fallout. The establishment of such baseline inventory map will provide a unique opportunity to assess soil redistribution for a comparable time-frame (1953-2009) following a harmonised methodological protocol across national boundaries.

  7. Dynamic deformation theory of spherical and deformed light and heavy nuclei with A = 12-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Krishna.

    1979-01-01

    Deformation dependent wave functions are calculated for different types of even-even nuclei (spherical, transitional, deformed; light, medium, heavy) without any fitting parameters. These wave functions are employed for the energies, B(E2)'s, quadrupole and magnetic moments of selected nuclei with A = 12-240 (with special emphasis on 56 Fe, 154 Gd), and for neutron cross sections of 148 Sm, 152 Sm

  8. Neutron-neutron angular correlations in spontaneous fission of 252Cf and 240Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Nakae, L. F.; Vogt, R.

    2018-04-01

    Background: Angular anisotropy has been observed between prompt neutrons emitted during the fission process. Such an anisotropy arises because the emitted neutrons are boosted along the direction of the parent fragment. Purpose: To measure the neutron-neutron angular correlations from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf and 240Pu oxide samples using a liquid scintillator array capable of pulse-shape discrimination. To compare these correlations to simulations combining the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX with the fission event generator FREYA. Method: Two different analysis methods were used to study the neutron-neutron correlations with varying energy thresholds. The first is based on setting a light output threshold while the second imposes a time-of-flight cutoff. The second method has the advantage of being truly detector independent. Results: The neutron-neutron correlation modeled by FREYA depends strongly on the sharing of the excitation energy between the two fragments. The measured asymmetry enabled us to adjust the FREYA parameter x in 240Pu, which controls the energy partition between the fragments and is so far inaccessible in other measurements. The 240Pu data in this analysis was the first available to quantify the energy partition for this isotope. The agreement between data and simulation is overall very good for 252Cf(sf ) and 240Pu(sf ) . Conclusions: The asymmetry in the measured neutron-neutron angular distributions can be predicted by FREYA. The shape of the correlation function depends on how the excitation energy is partitioned between the two fission fragments. Experimental data suggest that the lighter fragment is disproportionately excited.

  9. A 240W Monolithic Class-D Audio Amplifier Output Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Nyboe, Flemming; Kaya, Cetin; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    A single-channel class-D audio amplifier output stage outputs 240W undipped into 4Omega 0.1% open-loop THD+N allows using the device in a fully-digital audio signal path with no feedback. The output current capability is plusmn18A and the part is fabricated in a 0.4mum/1.8mum high-voltage BiCMOS process. Over-current sensing protects the output from short circuits.

  10. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control) and from cirrhotic livers (LC) (Child A-LC and Child C-LC). Immunohistochemical (IHC), Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver. PMID:21059220

  11. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura Kazunori

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control and from cirrhotic livers (LC (Child A-LC and Child C-LC. Immunohistochemical (IHC, Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver.

  12. Background distributions of 239+240Pu and 137Cs of upland soil in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    The background distributions of Pu and 137 Cs in soil were investigated in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, where the first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is now being constructed. Soil core samples to 1 m depth were collected at 13 upland fields in Rokkasho and control sites in Hachinohe and Hirosaki. Since fields under yam (Dioscorea babatus) cultivation, which is a common crop in Rokkasho, were dug to approximately 1 m depth at harvesting, depth profiles of fallout radionuclides are heavily disturbed for most fields in Rokkasho. The mean inventories of 239+240 Pu and 137 Cs in three fields with no yam cultivation history were 116 Bq m -2 and 3.4 kBq m -2 , respectively and similar to values in Hachinohe. However, the inventories were approximately a half of those in Hirosaki. The mean ratio of 239P u/ 240 Pu for all studied fields was 0.18±0.04, and similar to that of global fallout. The Pu concentrations correlate very well with 137 Cs (r=0.97) in spite of heavy disturbance of soil, and the ratio of 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs was 0.037±0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. (author)

  13. Environmental levels of 239+240Pu and 90Sr for internal radiation exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.; Khandekar, R.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements have been carried out on the concentration of low levels of long-lived isotopes of 239+240 Pu and 90 Sr in the environmental materials such as atmospheric particulates, drinking water and food. The estimation of daily intake of these isotopes through inhalation and ingestion is a pre-requisite for the assessment of internal exposure. This paper presents temporal distribution of 239+240 Pu and 90 Sr in rain water, drinking water and total diet samples collected at Trombay site. The annual committed effective dose due to 90 Sr through inhalation and diet to the population of Bombay has been estimated to be 0.06 nSv/y and 0.48 μSv/y, respectively, and the same for 239+240 Pu is 1.3 nSv/y and 0.9 nSv/y, respectively. The data is discussed in relation to previous years' values to assess for any significant increase. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Weldability examination of ASTM A 240 S41500 martensitic stainless steel by thermal cycles simulation testings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Velázquez-del Rosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The weldability assets of ASTM A 240 S41500 (ASTM A 240/A 240M martensitic stainless steel are presented through the study of the effects of single and double thermal weld cycles on mechanical properties and microstructure of base metal (BM and the artificial heat affected zone (HAZ created by thermal weld simulations. For single cycles, separate peak temperatures of 1000 ºC/12 s and 1350 ºC/12 s (cooling times: 12 s in both cases were evaluated, whilst two combinations of peak temperatures: (1350 ºC/5 s + 1000 ºC/5 s ºC and (1350 ºC/12 s + 1000 ºC/12 s ºC (cooling times: 5 s and 12 s, were applied for double cycles. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT with short and long holding times were applied and Vickers hardness, impact toughness and metallographic examinations were used in order to assess mechanical and metallographic properties in the as-simulated (no heat treated and postweld heat treated conditions. Best properties of the welded joint for double thermal weld cycles with long holding times were reached, which reveals the good weldability and applicability of the tested material in post weld heat treated conditions.

  15. Measurement of the ${240}$Pu(n,f) reaction cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    Following proposal CERN-INTC-2010-042 / INTC-P-280 (“Measurement of the fission cross-section of $^{240}$Pu and $^{242}$Pu at CERN’s n_TOF Facility”), the parallel measurement of the $^{240}$Pu(n,f) and $^{242}$Pu(n,f) reaction cross-sections was carried out at n_TOF EAR-1. While the $^{242}$Pu measurement was successful, unexpected sample-induced damage to the detectors caused by the high α-activity of the 240Pu samples resulted in a deterioration of the detector performance over the data taking period of several months, which compromised the measurement. This obstacle can be eliminated by performing the measurement in EAR-2, where the higher neutron flux will allow collecting data in a much shorter time, thus preventing the degradation of the detectors. In addition to this obvious advantage, the measurement would also benefit from the stronger suppression of the sample-induced α-background, due to the shorter times-of-flight involved.

  16. Sup(239,240)Pu in estuarine and shelf waters of the north-eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholkovitz, E.R.; Mann, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of sup(239,240)Pu between dissolved and particulate forms has been measured in four estuaries on the north-east coast of the United States (Connecticut River, Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and Mullica River). The data cover the whole salinity range from freshwater input to shelf waters at 3.5% and includes one profile from a nearly anoxic basin in the Chesapeake Bay. In the organic-rich Mullica River estuary, large-scale removal of riverine dissolved sup(239,240)Pu occurs at low salinities due to salt-induced coagulation, a mechanism analogous to that for iron and humic acids. Within the 0 to 2.5-3.5% zone in the other three estuaries, the activity of dissolved sup(239,240)Pu increases almost conservatively. The activities of particulate sup(239,240)Pu are highest in the more turbid waters of low salinity regime (0-1.5%), but become increasingly insignificant with respect to dissolved sup(239,240)Pu as salinities increase. At higher salinities corresponding to shelf water, there is a sharp increase in dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activity. The dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activity within each estuary appears to be inversely related to the flushing time of water. The sharp decrease in dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activities between shelf and estuarine waters appears to be driven by removal within the estuaries themselves rather than on the shelf. Dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activities are lower in the nearly-anoxic bottom waters of Chesapeake Bay indicating enhanced removal by redox transformation of Pu [i.e., Pu(V) to Pu(IV)]. (author)

  17. Intertidal mangrove mudflat 240+239Pu signatures, confirming a 210Pb geochronology on the southeastern coast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.J.; Patchineelam, S.R.; Ketterer, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    A sediment core was taken to determine if sediment accumulation rates could be conducted using 240+239 Pu signatures in the coastal mangrove mudflats of southeastern Brazil. The results from this study show that 240+239 Pu fallout activities are sufficient and well preserved in the coastal sediments of this region. Sediment accumulation rates determined from the 240+239 Pu signatures were 4.4 mm/year and 4.1 from 210 Pb (CIC) method. A sediment mixing coefficient rate was calculated using chlorophyll-a profile (9.5 cm 2 ). (author)

  18. Evaluation both level and 239+240Pu spatial contamination of the Lira object and the neighbouring areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silachev, I.Yu.; Podenezhko, V.V.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    In the work the generalization of considerable data collection for revealing of 239+240 Pu content range discriminative for Lira object and neighbouring areas is carried out. 239+240 Pu mean specific activity in the soil cover surface and in the Berezovka River bottom sedimentations are determined. The correlation dependence between 239+240 Pu artificial radionuclides and 137 Cs is revealed. The general source of artificial radionuclide origination for examined isotopes is shown up, and it is related with global radioactive fallout

  19. 17 CFR 240.3a12-7 - Exemption for certain derivative securities traded otherwise than on a national securities exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for certain derivative securities traded otherwise than on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-7 Section 240.3a12-7... Miscellaneous Exemptions § 240.3a12-7 Exemption for certain derivative securities traded otherwise than on a...

  20. 17 CFR 240.15g-3 - Broker or dealer disclosure of quotations and other information relating to the penny stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quotations and other information relating to the penny stock market. 240.15g-3 Section 240.15g-3 Commodity... Certain Issuers from Section 15(d) of the Act § 240.15g-3 Broker or dealer disclosure of quotations and... paragraph (b) of this section, the following information: (1) The inside bid quotation and the inside offer...

  1. Neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    Differential-neutron-emission cross sections of 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu are measured between approx. = 1.0 and 3.5 MeV with the angle and magnitude detail needed to provide angle-integrated emission cross sections to approx. 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U and 238 U inelastic-scattering values, poor agreement is observed for 240 Pu, and a serious discrepancy exists in the case of 239 Pu

  2. Determination of 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya sediments using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Skipperud, L.; Salbu, B.; Fifield, L.K.; Cresswell, R.C.; Day, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been used to determine Pu activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios in sediments from the Kara Sea and radioactive waste dumping sites at Novaya Zemlya. Measured 239,240 Pu activities ranged from 0.06 - 9.8 Bq/kg dry weight, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.13 to 0.28, and 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios from 0.02 to 0.6. Perturbations from global fallout isotope ratios were evident at three sites: the Yenisey Estuary and Abrosimov Fjords where 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios were lower (0.13-0.14); and Stepovogo Fjord sediments where ratios were higher (up to 0.28) than fallout ratios. Based on procedural blanks, detection limits for AMS were below 1 fg Pu and the method showed good precision for isotope ratio measurements, minimal matrix, interference and memory effects. For high level samples, comparison between alpha spectrometry and AMS gave good agreement for measurement of 239,240 Pu activity concentrations. (author)

  3. {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents Sea Regions. Sources and radioecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The radioecological assessment for {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents sea regions was made using the compartment modelling approach. The following sources of radioactive contamination were under consideration: global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, transport of {sup 239+240}Pu from the Sellafield and La Hauge nuclear plants and underwater testing of nuclear weapons in Chernaya Bay, Novaya Zemlya. The box model developed at NRPA uses a modified approach for compartmental modeling, which takes into account the dispersion of radionuclides over time. The box structures for surface, mid-depth and deep water layers have been developed based on the description of polar, Atlantic and deep waters in the Arctic Ocean and the Northern Seas, as well as site-specific information for the boxes. The volume of the three water layers in each box has been calculated using detailed bathymetry together with Geographical Information Systems. The box model includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing and a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers. Radioactive decay is calculated for all compartments. The contamination of biota is further calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumptions, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota are determined on the basis of calculated radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. Results of the calculations show that atmospheric deposition is the dominant source for the Barents Sea, except for the Chernaya Bay region. It is also demonstrated that the impact of the Sellafield nuclear facilities has

  4. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of (239+240)Pu as soil erosion tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael; Park, Ji-Hyung; Sandor, Tarjan; Porto, Paolo; Alewell, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as (137)Cs and (210)Pbex. As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (>25tha(-1)yr(-1)). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of (239+240)Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of (137)Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of (137)Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of (239+240)Pu through less preferential transport compared to (137)Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, (239+240)Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the soil and lateral transport during water erosion was shown to differ from that of (137)Cs, there is a clear

  5. Podoplanin (D2-40): A New Immunohistochemical Marker for Reactive Follicular Dendritic Cells and Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingmei; Chen, Lugen; Fu, Kai; Harter, Josephine; Young, Ken H; Sunkara, Jaya; Novak, Deborah; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Ratech, Howard

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma can be challenging because of its morphologic overlaps with many other spindle cell neoplasms and, therefore, new phenotypic markers will be helpful in its differential diagnosis. Podoplanin is a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein that has recently been detected in reactive FDCs. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of podoplanin using a new mouse monoclonal antibody D2-40, and compared them with CD21, a well-established FDC marker, in a comprehensive panel of cases. The panel included 4 FDC sarcomas, 38 spindle cell neoplasms of other types, 25 reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and 117 lymphoid and 5 myeloid malignant hematopoietic neoplasms. Our study revealed that D2-40 strongly stained 3 of 4 FDC sarcomas. In contrast, D2-40 stained only 2/38 other spindle cell neoplasms tested. Furthermore, we observed that D2-40 highlighted more FDC meshworks than CD21 in Castleman's disease, follicular lymphoma, nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin lymphoma, and residual reactive germinal centers in a variety of lymphoma types. D2-40 and CD21 stained an equal number of cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, progressively transformed germinal centers and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. No expression of podoplanin was detected in normal or neoplastic lymphoid and myeloid cells. We conclude that podoplanin (D2-40) is a sensitive and specific FDC marker, which is superior or equal to CD21 in evaluating both reactive and neoplastic FDCs. In addition, our results suggest that podoplanin (D2-40) can be used to support the diagnosis of FDC sarcoma. PMID:18784810

  6. Global Distributions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and the Ratio of {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs in an Ocean General Circulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Misumi, K.; Yoshida, Y. [Environmental Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Hirose, K. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The spatial distributions and the temporal variations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu concentrations were simulated by using an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). These radionuclides are introduced into the ocean by global fallout originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. {sup 137}Cs derived from global fallout is transported into the ocean interior by advection and diffusion, and the {sup 137}Cs concentration is reduced by radioactive decay. In contrast to {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu, which is a particle reactive radionuclide, is a biogeochemical tracer. The global distribution of the {sup 239,240}Pu{sup /137}Cs ratio was investigated in an OGCM with a biogeochemical process model. A half regeneration depth (HRD) of {sup 239,240}Pu was estimated from curve fitting of the vertical profile of the {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratio. Simulated distribution of the HRD is in good agreement with observation, except in the subarctic gyre. The HRD is a good tool to improve the parameters in the biogeochemical process. (author)

  7. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of {sup 239+240}Pu as soil erosion tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusburger, Katrin, E-mail: Katrin.Meusburger@unibas.ch [Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Bernoullistrasse 30, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Mabit, Lionel, E-mail: L.Mabit@iaea.org [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf (Austria); Ketterer, Michael, E-mail: mkettere@msudenver.edu [Chemistry Department, Metropolitan State University of Denver, CO (United States); Park, Ji-Hyung, E-mail: jhp@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Sandor, Tarjan [Radioanalytical Reference Laboratory, Central Agricultural Office Food and Feed Safety Directorate (Hungary); Porto, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.porto@unirc.it [Dipartimento di AGRARIA, Università degli Studi “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria (Italy); Alewell, Christine, E-mail: Christine.Alewell@unibas.ch [Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Bernoullistrasse 30, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb{sub ex}. As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (> 25 t ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios and {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of {sup 239+240}Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of {sup 137}Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of {sup 137}Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of {sup 239+240}Pu through less preferential transport compared to {sup 137}Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, {sup 239+240}Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the

  8. Global Fall Out of 239,240Pu and 241Am in The Environment of Serpong Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Yatim Sofyan

    2000-01-01

    Determination of 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am in the Cisadane river sediment and surface soil samples collected in 1996 from the environment of Atomic Energy Research Establishment (PPT A) of Serpong has been carried out. The objective of research was to evaluate the existence of 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am in the environment as impact of nuclear activities in the PPT A Serpong. Surface soils were collected from 3 locations and each of location consists of 4 sampling sites. Cisadane river sediment consists of 3 sampling sites. The results showed that the average concentration were founded to be 17.03 ± 2.49 mBq/kg for 239 , 240 Pu and 9.20 ± 2.93 mBq/kg for 241 Am. The observed 239 , 240 Pu 241 Am concentration are low compared to the reported values for some other areas of the world. The Activity ratios of 241 Am/ 239 , 24O Pu and 239 , 240 PU/ 137 Cs in surface soils were found to be in the narrow range 0.32 to 0.53 with a mean value of 0.43 ± 0.09 and 0.017 to 0.029 with a mean value of 0.024 ± 0.005 respectively. This ratio is in excellent agreement with the value of global fallout

  9. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

  10. High 240Pu FTR/EMC experiments and analysis: Carbide fuel and UO2 blanket subassembly worths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ombrellaro, P.A.

    1977-06-01

    Carbide-plutonium fuel and UO 2 blanket subassembly worth measurements performed at ANL in the EMC/LWR were analyzed. Composition exchange worth calculations were performed for: (a) the replacement of high- 240 Pu fuel composition for low- 240 Pu fuel composition and carbide-plutonium fuel composition, successively, in the center subassembly of the core; (b) the replacement of low- 240 Pu fuel composition for carbide--plutonium fuel composition in one outer driver subassembly; and (c) the replacement of the radial reflector composition with UO 2 blanket composition in one subassembly of the radial reflector. The composition exchange worth calculations were performed in two-dimensional x,y geometry, using diffusion theory and perturbation theory. Each method produces about the same calculated-to-experimental bias factors

  11. 242Pu: Preliminary evaluation with consideration of 240Pu, and some sensitivity results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jary, J.; Lagrange, C.; Philis, C.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of 242 Pu nuclear data is presented for the neutron energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV. The fission cross section is based upon recent experimental measurements on 242 Pu. The remaining cross sections have been calculated using various nuclear models with parameters obtained mainly by both fits on 240 Pu experimental data and general reflexions on the actinides. Particular care has been taken of the direct interactions. The laws of secondary neutron energy spectra and the average number of neutrons produced per fission have been evaluated. The results have been placed in ENDF/BIV format and combined with the low energy region of ENDF/BIV MAT = 1161 data to make complete the evaluation over the whole energy range 10 -5 eV - 20 MeV. Finally, the sensitivities of some of these nuclear data available for reactor calculations are given in terms of the variation of the calculated critical masses

  12. Metamaterial composite bandpass filter with an ultra-broadband rejection bandwidth of up to 240 terahertz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Lorenzen, Dennis Lund

    2014-01-01

    We present a metamaterial, consisting of a cross structure and a metal mesh filter, that forms a composite with greater functional bandwidth than any terahertz (THz) metamaterial to date. Metamaterials traditionally have a narrow usable bandwidth that is much smaller than common THz sources......, such as photoconductive antennas and difference frequency generation. The composite structure shown here expands the usable bandwidth to exceed that of current THz sources. To highlight the applicability of this combination, we demonstrate a series of bandpass filters with only a single pass band, with a central...... frequency (f) that is scalable from 0.86–8.51 THz, that highly extinguishes other frequencies up to >240 THz. The performance of these filters is demonstrated in experiment, using both air biased coherent detection and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), as well as in simulation. We present...

  13. Design of 240,000 orthogonal 25mer DNA barcode probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qikai; Schlabach, Michael R; Hannon, Gregory J; Elledge, Stephen J

    2009-02-17

    DNA barcodes linked to genetic features greatly facilitate screening these features in pooled formats using microarray hybridization, and new tools are needed to design large sets of barcodes to allow construction of large barcoded mammalian libraries such as shRNA libraries. Here we report a framework for designing large sets of orthogonal barcode probes. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by designing 240,000 barcode probes and testing their performance by hybridization. From the test hybridizations, we also discovered new probe design rules that significantly reduce cross-hybridization after their introduction into the framework of the algorithm. These rules should improve the performance of DNA microarray probe designs for many applications.

  14. Measurement of the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 240,242Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador-Castineira, P.; Hambsch, F.J.; Brys, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Vidali, M.; Pretel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Fast spectrum neutron-induced fission cross-section data for transuranic isotopes are in high demand in the nuclear data community. In particular, highly accurate data are needed for the new Generation-IV nuclear applications. The aim is to obtain precise neutron-induced fission cross-sections for 240 Pu and 242 Pu. In this context accurate data on spontaneous fission half-lives have also been measured. To minimise the total uncertainty on the fission cross-sections the detector efficiency has been studied in detail. Both isotopes have been measured using a twin Frisch-grid ionisation chamber (TFGIC) due to its superiority compared to other detector systems in view of radiation hardness, 2 x 2π solid angle coverage and very good energy resolution. (authors)

  15. Plutonium-239, 240Pu and 210Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 239 Pu and 240 Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the 210 Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of 210 Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers

  16. γ-spectroscopy of the superdeformed 240mPu with the CLUSTER-CUBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansegrau, D.; Ender, C.; Haertlein, T.; Koeck, F.; Reiter, P.; Schwalm, D.; Eberth, J.; Thomas, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    The study of γ-decays of excited states in the second minimum of the double-humped fission barrier in actinides can make a substantial contribution towards a better understanding of the structure of superdeformed nuclei. An experiment using the EUROBALL-CLUSTER-CUBE was performed to observe these extremely rare γ-decays. The 238 U(α, 2n)-reaction was selected to populate the shape isomer 240m Pu, which decays via delayed fission with a half life of 3.8 ns. The delayed fission enables an unambiguous trigger on the population of the shape isomer. Prompt γ-decays of excited states in the second minimum were detected in coincidence with delayed fission fragments. A strong transition at 786 keV, which shows an isotropic angular distribution, and some weaker transitions in the region of 550 keV and 820 keV could be observed. (orig.)

  17. Transuranic and tracer simulant resuspension. [/sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G. A.

    1977-07-01

    Plutonium resuspension results are summarized for experiments conducted at Rocky Flats, onsite on the Hanford reservation, and for winds blowing from offsite onto the Hanford reservation near the Prosser barricade boundary. In each case, plutonium resuspension was shown by increased airborne plutonium concentrations as a function of either wind speed or as compared to fallout levels. All measured airborne concentrations were below maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Both plutonium and cesium concentrations on airborne soil were normalized by the quantity of airborne soil sampled. Airborne radionuclide concentrations in ..mu..Ci/g were related to published values for radionuclide concentrations on surface soils. For this ratio of radionuclide concentration per gram on airborne soil divided by that for ground surface soil, there are eight orders of magnitude uncertainty from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 4/. Horizontal plutonium fluxes on airborne nonrespirable soils at all three sites were bracketed within the same three to four orders of magnitude from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -3/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for plutonium-239 and 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for plutonium-238. These are the entire experimental base for nonrespirable airborne plutonium transport. Airborne respirable plutonium-239 concentrations increased with wind speed for a southeast wind direction coming from offsite near the Hanford reservation Prosser barricade. Airborne plutonium fluxes on nonrespirable particles had isotopic ratios, /sup 240/Pu//sup 239 +240/Pu, similar to weapons grade plutonium rather than fallout plutonium. Resuspension rates were summarized for controlled inert particle tracer simulant experiments. Wind resuspension rates for tracers increased with wind speed to about the fifth power.

  18. 17 CFR 240.17i-2 - Notice of intention to be supervised by the Commission as a supervised investment bank holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... risk, credit risk, and operational risk made in accordance with § 240.17i-7(a)-(d); (vi) A list of the... and credit risk on those categories of positions pursuant to § 240.17i-7(b) and (c); (vii) A... and to compute allowances for market and credit risk (as specified in § 240.17i-7(b) and (c...

  19. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, E.A.

    1998-02-01

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  20. Shape coexistence in 16O, 72Se, and 240Pu: a comprehensive view based on the dynamic deformation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamic deformation model has been improved and applied to calculate the potential energies of deformation and the collective spectra of 16 O, 72 Se, and 240 Pu. A comprehensive view based on the dynamics of five-dimensional quadrupole motion is provided for three seemingly different types of shape coexistence: spherical (Op - Oh) and deformed (2p - 2h) shapes in 16 O, spherical and deformed minima in the potential energy surface of 72 Se, ground-state shape and the fission-isomer shape of 240 Pu. 5 figures, 3 tables

  1. Remarkably High Stability of Late Actinide Dioxide Cations: Extending Chemistry to Pentavalent Berkelium and Californium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Phuong D; Vasiliu, Monica; Peterson, Kirk A; Dixon, David A; Gibson, John K

    2017-12-06

    Actinyl chemistry is extended beyond Cm to BkO 2 + and CfO 2 + through transfer of an O atom from NO 2 to BkO + or CfO + , establishing a surprisingly high lower limit of 73 kcal mol -1 for the dissociation energies, D[O-(BkO + )] and D[O-(CfO + )]. CCSD(T) computations are in accord with the observed reactions, and characterize the newly observed dioxide ions as linear pentavalent actinyls; these being the first Bk and Cf species with oxidation states above IV. Computations of actinide dioxide cations AnO 2 + for An=Pa to Lr reveal an unexpected minimum for D[O-(CmO + )]. For CmO 2 + , and AnO 2 + beyond EsO 2 + , the most stable structure has side-on bonded η 2 -(O 2 ), as An III peroxides for An=Cm and Lr, and as An II superoxides for An=Fm, Md, and No. It is predicted that the most stable structure of EsO 2 + is linear [O=Es V =O] + , einsteinyl, and that FmO 2 + and MdO 2 + , like CmO 2 + , also have actinyl(V) structures as local energy minima. The results expand actinide oxidation state chemistry, the realm of the distinctive actinyl moiety, and the non-periodic character towards the end of the periodic table. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Total neutron cross sections of berkelium-249 and californium-249 below 100 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Pandey, M.S.; Carlton, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The neutron total cross sections of 249 Bk and 249 Cf have been measured from 0.03 to 100 eV using the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) as a source of pulsed neutrons. The 1.6 mm dia. cylindrical transmission samples contained initially up to 5.3 mg of 98% 249 Bk and 2% 249 Cf: 4.5 years later, when the final measurements were made, the composition of the samples had become 2.5% 249 Bk, 96.9% 249 Cf, and 0.6% 245 Cm. Samples were cooled with liquid nitrogen to reduce Doppler broadening. Thirty-nine resonances were identified in 249 Bk and analyzed using a single-level Breit-Wigner formalism. Fifty-five resonances were identified in 249 Cf and analyzed using an R-matrix multilevel formalism. Fifty-five resonances were identified in 249 Cf and analyzed using an R-matrix multilevel formalism. The resonance parameters obtained have been used to determine the average level spacings and the s-wave neutron and fission strength functions. Where possible, bound-level parameters were derived to fit the thermal neutron total cross section data

  3. 17 CFR 249.501a - Form BDW, notice of withdrawal from registration as broker-dealer pursuant to § 240.15b6-1, § 240...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawal, except for social security account numbers, disclosure of which is voluntary. The information... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form BDW, notice of withdrawal... Offers § 249.501a Form BDW, notice of withdrawal from registration as broker-dealer pursuant to § 240...

  4. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia); Wisnubroto, Djarot S. [The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup −1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup −1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup −3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup −3}.

  5. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations and the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in a sediment core from the sub-aqueous delta of Yangtze River estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, S.M., E-mail: span@nju.edu.cn [Key Lab of Ministry of Education of Coast and Island Development, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tims, S.G. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu, X.Y. [Key Lab of Ministry of Education of Coast and Island Development, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    A sediment core collected from the sub-aqueous delta of the Yangtze River estuary was subjected to analyses of {sup 137}Cs and plutonium (Pu) isotopes. The {sup 137}Cs was measured using {gamma}-spectrometry at the laboratories at the Nanjing University and Pu isotopes were determined with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), measurements made at the Australian National University. The results show considerable structure in the depth concentration profiles of the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu. The shape of the vertical {sup 137}Cs distribution in the sediment core was similar to that of the Pu. The maximum {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations were 16.21 {+-} 0.95 mBq/g and 0.716 {+-} 0.030 mBq/g, respectively, and appear at same depth. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio was 0.238 {+-} 0.007 in the sediment core, slightly higher than the average global fallout value. The changes in the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the sediment core indicate the presence of at least two different Pu sources, i.e., global fallout and another source, most likely close-in fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands, and suggest the possibility that Pu isotopes are useful as a geochronological tool for coastal sediment studies. The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu inventories were estimated to be 7100 {+-} 1200 Bq/m{sup 2} and 407 {+-} 27 Bq/m{sup 2}, respectively. Approximately 40% of the {sup 239+240}Pu inventory originated from the PPG close-in fallout and about 50% has derived from land-origin global fallout transported to the estuary by the river. This study confirms that AMS is a useful tool to measure {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio and can provide valuable information on sedimentary processes in the coastal environment.

  6. ZPR-6 assembly 7 high {sup 240}Pu core experiments : a fast reactor core with mixed (Pu,U)-oxide fuel and a centeral high{sup 240}Pu zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; Morman, J. A.; Schaefer, R.W.; McKnight, R.D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-02-23

    ZPR-6 Assembly 7 (ZPR-6/7) encompasses a series of experiments performed at the ZPR-6 facility at Argonne National Laboratory in 1970 and 1971 as part of the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program (Reference 1). Assembly 7 simulated a large sodium-cooled LMFBR with mixed oxide fuel, depleted uranium radial and axial blankets, and a core H/D near unity. ZPR-6/7 was designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, so configurations in the Assembly 7 program were as simple as possible in terms of geometry and composition. ZPR-6/7 had a very uniform core assembled from small plates of depleted uranium, sodium, iron oxide, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Pu-U-Mo alloy loaded into stainless steel drawers. The steel drawers were placed in square stainless steel tubes in the two halves of a split table machine. ZPR-6/7 had a simple, symmetric core unit cell whose neutronic characteristics were dominated by plutonium and {sup 238}U. The core was surrounded by thick radial and axial regions of depleted uranium to simulate radial and axial blankets and to isolate the core from the surrounding room. The ZPR-6/7 program encompassed 139 separate core loadings which include the initial approach to critical and all subsequent core loading changes required to perform specific experiments and measurements. In this context a loading refers to a particular configuration of fueled drawers, radial blanket drawers and experimental equipment (if present) in the matrix of steel tubes. Two principal core configurations were established. The uniform core (Loadings 1-84) had a relatively uniform core composition. The high {sup 240}Pu core (Loadings 85-139) was a variant on the uniform core. The plutonium in the Pu-U-Mo fuel plates in the uniform core contains 11% {sup 240}Pu. In the high {sup 240}Pu core, all Pu-U-Mo plates in the inner core region (central 61 matrix locations per half of the split table machine) were replaced by Pu-U-Mo plates containing 27% {sup 240}Pu in the plutonium

  7. Deconvolution of 238,239,240Pu conversion electron spectra measured with a silicon drift detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommé, S.; Marouli, M.; Paepen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Internal conversion electron (ICE) spectra of thin 238,239,240Pu sources, measured with a windowless Peltier-cooled silicon drift detector (SDD), were deconvoluted and relative ICE intensities were derived from the fitted peak areas. Corrections were made for energy dependence of the full...

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Cyclic DP-240 Amylose Fragment in a Periodic Cell: Glass Transition Temperature and Water Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular dynamics simulations using AMB06C, an in-house carbohydrate force field, (NPT ensembles, 1atm) were carried out on a periodic cell that contained a cyclic-DP-240 amylose fragment and TIP3P water molecules. Molecular conformation and movement of the amylose fragment and water molecules at ...

  9. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An... derivatives dealer's internal risk management control system shall include the following elements: (1) A risk... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal risk management...

  10. Shape coexistence in 16O, 72Se, and 240Pu: a comprehensive view based on the dynamic deformation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.

    1979-01-01

    It has been shown that the gross features of the collective spectra of even-even nuclei ranging from 12 C to 240 Pu are reproduced by the dynamic deformation model without any fitting parameters. We apply another test to be same model in the present study. Can this single model explain three seemingly different types of shape co-existence proposed previously: spherical op-oh and deformed 2p-2h shapes in 16 O, spherical and prolate-deformed minima in the potential energy surface of 72 Se, ground state shape and fission isomer shape of 240 Pu. Of these three nuclei, only the nucleus 72 Se is off the line of beta-stability. The calculated potential energy surfaces and collective spectra of 16 O, 72 Se, and 240 Pu are discussed and compared with experiments. The three different kinds of shape coexistence proposed previously for 16 O, 72 Se, and 240 Pu are all reproduced by the present version of the dynamic deformation model within the same model and without any fitting parameters. We conclude that the combination of the dynamics of the nine-dimensional quadrupole and pairing motions with a large space microscopic calculation provides a rather powerful tool for studying practically all even-even nuclei

  11. 17 CFR 240.17a-6 - Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing agency or the Municipal Securities... and Reports of Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-6 Right of national securities exchange...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 - Customer protection-reserves and custody of securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customer protection-reserves... Markets § 240.15c3-3 Customer protection—reserves and custody of securities. (a) Definitions. For the... the dealer as to that collateral; (iii) The Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 (15 U.S.C...

  13. Study of the operation of a diesel engine YaMZ-240 in the regime of gas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degtyarev, G I

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented from studying the diesel engine of type YaMZ-240 during its operation in a mode of idling with increased counter pressure at the exhaust. The possibility is indicated of using the energy of exhaust gases of the engine in the fuel feeding system for mixture-formation and adding steam to the explosive mixture.

  14. 17 CFR 240.17i-4 - Internal risk management control system requirements for supervised investment bank holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal risk management... Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17i-4 Internal risk management control system...) As part of its internal risk management control system, a supervised investment bank holding company...

  15. 17 CFR 240.15a-10 - Exemption of certain brokers or dealers with respect to security futures products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain brokers... Brokers and Dealers § 240.15a-10 Exemption of certain brokers or dealers with respect to security futures products. (a) A broker or dealer that is registered by notice with the Commission pursuant to section 15(b...

  16. 17 CFR 240.15c1-3 - Misrepresentation by brokers, dealers and municipal securities dealers as to registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misrepresentation by brokers...-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-3 Misrepresentation by brokers, dealers and municipal securities..., as used in section 15(c)(1) of the Act, is hereby defined to include any representation by a broker...

  17. Determination of isotope fractionation effect using a double spike (242Pu+240Pu) during the mass spectrometric analysis of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, S.A.; Parab, A.R.; Khodade, P.S.; Jain, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope fractionation effect during the mass spectrometric analysis of plutonium has been investigated using a double spike ( 242 Pu+ 240 Pu) and the determination of concentration of plutonium in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is reported. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  19. Suitability of 239+240Pu and 137Cs as tracers for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides have been distributed globally due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. While the negative consequences of this radioactive contamination are self-evident, the ubiquitous fallout radionuclides (FRNs) distribution form the basis for the use as tracers in ecological studies, namely for soil erosion assessment. Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. We compare the suitability of the anthropogenic FRNs, 137Cs and 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracers in two alpine valleys of Switzerland (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri, Central Swiss Alps and Val Piora, Ticino, Southern Alps). We sampled reference and potentially erosive sites in transects along both valleys. 137Cs measurements of soil samples were performed with a Li-drifted Germanium detector and 239+240Pu with ICP-MS. Our data indicates a heterogeneous deposition of the 137Cs, since most of the fallout origins from the Chernobyl April/May 1986 accident, when large parts of the European Alps were still snow-covered. In contrast, 239+240Pu fallout originated mainly from 1950s to 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, resulting in a more homogenous distribution and thus seems to be a more suitable tracer in mountainous grasslands. Soil erosion assessment using 239+240Pu as a tracer pointed to a huge dynamic and high heterogeneity of erosive processes (between sedimentation of 1.9 and 7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.2-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the Urseren Valley and sedimentation of 0.4-20.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.1-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) at Val Piora). Our study represents a novel and successful application of 239+240Pu as a tracer of soil erosion in a mountain environment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. 17 CFR 240.3a44-1 - Proprietary government securities transactions incidental to the futures-related business of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proprietary government securities transactions incidental to the futures-related business of a CFTC-regulated person. 240.3a44-1 Section 240.3a44-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  1. 17 CFR 240.3a43-1 - Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a futures commission merchant registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. 240.3a43-1 Section 240.3a43-1 Commodity and Securities...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15a-4 - Forty-five day exemption from registration for certain members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forty-five day exemption from registration for certain members of national securities exchanges. 240.15a-4 Section 240.15a-4 Commodity and... national securities exchanges. (a) A natural person who is a member of a national securities exchange shall...

  3. 49 CFR 240.113 - Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as an employee of a different railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....113 Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as an employee of a different railroad... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as an employee of a different railroad. 240.113 Section 240.113 Transportation Other Regulations...

  4. 17 CFR 240.19d-4 - Notice by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of disapproval of registration or of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Accounting Oversight Board of disapproval of registration or of disciplinary action. (a) Definitions—(1... Accounting Oversight Board of disapproval of registration or of disciplinary action. 240.19d-4 Section 240.19d-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES...

  5. 45 CFR 2522.240 - What financial benefits do AmeriCorps participants serving in approved AmeriCorps positions receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financial benefits do AmeriCorps participants serving in approved AmeriCorps positions receive? (a) Ameri... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What financial benefits do AmeriCorps participants serving in approved AmeriCorps positions receive? 2522.240 Section 2522.240 Public Welfare Regulations...

  6. 17 CFR 240.19d-2 - Applications for stays of disciplinary sanctions or summary suspensions by a self-regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disciplinary sanctions or summary suspensions by a self-regulatory organization. 240.19d-2 Section 240.19d-2... summary suspensions by a self-regulatory organization. If any self-regulatory organization imposes any... the appropriate regulatory agency may file with the Commission a written motion for a stay of...

  7. A 240-channel thick film multi-chip module for readout of silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.; Bellwied, R.; Beuttenmueller, R.; Caines, H.; Chen, W.; DiMassimo, D.; Dyke, H.; Elliott, D.; Grau, M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Humanic, T.; Jensen, P.; Kleinfelder, S.A.; Kotov, I.; Kraner, H.W.; Kuczewski, P.; Leonhardt, B.; Li, Z.; Liaw, C.J.; LoCurto, G.; Middelkamp, P.; Minor, R.; Mazeh, N.; Nehmeh, S.; O'Conner, P.; Ott, G.; Pandey, S.U.; Pruneau, C.; Pinelli, D.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Rykov, V.; Schambach, J.; Sedlmeir, J.; Sheen, J.; Soja, B.; Stephani, D.; Sugarbaker, E.; Takahashi, J.; Wilson, K.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a thick film multi-chip module for readout of silicon drift (or low capacitance ∼200 fF) detectors. Main elements of the module include a custom 16-channel NPN-BJT preamplifier-shaper (PASA) and a custom 16-channel CMOS Switched Capacitor Array (SCA). The primary design criteria of the module were the minimizations of the power (12 mW/channel), noise (ENC=490 e - rms), size (20.5 mmx63 mm), and radiation length (1.4%). We will discuss various aspects of the PASA design, with emphasis on the preamplifier feedback network. The SCA is a modification of an integrated circuit that has been previously described [1]; its design features specific to its application in the SVT (Silicon Vertex Tracker in the STAR experiment at RHIC) will be discussed. The 240-channel multi-chip module is a circuit with five metal layers fabricated in thick film technology on a beryllia substrate and contains 35 custom and commercial integrated circuits. It has been recently integrated with silicon drift detectors in both a prototype system assembly for the SVT and a silicon drift array for the E896 experiment at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. We will discuss features of the module's design and fabrication, report the test results, and emphasize its performance both on the bench and under experimental conditions

  8. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie

    2015-04-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice-core record (793-1989 AD) from the high altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the pre-colonial period (i.e., pre-1532 AD), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (1438-1532 AD) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after 1540 AD, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, 240 years prior to the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (1572 AD), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  9. Irradiation Effects at 160-240 deg C in Some Swedish Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grounes, M [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Myers, H P [Chalmers Institute of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Hannerz, N E [Motala Verkstads AB, Motala (Sweden)

    1967-09-15

    Tensile specimens, Charpy impact specimens and miniature impact specimens of six steels in different conditions were irradiated to 2.8 x 10{sup 18} and 5.6 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) at 160-240 deg C. The steels investigated were SIS 142103, 2103/R3, NO 345, Fortiweld, Fortiweld HS and OK 54 P. There is no correlation between the increase in transition temperature and initial transition temperature. However, changes in strength and ductility can be correlated to the initial yield strength. The increases in transition temperature due to strain aging and irradiation are approximately additive. The irradiation-induced changes in 2103/R3 and Fortiweld HS steels do not vary with position in the thickness of the plate. Different tempering treatments in Fortiweld HS steel do not change the extent of irradiation effects. Normal Charpy V-notch impact specimens and miniature specimens give the same irradiation-induced increase in transition temperature.

  10. Fission dynamics of 240Cf* formed in 34,36S induced reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the entrance channel effects in the decay of Compound nucleus 240Cf* formed in 34S+206Pb and 36S+204Pb reactions by using energy density dependent nuclear proximity potential in the framework of dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM. At different excitation energies, the fragmentation potential and preformation probability of decaying fragments are almost identical for both the entrance channels, which seem to suggest that decay is independent of its formation and entrance channel excitation energy. It is also observed that, with inclusion of deformation effects upto quadrupole within the optimum orientation approach, the fragmentation path governing potential energy surfaces gets modified significantly. Beside this, the fission mass distribution of Cf* isotopes is also investigated. The calculated fission cross-sections using SIII force for both the channels find nice agreement with the available experimental data for deformed choice of fragments, except at higher energies. In addition to this, the comparative analysis with Blocki based nuclear attraction is also worked out. It is observed that Blocki proximity potential accounts well for the CN decay at all energies whereas the use of EDF based nuclear potential suggests the presence of some non-compound nucleus process (such as quasi-fission (qf at higher energies.

  11. SEGUE: A Spectroscopic Survey of 240,000 stars with g=14-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanny, Brian; /Fermilab; Rockosi, Constance; /UC, Santa Cruz; Newberg, Heidi Jo; /Rensselaer Poly.; Knapp, Gillian R.; /Princeton U.; Adelman-McCarthy, Jennifer K.; /Fermilab; Alcorn, Bonnie; /Fermilab; Allam, Sahar S.; /Fermilab; Prieto, Carlos Allende; /Texas U. /University Coll. London; An, Deokkeun; /Ohio State U.; Anderson, Kurt S.J.; /Apache Point Observ. /New Mexico State U.; Anderson, Scott; /Washington U., Seattle

    2009-02-01

    The Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Survey obtained {approx}240,000 moderate-resolution (R {approx} 1800) spectra from 3900 {angstrom} to 9000 {angstrom} of fainter Milky Way stars (14.0 < g < 20.3) of a wide variety of spectral types, both main-sequence and evolved objects, with the goal of studying the kinematics and populations of our Galaxy and its halo. The spectra are clustered in 212 regions spaced over three quarters of the sky. Radial velocity accuracies for stars are {sigma}(RV) {approx} 4 km s{sup -1} at g < 18, degrading to {sigma}(RV) {approx} 15 km s{sup -1} at g {approx} 20. For stars with signal-to-noise ratio >10 per resolution element, stellar atmospheric parameters are estimated, including metallicity, surface gravity, and effective temperature. SEGUE obtained 3500 deg{sup 2} of additional ugriz imaging (primarily at low Galactic latitudes) providing precise multicolor photometry ({sigma}(g, r, i) {approx} 2%), ({sigma}(u, z) {approx} 3%) and astrometry ({approx}0.1) for spectroscopic target selection. The stellar spectra, imaging data, and derived parameter catalogs for this survey are publicly available as part of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7.

  12. Irradiation Effects at 160-240 deg C in Some Swedish Pressure Vessel Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grounes, M.; Myers, H.P.; Hannerz, N.E.

    1967-09-01

    Tensile specimens, Charpy impact specimens and miniature impact specimens of six steels in different conditions were irradiated to 2.8 x 10 18 and 5.6 x 10 18 n/cm 2 (> 1 MeV) at 160-240 deg C. The steels investigated were SIS 142103, 2103/R3, NO 345, Fortiweld, Fortiweld HS and OK 54 P. There is no correlation between the increase in transition temperature and initial transition temperature. However, changes in strength and ductility can be correlated to the initial yield strength. The increases in transition temperature due to strain aging and irradiation are approximately additive. The irradiation-induced changes in 2103/R3 and Fortiweld HS steels do not vary with position in the thickness of the plate. Different tempering treatments in Fortiweld HS steel do not change the extent of irradiation effects. Normal Charpy V-notch impact specimens and miniature specimens give the same irradiation-induced increase in transition temperature

  13. Expressed proteins of Herbaspirillum seropedicae in maize (DKB240) roots-bacteria interaction revealed using proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Cibele Santos; Amaral, Fernanda Plucani; Bueno, Jessica Cavalheiro Ferreira; Scariot, Mirella Christine; Valentim-Neto, Pedro Alexandre; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave

    2014-11-01

    Several molecular tools have been used to clarify the basis of plant-bacteria interaction; however, the mechanism behind the association is still unclear. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the root proteome of Zea mays (cv. DKB240) inoculated with Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1 grown in vitro and harvested 7 days after inoculation. Eighteen differentially accumulated proteins were observed in root samples, ten of which were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprint. Among the identified proteins, we observed three proteins present exclusively in inoculated root samples and six upregulated proteins and one downregulated protein relative to control. Differentially expressed maize proteins were identified as hypothetical protein ZEAMMB73_483204, hypothetical protein ZEAMMB73_269466, and tubulin beta-7 chain. The following were identified as H. seropedicae proteins: peroxiredoxin protein, EF-Tu elongation factor protein, cation transport ATPase, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase, dinitrogenase reductase, and type III secretion ATP synthase. Our results presented the first evidence of type III secretion ATP synthase expression during H. seropedicae-maize root interaction.

  14. Is 239+240Pu the new tracer for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. However, there has been limited scientific interest in this significant environmental problem. Minimal attention has been given towards its mitigation by policy makers. Limited information in this area is partly due to the difficulty of quantifying soil erosion in mountain environments having un-ploughed soils, steep, complex topography, and harsh climates. In many environments, fallout radionuclides (FRNs) have been widely used to quantify soil particle movement and net erosion rates. A wide variety of artificial radionuclides have been deposited globally via nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. Large-scale atmospheric tests of thermonuclear weapons resulted in the injection of debris into the stratosphere; following which isotopes such as 137 Cs, 239 Pu and 240 Pu deposited relatively uniformly on a local scale. While it is unfortunate that these isotopes were released into the environment, it is at the same time fortuitous that these FRNs can serve as valuable tracers of recent earth surface processes, including assessing soil erosion

  15. Performance of cladding on MOX fuel with low 240Pu/239Pu ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, K.; Blanpain, P.; Morris, R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world's first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding. (authors)

  16. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  17. Intratumoral and peritumoral lymphovascular invasion detected by D2-40 immunohistochemistry correlates with metastasis in primary cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rohil, Rami N; Milton, Denái R; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Curry, Jonathan L; Feldmeyer, Laurence; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Ivan, Doina; Prieto, Victor G; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Aung, Phyu P

    2018-07-01

    Primary cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine malignancy in which lymphovascular invasion (LVI) correlates with more aggressive phenotype. The prognostic significance of LVI detected by D2-40 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in MCC remains controversial. We aimed to determine how LVI detected by D2-40 IHC compares with LVI detected by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining in predicting MCC metastasis. Clinical and histopathologic features of MCCs diagnosed and treated in 2002 to 2015 were assembled and included 58 MCC tumors from 58 patients. H&E-stained tissue sections and D2-40 IHC studies were reviewed. When LVI was present, the location (peritumoral or intratumoral) and the size of the largest invaded vessel were recorded. LVI findings by H&E staining and D2-40 IHC were compared with each other and with histologic features and clinical outcomes. H&E staining showed LVI in 37 of 58 cases; D2-40 IHC confirmed LVI in 30 of these cases but failed to confirm LVI in 7. D2-40 IHC also detected 14 cases of LVI not identified on H&E staining. Histologically, D2-40-detected LVI was associated with infiltrative growth pattern and nonbrisk lymphoid infiltrate (P = .005 and P = .055, respectively). There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of detection of peritumoral LVI by H&E in comparison to D2-40 IHC (P = .0009). MCCs in which D2-40 IHC-detected both intratumoral and peritumoral LVI were typically larger than MCCs without (mean, 24.5 mm versus 17.3 mm; P = .03) and more frequently metastasized (87% versus 51%; P = .03). D2-40 IHC detection of both intratumoral and peritumoral LVI is associated with metastasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased Detection of Lymphatic Vessel Invasion by D2-40 (Podoplanin) in Early Breast Cancer: Possible Influence on Patient Selection for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debald, Manuel; Poelcher, Martin; Flucke, Uta; Walgenbach-Bruenagel, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Several international trials are currently investigating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for patients with early-stage breast cancer. According to existing guidelines, patients with lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) do not qualify for APBI. D2-40 (podoplanin) significantly increases the frequency of LVI detection compared with conventional hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining in early-stage breast cancer. Our purpose was to retrospectively assess the hypothetical change in management from APBI to whole breast radiotherapy with the application of D2-40. Patients and Methods: Immunostaining with D2-40 was performed on 254 invasive breast tumors of 247 patients. The following criteria were used to determine the eligibility for APBI: invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of ≤3 cm, negative axillary node status (N0), and unifocal disease. Of the 247 patients, 74 with available information concerning LVI, as detected by D2-40 immunostaining and routine HE staining, formed our study population. Results: Using D2-40, our results demonstrated a significantly greater detection rate (p = .031) of LVI compared with routine HE staining. LVI was correctly identified by D2-40 (D2-40-positive LVI) in 10 (13.5%) of 74 tumors. On routine HE staining, 4 tumors (5.4%) were classified as HE-positive LVI. Doublestaining of these specimens with D2-40 unmasked false-positive LVI status in 2 (50%) of the 4 tumors. According to the current recommendations for APBI, immunostaining with D2-40 would have changed the clinical management from APBI to whole breast radiotherapy in 8 (10.8%) of 74 patients and from whole breast radiotherapy to APBI in 2 patients (2.7%). Conclusion: These data support the implementation of D2-40 immunostaining in the routine workup to determine a patient's eligibility for APBI.

  19. The difference of contrast effects of myelography in normal dogs: Comparison of iohexol (180 mgI/ml), iohexol (240 mgI/ml) and iotrolan (240 mgI/ml)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, J.; Yamada, K.; Kishimoto, M.; Iwasaki, T.; Miyake, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The contrast effects of three different contrast media preparations (iohexol 180 mgI/ml, iohexol 240 mgI/ml and iotrolan 240 mgI/ml) in conventional and CT myelography were compared. Three beagle dogs were used and the study employed a cross-over method (total of 9) for each contrast media. The result of CT myelography showed that the contrast effect of iohexol (180 mgI/ml), which had low viscosity, was highest in cranial sites, and the contrast effect of high-viscosity iotrolan (240 mgI/ml) was highest in caudal sites 5 min after injection of the contrast media preparations. This shows that the diffusion of contrast media preparations in the subarachnoid space is influenced by viscosity. The results of conventional myelography also showed that the diffusion of contrast media preparations is influenced by viscosity. Therefore, it is important to identify the location of spinal lesions in veterinary practice, and low viscosity contrast medium preparation with wide spread contrast effects is considered suitable for myelography

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafason, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU consists of thee Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01 - Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02 - Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03 - Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). Characterization activities indicated that only CAS 25-07-02 (F and J Roads Pad) contained constituents of concern (COCs) above action levels and required remediation. The COCs detected were Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel, cesium-137, and strontium-90. The F and J Roads Pad may have been used for the decontamination of vehicles and possibly disassembled engine and reactor parts from Test Cell C. Activities occurred there during the 1960s through early 1970s. The F and J Roads Pad consisted of a 9- by 5-meter (m) (30- by 15-foot [ft]) concrete pad and a 14- by 13-m (46-by 43-ft) gravel sump. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Closure activities began on August 21, 2000, and ended on September 19, 2000. Waste disposal activities were completed on December 12, 2000. A total of 172 cubic meters (223 cubic yards) of impacted soil was excavated and disposed. The concrete pad was also removed and disposed. Verification samples were collected from the bottom and sidewalls of the excavation and analyzed for TPH diesel and 20-minute gamma spectroscopy. The sample results indicated that all impacted soil above remediation standards was removed. The closure was completed following the approved Corrective Action Plan. All impacted waste was disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill. All non-impacted debris was disposed in the Area 9 Construction Landfill and the Area 23 Sanitary Landfill

  1. Rate Coefficients for the OH + (CHO)2 (Glyoxal) Reaction Between 240 and 400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, K. J.; Talukdar, R. K.; Zhu, L.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    Glyoxal (CHO)2, the simplest dialdehyde, is an end product formed in the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons, for example, isoprene. As such, glyoxal plays a role in regional air quality and ozone production in certain locations. Glyoxal is lost in the atmosphere via UV photolysis and reaction with OH. However, the currently available rate coefficient data for the OH + glyoxal reaction is limited to a single room- temperature measurement made using the relative rate method. A determination of the rate coefficient temperature dependence is therefore needed for a more complete interpretation of the atmospheric processing of glyoxal. This study reports the rate coefficient for the OH + (CHO)2 reaction measured under pseudo- first-order conditions in OH ([(CHO)2] > 1000 [OH]0). OH radicals were produced using 248 nm pulsed laser photolysis of H2O2 or HNO3 and detected by pulsed laser induced fluorescence. The concentration of glyoxal in the reactor was determined using three independent techniques; gas flow rates as well as in situ UV and IR absorption. The total pressure in the reactor was varied from 40 to 300 Torr (He), and the rate coefficient was found to be independent of pressure over the temperature range studied. The rate coefficient exhibits a negative temperature dependence between 240 and 400 K consistent with the dependence previously observed for many other aldehydes. Our room-temperature rate coefficient is smaller than the relative rate value that is currently recommended for use in atmospheric model calculations. Our measured rate coefficients are discussed with respect to those for other aldehydes. The atmospheric implications of our work will also be discussed.

  2. Pb-210 and Pu-239,240 in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Pb-210, Ra-226, and Pu-239,240 activities were measured in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments. Sediment cores were collected from the Mississippi delta, and the western Gulf of Mexico shelf. Mississippi delta cores which exhibit significantly higher sedimentation rates show larger inventories of Pb-210. The measured Pu levels from the western shelf are lower than from the delta at comparable depths. In three of the western shelf cores, the observed Pu inventory is considerably less than predicted from atmospheric flux. Therefore, Pu is not being removed to the sediment, or is being released following deposition. A key difference between these isotopes is that Pu exists in a less particle-reactive state. The ratio of excess Pb-210 to Pu levels increases with water depth in the delta and the western shelf. Water depth acts as an integrator of depth-sensitive processes. Pu scavenging is more sensitive to these processes. A sub-surface Pu maximum has been observed. Excess Pb-210 and Pu levels correlate well with sedimentation rates. This suggests that particle flux is important in removal of Pb-210 and Pu to the sediment. The flux of Mn out of the sediment is correlated with inventory data, suggesting that redox cycling of Mn may play a role in increasing Pb-210 and Pu sediment inventories. It is unclear whether the effects of increased sedimentation rates and increased Mn fluxes can be evaluated independently. Mixing of surface sediment correlates with inventory data. Increased sediment mixing allows for additional scavenging of Pb-210 and Pu from overlying waters. Mixing of sediment at depths below the mixed surface layer may play a role in increasing sediment inventories of Pb-210 and Pu

  3. HECTOR: A 240kV micro-CT setup optimized for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masschaele, Bert; Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Boone, Matthieu N.; Brabant, Loes; Pauwels, Elin; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2013-10-01

    X-ray micro-CT has become a very powerful and common tool for non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization and analysis of objects. Many systems are commercially available, but they are typically limited in terms of operational freedom both from a mechanical point of view as well as for acquisition routines. HECTOR is the latest system developed by the Ghent University Centre for X-ray Tomography (http://www.ugct.ugent.be) in collaboration with X-Ray Engineering (XRE bvba, Ghent, Belgium). It consists of a mechanical setup with nine motorized axes and a modular acquisition software package and combines a microfocus directional target X-ray source up to 240 kV with a large flat-panel detector. Provisions are made to install a line-detector for a maximal operational range. The system can accommodate samples up to 80 kg, 1 m long and 80 cm in diameter while it is also suited for high resolution (down to 4 μm) tomography. The bi-directional detector tiling is suited for large samples while the variable source-detector distance optimizes the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for every type of sample, even with peripheral equipment such as compression stages or climate chambers. The large vertical travel of 1 m can be used for helical scanning and a vertical detector rotation axis allows laminography experiments. The setup is installed in a large concrete bunker to allow accommodation of peripheral equipment such as pumps, chillers, etc., which can be integrated in the modular acquisition software to obtain a maximal correlation between the environmental control and the CT data taken. The acquisition software does not only allow good coupling with the peripheral equipment but its scripting feature is also particularly interesting for testing new and exotic acquisition routines.

  4. Residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour at the 240-m level of the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two subhorizontal, orthogonal boreholes were monitored continuously during concentric overcoring at the 240-m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The magnitude and orientation of principal residual strain components in the near-field stress regime were determined assuming linear elastic behaviour of the rock mass and isotropic conditions. In terms of magnitude, results compared favourably with those from previous tests at the 240-m level. However, orientation results were inconclusive. The effects of scale and borehole orientation relative to the principal stress direction on the results from a modified CSIR triaxial cell overcore test were also investigated; no scale effects were apparent in the experiment, but borehole orientation did affect results. Finally, time-dependent behaviour was detected in the Lac du Bonnet granite, and was monitored between successive overcore tests in one of the boreholes. Results on residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour are presented, along with limitations and possible modifications to the testing procedure

  5. Complete genome sequence of the complex carbohydrate-degrading marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Weiner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 (Sde 2-40 is emerging as a vanguard of a recently discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycles complex polysaccharides. We report its complete genome sequence, analysis of which identifies an unusually large number of enzymes that degrade >10 complex polysaccharides. Not only is this an extraordinary range of catabolic capability, many of the enzymes exhibit unusual architecture including novel combinations of catalytic and substrate-binding modules. We hypothesize that many of these features are adaptations that facilitate depolymerization of complex polysaccharides in the marine environment. This is the first sequenced genome of a marine bacterium that can degrade plant cell walls, an important component of the carbon cycle that is not well-characterized in the marine environment.

  6. Assessment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu, in marine sediments of the oceans Atlantic and Pacific of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Ochaita, L.

    2000-01-01

    In this investigation samples of marine sediments were taken from 14 places representatives of the oceans coast of Guatemala. For the assesment of 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu in sediments a radiochemical method was used to mineralize sediments and by ionic interchange it was separated from other elements, after that an electrodeposition of plutonium was made in metallic discs. The radioactivity of plutonium was measured by alpha spectrometry system and the alpha spectrums were obtained. The levels of plutonium are not higher than other countries that shown contamination. The contamination of isotope of 239+240 Pu is higher than 238 Pu and the contamination by two isotopes of plutonium is higher in the Atlantic than the Pacific ocean

  7. Estimation of uncertainties in resonance parameters of {sup 56}Fe, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-05-01

    Uncertainties have been estimated for the resonance parameters of {sup 56}Fe, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 238}U contained in JENDL-3.2. Errors of the parameters were determined from the measurements which the evaluation was based on. The estimated errors have been compiled in the MF32 of the ENDF format. The numerical results are given in tables. (author)

  8. Modification of analytical method for measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in sediment and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Tarigan, C.; Rustam, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Modification of analytical method for measurement of 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in sediment and sea water have been conducted. This study is to develop a method for separation of 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am from 100-300 g of sediment and 100-200 l of sea water samples. Most of the methods described in the literature are to separation of '2 39 Pu, '2 40 Pu and 241 Am from 20-50 g of sediment and 30-100 l of sea water samples. By this method, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am were concentrated using the coprecipitation of CaC 2 O 4 and Fe (OH) 3 . Plutonium-242 and Curium-244 were used as tracer to determine chemical recovery. The result of analysis of some sediment samples showed that the chemical recoveries were respectively obtained in the range of 59.7 to 72.6% with average of 66.2 % for 242 Pu and 72.0 % to 85.5 % with average 78.8 % for 244 Cm. Analysis of some sea water samples were obtained in the range of 67 % to 78 % with average 73.9 % for 242 Pu and 74.0 % to 90.0 % with average 84.2 % for '2 42 Cm. This method was tested by the IAEA marine sediment, the result was excellent agreement with the IAEA certified sediment. It could be suggested that the developed analytical method is suitable to analyze the low level 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in sediment and sea water samples (author)

  9. Resistance to EGF receptor inhibitors in glioblastoma mediated by phosphorylation of the PTEN tumor suppressor at tyrosine 240.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Tim R; Nathanson, David; Ponte de Albuquerque, Claudio; Kuga, Daisuke; Iwanami, Akio; Dang, Julie; Yang, Huijun; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Uno, Miyuki; Inda, Maria del Mar; Wykosky, Jill; Bachoo, Robert M; James, C David; DePinho, Ronald A; Vandenberg, Scott R; Zhou, Huilin; Marie, Suely K N; Mischel, Paul S; Cavenee, Webster K; Furnari, Frank B

    2012-08-28

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive of the astrocytic malignancies and the most common intracranial tumor in adults. Although the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed and/or mutated in at least 50% of GBM cases and is required for tumor maintenance in animal models, EGFR inhibitors have thus far failed to deliver significant responses in GBM patients. One inherent resistance mechanism in GBM is the coactivation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, which generates redundancy in activation of phosphoinositide-3'-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Here we demonstrate that the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor is frequently phosphorylated at a conserved tyrosine residue, Y240, in GBM clinical samples. Phosphorylation of Y240 is associated with shortened overall survival and resistance to EGFR inhibitor therapy in GBM patients and plays an active role in mediating resistance to EGFR inhibition in vitro. Y240 phosphorylation can be mediated by both fibroblast growth factor receptors and SRC family kinases (SFKs) but does not affect the ability of PTEN to antagonize PI3K signaling. These findings show that, in addition to genetic loss and mutation of PTEN, its modulation by tyrosine phosphorylation has important implications for the development and treatment of GBM.

  10. 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in some marine biota, mostly from the seas around Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yutaka; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    1987-01-01

    Recent 239,240 Pu and 137 Cs concentrations in some marine biota collected mostly from the seas around Japan were determined. Ash samples were digested with hot nitric acid, and the radionuclides were purified by ion exchange processes, then their alpha and beta radioactivities were measured. 239,240 Pu concentrations were in levels of 1/10 to 1/100 of 137 Cs concentrations, and showed values of some pCi/100 kg-raw in muscles. No clear difference was observed in the contents of the radionuclides of muscles between shallow waters and deep bottom inhabitants. Considerable variation in 239,240 Pu concentrations were shown among organs and tissues, but 137 Cs showed no such discrepancy. Apparent high concentration factors (CF) for 137 Cs of the deep water inhabitants were supposed to be caused by the contribution of the food chain in the deep sea. Concentrations of the radionuclides in krill and fur seal were also discussed. (author)

  11. Decreased D2-40 and increased p16INK4A immunoreactivities correlate with higher grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhouping

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D2-40 has been shown a selective marker for lymphatic endothelium, but also shown in the benign cervical basal cells. However, the application of D2-40 immunoreactivity in the cervical basal cells for identifying the grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN has not been evaluated. Methods In this study, the immunoreactive patterns of D2-40, compared with p16INK4A, which is currently considered as the useful marker for cervical cancers and their precancerous diseases, were examined in total 125 cervical specimens including 32 of CIN1, 37 of CIN2, 35 of CIN3, and 21 of normal cervical tissue. D2-40 and p16INK4A immunoreactivities were scored semiquantitatively according to the intensity and/or extent of the staining. Results Diffuse D2-40 expression with moderate-to-strong intensity was seen in all the normal cervical epithelia (21/21, 100% and similar pattern of D2-40 immunoreactivity with weak-to-strong intensity was observed in CIN1 (31/32, 97.2%. However, negative and/or focal D2-40 expression was found in CIN2 (negative: 20/37, 54.1%; focal: 16/37, 43.2% and CIN3 (negative: 22/35, 62.8%; focal: 12/35, 34.3%. On the other hand, diffuse immunostaining for p16INK4A was shown in 37.5% of CIN1, 64.9% of CIN2, and 80.0% of CIN3. However, the immunoreactive pattern of D2-40 was not associated with the p16INK4A immunoreactivity. Conclusions Immunohistochemical analysis of D2-40 combined with p16INK4A may have a significant implication in clinical practice for better identifying the grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, especially for distinguishing CIN1 from CIN2/3.

  12. Excess Lead-210 and Plutonium-239+240: Two suitable radiogenic soil erosion tracers for mountain grassland sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, K; Porto, P; Mabit, L; La Spada, C; Arata, L; Alewell, C

    2018-01-01

    The expected growing population and challenges associated with globalisation will increase local food and feed demands and enhance the pressure on local and regional upland soil resources. In light of these potential future developments it is necessary to define sustainable land use and tolerable soil loss rates with methods applicable and adapted to mountainous areas. Fallout-radionuclides (FRNs) are proven techniques to increase our knowledge about the status and resilience of agro-ecosystems. However, the use of the Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) method is complicated in the European Alps due to its heterogeneous input and the timing of the Chernobyl fallout, which occurred during a few single rain events on partly snow covered ground. Other radioisotopic techniques have been proposed to overcome these limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of excess Lead-210 ( 210 Pb ex ) and Plutonium-239+240 ( 239+240 Pu) as soil erosion tracers for three different grassland management types at the steep slopes (slope angles between 35 and 38°) located in the Central Swiss Alps. All three FRNs identified pastures as having the highest mean (± standard deviation) net soil loss of -6.7 ± 1.1, -9.8 ± 6.8 and -7.0 ± 5.2 Mg ha -1 yr -1 for 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex and 239+240 Pu, respectively. A mean soil loss of -5.7 ± 1.5, -5.2 ± 1.5 and-5.6 ± 2.1 was assessed for hayfields and the lowest rates were established for pastures with dwarf-shrubs (-5.2 ± 2.5, -4.5 ± 2.5 and -3.3 ± 2.4 Mg ha -1 yr -1 for 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex and 239+240 Pu, respectively). These rates, evaluated at sites with an elevated soil erosion risk exceed the respective soil production rates. Among the three FRN methods used, 239+240 Pu appears as the most promising tracer in terms of measurement uncertainty and reduced small scale variability (CV of 13%). Despite a higher level of uncertainty, 210 Pb ex produced comparable results, with a wide range of erosion rates sensitive to changes

  13. The High Court's lost chance in medical negligence: Tabet v Gett (2010) 240 CLR 537.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; McEwan, Alexandra

    2010-12-01

    In 2010 the High Court of Australia in Tabet v Gett (2010) 240 CLR 537 determined an appeal in a medical negligence case concerning a six-year-old girl who had presented to a major paediatric hospital with symptoms over several weeks of headaches and vomiting after a recent history of chicken pox. The differential diagnosis was varicella, meningitis or encephalitis and two days later, after she deteriorated neurologically, she received a lumbar puncture. Three days later she suffered a seizure and irreversible brain damage. A CT scan performed at that point showed a brain tumour. As Australia does not have a no-fault system providing compensation to cover the long-term care required for such a condition, the girl (through her parents and lawyers) sued her treating physician. She alleged that, because a cerebral CT scan was not performed when clinically indicated after the diagnosis of meningitis or encephalitis and before the lumbar puncture, she had "lost the chance" to have her brain tumour treated before she sustained permanent brain damage. She succeeded at first instance, but lost on appeal. The High Court also rejected her claim, holding unanimously that there were no policy reasons to allow recovery of damages based on possible (less than 50%) "loss of a chance" of a better medical outcome. The court held that the law of torts in Australia required "all or nothing" proof that physical injury was caused or contributed to by a negligent party. The High Court, however, did not exclude loss of chance as forming the substance of a probable (greater than 50%) claim in medical negligence in some future case. In the meantime, patients injured in Australia as a result of possible medical negligence (particularly in the intractable difficult instances of late diagnosis) must face the injustice of the significant day-to-day care needs of victims being carried by family members and the taxpayer-funded public hospital system. The High Court in Tabet v Gett again provides

  14. Formation and distribution of fragments in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Zhang, Chunli; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Background: Fission is a fundamental decay mode of heavy atomic nuclei. The prevalent theoretical approach is based on mean-field theory and its extensions where fission is modeled as a large amplitude motion of a nucleus in a multidimensional collective space. One of the important observables characterizing fission is the charge and mass distribution of fission fragments. Purpose: The goal of this Rapid Communication is to better understand the structure of fission fragment distributions by investigating the competition between the static structure of the collective manifold and the stochastic dynamics. In particular, we study the characteristics of the tails of yield distributions, which correspond to very asymmetric fission into a very heavy and a very light fragment. Methods: We use the stochastic Langevin framework to simulate the nuclear evolution after the system tunnels through the multidimensional potential barrier. For a representative sample of different initial configurations along the outer turning-point line, we define effective fission paths by computing a large number of Langevin trajectories. We extract the relative contribution of each such path to the fragment distribution. We then use nucleon localization functions along effective fission pathways to analyze the characteristics of prefragments at prescission configurations. Results: We find that non-Newtonian Langevin trajectories, strongly impacted by the random force, produce the tails of the fission fragment distribution of 240Pu. The prefragments deduced from nucleon localizations are formed early and change little as the nucleus evolves towards scission. On the other hand, the system contains many nucleons that are not localized in the prefragments even near the scission point. Such nucleons are distributed rapidly at scission to form the final fragments. Fission prefragments extracted from direct integration of the density and from the localization functions typically differ by more than

  15. Measurement of Plutonium-240 Angular Momentum Dependent Fission Probabilities Using the Alpha-Alpha' Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglin, Johnathon

    Accurate nuclear reaction data from a few keV to tens of MeV and across the table of nuclides is essential to a number of applications of nuclear physics, including national security, nuclear forensics, nuclear astrophysics, and nuclear energy. Precise determination of (n, f) and neutron capture cross sections for reactions in high- ux environments are particularly important for a proper understanding of nuclear reactor performance and stellar nucleosynthesis. In these extreme environments reactions on short-lived and otherwise difficult-to-produce isotopes play a significant role in system evolution and provide insights into the types of nuclear processes taking place; a detailed understanding of these processes is necessary to properly determine cross sections far from stability. Indirect methods are often attempted to measure cross sections on isotopes that are difficult to separate in a laboratory setting. Using the surrogate approach, the same compound nucleus from the reaction of interest is created through a "surrogate" reaction on a different isotope and the resulting decay is measured. This result is combined with appropriate reaction theory for compound nucleus population, from which the desired cross sections can be inferred. This method has shown promise, but the theoretical framework often lacks necessary experimental data to constrain models. In this work, dual arrays of silicon telescope particle identification detectors and photovoltaic (solar) cell fission fragment detectors have been used to measure the fission probability of the 240Pu(alpha, alpha'f) reaction - a surrogate for the 239Pu(n, f) - and fission of 35.9(2)MeV at eleven scattering angles from 40° to 140° in 10° intervals and at nuclear excitation energies up to 16MeV. Within experimental uncertainty, the maximum fission probability was observed at the neutron separation energy for each alpha scattering angle. Fission probabilities were separated into five 500 keV bins from 5:5MeV to

  16. Historical changes in 239Pu and 240Pu sources in sedimentary records in the East China Sea: Implications for provenance and transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinlong; Baskaran, Mark; Hou, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    from 0.158 to 0.297 and were mostly higher than the mean global fallout value of 0.18. The 239,240Pu inventories in the ECS varied widely, from 2 to 807 Bqm−2, with the highest values commonly found in the coastal areas. In the Yangtze Estuary, the mean 239+240Pu activity concentration is close...... to the estimated value of the suspended material from the Yangtze River catchment (0.18 Bqkg−1), and the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was found to be ∼0.18, which indicates that the Yangtze River input is the dominant source of Pu for this area. The total annual Yangtze River input of 239+240Pu was estimated to be 2...

  17. 17 CFR 402.2d - Appendix D-Modification of § 240.15c3-1d of this title, relating to satisfactory subordination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix D-Modification of § 240.15c3-1d of this title, relating to satisfactory subordination agreements, for purposes of § 402.2...—Modification of § 240.15c3-1d of this title, relating to satisfactory subordination agreements, for purposes of...

  18. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) and plutonium-240 ( 240 Pu) activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 ± 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 ± 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high 240 Pu/ 239 Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004)

  19. 17 CFR 240.3b-4 - Definition of “foreign government,” “foreign issuer” and “foreign private issuer”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government,â âforeign issuerâ and âforeign private issuerâ. 240.3b-4 Section 240.3b-4 Commodity and... Definition of “foreign government,” “foreign issuer” and “foreign private issuer”. (a) The term foreign... country. (c) The term foreign private issuer means any foreign issuer other than a foreign government...

  20. 17 CFR 240.3b-8 - Definitions of “Qualified OTC Market Maker, Qualified Third Market Maker” and “Qualified Block...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Market Maker, Qualified Third Market Makerâ and âQualified Block Positionerâ. 240.3b-8 Section 240.3b-8... “Qualified Block Positioner”. For the purposes of Regulation U under the Act (12 CFR part 221): (a) The term... inventory turnover in such security. (c) The term Qualified Block Positioner means a dealer who (1) is a...

  1. Estimation of Plutonium-240 Mass in Waste Tanks Using Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Radioactive Xenon Isotopes from Spontaneous Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, Theodore W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gesh, Christopher J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Daniel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johns, Jesse M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lukins, Craig D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, Lenna A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meacham, Joseph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olsen, Khris B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Prinke, Amanda M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Reid, Bruce D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevigny, Gary J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woods, Vincent T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-24

    This report details efforts to develop a technique which is able to detect and quantify the mass of 240Pu in waste storage tanks and other enclosed spaces. If the isotopic ratios of the plutonium contained in the enclosed space is also known, then this technique is capable of estimating the total mass of the plutonium without physical sample retrieval and radiochemical analysis of hazardous material. Results utilizing this technique are reported for a Hanford Site waste tank (TX-118) and a well-characterized plutonium sample in a laboratory environment.

  2. Determination of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, Edwin Ariel

    1999-01-01

    This study allowed to determine the concentration of radioactivity alpha, due to contamination for plutonium in cultivated soils of different regions of Guatemala. They were carried out samplings for convenience in cultivated soils of 15 departments of the republic, determined in each soils sample, the activity concentration for plutonium 2 38 Plutonium and 239+240 Plutonium expressed in mili-becquerel by kilogram (mBq/Kg), which has been caused from all over the world by the different provoked liberations or accidents of radioactive particles to the atmosphere

  3. Measurements of the neutron-induced fission cross sections of 240Pu and 242Pu relative to 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, J.W.; Browne, J.C.; Carlson, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    A continuation is given of the fission-cross-section ratio measurements in progress at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Preliminary results are provided for the 240 Pu/ 235 U and 242 Pu/ 235 U ratios from 0.02 to 30 MeV and 0.1 to 30 MeV, respectively. Using the threshold-cross-section method, the ratios were normalized to the values 1.368 +- 0.030 and 1.116 +- 0.025, respectively, from 1.75 to 4.00 MeV

  4. Effects of agrochemical measures on plutonium 239,240 and americium 24 accumulation in some legume plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budkevich, T.A.; Zabolotnyj, A.I.; Kudryashov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-2000 in field experiments at territories contaminated with transuranic elements (TUE) the mineral fertilizers were studied as means of decreasing the TUE accumulation in legume plants ( Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus angustifolius L., Trifolium pratense L., Medicago sativa L.). Under the action of lime Pu 239, 240 and Am 241 accumulation in green parts and seeds of Lupinus decreased in 1,5-5 times, and in overground mass of legume grasses in 1,5-2,5 times. The combined action of PK-fertilizes and lime didn't decrease TUE transfer into legume plants

  5. Vertical distribution of 239+240Pu-concentration and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in sediment cores. Implications for the sources of plutonium in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Jian, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The main sources in the environmental plutonium is due to nuclear explosions held during 1945 - 1980. The global fallout of plutonium is estimated to amount to 10.9 PBq, of which 6.6 PBq entering into the ocean. The Japan Sea is reported to be concentrated in plutonium in excess according to previous measurements. The present report aims to clarify the origin and transport path of plutonium in Japan Sea by measuring 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio in sedimenta cores with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) which depends on the types of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuels, reacting time, or the types of nuclear weapons concerned. As an example the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio from the nuclear explosions in early 1960's is known to be 0.18, while that of 0.34-0.36 Bikini experiments in the Marshall Islands in early 1950's. After a detailed examination, the present authors propose that the plutonium from the explosion sites around the Marshall Islands was carried with an oceanic current to be deposited in the bed of the East-China Sea, from which a part of the plutonium was transported with the Black Stream to enter Japan Sea. (S. Ohno)

  6. Determination of 90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu in waters with use of preliminary concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, V.M.; Kazachevskij, I.V.; Knatova, M.K.; Knyazev, B.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Solodukhin, V. P.; Khazhekber, S.; Gabdulin, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs and (239+240) Pu) in water samples is described. The following preconcentration steps are used: co-precipitation of cesium on copper ferrocyanide; co-precipitation of plutonium on iron hydroxide; and precipitation of strontium in the carbonate form. The chemical yield is determined by using the tracers: 88 Y, 85 Sr, 134 Cs and 236 Pu or 242 Pu. The method was applied to the determination of artificial radionuclides in water sources at nuclear test sites - the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and the 'Azgir' and 'Lira' test sites. The volume of water samples was 0.5 - 30.0 l, and the mineralization ranged from 0.1g/l to 100 g/l. The determination limits were: < 1 mBq/l for cesium-137; 0.02 mBq/l for plutonium-(239+240); and 1.5 mBq/l for strontium-90. The chemical yield was 60 - 90%

  7. Study on behavior of Cs-137 and Pu-239, 240 in lake and marine environments on basis of sediment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Seiya

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was made on the sediment mechanisms of artificial radioactive isotopes in relation to environmental factors through utilizing the differences in deposition behaviors of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu. Cumulus deposit samples were collected from 4 lake and 7 ocean areas of different environmental and deposit conditions; oligotrophic, mesotrophic, acidtrophic and dystrophic lakes, and coastal and hemipelagic ocean areas. After purification of these deposit samples using ionchromatography, β-ray from 137 Cs and α-ray from Pu were spectroscopically determined to plat the respective concentration as a function of the depth in core. Based on the data of mean ratio of 239,240 Pu/ 137 Cs as to the organic sulfides and residual fractions and the total deposits, it was thought that when the ratio of Pu/Cs of lake deposits was higher than the fallout value, organic materials in the lake might be involved. Pu was mostly abundant in organic fractions compared with Cs, whereas Cs was present in all the four fractions of carbonates, oxides, organic materials and aluminosilicates. (M.N.)

  8. Determination of Pu-239, 240 tissue concentrations in non-occupationally exposed residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.

    1977-01-01

    The study reports on the Pu-239, 240 concentrations in various tissues obtained from individuals residing in New York City. Twenty-six tissue samples have been analyzed for their Pu-239, 240 content, which include sections from the right lung, the liver, bone (4th and 5th vertebrae) and the kidney. The tissues were obtained at autopsy from a selected population not occupationally exposed to plutonium and whose deaths were the result of causes other than metabolic disorders. A detailed description is presented of the radiochemical procedures employed to separate Pu and electrochemically deposit plutonium isotopes prior to alpha spectrometry with Si surface-barrier detectors. Results of these measurements are given as activity per gram wet weight and activity per gram of calcium in the individual tissue. All results have been compared to similar measurements made at other laboratories and with estimates of concentration based on metabolic models. To date, the magnitudes and the distribution of the measured values are consistent with the values inferred from the ICRP lung model and measured concentrations of air

  9. Integral data evaluation of stainless steel, 239Pu, 240Pu, and H2O for homogeneous plutonium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenquin, U.P.; Thompson, J.K.; Trapp, T.J.; Kottwitz, D.A.

    1979-08-01

    Theory-experiment correlations of plutonium-fueled systems using ENDF/B cross-section data have discrepancies which could be due to cross-section data, theoretical methods, and/or interpretation of the experiment. Analyses of homogeneous plutonium critical experiments were performed to determine where cross section deficiencies may exist. New thermal cross-section data (0.3 eV) were generated for 239 Pu and 240 Pu capture, fission, and neutrons per fission. Two scattering kernels for hydrogen bound in water were also generated. Calculated values of k/sub eff/ using these new data were compared with corresponding values using ENDF/B-IV data. The results indicate that the 240 Pu resonance data are sufficiently well known for hydrogen-moderated plutonium systems. In systems using stainless steel as structural and/or neutron control, a large fraction of the neutron absorptions occur in the stainless steel. Analyses of several systems containing stainless steel indicate that the uncertainty in calculated values of k/sub eff/ is small using current estimates of the uncertainties in the cross sections. 20 figures, 30 tables

  10. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  11. Activity ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P. [European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)], E-mail: peter.bossew@jrc.it; Lettner, H. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: herbert.lettner@sbg.ac.at; Hubmer, A.; Erlinger, C.; Gastberger, M. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2007-09-15

    Both global and Chernobyl fallout have resulted in environmental contamination with radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu. In environmental samples, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu can be divided into the contributions of either source, if also the isotopes {sup 134}Cs and {sup 238}Pu are measurable, based on the known isotopic ratios in global and Chernobyl fallout. No analogous method is available for {sup 90}Sr. The activity ratios of Sr to Cs and Pu, respectively, are known for the actual fallout mainly from air filter measurements; but due to the high mobility of Sr in the environment, compared to Cs and Pu, these ratios generally do not hold for the inventory many years after deposition. In this paper we suggest a method to identify the mean contributions of global and Chernobyl fallout to total Sr in soil, sediment and cryoconite samples from Alpine and pre-Alpine regions of Austria, based on a statistical evaluation of Sr/Cs/Pu radionuclide activity ratios. Results are given for Sr:Cs, Sr:Pu and Cs:Pu ratios. Comparison with fallout data shows a strong depletion of Sr against Cs and Pu.

  12. Analysis of various emission modes in the ground state decay of "2"4"0Pu nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kanishka; Sawhney, Gudveen; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we intend to investigate the role of quadrupole (β_2) deformations on the possible fragmentations of "2"4"0Pu parent in view of α-, cluster and heavy particle decay modes using the Preformed Cluster Decay Model (PCM). In PCM, the mass and shape of all possible fragments are treated on equal footing and are found to influence the pre-formation factor P_0 accordingly, which is determined using the mass (or charge) asymmetry coordinate. Whereas the barrier penetrability P in PCM is computed through tunneling along the relative distance coordinate. Note that the half-life depends on P_0 as well as P and hence our PCM calculated half lives T_1_/__2 are found to exhibit decent comparison with the available experimental data for both α- as well as cluster decay. The structural aspects in the fragmentation profile of "2"4"0Pu become relatively pronounced after the inclusion of deformation effects of decaying fragments

  13. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from PKS 1424+240 and Multiwavelength Constraints on its Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciari, V.A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aliu, E.; /Delaware U., Bartol Inst.; Arlen, T.; /UCLA; Aune, T.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bautista, M.; /McGill U.; Beilicke, M. /Washington U., St. Louis; Benbow, W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bottcher, M.; /Ohio U.; Boltuch, D.; /Delaware U., Bartol Inst.; Bradbury, S.M.; /Leeds U.; Buckley, J.H.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Bugaev, V.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Byrum, K.; /Argonne; Cannon, A.; /University Coll., Dublin; Cesarini, A.; /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway; Chow, Y.C.; /UCLA; Ciupik, L.; /Roosevelt U., Chicago; Cogan, P.; /McGill U.; Cui, W.; /Purdue U.; Duke, C.; /Grinnell Coll.; Falcone, A.; /Penn State U. /Purdue U. /Utah U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Purdue U. /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway /Utah U. /University Coll., Dublin /McGill U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /McGill U. /Delaware U., Bartol Inst. /Utah U. /Chicago U., EFI /Iowa State U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /DePauw U. /Utah U. /Pittsburg State U. /Washington U., St. Louis /Iowa State U. /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway /Utah U. /McGill U. /Washington U., St. Louis /McGill U. /McGill U. /Purdue U. /Anderson U. /Galway-Mayo Inst. of Tech. /Iowa State U. /UCLA; /more authors..

    2012-04-05

    We report the first detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 {+-}0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub syst} and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 {+-} 0.9{sub stat} {+-} 0.5{sub syst}) x 10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainty, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

  14. DISCOVERY OF VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM PKS 1424+240 AND MULTIWAVELENGTH CONSTRAINTS ON ITS REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Chow, Y. C.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first detection of very high energy 83 Gamma-ray emission above 100 GeV. (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140 GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140 GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 ± 0.5 stat ± 0.3 syst and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 ± 0.9 stat ± 0.5 syst ) x 10 -11 TeV -1 cm -2 s -1 , where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainties, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (from 2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high-energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

  15. 239, 240, 241Pu fingerprinting of plutonium in western US soils using ICPMS: solution and laser ablation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizdziel, James V.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Farmer, Dennis; Faller, Scott H.; Hodge, Vernon F.

    2008-01-01

    Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) has been used with analysis of solution samples and laser ablation (LA) of electrodeposited alpha sources to characterize plutonium activities and atom ratios prevalent in the western USA. A large set of surface soils and attic dusts were previously collected from many locations in the states of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Colorado; specific samples were analyzed herein to characterize the relative contributions of stratospheric fallout vs. Nevada Test Site (NTS) plutonium. This study illustrates two different ICPMS-based analytical strategies that are successful in fingerprinting Pu in environmental soils and dusts. Two specific datasets have been generated: (1) soils are leached with HNO 3 -HCl, converted into electrodeposited alpha sources, counted by alpha spectrometry, then re-analyzed using laser ablation SF-ICPMS; (2) samples are completely dissolved by treatment with HNO 3 -HF-H 3 BO 3 , Pu fractions are prepared by extraction chromatography, and analyzed by SF-ICPMS. Optimal laser ablation and ICPMS conditions were determined for the re-analysis of archived alpha spectrometry ''planchette'' sources. The best ablation results were obtained using a large spot size (200 μm), a defocused beam, full repetition rate (20 Hz) and scan rate (200 μm s -1 ); LA-ICPMS data were collected with a rapid electrostatic sector scanning experiment. Less than 10% of the electroplated surface area is consumed in the LA-ICPMS analysis, which would allow for multiple re-analyses. Excellent agreement was found between 239+240 Pu activities determined by LA-ICPMS vs. activity results obtained by alpha spectrometry for the same samples ten years earlier. LA-ICPMS atom ratios for 240 Pu/ 239 Pu and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu range from 0.038-0.132 and 0.00034-0.00168, respectively, and plot along a two-component mixing line ( 241 Pu/ 239 Pu = 0.013 [ 240 Pu/ 239 Pu] - 0.0001; r 2 = 0.971) with NTS and global fallout end

  16. Plutonium activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in sediment cores from the east China sea and Okinawa Trough: Sources and inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-liang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2005-05-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation using ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed that 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, ranging from 0.21 to 0.33, were much higher than the reported value of global fallout (0.18). The highest 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios (0.32-0.33) were observed in the deepest Okinawa Trough sediment samples. These ratios suggested the US nuclear weapons tests in the early 1950s at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands were a major source of plutonium in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, in addition to the global fallout source. It was proposed that close-in fallout plutonium was delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds test sites via early direct tropospheric fallout and transportation by the North Pacific Equatorial Circulation system and Kuroshio Current into the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea. The total 239 + 240 Pu inventories in the cores were about 150-200% of that expected from direct global fallout; about 46-67% of the total inventories were delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds. Much higher 239 + 240 Pu inventories were observed in the East China Sea sediments than in sediments of the Okinawa Trough, because in the open oceans, part of the 239 + 240 Pu was still retained in the water column, and continued Pu scavenging was higher over the margin than the trough. According to the vertical distributions of 239 + 240 Pu activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in these cores, it was concluded that sediment mixing was the dominant process in controlling profiles of plutonium in this area. Faster mixing in the coastal samples has homogenized the entire 240Pu/ 239Pu ratio record today; slightly slower mixing and less scavenging in the Okinawa Trough have left the surface sediment ratios closer

  17. Inventories of 239+240Pu, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb in sediment cores from brackish Lake Obuchi, Rokkasho Village, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, S.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Kondo, K.

    2004-01-01

    Distribution and inventories of 239+240 Pu, 137 Cs, and excess 210 Pb ( 210 Pb excess ) in sediment core samples from brackish Lake Obuchi, which is in the vicinity of nuclear fuel facilities in Rokkasho Village, Japan. The inventory of the 239+240 Pu activity in the sediment samples from the estuary of a freshwater river, the central point of the lake, and the deepest point in the lake were 0.18, 0.29, and 0.24 kBq x m -2 , respectively. The inventories of 137 Cs and 210 Pb excess in sediments were 0.83-1.2 kBq x m -2 and 25-30 kBq x m -2 , respectively. The mean 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs and 210 Pb excess / 137 Cs activity ratios were 0.23 and 28, respectively. The 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratios were approximately 13-24 times the ratio expected from global fallout. The inventories of 239+240 Pu and 210 Pb in sediments were higher than the inventory expected from atmospheric fallout, but the 137 Cs inventory was significantly lower than expected. (author)

  18. The Transport of Close-In Fallout Plutonium in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Tracing the Water Mass Movement Using {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu Atom Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Han [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Gi-Hoon; Suk, Moon-Sik [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gastaud, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory (Monaco); La Rosa, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ionizing Radiation Division, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Kim, Chul-Soo [Environmental Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Wyse, E. [New Brunswick Laboratory Argonne, IL (United States); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater and surface sediment collected from the northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean from 1992 to 1997 were determined using ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In whole water columns, the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu were higher than the global fallout ratio (0.18). It is noted that the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/2{sup 39}Pu in the seawater increase with depth. Such elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios indicate that the close-in fallout plutonium isotopes originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPGs) due to the U.S. tests are prevailing in the seawater in the NW Pacific Ocean. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the surface sediment from the NW Pacific Ocean varied with the sampling locations. As a consequence, this study will provide the information that the water mass along with the current plays a key role in driving the distribution of Pu and in transporting Pu from the PPGs to the far eastern marginal sea in the NW Pacific Ocean. (author)

  19. Use of combined alpha-spectrometry and fission track analysis for the determination of 240Pu/239Pu ratios in human tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, S.F.; Filby, R.H.; Glover, S.E.; Stuit, D.B.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Plutonium and other actinides were determined in human autopsy tissues of occupationally exposed workers who were registrants of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). In this study, Pu was purified and isolated from Am, U and Th, after drying and wet-ashing of the tissues, and the addition of 238 Pu as a radiotracer. After electrodeposition onto vanadium planchets, the 239+240 Pu activity was determined by alpha-spectrometry. A fission track method was developed to determine 239 Pu in the presence of 238 Pu and 240 Pu, using Lexan TM polycarbonate detectors. Combining the two techniques allowed the determination of the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu activity and atom ratios. Data from selected USTUR cases are presented. (author)

  20. Study on distribution of 239+240Pu in sediment of Mumbai Harbour Bay over a quinquennial period (2010-2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, S.; Joshi, V.M.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclide, Plutonium was introduced into the environment mainly from the fallout of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, particularly in late 1950's and early 1960's, from which the total fallout of 330TBq( 238 Pu), 7.4PBq ( 239 Pu), 5.2PBq ( 240 Pu), 170PBq( 241 Pu), 16TBq ( 242 Pu) were estimated. Pu and its status in environment is less investigated than other fallout radionuclides in environment. Fallout 239 Pu(t ½ : 24410 years), 240 Pu (t ½ :6563 years) is regarded highly hazardous pollutants in the environment due to its long half life, which lead to its persistence in the environment. The current investigation aimed at the study on distribution of 239+240 Pu in sediment of Mumbai Harbour Bay(MHB) over a quinquennial period (2010-2014) to assess the impact in coastal marine environment which will serve as a benchmark

  1. Measurement of the fission cross-section of $^{240}$Pu and $^{242}$Pu at CERN's n_TOF Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Pavlik, A F; Gonzalez romero, E M

    The n_TOF Collaboration proposes to continue the fission program, already started in 2002-2004, taking advantage of the newly constructed Work Sector Type A, with the measurement of the two isotopes : $^{240}$ Pu and $^{242}$ Pu. They are both of major importance for reactor physics applications and are included in the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) High Priority List [1], in the NEA WPEC Subgroup 26 Report on the accuracy of nuclear data for advanced reactor designe [2] and in the EU 6$^{th}$ Framework Programme IP-EUROTRANS/NUDATRA reports [3]. Based on those requests, the measurement of the fission cross-section of the two Pu isotopes is one of the objectives of the project ANDES of the FP7 EURATOM program [4].

  2. sup(239/240)Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 40K in different types of honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the concentration of radionuclides in honey is of interest because this foodstuff consumed worldwide could be a source of radionuclides to man. Besides that, honey is used as a bioindicator for several radionuclides because the bees forage for nectar, pollen or honeydew over a large area of landscape. In this connection, it is of special interest to know when, and, if so, to what extent the concentrations of radionuclides in the honey depend on the type of honey sampled by the bees. For this reason, we determined sup(239/240)Pu, 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K in three important types of honey produced in the F.R.G., namely in honey from flowers, from honeydew and from heather. The data obtained in this way was used also to investigate whether significant correlations exist between these radionuclides in the various honey samples. (author)

  3. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia due to a novel p.Q240H mutation in the Lipoprotein Lipase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Angela Ganan; McIntyre, Adam; Agrawal, Sungeeta; Bialo, Shara R; Hegele, Robert A; Boney, Charlotte M

    2015-09-04

    Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Several mutations in the LPL gene have been identified to cause decreased activity of the enzyme. An 11-week-old, exclusively breastfed male presented with coffee-ground emesis, melena, xanthomas, lipemia retinalis and chylomicronemia. Genomic DNA analysis identified lipoprotein lipase deficiency due to compound heterozygosity including a novel p.Q240H mutation in exon 5 of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. His severe hypertriglyceridemia, including xanthomas, resolved with dietary long-chain fat restriction. We describe a novel mutation of the LPL gene causing severe hypertriglyceridemia and report the response to treatment. A review of the current literature regarding LPL deficiency syndrome reveals a few potential new therapies under investigation.

  4. Research of the pre-launch powered lubrication device of major parts of the engine D-240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganova, M.; Syrbakov, A.; Tkachev, A.; Zorina, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the publication, the issues have been considered concerning combustion engine start wear of mobile machines in case of outside storage in the conditions of low environmental temperature. Based on the analysis of existing methods and constructions of powered lubrication devices for contact surfaces of engines, a design of a combined device has been suggested which unites the functions of hydraulic and heat accumulators. On the basis of the elaborated design, preparatory tests have been conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of pre-start oil circulation in the engine D-240, as well as the effectiveness rate of thermoinsulation and the heating device of the hydraulic accumulator. The findings of the survey have shown that the pre-start powered lubrication device for major parts of the engine is effective.

  5. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Y; Hamilton, T; Uchida, S; Tagami, K; Yoshida, S; Robison, W

    2001-10-20

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes.

  6. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Yoshida, S. [Environmental and Toxicological Researches Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, 263-8555 Chiba (Japan); Hamilton, T.; Robison, W. [Health and Ecological Assessment Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-453, 94551-0808 Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-10-20

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes.

  7. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes

  8. A novel c.240_241insGG mutation in NDP gene in a family with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarva, Monavvar; Jamshidi, Javad; Ghaedi, Hamid; Daftarian, Narsis; Emamalizadeh, Babak; Alehabib, Elham; Taghavi, Shaghyegh; Pouriran, Ramin; Darvish, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare, X-linked recessive disorder with the main characteristic of early childhood blindness. The aim of the present study was to identify the genetic cause of the disease and the phenotypic characteristics of the patients in an Iranian family with four affected males with ND. Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) gene was sequenced and clinical examination was performed on patients. A GG dinucleotide insertion in exon 3 (c.240_241insGG) of NDP was detected in all patients. The mutation caused a frameshift and an early stop codon (p.Phe81Glyfs*23). A novel mutation was found in the NDP gene in the affected males of the family. As the mutation was absent in the normal male members of the family, it should be the genetic cause of the disease. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  9. Aberrant Expression of Calretinin, D2-40 and Mesothelin in Mucinous and Non-Mucinous Colorectal Carcinomas and Relation to Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Abd AlRahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Hamed, Hazem

    2016-10-01

    CRC is a heterogeneous disease in terms of morphology, invasive behavior, metastatic capacity, and clinical outcome. Recently, many so-called mesothelial markers, including calretinin, D2-40, WT1, thrombomodulin, mesothelin, and others, have been certified. The aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of calretinin and other mesothelial markers (D2-40 and mesothelin) in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) and non mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) specimens and relation to clinicopathological features and prognosis using manual tissue microarray technique. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and NMA who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using a modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and paraffin sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry using Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin expressions. We found that NMA showed significantly more calretinin and D2-40 expression than MA In contrast, no statistically significant difference between NMA and MA was detected in mesothelin expression. There were no statistically significant relations between any of the clinicopathological or histological parameters and any of the three markers. In a univariate analysis, neither calretinin nor D2-40 expressions showed any significant relations to DFS or OS. However, mesothelin luminal expression was significantly associated with worse DFS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis proved that luminal mesothelin expression was an independent negative prognostic factor in NMA. In conclusion, Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin are aberrantly expressed in a proportion of CRC cases with more expression in NMA than MA. Aberrant expression of these mesothelial markers was not associated with clinicopathological or histological features of CRCs. Only mesothelin expression appears to be a strong predictor of adverse prognosis.

  10. Scintigraphic detection of metastatic melanoma using indium 111/DTPA conjugated anti-gp240 antibody (ZME-018)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkwood, J.M.; Neumann, R.D.; Zoghbi, S.S.; Ernstoff, M.S.; Cornelius, E.A.; Shaw, C.; Ziyadeh, T.; Fine, J.A.; Unger, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    We evaluated the toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and localization of a monoclonal IgG2 alpha murine anti-human melanoma (gp240) antibody (ZME-018) that recognizes a tumor-associated cell surface glycoprotein of 240,000 molecular weight present in most melanomas. The antibody was conjugated with DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) and labeled by chelation of 111 In. One mg of antibody labeled with 5 mCi of 111 In was infused, together with 0 to 40 mg of cold carrier ZME-018. The blood clearance, urinary excretion, and in vivo localization were determined in 26 patients. Scintigraphic images were obtained at 24 hours and 72 hours in all patients. Mild toxicity occurred in one patient. The half-time clearance of labeled monoclonal murine antibody (MoAb) from the blood increased from 16.1 hours at an antibody dose of 1 mg to 35.9 hours at 40 mg. Males showed faster clearance from the blood than did females or a single castrated male, perhaps due to selective concentration of antibody in the testes. Nonspecific uptake in liver, spleen, bone marrow, and intestine was seen in all patients. The percentage of known metastatic foci detected increased with the total dosage of antibody, from 23% at doses less than or equal to 5 mg, to 65%, 87% and 78% for 10, 20, and 40 mg, respectively. We conclude that at doses of greater than or equal to 10 mg, ZME-018 is a safe and potentially useful agent for the scintigraphic detection of metastatic malignant melanoma

  11. A comparative study of 239,240Pu in soil near the former Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility, Golden, CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulies, Todd D.; Schonbeck, Niels D.; Morin-Voilleque, Normie C.; James, Katherine A.; LaVelle, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant near Golden, CO released plutonium into the environment during almost 40 years of operation. Continuing concern over possible health impacts of these releases has been heightened by lack of public disclosure of the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. A dose reconstruction study for the Rocky Flats facilities, begun in 1990, provided a unique opportunity for concerned citizens to design and implement field studies without participation of the DOE, its contractors, or other government agencies. The Citizens Environmental Sampling Committee was formed in late 1992 and conducted a field sampling program in 1994. Over 60 soil samples, including both surface and core samples, were collected from 28 locations where past human activities would have minimal influence on contaminant distributions in soil. Cesium-137 activity was used as a means to assess whether samples were collected in undisturbed locations. The distribution of plutonium (as 239,240 Pu) in soil was consistent with past sampling conducted by DOE, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and others. Elevated levels of 239,240 Pu were found immediately east of the Rocky Flats Plant, with concentrations falling rapidly with distance from the plant to levels consistent with background from fallout. Samples collected in areas south, west, and north of the plant were generally consistent with background from fallout. No biases in past sampling due to choice of sampling locations or sampling methodology were evident. The study shows that local citizens, when provided sufficient resources, can design and implement technical studies that directly address community concerns where trust in the regulated community and/or regulators is low

  12. The value of positive Oct3/4 and D2-40 immunohistochemical expression in prediction of germ cell neoplasia in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen-Linde, Erik; Kvist, Kolja; Cortes, Dina

    2016-01-01

    , where most orchiopexies are performed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Oct3/4 and D2-40 immunohistochemical markers to detect ITGCN in boys older than 2 years with cryptorchidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histological sections from 309 testicular biopsies from 234 boys aged 1 month...... to 14 years, 6 months operated on for cryptorchidism were incubated with primary antibodies including anti-placental-like alkaline phosphatase, anti-Oct3/4, anti-C-kit and anti-D2-40 receptor. RESULTS: One 3-year, 8-month-old boy with 45X/46XY disorder of sexual development had ITGCN and all positive...... markers. Besides this case, none of the 192 testes except one from boys older than 2 years had any Oct3/4- or D2-40-positive germ cells identified. The germ cells of the right testis from a 3-year, 7-month-old boy had weak Oct3/4 expression but were D2-40 negative. The prevalences of Oct3/4- and D2...

  13. 17 CFR 240.15Ca2-5 - Consent to service of process to be furnished by non-resident government securities brokers or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consent to service of process... Government Securities Dealers § 240.15Ca2-5 Consent to service of process to be furnished by non-resident... government securities dealer by the service of process upon the Commission and the forwarding of a copy...

  14. 17 CFR 240.15b1-5 - Consent to service of process to be furnished by nonresident brokers or dealers and by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consent to service of process... § 240.15b1-5 Consent to service of process to be furnished by nonresident brokers or dealers and by...) stipulates and agrees that any such civil suit or action may be commended by the service of process upon the...

  15. Strontium-90 and plutonium-239/240 accumulation and distribution in soil-vegetative cover of some Semipalatinsk test site areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Artem'ev, O.I.; Luk'yanova, Yu.A.; Sidorovich, T.V.; Silkina, G.P.; Kurmanbaeva, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results of field and laboratory studies of soil-vegetative cover contamination by 90 Sr and 239/240 Pu. Certain parameters of radionuclide migration in the environment of some former Semipalatinsk Test Site areas were determined. (author)

  16. 8 CFR 240.68 - Failure to appear at an interview before an asylum officer or failure to follow requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failure to appear at an interview before an... Removal Under Section 203 of Pub. L. 105-100 § 240.68 Failure to appear at an interview before an asylum... interview without prior authorization may result in dismissal of the application or waiver of the right to...

  17. Distribution and flux of 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs and 210Pb to high arctic lakes in the Thule district (Greenland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, M; Holm, E; Roos, P; Dahlgaard, H

    2004-01-01

    Environmental samples (soil, sediment and lake water) in the Thule area (NW Greenland) have been studied to assess the contamination of radionuclides originating from a nuclear weapons accident (the Thule accident in 1968). Four lakes were chosen at different distances from the point of impact with the Thule air base community situated in between. The sedimentation rates in the lakes varied from 0.4 mm a(-1) (5 mg cm(-2) a(-1)) to 1.6 mm a(-1) (82 mg cm(-2) a(-1)). With these sedimentation rates, it is not possible to resolve the (239,240)Pu global fallout peak from a possible (239,240)Pu "accident" peak in the sediment depth profiles. However, the (239,240)Pu/(137)Cs and the (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu ratios agreed well with global fallout ratios, indicating that plutonium originating from the accident had not reached these lakes. This also indicates that the Thule air base community has probably only been exposed to radionuclides from the accident to a very limited extent. A limited study showed that (210)Pb could not be used as a normalizing nuclide to explain the transport of transuranic elements from the catchment area to the lake, i.e. (210)Pb has a different transport mechanism from that of the transuranic elements studied in this investigation.

  18. 17 CFR 240.15Ba2-2 - Application for registration of non-bank municipal securities dealers whose business is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for registration of non-bank municipal securities dealers whose business is exclusively intrastate. 240.15Ba2-2... registration of non-bank municipal securities dealers whose business is exclusively intrastate. (a) An...

  19. Genotype by environment interaction in different birth seasons for weight at 240, 365 and 450 days of age in Tabapuã cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Cavalcante de Sousa Júnior

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of genotype by environment interaction (GEI on the weight of Tabapuã cattle at 240 (W240, 365 (W365 and 450 (W450 days of age. In total, 35,732 records of 8,458 Tabapuã animals which were born in the state of Bahia, Brazil, from 1975 to 2001, from 167 sires and 3,707 dams, were used. Two birth seasons were tested as for the environment effect: the dry (D and rainy (R ones. The covariance components were obtained by a multiple-trait analysis using Bayesian inference, in which each trait was considered as being different in each season. Covariance components were estimated by software gibbs2f90. As for W240, the model was comprised of contemporary groups and cow age (in classes as fixed effects; animal and maternal genetic additive, maternal permanent environmental and residual were considered as random effects. Concerning W365 and W450, the model included only the contemporary aged cow groups as fixed effects and the genetic additive and residual effects of the animal as the random ones. The GEI was assessed considering the genetic correlation, in which values below 0.80 indicated the presence of GEI. Regarding W365 and W450, the GEI was found in both seasons. As for post-weaning weight (W240, the effect of such interaction was not observed.

  20. Detection of lymphovascular invasion in early breast cancer by D2-40 (podoplanin): a clinically useful predictor for axillary lymph node metastases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, M.; Flucke, U.E.; Debald, M.; Walgenbach-Bruenagel, G.; Walgenbach, K.J.; Holler, T.; Polcher, M.; Wolfgarten, M.; Sauerwald, A.; Keyver-Paik, M.; Kuhr, M.; Buttner, R.; Kuhn, W.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of D2-40 for the detection of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in node positive and negative early breast cancer. LVI is associated with axillary lymph node metastases (ALNM) and a long-term prognostic factor. A precise identification of LVI

  1. Increased detection of lymphatic vessel invasion by D2-40 (podoplanin) in early breast cancer: possible influence on patient selection for accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debald, M.; Polcher, M.; Flucke, U.E.; Walgenbach-Brunagel, G.; Walgenbach, K.J.; Holler, T.; Wolfgarten, M.; Rudlowski, C.; Buttner, R.; Schild, H.; Kuhn, W.; Braun, M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several international trials are currently investigating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for patients with early-stage breast cancer. According to existing guidelines, patients with lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) do not qualify for APBI. D2-40 (podoplanin) significantly

  2. 17 CFR 240.17a-19 - Form X-17A-19 Report by national securities exchanges and registered national securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... national securities exchanges and registered national securities associations of changes in the membership... Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-19 Form X-17A-19 Report by national securities exchanges and registered national securities associations of changes in the membership status of any of their members...

  3. Further studies of the stability of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200) at maximum readout temperatures between 240oC and 280oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, L.; Horowitz, Y.S.; Horowitz, A.

    1996-01-01

    It has recently been shown that LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200) can be read out to temperatures as high as 270 o C for 12 s with negligible loss in sensitivity. In the present work the long-term sensitivity of GR-200 was studied at readout temperatures between 240 o C and 280 o C. The idea was that the readout temperatures above 240 o C might initiate reaction processes which influence the sensitivity only after long-term storage. No difference was found in the behaviour of GR-200 chips with 80 accumulated readouts to 240 o C or 270 o C and after storage of up to four months. Slight losses in sensitivity of 4% for 240 o C and 10% for 270 o C are observed after 80 readouts during four months storage. However, at a maximum readout temperature of 280 o C, a 33% loss in sensitivity after 80 cycles is observed. In conclusion it is found that GR-200 can be read out at temperatures as high as 270 o C with negligible loss in sensitivity (less than 0.1% per readout following an initialisation procedure of 1 readout) and acceptable residual signal (0.6%). (author)

  4. 17 CFR 240.15b5-1 - Extension of registration for purposes of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 after...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 after cancellation or revocation. 240.15b5-1... purposes of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 after cancellation or revocation. Commission... member within the meaning of Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 for...

  5. Methodology and levels of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu in marine sediments from the Brazilian Southern Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, R.C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul - CETEC/UNICSUL - Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Tessler, M.G.; Mahiques, M.M. de [Instituto Oceanografico da Univesidade de Sao Paulo - IOUSP - Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Cunha, I.I.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP -Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)]. e-mail: figueira@curiango.ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Methodologies for analysis of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu were developed and applied to sediment samples collected along the Brazilian coast. This paper presents the instrumental steps for {sup 137} Cs analysis and the radiochemical steps necessary to analyse {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu. The analytical quality control for radionuclide analysis was verified by participation in international intercomparison exercise running by IAEA as well as in reference material analysis. Further, methodologies were applied in sediments collected from 1976 to 1986 at the Brazilian southern coastal region. {sup 137}Cs levels ranged from 0.37 to 2.03 Bq kg{sup -1}, for {sup 90} Sr from MDC to 8.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and for {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu from MDC to 227 m Bq kg{sup -1}. The minimum detectable concentration values (MDC) for {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu were of 0.3 Bq kg{sup -1} and 4.2 mBq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The artificial radioactivity levels in Brazilian sediments are typical values due to fallout deposition and represent reference values for our country. (Author)

  6. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediment following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Vintro, L.L.; Gasco, C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of ∼0.18. Measurements of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing, has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio was 0.033±0.004, while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056±0.003. Both ratios are consistent with those reported for soils samples at the Nevada site and Nagasaki, and are clearly indicative of weapons-grade plutonium. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Spatial and temporal variations of plutonium isotopes (238Pu and 239,240Pu) in sediments off the Rhone River mouth (NW Mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansard, B.; Charmasson, S.; Gasco, C.; Anton, M.P.; Grenz, C.; Arnaud, M.

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion and fate of the Rhone River inputs to the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) have been studied through the spatial and temporal distributions of plutonium isotopes in continental shelf sediments. Plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu) are appropriate tracers to follow the dispersion of particulate matter due both to their high affinity for particles and their long half-lives. In the Rhone River valley, plutonium isotopes originate from both the weathering of the catchment basin contaminated by global atmospheric fallout, and the liquid effluents released from the Marcoule reprocessing plant since 1961. This work presents a first detailed study on 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu distributions in sediments from the Rhone prodelta to the adjacent continental shelf, since the decommissioning of Marcoule in 1997. The vertical distribution of Pu isotopes has been analysed in a 4.75 m long core sampled in 2001 at the Rhone mouth. Despite this length, plutonium is found at the last 10 cm, manifesting the high sedimentation rate of the prodeltaic area and its ability for trapping fine-grained sediments and associated contaminants. The highest 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu concentrations reached 1.26 and 5.97 Bq kg -1 respectively and were found within the layer 280-290 cm. The 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios (AR) demonstrated an efficient and huge trapping of the Pu isotopes derived from Marcoule. The fresh sediments, located on the top of the core, show lower plutonium activity concentrations and lower 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu ratios. This decrease is in close relation with the shut down of the Marcoule reprocessing plant in 1997. In 2001, plutonium isotopes were also analysed in 21 surface sediments located offshore and concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.17 Bq kg -1 for 238 Pu and from 0.33 to 1.72 Bq kg -1 for 239,240 Pu. The 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu AR ranged from 0.24 close to the river mouth to 0.06 southwards, indicating the decreasing influence of the

  9. [Application of Chinese Medical Syndrome Scores in Effectiveness Evaluation: a Critical Appraisal of 240 Randomized Controlled Trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Liao, Xing; Wang, Qian

    2015-10-01

    To explore the role of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores in effectiveness evaluation of clinical studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM published in five journals in 2013 were retrieved, including Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (JTCM), Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine (CJITWM), Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine (CJIM), Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (ECAM), and American Journal of Chinese Medicine (AJCM). The details of TCM syndrome scores and other relevant factors reported in articles were extracted and analyzed. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to describe general features of inclusive studies, ratios of reports on CM syndrome scores in each journal, formulated evidence, adopted evaluation rules, important degrees. The difference in the application rate of CM syndrome scores were compared in various diseases, diseases with or without CM syndrome typing, places where clinical studies were implemented, and different journals. A total of 240 RCTs were included, involving 178 published in Chinese version and 62 in English version. CM syndrome scores were used for effectiveness evaluation in 27.1% (65/240) of RCTs, of which, the highest application percentage was 35.3% (18/51) in RCTs published in CJITWM, and the lowest was 0 (0/7) in RCTs published in AJCM. There were 17 methods for grading TCM syndrome scores, of which Guideline for Clinical Research of New Chinese Herbal Medicine was most commonly used. Detailed grading standards for CM syndrome scores were reported in 46 RCTs, and CM syndrome scores were taken as primary or secondary outcomes in 6 RCTs. When describing the percentages of RCTs adopting TCM syndrome score by diseases classification, the lowest was 9.5% (2/21) in mental and behavioral disorders, and the highest was 39.1% (9/23) in endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases. RCTs with TCM syndrome differentiation had a higher

  10. Quantification of gastrointestinal liquid volumes and distribution following a 240 mL dose of water in the fasted state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Deanna M; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Pritchard, Susan E; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Marciani, Luca

    2014-09-02

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent upon the volumes and distribution of gastric and small intestinal water. However, little is known about the time courses and distribution of water volumes in vivo in an undisturbed gut. Previous imaging studies offered a snapshot of water distribution in fasted humans and showed that water in the small intestine is distributed in small pockets. This study aimed to quantify the volume and number of water pockets in the upper gut of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of a glass of water (240 mL, as recommended for bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies), using recently validated noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent upper and lower abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water, they were scanned at intervals for 2 h. The drink volume, inclusion criteria, and fasting conditions matched the international standards for BA/BE testing in healthy volunteers. The images were processed for gastric and intestinal total water volumes and for the number and volume of separate intestinal water pockets larger than 0.5 mL. The fasted stomach contained 35 ± 7 mL (mean ± SEM) of resting water. Upon drinking, the gastric fluid rose to 242 ± 9 mL. The gastric water volume declined rapidly after that with a half emptying time (T50%) of 13 ± 1 min. The mean gastric volume returned back to baseline 45 min after the drink. The fasted small bowel contained a total volume of 43 ± 14 mL of resting water. Twelve minutes after ingestion of water, small bowel water content rose to a maximum value of 94 ± 24 mL contained within 15 ± 2 pockets of 6 ± 2 mL each. At 45 min, when the glass of water had emptied completely from the stomach, total intestinal water volume was 77 ± 15 mL distributed into 16 ± 3 pockets of 5 ± 1 mL each. MRI provided unprecedented insights into

  11. Soil sorption complex influence on dynamics of 239,240Pu and 241Am mobile and fixed forms in different landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinova, S.L.; Sokolik, G.A.; Kilchitskaya, S.L.; Ivanova, T.G.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    The physico-chemical forms of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in soil and radionuclide distribution between the main components of soil sorption complex were analyzed. The content of 'hot' particles in soils in Belarus is about 10-1.10 4 particles/m 2 . During the post accident period the 'hot' particles quantity decreased 40-200 times and 50-20000 times in mineral and organogenic soils, respectively. Their activity decreased 1.2-1.4 times per year in mineral soils and 1.3-1.5 times in organic soils. Their destruction velocity is determined by the soil media properties and the particle composition: the particles of 'condensed' nature are destroyed more quickly than those of fuel nature. The velocity of release of transuranium elements from the 'hot' particles increases with increasing soil acidity and humus content in soils. The radionuclides exhibiting different bond strength with soil sorption complex were determined by sequential selective extraction. The share of the most mobile exchange forms of 239,240 Pu is less than 10%. The quantity of potential mobile acid soluble forms of 239,240 Pu increases with time and changes in the sequence: peat soils 241 Am (85%) in comparison with 2 39,240 Pu (40%) was found. The content of 241 Am mobile forms increases with soil depth. It can be expected that in soils with high content of organic substances the accumulation of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in surface soil layers will take place in future, but in mineral soils significant amounts of radionuclides will enter illuvial horizons as a result of vertical migration

  12. Evaluation of thermal neutron cross-sections and resonance integrals of protactinium, americium, curium, and berkelium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanova, T.S.

    1994-12-01

    Data on the thermal neutron fission and capture cross-sections as well as their corresponding resonance integrals are reviewed and analysed. The data are classified according to the form of neutron spectra under investigation. The weighted mean values of the cross-sections and resonance integrals for every type of neutron spectra were adopted as evaluated data. (author). 87 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Oxidation-reduction properties of americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium, and thermodynamic consequences for the 5f series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samhoun, K.

    1976-01-01

    The amalgamation of 5f elements from Am to Fm has been studied by using 241 Am, 244 Cm, 249 Bk, 249 Cf, 252 Cf, 253 Es, 254 Es, 252 Fm and 255 Fm with two electrochemical methods, radiocoulometry and radiopolarography, perfectly adapted to investigate extremely diluted solutions when the concentration of electroactive species is as low as 10 -16 M. The theory of radiocoulometry has been developed in the general cases of reversible and irreversible electrode process. It has been used to interpret the experimental data on the kinetic curves of amalgamation, and to estimate the standard rate constant of the electrode process in complexing medium (citric). On the other hand the radiopolarographic method has been applied to study the mechanism of reduction at the dropping mercury electrode of cations M 3+ in aqueous medium to the metal M with formation of amalgam. The results are exploited into two directions: 1- Acquisition of some data concerning the oxidation-reduction properties of elements from Am to Fm. Therefore the standard electrode E 0 [M(III-0)] potentials for Bk, Cf and Es, and the standard electrode E 0 [M(II-0)] potential for Fm are estimated and the relative stability of each oxidation state (from II to VII) of 5f elements is discussed; 2- Acquisition of unknown thermodynamic data on transcalifornium elements. Correlations between 4f and 5f elements are precised and some divergences appear for the second half of 4f and 5f series (i.e. for 65 [fr

  14. IgD, cyclooxygenase-2 and ribosomal protein S6-PS240 immune response in a case of early psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease. Five classic types of psoriasis have been defined: plaque, inverse, pustular, guttate, and erythrodermic. The early psoriasis immunologic skin immune response is not well understood. Here we aim to show an immune and cell signaling response in a case of early psoriasis. A 56 year old female presented with a desquamative lesion on her right leg. A skin biopsy for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and immunohistochemistry (IHC staining was taken. The diagnosis indicated early psoriasis, and IHC showed positive IgD staining in the epidermal corneal layer, as well as positive staining with ribosomal protein S6-pS240 (RIBO in the hyperproliferative epidermis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 was also very positive in the granular layer in spots, at the basement membrane zone of the skin and in the inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis subjacent to hyperproliferative psoriatic areas. In an early case of psoriasis, we confirmed the presence of IgD, RIBO and COX-2. Each molecule seems to be playing a role in inflammation and intracellular signaling pathways in early psoriasis. The role of IgD is unknown, and this case brings to light the complexity of the pathologic changes occurring in early psoriatic lesions.

  15. 242Pu as tracer for simultaneous determination of 237Np and 239,240Pu in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure has been developed using Pu-242 as tracer for simultaneous determination of Np-237 and Pu-239,Pu-240 in environmental samples. The validity of the method has been demonstrated by ICPMS and alpha-spectroscopy for up to 10 gram soil and sediment, seawater up to 200 litres. The paper...... from Np and Pu) R-before/R-after = 1.004 +/- 3.3% (S.D n = 20) and 1 litre seawater R-before/R-after = 1.019+/-1.9% (S.D., n = 12). Results from the intercomparison samples LAEA-135, LAEA-381 and from environmental samples are presented....... describes a suitable chemical procedure for Np and Pu including a quantitative pre-concentration of neptunium and plutonium, preparation of Np4+ and Pu4+, NP(NO3)(6)(2-) and Pu(NO3)(6)(2-), The ratio of Np-237/Pu-242 (or Np-237/Pu-239) before and after the procedure has been determined using 10 g soil (free...

  16. MM-MDS: a multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 object categories from the Massive Memory picture database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Hout

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories in visual attention and perception, categorization, and memory often critically rely on concepts of similarity among objects, and empirically require measures of "sameness" among their stimuli. For instance, a researcher may require similarity estimates among multiple exemplars of a target category in visual search, or targets and lures in recognition memory. Quantifying similarity, however, is challenging when everyday items are the desired stimulus set, particularly when researchers require several different pictures from the same category. In this article, we document a new multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 categories, each containing color photographs of 16-17 exemplar objects. We collected similarity ratings using the spatial arrangement method. Reports include: the multidimensional scaling solutions for each category, up to five dimensions, stress and fit measures, coordinate locations for each stimulus, and two new classifications. For each picture, we categorized the item's prototypicality, indexed by its proximity to other items in the space. We also classified pairs of images along a continuum of similarity, by assessing the overall arrangement of each MDS space. These similarity ratings will be useful to any researcher that wishes to control the similarity of experimental stimuli according to an objective quantification of "sameness."

  17. Central nervous system and muscular bundles preserved in a 240 million year old giant bristletail (Archaeognatha: Machilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Haug, Joachim T; Strada, Laura; Haug, Carolin; Felber, Markus; Tintori, Andrea

    2017-04-07

    Among the incomparably diverse group of insects no cases of central nervous system (CNS) preservation have been so far described in compression fossils. A third of the fossil insects collected from a 240-239 million year old (Ma) level at Monte San Giorgio UNESCO World Heritage (Switzerland-Italy) underwent phosphatization, resulting in the extraordinary preservation of soft tissues. Here we describe Gigamachilis triassicus gen. et sp. nov. (Archaeognatha: Machiloidea: Machilidae) that, with an estimated total length of ~80 millimeters, represents the largest apterygote insect ever recorded. The holotype preserves: (i) components of the CNS represented by four abdominal ganglia, optic lobes with neuropils and compound retina; (ii) muscular bundles. Moreover, G. triassicus, possessing morphological features that prompt its assignment to the extant archaeognathan ingroup Machilidae, places the origin of modern lineages to Middle Triassic. Interestingly, at Monte San Giorgio, in the same stratigraphic unit the modern morphology of G. triassicus co-occurs with the ancient one represented by Dasyleptus triassicus (Archaeognatha: †Monura). Comparing these two types of body organization we provide a new reconstruction of the possible character evolution leading towards modern archaeognathan forms, suggesting the acquisition of novel features in a lineage of apterygote insects during the Permian or the Lower Triassic.

  18. Migration of plutonium from freshwater ecosystem at Hanford. [/sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R. M.; Klopfer, D. C.; McShane, M. C.

    1977-09-01

    A reprocessing waste pond at Hanford has been inventoried to determine quantities of plutonium (Pu) that have been accumulated since its formation in 1944. Expressions of export were developed from these inventory data and from informed assumptions about the vectors which act to mobilize material containing Pu. This 14-acre pond provides a realistic illustration of the mobility of Pu in a lentic ecosystem. The ecological behavior of Pu in this pond is similar to that in other contaminated aquatic systems having widely differing limnological characteristics. Since its creation, this pond has received about one Ci of /sup 239/,/sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu, most of which has been retained by its sediments. Submerged plants, mainly diatoms and Potamogeton, accumulate >95% of the Pu contained in biota. Emergent insects are the only direct biological route of export, mobilizing about 5 x 10/sup 3/ nCi of Pu annually, which is also the estimated maximum quantity of the Pu exported by waterfowl, birds and mammals collectively. There is no apparent significant export by wind, and it is not likely that Pu has migrated to the ground water below U-Pond via percolation. Although this pond has a rapid flushing rate, a eutrophic nutrient supply with a diverse biotic profile, and interacts with an active terrestrial environment, it appears to effectively bind Pu and prevent it from entering pathways to man and other life.

  19. Annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239, 240 from the 1961 - 1980 nuclear explosions: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Katsuragi, Y.; Sugimura, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239, 240, and Pu-238 were observed from 1959 to 1984 at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). In order to interpret the serial trends of the annual radioactive deposition at the MRI, a semi-empirical box model of atmospheric transport was developed. The model divides the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere into four compartments: the atmosphere above 21 km, stratosphere below 21 km, active mixing and exchange (AME) layer near the tropopause, and the troposphere. The transfer between the compartments follows the first-order kinetics. The half residence times for transfer between upper and lower stratospheric compartments, between the lower and AME layer compartments, and between the AME layer and troposphere are 0.5, 0.7 and 0.3 yrs, respectively. It is revealed that as a long-term monitoring of the annual deposition of radioactive debris in the mid-latitude area, the model quantitatively permits the calculation of stratospheric inventories and trends of annual deposition of debris injected into the stratosphere which are characterized by apparent residence times of 0.5 to 1.7 yrs. This simple model is useful to predict the annual deposition amount of radioactive debris from the thermonuclear explosion for practical purposes. (author)

  20. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vertical profiles of 239(240)Pu, 238Pu and 241Am in some peculiar Italian mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.; Jia, G.; Degetto, S.

    2000-01-01

    During the last two years the Urbino University and the Padua ICTIMA CNR were working on a special radioecological program having the aim to study the Pu and Am retention behaviour in different species of mosses growing in two Italian regions (Urbino, Central Italy, 450 m a.s.l. and Alps region, Northern Italy, 1500 m a.s.l.). 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am were separated and determined by extraction chromatography, electroplating and alpha spectrometry; 242 Pu and 243 Am were used as the yield tracers. The paper summarizes the results dealing with the vertical profiles of the radionuclides in three different species of mosses. Several 1-2 cm high sections were obtained and dated by 210 Pb determination. Typical concentration peaks for Pu and Am were found for very old moss species ('Sphagnum Compactum' and 'Sphagnum Nemoreum') at a depth corresponding to the early 1960's which is the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. In more recent moss species ('Neckeria Crispa') no peak was observed and the regression curves showed that Am is more mobile than Pu. (author)

  2. 208-240 M.Y. old jadeite-glaucophane schists in the Kurosegawa tectonic zone near Kochi city, Shikoku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Shigenori; Ueda, Yoshio; Banno, Shohei.

    1978-01-01

    A new member of the Kurosegawa tectonic zone was found in the serpentinite near Kochi city. They are high P and low T schists derived from basalt and chert. Three metamorphic events can be deciphered in the high-pressure schists, based upon the texture and mineral paragenesis: first, low P metamorphism at intermediate- to high-grade, second, high P and low T metamorphism of the jadeite-glaucophane facies and the third, retrograde crystallization of the second stage high P schists within the stability field of lawsonit + pumpellyite + glaucophane. Further, the formation of analcime replacing jadeite took place. The second and third metamorphism can be distinguished on pyroxene mineralogy that jadeite + quartz was stable in the second, but albite + quartz + aegirinejadeite in the third stage of metamorphism. Not all of the high P and low T schists had suffered low P metamorphism before they were metamorphosed by the high P one. Some basaltic rocks directly changed to high P and low T schists. Two muscovites in the schists give K-Ar ages of 208 - 240 m.y., and a relic igneous biotite, being partly replaced by chlorite, gives 225 m.y. of K-Ar age. These values are different not only from those of the Sanbagawa schists, but also from the other members of the Kurosegawa zone. (author)

  3. MM-MDS: a multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 object categories from the Massive Memory picture database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Michael C; Goldinger, Stephen D; Brady, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive theories in visual attention and perception, categorization, and memory often critically rely on concepts of similarity among objects, and empirically require measures of "sameness" among their stimuli. For instance, a researcher may require similarity estimates among multiple exemplars of a target category in visual search, or targets and lures in recognition memory. Quantifying similarity, however, is challenging when everyday items are the desired stimulus set, particularly when researchers require several different pictures from the same category. In this article, we document a new multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 categories, each containing color photographs of 16-17 exemplar objects. We collected similarity ratings using the spatial arrangement method. Reports include: the multidimensional scaling solutions for each category, up to five dimensions, stress and fit measures, coordinate locations for each stimulus, and two new classifications. For each picture, we categorized the item's prototypicality, indexed by its proximity to other items in the space. We also classified pairs of images along a continuum of similarity, by assessing the overall arrangement of each MDS space. These similarity ratings will be useful to any researcher that wishes to control the similarity of experimental stimuli according to an objective quantification of "sameness."

  4. Clinical characteristics and presentation of ameloblastomas: an 8-year retrospective study of 240 cases in Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuneke, F N; Anyanechi, C E; Akpeh, J O; Chukwuka, A; Ekwueme, O C

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to summarise the clinical characteristics and presentation of ameloblastomas in eastern Nigeria. We organised a retrospective study of 240 patients who presented with ameloblastomas to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery units of five specialist hospitals in the eastern states of Nigeria over an eight-year period (2004-2011). We analysed the casenotes, and categorised the cases by site of tumour, age, sex, and time of presentation. There were 117 men (49%) (mean (SD) age 43 (6.2) years) and 123 women (51%) (mean (SD) age 32 (4.7) years), a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. The largest age group was 20-39 years (n=102, 43%), and the most common site was the anterior mandible (n=140, 58%). Most of the patients presented late. Our results show that the most common site of ameloblastomas in Eastern Nigeria is the anterior mandible and that women are affected more than men, which is at variance with the results of most other studies. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240} Pu, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am in soil using methods of extraction chromatography and coprecipitation; Stanovenie radionuklidov {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu, : 2{sup 38}Pu a {sup 241}Am v pode vyuzivajuce metody extrakcnej chromatografie a spoluzrazania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardonova, V.; Dulanska, S.; Bilohuscin, J. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    Ecosystems, which include soil and sediments, contain not only natural radionuclides but also radionuclides from deposits, mainly {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {alpha}-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am, that originate from global fallout and nuclear facilities leaks worldwide. The goal of the work was optimization of separation and determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in soil from Slovak Republic. The newest methods were applied for separation of selected radionuclides based on coprecipitation with oxalic salts and extraction chromatography using selective commercial sorbents. (authors)

  6. 236U and 239,240Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tims, S.G.; Froehlich, M.B.; Fifield, L.K.; Wallner, A.; De Cesare, M.

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes 236 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that 236 U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of 236 U as a new fallout tracer. - Highlights: • Measured 236 U inventories around the Maralinga Test Nuclear weapons test site. • Comparison of 236 U and 239 Pu soil depth profiles at Maralinga. • Differences in 236 U and 239 Pu inventories indicate most Pu fallout is from the safety trials, rather than the weapons tests.

  7. Assinatura da deposição atmosférica de testes nucleares em sedimentos da costa brasileira (240+239Pu e 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Sanders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to take a look at Cold War era nuclear tests signatures found in Brazilian coastal sediments. Both137Cs and 240+239Pu signatures have been documented in mangrove, coastal mudflats and continental shelf sediments, associated with above ground nuclear tests beginning in the 1950's. The dates associated to the anthropogenic radionuclide signatures 137Cs and 240+239Pu along sediment columns are confirmed by 210Pb geochronology in many of the studies highlighted in this review. The results outlined in this review characterize the extent to which nuclear fallout products reach the Brazilian coast in quantities sufficient for detection, allowing the use of these radioisotopes as geochronometers.

  8. D2-40 negative pyogenic granuloma-like Kaposi's sarcoma: Diagnostic features and histogenetic hypothesis of an uncommon skin tumor in HIV-negative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibi, D; Giannone, A G; Guarnotta, C; Schillaci, O; Franco, V

    2015-07-01

    Pyogenic granuloma-like Kaposi's sarcoma (PGLKS) is a recently described skin tumor showing features both of pyogenic granuloma (PG) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The differential diagnosis is often challenging. We reviewed a series of 50 PG and 23 Ks located on distal extremities with the aid of an immunohistochemical panel comprising CD34, CD31, FVIII, SMA, D2-40, HHV8. After revision, 6/50 PG lesions previously diagnosed as PG, showed positive immunostaining for LNA1-HHV8 and focal positivity for CD31 and FVIII in the endothelial cells of the proliferating vessels, with some SMA positive pericytes. D2-40, a marker of lymphatic endothelium positive in KS, stained negatively. These lesions were renamed PGLKS. Of note, in our series, PGLKS represented the only form of KS localized in the hand; all the patients were HIV-negative, older than PG patients, with a prevalence for male gender. PGLKS and PG need a different management and a follow-up is advisable for PGLKS, as for the other variants of KS. To date, D2-40 negative immunostaining has not yet been reported in PGLKS and should not lead to a misdiagnosis of PG. The morphological similarities with PG and the immunohistochemical findings, showing a defective phenotype of the neoplastic cells, suggest a histogenetic hypothesis in which D2-40 negative PGLKS could represent an early stage of HHV8 infection of a pre-existing PG, whose vessels loose progressively their blood vascular markers but have not still acquired the lymphatic ones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of chemical pollution on forms of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in arctic soil studied by sequential extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakainen, M; Riekkinen, I; Heikkinen, T; Jaakkola, T; Steinnes, E; Rissanen, K; Suomela, M; Thørring, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the forms of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu occurring in different soil horizons using sequential extraction of samples taken from four sites located along a pollution gradient from the copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, and from a reference site in Finnish Lapland in 1997. A selective sequential-leaching procedure was employed using a modification of the method of Tessier, Cambell and Bisson ((1979). Analytical Chemistry, 51, 844-851). For 137Cs the organic (O) and uppermost mineral (E1) layer were studied, for 90Sr and 239,240Pu only the uppermost organic layer (Of). The fraction of 137Cs occurring in readily exchangeable form in the organic layer was about 50% at the reference site and decreased as a function of pollution, being 15% at the most polluted site in the Kola Peninsula. There was a clear positive correlation in the O layer between the distance from the smelter and the percentage of 137Cs extracted in the readily exchangeable fraction (Spearman correlation rsp = 0.7805, p = 0.0001), whereas in the E1 layer no correlation was evident. The distribution of 90Sr in the Of layer was similar at all sites, with the highest amounts occurring in exchangeable form and bound to organic matter, whereas stable Sr showed a somewhat different distribution with the highest amount in the oxide fraction. Most of the 239,240Pu was bound to organic matter. Chemical pollution affected the exchangeable fraction of 239,240Pu, which was about 1% at the most polluted site and 4-6% at the other sites.

  10. Migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am in the chain soil-soil solution-plant. The soil-soil solution link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Kil'chitskaya, S.L.; Ehjsmont, E.A.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.; Duksina, V.V.; Rubinchik, S.Ya.

    1999-01-01

    The mobility of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the link soil-soil solution is analysed for different soil types on the basis of radionuclide distribution coefficients between solid and liquid soil phases. The distribution coefficients allow to differentiate soils in correlation with radionuclide migration rate from the solid phase to the soil solution. The reasons of different radionuclide mobility are considered

  11. Comparison of the ENDF/B-V and SOKRATOR evaluations of 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Pu at low neutron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Wright, R.Q.

    1981-01-01

    The US and USSR's most recent evaluationsof 235 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Pu are compared over the thermal region and over the first few resonances. The two evaluations rest on essentially the same experimental data base and the differences reflect different approaches to the representation of the cross sections or different weightings of the experimental results. It is found that over the thermal and resolved ranges the two evaluations are very similar. Some differences in approaches are briefly discussed

  12. Time-resolved record of 236U and 239,240Pu isotopes from a coral growing during the nuclear testing program at Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Chan, W Y; Tims, S G; Fallon, S J; Fifield, L K

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive series of nuclear tests were carried out by the United States at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, especially between 1952 and 1958. A Porites Lutea coral that was growing in the Enewetak lagoon within a few km of all of the high-yield tests contains a continuous record of isotopes, which are of interest (e.g. 14 C, 236 U, 239,240 Pu) through the testing period. Prior to the present work, 14 C measurements at ∼2-month resolution had shown pronounced peaks in the Δ 14 C data that coincided with the times at which tests were conducted. Here we report measurements of 236 U and 239,240 Pu on the same coral using accelerator mass spectrometry, and again find prominent peaks in the concentrations of these isotopes that closely follow those in 14 C. Consistent with the 14 C data, the magnitudes of these peaks do not, however, correlate well with the explosive yields of the corresponding tests, indicating that smaller tests probably contributed disproportionately to the debris that fell in the lagoon. Additional information about the different tests can also be obtained from the 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios, which are found to vary dramatically over the testing period. In particular, the first thermonuclear test, Ivy-Mike, has characteristic 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu signatures which are diagnostic of the first arrival of nuclear test material in various archives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240: 1990 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress during 1990 of states and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1990 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended by Public Law 99-240

  14. 1987 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    In response to Section 7(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-240), this report summarizes the progress of states and low-level radioactive waste compacts in 1987 in establishing new low-level waste disposal facilities. It also reports the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1987 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities

  15. Detection of D2-40 monoclonal antibody-labeled lymphatic vessel invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its clinicopathologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Bing; Ma, Wei; Wang, Kai; Ha, Sita; Wang, Jian-Bo; Tan, Bing-Xu; Wang, Na-Na; Yang, Sheng-Si; Jia, Yi-Bin; Cheng, Yu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the clinicopathologic significance of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) labeled by D2-40 monoclonal antibody in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of D2-40 and LVI in 107 ESCC patients. Then, the correlation between the clinicopathologic feature and the overall survival time of the patients was analyzed. The lymph node metastasis rates were 70% and 21% in the LVI-positive and LVI-negative groups, respectively. The nodal metastasis rate was higher in the LVI-positive group than in the LVI-negative group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that LVI was related to nodal metastasis (P<0.001). The median survival time of the patients was 26 and 43 months in the LVI-positive and LVI-negative groups, respectively. Although univariate regression analysis showed significant difference between the two groups (P=0.014), multivariate regression analysis revealed that LVI was not an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in the ESCC patients (P=0.062). Lymphatic node metastasis (P=0.031), clinical stage (P=0.019), and residual tumor (P=0.026) were the independent prognostic factors. LVI labeled by D2-40 monoclonal antibody is a risk factor predictive of lymph node metastasis in ESCC patients

  16. Spatial distributions of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zaharudin; Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah

    2010-09-01

    The studies of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of (134)Cs and (242)Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60(o)C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89Bq/m(3) and 2.3-7.9mBq/m(3), respectively. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area.

  17. Fate of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in soil profiles at a water recharge site in Basel, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Johannes; Meusburger, Katrin; Waldis, Judith Kobler; Ketterer, Michael E; Zehringer, Markus

    2018-02-01

    An important process in the production of drinking water is the recharge of the withdrawn ground water with river water at protected recharge fields. While it is well known that undisturbed soils are efficiently filtering and adsorbing radionuclides, the goal of this study was to investigate their behaviour in an artificial recharge site that may receive rapid and additional input of radionuclides by river water (particularly when draining a catchment including nuclear power plants (NPP)). Soil profiles of recharge sites were drilled and analysed for radionuclides, specifically radiocesium ( 137 Cs), radiostrontium ( 90 Sr) and plutonium ( 239+240 Pu). The distribution of the analysed radionuclides were compared with an uncultivated reference soil outside the recharge site. The main activity of 137 Cs was located in the top soil (4.5-7.5 cm) and reached down to a depth of 84 cm and 48 cm for the recharge and the reference site, respectively. The found activities of 239+240 Pu originate from the global fallout after 1950. 239+240 Pu appeared to be strongly adsorbed onto soil particles. The shape of the depth profile was similar to 137 Cs, but also similar between the recharge and the reference site. In contrast, 90 Sr showed a uniform distribution over the entire depth of the recharge and reference profiles indicating that 90 Sr already entered the gravel zone and the ground water. Elevated inventories of the radionuclides were observed for the recharge site. The soil of the recharge field exhibited a threefold higher activity of 137 Cs compared to the reference soil. Also for 239+240 Pu higher inventories where observed for the recharge sites (40%). 90 Sr behaved differently, showing similar inventories between reference and recharge site. We estimate that 75-89% of the total inventory of 137 Cs in the soil at the recharge site (7.000 Bq/m 2 ) originated from the fallout of the Chernobyl accident and from emissions of Swiss NPPs. This estimate is based on the

  18. {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am levels in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Loire and Garonne rivers basins (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Pagano, V. [SUBATECH/IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France)

    2014-07-01

    Plutonium and americium long-lived alpha emitter isotopes can be found in the environment because of atmospheric global fallout due to thermonuclear tests performed between 1945 and 1980, to the American SNAP 9A satellite explosion in 1964, to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident,... In France, the nuclear safety authority does not allow the release of artificial alpha emitters from nuclear power plants. Thus, monitoring is performed to verify the absence of these alpha emitters in liquid discharges to respect the limits set by the regulations. These thresholds ensure a very low dosimetric impact to the population compared to other radionuclides. With the objective of environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities, activity measurements of long-lived alpha emitters are carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides. Analysis of low activity by alpha spectrometry after chemical steps were performed and used to determine the {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am activities on a large set of environmental solid samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. The samples collected in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Loire and Garonne rivers basins (France) was investigated for the 2009-2014 period. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 238}Pu: from <0.00031 to 0.0061 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from <0.00086 to 0.011 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples; for the radionuclide {sup 239+240}Pu: from 0.00041 to 0.150 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from 0.0023 to 0.240 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples and for the radionuclide {sup 241}Am: from <0.00086 to 0.087 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from 0.0022 to 0.120 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples. {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am/{sup 239+240}Pu ratios determined are in accordance with an environmental contamination due to

  19. Study of radial distribution of 239,240Pu and 90Sr in annual tree rings and trunk bark of a 103 years old Norway spruce at four different heights above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgye, Z.; Schlesingerova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Radial distribution of 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr originating from atmospheric nuclear tests in tree rings and trunk bark at heights of 1.3, 10, 18 and 22 m above ground was studied. 239,240 Pu activity concentrations in air dried tree ring samples (each containing 10 annual rings) at all heights were under detection limit of the used method. 90 Sr activity concentrations in tree ring samples ranged from 0.54 to 2.81 Bq kg -1 . 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr were present in the trunk bark. The paper presents data for 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr aggregated transfer factors to tree trunk. (author)

  20. Application of 210Pb geochronology by the reconstruction of historical radionuclides concentrations ( 137Cs et 239+240Pu ) in the columns of the Alboran Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laissaoui, A.; Abril, J.M.; Ziad, N.; Benmansour, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The marine sediments are considered as a final reservoir of radioactive contaminants. The 210Pb from atmospheric fallouts deposits is stored in sediments with those from 226Ra original lithogenic. The activity of 210Pb excess in the accumulated sediment is an important tool to study the chronological process of sedimentation on recent time scales at over 100 years. However, this method should be validated using at least one independent tracer which provides an unequivocal temporal marker as 137Cs from nuclear testing. This work presents a method to rebuild historic concentrations of 137Cs and 230+240Pu in the water column Alboran Sea and their corresponding stream sediment. This is achieved by coupling the radiometric dating of the sediment column profiles using three independent levels: the excess 210Pb, 137Cs and 239 +240Pu. On the other hand, a simple model of the water column has been adapted to this end by making use of atmospheric flow, the measured values of distribution coefficient (Kd) and a first approximation of the rate of sedimentation. The timing model CM-CSR (diffusion coefficient of sedimentation rate constant) has been successfully applied to the three independent profiles, and was able to determine the parameters of diffusion and mass sedimentation rate. The results obtained give some ideas on the fate of atmospheric inputs to the marine environment and, particularly, that of the Chernobyl accident. The results of the models showed that direct and deferred contributions of Chernobyl accident are negligible in the Alboran Sea. The annual input of 210Pb to the sediment was estimated at 720±150 Bq.m-2. by year, while the rate of sedimentation is about 0092±0.003 g.cm-2 by year. On the other hand, the model could successfully reconstruct historic concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the water column, and was able to reproduce the work of the same elements in the sediment column [fr

  1. The role of pore soil solutions in redistribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am within soil-vegetative cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsiannikova, S.V.; Sokolik, G.A.; Kilchitskaya, S.L.; Eismont, E.A.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    The role of pore soil solutions in the migration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am within soil-vegetative cover of natural ecosystems was examined. The soil solutions were found to play an important role in the redistribution of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the soil-plant systems. Obvious relationships between the distribution coefficients of radionuclides between solid and liquid phases (K d ) and the intensity of vertical migration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am along the soil profiles and with intensity of their accumulation by grass vegetation of natural meadows have been obtained. It means that the distribution coefficient may be used as a criterion of the radionuclide mobility in the soil-plant system whatever its level of radioactive contamination is. The influence of the degree of soil moistening, the content of mobile radionuclide forms in the soils and some characteristics of pore soil solutions (pH, content of K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , water soluble organic substances) on the concentration of radionuclide in the soil solutions and on the value of radionuclide distribution coefficient have been analysed. The results of investigation are of great importance in the evaluation of radioecological situation and in solution of problems of radioecological rehabilitation of the contaminated territories. The received data constitute a part of scientific basis for the development of a system of countermeasures to decrease the mobility and biological availability of radionuclides of high and very high radiotoxicity

  2. Protocol for an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectral product ion library: development and application for identification of 240 pesticides in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Yang, Paul; Hayward, Douglas G; Sakuma, Takeo; Zou, Yunyun; Schreiber, André; Borton, Christopher; Nguyen, Tung-Vi; Kaushik, Banerjee; Oulkar, Dasharath

    2012-07-03

    Modern determination techniques for pesticides must yield identification quickly with high confidence for timely enforcement of tolerances. A protocol for the collection of liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray ionization (ESI)-quadruple linear ion trap (Q-LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) library spectra was developed. Following the protocol, an enhanced product ion (EPI) library of 240 pesticides was developed by use of spectra collected from two laboratories. A LC-Q-LIT-MS workflow using scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) survey scan, information-dependent acquisition (IDA) triggered collection of EPI spectra, and library search was developed and tested to identify the 240 target pesticides in one single LC-Q-LIT MS analysis. By use of LC retention time, one sMRM survey scan transition, and a library search, 75-87% of the 240 pesticides were identified in a single LC/MS analysis at fortified concentrations of 10 ng/g in 18 different foods. A conventional approach with LC-MS/MS using two MRM transitions produced the same identifications and comparable quantitative results with the same incurred foods as the LC-Q-LIT using EPI library search, finding 1.2-49 ng/g of either carbaryl, carbendazim, fenbuconazole, propiconazole, or pyridaben in peaches; carbendazim, imazalil, terbutryn, and thiabendazole in oranges; terbutryn in salmon; and azoxystrobin in ginseng. Incurred broccoli, cabbage, and kale were screened with the same EPI library using three LC-Q-LIT and a LC-quadruple time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments. The library search identified azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxinil, imidacloprid, metalaxyl, spinosyn A, D, and J, amd spirotetramat with each instrument. The approach has a broad application in LC-MS/MS type targeted screening in food analysis.

  3. Evaluation of fission cross sections and covariances for {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Matsunobu, Hiroyuki [Data Engineering, Inc. (Japan); Murata, Toru [AITEL Corporation, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    2000-02-01

    A simultaneous evaluation code SOK (Simultaneous evaluation on KALMAN) has been developed, which is a least-squares fitting program to absolute and relative measurements. The SOK code was employed to evaluate the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu for the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.3. Procedures of the simultaneous evaluation and the experimental database of the fission cross sections are described. The fission cross sections obtained were compared with evaluated values given in JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  4. Evaluation of fission cross sections and covariances for 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Murata, Toru

    2000-02-01

    A simultaneous evaluation code SOK (Simultaneous evaluation on KALMAN) has been developed, which is a least-squares fitting program to absolute and relative measurements. The SOK code was employed to evaluate the fission cross sections of 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Pu for the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.3. Procedures of the simultaneous evaluation and the experimental database of the fission cross sections are described. The fission cross sections obtained were compared with evaluated values given in JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  5. Determination of /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/Pu ratio in the environmental samples based on the measurement of Lx/. cap alpha. -ray activity ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K.; Sakanoue, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1984-06-01

    The determination of the /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/Pu isotopic ratio in environmental samples has been attempted by the measurement of the Lx/..cap alpha..-ray activity ratio using a Ge-LEPS (low-energy photon spectrometer) and a surface-barrier Si detector. By this method, interesting data were obtained for various samples collected from Thule, Greenland, Bikini Atoll and Nagasaki, as well as for some soils collected from near and off-site locations of atomic power stations.

  6. Purificación y caracterización parcial de la enzima xilanasa a partir del preparado comercial Novoban 240

    OpenAIRE

    Dalila Paz-Lago; Marta Hernández

    2000-01-01

    Novoban 240 es un preparado enzimático comercial de la Novo Industri con actividad amilasa, que se obtiene por fermentación sumergida de Bacillus amilolichuefaciens y es utilizado en la industria de elaboración de vinos. Este preparado de uso industrial posee actividad xilanasa, enzima estrechamente relacionada con la respuesta hipersensible de los tejidos vegetales frente al ataque de microorganismos patógenos. En el presente trabajo se establece una metodología de purificación parcial de es...

  7. Speciation analysis of 129I, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu in environmental soil and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hansen, Violeta; Hou, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are related to their physicochemical forms, namely species. We here present a speciation analysis of important radionuclides including 129I (also 127I), 137Cs, 232Th, 238U and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) in soil (IAEA-375......) and sediment (NIST-4354) standard reference materials and two fresh sediment samples from Øvre Heimdalsvatnet Lake, Norway. A modified sequential extraction protocol was used for the speciation analysis of these samples to obtain fractionation information of target radionuclides. Analytical results reveal...

  8. Radiotoxicological analyses of 239+240Pu and 241Am in biological samples by anion-exchange and extraction chromatography: a preliminary study for internal contamination evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridone, S.; Arginelli, D.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Canuto, G.; Montalto, M.; Nocente, M.; Vegro, M.

    2006-01-01

    Many biological samples (urines and faeces) have been analysed by means of chromatographic extraction columns, utilising two different resins (AG 1-X2 resin chloride and T.R.U.), in order to detect the possible internal contamination of 239 + 240 Pu and 241 Am, for some workers of a reprocessing nuclear plant in the decommissioning phase. The results obtained show on one hand the great suitability of the first resin for the determination of plutonium, and on the other the great selectivity of the second one for the determination of americium

  9. Determination of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in human tissues collected from areas around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site by sector-field high resolution ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Oikawa, S; Sakaguchi, A; Tomita, J; Hoshi, M; Apsalikov, K N

    2008-09-01

    Information on the 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in human tissues for people living around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was deduced from 9 sets of soft tissues and bones, and 23 other bone samples obtained by autopsy. Plutonium was radiochemically separated and purified, and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) were determined by sector-field high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. For most of the tissue samples from the former nine subjects, low 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios were determined: bone, 0.125 +/- 0.018 (0.113-0.145, n = 4); lungs, 0.063 +/- 0.010 (0.051-0.078, n = 5); and liver, 0.148 +/- 0.026 (0.104-0.189, n = 9). Only 239Pu was detected in the kidney samples; the amount of 240Pu was too small to be measured, probably due to the small size of samples analyzed. The mean 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio for bone samples from the latter 23 subjects was 0.152 +/- 0.034, ranging from 0.088 to 0.207. A significant difference (a two-tailed Student's t test; 95% significant level, alpha = 0.05) between mean 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios for the tissue samples and for the global fallout value (0.178 +/- 0.014) indicated that weapons-grade plutonium from the atomic bombs has been incorporated into the human tissues, especially lungs, in the residents living around the SNTS. The present 239,240Pu concentrations in bone, lung, and liver samples were, however, not much different from ranges found for human tissues from other countries that were due solely to global fallout during the 1970's-1980's.

  10. Model testing of radioactive contamination by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ecomod@obninsk.com; Boyer, P.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Dzyuba, N.N.; Krylov, A.L.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nosov, A.V.; Sanina, K.D.; Zheleznyak, M.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for {sup 90}Sr in water for all considered models, {sup 137}Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and {sup 239,240}Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ({sup 239,240}Pu) and CASSANDRA ({sup 137}Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of {sup 239,240}Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  11. neutron multiplicity measurements on 220 l waste drums containing Pu in the range 0.1-1 g 240Pueff with the time interval analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.; Bruggeman, M.; Carchon, R.; De Boeck, W.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement results are presented for the assay of plutonium in 220 l waste drums containing Pu-masses in the range 0.1-1 g 240 Pu eff obtained with the time interval analysis (TIA) method. TIA is a neutron multiplicity method based on the concept of one- and two-dimensional Rossi-alpha distributions. The main source of measurement bias in neutron multiplicity measurements at low count-rates is the impredictable variation of the high-multiplicity neutron background of spallation neutrons induced by cosmic rays. The TIA-method was therefore equipped with a special background filter, which is designed and optimized to reduce the influence of these spallation neutrons by rejecting the high-multiplicity events. The measurement results, obtained with the background correction filter outlined in this paper, prove the repeatability and validity of the TIA-method and show that multiplicity counting with the TIA-technique is applicable for masses as low as 0.1 g 240 Pu eff even at a detection efficiency of 12%. (orig.)

  12. Multi-isotopic determination of plutonium (239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu) in marine sediments using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donard, O F X; Bruneau, F; Moldovan, M; Garraud, H; Epov, V N; Boust, D

    2007-03-28

    Among the transuranic elements present in the environment, plutonium isotopes are mainly attached to particles, and therefore they present a great interest for the study and modelling of particle transport in the marine environment. Except in the close vicinity of industrial sources, plutonium concentration in marine sediments is very low (from 10(-4) ng kg(-1) for (241)Pu to 10 ng kg(-1) for (239)Pu), and therefore the measurement of (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu in sediments at such concentration level requires the use of very sensitive techniques. Moreover, sediment matrix contains huge amounts of mineral species, uranium and organic substances that must be removed before the determination of plutonium isotopes. Hence, an efficient sample preparation step is necessary prior to analysis. Within this work, a chemical procedure for the extraction, purification and pre-concentration of plutonium from marine sediments prior to sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) analysis has been optimized. The analytical method developed yields a pre-concentrated solution of plutonium from which (238)U and (241)Am have been removed, and which is suitable for the direct and simultaneous measurement of (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu by SF-ICP-MS.

  13. Effects of inter-fullerene π-band mixings in the photoexcitation of hybrid plasmons in the C60@C240 molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rume; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2013-05-01

    We perform a detailed study of the ground state electronic structure of a two-layer fullerene onion molecule C60@C240. Calculations are carried out in a quantum mechanical framework of local density approximation (LDA) where the onion's ion-core of sixty C4+ ions from C60 and two hundred and forty of those from C240 is smeared into a classical jellium distribution. Significant inter-fullerene mixing between the bands of single-node radial symmetry, the π-bands, is found. We then compute the photoionization from all the levels of the system using a time-dependent version of LDA at photon energies where the ionization is dominated by the inter-layer hybridization of collective plasmon resonances. It is determined, by comparing the isolated fullerene cross sections with the cross section of the onion system for both π and σ (having nodeless radial waves) symmetry, that the π-band mixing is predominantly responsible for the production of plasmon hybrids. Supported by NSF and DOE.

  14. Análise comparativa da imunoexpressão da proteína p53 (clones DO-7 e PAb-240 em carcinomas de células escamosas intrabucais e labiais Comparative analysis of p53 protein immunostaining (antibodies DO-7 and PAb-240 in oral cavity and lip squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Assis Silva Júnior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A carcinogênese caracteriza-se como um processo multifatorial, e a inativação da proteína p53 é uma alteração genética comumente observada nos carcinomas de células escamosas de boca (CCEB. OBJETIVO: Analisar e comparar a imunoexpressão da proteína p53, por meio dos clones DO-7 e PAb-240, em CCEB com localização intrabucal e em lábio inferior. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 40 casos de CCEB, sendo 20 de localização intrabucal e 20 em lábio inferior. Foi realizado um estudo imuno-histoquímico utilizando os anticorpos anti-p53 clone DO-7 e PAb-240. A imunoquantificação foi realizada por meio de análise digital de imagem, e os resultados, submetidos a tratamentos estatísticos. RESULTADOS: A imunoexpressão da proteína p53 foi verificada com o anticorpo DO-7 em 13 casos (65% de carcinoma intrabucal e em 19 (95% de carcinoma de lábio inferior. Imunorreatividade para o anticorpo PAb-240 foi observada em 9 casos (45% de lesões intrabucais e em 15 (75% localizados em lábio inferior. Não foram observadas, segundo o teste de Mann-Whitney, diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p > 0,05 na expressão da proteína p53 entre as duas localizações estudadas, independentemente do anticorpo avaliado. Foram identificadas, pelo teste de Wilcoxon, diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre a expressão dos clones DO-7 e PAb-240 em cada um dos grupos analisados (valor p = 0,013 - lábio inferior; valor p = 0,016 - intrabucal. CONCLUSÕES: A expressão da proteína p53 observada nos CCEB, com localizações intrabucais e labiais, sugere a ocorrência de mutações no gene TP53. As diferenças quantitativas obtidas entre os anticorpos estudados, independentemente da localização das lesões, refletem uma especificidade distinta entre os clones DO-7 e PAb-240. O desenvolvimento de mais estudos será fundamental para estabelecer o anticorpo mais adequado para proteína p53 em CCEB

  15. Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 230,232Th on the fractions of natural organic species soils of ChNPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, A.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    The experimental data determination of distribution 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am 'Chernobyl' releases and 230 , 232 Th on the fraction of humic and fulvic acids sandy- podsolic, meadow and peaty soils taken in the exclusive zone ChNPP are presents. Soils organic matter was isolated by conventional alkali extraction (Turin's method). It was shown that, with depending of soils types 15-45 % 241 Am associate with fulvic acids. In all investigated types of soils 30 - 40 % 239+240 Pu connects with humic acids, as strong complexes. The distribution of environmental 230 , 232 Th and artificial 239+240 Pu on the fraction natural organic species is the same

  16. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4π-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M.

    1999-01-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4π-α spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4π -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  17. Evaluation of 320x240 pixel LEC GaAs Schottky barrier X-ray imaging arrays, hybridized to CMOS readout circuit based on charge integration

    CERN Document Server

    Irsigler, R; Alverbro, J; Borglind, J; Froejdh, C; Helander, P; Manolopoulos, S; O'Shea, V; Smith, K

    1999-01-01

    320x240 pixels GaAs Schottky barrier detector arrays were fabricated, hybridized to silicon readout circuits, and subsequently evaluated. The detector chip was based on semi-insulating LEC GaAs material. The square shaped pixel detector elements were of the Schottky barrier type and had a pitch of 38 mu m. The GaAs wafers were thinned down prior to the fabrication of the ohmic back contact. After dicing, the chips were indium bump, flip-chip bonded to CMOS readout circuits based on charge integration, and finally evaluated. A bias voltage between 50 and 100 V was sufficient to operate the detector. Results on I-V characteristics, noise behaviour and response to X-ray radiation are presented. Images of various objects and slit patterns were acquired by using a standard dental imaging X-ray source. The work done was a part of the XIMAGE project financed by the European Community (Brite-Euram). (author)

  18. Studying of distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm according to the organic acids fractions of the alienation zone soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, A.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with data of research on the distribution of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm of ''the Chornobyl rains'' by the fractions of the organic matters of derno-podzolic sandy, derno-meadow and peat soils sampled in the alienation zone of the Chornobyl NPP. Functioning of organic matters was carried according to Tyurin's method. It is stressed that, independently on soil type, 137Cs is connected with the mineral contituent by 80-95%. It is found out that, independently on the soil type, 50-70% 137Sr and 15-45% 241Am are associated with fulvic acid fractions. The 241Am and 244Cm distribution according to organic acids taking into account deviations while carrying out determinations is unambiguous. It is found out that in all the soils tested the main quality of 239+24Pu is connected with humic acids

  19. Simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneau, F.

    1999-01-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  20. Results of 90Sr and 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am measurements in some samples of mushrooms and forest soil from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Larosa, J.; Ghods, A.

    1992-01-01

    Strontium-90, plutonium and americium activity concentrations in a few samples of forest soils, some species of mushrooms and fern leaves were determined. These results are compared with caesium activity concentrations in the same materials obtained in a previous work. Radiochemical procedures are described. The origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident or nuclear test explosion release) is discussed. The 90 Sr activity concentration ranges from 0.6 Bq/kg (mushroom samples) to 48.4 Bq/kg (fern leaves). For 239+240 Pu, it ranges from not detected above background (mushrooms, fern) to 10.8 Bq/kg (humus layer of forest soil). The maximum concentration of 241 Am is found to be 2.4 Bq/kg (humus sample) and for 238 Pu it is 0.85 Bq/kg (also in the humus sample). (author). 12 refs, 9 figs, 7 tabs

  1. Soil to plant transfer factors for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240 determined by field and glasshouse measurements in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Baker, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Further data on soil to plant transfer factors is provided for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240, as an extension of results presented at the previous IUR Workshop at Wageningen in December 1982. Field crops of grass, barley and oats produced in 1982 at 11 locations in Britain were analysed for radionuclides. Analysis of soils that produced these crops showed that they contained 'background' nuclear weapons fallout concentrations of Cs-137 and plutonium which were elevated in regions with high rainfall. Analysis of basic soil properties was also made. In separate experiments, transfer factors were derived for 10 crop plants grown in pot trials under glasshouse conditions. In one trial the soil used contained low concentrations of radionuclides derived from nuclear weapons fallout. In a second trial a brown earth was used, which contained additional radionuclides from long-term deposition by nuclear fuel reprocessing. (orig.)

  2. 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am in mammals' skulls from owls' pellets and owl skeletons in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaca, Paweł; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Kitowski, Ignacy; Grabowska, Sylwia; Tomankiewicz, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Skulls of small mammals belonging to two species of rodents and three species of insectivores collected in Eastern Poland were the subject of the present investigation. The skulls were separated from owl pellets. Activities of 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am were determined by means of gamma spectrometry as well as liquid scintillation spectrometry or alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. A detailed description of the procedures is provided. The research was supplied with the analysis of three skeletons of owls. No measurable difference between the skulls of rodents and insectivorous animals with regard to activity of any of the examined radionuclides was found. No accumulation effect in the owl skeletons was detected. Though measured activities of 137Cs and 40K for the skulls were of the same magnitude as those found previously for large wild herbivorous animals from typical locations in Poland, those for 90Sr were even lower than previously determined. A big difference was found for activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. Their mean activities were higher by an order of magnitude when compared to the examined previously values. The maximum 239+240Pu activity was equal to 97.5+/-7.7 mBq/kg, with 65% of it originating from global fallout. Relatively high content of transuranic elements found for rodents and insectivorous mammals seems to be unrelated to their feeding habits and should rather be attributed to the living conditions. It is suggested that small mammals, together with tiny soil particles present in mid-soil living tunnels, can inhale the transuranic elements.

  3. C22:0- and C24:0-dihydroceramides confer mixed cytotoxicity in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Holliday

    Full Text Available We previously reported that fenretinide (4-HPR was cytotoxic to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL cell lines in vitro in association with increased levels of de novo synthesized dihydroceramides, the immediate precursors of ceramides. However, the cytotoxic potentials of native dihydroceramides have not been defined. Therefore, we determined the cytotoxic effects of increasing dihydroceramide levels via de novo synthesis in T-cell ALL cell lines and whether such cytotoxicity was dependent on an absolute increase in total dihydroceramide mass versus an increase of certain specific dihydroceramides. A novel method employing supplementation of individual fatty acids, sphinganine, and the dihydroceramide desaturase-1 (DES inhibitor, GT-11, was used to increase de novo dihydroceramide synthesis and absolute levels of specific dihydroceramides and ceramides. Sphingolipidomic analyses of four T-cell ALL cell lines revealed strong positive correlations between cytotoxicity and levels of C22:0-dihydroceramide (ρ = 0.74-0.81, P ≤ 0.04 and C24:0-dihydroceramide (ρ = 0.84-0.90, P ≤ 0.004, but not between total or other individual dihydroceramides, ceramides, or sphingoid bases or phosphorylated derivatives. Selective increase of C22:0- and C24:0-dihydroceramide increased level and flux of autophagy marker, LC3B-II, and increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay in the absence of an increase of reactive oxygen species; pan-caspase inhibition blocked DNA fragmentation but not cell death. C22:0-fatty acid supplemented to 4-HPR treated cells further increased C22:0-dihydroceramide levels (P ≤ 0.001 and cytotoxicity (P ≤ 0.001. These data demonstrate that increases of specific dihydroceramides are cytotoxic to T-cell ALL cells by a caspase-independent, mixed cell death mechanism associated with increased autophagy and suggest that dihydroceramides may contribute to 4-HPR-induced cytotoxicity. The targeted increase of specific acyl chain dihydroceramides

  4. Separation and activity determination of 239+240Pu, 241Am and Curium (242and244Cm) in evaporator concentrate by Alpha Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha spectrometry analysis was used for activity determinations of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants. Using a sequential procedure the first step was Pu isolation by an anion exchange column followed by an Am and Cm separation of U and Fe by a co-precipitation with oxalic acid. The precipitate was used for americium and curium separation of strontium by using a TRU resin extraction chromatography column. Due to their chemical similarities and energy difference it was seen that the simultaneous determination of 241 Am, 242 Cm and 24 3 ,244 Cm isotopes is possible using the 243 Am as tracer, once they have peaks in different region of interest (ROI) in the alpha spectrum. In this work it was used tracers, 238 Pu, 243 Am, 244 Cm and 232 U, for determination and quantification of theirs isotopes, respectively. The standard deviations for replicate analysis were calculated and for 241 Am it was (1,040 ± 160 mBqKg -1 ), relative standard deviation 15.38%, and for 239+240 Pu it was (551 +- 44 mBqKg -1 ), relative standard deviation 7.98%. In addition, for the 242 Cm isotope the standard deviation for determinations was(75 ± 23 mBqKg -1 ), with the relative standard deviation 30.67% higher than for 241 Am and 239+240 Pu. The radiometric yields ranged from 90% to 105% and the lower limit of detection was estimated as being 2.05 mBqKg -1 . (author)

  5. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu radionuclides speciation in soils of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabdyrakova, A.M.; Kunduzbaeva, A.Y.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Magasheva, R.Y. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results of studies into {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu techno-genic radionuclides speciation in soils of ecosystems at different topography of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), exposed to different nuclear testing. The data were obtained for radionuclides speciation in soils of the following STS ecosystems: - grassland ecosystems within near-portal areas of tunnels - horizontal adits constructed for nuclear testing, affected by radioactive-contaminated water flows from the tunnels of Degelen Site; - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination resulted from above-ground and aerial nuclear testing of different yield, as well as simulation (hydrodynamic and hydro-nuclear) experiments at 'Experimental Field' testing site. - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination caused by testing of liquid and powdery radiological warfare weapon (RWW) at Site '4 a'; - 'Northern' and 'Western' areas of STS, where concentration level of artificial radionuclides in soil is comparable with the level of global fall-outs ('background' areas). To study the radionuclides speciation, method of sequential extraction was applied, and water-soluble, exchange, organic mobile and tightly bound forms were separated. Feature of the studied grassland ecosystems is that they are developed solely along the bed of water streams flowing from tunnels and are located at small area of 1-2 m{sup 2}. Radioactive contamination of soil is caused by radioactive contaminant sorption by sediments. Despite the significant space limitation of the ecosystems content of radionuclides speciation in soil greatly varies, particularly readily-soluble and mobile forms. The variation may be explained by high humidity which makes possible both sorption and desorption processes. If basic radionuclides contributing to radioactive contamination of grassland soils at Degelen Site are {sup

  6. Mielografia em cães sadios com o meio de contraste ioversol 240 mg I/ml: Resultados clínicos e radiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Virgínia Costa Sarmento

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o período de opacificação e a qualidade diagnóstica do ioversol 240 mg I/ml, nas regiões torácica e lombar após sua injeção na cisterna magna, e verificar seus efeitos sobre o sistema nervoso por meio de observações clínicas e neurológicas. Utilizaram-se 30 cães sadios, sem distinção de sexo ou raça, com peso entre 9 e 12 kg, divididos em três grupos de 10 animais cada. Nos animais anestesiados com diazepam e tiopental sódico, o ioversol foi injetado na dose de 0,5 ml/kg. Foram obtidas radiografias cervicais aos cinco minutos para confirmar a injeção do contraste e toracolombares aos 30, 40, 50 e 60 minutos para avaliar o período de opacificação. Exames clínicos e neurológicos foram realizados diariamente até os 7, 14 e 28 dias para os grupos I, II e III respectivamente. Efeitos adversos como movimentos de pedalagem, início de convulsão, espasmos musculares, apnéia, dispnéia e ânsia de vômito foram observados apenas durante o procedimento mielográfico. O ioversol apresentou boas radiopacidade, difusão e miscibilidade com o líquor, oferecendo também a possibilidade de redução de custos, já que pode ser autoclavado. O tempo de opacificação do contraste com valor diagnóstico atingiu 60 minutos em 60% das radiografias torácicas e em 80% das radiografias lombares. Havendo baixa incidência de alterações clínicas e neurológicas, e apropriadas qualidades radiográficas, concluiu-se que o ioversol na concentração de 240 mg I/ml é adequado e seguro para ser utilizado em mielografia de cães.

  7. Radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in vegetation cover of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionova, N. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan); Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology of the Republican State Enterprise (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) is one of the largest testing grounds for nuclear weapons. Diverse nuclear explosions were carried out on its territory: 340 underground tests (sites 'Degelen', 'Balapan' and 'Sary-Uzen'), 30 surface and 86 nuclear air explosions (site for radioactive warfare agent (RWA) and 'Experimental Field'). Since the STS was shutdown a large amount of information about current radiological situation in its territory has been collected. In recent years, one of the main problems is gradual transfer of its lands for national economy. Under these conditions, an essential element for prediction of radioactive contamination levels of food products is radionuclides redistribution parameters in soil-plant system used in calculation of doses to the population living within STS territory. Until recently, matter of radionuclides migration from soil to plants has been poorly studied. Individual researches, more or less devoted to this issue occurred in the past, but have virtually no information about accumulation of transuranic radionuclides in plants. More regular studies in this direction have been initiated recently. Between 2007 and 2013 features of artificial radionuclides accumulation in certain plant species under radioactive tunnel watercourses at 'Degelen' site were studied. We've obtained statistically reliable data characterizing accumulation of radionuclides, including {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, in steppe plants at 'Experimental field' site. The content of radionuclides in plants was researched at the RWA site. Comprehensive ecological survey in order to release the lands to the national economic turnover investigated parameters of radionuclides accumulation in steppe grasses at conditionally 'background' areas of STS and some parts of radioactive trace plume caused by the explosion in 1953. To date, all the findings have been generalized. We present an

  8. Markers aiding the diagnosis of chondroid tumors: an immunohistochemical study including osteonectin, bcl-2, cox-2, actin, calponin, D2-40 (podoplanin), mdm-2, CD117 (c-kit), and YKL-40

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAUGAARD, SØREN; CHRISTENSEN, LISE H; HØGDALL, ESTRID

    2009-01-01

    Chondroid tumors comprise a heterogenous group of benign to overt malignant neoplasms, which may be difficult to differentiate from one another by histological examination. A group of 43 such tumors was stained with nine relevant antibodies in an attempt to find consistent marker profile(s) for the different subgroups. Archival material from three extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, five chordomas, five chondromyxoid fibromas, five chondroblastomas and 25 chondrosarcomas was stained with antibodies against osteonectin, bcl-2, cox-2, actin, calponin, D2-40 (podoplanin), mdm-2, CD117 (c-kit) and YKL-40. All 25 chondrosarcomas showed a positive staining reaction for D2-40, none for actin and CD117, and a partial reactivity for bcl-2 (36%). Chondroblastomas (5/5) and chondromyxoid fibromas (2/5) were the only tumors with a positive reaction for actin, and all chondroblastomas (n=5) and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (n=3) were positive for bcl-2. In contrast to all other tumors, two of three extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas were also positive for CD17 and negative for osteonectin, cox-2, mdm-2 and actin. All five chordomas were negative for D2-40 and positive for mdm-2 and YKL-40. The diagnosis of chondrosarcoma may be aided by its positivity for D2-40 and YKL-40 and its lack of reactivity for actin and CD117. This should be seen in the light of no reaction for D2-40 in chordomas and a corresponding lack of reaction for osteonectin, cox-2, mdm-2 and actin in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas. A convincing immunoreactivity for calponin and/or actin in chondromyxoid fibromas and chondroblastomas may also be helpful in differentiating these tumors from chondrosarcomas. PMID:19594492

  9. Identification of seven haplotypes of the caprine PrP gene at codons 127, 142, 154, 211, 222 and 240 in French Alpine and Saanen breeds and their association with classical scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillet, F; Mariat, D; Amigues, Y; Faugeras, R; Caillat, H; Moazami-Goudarzi, K; Rupp, R; Babilliot, J M; Lacroux, C; Lugan, S; Schelcher, F; Chartier, C; Corbière, F; Andréoletti, O; Perrin-Chauvineau, C

    2009-03-01

    In sheep, susceptibility to scrapie is mainly influenced by polymorphisms of the PrP gene. In goats, there are to date few data related to scrapie susceptibility association with PrP gene polymorphisms. In this study, we first investigated PrP gene polymorphisms of the French Alpine and Saanen breeds. Based on PrP gene open reading frame sequencing of artificial insemination bucks (n=404), six encoding mutations were identified at codons 127, 142, 154, 211, 222 and 240. However, only seven haplotypes could be detected: four (GIH(154)RQS, GIRQ(211)QS, GIRRK(222)S and GIRRQP(240)) derived from the wild-type allele (G(127)I(142)R(154)R(211)Q(222)S(240)) by a single-codon mutation, and two (S(127)IRRQP(240) and GM(142)RRQP(240)) by a double-codon mutation. A case-control study was then implemented in a highly affected Alpine and Saanen breed herd (90 cases/164 controls). Mutations at codon 142 (I/M), 154 (R/H), 211 (R/Q) and 222 (Q/K) were found to induce a significant degree of protection towards natural scrapie infection. Compared with the baseline homozygote wild-type genotype I(142)R(154)R(211)Q(222)/IRRQ goats, the odds of scrapie cases in IRQ(211)Q/IRRQ and IRRK(222)/IRRQ heterozygous animals were significantly lower [odds ratio (OR)=0.133, PFrench Alpine and Saanen breeds were low (0.5-18.5 %), which prevent us from assessing the influence of all the possible genotypes in natural exposure conditions.

  10. Identification of citrullinaemia carrier and detection of a new silent mutation at 240bp position in ASS1 gene of normal Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotikalapudi Rosaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The autosomal recessive genetic disorders are regularly investigated especially in Indian Holstein and Holstein Crossbred bulls before they entered in semen collection so that a defective gene should not be transmitted to future generations. Bovine citrullinaemia first reported in Australia is a metabolic disorder as one of the enzymes, Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS involved in urea cycle is impaired in function. The mutation responsible for citrullinemia has been characterized as a single-base substitution at 256bp (C>T in coding exon 3 of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1 gene, which converts the CGA (arginine at 86 codon to TGA (stop codon. A Holstein bull during routine molecular screening was found to be carrier for Citrullinaemia that was confirmed by sequencing. This is a fresh case of Citrullinaemia carrier in addition to three cases reported earlier in India. Partial sequencing of coding exon 3 of a normal Holstein revealed a new silent polymorphism at 240bp position that does not change amino acid (Sarine AGC>AGT at 80 codon within exon 3 of ASS1 gene. The sequence of exon 3 of ASS1 gene in a normal Holstein exhibiting a new polymorphism was submitted to NCBI with accession No. KF933365. The presence of citrullinaemia carriers in Indian Holstein, though in very low frequency, emphasizing to continue the investigation of mutant gene in cattle population.

  11. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN G240.31+0.07: AN HOURGLASS IN A MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Liu, Hauyu B.; Tang, Ya-Wen [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Girart, Josep M., E-mail: kpqiu@nju.edu.cn [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-10-10

    We report the first detection of an hourglass magnetic field aligned with a well-defined outflow rotation system in a high-mass, star-forming region. The observations were performed with the Submillimeter Array toward G240.31+0.07, which harbors a massive, flattened, and fragmenting molecular cloud core and a wide-angle bipolar outflow. The polarized dust emission at 0.88 mm reveals a clear hourglass-shaped magnetic field aligned within 20° of the outflow axis. Maps of high-density tracing spectral lines, e.g., H{sup 13}CO{sup +} (4-3), show that the core is rotating about its minor axis, which is also aligned with the magnetic field axis. Therefore, both the magnetic field and kinematic properties observed in this region are surprisingly consistent with the theoretical predictions of the classic paradigm of isolated low-mass star formation. The strength of the magnetic field in the plane of sky is estimated to be ∼1.1 mG, resulting in a mass-to-magnetic flux ratio of 1.4 times the critical value and a turbulent-to-ordered magnetic energy ratio of 0.4. We also find that the specific angular momentum almost linearly decreases from r ∼ 0.6 pc to 0.03 pc scales, which is most likely attributed to magnetic braking.

  12. Statistical investigation of the crack initiation lives of piping structural welded joint in low cycle fatigue test of 240 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Gao Qing; Cai Lixun

    1999-01-01

    A statistical investigation into the fitting of four possible fatigue assumed distributions (three parameter Weibull, two parameter Weibull, lognormal and extreme maximum value distributions) for the crack initiation lives of piping structural welded joint in low cycle fatigue test of 240 degree C is performed by linear regression and least squares methods. The results reveal that the three parameters Weibull distribution may give misleading results in fatigue reliability analysis because the shape parameter is often less than 1. This means that the failure rate decreases with fatigue cycling which is contrary to the general understanding of the behaviour of welded joint. Reliability analyses may also affected by the slightly nonconservative evaluations in tail regions of this distribution. The other three distributions are slightly poor in the total fit effects, but they can be safety assumed in reliability analyses due to the non-conservative evaluations in tail regions mostly and the consistency with the fatigue physics of the structural behaviour of welded joint in the range of engineering practice. In addition, the extreme maximum value distribution is in good consists with the general physical understanding of the structural behaviour of welded joint

  13. The dwarf phenotype in GH240B mice, haploinsufficient for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin, is caused by ectopic expression of recombinant human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuytens, Kim; Tuand, Krizia; Fu, Quili; Stijnen, Pieter; Pruniau, Vincent; Meulemans, Sandra; Vankelecom, Hugo; Creemers, John W M

    2014-01-01

    Two knockout mouse models for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin (Nbea) have been generated independently. Although both models have similar phenotypes, one striking difference is the dwarf phenotype observed in the heterozygous configuration of the GH240B model that is generated by the serendipitous insertion of a promoterless human growth hormone (hGH) genomic fragment in the Nbea gene. In order to elucidate this discrepancy, the dwarfism present in this Nbea mouse model was investigated in detail. The growth deficiency in Nbea+/- mice coincided with an increased percentage of fat mass and a decrease in bone mineral density. Low but detectable levels of hGH were detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus of Nbea+/- mice but not in liver, hippocampus nor in serum. As a consequence, several members of the mouse growth hormone (mGH) signaling cascade showed altered mRNA levels, including a reduction in growth hormone-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamus. Moreover, somatotrope cells were less numerous in the pituitary of Nbea+/- mice and both contained and secreted significantly less mGH resulting in reduced levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1. These findings demonstrate that the random integration of the hGH transgene in this mouse model has not only inactivated Nbea but has also resulted in the tissue-specific expression of hGH causing a negative feedback loop, mGH hyposecretion and dwarfism.

  14. The dwarf phenotype in GH240B mice, haploinsufficient for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin, is caused by ectopic expression of recombinant human growth hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nuytens

    Full Text Available Two knockout mouse models for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin (Nbea have been generated independently. Although both models have similar phenotypes, one striking difference is the dwarf phenotype observed in the heterozygous configuration of the GH240B model that is generated by the serendipitous insertion of a promoterless human growth hormone (hGH genomic fragment in the Nbea gene. In order to elucidate this discrepancy, the dwarfism present in this Nbea mouse model was investigated in detail. The growth deficiency in Nbea+/- mice coincided with an increased percentage of fat mass and a decrease in bone mineral density. Low but detectable levels of hGH were detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus of Nbea+/- mice but not in liver, hippocampus nor in serum. As a consequence, several members of the mouse growth hormone (mGH signaling cascade showed altered mRNA levels, including a reduction in growth hormone-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamus. Moreover, somatotrope cells were less numerous in the pituitary of Nbea+/- mice and both contained and secreted significantly less mGH resulting in reduced levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1. These findings demonstrate that the random integration of the hGH transgene in this mouse model has not only inactivated Nbea but has also resulted in the tissue-specific expression of hGH causing a negative feedback loop, mGH hyposecretion and dwarfism.

  15. Baseline demographics, clinical features, and treatment protocols of 240 patients with optic neuropathy: experiences from a neuro-ophthalmological clinic in the Aegean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karti, Omer; Karti, Dilek Top; Kilic, İlay Hilal; Gokcay, Figen; Celebisoy, Nese

    2017-12-19

    To analyze the demographic patterns, clinical characteristics, and treatment protocols of optic neuropathies. The hospital data of patients with optic neuropathy admitted to the Department of Neuro-ophthalmology in a tertiary referral center in Turkey between January 2010 to January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic patterns, clinical features, treatment protocols, and the natural disease courses were assessed. The total number of patients with optic neuropathy seen over this period was 240, which consist of 43 with idiopathic optic neuritis (17.9%), 40 with multiple sclerosis-related optic neuritis (16.7%), 12 with chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuritis (5.0%), 12 with atypical optic neuritis (5.0%), 11 with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders-related optic neuritis (4.6%), 90 with non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (37.5%), 4 with arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (1.7%), 10 with traumatic optic neuropathy (4.1%), 6 with compressive optic neuropathy (2.5%), and 12 with mitochondrial optic neuropathy [9 with toxic optic neuropathy (3.7%) and 3 with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (1.2%)]. There were 101 males (42%) and 139 females (58%). The mean age was 43.34 ± 15.86 years. This study reported the demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment protocols of optic neuropathies in a neuro-ophthalmology specialty clinic at a tertiary referral center in Turkey during the past decade. The data may be useful in assessing the global status of optic neuropathies.

  16. Routine radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, V.A.; Sajeniouk, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Routine analytical procedures have been developed for the reliable simultaneous determination of 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 242-244 Cm, Chernobyl derived radioisotopes and fallout after nuclear weapon tests in a wide range of environmental samples: soil (100-200 g), sediments, aerosols, water and vegetation. This procedure has been applied to thousands of soil and sediment samples and hundreds of biological and water samples taken in the exclusive zone of Chernobyl NPP and different regions of Ukraine from 1989 to the present. After the sample has been properly prepared and isotopic tracers added, plutonium, americium and curium are precipitated with calcium oxalate and then lanthanum fluoride. Plutonium is separated from americium and curium by anion-exchange. Americium and curium are separated from rare earths by cation-exchange with gradient elute α-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid. During projects by AQCS IAEA 'Evaluation of Methods for 90 Sr in a Mineral Matrix' and 'Proficiency Test for 239 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am Measurement in a Mineral Matrix' accuracy and precision for 90 Sr, 239 Pu and 241 Am by present procedure was evaluated. Advantages, difficulties and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  17. Feasibility test of utilizing Saccharophagus degradans 2-40(T) as the source of crude enzyme for the saccharification of lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Song, Du-Sup; Choi, In-Geol; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Seung, Doyoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-04-01

    In the conversion of lignocellulose into high-value products, including fuels and chemicals, the production of cellulase and the enzymatic hydrolysis for producing fermentable sugar are the largest contributors to the cost of production of the final products. The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40(T) can degrade more than ten different complex polysaccharides found in the ocean, including cellulose and xylan. Accordingly, S. degradans has been actively considered as a practical source of crude enzymes needed for the saccharification of lignocellulose to produce ethanol by others including a leading commercial company. However, the overall enzyme system of S. degradans for hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicellulose has not been quantitatively evaluated yet in comparison with commercial enzymes. In this study, the inductions and activities of cellulase and xylanase of cell-free lysate of S. degradans were investigated. The growth of S. degradans cells and the activities of cellulase and xylanase were promoted by adding 2 % of cellulose and xylan mixture (cellulose:xylan = 4:3 in mass ratio) to the aquarium salt medium supplemented with 0.2 % glucose. The specific cellulase activity of the cell-free lysate of S. degradans, as determined by the filter paper activity assay, was approximately 70 times lower than those of commercial cellulases, including Celluclast 1.5 L and Accellerase 1000. These results imply that significant improvement in the cellulase activity of S. degradans is needed for the industrial uses of S. degradans as the enzyme source.

  18. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN G240.31+0.07: AN HOURGLASS IN A MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Keping; Zhang, Qizhou; Menten, Karl M.; Liu, Hauyu B.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Girart, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of an hourglass magnetic field aligned with a well-defined outflow rotation system in a high-mass, star-forming region. The observations were performed with the Submillimeter Array toward G240.31+0.07, which harbors a massive, flattened, and fragmenting molecular cloud core and a wide-angle bipolar outflow. The polarized dust emission at 0.88 mm reveals a clear hourglass-shaped magnetic field aligned within 20° of the outflow axis. Maps of high-density tracing spectral lines, e.g., H 13 CO + (4-3), show that the core is rotating about its minor axis, which is also aligned with the magnetic field axis. Therefore, both the magnetic field and kinematic properties observed in this region are surprisingly consistent with the theoretical predictions of the classic paradigm of isolated low-mass star formation. The strength of the magnetic field in the plane of sky is estimated to be ∼1.1 mG, resulting in a mass-to-magnetic flux ratio of 1.4 times the critical value and a turbulent-to-ordered magnetic energy ratio of 0.4. We also find that the specific angular momentum almost linearly decreases from r ∼ 0.6 pc to 0.03 pc scales, which is most likely attributed to magnetic braking

  19. Causes and means of prevention of erosion of exit edges of drive vanes in final stages of K-300-240 turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlik, V. G.; Reznik, L. B.

    1984-02-01

    A method, instruments and devices were developed and model and field studies were performed of the flow of steam and moisture downstream from the last stage of a K-300-240 turbine in the vicinity of the vertical separating rib. The quantity of moisture flowing toward the drive wheel of the last stage over the inner cone of the exhaust tube was measured, and found to decrease with increasing temperature, disappearing at 140 C. When the turbine is loaded, moisture appears on the cone at approximately 60 MW, reaching 60 kg/hr at nominal mode and increasing with decreasing steam superheating temperature, to 80 kg/hr at 60 MW and 365 C. The steam receiving section of the condenser was found to be overloaded since the cross section of its drains was not designed to receive steam with excess moisture content. Excessive twisting of the steam flow beyond the last stage in the direction of rotation was experimentally determined. The quantity of erosion-dangerous moisture downstream from the last stage depends on the temperature difference between turbine exhaust and the machine room in which it is located.

  20. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. I. THE O VII AND O VIII LINES BETWEEN l = 120 DEG. AND l = 240 DEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) O VII and O VIII intensity between l = 120 deg. and l = 240 deg., the first results of a survey of the SXRB using archival XMM-Newton observations. We do not restrict ourselves to blank-sky observations, but instead use as many observations as possible, removing bright or extended sources by hand if necessary. In an attempt to minimize contamination from near-Earth solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission, we remove times of high solar wind proton flux from the data. Without this filtering we are able to extract measurements from 586 XMM-Newton observations. With this filtering, ∼1/2 of the observations are rendered unusable, and we are able to extract measurements from 303 observations. The oxygen intensities are typically ∼0.5-10 photons cm -2 s -1 sr -1 (line units, L.U.) for O VII and ∼0-5 L.U. for O VIII. The proton flux filtering does not systematically reduce the oxygen intensities measured from a given observation. However, the filtering does preferentially remove the observations with higher oxygen intensities. Our data set includes 69 directions with multiple observations, whose oxygen intensity variations can be used to constrain SWCX models. One observation exhibits an O VII enhancement of ∼25 L.U. over two other observations of the same direction, although most SWCX enhancements are ∼ 6 K, in good agreement with previous studies.

  1. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4{pi}-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples; Spectrometrie alpha 4{pi} de sources d'actinides realisees par electronebulisation. Developpement et optimisation d'un protocole applique au mesurage des isotopes 238 et 239+240 du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement (DPRE), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4{pi}-{alpha} spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4{pi} -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  2. Laboratory Study of the OH + Permethylsiloxane (L2, L3, D3, and D4) Reaction Rate Coefficients Between 240 and 370 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J. B.; Bernard, F.; Papadimitriou, V. C.

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of organosiloxanes has recently been implicated in the formation of new particles as well as regional and indoor air quality. Methylsiloxanes with Sitextiles, health care and household products and in industrial applications as solvents and lubricants. They are released into the atmosphere during manufacturing, use, and disposal and have been observed in the atmosphere in ppb levels in certain locations. However, the fundamental chemical properties of this class of compounds, particularly their reactivity with the OH radical, are presently not fully characterized. In this work, the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients for the OH radical reaction with the simplest linear (L2 and L3) and cyclic (D3 and D4) siloxanes were measured: OH + (CH3)3SiOSi(CH3)3 = Products L2OH + [(CH3)3SiO]2Si(CH3)2 = Products L3OH + [-Si(CH3)2O-]3 = Products D3OH + [-Si(CH3)2O-]4 = Products D4OH rate coefficients were measured under pseudo-first conditions in OH over the temperature range 240-370 K using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) technique and at 296 K using a relative rate method. The present results are compared with available literature data where possible and discrepancies are discussed. The results from this work will be discussed in terms of the atmospheric lifetimes of these methylsiloxanes and the reactivity trends for this class of compound.

  3. Radiotherapy in stage 3, unresectable, asymptomatic non-small cell lung cancer. Final results of a prospective randomized study of 240 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinfuss, M.; Glinski, B.; Kowalska, T.; Kulpa, J.; Zawila, K.; Reinfuss, K.; Dymek, P.; Herman, K.; Skolyszewski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: to report the results of a prospective randomized study concerning the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of stage III, unresectable, asymptomatic non-small cell lung cancer. Material and methods: between 1992 and 1996, 240 patients with stage III, unresectable, asymptomatic non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in this study, and sequentially randomized to one of the three treatment arms: conventional irradiation, hypo-fractionated irradiation and control group. In the conventional irradiation arm (79 patients), a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions in five weeks was delivered to the primary tumor and the mediastinum. In the hypo-fractionated irradiation arm (81 patients), there were two courses of irradiation separated by an interval of four weeks. In each series, patients received 20 Gy in five fractions in five days, in the same treatment volume as the conventional irradiation group. in the control group arm, 80 patients initially did not receive radiotherapy and were only observed. Delayed palliative hypo-fractionated irradiation (20-25 Gy in four to five fractions in four to five days) was given to the primary tumor when major symptoms developed. Results: the two-year actuarial survival rates for patients in the conventional irradiation, hypo-fractionated irradiation and control group arms were 18%, 6% and 0%, with a median survival time of 12 months, nine months and six months respectively. The differences between survival rates were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Conclusion: although irradiation provides good palliation the results are disappointing. The comparison of conventional and hypo-fractionated irradiation shows an advantage for conventional schedules. (author)

  4. Distance measurements across randomly distributed nitroxide probes from the temperature dependence of the electron spin phase memory time at 240 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Devin T.; Takahashi, Susumu; Sherwin, Mark S.; Han, Songi

    2012-10-01

    At 8.5 T, the polarization of an ensemble of electron spins is essentially 100% at 2 K, and decreases to 30% at 20 K. The strong temperature dependence of the electron spin polarization between 2 and 20 K leads to the phenomenon of spin bath quenching: temporal fluctuations of the dipolar magnetic fields associated with the energy-conserving spin "flip-flop" process are quenched as the temperature of the spin bath is lowered to the point of nearly complete spin polarization. This work uses pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 240 GHz to investigate the effects of spin bath quenching on the phase memory times (TM) of randomly-distributed ensembles of nitroxide molecules below 20 K at 8.5 T. For a given electron spin concentration, a characteristic, dipolar flip-flop rate (W) is extracted by fitting the temperature dependence of TM to a simple model of decoherence driven by the spin flip-flop process. In frozen solutions of 4-Amino-TEMPO, a stable nitroxide radical in a deuterated water-glass, a calibration is used to quantify average spin-spin distances as large as r¯=6.6 nm from the dipolar flip-flop rate. For longer distances, nuclear spin fluctuations, which are not frozen out, begin to dominate over the electron spin flip-flop processes, placing an effective ceiling on this method for nitroxide molecules. For a bulk solution with a three-dimensional distribution of nitroxide molecules at concentration n, we find W∝n∝1/r, which is consistent with magnetic dipolar spin interactions. Alternatively, we observe W∝n for nitroxides tethered to a quasi two-dimensional surface of large (Ø ˜ 200 nm), unilamellar, lipid vesicles, demonstrating that the quantification of spin bath quenching can also be used to discern the geometry of molecular assembly or organization.

  5. Comment on ‘Positron scattering in helium: Virtual-positronium resonances’ by G.P. Karwasz, D. Pliszka, A. Zecca, R.S. Brusa [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 240 (2005) 666

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecca, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    A recent paper [G.P. Karwasz, D. Pliszka, A. Zecca, R.S. Brusa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 240 (2005) 666] claims the observation of scattering resonances in the total cross section for positron scattering from helium. In this comment we question the reality of such resonances. Our discussion will be based on the detailed knowledge of the general capabilities of the Trento spectrometer and will be invigorated by new checks we have made on the measurement procedure employed in [G.P. Karwasz, D. Pliszka, A. Zecca, R.S. Brusa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 240 (2005) 666]. We conclude that the observed structures are most likely an experimental artefact rather than being due to the positron-helium interaction.

  6. Determination of 239Pu and 240Pu isotope ratio for a nuclear bomb particle using X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with γ-ray spectrometry and non-destructive α-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, R.; Ruotsalainen, K.; Toivonen, H.

    2009-01-01

    A nuclear bomb particle from Thule containing Pu and U was analyzed using X-ray spectrometry in combination with γ-ray spectrometry and non-destructive α-spectrometry. The main objective was to investigate the possibility to determine the 239 Pu and 240 Pu isotope ratios. Previously, X-ray spectrometry together with the above-mentioned methods has been successfully applied for radiochemically processed samples, but not for individual particles. In the present paper we demonstrate the power of non-destructive analysis. The 239 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) atom ratio for the Thule particle was determined, using two different approaches, to be 0.93±0.07 and 0.91±0.05. These results are consistent with weapons-grade material and the results obtained by other investigators.

  7. Markers aiding the diagnosis of chondroid tumors: an immunohistochemical study including osteonectin, bcl-2, cox-2, actin, calponin, D2-40 (podoplanin), mdm-2, CD117 (c-kit), and YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Søren; Christensen, Lise H; Høgdall, Estrid

    2009-01-01

    (s) for the different subgroups. Archival material from three extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, five chordomas, five chondromyxoid fibromas, five chondroblastomas and 25 chondrosarcomas was stained with antibodies against osteonectin, bcl-2, cox-2, actin, calponin, D2-40 (podoplanin), mdm-2, CD117 (c-kit) and YKL......-40. All 25 chondrosarcomas showed a positive staining reaction for D2-40, none for actin and CD117, and a partial reactivity for bcl-2 (36%). Chondroblastomas (5/5) and chondromyxoid fibromas (2/5) were the only tumors with a positive reaction for actin, and all chondroblastomas (n=5...... chondrosarcomas. A convincing immunoreactivity for calponin and/or actin in chondromyxoid fibromas and chondroblastomas may also be helpful in differentiating these tumors from chondrosarcomas....

  8. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  9. Technical note: In vitro digestibility of amylase-treated, ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber, with addition of sodium sulfite, at 240 hours with or without rumen fluid reinoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Fustini, M; Mammi, L; Formigoni, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term in vitro fermentation (240 h) evaluating amylase-treated, ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber, with addition of sodium sulfite (aNDFom) digestibility is required to quantify the indigestible fiber fraction. It is commonly accepted to inoculate rumen fluid more than one time during such fermentations, every 96 h or at 120 h. However, no studies have been conducted to verify if the reinoculation is actually required to properly carry out the fermentation process. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of these procedures on aNDFom digestibility at 240 h. The study was conducted on a total of 24 forage samples (8 alfalfa hays, 8 grass hays, and 8 corn silages). Samples were digested in triplicate at 240 h in vitro. Rumen fluid was added twice (at 96 and 192 h) in treatment 1, after 120 h in treatment 2, whereas no addition was made in treatment 3. At the end of the fermentations, residual aNDFom was quantified to calculate digestibility. Among treatments, no difference was found in digestibility of aNDFom. Moreover, treatment 1 resulted in higher variability compared with other treatments. Results obtained in the current study show that subsequent addition of rumen fluid is not necessary for a proper estimation of aNDFom digestibility, and can be avoided. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Induction of Mitochondrial Changes Associated with Oxidative Stress on Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0-Treated Human Neuronal Cells (SK-NB-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Zarrouk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease, lipid alterations point towards peroxisomal dysfunctions. Indeed, a cortical accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs: C22:0, C24:0, C26:0, substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, has been found in Alzheimer patients. This study was realized to investigate the effects of VLCFAs at the mitochondrial level since mitochondrial dysfunctions play crucial roles in neurodegeneration. On human neuronal SK-NB-E cells treated with C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0 (0.1–20 μM; 48 h, an inhibition of cell growth and mitochondrial dysfunctions were observed by cell counting with trypan blue, MTT assay, and measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm with DiOC6(3. A stimulation of oxidative stress was observed with DHE and MitoSOX used to quantify superoxide anion production on whole cells and at the mitochondrial level, respectively. With C24:0 and C26:0, by Western blotting, lower levels of mitochondrial complexes III and IV were detected. After staining with MitoTracker and by transmission electron microscopy used to study mitochondrial topography, mass and morphology, major changes were detected in VLCFAs treated-cells: modification of the cytoplasmic distribution of mitochondria, presence of large mitochondria, enhancement of the mitochondrial mass. Thus, VLCFAs can be potential risk factors contributing to neurodegeneration by inducing neuronal damages via mitochondrial dysfunctions.

  11. Targeting Accuracy, Procedure Times and User Experience of 240 Experimental MRI Biopsies Guided by a Clinical Add-On Navigation System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Busse

    Full Text Available MRI is of great clinical utility for the guidance of special diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The majority of such procedures are performed iteratively ("in-and-out" in standard, closed-bore MRI systems with control imaging inside the bore and needle adjustments outside the bore. The fundamental limitations of such an approach have led to the development of various assistance techniques, from simple guidance tools to advanced navigation systems. The purpose of this work was to thoroughly assess the targeting accuracy, workflow and usability of a clinical add-on navigation solution on 240 simulated biopsies by different medical operators.Navigation relied on a virtual 3D MRI scene with real-time overlay of the optically tracked biopsy needle. Smart reference markers on a freely adjustable arm ensured proper registration. Twenty-four operators - attending (AR and resident radiologists (RR as well as medical students (MS - performed well-controlled biopsies of 10 embedded model targets (mean diameter: 8.5 mm, insertion depths: 17-76 mm. Targeting accuracy, procedure times and 13 Likert scores on system performance were determined (strong agreement: 5.0.Differences in diagnostic success rates (AR: 93%, RR: 88%, MS: 81% were not significant. In contrast, between-group differences in biopsy times (AR: 4:15, RR: 4:40, MS: 5:06 min:sec differed significantly (p<0.01. Mean overall rating was 4.2. The average operator would use the system again (4.8 and stated that the outcome justifies the extra effort (4.4. Lowest agreement was reported for the robustness against external perturbations (2.8.The described combination of optical tracking technology with an automatic MRI registration appears to be sufficiently accurate for instrument guidance in a standard (closed-bore MRI environment. High targeting accuracy and usability was demonstrated on a relatively large number of procedures and operators. Between groups with different expertise there were

  12. Targeting Accuracy, Procedure Times and User Experience of 240 Experimental MRI Biopsies Guided by a Clinical Add-On Navigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Harald; Riedel, Tim; Garnov, Nikita; Thörmer, Gregor; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2015-01-01

    MRI is of great clinical utility for the guidance of special diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The majority of such procedures are performed iteratively ("in-and-out") in standard, closed-bore MRI systems with control imaging inside the bore and needle adjustments outside the bore. The fundamental limitations of such an approach have led to the development of various assistance techniques, from simple guidance tools to advanced navigation systems. The purpose of this work was to thoroughly assess the targeting accuracy, workflow and usability of a clinical add-on navigation solution on 240 simulated biopsies by different medical operators. Navigation relied on a virtual 3D MRI scene with real-time overlay of the optically tracked biopsy needle. Smart reference markers on a freely adjustable arm ensured proper registration. Twenty-four operators - attending (AR) and resident radiologists (RR) as well as medical students (MS) - performed well-controlled biopsies of 10 embedded model targets (mean diameter: 8.5 mm, insertion depths: 17-76 mm). Targeting accuracy, procedure times and 13 Likert scores on system performance were determined (strong agreement: 5.0). Differences in diagnostic success rates (AR: 93%, RR: 88%, MS: 81%) were not significant. In contrast, between-group differences in biopsy times (AR: 4:15, RR: 4:40, MS: 5:06 min:sec) differed significantly (p<0.01). Mean overall rating was 4.2. The average operator would use the system again (4.8) and stated that the outcome justifies the extra effort (4.4). Lowest agreement was reported for the robustness against external perturbations (2.8). The described combination of optical tracking technology with an automatic MRI registration appears to be sufficiently accurate for instrument guidance in a standard (closed-bore) MRI environment. High targeting accuracy and usability was demonstrated on a relatively large number of procedures and operators. Between groups with different expertise there were

  13. The application of Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 measurements to investigate floodplain deposition in a semi-arid, low-fallout environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, K. J.; Croke, J. C.; Timmers, H.; Owens, P. N.

    2009-04-01

    Floodplains comprise geomorphologically important sources and sinks for sediments and associated pollutants, yet the sedimentology of large dryland floodplains is not well understood. Processes occurring on such floodplains are often difficult to observe, and techniques used to investigate smaller perennial floodplains are often not practical in these environments. This study assesses the utility of Cs-137 inventory and depth-profile techniques for determining relative amounts of floodplain sedimentation in the Fitzroy River, north-eastern Australia; a 143 000 km2 semi-arid river system. Caesium-137 inventories were calculated for floodplain and reference location bulk soil cores collected from four sites. Depth profiles of Cs-137 concentration from each floodplain site and a reference location were recorded. The areal density of Cs-137 at reference locations ranged from 13-978 Bq m-2 (0-1367 Bq m-2 at the 95% confidence interval), and the mean value ± 2(standard error of the mean) was 436±264 Bq m-2, similar to published data from other southern hemisphere locations. Floodplain inventories ranged from 68-1142 Bq m-2 (0-1692 Bq m-2 at the 95% confidence interval), essentially falling within the range of reference inventory values, thus preventing calculation of erosion or deposition. Depth-profiles of Cs-137 concentration indicate erosion at one site and over 66 cm of deposition at another since 1954. Analysis of 239+240Pu concentrations in a depositional core substantiated the interpretation made from Cs-137 data, and depict a more tightly constrained peak in concentration. Average annual deposition rates range from 0-15 mm. The similarity between floodplain and reference bulk inventories does not necessarily indicate a lack of erosion or deposition, due to low Cs-137 fallout in the region and associated high measurement uncertainties, and a likely influence of gully and bank eroded sediments with no or limited adsorbed Cs-137. In this low-fallout environment

  14. HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes in 240 index patients with common variable immunodeficiency and selective IgG subclass deficiency in central Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton James C

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to quantify HLA-A and -B phenotype and haplotype frequencies in Alabama index patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID and selective IgG subclass deficiency (IgGSD, and in control subjects. Methods Phenotypes were detected using DNA-based typing (index cases and microlymphocytotoxicity typing (controls. Results A and B phenotypes were determined in 240 index cases (114 CVID, 126 IgGSD and 1,321 controls and haplotypes in 195 index cases and 751 controls. Phenotyping revealed that the "uncorrected" frequencies of A*24, B*14, B*15, B*35, B*40, B*49, and B*50 were significantly greater in index cases, and frequencies of B*35, B*58, B*62 were significantly lower in index cases. After Bonferroni corrections, the frequencies of phenotypes A*24, B*14, and B*40 were significantly greater in index cases, and the frequency of B*62 was significantly lower in index cases. The most common haplotypes in index cases were A*02-B*44 (frequency 0.1385, A*01-B*08 (frequency 0.1308, and A*03-B*07 (frequency 0.1000, and the frequency of each was significantly greater in index cases than in control subjects ("uncorrected" values of p p p = 0.0166. Most phenotype and haplotype frequencies in CVID and IgGSD were similar. 26.7% of index patients were HLA-haploidentical with one or more other index patients. We diagnosed CVID or IgGSD in first-degree or other relatives of 26 of 195 index patients for whom HLA-A and -B haplotypes had been ascertained; A*01-B*08, A*02-B*44, and A*29-B*44 were most frequently associated with CVID or IgGSD in these families. We conservatively estimated the combined population frequency of CVID and IgGSD to be 0.0092 in adults, based on the occurrence of CVID and IgGSD in spouses of the index cases. Conclusions CVID and IgGSD in adults are significantly associated with several HLA haplotypes, many of which are also common in the Alabama Caucasian population. Immunoglobulin phenotype variability

  15. Radio quite site qualification for the Brasilian Southern Space Observatory by monitoring the low frequency 10-240 MHz Eletromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Guilherme Simon; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Espindola Antunes, Cassio; Gomes, Natanael

    The monitoring of the level of the radio interference in the Site of the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory - SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT, (29S, 53W), São Martinho da Serra, RS, in south a of Brazil, aims to gather spectral data for the Observatory's Site qualification as a radio quite site for installation of Radio Astronomy instrumentation, free of radio noise. The determination of the radio interference level is being conducted by using a spectrum analyzer and Omni directional antennas remotely controlled through a GPIB interface, via IEEE 488 bus, and programs written in C language. That procedure allows the scanning of the Electromagnetic Spectrum power over the examined frequency range from 10 - 240MHz. The methodology for these tests was to amplify the radio signal from the antenna by a block amplifier. Subsequently, the received signals are evaluated by the spectrum analyzer. A dedicated PC computer is used for the control and data acquisition, with the developed software. The data are instantly stored in digital format and remotely transferred via VNC software from the SSO-Observatory Site to the Radio Frequency and Telecommunication Laboratory at the Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT, in Santa Maria, RS, for analysis and storage on the radio interference data base for long period. It is compared the SSO's Electromagnetic Spectrum data obtained since the beginning of the 1990's decade, before the Site constructions, with the current observed data. Some radio transmissions were found in the observed frequency range due to some local FMs, mostly between 93.5 MHz to 105.7 MHz, which were observed in previous monitoring. A good evidence of the site quality is the fact that the power of the Electromagnetic Spectrum is much lower than that measured at the Radio Frequency and Telecommunication Laboratory, in Santa Maria, RS, where the signals do not exceed -60 dB. On the Site of the SSO, due to the low power observed, weak radio signals

  16. A fibreoptic endoscopic study of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 240 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaka, Hyasinta; Koy, Mheta; Liwa, Anthony; Kabangila, Rodrick; Mirambo, Mariam; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Mkongo, Eliasa; McHembe, Mabula D; Chalya, Phillipo L

    2012-07-03

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is recognized as a common and potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that needs a prompt assessment and aggressive emergency treatment. A retrospective study was undertaken at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania between March 2010 and September 2011 to describe our own experiences with fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. A total of 240 patients representing 18.7% of all patients (i.e. 1292) who had fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy during the study period were studied. Males outnumbered female by a ratio of 2.1:1. Their median age was 37 years and most of patients (60.0%) were aged 40 years and below. The vast majority of the patients (80.4%) presented with haematemesis alone followed by malaena alone in 9.2% of cases. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol and smoking prior to the onset of bleeding was recorded in 7.9%, 51.7% and 38.3% of cases respectively. Previous history of peptic ulcer disease was reported in 22(9.2%) patients. Nine (3.8%) patients were HIV positive. The source of bleeding was accurately identified in 97.7% of patients. Diagnostic accuracy was greater within the first 24 h of the bleeding onset, and in the presence of haematemesis. Oesophageal varices were the most frequent cause of upper GI bleeding (51.3%) followed by peptic ulcers in 25.0% of cases. The majority of patients (60.8%) were treated conservatively. Endoscopic and surgical treatments were performed in 30.8% and 5.8% of cases respectively. 140 (58.3%) patients received blood transfusion. The median length of hospitalization was 8 days and it was significantly longer in patients who underwent surgical treatment and those with higher Rockall scores (P bleeding, shock, hepatic decompensation, HIV infection, comorbidities, malignancy, age > 60 years and in patients with

  17. Radiotoxicological analyses of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in biological samples by anion-exchange and extraction chromatography: a preliminary study for internal contamination evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridone, S.; Arginelli, D.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Canuto, G.; Montalto, M.; Nocente, M.; Vegro, M. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), Research Centre of Saluggia, Radiation Protection Institute, Saluggia, VC (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Many biological samples (urines and faeces) have been analysed by means of chromatographic extraction columns, utilising two different resins (AG 1-X2 resin chloride and T.R.U.), in order to detect the possible internal contamination of {sup 239{sup +}}{sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, for some workers of a reprocessing nuclear plant in the decommissioning phase. The results obtained show on one hand the great suitability of the first resin for the determination of plutonium, and on the other the great selectivity of the second one for the determination of americium.

  18. Plans and schedules for implementation of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-240)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelman, M.M.; Kearney, M.S.; MacDougall, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to make available to the states and other interested parties, the plans and schedules for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) implementation of its responsibilities under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). This document identifies the provisions of the LLRWPAA which affect the programs of the NRC, identifies what the NRC must do to fulfill each of its requirements under the LLRWPAA, and establishes schedules for carrying out these requirements. The plans and schedules are current as of June 1986

  19. Identity of M2A (D2-40) antigen and gp36 (Aggrus, T1A-2, podoplanin) in human developing testis, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ-cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Herlihy, Amy S; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    Testicular germ-cell tumours of young adults are derived from a pre-invasive intratubular lesion, carcinoma in situ (CIS). In a recent genome-wide gene expression screening using cDNA microarrays, we found PDPN over-expressed in CIS compared to normal adult testis. PDPN encodes podoplanin (Aggrus...... gonocytes and immature Sertoli cells, similar to the expression pattern of M2A antigen, a previously identified marker for CIS and seminoma. This reinforced our previous proposal that M2A (D2-40) antigen was identical to gp36 (podoplanin, Aggrus, T1A-2). Our findings also suggest that podoplanin has...

  20. Induced Fission of Pu240 within a Real-Time Microscopic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J.; Stetcu, Ionel

    2016-03-01

    We describe the fissioning dynamics of 240Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of the Density Functional theory extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. While the fission products emerge with properties very similar to those determined experimentally, the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with various shape and pairing modes being excited during the evolution. Consequently the time scale of the evolution turned out to be much slower than previously expected.

  1. Sequential determination of {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238} Pu, {sup 241} Am and {sup 90}Sr in radioactive wastes using SPE sorbents Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 and TRU Resin; Sekvencne stanovenie {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238} Pu, {sup 241} Am a {sup 90}Sr v radioaktivnych odpadoch pouzitim SPE sorbentov Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 a TRU Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkot, E; Dulanska, S [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    A simple and rapid method of the sequential determination of radionuclides {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238} Pu, {sup 241} Am and {sup 90}Sr in radioactive sludge from the NPP Bohunice A1 with high radiochemical yields and efficient removal of interfering components from a matrix was developed. Separation method combines SPE sorbents Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 made by IBC Advanced Technologies and TRU Resin (Eichrom Technologies) placed in tandem. Advantage of a single-stage column located on the vacuum box with a rapid flow is an effective pre-concentration and separation of radionuclides and minimization of sample separation time. (authors)

  2. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm with a Total Absorption Calorimeter at n_TOF

    CERN Multimedia

    Beer, H; Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Rapp, W; Embid, M; Dababneh, S

    2002-01-01

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross section data for actinides are necessary for the poper design, safety regulation and precise performance assessment of transmutation devices such as Fast Critical Reactors or Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The goal of this proposal is the measurement of the neutron capture cross sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm at n_TOF with an accuracy of 5~\\%. $^{233}$U plays an essential role in the Th fuel cycle, which has been proposed as a safer and cleaner alternative to the U fuel cycle. The capture cross sections of $^{237}$Np,$^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm play a key role in the design and optimization of a strategy for the Nuclear Waste Transmutation. A high accuracy can be achieved at n_TOF in such measurements due to a combination of features unique in the world: high instantaneous neutron fluence and excellent energy resolution of the facility, innovative Data Acquisition System based on flash ADCs and t...

  3. Positive Oct -3/4 and D2-40 Immunohistochemical Expression in Germ Cells and Suspected Histology Pattern of Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Boys with Cryptorchidism Vanish after the Age of 2 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jorgen; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2017-01-01

    of repeat biopsy with anti-stem cell factor (SCF) receptor.  Results  The prevalence of Oct-3/4 and D2-40-positive staining of germ cells in testicular biopsies were in age groups less than 6 months, 100% and 50%; 6-12 months, 60% and 17%; and 1-2 years, 12% and 4%. A 1 year, 1-month-old boy with Prader-Willi...... syndrome treated with growth hormone had ITGCN in both cryptorchid testes. In another three bilateral nonsyndromic cases, 8 months, 8 months and 1-year-old, a histological pattern in accordance with ITGCN was found. These three boys had a repeat biopsy from both testes performed at the age of 3 years, 4......, but no increased risk of malignancy.  Materials and Methods  Histology sections from 373 testicular biopsies from 289 boys aged 1 month to 2 years operated for cryptorchidism were incubated with primary antibodies including anti-placental-like-alkaline phosphatase, antiOct-3/4, anti-C-kit, anti-D2-40, and in case...

  4. Comparison of the distributions in marine sediments of the fall-out derived nuclides 55Fe and sup(239,240)Pu. A new approach to the chemistry of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, L.D.; Livingston, H.D.; Bowen, V.T.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented showing the distribution of 55 Fe radioactivity in marine sediment cores taken from a large range of water depths; these data are compared with the sup(239,240)Pu analyses of the same or similar cores. The report is preliminary in that only a small part of the world ocean has yet been studied. Evaluation of the results available suggests: First, that in a good deal of their marine geochemistry iron and plutonium move separately. Secondly, that in the open Atlantic Ocean 55 Fe has sedimented in association with a mixed population of particles, exhibiting a mean sinking rate of about 350m/a. Thirdly, part of the iron in coastal sediments is redissolved, probably by reduction associated with decaying organic matter; this process affects a higher proportion of the 55 Fe than of the total iron. The solubilized iron should reprecipitate, after return to the overlying water and oxidation, as microparticulates. These very fine particles, dispersed by currents, may translocate 55 Fe toward the open sea, only slowly becoming associated with larger, faster-sinking mineral particles. It is suggested that this process may be important in the translocation of other insoluble trace elements, and even of part of the sup(239,240)Pu. (author)

  5. Lymphatic vessel invasion detected by the endothelial lymphatic marker D2-40 (podoplanin is predictive of regional lymph node status and an independent prognostic factor in patients with resected esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Laudański

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of markers to lymphatic endothelial cells and the development of novel antibodies to these markers have brought increasing attention to the lymphatics and progress in the understanding of lymphangiogenesis and cancer metastasis. In this study, we investigate the presence of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI detected by D2-40 immunohistochemical staining in resected esophageal cancer and correlated with clinicopathologic data and patient survival. Sixty nine patients, who had a primary resection of esophageal cancer, were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression, and univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The total rate of LVI was 72% (50/69. Positive LVI was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001, tumor size (p < 0.001, histological grading (p = 0.017, tumor depth (p = 0.001, and stage (p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic analysis identified LVI (p = 0.036 as a predictor of regional lymph node metastasis. On univariate survival analysis, patients with LVI had a significantly shorter disease-free survival, cancer-specific survival and overall survival. Multivariate analysis proved that LVI diagnosed by D2-40 is an independent prognostic factor of both disease-free survival (p = 0.04 and overall survival (p = 0.032 in resected esophageal cancer. These results show that LVI assessment identifies patients at high risk for regional lymph node metastasis and that LVI is an independent prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 90–97

  6. Residues 240-250 in the C-terminus of the Pirh2 protein complement the function of the RING domain in self-ubiquitination of the Pirh2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Abou Zeinab

    Full Text Available Pirh2 is a p53 inducible gene that encodes a RING-H2 domain and is proposed to be a main regulator of p53 protein, thus fine tuning the DNA damage response. Pirh2 interacts physically with p53 and promotes its MDM2-independent ubiquitination and subsequent degradation as well as participates in an auto-regulatory feedback loop that controls p53 function. Pirh2 also self-ubiquitinates. Interestingly, Pirh2 is overexpressed in a wide range of human tumors. In this study, we investigated the domains and residues essential for Pirh2 self-ubiquitination. Deletions were made in each of the three major domains of Pirh2: the N-terminal domain (NTD, Ring domain (RING, and C-terminal domain (CTD. The effects of these deletions on Pirh2 self-ubiquitination were then assessed using in vitro ubiquitination assays. Our results demonstrate that the RING domain is essential, but not sufficient, for Pirh2 self-ubiquitination and that residues 240-250 of the C-terminal domain are also essential. Our results demonstrate that Pirh2 mediated p53 polyubiquitination occurs mainly through the K48 residue of ubiquitin in vitro. Our data further our understanding of the mechanism of Pirh2 self-ubiquitination and may help identify valuable therapeutic targets that play roles in reducing the effects of the overexpression of Pirh2, thus maximizing p53's response to DNA damage.

  7. Measurement of the (pressure, density, temperature) relation of two (methane + nitrogen) gas mixtures at temperatures between 240 and 400 K and pressures up to 20 MPa using an accurate single-sinker densimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro, C.R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: cescha@eis.uva.es; Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Villamanan, M.A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Estela-Uribe, J.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Calle 18, 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Trusler, J.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Comprehensive (p, {rho}, T) measurements on two gas mixtures of (0.9CH{sub 4} + 0.1N{sub 2}) and (0.8CH{sub 4} + 0.2N{sub 2}) have been carried out at six temperatures between 240 and 400 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. A total of 108 (p, {rho}, T) data for the first mixture and 134 for the second one are given. These measurements were performed using a compact single-sinker densimeter based on Archimedes' buoyancy principle. The overall uncertainty in density {rho} is estimated to be (1.5 . 10{sup -4} . {rho} + 2 . 10{sup -3} kg . m{sup -3}) (coverage factor k = 2), the uncertainty in temperature T is estimated to be 0.006 K (coverage factor k = 2), and the uncertainty in pressure p is estimated to be 1 . 10{sup -4}.p (coverage factor k = 2). The equipment has been previously checked with pure nitrogen over the whole temperature and pressure working ranges and experimental results (35 values) are given and a comparison with the reference equation of state for nitrogen is presented.

  8. Sequential determination of natural ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu) radionuclides in environmental matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, H.; Levent, D.; Barci, V.; Barci-Funel, G.; Hurel, C. [Laboratoire de Radiochimie, Sciences Analytiques et Environnement (LRSAE), Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis 06108 Nice Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: Transuranic (TRU) and Strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by Uranium and Tetravalent Actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium- 238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. (authors)

  9. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1989: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This response is submitted in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act), Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes expenditures made during the calendar year 1989 of surcharge rebates from the July 1, 1986, milestones. Title I of the Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer a Surcharge Escrow Account. This account consists of a portion of the surcharge fees paid by generators of low-level radioactive waste in nonsited compacts (regional compacts currently without operating disposal sites) and nonmember States (States without disposal sites that are not members of compacts) to the three States with operating disposal facilities (Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington) (sited States) for using their disposal facilities. In administering the Surcharge Escrow Account, the Act requires DOE to: invest the funds in interest-bearing United States Government securities; determine eligibility of rebates of the funds by evaluating State and compact progress toward developing new disposal sites against milestones set forth in the Act; disburse the collected rebates and interest; assess compliance of rebate expenditures with the limitations prescribed in the Act; and submit a report annually to Congress summarizing rebate expenditures by States and regions. 5 tabs

  10. Measurement of the (pressure, density, temperature) relation of two (methane + nitrogen) gas mixtures at temperatures between 240 and 400 K and pressures up to 20 MPa using an accurate single-sinker densimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, C.R.; Segovia, J.J.; Martin, M.C.; Villamanan, M.A.; Estela-Uribe, J.F.; Trusler, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive (p, ρ, T) measurements on two gas mixtures of (0.9CH 4 + 0.1N 2 ) and (0.8CH 4 + 0.2N 2 ) have been carried out at six temperatures between 240 and 400 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. A total of 108 (p, ρ, T) data for the first mixture and 134 for the second one are given. These measurements were performed using a compact single-sinker densimeter based on Archimedes' buoyancy principle. The overall uncertainty in density ρ is estimated to be (1.5 . 10 -4 . ρ + 2 . 10 -3 kg . m -3 ) (coverage factor k = 2), the uncertainty in temperature T is estimated to be 0.006 K (coverage factor k = 2), and the uncertainty in pressure p is estimated to be 1 . 10 -4 .p (coverage factor k = 2). The equipment has been previously checked with pure nitrogen over the whole temperature and pressure working ranges and experimental results (35 values) are given and a comparison with the reference equation of state for nitrogen is presented

  11. 49 CFR 240.409 - Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is a genuine dispute. (d) The presiding officer may authorize discovery of the types and quantities... arguments in support of or in opposition to motions, and objections and exceptions to rulings of the presiding officer. The presiding officer may permit oral argument on any issues for which the presiding...

  12. TURTLE 24.0 diffusion depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Barry, R.F.

    1971-09-01

    TURTLE is a two-group, two-dimensional (x-y, x-z, r-z) neutron diffusion code featuring a direct treatment of the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy, and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. TURTLE was written for the study of azimuthal xenon oscillations, but the code is useful for general analysis. The input is simple, fuel management is handled directly, and a boron criticality search is allowed. Ten thousand space points are allowed (over 20,000 with diagonal symmetry). TURTLE is written in FORTRAN IV and is tailored for the present CDC-6600. The program is core-contained. Provision is made to save data on tape for future reference. (auth)

  13. 40 CFR 240.201-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical and biological characteristics of the waste, environmental and health effects, and the safety of personnel. Disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers shall be consistent with the Federal Environmental Pesticides Control Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-516) and recommended procedures promulgated thereunder. ...

  14. Publications | Page 240 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through books, articles, research publications, and studies, we aim to widen ... Journal articles ... Behind it lies a sorry record of poverty, poor governance, and exclusion from the global economy. ... Conflict diamonds — unfinished business.

  15. Desarrollo del Robot Paralelo Parallix LKF-240

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Castillo Castañeda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta al robot paralelo PARALLIX LKF-2040 desarrollado en la Instituto Politécnico Nacional y actualmente comercializado en Instituciones de Educación Superior para fortalecer la enseñanza de la mecatrónica. Este mecanismo posee una plataforma fija y otra móvil. Los actuadores están montados en la plataforma fija, reduciendo el cableado y manteniéndolo fuera del espacio de trabajo. La plataforma móvil es el elemento efector y puede ser posicionada en un amplio espacio de trabajo. La estructura del manipulador es ligera, simplificando la dinámica y minimizando el peso a desplazar. Lo anterior, permite utilizar el par generado por los motores sólo para el desplazamiento de la carga. El robot PARALLIX LKF-2040 tiene sus orígenes en la configuración del robot tipo Delta pero tiene articulaciones rotacionales en lugar de esféricas, proporcionando un espacio de trabajo más amplio. Primeramente, se presenta el concepto de robot paralelo y sus ventajas respecto a los robots convencionales tipo serial. Se muestra la estructura geométrica de un robot paralelo tipo 3RSS y se encuentra la solución de su cinemática inversa. También, se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis del espacio de trabajo y el diseño de una arquitectura de control de tres ejes para servomotores con encoder incremental en cuadratura. Además, se proponen técnicas novedosas basadas en análisis de imágenes para determinar la precisión y la repetibilidad del robot, así como la rigidez bajo diferentes condiciones de carga.

  16. 20 CFR 410.240 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... evidence may be submitted as part of a prescribed application form if the form provides for its inclusion... disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. For evidence requirements to support allegations of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis; for the effect of the failure or refusal of an individual to...

  17. 17 CFR 240.0-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... defined in the act. (c) A rule or regulation which defines a term without express reference to the act or...) The term Commission means the Securities and Exchange Commission. (2) The term act means Title I of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. (3) The term section refers to a section of the Securities...

  18. Gender | Page 240 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Waterborne and helminthic diseases are rampant, as are respiratory and digestive illnesses. But the situation is improving dramatically for the city's poor, thanks to a unique collaboration between Nepalese and Canadian researchers and the work of a local nongovernmental organization. Read more about CASE STUDY: ...

  19. 7 CFR 240.10 - Unobligated funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than 30 days following demand by FNS. Release of funds shall be reflected by a related adjustment in the State agency's Letter of Credit where appropriate or payment by State check where the funds have...

  20. Publications | Page 240 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This article first appeared in the Spring 2011 edition of UniWorld, a publication of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada's Partnership Programs Division. Whether its internationalization strategy is... Benefits and costs of coping with water and climate change: Berg River Basin, South Africa. In South Africa's ...

  1. 7 CFR 240.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonprofit by its Governor. Nonresidential child care institution means any child care center, day care home... private school with an average yearly tuition exceeding $1,500 per child, operating under public or... higher grade; (2) with the exception of residential summer camps which participate in the Summer Food...

  2. 40 CFR 240.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures sections are presented to suggest preferred methods by which the objectives of the requirements..., military recruiting stations, and other offices, local community solid waste processing and disposal...

  3. Publications | Page 240 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through books, articles, research publications, and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. ... An interdisciplinary research team of scientists and farmers is helping to defeat hunger and poverty in a poor mountain region of Viet Nam, which still displays scars from the Viet ...

  4. 49 CFR 240.7 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... experience, education, or training to counsel people affected by substance abuse problems and to evaluate... metropolitan areas, without regard to whether those systems use new technologies not associated with...

  5. No. 240-Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinon, Yoav; Farine, Dan; Yudin, Mark H

    2018-02-01

    To review the principles of prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to describe the outcomes of the affected pregnancies. Effective management of fetal infection following primary and secondary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy. Neonatal signs include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis, thrombocytopenia and anemia, and long-term sequelae consist of sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, delay of psychomotor development, and visual impairment. These guidelines provide a framework for diagnosis and management of suspected CMV infections. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1966 to 2009, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (congenital CMV infection) and key words (intrauterine growth restriction, microcephaly). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated into the guideline. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence reported in this document has been assessed using the evaluation of evidence criteria in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Analysis of {sup 236}U and plutonium isotopes, {sup 239,240}Pu, on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, as a potential tool in oceanography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, Elena; López-Lora, Mercedes [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Villa, María [Departamento de Física Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4A, 41012 Seville (Spain); Servicio de Radioisótopos, Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, 41012 Seville (Spain); Casacuberta, Núria [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); López-Gutiérrez, José María [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidad de Sevilla, Virgen de África 7, 41011 Seville (Spain); Pham, Mai Khanh [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2015-10-15

    The performance of the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Seville, Spain) for {sup 236}U and {sup 239,240}Pu measurements has been extensively investigated. A very promising {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U abundance sensitivity of about 3 × 10{sup −11} has been recently achieved, and background figures for {sup 239}Pu of about 10{sup 6} atoms were reported in the past. These promising results lead to the use of conventional low energy AMS systems for the analysis of {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu and its further application in environmental studies. First {sup 236}U results obtained on our AMS system for marine samples (sediments and water) are presented here. Results of two new IAEA reference materials (IAEA-410 and IAEA-412, marine sediments from Pacific Ocean) are reported. The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, of 0.12 and 0.022, respectively, show a dependency with the contamination source (i.e. local fallout from the US tests performed at the Bikini Atoll and general fallout). The results obtained for a third IAEA reference material (IAEA-381, seawater from the Irish Sea), are also presented. In the following, the uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions obtained on a set of 5 intercomparison seawater samples from the Arctic Ocean provided by the ETH Zürich are discussed. By comparing them with the obtained results on the 600 kV AMS facility Tandy at the ETH Zürich, we demonstrate the solidity of the CNA technique for {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U determinations at, at least, 7 × 10{sup −10} level. Finally, these results are discussed in their environmental context.

  7. Comparative concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, /sup 239,240/Pu, and 241Am in tissues of fish from the Marshall Islands and calculated dose commitments from their consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Body burdens of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and the transuranics in bottom-feeding fish from Marshall Island atolls are derived, in part, from the quantities of the radionuclides irreversibly fixed to ingested carbonate material. Radionuclide concentration factors for different species of fish are characterized by relating tissue concentrations to those in filtered seawater. For bottom-feeding fish, the values are lower at the lesser contaminated atolls than those values determined for the same species at the more contaminated atolls. These fish have the ability to lower their gut pH during feeding. When this occurs, there is a dissolution of a fraction of the ingested calcium carbonate containing radionuclides that were fixed or fused internally to the material during nuclear testing. Fractions of the radionuclides released during solution in carbonate matrix are available for passage across the gut wall. Amounts released to solution in the gut are proportional to the levels of contamination at the different atolls. Concentration factors for higher trophic level species, which do not rely on sediments or coral for their source of food, show no such trends between differentially contaminated atolls. A two-source model used to compute the internal concentrations is described. Americium-241 seems to be more biologically available than /sup 239,240/Pu to higher trophic level species from the lagoons, whereas at lower trophic levels the opposite seems to be the case. Cesium-137 is now the largest contributor of the small radiological dose to man from the marine fish pathway, with the transuranics contributing from 2 to 30% of the total dose. 22 references, 1 figure, 19 tables

  8. LA CLÁUSULA QUE HABILITA A LA EMPRESA DE MEDICINA PREPAGA A INCREMENTAR EL VALOR DE LA CUOTA EN BASE A LA EDAD DEL AFILIADO: SU ENCUADRE EN LA ENUMERACIÓN DEL ART. 37 DE LA LEY 24.240 DE ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vazzano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the contract clause prepaid medical why the utility company unilaterally has the power to increase the share of affiliate because of their older age. Their analysis will be from the list of unfair terms of art. 37 inc. b of the Law 24,240 on Consumer and effects provided by this law, and the law 26,682 which establishes the regulatory framework for prepaid medicine companies.Also, select Argentina jurisprudence has declared the nullity of such clause considered abusive and harmful for the right to health of the affiliated company, which has constitutional right. Keywords:

  9. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum

  10. Simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments; Mesure des isotopes du plutonium des sediments marins par spectrometrie de masse a plasma couple inductivement haute resolution (HR ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, F

    1999-07-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  11. 17 CFR 240.14a-2 - Solicitations to which § 240.14a-3 to § 240.14a-15 apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... his custody, if such person— (i) Receives no commission or remuneration for such solicitation... or director or any person serving in a similar capacity); (ii) An officer or director of the... indirectly by the registrant; (iii) An officer, director, affiliate or associate of a person that is...

  12. 31 CFR 240.15 - Checks issued to deceased payees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Handling of checks when an executor or administrator has been appointed. (1) An executor or administrator.... securities; payments for tax refunds; and payments for goods and services. (i) An executor or administrator... the executor or administrator is indorsing. An example would be: “John Jones by Mary Jones, executor...

  13. 40 CFR 170.240 - Personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shirts, long pants, short pants, shoes, socks, and other items of work clothing are not considered... movement of the pesticide being used through the material during use. (2) When “waterproof” personal..., one of the following types of footwear must be worn: (i) Chemical-resistant shoes. (ii) Chemical...

  14. 17 CFR 240.16a-1 - Definition of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to acquire equity securities through the exercise or conversion of any derivative security, whether... authority. (b) The term call equivalent position shall mean a derivative security position that increases in... security, a long call option, and a short put option position. (c) The term derivative securities shall...

  15. 40 CFR 240.203-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., easy to maintain, and consistent with the land use of the area. (d) Employee convenience facilities and... operating unit malfunctions. (j) Sampling capability should be designed into the facility so that each process stream can be sampled, and the utilities required to do so should be close at hand. The sampling...

  16. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... participation in a drug-treatment program, the releasee must submit to a drug test before release and to at... administered by the Bureau of Prisons. (c) Changing conditions of release. The provisions of § 2.204(c) apply... offender-rehabilitation program and firearm, as used in § 2.204, have the meanings given those terms by § 2...

  17. 40 CFR 161.240 - Residue chemistry data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../feed (5), (14) [CR] [CR] [CR] [CR] EP EP 171-4 Meat/milk/poultry/eggs (6), (14) [CR] [CR] [CR] [CR... food/feed are required when detectable residues could concentrate on processing and thus require establishment of a food additive tolerance. (6) Livestock feeding studies are required whenever a pesticide...

  18. 40 CFR 61.240 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volatile hazardous air pollutant (VHAP) service: pumps, compressors, pressure relief devices, sampling connection systems, open-ended valves or lines, valves, connectors, surge control vessels, bottoms receivers, and control devices or systems required by this subpart. (b) The provisions of this subpart apply to...

  19. USERDA computer software summaries: numbers 240 through 324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    Since 1960 the Argonne Code Center has served as a U.S. Atomic Energy Commission information center for computer programs developed and used primarily for the solution of problems in nuclear physics, reactor design, reactor engineering and operation. The Center, through a network of registered installations, collects, validates, maintains, and distributes a library of these computer programs and publishes a compilation of abstracts describing them. In 1972 the scope of the Center's activities was officially expanded to include computer programs developed in all of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission program areas and the compilation and publicatuon of this report. The Computer Software Summary report contains summaries of computer programs at the specification stage, under development, being checked out, in use, or available at ERDA offices, laboratories, and contractor installations. Programs are divided into the following categories : cross section and resonance integral calculations; spectrum calculations, generation of group constants, lattice and cell problems; static design studies; depletion, fuel management, cost analysis, and reactor economics; space-independent k;inetics; pace--time kinetics, coupled neutronics--hydrodynamics--thermodynmics and excursion simulations; radiological safety, hazard and accident analysis; heat transfer and fluid flow; deformation and stress distribution computations, structural analysis and engineering design studies; gamma heating and shielddesign programs; reactor systems analysis; data preparation; data management; subsidiary calculations; experimental data processing; general mathematical and computing system routines; materials; environmental and earth sciences; space sciences; electronics and engineering equipment; chemistry; particle accelerators and high-voltage machines; physics; controlled thermonuclear research; biology and medicine; and data

  20. 17 CFR 240.15d-10 - Transition reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information or trends reflected, an assessment of the comparability of the data, and a representation as to... the fiscal year. (h) The provisions of this rule shall not apply to investment companies required to file reports pursuant to Rule 30b1-1 (§ 270.30b1-1 of this chapter) under the Investment Company Act of...

  1. 17 CFR 240.13a-10 - Transition reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... could affect the comparability of information or trends reflected, an assessment of the comparability of... provisions of this rule shall not apply to investment companies required to file reports pursuant to Rule 30b1-1 (§ 270.30b1-1 of this chapter) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq...

  2. 16 CFR 24.0 - Scope and purpose of guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... apply to the manufacture, sale, distribution, marketing, or advertising of all kinds or types of leather... Act (15 U.S.C. 45) to the manufacture, sale, distribution, marketing, and advertising of industry...

  3. Turbidity. Training Module 5.240.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, John L.; Davidson, Arnold C.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with candle turbidimeter and the nephelometric method of turbidity analysis. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handout, and transparency masters. A video tape is also available from the author. This module considers use…

  4. 17 CFR 240.12b-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reported upon with an opinion expressed by an independent public or certified public accountant. Charter... as affected by events of default, to vote for the election of directors, is owned by the subsidiary's... accounting principle of the subsidiary exclusive of amounts attributable to any noncontrolling interests...

  5. 31 CFR 240.14 - Checks issued to incompetent payees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE INDORSEMENT AND PAYMENT OF CHECKS... without submission of documentary proof of the authority of the guardian or other fiduciary, with the... the certifying agency with information as to the incompetence of the payee and documentary evidence...

  6. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-6 - Recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... registered transfer agent shall make and keep current the following: (1) A receipt, ticket, schedule, log or... to items for which the registered transfer agent acts as an outside registrar: (i) A receipt, ticket..., exchange, redemption, liquidation, conversion or the sale of securities registered pursuant to the...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15d-15 - Controls and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-4(2)), must maintain disclosure controls and procedures (as... year or had filed an annual report with the Commission for the prior fiscal year, internal control over... the issuer's internal control over financial reporting. The framework on which management's evaluation...

  8. 17 CFR 240.13a-15 - Controls and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 4(2) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-4(2)), must maintain disclosure controls..., internal control over financial reporting (as defined in paragraph (f) of this section). (b) Each such... effectiveness, as of the end of each fiscal year, of the issuer's internal control over financial reporting. The...

  9. 239 240Pu in Lake Michigan: 1971 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.; Kucera, E.T.

    1978-01-01

    The plutonium concentration data presented previously have consisted primarily of results from studies of short-term variations, i.e., the annual plutonium cycle conducted at Lake Michigan station ANL-5, 12 km SW of Grand Haven, Michigan. In this report, mean annual concentrations of total plutonium in unfiltered water from far off-shore (> 30 km) stations for the period 1971 through 1977, and from station ANL-5 (1975 through 1978) are summarized to establish the long-term trend in plutonium concentration in Lake Michigan. The results presented show that the mean annual concentration in the water column is similar at ANL-5 and at offshore stations and has decreased at the rate of only 6% per year during the period 1972 through 1978. The nearly constant concentration indicates that steady-state equilibria exist between plutonium inputs to the lake and the loss of plutonium from the water column. Observations suggest the existence of an active redox cycle for Pu in Lake Michigan. In this cycle, Pu IV atoms in solution are continually taken up by particulate materials but may be oxidized within microzones of the particles such as freshly deposited manganese coatings and also in solution by agents such as dissolved oxygen. In turn, the concentration of Pu VI in solution may be limited by reaction with reducing constituents of the coloidal-sized fraction (or decomposer organisms such as bacteria or fungi, which might have been present after filtration) and with planktonic organisms in the environment to produce Pu IV and thus maintain the cycle

  10. 40 CFR 240.208-3 - Recommended procedures: Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the quality of the bottom ash at least twice per shift and record in the operating log the estimated percentage of unburned combustibles. (b) If residue or fly ash is collected in a wet condition, it should be drained of free moisture. Transportation of residue and fly ash should be by means that prevent the loads...

  11. 49 CFR 240.309 - Railroad oversight responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ascribed which the controlling railroad certified for joint operations purposes. (c) Based on that review and analysis each railroad shall determine what action(s) it will take to improve the safety of train... safety device in the controlling locomotive; (9) Incidents involving noncompliance with the railroad's...

  12. Marketing and Public Relations in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 240.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smykla, Evelyn Ortiz, Comp.

    1999-01-01

    This survey was conducted to delineate the growing relationship between marketing and public relations and library funding by identifying: (1) the extent to which North American research libraries have developed organized programs in the areas of marketing and public relations; (2) who holds positions in these areas; and (3) the impact these…

  13. 240 THE RELEVANCE OF THE DEFENCE OF ALIBI IN CRIMINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    It is this unique defence that we seek to analyse in this work. ... been guilty'3 According to the Supreme Court in Eke v State4 alibi means ... 3 E. Jowitt, Dictionary of English Law Vol 1 (London, Sweet and Maxwell 1959) pg 156 ... (a) Every person who actually does the act or makes the omission which constitutes the offence ...

  14. 7 CFR 240.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... school year the Department programs agricultural commodities and other foods to States for delivery to... changes in the Price Index for Food Used in Schools and Institutions. Section 6(e)(1) further requires...

  15. 240 INFLUENCES OF PEER RELATIONS AND LOCUS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financial recklessness is a behavior that has far reaching negative .... between consumer financial knowledge, income and locus of control on financial ... Their interactions with their peers increased their internal motivations and thus helped.

  16. 38 CFR 17.240 - Sharing specialized medical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., agreements may be entered into for sharing medical resources with other hospitals, including State or local, public or private hospitals or other medical installations having hospital facilities or organ banks... medical resources, incidental hospital care or other needed services, supplies used, and normal...

  17. 31 CFR 240.1 - Scope of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this regulation supersede existing Federal common law to the extent that they are inconsistent with Federal common law rules relating to counterfeit checks. Under the provisions of this regulation, the risk...

  18. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators. [240 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases.

  19. 17 CFR 240.10b-10 - Confirmation of transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... percentage amount and its characterization (e.g., current yield, yield to maturity, or yield to call) and if... limited to, markups, commissions, costs, fees, and other charges incurred in connection with the...

  20. All projects related to | Page 240 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Capacity building, Science and Technology, MEDIA, FRENCH SPEAKING AFRICA, JOURNALISM, COMPUTER NETWORKS, BUSINESS ORGANIZATION. Region: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, United Kingdom. Program: Networked Economies.

  1. 17 CFR 240.14a-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a meeting, the earliest date they may be used to effect corporate action. (f) Proxy. The term “proxy... proxy; or (iii) The furnishing of a form of proxy or other communication to security holders under... proxy; or (iv) A communication by a security holder who does not otherwise engage in a proxy...

  2. 17 CFR 240.17g-5 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section relating to issuing or maintaining a credit rating for a security or money market instrument... site a list of each such security or money market instrument for which it is currently in the process... or money market instrument, the name of the issuer, the date the rating process was initiated, and...

  3. 45 CFR 2541.240 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If..., and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated equipment and buildings. The...

  4. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-9 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... registration; (4) The address of the registered securityholder; (5) The issue date of the security; (6) The... principal dollar amount (in the case of debt securities) authorized and issued by the issuer. (e) A credit... for an issue of securities but has engaged a service company to perform some or all of those functions...

  5. 40 CFR 98.240 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... makes methanol, hydrogen, and/or ammonia from synthesis gas is part of the petrochemical source category... hydrogen recovered as product and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart P of this part (Hydrogen... levels of both methanol and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart G of this part (Ammonia...

  6. 40 CFR 240.209-3 - Recommended procedures: Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Occupational Respiratory Disease, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, W. Va. (c) Training in first aid practices and emergency procedures should be given all personnel. (d) Personal safety devices such as hard hats, gloves, safety glasses, and footwear should be provided for facility employees...

  7. SINK OR SWIM? DEBT REVIEW'S AMBIVALENT "LIFELINE" ---- A SECOND SEQUEL TO "… A TALE OF TWO JUDGMENTS" NEDBANK V ANDREWS (240/2011 2011 ZAECPEHC 29 (10 May 2011; FIRSTRAND BANK LTD V EVANS 2011 4 SA 597 (KZD AND FIRSTRAND BANK LTD V JANSE VAN RENSBURG 2012 2 All SA 186 (ECP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Steyn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The interface between the National Credit Act 34 of 2005 and the Insolvency Act 24 of 1936 has been the object of our courts' attention in a number of recent cases including Ex parte Ford and Two Similar Cases 2009 3 SA 376 (WCC, Investec Bank Ltd v Mutemeri 2010 1 SA 265 (GSJ, Naidoo v ABSA Bank Ltd 2010 4 SA 597 (SCA and, more recently, Nedbank v Andrews (240/2011 2011 ZAECPEHC 29 (10 May 2011, FirstRand Bank Ltd v Evans 2011 4 597 (KZD and FirstRand Bank Ltd v Janse van Rensburg 2012 2 All SA 186 (ECP. The question raised in all of the three most recent cases was whether or not a debtor's application for debt review in terms of the National Credit Act constitutes an "act of insolvency" in terms of section 8 of the Insolvency Act, upon which a creditor may rely in an application for the compulsory sequestration of the debtor's estate. If it does, it would mean that by resorting to the debt relief measures provided by the National Credit Act a debtor commits the very act on which a creditor may base an application for a sequestration order which, if granted, will render the debtor's estate insolvent and bring about the liquidation of his assets. From the debtor's perspective, this is probably precisely the situation that he seeks to avert by applying for debt review. Further, sequestration would frustrate the stated purpose of the National Credit Act, which is that debtors should take responsibility for their debts by satisfying them in full. Concurrent creditors might also ultimately receive a dividend which falls far short of what is due to them. The question of whether a debtor's resorting to debt review may or should be the very act that triggers his estate's sequestration and its attendant consequences is an important issue, the treatment of which impacts significantly on the efficacy of the South African consumer debt relief system. This article analyses the most recent judgments and considers whether or not statutory regulation of the

  8. Geological and physicochemical controls of the spatial distribution of partition coefficients for radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240 and Am-241) at a site of nuclear reactors and radioactive waste disposal (St. Petersburg region, Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumynin, Vyacheslav G; Nikulenkov, Anton M

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a study of the sorption properties of sediments of different geological ages and lithological types, governing radionuclide retention in the subsurface (up to 160 m beneath the surface) within the area of potential influence of the Northwestern Center of Atomic Energy (NWCAE), St. Petersburg region, RF. The focus of this work is mostly on the sedimentary rocks of two types, i.e., weakly cemented sandstone and lithified clay formations of Cambrian and Vendian series. The first lithological unit is associated with a groundwater reservoir (Lomonosov aquifer), and the second one, with both a relative aquitard in the upper part of the Vendian formation (Kotlin clay) and a regional aquifer (Gdov aquifer) in the lower part of the formation. The main mechanisms responsible for the variability of the sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, defined as the ratio of the concentration of solute on solid phase to its concentration in solution at equilibrium) was identified for radionuclides such as Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240, and Am-241. It was shown that the main factors contributing to the chemical heterogeneity of the Cambrian sandstone were related to the presence of secondary minerals (iron and magnesium oxides and hydroxides produced by the weathering process) in trace amounts, forming correlated layer structures. The statistical analysis of nonlinear isotherms confirmed this conclusion. For the Vendian formation, a determinate trend was established in the Kd change over depth as a result of temporal trends in the sedimentation process and pore-water chemistry. The geostatistical characteristics and the spatial correlation models for describing linear sorption of different radionuclides are not identical, and the exhibition of chemical heterogeneity of sedimentary rock of a particular lithological type depends on radionuclide chemistry. Moreover, variogram analysis for some Kd data sets (both in Cambrian and Vendian formations) demonstrates the

  9. 17 CFR 240.15g-100 - Schedule 15G-Information to be included in the document distributed pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15g-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... very costly. To be profitable when you sell, the bid price of your stock must rise above the amount of... to accurately price. Investors in penny stock should be prepared for the possibility that they may... for the trade. The firm also must send a confirmation of these prices to you after the trade. You will...

  10. ZPR-6 assembly 7 high {sup 240} PU core : a cylindrical assemby with mixed (PU, U)-oxide fuel and a central high {sup 240} PU zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; Schaefer, R. W.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2007-10-01

    Over a period of 30 years more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. The term 'benchmark' in a ZPR program connotes a particularly simple loading aimed at gaining basic reactor physics insight, as opposed to studying a reactor design. In fact, the ZPR-6/7 Benchmark Assembly (Reference 1) had a very simple core unit cell assembled from plates of depleted uranium, sodium, iron oxide, U3O8, and plutonium. The ZPR-6/7 core cell-average composition is typical of the interior region of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) of the era. It was one part of the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program,a which provided integral experiments characterizing the important features of demonstration-size LMFBRs. As a benchmark, ZPR-6/7 was devoid of many 'real' reactor features, such as simulated control rods and multiple enrichment zones, in its reference form. Those kinds of features were investigated experimentally in variants of the reference ZPR-6/7 or in other critical assemblies in the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program.

  11. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1a - Options (Appendix A to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... option's class, at 10 equidistant intervals (valuation points) ranging from an assumed movement (both up... until the option's expiration; (4) The volatility of the underlying asset; (5) Any cash flows associated...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1g - Conditions for ultimate holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The quarterly report shall include: (A) Consolidated (including notes to the financial statements) and... report shall include: (A) A consolidated balance sheet and income statement (including notes to the financial statements) for the ultimate holding company and statements of allowable capital and allowances...

  13. 17 CFR 240.13d-101 - Schedule 13D-Information to be included in statements filed pursuant to § 240.13d-1(a) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... directors or to fill any existing vacancies on the board; (e) Any material change in the present... best of my knowledge and belief, I certify that the information set forth in this statement is true... existing Securities Exchange Act rules as to such matters as clarity and size (Securities Exchange Act Rule...

  14. 17 CFR 240.12b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements applicable to printed documents, such as paper size and type size and font, by presenting all... type at least as large and as legible as 10-point modern type. However, to the extent necessary for... in roman type at least as large and as legible as 8-point modern type. All such type shall be leaded...

  15. 17 CFR 240.14c-4 - Presentation of information in information statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... documents, such as type size and font, by presenting all required information in a format readily... printed information statements shall be in roman type at least as large and as legible as 10-point modern type except that to the extent necessary for convenient presentation, financial statements and other...

  16. 17 CFR 240.14a-5 - Presentation of information in proxy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to printed documents, such as type size and font, by presenting all required information in a format... information. (d)(1) All printed proxy statements shall be in roman type at least as large and as legible as 10-point modern type, except that to the extent necessary for convenient presentation financial statements...

  17. 40 CFR 80.240 - What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volume of gasoline produced by a small refiner's refinery up to the lesser of: (i) 105% of the baseline gasoline volume as determined under § 80.250(a)(1); or (ii) The volume of gasoline produced at that... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the small refiner gasoline...

  18. Sexospécificités | Page 240 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Gender and Natural Resource Management : Livelihoods, Mobility and Interventions. Langue French. There has been no book published in the last decade that takes a synoptic look at gender–environment issues while bridging theoretical, policy and practice concerns. This book will both fill that gap and ...

  19. 17 CFR 240.13e-4 - Tender offers by issuers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... begins the running of such time period shall be included except that if such event occurs on other than a business day such period shall begin to run on and shall include the first business day thereafter. (4) The... offer. (6) The term security holders means holders of record and beneficial owners of securities of the...

  20. 20 CFR 645.240 - What are the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditures and program income must be on the accrual basis of accounting and cumulative by fiscal year of appropriation. If the recipient's accounting records are not normally kept on the accrual basis of accounting, the recipient must develop accrual information through an analysis of the documentation on hand. (d...