WorldWideScience

Sample records for berkeley off-line radioisotope

  1. Berkeley Off-line Radioisotope Generator (BORG)

    CERN Document Server

    Sudowe, R

    2001-01-01

    Development of chemical separations for the transactinides has traditionally been performed with longer-lived tracer activities purchased commercially. With these long-lived tracers, there is always the potential problem that the tracer atoms are not always in the same chemical form as the short-lived atoms produced in on-line experiments. This problem is especially severe for elements in groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, where hydrolysis is present. The long-lived tracers usually are stored with a complexing agent to prevent sorption or precipitation. Chemistry experiments performed with these long-lived tracers are therefore not analogous to those chemical experiments performed in on-line experiments. One way to eliminate the differences between off-line and on-line chemistry experiments is through the use of a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragment collection device. A sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragment collection device has already been constructed [1]. This device is limited in its capabilities. A ...

  2. Off-line programming (OLP) system comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Off-line programming (OLP) systems are being used to conceptualize, design, simulate, and now control automated robotic workcells. Currently available systems by Deneb, SILMA, and Cimetrix are being used at the Lawrenece Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate and control automated robotic systems for radioactive material processing and hazardous waste sorting. The differences in system architectures, workcell and robot calibration procedures, operator interface, and graphical output capability of each will be discussed. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these attributes will be discussed as they relate to varying applications in robotic workcell development and control

  3. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  4. Bishop Berkeley

    OpenAIRE

    Bindon, Francis (Irish artist, 1690-1765)

    2008-01-01

    'Berkeley was born at his family home, Dysart Castle, near Thomastown, County Kilkenny, Ireland, the eldest son of William Berkeley, a cadet of the noble family of Berkeley. He was educated at Kilkenny College and attended Trinity College, Dublin, completing a Master's degree in 1707. He remained at Trinity College after completion of his degree as a tutor and Greek lecturer.' (en.wikipedia.org)

  5. Integrating Robot Task Planning into Off-Line Programming Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Kroszynski, Uri

    1988-01-01

    The addition of robot task planning in off-line programming systems aims at improving the capability of current state-of-the-art commercially available off-line programming systems, by integrating modeling, task planning, programming and simulation together under one platform. This article proposes...

  6. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been demonstrated empirically as part of this work. We propose a new approach for recovering the time order of the off-line handwriting signal. Starting from an over-segmentation of the off-line handwr...

  7. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  8. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Lesko, K. T. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  9. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  10. Off-line software for large experimental setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to emphasize the importance of Off-line software for large experimental setups in High Energy Physics. Simple notions of program structuring, data structuring and software organization are discussed in the context of the software developped for the European Hybrid Spectrometer. (author)

  11. Sleep, Off-Line Processing, and Vocal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margoliash, Daniel; Schmidt, Marc F.

    2010-01-01

    The study of song learning and the neural song system has provided an important comparative model system for the study of speech and language acquisition. We describe some recent advances in the bird song system, focusing on the role of off-line processing including sleep in processing sensory information and in guiding developmental song…

  12. Off-line data quality monitoring for the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerda is an experiment searching for the neutrinoless ββ decay of 76Ge. The experiment uses an array of high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, directly immersed in liquid argon. Gerda recently started the physics data taking using eight enriched coaxial detectors. The status of the experiment has to be closely monitored in order to promptly identify possible instabilities or problems. The on-line slow control system is complemented by a regular off-line monitoring of data quality. This ensures that data are qualified to be used in the physics analysis and allows to reject data sets which do not meet the minimum quality standards. The off-line data monitoring is entirely performed within the software framework Gelatio. In addition, a relational database, complemented by a web-based interface, was developed to support the off-line monitoring and to automatically provide information to daily assess data quality. The concept and the performance of the off-line monitoring tools were tested and validated during the one-year commissioning phase.

  13. Off-line data quality monitoring for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarise, P.; Agostini, M.; Machado, A. A.; Pandola, L.; Volynets, O.

    2012-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment searching for the neutrinoless ββ decay of 76Ge. The experiment uses an array of high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, directly immersed in liquid argon. Gerda recently started the physics data taking using eight enriched coaxial detectors. The status of the experiment has to be closely monitored in order to promptly identify possible instabilities or problems. The on-line slow control system is complemented by a regular off-line monitoring of data quality. This ensures that data are qualified to be used in the physics analysis and allows to reject data sets which do not meet the minimum quality standards. The off-line data monitoring is entirely performed within the software framework Gelatio. In addition, a relational database, complemented by a web-based interface, was developed to support the off-line monitoring and to automatically provide information to daily assess data quality. The concept and the performance of the off-line monitoring tools were tested and validated during the one-year commissioning phase.

  14. Off-line data quality monitoring for the GERDA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zavarise, P; Machado, A A; Pandola, L; Volynets, O

    2011-01-01

    GERDA is an experiment searching for the neutrinoless {\\beta}{\\beta} decay of Ge-76. The experiment uses an array of high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in Ge-76, directly immersed in liquid argon. GERDA recently started the physics data taking using eight enriched coaxial detectors. The status of the experiment has to be closely monitored in order to promptly identify possible instabilities or problems. The on-line slow control system is complemented by a regular off-line monitoring of data quality. This ensures that data are qualified to be used in the physics analysis and allows to reject data sets which do not meet the minimum quality standards. The off-line data monitoring is entirely performed within the software framework GELATIO. In addition, a relational database, complemented by a web-based interface, was developed to support the off-line monitoring and to automatically provide information to daily assess data quality. The concept and the performance of the off-line monitoring tools were teste...

  15. ANONYMOUS OFF-LINE ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE BANKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jian; Ao Qingyun; Chen Ying

    2001-01-01

    This letter presents an anonymous off-line electronic payment model with multiple issuing-banks and gives an implementation scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem and the random oracle model. Comparing with previous works, the proposed scheme benefits from no involvement of customer group authority and its security depends on the known difficulty of resolving general discrete logarithm problem.

  16. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  17. Off-line programming: key to CAD/CAM (robots)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, T.

    1983-06-23

    Off-line programming is essential if robots are to be fully integrated into the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process. It is also fundamental to the use of robots with touch and vision sensors, since the movements of such a robot depend on real-world data and cannot be taught in advance. Edinburgh (UK) University's Department of Artificial Intelligence is developing a high-level language called Rapt, for the programming of assembly robots. Rapt is described as an object-level language. Its statements refer to material objects and their physical relationships and motions. It uses higher level descriptions than those of commercially available robot languages such as unimation's val. The developments in off-line programming which are crucial to the successful integration of industrial robots into computer-aided design and manufacturing processes are discussed.

  18. Off-line signature recognition based on dynamic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarza, Juan J.; Hernaez, Inmaculada; Goirizelaia, Inaki; Espinosa, Koldo; Escolar, Jon

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we present the work developed on off-line signature verification as a continuation of a previous work using Left-to-Right Hidden Markov Models (LR-HMM) in order to extend those models to the field of static or off-line signature processing using results provided by image connectivity analysis. The chain encoding of perimeter points for each blob obtained by this analysis is an ordered set of points in the space, clockwise around the perimeter of the blob. Two models are generated depending on the way the blobs obtained from the connectivity analysis are ordered. In the first one, blobs are ordered according to their perimeter length. In the second proposal, blobs are ordered in their natural reading order, i.e. from the top to the bottom and left to right. Finally, two LR-HMM models are trained using the (x,y) coordinates of the chain codes obtained by the two mentioned techniques and a set of geometrical local features obtained from them such as polar coordinates referred to the center of ink, local radii, segment lengths and local tangent angle. Verification results of the two techniques are compared over a biometrical database containing skilled forgeries.

  19. Applying dynamic methods in off-line signature recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarza, Juan Jose; Hernaez, Inmaculada; Goirizelaia, Inaki; Espinosa, Koldo

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we present the work developed on off-line signature verification using Hidden Markov Models (HMM). HMM is a well-known technique used by other biometric features, for instance, in speaker recognition and dynamic or on-line signature verification. Our goal here is to extend Left-to-Right (LR)-HMM to the field of static or off-line signature processing using results provided by image connectivity analysis. The chain encoding of perimeter points for each blob obtained by this analysis is an ordered set of points in the space, clockwise around the perimeter of the blob. We discuss two different ways of generating the models depending on the way the blobs obtained from the connectivity analysis are ordered. In the first proposed method, blobs are ordered according to their perimeter length. In the second proposal, blobs are ordered in their natural reading order, i.e. from the top to the bottom and left to right. Finally, two LR-HMM models are trained using the parameters obtained by the mentioned techniques. Verification results of the two techniques are compared and some improvements are proposed.

  20. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  1. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user's biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user's private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user's biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms

  2. Off-Line Identification of Induction Motor Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junfeng; Luo Hui; Wan Shuyun

    2005-01-01

    This study presented an off-line identification method of induction motor (IM) parameters. Before startup,the inverter drive performed automatically a modified DC test, a locked-rotor test, a no-load test and a step-voltage test to identify all the parameters of an induction motor. No manual operation and speed signals were required in the process. In order to obtain effective messages and improve the accuracy of identification, the discrete fast Fourier transform (DFFT) and the least-squares were used to process the signals of currents and voltages. A phase-voltage measuring method for motors was also proposed, which measured directly the actual conducting time of three upper switches in the inverter without need for a dead-time compensator. The validity, reliability and accuracy of the presented methods have been verified by the experiments on a VSI-fed IM drive system.

  3. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the steady state with mass loss independently of testing machines and the incubation period is very dependent on materials and imposed pressures. (author)

  4. New intrumentation for multiple cell, off line supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many advances have been made in the area of sample analysis in recent years, but similar improvements in sample preparation have not kept pace. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has shown itself to be a powerful tool and may be a major step in improving sample preparation. For many years SFE has been used on an industrial scale, but until recently it has not been applied to analytical size samples. This paper introduces new instrumentation used in SFE. The off-line extraction system's features include simultaneous extraction through up to eight sample cells, 10,000 psi fluid pressure, automated control of pressure, temperature and time parameters, and unique restrictor/trapping designs. Data will be presented showing productivity comparisons of these instruments versus conventional techniques. Emphasis will be placed on how this system solves frequently encountered problems with SFE such as plugged restrictors and extraction fluid volume throughput measurements. Applications shown will include the extraction of PCBs, pesticides and PAH from soil and tissues, polymer additives from polymers, and the extraction of pharmaceutical samples

  5. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C

    2003-01-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  6. An Empirical Evaluation of Off-line Arabic Handwriting And Printed Characters Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Firoj Parwej

    2012-01-01

    Handwriting recognition is a challenging task for many real-world applications such as document authentication, form processing, historical documents. This paper focuses on the comparative study on off-line handwriting recognition system and Printed Characters by taking Arabic handwriting. The off-line Handwriting Recognition methods for Arabic words which being often used among then across the Middle East and North Africa people. In this paper we are proposing off-line Arabic handwriting and...

  7. Welding Robot Applications in Shipbuilding Industry: Off-Line Programming, Virtual Reality Simulation, and Open Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang-Sei; Hong, Keum-Shik; Han, Yong-Sub

    2006-01-01

    This chapter described the welding robot system in a shipbuilding industry and the PCbased off-line programming system. The welding robot system is very helpful not only to increase productivity but also to solve worker's health problem. The developed off-line programming system provides a robot simulation, a block arrangement simulation, optimal robot traveling path generation, and automatic robot program generation. Because graphic environments are made in the VRML, developed off-line progr...

  8. Quantifying Transaction Costs in Online/Off-line Grocery Channel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep K. Chintagunta; Junhong Chu; Javier Cebollada

    2012-01-01

    Households incur transaction costs when choosing among off-line stores for grocery purchases. They may incur additional transaction costs when buying groceries online versus off-line. We integrate the various transaction costs into a channel choice framework and empirically quantify the relative transaction costs when households choose between the online and off-line channels of the same grocery chain. The key challenges in quantifying these costs are (i) the complexity of channel choice deci...

  9. Off-line ion source terminal for ISAC at TRIUMFa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamanna, K.; Ames, F.; Cojocaru, G.; Baartman, R.; Bricault, P.; Dube, R.; Laxdal, R.; Marchetto, M.; MacDonald, M.; Schmor, P.; Wight, G.; Yuan, D.

    2008-02-01

    The off-line ion source (OLIS) terminal consists of a microwave cusp ion source, either a surface ion source or a hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source and an electrostatic switch that allows selecting any one of the sources without mechanical intervention. These sources provide variety of beams to ISAC experiments, for commissioning the accelerators, for setting up the radioactive experiments, and for tuning the beam lines. The microwave ion source has been operational since 1995 and provides singly and doubly charged beams from various stable isotopes for many ISAC experiments at high and low energy areas. Originally its prime goal was to provide beams from gaseous elements, but later two ovens and a sputtering system were added in order to provide beams from liquids and from solids. The surface ion source installed in 2002 can provide low energy spread beams from alkali and semialkali elements. It also has three separate ovens and an ionizer. Therefore, it can provide three different temperature regions simultaneously to provide different beams to ISAC. It is mainly used for laser spectroscopy experiments and other experiments, which require a finite beam quality. A hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source was also developed and installed in order to meet specific demands from experiments. This source terminal is now automated for start up and for mass selection. It is capable of providing stable beams for months without maintenance and it is also capable of providing negative ion beams if required. To date, over 40 different isotopes including many rear isotopes were delivered to various experiments from the OLIS source terminal. Performances of the ion sources and some of the results are discussed.

  10. The role of off-line and online strategies for successful product positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Yaneva D. E.; Zlateva D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the article is done on off-line and online strategies that companies use for their successful positioning. The goal is to establish the role and the significance of the strategies for successful product positioning in off-line and online environment.

  11. The Berkeley TRIGA Mark III research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley Research Reactor went critical on August 10, 1966, and achieved licensed operating power of 1000 kW shortly thereafter. Since then, the reactor has operated, by and large, trouble free on a one-shift basis. The major use of the reactor is in service irradiations, and many scientific programs are accommodated, both on and off campus. The principal off-campus user is the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. The reactor is also an important instructional tool in the Nuclear Engineering Department reactor experiments laboratory course, and as a source of radioisotopes for two other laboratory courses given by the Department. Finally, the reactor is used in several research programs conducted within the Department, involving studies with neutron beams and in reactor kinetics

  12. El idealismo de Berkeley

    OpenAIRE

    David Sobrevilla

    1995-01-01

    En esta conferencia se examina en qué consiste el idealismo de Berkeley. Para ello se sigue el mismo camino propuesto por G .J. Warnock: se indaga contra qué se opone Berkeley, el materialismo, y cómo lo entiende, y por qué está en contra del mismo. A continuación se reexamina el idealismo berkeleyano, y en la consideración final se juzgan sus virtudes y defectos: algunas de las críticas fundadas que se le han formulado y la visión de la ciencia que se desprende de los escritos de Berkeley. A...

  13. An adaptive control system for off-line programming in robotic gas metal arc welding.

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, G. C.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an integration concept for using off-line programming in robotic gas metal arc welding of thin sheet steel. Off line -welding parameter optimization and on-line monitoring and adaptive control of process stability and torch-to-workpiece relative distance were used to ensure weld consistency. The concept developed included four main aspects: a) the use of a CAD system to design the workpiece; b) the use of a welding off-line programming ...

  14. Radioisotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope generator is described in which it is possible to interupt the elution process at any desired time, i.e. before the electron flacon is full. The interuption is performed in such a way that sterile air is simultaneously admitted into the generator, into both the column and the elution flacon. (Th.P.)

  15. Environmental research at Berkeley

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    The information concerning the Energy and Environment Programme at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is based on a talk given at CERN by A.M. Sessler, one of the initiators of the Programme. (Dr. Sessler has been appointed Director of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in succession to Prof. E. M. McMillan, from 1 November.) Many of the topics mentioned merit an extended story in themselves but the purpose of this article is simply to give a sketch of what is happening.

  16. El idealismo de Berkeley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sobrevilla

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta conferencia se examina en qué consiste el idealismo de Berkeley. Para ello se sigue el mismo camino propuesto por G .J. Warnock: se indaga contra qué se opone Berkeley, el materialismo, y cómo lo entiende, y por qué está en contra del mismo. A continuación se reexamina el idealismo berkeleyano, y en la consideración final se juzgan sus virtudes y defectos: algunas de las críticas fundadas que se le han formulado y la visión de la ciencia que se desprende de los escritos de Berkeley. A este respecto se pone en conexión las ideas del autor con algunos planteamientos del último Husserl y con una interpretación de Popper sobre la sorprendente modernidad de algunas de las ideas berkeleyanas sobre la ciencia.

  17. Berkeley mini-collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley Mini-Collider, a heavy-ion collider being planned to provide uranium-uranium collisions at T/sub cm/ less than or equal to 4 GeV/nucleon, is described. The central physics to be studied at these energies and our early ideas for a collider detector are presented

  18. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  19. Off-Line Programming System of Multi-Axis Platform for Dual Beam Laser Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Ji-Hong; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Liu, Yi

    The multi-axis platform of dual beam laser welding (DBLW) can guarantee a good synchronism on double sides, adaptation and precision, thus it can be widely applied. On this platform, this paper studies critical technology of off-line programming of DBLW. It presents a U-oriented on double sides trajectory planning method based on the traditional method derived from single beam laser welding. Then a calibration strategy of structural parameters is rendered and G codes are produced by a postprocessor. At last the researchers develops the off-line programming system on CAM platforms and a simulation conducted proves the system satisfying the need.

  20. Off-line testing of multifunctional surfaces for metal forming applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, A.; Grønbæk, J.; De Chiffre, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Bending-Under-Tension, an off-line test method simulating deep-drawing, is chosen for investigating the effectiveness of multifunctional (MUFU) surfaces in metal forming operations. Four different MUFU surfaces, characterized by a plateau bearing area and grooves for lubricant...

  1. New deterministic algorithms for counting pairs of intersecting segments and off-line triangle range searching

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrini, M.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new method for decomposing planar sets of segments and points. Using this method we obtain new efficient {\\em deterministic} algorithms for counting pairs of intersecting segments, and for answering off-line triangle range queries. In particular we obtain the following results: \

  2. An Off-Line Simulation System for Development of Real-Time FORTRAN Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James W.

    Implementation of an ISA FORTRAN standard for executive functions and process input-output within a simulation system called MINIFOR provides a useful real-time program development tool for small single function, dedicated minicomputers having a FORTRAN compiler but limited program development aids. A FORTRAN-based pre-compiler is used off-line to…

  3. Human Reading Based Strategies for off-line Arabic Word Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Belaïd, Abdel; Choisy, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes some techniques proposed for off-line Arabic word recognition. The point of view developed here concerns the human reading favoring an interactive mechanism between global memorization and local checking making easier the recognition of complex scripts as Arabic. According to this consideration, some specific papers are analyzed and their strategies commented

  4. Data quality assurance in monitoring of wastewater quality: Univariate on-line and off-line methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alferes, J.; Poirier, P.; Lamaire-Chad, C.;

    procedure is presented that combines univariate off-line and on-line methods to assess water quality sensors and to detect and replace doubtful data. While the off-line concept uses control charts for quality control, the on-line methods aim at outlier and fault detection by using autoregressive models...

  5. Off-Line High-pH Reversed-Phase Fractionation for In-Depth Phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Francavilla, Chiara; Olsen, Jesper V

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification (PTM) involved in embryonic development, adult homeostasis, and disease. Over the past decade, several advances have been made in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based technologies to identify...... thousands of phosphorylation sites. However, in-depth phosphoproteomics often require off-line enrichment and fractionation techniques. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of phosphopeptides, which have been fractionated by off-line high-pH chromatography (Hp...... 14 HpH fractions, we routinely identified over 30 000 unique phosphopeptide variants, which is more than twice the number of that obtained from SCX fractionation. HpH chromatography displayed an exceptional ability to fractionate singly phosphorylated peptides, with minor benefits for doubly...

  6. Off-Line Testing of Tribo-Systems for Sheet Metal Forming Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    leading to very high tool/workpiece interface pressure and temperature in the second re-draw. Under such conditions only the best lubricant systems work satisfactory, and the paper shows how the performance of different tribo-systems in production may be predicted by off-line testing combined with......Off-line testing of new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming production is an important issue, when new, environmentally benign lubricants are to be introduced. To obtain useful results it is, however, vital to ensure similar conditions as in the production process regarding the main tribo......-parameters, which are tool/workpiece normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed and interface contact temperature. The paper describes a generic methodology for such tests exemplified on an industrial, multistage deep drawing example, where deep drawing is followed by two successive re-drawing operations...

  7. Robust hand tracking with on-line and off-line learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangyue; Zhao, Yong; Liang, Hao; Cheng, Ruzhong; Wei, Yiqun

    2015-07-01

    Hand tracking is becoming more and more popular in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). A lot of studies in this area have made good progress. However, robust hand tracking is still difficult in long-term. On-line learning technology has great potential in terms of tracking for its strong adaptive learning ability. To address the problem we combined an on-line learning technology called on-line boosting with an off-line trained detector to track the hand. The contributions of this paper are: 1) we propose a learning method with an off-line model to solve the drift of on-line learning; 2) we build a framework for hand tracking based on the learning method. The experiments show that compared with other three methods, the proposed tracker is more robust in the strain case.

  8. Salt Processing Project: Off-Line Analysis Methods to Meet Process Cycle Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) requires analyses to verify that strontium and total alpha content of treated wastes meet Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The SWPF will require that results are available in time to meet process cycle requirements. SWPF personnel sought on-line and at-line monitors to follow trends in strontium-90 and alpha concentrations in order to track process performance. While an on-line method is under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), it has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes off-line methods that will not be subject to some of the concerns about and limitations of on-line/at-line methods. Presently, less-rapid off-line technologies are the baseline methods. Also, this report compares advantages and disadvantages of a variety of approaches including rapid radiochemical separations, automated analytical-scale processing systems, and radiation measurement tools

  9. SPHERE DAQ and off-line systems: implementation based on the qdpb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of the on-line data acquisition (DAQ) system for the SPHERE setup (LHE, JINR) is described. SPHERE DAQ is based on the qdpb (Data Processing with Branchpoints) system and configurable experimental data and CAMAC hardware representations. Implementation of the DAQ and off-line program code, depending on the SPHERE setup's hardware layout and experimental data contents, is explained as well as software modules specific for such implementation

  10. Off-Line Testing for Bridge Faults in CMOS Domino Logic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K.; Lala, P. K.; Busaba, F.

    1997-01-01

    Bridge faults, especially in CMOS circuits, have unique characteristics which make them difficult to detect during testing. This paper presents a technique for detecting bridge faults which have an effect on the output of CMOS Domino logic circuits. The faults are modeled at the transistor level and this technique is based on analyzing the off-set of the function during off-line testing.

  11. An expert system for off-line analysis of rotating equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Hoglund, James R.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of rotating equipment difficulties is currently accomplished by a specialist in rotating equipment examining the signs and symptoms of the equipment, applying his expert judgement, and determining the cause of the machine's difficulty. This thesis covers the development of an off-line expert system that can be used to emulate the expert's ability to interpret the signs and symptoms of the machine, including suggestions of possible further actions to take f...

  12. A Fair Off-Line E-Cash System with Group Signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yun-xue; ZHU Yue-fei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the research results and development of fair off-line e-cash systems so far, and points out that in these systems, the bank can compute the double-spender's account secret key, thus the bank can impersonate the double-spender to withdraw from the double-spender's account.This article utilizes anonymity control and group signature to address this shortcoming.

  13. “LISTENING AND REMEMBERING”: NETWORKED OFF-LINE IMPROVISATION FOR FOUR COMMUTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Alarcón

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the experience of the networked off-line improvisation ‘Listening and Remembering’, a performance for four commuters using voices and sounds from the Mexico City and Paris metros. It addresses the question: how can an act of collective remembering, inspired by listening to metro soundscapes, lead to the creation of networked voice-and sound-based narratives about the urban commuting experience? The networked experience is seen here from the structural perspective (telemati...

  14. Practice Prize Paper --Marketing's Profit Impact: Quantifying Online and Off-line Funnel Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Wiesel; Koen Pauwels; Joep Arts

    2011-01-01

    Inofec, a small- to medium-sized enterprise in the business-to-business sector, desired a more analytic approach to allocate marketing resources across communication activities and channels. We developed a conceptual framework and econometric model to empirically investigate (1) the marketing communication effects on off-line and online purchase funnel metrics and (2) the magnitude and timing of the profit impact of firm-initiated and customer-initiated contacts. We find evidence of many cros...

  15. Off-line production of intense 7,10Be+ beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7Be and 10Be were produced by 590 MeV proton bombardment of a graphite target at PSI. Parts of this graphite target were transferred into an ISOLDE target and ion source unit and ionized with the ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source. Thus intense radioactive ion beams of 300 nA of 7,10Be+ were produced off-line

  16. On-line and off-line applications of photogrammetric stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggren, Henrik G. A.

    1993-12-01

    A photogrammetric station is a configuration of several video cameras which are used for automated 3D measuring of industrial objects. All measurements are performed from the image observations only, and the targets are natural features or projected light patterns. The first `on-line' applications are for car body orientation within a robotic sealing cell and for 3D verification of ship screws within a robotic machining step. The `off-line' applications are for object reconstructions for reverse engineering purposes.

  17. Berkeley automated supernova search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982

  18. Radioisotope Power Supply Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  19. Power from Radioisotopes (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R; Mead, Robert L

    1971-01-01

    This booklet discusses Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), called isotope power generators, that are based on using heat from the decay of radioisotopes to produce electricity. These are the SNAP systems with odd-numbered designators. The basics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are discussed and their uses as power sources in space exploration and on earth are described. Various radioisotope heat sources are discussed and a table of RTGs built under the SNAP program listing their uses, electrical power, weight, the radioisotope used, the radioisotope's half-life, and the generator life is given.

  20. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  1. Direct off-line robot programming via a common CAD package

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Pedro; Mendes, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on intuitive and direct off-line robot programming from a CAD drawing running on a common 3-D CAD package. It explores the most suitable way to represent robot motion in a CAD drawing, how to automatically extract such motion data from the drawing, make the mapping of data from the virtual (CAD model) to the real environment and the process of automatic generation of robot paths/programs. In summary, this study aims to present a novel CAD-based robot programming system acce...

  2. Overview of statistically hedged prediction methods: From off-line to real-time data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J., E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Murari, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Consorzio RFX, 4-35127 Padova (Italy); Gonzalez, S.; Pereira, A.; Pastor, I. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Off-line and real-time multi-class image classification applications (conformal prediction based) have been developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare two different implementations (nearest neighbour and SVM) in the off-line applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A real-time predictor (SVM based) takes a constant time of 89.7 {+-} 14.1 ms to classify each image. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The one-versus-the-rest approach is used in the SVM multi-class classifiers. - Abstract: This work summarizes the latest results on prediction with newly developed estimators based on statistical significance. These predictors implement conformal predictions and have been applied to classification tasks for data of the TJ-II stellarator. In particular, different adaptations to solve a 5-class image classification problem for the TJ-II Thomson scattering (TS) are presented. Off-line (nearest neighbour and support vector machines based) and real-time (SVM based) versions of conformal predictors have been developed. In all cases, if the classifications are reliable, the predicted images are incorporated to the training dataset for future predictions. The nearest neighbour classifier (NNC) obtains a success rate of 97% with confidence 0.96 and a mean credibility of 0.61. The CPU time to predict shows a linear dependence with the number of images in the training set (t = 0.519n + 100.212 s). The SVM classifiers are used in the one versus the rest approach. The off-line version provides a success rate of 99%, a confidence of 0.99 and an average credibility of 0.55. The CPU time also follows a linear law with the number of images in the training set (t = 15.023 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}n + 4.523 s). The real-time classifier achieves a success rate of 96% and a mean confidence and credibility of 0.99 and 0.53, respectively. In this case, after 395 classifications, the CPU time per image to classify remains constant: 89.7 {+-} 14

  3. Overview of statistically hedged prediction methods: From off-line to real-time data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Off-line and real-time multi-class image classification applications (conformal prediction based) have been developed. ► We compare two different implementations (nearest neighbour and SVM) in the off-line applications. ► A real-time predictor (SVM based) takes a constant time of 89.7 ± 14.1 ms to classify each image. ► The one-versus-the-rest approach is used in the SVM multi-class classifiers. - Abstract: This work summarizes the latest results on prediction with newly developed estimators based on statistical significance. These predictors implement conformal predictions and have been applied to classification tasks for data of the TJ-II stellarator. In particular, different adaptations to solve a 5-class image classification problem for the TJ-II Thomson scattering (TS) are presented. Off-line (nearest neighbour and support vector machines based) and real-time (SVM based) versions of conformal predictors have been developed. In all cases, if the classifications are reliable, the predicted images are incorporated to the training dataset for future predictions. The nearest neighbour classifier (NNC) obtains a success rate of 97% with confidence 0.96 and a mean credibility of 0.61. The CPU time to predict shows a linear dependence with the number of images in the training set (t = 0.519n + 100.212 s). The SVM classifiers are used in the one versus the rest approach. The off-line version provides a success rate of 99%, a confidence of 0.99 and an average credibility of 0.55. The CPU time also follows a linear law with the number of images in the training set (t = 15.023 × 10−3n + 4.523 s). The real-time classifier achieves a success rate of 96% and a mean confidence and credibility of 0.99 and 0.53, respectively. In this case, after 395 classifications, the CPU time per image to classify remains constant: 89.7 ± 14.1 ms.

  4. Multistage Off-Line Permutation Packet Routing on a Mesh: An Approach with Elementary Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Chiew; Yingjiu Li

    2009-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed for off-line permutation packet routing on a mesh. One of the methods is known as multistage routing, in which the first stage is crucial. For the first stage of routing, the previous study normally converts it to a problem of graph theory and proves the existence of solutions. However, there is a lack of simple algorithms to the first stage of routing. This article presents an explicit and simple approach for the first stage of routing based on elementary mathematics.

  5. A new technique for on-line and off-line high speed computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for both on-line and off-line computation has been developed. With this technique, a reconstruction analysis in Elementary Particle Physics, otherwise prohibitively long, has been accomplished. It will be used on-line in an upcoming Fermilab experiment to reconstruct more than 100,000 events per second and to trigger on the basis of that information. The technique delivers 40 Giga operations per second, has a bandwidth on the order of Gigabytes per second and has a modest cost. An overview of the program, details of the system, and performance measurements are presented in this paper

  6. Consumo de pornografía on-line y off-line en adolescentes colombianos

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Reynaldo; Santos, David; Cabrera, Victoria; Docal, María Carmen

    2016-01-01

    El consumo de medios de comunicación se ha incrementado notablemente en los últimos años. Una consecuencia no deseada de ello es la proliferación de consumos de riesgo, como es el caso de la pornografía on-line y off-line. Aunque la literatura ha señalado una serie de variables predictoras (edad, género, etnia, nivel socioeconómico o estructura familiar), estudios recientes han sugerido incluir los valores y los estilos de vida como factores asociados a las decisiones de consumo. El ...

  7. Robot off-line programming and simulation as a true CIME-subsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.F; Trostmann, S; Trostmann, Erik; Conrad, Finn

    A robot off-line programming and real-time simulation system, ROPSIM, which is based on the neutral interface concept and features simulation of the dynamics of both the controller and robot arm, has been developed. To avoid dependency on dedicated robot models, ROPSIM is based on generic models...... describing the robot controller, robot arm geometry, and the robot and arm kinetics. The software was developed using the C++ programming language. The key modules are discussed. The system is a true computer-integrated manufacturing and engineering subsystem which facilitates the exchange and reuse of robot...... model definition data and robot program definition data with systems of other origin or different functionality...

  8. Off-line Programming Technology Based on RPC Communication Method and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper puts forward a communication programming method between robot and external computer based on RPC (Remote Produce Call) communication method, which realizes robot distributed controlling network system model. And a new Robot off line programming method is built based on this communication method and network model. Further more, as an example, robot automarking and autocutting of shipbuilding profile system is developed, which proves the ideas of author's offline programming and development methods of robot flexible automation system.

  9. 2009 SCDNR Berkeley County Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sanborn Map Company completed the original classification of the multiple return LiDAR of Berkeley County, South Carolina in 2009. In 2013, Dewberry was tasked with...

  10. Online or off-line victimisation and psychological well-being: a comparison of sexual-minority and heterosexual youth.

    OpenAIRE

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-minority ...

  11. A Combination of Off-line and On-line Learning to Classifier Grids for Object Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Dang Binh

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for object detection by combining off-line and on-line boosting learning to classifier grids based on visual information without human intervention concerned to intelligent surveillance system. It allows for combine information labeled and unlabeled use different contexts to update the system, which is not available at off-line training time. The main goal is to develop an adaptive but robust system and to combine prior knowledge with new information in an unsupervised...

  12. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor, E-mail: lech.piotrowski@riken.jp [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Casolino, Marco [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Conti, Livio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Fornaro, Claudio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); De Santis, Cristian [INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Shinozaki, Kenji [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center, University of Tübingen, Sand 6, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro [RIKEN, Wako (Japan)

    2015-02-11

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper.

  13. An off-line simulation of land surface processes over the northern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinHong Song; YaoMing Ma; Yu Zhang; WeiQiang Ma; SiQiong Luo

    2014-01-01

    In order to further understand the land surface processes over the northern Tibetan Plateau, this study produced an off-line simulated examination at the Bujiao site on the northern Tibetan Plateau from June 2002 to April 2004, using the Noah Land Surface Model (Noah LSM) and observed data from the CAMP/Tibet experiment. The observed data were neces-sarily corrected and the number of soil layers in the Noah LSM was changed from 4 to 10 to enable this off-line simulation and analysis. The main conclusions are as follows:the Noah LSM performed well on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The simulated net radiation, upward longwave radiation, and upward shortwave radiation demonstrated the same remarkable annual and seasonal variation as the observed data, especially the upward longwave radiation. The simulated soil tem-peratures were acceptably close to the observed temperatures, especially in the shallow soil layers. The simulated freezing and melting processes were shown to start from the surface soil layer and spread down to the deep soil layers, but they took longer than the observed processes. However, Noah LSM did not adequately simulate the soil moisture. Therefore, addi-tional high-quality, long-term observations of land surface-atmosphere processes over the Tibetan Plateau will be a key factor in proper adjustments of the model parameters in the future.

  14. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper

  15. Economical Radioisotope Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power...

  16. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  17. Off-line data processing and analysis for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Pandola, L.; Zavarise, P.

    2012-06-01

    Gerda is an experiment designed to look for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The experiment uses an array of high-purity germanium detectors (enriched in 76Ge) directly immersed in liquid argon. Gerda is presently operating eight enriched coaxial detectors (approximately 15 kg of 76Ge) and about 25 new custom-made enriched BEGe detectors will be deployed in the next phase (additional 20kg of 76Ge). The paper describes the Gerda off-line analysis of the high-purity germanium detector data. Firstly we present the signal processing flow, focusing on the digital filters and on the algorithms used. Secondly we discuss the rejection of non-physical events and the data quality monitoring. The analysis is performed completely with the Gerda software framework (Gelatio), designed to support a multi-channel processing and to perform a modular analysis of digital signals.

  18. Off-line data processing and analysis for the GERDA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Zavarise, P

    2011-01-01

    GERDA is an experiment designed to look for the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76. The experiment uses an array of high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in Ge-76, directly immersed in liquid argon. GERDA is presently operating eight enriched coaxial detectors (approximately 15 kg of Ge-76) and about 30 new custom-made enriched BEGe detectors will be deployed in the next phase (additional 20 kg of Ge-76). The paper describes the GERDA off-line analysis of the high-purity germanium detector data. Firstly we present the signal processing flow, focusing on the digital filters and on the algorithms used. Secondly we discuss the rejection of non-physical events and the data quality monitoring. The analysis is performed completely with the GERDA software framework (GELATIO), designed to support a multi-channel processing and to perform a modular analysis of digital signals.

  19. Off-line data processing and analysis for the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerda is an experiment designed to look for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The experiment uses an array of high-purity germanium detectors (enriched in 76Ge) directly immersed in liquid argon. Gerda is presently operating eight enriched coaxial detectors (approximately 15 kg of 76Ge) and about 25 new custom-made enriched BEGe detectors will be deployed in the next phase (additional 20kg of 76Ge). The paper describes the Gerda off-line analysis of the high-purity germanium detector data. Firstly we present the signal processing flow, focusing on the digital filters and on the algorithms used. Secondly we discuss the rejection of non-physical events and the data quality monitoring. The analysis is performed completely with the Gerda software framework (Gelatio), designed to support a multi-channel processing and to perform a modular analysis of digital signals.

  20. Atomic and anonymous e-Cash transaction protocol with off-line TTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜; 李朝阳; 杨德礼

    2004-01-01

    Atomicity and anonymity are desirable properties for reliable and security e-Cash transaction and the guarantee of the participants' interests. But there are conflicts between these two properties. In this paper, an atomic and anonymous e-Cash transaction protocol with off-line TTP (Trust Third Party) based on the extended CEMBS is presented. The novel protocol is analyzed for its atomicity and anonymity. The results of the analysis show that it not only provides atomicity and anonymity under unreliable communication and dishonest partici-pants, but also features high efficiency and practicability. The new protocol also avoids transaction from a am-biguous state. Furthermore, it will be referenced often for the application of the atomic e-Cash transaction proto-col.

  1. A Fair Off-Line Electronic Cash Scheme Based on Restrictive Partially Blind Signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常吉; 吴建平; 段海新

    2004-01-01

    A fair off-line electronic cash scheme was presented based on a provable secure restrictive partially blind signature.The scheme is more efficient than those of previous works as the expiry date and denomination information are embedded in the electronic cash,which alleviates the storage pressure for the bank to check double spending,and the bank need not use different public keys for different coin values,shops and users need not carry a list of bank's public keys to verify in their electronic wallet.The modular exponentiations are reduced for both the user and the bank by letting the trustee publish the public values with different structure as those of previous electronic cash schemes.The scheme security is based on the random oracle model and the decision Diffie-Hellman assumption.The scheme can be easily extended to multi-trustees and multi-banks using threshold cryptography.

  2. Off-line Arabic Character-Based Writer Identification – a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik A.H. Abu-Ain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Off-line writer identification requires transferring the text under consideration into an image file. This represents the only available solution to bring the printed materials to the electronic media. However, the transferring process causes the system to lose the temporal information of that text, which it can be gathered in  on-line writer identification. Various techniques have been implemented to achieve high identification rates. These techniques have tackled different aspects of the identification system. Importance of writer identification system is to help mainly in forensic fields, historical document analysis and  handwriting recognition system enhancement. Unfortunately, the Arabic writer identification system not achieves a satisfaction rate yet whereas certain process of features and classification still not recognized.

  3. Off-line emittance measurements of the SPES ion source at LNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the SPES Radioactive Beam Facility of INFN, a dedicated Ion Source R and D program has recently been started at the Legnaro Laboratory. The main goal is to study and improve its quality. The measurements of transverse phase space distributions of the ions produced in the target complex are of great importance for every ISOL based facility like for example SPES. In particular the phase space distribution becomes essential for the determination of simulation parameters and hence for the mass separation, the injection into traps and breeders, calculation of transport losses, etc. For these reasons a new beam emittance analyzer device, developed at the Legnaro laboratories, has recently been coupled with an off-line target front-end. The experimental measurements on the SPES surface ion source, using three different stable ion beams (Rb, Cs, Al), and their analysis, are presented here.

  4. ID-Based Fair Off-Line Electronic Cash System with Multiple Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Ji Wang; Yong Tang; Qing Li

    2007-01-01

    ID-based public key cryptography (ID-PKC) has many advantages over certificate-based public key cryptog-raphy (CA-PKC), and has drawn researchers’ extensive attention in recent years. However, the existing electronic cash schemes are constructed under CA-PKC, and there seems no electronic cash scheme under ID-PKC up to now to the best of our knowledge. It is important to study how to construct electronic cash schemes based on ID-PKC from views on both practical perspective and pure research issue. In this paper, we present a simpler and provably secure ID-based restrictive partially blind signature (RPBS), and then propose an ID-based fair off-line electronic cash (ID-FOLC) scheme with multiple banks based on the proposed ID-based RPBS. The proposed ID-FOLC scheme with multiple banks is more efficient than existing electronic cash schemes with multiple banks based on group blind signature.

  5. Consumo de pornografía on-line y off-line en adolescentes colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de medios de comunicación se ha incrementado notablemente en los últimos años. Una consecuencia no deseada de ello es la proliferación de consumos de riesgo, como es el caso de la pornografía on-line y off-line. Aunque la literatura ha señalado una serie de variables predictoras (edad, género, etnia, nivel socioeconómico o estructura familiar, estudios recientes han sugerido incluir los valores y los estilos de vida como factores asociados a las decisiones de consumo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue examinar si los estilos de vida relacionales de los adolescentes son predictores relevantes del consumo de pornografía tanto en Internet como en revistas o vídeos. Se empleó un diseño observacional transversal que incluyó una muestra representativa de 9.942 adolescentes colombianos (Medad=14,93, DT=2,47. Los estilos de vida, controlando el efecto de variables sociodemográficas, estructurales e individuales, fueron sometidos a un análisis de regresión múltiple y a un análisis de mediación. Los resultados indicaron que el estilo intrafamiliar positivo estuvo asociado con una reducción en el consumo de pornografía, sin embargo, tanto el estilo intrafamiliar negativo como el de independencia relacional incrementan el mismo. Además se propone que los estilos relacionales familiares pueden mediar la relación entre los valores positivos y el comportamiento de riesgo on-line y off-line. Finalmente, se realiza una discusión de los resultados desde la perspectiva relacional y su aplicación en programas de educación mediática.

  6. A General Algorithm of Rotating/tilting Positioner InverseKinematics for Robotic Arc Welding Off-line Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Off-line programming provides an essential link between CAD and CAM, whose development should result in greater use of robotic arc welding. An arc welding system with a robot and a rotating/tilting positioner is a major application area, where manual programming is a very tedious job. Off-line programming is a constructive way to solve the problem. The inverse kinematics algorithm of robot and positioner is the foundation of the off-line programming system. Although previously there were some researchers who studied the positioner inverse kinematics algorithm, they only focused on a special solution of the positioner inverse kinematics, which is the solution at down-hand welding position. However, in welding production, welding position other than down-hand position is also needed. A method for representing welding position was introduced. Then a general algorithm of rotating/tilting positioner inverse kinematics is presented.

  7. Study on general inverse kinematics of rotating/tilting positioner for robotic arc welding off-line programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Off-line programming provides an essential link between CAD and CAM, whose development will result in greater use of robotic arc welding. An arc welding system with a robot and a rotating/tilting positioner is one of the most typical workcells. The inverse kinematics of robot and positioner is the foundation of the off-line programming system. The previous researchers only focused on a special solution of the positioner inverse kinematics, which is the solution at down-hand welding position. In this paper, we introduce a method for representing welding position. Then a general algorithm of rotating/tilting positioner inverse kinematics is presented, and an approach to find the unique solution of the inverse kinematics is discussed. The simulation experiment results show that the general algorithm can improve the ability of robotic arc welding off-line programming system to program all types of welding positions.

  8. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye;

    2014-01-01

    Declines in the ability to learn motor skills in older adults are commonly attributed to deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during motor practice. We investigated whether aging also impairs motor memory consolidation by assessing the susceptibility to memory interference and off......-line gains in motor skill learning after practice in children, young, and older adults. Subjects performed a ballistic task (A) followed by an accuracy-tracking task (B) designed to disrupt the consolidation of A. Retention tests of A were performed immediately and 24 hours after B. Older adults showed...... greater susceptibility to memory interference and no off-line gains in motor skill learning. Performing B produced memory interference and reduced off-line gains only in the older group. However, older adults also showed deficits in memory consolidation independent of the interfering effects of B. Age...

  9. Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, N.

    2008-03-01

    This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers. The result is an energy efficient high-performing sustainable laboratory.

  10. Radioisotope applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short mention of the economic importance of the industrial application of radioisotopes the most necessary fundamental principles of nuclear physics are given. The nature and the laws of the radioactive decay are illustrated, the interaction of radiation with matter and the absorption laws are described and the production of radioisotopes are mentioned. Subsequent the various detectors for measuring radioactivity are described with a short reference to the problems of the electronic measuring devices. At the end the various measuring techniques and the methods of application for radioisotopes in industry are illustrated. (author)

  11. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author)

  12. A Radioisotope Inventory Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioisotope Inventory Program maintains an accurate and up-to-date inventory of all radioisotopes used on campus. An instruction manual provides easy to use directions for using the program. The program is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard HP-85 microcomputer and can be used on other systems. The commands allow updating and changing licensee information easily and quickly. Data Security is maintained by placing the data on a removable tape cartridge and locking the cartridge

  13. Radioisotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author explains clearly what is radiography, enumerates four major factors in considering a practical source to use namely half-life, penetrating power, half value layer and specific activity and also the advantages and disadvantages in using isotopes. Common radioisotopes used in industrial radiography are iridium, cesium, cobalt and thulium. Main uses of the radioisotopes are for radiographic testing like welding castings, forgoings etc.; thickness, level or density measurement and tracing. (RTD)

  14. MAPPIX: A software package for off-line micro-pixe single particle aerosol analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of a multiannual experiment performed at Baia Terra Nova, Antarctica, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected by using a 12-stage SDI impactor (Hillamo design). Approximately 2800 particles, belonging to the first four supermicrometric SDI stages - 8.39, 4.08, 2.68, 1.66 μm dynamic aerosol diameter cuts - were analyzed at the INFN-LNL micro-PIXE facility, a three lens Oxford Microprobe (OM) product, installed in the early nineties. Four regions on each of the 12 sub-samples were measured; 60 aerosol particles were detected on average in each of the analyzed regions. The off-line single aerosol particle (SAP) analysis of such big amount of data required software that is able to rapidly handle the acquired data, with a simple and fast area selection procedure; the subsequent automated PIXE spectra analysis with a specialized code was also needed. The MAPPIX 2.0 software was designed to make easier and faster the user jobs during the SAP analysis. The package is composed of two separate routines: the first one is devoted to data format conversion (OM-LMF file format to MAPPIX format), while the second one is devoted to micro-PIXE maps graphical presentation and aerosol particle selection procedure. The MAPPIX data format and software features will be discussed; a short report of the speed performances will be presented.

  15. MAPPIX: A software package for off-line micro-pixe single particle aerosol analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, D.

    2009-06-01

    In the framework of a multiannual experiment performed at Baia Terra Nova, Antarctica, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected by using a 12-stage SDI impactor (Hillamo design). Approximately 2800 particles, belonging to the first four supermicrometric SDI stages - 8.39, 4.08, 2.68, 1.66 μm dynamic aerosol diameter cuts - were analyzed at the INFN-LNL micro-PIXE facility, a three lens Oxford Microprobe (OM) product, installed in the early nineties. Four regions on each of the 12 sub-samples were measured; 60 aerosol particles were detected on average in each of the analyzed regions. The off-line single aerosol particle (SAP) analysis of such big amount of data required software that is able to rapidly handle the acquired data, with a simple and fast area selection procedure; the subsequent automated PIXE spectra analysis with a specialized code was also needed. The MAPPIX 2.0 software was designed to make easier and faster the user jobs during the SAP analysis. The package is composed of two separate routines: the first one is devoted to data format conversion (OM-LMF file format to MAPPIX format), while the second one is devoted to micro-PIXE maps graphical presentation and aerosol particle selection procedure. The MAPPIX data format and software features will be discussed; a short report of the speed performances will be presented.

  16. Off-Line Signature Authentication Based on Moment Invariants Using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k. R. Radhika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The research addressed the computational load reduction in off-line signature verification based on minimal features using bayes classifier, fast Fourier transform, linear discriminant analysis, principal component analysis and support vector machine approaches. Approach: The variation of signature in genuine cases is studied extensively, to predict the set of quad tree components in a genuine sample for one person with minimum variance criteria. Using training samples, with a high degree of certainty the Minimum Variance Quad tree Components (MVQC of a signature for a person are listed to apply on imposter sample. First, Hu moment is applied on the selected subsections. The summation values of the subsections are provided as feature to classifiers. Results: Results showed that the SVM classifier yielded the most promising 8% False Rejection Rate (FRR and 10% False Acceptance Rate (FAR. The signature is a biometric, where variations in a genuine case, is a natural expectation. In the genuine signature, certain parts of signature vary from one instance to another. Conclusion: The proposed system aimed to provide simple, faster robust system using less number of features when compared to state of art works.

  17. Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) off-line developments on Ga, Al and Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is an element selective, highly efficient and versatile tool for generation of radioactive ion beams at on-line mass separator facilities. Parallel to TRIUMF’s on-line RILIS at the Isotope Separator and ACcelerator (ISAC) facility, an off-line Laser Ion Source test stand (LIS STAND) is operated for systematic laser resonance ionization spectroscopy, ionization scheme and ion source development. Three titanium sapphire (Ti:Sa) lasers optionally equipped with harmonic frequency generation units are used to resonantly step-wise excite and ionize elements of interest. A grating tuned Ti:Sa laser allows continuous laser wavelength scans of up to Δ≈200nm. With this laser inventory and the LIS STAND, atomic Rydberg series and auto-ionizing levels can systematically be studied. The LIS STAND has been in use since 2009 and so far the spectroscopy on Ga, Al and Ca has been performed. The development of efficient laser resonant ionization schemes, their investigation and comparison using the LIS STAND are discussed

  18. Off-Line Persian Signature Identification and Verification Based on Image Registration and Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ghandali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Signature verification and Identification has great importance for authentication purpose. Persian signatures are different from other signature types because people usually do not use text in it and they draw a shape as their signature, therefore, a different approach should be considered to process such signatures. In this paper, a method for off-line Persian signature identification and verification is proposed that is based on Image Registration, DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform and Image Fusion. Training signatures of each person are registered to overcome shift and scale problem. To extract features, at first, DWT is used to access details of signature; then several registered instances of each person signatures are fused together to generate reference pattern of person's signatures. In the classification phase, Euclidean distance between the test image and each pattern is used in different sub-bands. Experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method. However, the proposed method has been tested on Persian signature database but we believe it can be extended for other languages.

  19. Off-line simulation inspires insight: A neurodynamics approach to efficient robot task learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Emanuel; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Ferreira, Flora; Bicho, Estela

    2015-12-01

    There is currently an increasing demand for robots able to acquire the sequential organization of tasks from social learning interactions with ordinary people. Interactive learning-by-demonstration and communication is a promising research topic in current robotics research. However, the efficient acquisition of generalized task representations that allow the robot to adapt to different users and contexts is a major challenge. In this paper, we present a dynamic neural field (DNF) model that is inspired by the hypothesis that the nervous system uses the off-line re-activation of initial memory traces to incrementally incorporate new information into structured knowledge. To achieve this, the model combines fast activation-based learning to robustly represent sequential information from single task demonstrations with slower, weight-based learning during internal simulations to establish longer-term associations between neural populations representing individual subtasks. The efficiency of the learning process is tested in an assembly paradigm in which the humanoid robot ARoS learns to construct a toy vehicle from its parts. User demonstrations with different serial orders together with the correction of initial prediction errors allow the robot to acquire generalized task knowledge about possible serial orders and the longer term dependencies between subgoals in very few social learning interactions. This success is shown in a joint action scenario in which ARoS uses the newly acquired assembly plan to construct the toy together with a human partner. PMID:26548945

  20. Off-line Tracking of Series Parameters in Distribution Systems using AMI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Sun, Yannan; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2016-05-01

    Electric distribution systems have historically lacked measurement points, and equipment is often operated to its failure point, resulting in customer outages. The widespread deployment of sensors at the distribution level is enabling observability. This paper presents an off-line parameter value tracking procedure that takes advantage of the increasing number of measurement devices being deployed at the distribution level to estimate changes in series impedance parameter values over time. The tracking of parameter values enables non-diurnal and non-seasonal change to be flagged for investigation. The presented method uses an unbalanced Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) and a measurement residual-based parameter estimation procedure. Measurement residuals from multiple measurement snapshots are combined in order to increase the effective local redundancy and improve the robustness of the calculations in the presence of measurement noise. Data from devices on the primary distribution system and from customer meters, via an AMI system, form the input data set. Results of simulations on the IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder are presented to illustrate the proposed approach applied to changes in series impedance parameters. A 5% change in series resistance elements can be detected in the presence of 2% measurement error when combining less than 1 day of measurement snapshots into a single estimate.

  1. On/Off-Line Prediction Applied to Job Scheduling on Non-Dedicated NOWs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauricio Hanzich; Porfidio Hernández; Francesc Giné; Francesc Solsona; Josep L. Lérida

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a prediction engine designed for non-dedicated clusters, which is able to estimate the turnaround time for parallel applications, even in the presence of serial workload of the workstation owner. The prediction engine can be configured to work with three different estimation kernels: a Historical kernel, a Simulation kernel based on analytical models and an integration of both, named Hybrid kernel. These estimation proposals were integrated into a scheduling system, named CISNE, which can be executed in an on-line or off-line mode. The accuracy of the proposed estimation methods was evaluated in relation to different job scheduling policies in a real and a simulated cluster environment. In both environments, we observed that the Hybrid system gives the best results because it combines the ability of a simulation engine to capture the dynamism of a non-dedicated environment together with the accuracy of the historical methods to estimate the application runtime considering the state of the resources.

  2. “LISTENING AND REMEMBERING”: NETWORKED OFF-LINE IMPROVISATION FOR FOUR COMMUTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Alarcón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the experience of the networked off-line improvisation ‘Listening and Remembering’, a performance for four commuters using voices and sounds from the Mexico City and Paris metros. It addresses the question: how can an act of collective remembering, inspired by listening to metro soundscapes, lead to the creation of networked voice-and sound-based narratives about the urban commuting experience? The networked experience is seen here from the structural perspective (telematic setting, the sonic underground context, the ethnographic process that led to the performance, the narratives that are created in the electro-acoustic setting, the shared acoustic environments that those creations suggest, and the technical features and participants’ responses that pre- vent or facilitate interaction. Emphasis is placed on the participants’ status as non-performers, and on their familiarity with the sonic environment, as a context that allows the participation of non-musicians in the making of music through telematically shared interfaces, using soundscape and real-time voice. Participants re-enact their routine experience through a dialogical relationship with the sounds, the other participants, themselves, and the experience of sharing: a collective memory.

  3. Off-line analysis of positron annihilation spectra. I. Signature of crystal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the technique of 2-D angular correlation of the electron-positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) yields data in the laboratory frame, consistent off-line data analysis requires their reformulation in the crystal frame. In the case of an n-axis projected 2D-ACAR spectrum (where n denotes a principal crystallographic axis) of a high-Tc superconductor, the crystal frame derivation needs enhancement of information on spectrum symmetry. The concept of signature of crystal symmetry (SCS) in a 2D-ACAR histogram discussed in this paper is a basic ingredient to the consistent solution of the problem. The SCS in a row 2D-ACAR histogram is defined as a collection of chi-square sums over Mmax + 1 sets of sites inside the detector-defined histogram plane. The number Mmax is fixed by choice of the principal crystallographic axis n-vector and the angular aperture of the setup. The necessity of this concept is discussed in Section 2. The correct understanding of the meaning of the SCS results heavily relies of that of the various sources contributing to the symmetry a 2D-ACAR spectrum. This point is discussed in Section 3. The quantitative definition of the SCS is detailed in Section 4. Finally, Section 5 is devoted to a short consideration of the computation of the SCS numerical values

  4. Feasibility study of BES data off-line processing and D/Ds physics analysis on a PC/Linux platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a feasibility study of BES data off-line processing (BES data off-line reconstruction and Monte Carlo simulation) and D/Ds physics analysis on a PC/Linux platform. The authors compared the results obtained from the PC/Linux with that from HP/UNIX workstation. It shows that PC/Linux platform can do BES data off-line analysis as good as HP/UNIX workstation, and is much powerful and economical

  5. Adaptive radiotherapy based on fiducial marker using off-line strategy to construct patient specific PTV in prostate IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim is to develop an off-line strategy for constructing a patient specific target PTV margin in Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART) process using image feedback based on gold seed movements to improve the efficacy and dose escalation for IMRT of prostate cancer

  6. Processing Gamma-Camera Data Obtained from an Off-Line System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for off-line collection of data from a gamma camera in a form suitable for computer analysis is described. The co-ordinates from the gamma camera are digitized by analogue-to-digital convertors (6 bits in 10 μsec), buffered by two core stores (6 bits X 512 words), and then transferred to computer- compatible magnetic tape. There is no on-line display facility. The records are processed on a powerful batch-processing computer (CDC 6600). A program for carrying out detailed analysis of the data is described. The data are arranged as a series of 64 x 64 arrays on disc, one for each time interval. The program provides for the statistical smoothing of the random data, correction for the inherent non-uniformity of the gamma camera, and for printing the processed pictures by the computer as a series of density-graded symbols. Dynamic studies are carried out by monitoring the count-rate over specific regions, which may be regular or irregular. Irregular regions are specified by the co-ordinates of the boundary in terms of the 64 x 64 array printed on the picture. Control subroutines are used for carrying out the analysis for specific clinical procedures including kidney, heart and stomach investigations. These involve smoothing of statistical fluctuations of time curves and addition, subtraction and differentiation of time varying curves. In one case the computer has been programmed to identify the regions of interest for dynamic analysis. The program is designed for ease of operation. The relevant operations associated with each particular investigation can be selected by means of a small number of control cards. (author)

  7. Global off-line evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP flood model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decharme, B.; Alkama, R.; Faroux, S.; Douville, H. [GAME-CNRM/CNRS - Meteo-France, Toulouse (France); Papa, F. [NOAA-CREST, City College of New York, New York, NY (United States); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD-LEGOS, Toulouse (France); Prigent, C. [CNRS/Laboratoire d' Etudes du Rayonnement et de la Matiere en Astrophysique, Observatoire de Paris, Paris (France)

    2012-04-15

    This study presents an off-line global evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP hydrological model including a two-way flood scheme. The flood dynamics is indeed described through the daily coupling between the ISBA land surface model and the TRIP river routing model including a prognostic flood reservoir. This reservoir fills when the river height exceeds the critical river bankfull height and vice versa. The flood interacts with the soil hydrology through infiltration and with the overlying atmosphere through precipitation interception and free water surface evaporation. The model is evaluated over a relatively long period (1986-2006) at 1 resolution using the Princeton University 3-hourly atmospheric forcing. Four simulations are performed in order to assess the model sensitivity to the river bankfull height. The evaluation is made against satellite-derived global inundation estimates as well as in situ river discharge observations at 122 gauging stations. First, the results show a reasonable simulation of the global distribution of simulated floodplains when compared to satellite-derived estimates. At basin scale, the comparison reveals some discrepancies, both in terms of climatology and interannual variability, but the results remain acceptable for a simple large-scale model. In addition, the simulated river discharges are improved in term of efficiency scores for more than 50% of the 122 stations and deteriorated for 4% only. Two mechanisms mainly explain this positive impact: an increase in evapotranspiration that limits the annual discharge overestimation found when flooding is not taking into account and a smoothed river peak flow when the floodplain storage is significant. Finally, the sensitivity experiments suggest that the river bankfull depth is potentially tunable according to the river discharge scores to control the accuracy of the simulated flooded areas and its related increase in land surface evaporation. Such a tuning could be relevant at least for climate

  8. Deep seismic profiling using off-line recorders, Miura Peninsula, Kanto, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, T.; Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Onishi, M.; Noda, K.

    2003-12-01

    The deep seismic profiling around Metropolitan Tokyo (Kanto area) began from 2002 under the project named . The deep seismic profiling was performed along the Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Bay 2003) from July to August in 2003, to obtain an image of the source fault of the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M7.9), and deeper extension of inland active faults in Miura Peninsula. In the Tokyo Bay 2003, seismic reflection data were acquired along a 71-km-long seismic line from the Miura Peninsula to Tokyo Bay, using digital-telemetry cable system, including ocean bottom cables. However, this seismic line at Miura Peninsula passes through the densely populated area and due to the cultural noise the low S/N ratio was expected. Keeping away from the noise along the cable-type receiver line, 51 off-line recorders with a 4.5 Hz and 3-compornent geophone were deployed at carefully selected, quiet receiver points. During 90 days continuous recording, seismic signals produced by four vibroseis trucks at 195 locations and air-guns (1500 cu. inch) at 4280 locations were recorded including ca. 150 of earthquakes. Judging from the preliminary receiver gathers, two later phases (A and B) are recognized. The later phase A, located at TWT (Two-way travel time) 4 to 5.5 sec., is interpreted as a reflection from the top of the Philippine Sea Plate. The later phase B at TWT 7 to 8 sec. corresponds to the deeper reflection under the Philippine Sea Plate, respectively.

  9. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  10. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  11. Industry benefits from radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency since its inception has always sought to promote the industrial use of radioisotopes. Among other ways, it has arranged scientific conferences on various aspects of the question, and has selected and published general information. Industry's attitude to any innovation, however, is the same the world over - viz. does it pay? The Agency, therefore, decided to collect information on the economic benefits derived from the use of radioisotopes in industry, described in terms of 'savings', It arranged for an international survey of these benefits, and at the same time for the collection of information on how radioisotopes are being utilized today. In April 1962 the Agency invited selected Member States to participate in the survey, and in response national governments collected detailed information from industrial organizations in their countries in the fields of prospecting, mining and manufacturing. The radioisotope techniques were grouped under the heads of radioisotope gauging, industrial radiography, ionization applications, tracing, massive irradiation and miscellaneous applications. The national reports from the participating countries recently reached the Agency, which is preparing a comprehensive report on radioisotope use and economics. In order to assess the contents of the various reports and to establish the best means of interpreting and presenting the material, the Agency convened a Study Group in Vienna from 16 to 20 March 1964. About 60 participants from Member States and international organizations discussed the reports, the latest developments in isotope utilization, and how the use of isotopes in industry could be further encouraged. The survey was prepared with care, as there have been few precedents to guide such an investigation on such a scale. Although its main purpose is to make an economic assessment, it has necessarily had to start with the consideration of techniques, and information was collected both

  12. Radioisotope Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope power programme of the US Atomic Energy Commission has brought forth a whole new technology of the use of radioisotopes as energy sources in electric power generators. Radioisotope power systems are particularly suited for remote applications where long-lived, compact, reliable power is needed. Able to perform satisfactorily under extreme environmental conditions of temperature, sunlight and electromagnetic radiations, these ''atomic batteries'' are attractive power sources for remote data collecting devices, monitoring systems, satellites and other space missions. Radioisotopes used as fuels generally are either alpha or beta emitters. Alpha emitters are the preferable fuels but are more expensive and less available than beta fuels and are generally reserved for space applications. Beta fuels separated from reactor fission wastes are being used exclusively in land and sea applications at the present. It can be expected, however, that beta emitters such as stiontium-90 eventually will be used in space. Development work is being carried out on generators which will use mixed fission products as fuel. This fuel will be less expensive than the pure radioisotopes since the costs of isotope separation and purification are eliminated. Prototype thermoelectric generators, fuelled with strontium-90 and caesium-137, are now in operation or being developed for use in weather stations, marine navigation aids and deep sea monitoring devices. A plutonium-238 thermoelectric generator is in orbit operating as electric power source in a US Navy TRANSIT satellite. Generators are under development for use on US National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions. The large quantities of radioactivity involved in radioisotope power sources require that special attention be given to safety aspects of the units. Rigid safety requirements have been established and extensive tests have been conducted to insure that these systems can be employed without creating undue

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the preliminary findings made during the Environmental Survey, February 22--29, 1988, at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in Berkeley, California. The University of California operates the LBL facility for DOE. The LBL Survey is part of the larger DOE-wide Environmental Survey announced by Secretary John S. Herrington on September 18, 1985. The purpose of this effort is to identify, via no fault'' baseline Surveys, existing environmental problems and areas of environmental risk at DOE facilities, and to rank them on a DOE wide basis. This ranking will enable DOE to more effectively establish priorities for addressing environmental problems and allocate the resources necessary to correct them. Because the Survey is no fault'' and is not an audit,'' it is not designed to identify specific isolated incidents of noncompliance or to analyze environmental management practices. Such incidents and/or management practices will, however, be used in the Survey as a means of identifying existing and potential environmental problems. The LBL Survey was conducted by a multidisciplinary team of technical specialists headed and managed by a Team Leader and Assistant Team Leader from DOE's Office of Environmental Audit. A complete list of the LBL Survey participants and their affiliations is provided in Appendix A. 80 refs., 27 figs., 37 tabs.

  14. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present the preliminary findings made during the Environmental Survey, February 22--29, 1988, at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in Berkeley, California. The University of California operates the LBL facility for DOE. The LBL Survey is part of the larger DOE-wide Environmental Survey announced by Secretary John S. Herrington on September 18, 1985. The purpose of this effort is to identify, via ''no fault'' baseline Surveys, existing environmental problems and areas of environmental risk at DOE facilities, and to rank them on a DOE wide basis. This ranking will enable DOE to more effectively establish priorities for addressing environmental problems and allocate the resources necessary to correct them. Because the Survey is ''no fault'' and is not an ''audit,'' it is not designed to identify specific isolated incidents of noncompliance or to analyze environmental management practices. Such incidents and/or management practices will, however, be used in the Survey as a means of identifying existing and potential environmental problems. The LBL Survey was conducted by a multidisciplinary team of technical specialists headed and managed by a Team Leader and Assistant Team Leader from DOE's Office of Environmental Audit. A complete list of the LBL Survey participants and their affiliations is provided in Appendix A. 80 refs., 27 figs., 37 tabs

  15. Which way radioisotopes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sion, N.

    2011-03-15

    The cancellation of the MAPLES program and the impending retirement of the NRU reactor in 2016 (all utilizing Highly Enriched Uranium HEU for their targets) plus the rigours of non proliferation treaties, has created an increasingly short supply of radioisotopes. Alternate pathways must be found, even created, to maintain the supply of radioisotopes i.e. Mo-99 (decaying into Tc-99m) as well as to provide the several other types of isotopes used in nuclear medicine in order to maintain Canada's leadership in science, innovation and public health. Medical isotopes help locate cancers with precision, therapeutically treat cancers, and provide physicians the diagnostic tools to save lives. (author)

  16. Off-line motion correction methods for multi-frame PET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient motion during PET acquisition may affect measured time-activity curves, thereby reducing accuracy of tracer kinetic analyses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different off-line frame-by-frame methods to correct patient motion, which is of particular interest when no optical motion tracking system is available or when older data sets have to be reanalysed. Four different motion correction methods were evaluated. In the first method attenuation-corrected frames were realigned with the summed image of the first 3 min. The second method was identical, except that non-attenuation-corrected images were used. In the third and fourth methods non-attenuation-corrected images were realigned with standard and cupped transmission images, respectively. Two simulation studies were performed, based on [11C]flumazenil and (R)-[11C]PK11195 data sets, respectively. For both simulation studies different types (rotational, translational) and degrees of motion were added. Simulated PET scans were corrected for motion using all correction methods. The optimal method derived from these simulation studies was used to evaluate two (one with and one without visible movement) clinical data sets of [11C]flumazenil, (R)-[11C]PK11195 and [11C]PIB. For these clinical data sets, the volume of distribution (VT) was derived using Logan analysis and values were compared before and after motion correction. For both [11C]flumazenil and (R)-[11C]PK11195 simulation studies, optimal results were obtained when realignment was based on non-attenuation-corrected images. For the clinical data sets motion disappeared visually after motion correction. Regional differences of up to 433% in VT before and after motion correction were found for scans with visible movement. On the other hand, when no visual motion was present in the original data set, overall differences in VT before and after motion correction were <1.5 ± 1.3%. Frame-by-frame motion correction using non

  17. A Multi-Scaler Recording System and its Application to Radiometric ''Off-Line'' Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In large complex reprocessing plants a great deal has been done over the past few years to provide in-line instrumentation for the contemporary analysis of process stream content and characteristics. However, these instruments have a qualitative rather than a quantitative part to play in the overall control of the plant. Quantitative information, which must be obtained for control and accounting purposes, demands and relies upon the efficient use of laboratory techniques and instrumentation for the precise analysis of representative samples taken from the process streams. These techniques, in particular those involving pulse counting systems, can be made automatic with modern instrumentation, such as will be described, in which the data is obtained in digital form in electronic stores (scalers). To support a large plant there will be many separate counting systems of this kind, independently controlled and therefore having no time correlation between them. The automatic recording system described in the paper provides a common data read-out facility for more than 50 independently operating counting systems, recording scaler data, together with associated sample and system identification and the absolute time occurrence of each read-out. The data can be recorded, in forms suitable for subsequent processing by a computer, on a variety of tape and card punches, serial and parallel printers or magnetic tape. In addition, the whole recording system, including the scalers in any one system, can be checked for correct operation on an automatic routine basis which does not interfere with the operation of other counting systems. It is concluded that the effective quantitative control of a plant rests on a rapid efficient sample analysis under laboratory conditions. It is probable that future developments of ''off-line'' facilities rather than on-line instrumentation will be possible and more worthwhile. The desirable characteristics of instrumentation for such a laboratory

  18. Identification and quantification of polycarboxylates in detergent products using off-line size exclusion chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of many contemporary detergent products critically depends on polymers. Water-soluble polycarboxylates represent an important class of detergent polymers, and their quantitative assessment in detergent matrices stands as a considerable challenge. The presence of high levels of surfactants is a major complication, due to the strong tendency of surfactants to form micelles and to interact with the polymers. First, we addressed critical steps in the subsequent combined use of liquid extraction and off-line size exclusion chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance (SEC-NMR) for identification and quantification of polycarboxylates in detergent products. Next, the different steps in the off-line SEC-NMR procedure were optimized with respect to precision and accuracy. This resulted in recoveries of more than 80% for maleic acid/acrylic acid copolymers; in detergent products a proportional bias of 30% is achieved. The method showed good precision with a relative standard deviation of within-laboratory reproducibility between 5% and 14%.

  19. Constrained off-line synthesis approach of model predictive control for networked control systems with network-induced delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoming; Qu, Hongchun; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Meng

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigates the off-line synthesis approach of model predictive control (MPC) for a class of networked control systems (NCSs) with network-induced delays. A new augmented model which can be readily applied to time-varying control law, is proposed to describe the NCS where bounded deterministic network-induced delays may occur in both sensor to controller (S-A) and controller to actuator (C-A) links. Based on this augmented model, a sufficient condition of the closed-loop stability is derived by applying the Lyapunov method. The off-line synthesis approach of model predictive control is addressed using the stability results of the system, which explicitly considers the satisfaction of input and state constraints. Numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25538025

  20. An IR-based strategy for supporting Chinese-Portuguese translation services in off-line model

    OpenAIRE

    Centelles, Jordi; Ruiz Costa-Jussà, Marta; Banchs, Rafael; Gelbukh, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an Information Retrieval engine that is used to support our Chinese-Portuguese machine translation services when no internet connection is available. Our mobile translation app, which is deployed on a portable device, relies by default on a server-based machine translation service, which is not accessible when no internet connection is available. For providing translation support under this condition, we have developed a contextualized off-line search en...

  1. Improving Off-line and On-line Supercritical Fluid Extraction Techniques by Elevating the Post-Restrictor Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Mark Adam

    2001-01-01

    "Improving Off-line and On-line Supercritical Fluid Extraction Techniques by Elevating the Post-Restrictor Pressure". Mark Adam Stone. The high flow rate that results as fluid decompresses through the restrictor is arguably the single greatest problem with supercritical fluid extraction techniques. As a result of these high flow rates, solvent trapping is not efficient in many cases, and the more complicated sorbent trapping technique must be used. In addition, loss of the collectio...

  2. Ionic liquids in enhancing the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis: Off-line and on-line sample preconcentration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hady, Deia Abd; Albishri, Hassan M; Wätzig, Hermann

    2016-07-01

    The popularity of ionic liquids (ILs) has grown during the last decade in enhancing the sensitivity of CE through different off-line or on-line sample preconcentration techniques. Water-insoluble ILs were commonly used in IL-based liquid phase microextraction, in all its variants, as off-line sample preconcentration techniques combined with CE. Water-soluble ILs were rarely used in IL-based aqueous two phase system (IL-ATPS) as an off-line sample preconcentration approach combined with CE in spite of IL-ATPS predicted features such as more compatibility with CE sample injection due to its relatively low viscosity and more compatibility with CE running buffers avoid, in some cases, anion exchange precipitation. Therefore, the attentions for the key parameters affecting the performance of IL-ATPSs were generally presented and discussed. On-line CE preconcentration techniques containing IL-based surfactants at nonmicellar or micellar concentrations have become another interesting area to improve CE sensitivity and it is likely to remain a focus of the field in the endeavor because of their numerous to create rapid, simple and sensitive systems. In this article, significant contributions of ILs in enhancing the sensitivity of CE are described, and a specific overview of the relevant examples of their applications is also given. PMID:27067143

  3. A new model for 'accept or reject' strategies in off-line and on-line megavoltage treatment evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: With megavoltage on-line imaging, a temporal record of the treatment setup variation is made available during the course of radiotherapy. This work describes the theoretical framework where the imaging data is incorporated as feedback for deriving off-line and on-line 'accept or reject' decisions to improve the quality of radiotherapy on an individual patient basis. Methods and Materials: A dynamic model of treatment setup variation is developed to describe: (a) the variations of multifraction treatment position and (b) the variation of measurement. Based on this model, a confidence region of subsequent treatment position is estimated from measurements of previous treatment position. The confidence region is compared with an allowance region of the treatment position, representing the acceptable margin of setup variation. The difference of the two regions are then evaluated to derive off-line and on-line 'accept or reject' treatment decisions. Results: The model was simulated retrospectively using sequential daily images from different treatment sites. 'Accept or reject' decisions were produced for on-line and off-line applications. The results also demonstrate the ability of the model to include the effects of setup variation that drifted during the course of treatment. Conclusion: The preliminary result demonstrates that 'accept or reject' treatment decisions can be derived quantitatively from on-line imaging data. The model shows potential to guide the physician and therapist in implementing efficient and accurate treatment adjustments. Further work is required to test the model in the clinical setting

  4. A Combination of Off-line and On-line Learning to Classifier Grids for Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dang Binh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for object detection by combining off-line and on-line boosting learning to classifier grids based on visual information without human intervention concerned to intelligent surveillance system. It allows for combine information labeled and unlabeled use different contexts to update the system, which is not available at off-line training time. The main goal is to develop an adaptive but robust system and to combine prior knowledge with new information in an unsupervised learning framework that is learning 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. We use co-training strategy by combining off-line and on-line learning to the classifier grids. The proposed method is practically favorable as it meets the requirements of real-time performance, accuracy and robustness. It works well with reasonable amount of training samples and is computational efficiency. Experiments on detection of objects in challenging data sets show the outperforming of our approach.

  5. Radioisotopes in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioisotopes and nuclear techniques can in many cases greatly contribute to the value of teaching. With these techniques it is often possible to introduce demonstrations or experiments which explain phenomena otherwise difficult to understand. The choice of the program must be adapted to the teaching level. This requires previous training of the teachers and the provision of basic equipment. (author)

  6. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  7. Radioisotopic heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 15700F to about 17200F for about one h

  8. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  9. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are:3H, 14Ca, 32P, 35S, 38Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: 198Au, 134Cs, 131I, 86Rb, 65Zn, 59Fe, 45Ca, 24Na, 22Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs

  10. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  11. The decommissioning of Berkeley II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the decommissioning progress at the Magnox site at Berkeley in Gloucestershire.Throughout the work at Berkeley the emphasis has been on conducting decommissioning safely. This has been reflected in the progress of decommissioning starting with removal of the fuel from site and thus much greater than 99% of the radioactive inventory. The major radioactive hazard is the Intermediate Level Waste in the form of fuel element debris (graphite struts and extraneous magnox components removed to increase the packing density of fuel elements in flasks going to Sellafield), miscellaneous activated components, sludges and resins. Approximately 1500 m3 of such material exists and is stored in underground waste vaults on site. Work is underway to recover and encapsulate the waste in cement so rendering it 'passively safe'. All work on site is covered by a nuclear safety case which has a key objective of minimising the radiological exposures that could accrue to workers. Reflecting this an early decision has been taken to leave work on the Reactor Pressure Vessels themselves for several decades. Also important in protection of the workforce has been control of asbestos.Much material has been removed with redundant plant and equipment, but a programme of remediation in line with government legislation has been required to ensure personnel safety throughout the decommissioning period and into Care and Maintenance.In addition to health and safety matters the site approach to environmental issues has been consistent. Formally such standards as ISO 14001 have been adhered to and the appropriate certification maintained. At a working level the principles of reduce, reuse and recycle have been inculcated

  12. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) presents its radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals 2002 catalogue. In it we found physical characteristics of 9 different reactor produced radioisotopes ( Tc-99m, I-131, Sm-153, Ir-192, P-32, Na-24, K-42, Cu-64, Rb-86 ), 7 radiopharmaceuticals ( MDP, DTPA, DMSA, Disida, Phitate, S-Coloid, Red Blood Cells In-Vivo, Red Blood Cells In-Vitro) and 4 labelled compounds ( DMSA-Tc99m, DTPA-Tc99m, MIBG-I131, EDTMP-Sm153 ). In the near future the number of items will be increased with new reactor and cyclotron products. Our production system will be certified by ISO 9000 on March 2003. CCHEN is interested in being a national and an international supplier of these products (RS)

  13. Radioisotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in nuclear medicine to allow physicians to explore bodily structures. The thyroid, bones, heart, liver and many other organs can be easily imaged and disorder in their functions revealed. Technetium-99, a radioisotope is a decay product of Molybdenum-99, a radionuclide with half life of sixty-six hours is discussed. It is widely used in nuclear medical procedure. In this application, the radio nuclide is chemically attached to a drug chosen for its tendency to collect in specific organ of the body and the so is then injected into the patient's body. After a short time, half life of only six hours, an image is collected with a radio sensitive detector for analysis. Technetium-99 decays by isomeric process which emits gamma rays and low energy beta particles. (author)

  14. Radioisotopes and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To stimulate research into problems of rice cultivation, the International Atomic Energy Agency has placed several research contracts with agricultural institutes in some of its Member States. Some of these research projects deal with problems of soil-plant relations and fertilization, and rice is one of the main crops on which studies are being made. A panel of experts convened by the Agency met in Vienna in May this year to discuss some of the outstanding problems in the uses of radioisotopes in soil-plant relations and fertilization studies, and problems concerning rice were among the principal subjects considered. In a paper presented at the panel meeting. Professor S. Mitsui, of the University of Tokyo, reviewed some of the main uses of radioisotopes in studying problems of rice soils and rice cultivation and suggested several specific topics in this field which could be investigated by isotope techniques

  15. Radio-isotope converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the surface power density required for thermoelectric and thermionic converters, available radioactive sources are surveyed and listed. Curves of specific minimum diameter versus thermal flux density are given. 210Po and 242Cm appear to be suitable for direct thermionic when alpha emitters such as 238Pu and 244Cm are still suitable for thermoelectric conversion. This mode will also work with beta emitters 170Tm, 90Sr, 144Ce and 137Cs. Some thermoelectric radioisotope heated converters are suggested. (authors)

  16. Radioisotope analyzer of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principle of operation and construction of radioisotope barium sulphate analyzer type MZB-2 for fast determination of barium sulphate content in barite ores and enrichment products are described. The gauge equipped with Am-241 and a scintillation detector enables measurement of barium sulphate content in prepared samples of barite ores in the range 60% - 100% with the accuracy of 1%. The gauge is used in laboratories of barite mine and ore processing plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  17. Radioisotope programme in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Research Centre of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran has taken up a program for the production of short-lived radioisotopes. The initial purpose of this program was to give service to isotope users, mainly researchers, who were importing radioisotopes. With the commissioning of the reactor and installation of handling facilities at the temporary isotope laboratories at NRC the scope of the production program elaborated. Meanwhile the application of radiopharmaceuticals in medicine was actively encouraged. The production of radioisotopes in medicine is one of the prime objectives. The development of Tc-99m technology in NRC of AEOI will not only meet the demands of existing nuclear medicine centres, but also help the country to develop know-how in this important area. The output of this project will be the production and supply of Tc-99m generator, which is a primary objective with the technical assistance of IAEA. At the present moment the Tc-99m is processing using Mo-99 produced in the NRC reactor by irradiation Mo03. In view of the easier availability of fission product Mo-99 from several suppliers, now the NRC is seriously considering the preparation of Tc-99m generators using imported fission Mo-99. We are also working on the production of high specific activity Cr-51, P-32, S-33 and Au-198 colloid and some other short-lived radioisotopes in milicurie level. Iodine-131 is processed using the wet distillation method with good recovery. The iodine-131 is tested for radiochemical purity tellurium content and radionuclide purity and is found to be satisfactory. With these studies the processing and quality control of I-131 can be considered complete and batches of one curie activity can be planned. Specifications have been standardized for I-131 labelled formulations radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  18. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  19. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Advances in Radioisotope Handling Facilities and Automation of Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Founded in 1959, the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences began to produce radioactive isotopes in 1964. Since then, it has become a major Hungarian centre of research, development and production relating to the application of radioisotopes. Since 1993 a part of the former Institute has been operating as the Institute of Isotopes Co., Ltd. The main advances in radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production are presented here. (author)

  1. An ultra low-power off-line APDM-based switchmode power supply with very high conversion efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Nils

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the results from the research work on design of a ultra low power off-line power supply with very high conversion efficiency. The input voltage is 230 VAC nominal and output voltage is 5 VDC. By ultra low power levels, an output power level in the area ranging from 50 mW and up to 1000 mW is meant. The small power supply is intended for use as a standby power supply in mains operated equipment, which requires a small amount of power in standby mode.

  2. An ultra low-power off-line APDM-based switchmode power supply with very high conversion efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    This article describes the results from the research work on design of a ultra low power off-line power supply with very high conversion efficiency. The input voltage is 230 VAC nominal and output voltage is 5 VDC. By ultra low power levels, an output power level in the area ranging from 50 mW and...... up to 1000 mW is meant. The small power supply is intended for use as a standby power supply in mains operated equipment, which requires a small amount of power in standby mode....

  3. Sleep parameters, functional status and time post-stroke are associated with off-line motor skill learning in people with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eSiengsukon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mounting evidence demonstrates that individuals with stroke benefit from sleep to enhance learning of a motor task. While stage NREM2 sleep and REM sleep have been associated with off-line motor skill learning in neurologically-intact individuals, it remains unknown which sleep parameters or specific sleep stages are associated with off-line motor skill learning in individuals with stroke. Methods: Twenty individuals with chronic stroke (> 6 months following stroke and 10 neurologically slept for three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Participants practiced a tracking task the morning before the third night and underwent a retention test the morning following the third night. Off-line learning on the tracking task was assessed. Pearson’s correlations assessed for associations between the magnitude of off-line learning and sleep variables, age, upper extremity motor function, stroke severity, depression and time since stroke occurrence.Results: Individuals with stroke performed with significantly less error on the tracking task following a night of sleep (p=.006 while the control participants did not (p=.816. Increased sleep efficiency (r= -.285, less time spent in stage NREM3 sleep (r=.260, and more time spent in stage REM sleep (r= -.266 was weakly-to-moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Furthermore, higher upper-extremity motor function (r = -.400, lower stroke severity (r = .360, and less time since stroke occurrence (r=.311 were moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Conclusion: This study is the first study to provide insight into which sleep stages and individual characteristics may be associated with off-line learning in people with stroke. Future work should continue to understand which factors or combination of factors promote off-line motor learning in people with neurologic injury to best promote motor recovery in

  4. Radioisotope production in target fragmentation with high-energy heavy ions at HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve utilisation of the multitracer method, two aspects of the method were pursued in this study. The production of radioisotopes from target fragmentation of 197Au nuclei was performed with high-energetic heavy ions of 12C (180, 290, 400 MeV/u) and 40Ar (290, 650 MeV/u) at HIMAC facilities. The yields of products were measured by using a thick-target-thick-catcher method and off-line gamma spectrometry with Ge semiconductor detectors. Besides, a special apparatus for practice of the radioisotope production was designed in application of the tracers for separation of the products from target material with high efficiency and the target material and shape for the design was investigated in a trial examination. (author)

  5. A new in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy laboratory for off-line studies at KU Leuven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Creemers, P.; Ferrer, R.; Granados, C.; Gaffney, L. P.; Huyse, M.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Raeder, S.; Sels, S.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique is used to produce and to investigate short-lived radioactive isotopes at on-line ion beam facilities. In this technique, the nuclear reaction products recoiling out of a thin target are thermalized and neutralized in a high-pressure noble gas, resonantly ionized by the laser beams in a two-step process, and then extracted from the ion source to be finally accelerated and mass separated. Resonant ionization of radioactive species in the supersonic gas jet ensures very high spectral resolution because of essential reduction of broadening mechanisms. To obtain the maximum efficiency and the best spectral resolution, properties of the supersonic jet and the laser beams must be optimized. To perform these studies a new off-line IGLIS laboratory, including a new high-repetition-rate laser system and a dedicated off-line mass separator, has been commissioned. In this article, the specifications of the different components necessary to achieve optimum conditions in laser-spectroscopy studies of radioactive beams using IGLIS are discussed and the results of simulations are presented.

  6. Marital satisfaction and break-ups differ across on-line and off-line meeting venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Gonzaga, Gian C; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2013-06-18

    Marital discord is costly to children, families, and communities. The advent of the Internet, social networking, and on-line dating has affected how people meet future spouses, but little is known about the prevalence or outcomes of these marriages or the demographics of those involved. We addressed these questions in a nationally representative sample of 19,131 respondents who married between 2005 and 2012. Results indicate that more than one-third of marriages in America now begin on-line. In addition, marriages that began on-line, when compared with those that began through traditional off-line venues, were slightly less likely to result in a marital break-up (separation or divorce) and were associated with slightly higher marital satisfaction among those respondents who remained married. Demographic differences were identified between respondents who met their spouse through on-line vs. traditional off-line venues, but the findings for marital break-up and marital satisfaction remained significant after statistically controlling for these differences. These data suggest that the Internet may be altering the dynamics and outcomes of marriage itself. PMID:23733955

  7. Radioisotopes in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa de Lima, Joao Jose [Servico de Biofisica/Biomatematica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    1998-11-01

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in medicine for diagnosis, either in vivo or in vitro, for therapeutics and also for investigation purposes. Nuclear medicine (Nm) studies in vivo are used to detect minimal amounts of radiopharmaceuticals in organs (the morphology) and their course over time (the function), resulting from physico-chemical interactions of the tracers within the body, in the sequence of specific physiological processes. In vitro applications of radioisotopes have become a most important tool in biochemical analysis. Therapeutic uses of radioisotopes cover from external gamma-ray sources in teleradiotherapy to direct cell irradiation in metabolic therapy. The information, which is conveyed by NM, is essentially metabolic and differs from that supplied by the other imaging techniques, which is basically structural. This quality is important in early detection and diagnosis. Efforts have steadily been made to bring NM imaging as close as possible to an ideal medical diagnostic tool: non-invasive and allowing studies yielding functional, morphological, three-dimensional and quantitative information simultaneously. Of the two tomographic techniques available in NM, positron emission tomography (PET) is probably closer to this goal than single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). High-contrast functional images of the dynamics of labelled molecules (native or functionally similar) that are metabolized by the organs under investigation, are obtained with these techniques. Nuclear medicine has progressed as a result of advances in four strategic areas: the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, the technology and reliability of detectors, the capacity for modelling the metabolic fate of the inputs in the biological systems, and finally the ability to extract and process data. (author)

  8. Retrospective analysis of prostate cancer patients with implanted gold markers using off-line and adaptive therapy protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of applying adaptive and off-line setup correction models to bony anatomy and gold fiducial markers implanted in the prostate, relative to daily alignment to skin tattoos and daily on-line corrections of the implanted gold markers. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with implanted gold fiducial markers were treated using a daily on-line setup correction protocol. The patients' positions were aligned to skin tattoos and two orthogonal diagnostic digital radiographs were obtained before treatment each day. These radiographs were compared with digitally reconstructed radiographs to obtain the translational setup errors of the bony anatomy and gold markers. The adaptive, no-action-level and shrinking-action-level off-line protocols were retrospectively applied to the bony anatomy to determine the change in the setup errors of the gold markers. The protocols were also applied to the gold markers directly to determine the residual setup errors. Results: The percentage of remaining fractions that the gold markers fell within the adaptive margins constructed with 1.5σ' (estimated random variation) after 5, 10, and 15 measurement fractions was 74%, 88%, and 93% for the prone patients and 55%, 77%, and 93% for the supine patients, respectively. Using 2σ', the percentage after 5, 10, and 15 measurements was 85%, 95%, and 97% for the prone patients and 68%, 87%, and 99% for the supine patients, respectively. The average initial three-dimensional (3D) setup error of the gold markers was 0.92 cm for the prone patients and 0.70 cm for the supine patients. Application of the no-action-level protocol to bony anatomy with Nm = 3 days resulted in significant benefit to 4 of 10 patients, but 3 were significantly worse. The residual average 3D setup error of the gold markers was 1.14 cm and 0.51 cm for the prone and supine patients, respectively. When applied directly to the gold markers with Nm = 3 days, 5 patients benefited and 3

  9. Radioisotope powered light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, F. N.; Remini, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used for a number of years to excite phosphors to produce visible light. The advent of the nuclear age, however, made possible the preparation of radionuclides in larger quantities at relatively low prices, and with radiation properties that greatly expanded the potential applications for such lights. Current energy conservation needs and inflation leading to even higher costs for maintenance and capital equipment has provided the incentive for development of illuminators for air field markers using both byproduct krypton-85 and processed tritium. Background and current status of these developments are discussed.

  10. Radioisotope powered light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have been used for a number of years to excite phosphors to produce visible light. The advent of the nuclear age, however, made possible the preparation of radionuclides in larger quantities at relatively low prices, and with radiation properties that greatly expanded the potential applications for such lights. Current energy conservation needs and inflation leading to even higher costs for maintenance and capital equipment has provided the incentive for development of illuminators for air field markers using both byproduct krypton-85 and processed tritium. Background and current status of these developments are discussed

  11. Frontiers in radioisotope application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes and radiation are being used in numerous and diverse fields to benefit mankind. A glimpse at the recent advances in terms of usage of new radionuclides or new techniques, in some of the important areas are discussed. Use of radionuclides in medicine, industries, agriculture and water resource management are delineated. The various uses of radiation such as cancer therapy, sterilization of medical products, disinfestation of food products, food preservation, industrial radiography, nucleonic gauges, crop mutation to raise better quality seeds, cross-linking and curing of materials, coatings etc. and treatment of municipal waste are discussed. (author). 56 refs., 4 tabs

  12. The anticentre old open clusters Berkeley 27, Berkeley 34, and Berkeley 36: new additions to the BOCCE project

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, P; Cignoni, M; Cocozza, G; Tosi, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the investigation of the evolutionary status of three open clusters: Berkeley 27, Berkeley 34, and Berkeley 36, all located in the Galactic anti-centre direction. All of them were observed with SUSI2@NTT using the Bessel B, V, and I filters. The cluster parameters have been obtained using the synthetic colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) method i.e. the direct comparison of the observational CMDs with a library of synthetic CMDs generated with different evolutionary sets (Padova, FRANEC, and FST). This analysis shows that Berkeley 27 has an age between 1.5 and 1.7 Gyr, a reddening E(B-V) in the range 0.40 and 0.50, and a distance modulus (m-M)_0 between 13.1 and 13.3; Berkeley 34 is older with an age in the range 2.1 and 2.5 Gyr, E(B-V) between 0.57 and 0.64, and (m-M)_0 between 14.1 and 14.3; Berkeley 36, with an age between 7.0 and 7.5 Gyr, has a reddening E(B-V)~0.50 and a distance modulus (m-M)_0 between 13.1 and 13.2. For all the clusters our analysis suggests a sub-solar metallicity ...

  13. The Berkeley Digital Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, B.; Dreger, D.; Neuhauser, D.; Karavas, W.; Hellweg, M.; Uhrhammer, R.; Lombard, P.; Friday, J.; Lellinger, R.; Gardner, J.; McKenzie, M. R.; Bresloff, C.

    2007-05-01

    Since it began monitoring earthquakes in northern California 120 years ago, the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) has been striving to produce the highest quality and most complete seismic data possible in the most modern way. This goal has influenced choices in instrumentation, installation and telemetry, as well as the investment in expertise and manpower. Since the transition to broadband (BB) instrumentation in the mid- 1980s and to a fully digitally telemetered network in the early 1990s, we have continued these efforts. Each of our 25 BB installations includes three component BB seismometers (STS-1s or STS-2) and digital accelerometers to capture the full range of ground motion from distant teleseisms to large, nearby earthquakes (almost 250 dB). The ground motion is recorded on-site by 24 bit dataloggers. Additional environmental parameters, such as temperature and pressure, are also monitored continuously. Many stations record also C-GPS data that is transmitted continuously to the BSL via shared real-time telemetry. The BDSN's first stations were installed in abandoned mines. In the last 15 years, we developed installations using buried shipping containers to reduce environmental noise and provide security and easy access to the equipment. Data are transmitted in real-time at several sampling rates to one or more processing centers, using frame relay, radio, microwave, and/or satellite. Each site has 7-30 days of onsite data storage to guard against data loss during telemetry outages. Each station is supplied with backup batteries to provide power for 3 days. The BDSN real-time data acquisition, earthquake analysis and archiving computers are housed in a building built to "emergency grade" seismic standards, with air conditioning and power backed up by a UPS and a large generator. Data latency and power are monitored by automated processes that alert staff via pager and email. Data completeness and timing quality are automatically assessed on a daily

  14. Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility (formerly LOASIS) develops advanced accelerators and radiation sources. High gradient (1-100 GV/m) laser-plasma...

  15. Radioisotopes and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of radioisotopes and radiation processing has grown enormously all over the world with India being no exception. The chemistry and radiochemistry related inputs to the overall technology development and achievements have been, and will continue to be, of considerable value and importance in this multi-disciplinary and multi-specialty field. Harnessing further benefits as well as sustaining proven applications should be the goal in planning for the future. An objective analysis of the socio-economic impact and benefits from this field to the society at large will undoubtedly justify assigning continued high priority, and providing adequate resources and support, to relevant new projects and programmes on the anvil in the area of radioisotopes and radiation technology. It is necessary to nurture and strengthen inter-disciplinary and multi-specialty collaborations and cooperation - at both national and international level as a rule (not as exception) - for greater efficiency, cost-effectiveness and success of ongoing endeavors and future developments in this important field

  16. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  17. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  18. LookOnX: A new technological approach for the H1 off-line event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the re-engineering work achieved on a traditional-fashioned GKS graphical package with new open-quotes event drivenclose quotes concepts required by using workstation interactivity. The Off-line Event Display for the H1 experiment H1look was originally written using a basic kernel package - Look - that provides a uniform control engine for graphical modules based on conventional GKS graphics. The use of powerful UNIX workstations is growing daily and their new graphical functionalities and CPU power are well suited to interactive graphical data analysis. Therefore re-engineering work was needed to put in some new features such as: interactive manipulations of graphical objects; object oriented definitions of the graphical representations and connectivity between graphical objects and physical objects; multi-windowing facility

  19. The off-line data process program for scanning probe electron energy spectrometer based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It reports an off-line data process program developed by the graphical programming language Labview (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench), which is designed for a home-made scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES). According to the measuring mode (scanning mode or fixed mode) employed in our SPEES experiment, this program can select the corresponding mode to process the acquired data. This program includes the following functions: the batch process of data files, the selection of azimuthal angle range, the adjustment of coordinates origin, the calibration of electron energy, the process of electron energy spectrum and the correction of detection efficiency, and furthermore can display the spatial distribution, angular distribution, radial distribution and energy distribution of the electrons. The successful development of this data process program has laid the foundation for our research on SPEES experiment. (authors)

  20. An off-line dual maximum resource bin packing model for solving the maintenance problem in the aviation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Gruia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aviation industry, propeller motor engines have a lifecycle of several thousand hours of flight and the maintenance is an important part of their lifecycle. The present article considers a multi-resource, priority-based case scheduling problem, which is applied in a Romanian manufacturing company, that repairs and maintains helicopter and airplane engines at a certain quality level imposed by the aviation standards. Given a reduced budget constraint, the management’s goal is to maximize the utilization of their resources (financial, material, space, workers, by maintaining a prior known priority rule. An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing model, based on a Mixed Integer Programming model is thus presented. The obtained results show an increase with approx. 25% of the Just in Time shipping of the engines to the customers and approx. 12,5% increase in the utilization of the working area.

  1. Estudi etnogràfic d'un grup híbrid on-line/off-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomàs i Justribó, Santiago

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This research analyses the patterns of social interaction of a specific group of young people who play on-line games in a cybercafe in Barcelona. This group can be classified as a hybrid -on-line/off-line- since their face-to-face interaction alternates with, and is frequently superimposed on, their virtual interaction. This means that the delocalization that accompanies other uses of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs occurs only in a limited way. What does take place is a reinterpretation of the forms of social interaction of whatever group of young people; at the same time, there is also an interpretation of new information technologies, adapting them to traditional forms of socialization. It is possible to observe how physical place and cyberplace are united and intermingled in various ways, as are face-to-face life and cyber-experience.

  2. Double Off-line Two-dimensional Liquid Chromatography for Separation and Identification of Compounds in Salvia Miltiorrhiza (Danshen)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xia Wang; Xiu-li Zhang; Fan Yang; Hong-li Jin; Li-ying Shi; Wei-jia Zhou; Yan-fang Liu; Xin-miao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Danshen is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Separation and analysis of its components have been widely investigated. However, the systematical two dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) methods have not been developed to comprehensively separate and characterize its components. Objective:In this work, double off-line 2D-LC methods were aimed to develop for the systematical separation of compounds from Danshen. Methods: Using solid phase extraction (SPE), the Danshen extract was divided into a medium-polar fraction (Sample I) and a weak-polar fraction (Sample II) according to their polarities. Based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) modes, a 2D-HILIC × RPLC system and a 2D-RPLC × RPLC system were designed for the separation of Sample I and Sample II, respectively. According to reversed-phase and HILIC columns selectivities characterized in our previous reports, ZIC-HILIC and XTerra C18 were employed to build the 2D-HILIC × RPLC system and Click TE-CD and XTerra C18 for the 2D-RPLC × RPLC system, respectively. Results:The 2D-HILIC × RPLC and 2D-RPLC × RPLC systems exhibited excellent orthogonality for the separation of Sample I and Sample II, respectively. Their orthogonalities were 88.42%and 63.24%. Based on these double 2D-LC systems combined with mass spectrometry, at least 200 compounds were found and 33 compounds of them were identified, including 16 phenolic acids and 17 diterpenoid quinines. Conclusion:These results suggest that these two off-line 2D-LC methods are effective for the separation and characterization of components in Danshen.

  3. Application of off-line error correction method software to reproduce random signals on servo-hydraulic testers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Braska

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents an approach towards improving the test rig performance for road signals used in automotive shock absorber tests. The goal is to develop a method for correction of the test signal profile in the off-line mode. The method is intended to be implemented as a software solution without any changes either in hardware or the settings of the servo-hydraulic tester.Design/methodology/approach: A two-stage validation of the proposed correction method was conducted using a servo-hydraulic test rig and its first-principles model. The model is capable of capturing key dynamical properties over a wide operating range while being only moderately complex. Both simulation and experimental performance results are presented and discussed.Findings: The proposed method, both in the frequency and time domain, improves the tracking of the test signal by 10-20% and allows an accuracy of more than 90% to be gained using the best fit measure in the case of reproduction of white noise signals.Research limitations/implications: It is possible to consider more advanced model-based methods for performing off-line error correction. These methods can be used if an accuracy close to 100% is expected.Practical implications: The result of the investigations is the algorithm implemented in the LabView software to automatically perform the correction of the test signal before the test.Originality/value: The paper proposes a modern approach towards the validation process by applying a simulation environment. This ensures the involvement of arbitrary disturbance models to investigate key parameters of the correction method without expensive and time-consuming experimental validation. The developed model can be extended to a model of a shock absorber to simulate full interaction between the servo-hydraulic test rig and the tested product.

  4. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  5. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  6. Radioisotopes in sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have two main uses in sedimentology: they are used for the study of sediment movements in rivers and seas, and for continuous measurements of the amount of sediment suspended in a given medium. These two uses are considered in detail, and brief accounts given of some other uses. Study of sediment movements. After describing the basic technique used in sediment movement studies (injection of a labelled sediment or a simulator into the current, followed by tracking the radioactivity), the author enumerates as fully as possible the problems that can be solved with the help of this technique. Essentially, these problems fall into two groups: 1. Problems related to civil engineering works in coastal areas: the siltation of harbour channels and docks, the formation of banks and bars, the choice of sites for disposing of dredged sediment, the siting of ports, coastline protection, etc. Problems associated with civil engineering works in and near rivers; siting of the water intakes of hydroelectric and nuclear power stations, the effects of construction work on the transport of solids, the construction of dams, the protection of river banks, the construction of jetties, the siltation of lakes, etc. Problems common to these include the transport of effluent and the calibration of hydraulic models. The bibliography is based mainly on fairly recent references and on current research work. 2. Problems related to basic or applied research conducted mainly by universities and research centres: the study of the Quarternary of a particular region, pure sedimentology, the investigation of major sediment transport currents, the confirmation or refutation of transport theories, research into fundamental transport phenomena associated with channel experiments. After referring to the possible exploitation of natural tracers (contained in radioactive waste and fallout), the author discusses the technical aspects of using artificial tracers: the choice of radioisotope

  7. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99/sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  8. The search for new radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus-30 was the first artificial radioisotope, it was produced by F. and I. Joliot-Curie in 1934, since then 2460 new nuclei have been discovered. This document reviews the radioisotopes known and the methods used to separate them. The authors describe the discovery of new radioisotopes such as Nickel-78 produced in the fission of high energy uranium ions impinging on a lead target (IPN-GSI collaboration) and the discovery of Nickel-48 by a team CENBG-Ganil. All this experience is useful for the processing of nuclear wastes by using transmutation. (A.C.)

  9. Milliwatt Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Studies of potential space missions have highlighted the need for very small electric power supplies for a variety of applications. The light weight radioisotope...

  10. Industrial applications of radioisotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope tracing techniques are powerful tools for analysing the behaviour of large systems and investigating industrially or economically important processes. The results of radioisotope experiments can yield important information, for example, on parameters such as flow rates, mixing phenomena, flow abnormalities and leaks. Some examples of current AAEC research are described, covering studies on hearth drainage in blast furnaces, flow behaviour in waste-water treatment ponds, and sediment transport in marine environments

  11. Medical application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  12. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  13. SU-C-303-04: Evaluation of On- and Off-Line Bioluminescence Tomography System for Focal Irradiation Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We have developed offline and on-board bioluminescence tomography(BLT) systems for the small animal radiation research platform(SARRP) for radiation guidance of soft tissue targets. We investigated the effectiveness of offline BLT guidance. Methods: CBCT is equipped on both the offline BLT system and SARRP that are 10 ft. apart. To evaluate the setup error during animal transport between the two systems, we implanted a luminescence source in the abdomen of anesthetized mice. Five mice were studied. After CBCT was acquired on both systems, source centers and correlation coefficients were calculated. CBCT was also used to generate object mesh for BLT reconstruction. To assess target localization, we compared the localization of the luminescence source based on (1)on-board SARRP BLT and CBCT, (2)offline BLT and CBCT, and (3)offline BLT and SARRP CBCT. The 3rd comparison examines if an offline BLT system can be used to guide radiation when there is minimal target contrast in CBCT. Results: Our CBCT results show the offset of the light source center can be maintained within 0.2 mm during animal transport. The center of mass(CoM) of the light source reconstructed by the offline BLT has an offset of 1.0 ± 0.4 mm from the ‘true’ CoM as derived from the SARRP CBCT. The results compare well with the offset of 1.0 ± 0.2 mm using on-line BLT. Conclusion: With CBCT information provided by the SARRP and effective animal immobilization during transport, these findings support the use of offline BLT in close vicinity for accurate soft tissue target localization for irradiation. However, the disadvantage of the off-line system is reduced efficiency as care is required to maintain stable animal transport. We envisage a dual use system where the on-board arrangement allows convenient access to CBCT and avoids disturbance of animal setup. The off-line capability would support standalone longitudinal imaging studies. The work is supported by NIH R01CA158100 and Xstrahl

  14. SU-C-303-04: Evaluation of On- and Off-Line Bioluminescence Tomography System for Focal Irradiation Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B; Wang, K; Reyes, J; Tran, P; Wong, J [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Iordachita, I [Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We have developed offline and on-board bioluminescence tomography(BLT) systems for the small animal radiation research platform(SARRP) for radiation guidance of soft tissue targets. We investigated the effectiveness of offline BLT guidance. Methods: CBCT is equipped on both the offline BLT system and SARRP that are 10 ft. apart. To evaluate the setup error during animal transport between the two systems, we implanted a luminescence source in the abdomen of anesthetized mice. Five mice were studied. After CBCT was acquired on both systems, source centers and correlation coefficients were calculated. CBCT was also used to generate object mesh for BLT reconstruction. To assess target localization, we compared the localization of the luminescence source based on (1)on-board SARRP BLT and CBCT, (2)offline BLT and CBCT, and (3)offline BLT and SARRP CBCT. The 3rd comparison examines if an offline BLT system can be used to guide radiation when there is minimal target contrast in CBCT. Results: Our CBCT results show the offset of the light source center can be maintained within 0.2 mm during animal transport. The center of mass(CoM) of the light source reconstructed by the offline BLT has an offset of 1.0 ± 0.4 mm from the ‘true’ CoM as derived from the SARRP CBCT. The results compare well with the offset of 1.0 ± 0.2 mm using on-line BLT. Conclusion: With CBCT information provided by the SARRP and effective animal immobilization during transport, these findings support the use of offline BLT in close vicinity for accurate soft tissue target localization for irradiation. However, the disadvantage of the off-line system is reduced efficiency as care is required to maintain stable animal transport. We envisage a dual use system where the on-board arrangement allows convenient access to CBCT and avoids disturbance of animal setup. The off-line capability would support standalone longitudinal imaging studies. The work is supported by NIH R01CA158100 and Xstrahl

  15. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes find extensive applications in several fields including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programmes. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. Specifications for final products and testing procedures for ensuring quality are also an essential part of a radioisotope production programme. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has compiled and published such information before for the benefit of laboratories of Member States. The first compilation, entitled Manual of Radioisotope Production, was published in 1966 (Technical Reports Series No. 63). A more elaborate and comprehensive compilation, entitled Radioisotope Production and Quality Control, was published in 1971 (Technical Reports Series No. 128). Both served as useful reference sources for scientists working in radioisotope production worldwide. The 1971 publication has been out of print for quite some time. The IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider the need for compiling an updated manual. The consultants recommended the publication of an updated manual taking the following into consideration: significant changes have taken place since 1971 in many aspects of radioisotope production; many radioisotopes have been newly introduced while many others have become gradually obsolete; considerable experience and knowledge have been gained in production of important radioisotopes over the years, which can be preserved through compilation of the manual; there is still a need for a comprehensive manual on radioisotope production methods for new entrants to the field, and as a reference. It was also felt that updating all the subjects covered in the 1971 manual at a time may not be practical considering the

  16. The Berkeley Low Background Facility and the Black Hills State University Underground Campus at SURF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Keenan; Mount, Brianna; Lesko, Kevin; Norman, Eric; Smith, Alan; Poon, Alan; Chan, Yuen-Dat

    2015-10-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility at LBNL provides a variety of low background gamma spectroscopy services to a variety of projects and experiments. It operates HPGe spectrometers in two unique facilities: a surface low background lab at LBNL and underground (4300 m.w.e.) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. A large component of the measurements performed by the BLBF are for ultralow background experiments concerned with U, Th, K, and other radioisotopes within candidate construction materials to be used to construct sensitive detectors, such as those studying dark matter or neutrinos. The BLBF also makes a variety of environmental measurements in search of other radioisotopes, such as fallout from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011 and other radioisotope monitoring activities. A general overview of the services and facilities will be presented. In 2015, the BLBF will be relocating its underground counting stations to a new, dedicated space on the 4850L of SURF. The Black Hills State University Underground Campus will host several low background counting stations and operate in a coordinated manner to provide low background measurements to the scientific community. An overview and description of the BHUC will be presented.

  17. The off-line programming and simulation software for the Mitsubishi Movemaster RV-M1 robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Świder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Contemporary robotics requires modern instruments for programming, control and supervising ofrobots’ work. It becomes necessary to strict adjust the robot in its working environment after tests on a virtualmodel of the robot and its surroundings. The aim of present work is a presentation of preliminary version ofthe system for off-line programming, simulation and remote supervision of the Mitsubishi Movemaster RV-M1robot.Design/methodology/approach: The robot installed in institute’s laboratory has been used in research work.Attention has been focused on creating of universal software, which could be developed in the future.Findings: In result of carried work a first version of the software has been developed. It has network orientedmodular structure.Research limitations/implications: The code of the software has been developed in high level programmingin such manner, that allows further translation and transfer to the other system platform. Far-reaching plansinclude creation of universal form of the software, which could be applied to majority of system platforms andcan operate with different types of robots.Practical implications: Created software has presently didactic character and it is used during conduction oflaboratory classes.Originality/value: Conducted works have in view a creation of universal and modular software. Existingcommercial solutions are usually dedicated to a concrete type of robot.

  18. TLC/IR (UATR off-line coupling for the characterization of additives in EPDM rubber compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Damazio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The knowledge of the components that constitutes a rubber composition is important to justify the properties of the final device, particularly when it comes to elastomeric compositions used in the aerospace industry. The development of methodologies that can detect components, specially the smallest proportion of the rubbers composition is a constant challenge and an important gap in the studies of this nature. Therefore, methodologies by using standard techniques and/or of last generation are important in rubber industry and research laboratories, aiming application in related research. In this context, this study shows the coupling/association techniques (off-line of thin layer chromatography and infrared spectroscopy (TLC/IR, being the IR spectra obtained by universal attenuated total reflection (UATR, applied to the analysis of additives in rubber compositions of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM. Two EPDM compositions, a kind of eluent system and Gibbs' reagent, as developer, were used. Basically, all organic components were detected by this methodology, being possible to suggest that it can be applied for detecting additives of similar chemical structures, even though it's presents in small amounts in the composition.

  19. CTF/STAR-CD off-line coupling for simulation of crossflow caused by mixing vane spacers in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the impact of the spacer grids on the reactor core thermal-hydraulics involves experimental mockup tests, numerical simulations, and development of reliable empirical or semi-empirical models. The state-of-the-art in modeling spacer effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the flow in Light Water Reactor (LWR) rod bundles employs numerical experiments by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations. The capabilities of the CFD codes are usually being validated against mock-up tests. Once validated, the CFD predictions can be used for improvement and development of more sophisticated models of the subchannel codes. Because of the involved computational cost, CFD codes can not be yet efficiently utilized for full bundle predictions, while advanced subchannel codes are a powerful tool for LWR safety and design analyses. Subchannel analyses are used for whole LWR core evaluations with relatively short CPU times and reasonable computer resources. The objectives of the presented work were to develop, implement, and qualify an innovative spacer grid model utilizing the Computational Fluid Dynamics within a framework of an efficient subchannel analysis tool. A methodology was developed for off-line coupling between the CFD code STAR-CD and the subchannel code CTF. The developed coupling scheme is flexible in axial mesh overlays. It was developed to be easily adapted to any pair of a CFD and a subchannel code. Separate modeling of the spacer grid effects on the diffusive and on the convective processes was implemented and successfully validated against experimental data. (author)

  20. In-die ultrasonic and off-line air-coupled monitoring and characterization techniques for drug tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. D.; Kowalczyk, B. R.; Hancock, B. C.; Kaul, G.; Akseli, I.; Cetinkaya, C.

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical integrity and properties of drug tablets may adversely affect their therapeutic and structural functions. An embedded ultrasound monitoring system for tablet mechanical property monitoring during compaction and a non-contact/non-destructive off-line air-coupled technique for determining the mechanical properties of coated drug tablets are presented. In the compaction monitoring system, the change of ToF and the reflection coefficient for the upper-punch surface interface as a function of compaction pressure has been studied. In the air-coupled measurement approach, air-coupled excitation and laser interferometric detection are utilized and their effectiveness in characterizing the mechanical properties of a drug tablet by examining its vibrational resonance frequencies is demonstrated. An iterative computational procedure based on the finite element method and Newton's method is developed to extract the mechanical properties of the coated tablet from a subset of its measured resonance frequencies. The mechanical properties characterized by this technique are compared to those obtained by a contact ultrasonic method.

  1. Reorganizing the Biological Sciences at Berkeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trow, Martin A.

    1983-01-01

    The University of California at Berkeley's substantial reorganization of the biological sciences due to internal and external needs is chronicled, focusing on the coordinated efforts of the institution and the strong, supportive leadership of the chancellor. The story is presented as an unusual case of institutional leadership within a highly…

  2. Applications of radioisotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, radioisotope techniques have found ever-increasing application to the investigation of industrial process plant. The chemical industry in particular was quick to appreciate this potential and in ICI the substantial scope for radioisotope applications led some 20 years ago to the establishment of a group specializing in this field. This group, Physics and Radioisotope Services has flourished and now carries out work for all parts of ICI as well as for external companies. An important factor in the growth of this organization has been the realization on the part of production management of the enormous savings which can result from the successful applications of radioisotope techniques. Measurements can, in general, be made while the plant is on-line disrupting the operating conditions and thus saving down-time. In addition, the rapidity and convenience with which the measurements can be made (utilizing as they do equipment external to the process) leads to a direct reduction in service costs. In parallel with the growth of radioisotope techniques in plant investigation, there has been a continuous development of instruments which utilize the properties of radioactive materials in process measurement and control. These so-called ''nucleonic'' instruments are now used widely throughout industry. Typically, ICI manufactures and installs over 300 such instruments every year on its own plants along-through the number of gauges installed throughout industry is much greater than this. The range of radioisotope techniques and instruments is extremely wide and this topic has itself been the subject of several symposia (1), (2), (3), (4), (5). For this reason, it is impractical to attempt a full coverage here. We have chosen rather to restrict the paper to those techniques and instruments which have been found to be used most extensively. This selection has been made by analyzing the work spectrum of Physics and Radioisotope Services which carries out in

  3. Homogeneous aqueous solution nuclear reactors for the production of Mo-99 and other short lived radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m (99mTc), the daughter of Molybdenum-99 (99Mo), is the most commonly used medical radioisotope in the world. It accounts for over twenty-five million medical procedures each year worldwide, comprising about 80% of all radiopharmaceutical procedures. 99Mo is mostly prepared by the fission of uranium-235 targets in a nuclear reactor with a fission yield of about 6.1%. Currently over 95% of the fission product 99Mo is obtained using highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. Smaller scale producers use low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. Small quantities of 99Mo are also produced by neutron activation through the use of the (n, γ) reaction. The concept of a compact homogeneous aqueous reactor fuelled by a uranium salt solution with off-line separation of radioisotopes of interest (99Mo, 131I) from aliquots of irradiated fuel solution has been cited in a few presentations in the series of International Conference on Isotopes (ICI) held in Vancouver (2000), Cape Town (2003) and Brussels (2005) and recently some corporate interest has also been noticeable. Calculations and some experimental research have shown that the use of aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHRs) could be an efficient technology for fission radioisotope production, having some prospective advantages compared with traditional technology based on the use of solid uranium targets irradiated in research reactors. This review of AHR status and prospects by a team of experts engaged in the field of homogeneous reactors and radioisotope producers yields an objective evaluation of the technological challenges and other relevant implications. The meeting to develop this report facilitated the exchange of information on the 'state of the art' of the technology related to homogeneous aqueous solution nuclear reactors, especially in connection with the production of radioisotopes. This publication presents a summary of discussions of a consultants meeting which is followed by the technical presentations

  4. Economic effects in radioisotope-utilizing instruments and their problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic effects at present have been investigated limiting to radioisotope-utilizing instruments for industrial application. These instruments have increased year by year since they were introduced into Japanese industry about a quarter century ago, and reached 6058 sets as of March, 1976, in all industrial fields. Most widely used instruments are thickness gauges, level gauges, densimeters, moisture gauges and sulphur analyzers in this order. Methods for analyzing the economic effects includes several systems, and here, the cost-benefit ratio (C/B) method, which is called IAEA system, was adopted. Investigation has been conducted only on thickness gauges for paper making, coating film thickness gauges, sulphur analyzers and moisture gauges. For the thickness gauges, which are used a lot in paper machines and now fully automated, C/B is 1/3.16. The coating film thickness gauges are being changed from β-gauges to fluorescent X-ray system, and its C/B is equal to 1/30 to 1/50, very economical. Though the sulphur analyzers for oil industry are used off-line, here the on-line analyzers were investigated. The result of C/B of 1/10 was obtained for the plant whose production is 2,000 kl/day. The neutron moisture gauges are employed a lot specifically in iron and steel industry. Its C/B is from 1/20 to 1/40 for an example used in a pig iron plant. As seen above, the radioisotope- utilizing instruments have very high economic effects, and can contribute to energy saving, labor saving and resource saving in process and quality controls. (Wakatsuki, Y

  5. Radioisotopes for All - Low-energy accelerators for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Since the development of the tracer principle by George de Hevesy in 1913, radioisotopes have become an integral part of medical practice and research. The imaging modalities Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) have significantly enhanced our understanding of human biology and the development and progression of disease. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the cancer killing of radiation therapy with the targeting precision of immunotherapy to provide personalised cancer treatment. The technetium-99m crisis in 2008 highlighted the fragility of the current radioisotope supply network. Despite the significant impact of the shortages, only a handful of potential solutions have begun to be explored and developed. The supply of Tc-99m is again in doubt, with the shutdown of the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten looming in 2014. Low-energy accelerators have the potential to greatly increase the availability of radioisotopes by providing a small, lower-cost production solution. Implementing these as a system of localised production centres that supply a small area would greatly reduce the impact of a facility shutdown and eliminate the risk of world-wide shortages. An accelerator system that is not tailored to the production of a single isotope will allow researchers to explore new options for SPECT, PET and RIT and improve access to radioisotopes for medical testing. The potential of low-energy accelerators for radioisotope production will be explored. Several case studies of production will be presented using both well-established and new isotopes to the fields of nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. These will include zirconium-89, iodine-123 and titanium-45. Calculated yields will be compared to predicted nuclear medicine requirements. Expected radionuclidic impurities will also be quantified with a discussion of suitable, simple radiochemical separation systems. The DC electrostatic

  6. INR capabilities for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope production at INR Pitesti was developed upon the basis of two TRIGA reactors, one stationary and the other pulsed (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR 20000 MW). The TRIGA SSR 14 MW presents two types of neutron spectra in the irradiations channels: a thermal spectrum from a water channel in the core and a channel in the reflector, suitable for irradiations of materials with high thermal neutron cross sections; a hard spectrum of the fuel type obtained through the removal of a fuel pin in a cluster, suitable for irradiations of nuclides with significant epithermal. For the radioisotope production five irradiation devices were used: capsules with the raw materials; capsules for iridium; capsules for radioisotope of medical use; irradiations pins and capsules; capsules with pins. These devices are used for irradiations in the core for production of radioisotopes of industrial use (for instance 192 Ir). For irradiations in the reflector with develop special devices for the production of radioisotope medical used (131 I, 192 Ir and 60 Co). Underway are studies for establishing the optimal conditions for the production of the fission products 99 Mo, 131 I, 133 Xe and of 125 I produce by neutron activation

  7. Radioisotope methods in environmental hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with the regularities of distribution of two radioisotopes, tritium and radiocarbon, in the ground water system as well as with the applications of their indicatory feature to solve problems of environmental hydrogeology. The concept and objectives of environmental hydrogeology, methodology of radioisotopic hydrosphere studies and evolution of hydrogeological processes by radioisotopic methods have been discussed. The experience gained from applying the isotope methods for environmental hydrogeology purposes in the Baltic Artesian Basin covering all the three Baltic states - Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, as well as the Kaliningrad Region of Russia is generalized. This experience could be useful for specialists of other countries as well, especially those studying artesian basins of a platform type in the areas of former continental glaciers. 185 refs., 91 figs., 34 tabs

  8. Automatic localization of the prostate for on-line or off-line image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: With higher radiation dose, higher cure rates have been reported in prostate cancer patients. The extra margin needed to account for prostate motion, however, limits the level of dose escalation, because of the presence of surrounding organs at risk. Knowledge of the precise position of the prostate would allow significant reduction of the treatment field. Better localization of the prostate at the time of treatment is therefore needed, e.g. using a cone-beam computed tomography (CT) system integrated with the linear accelerator. Localization of the prostate relies upon manual delineation of contours in successive axial CT slices or interactive alignment and is fairly time-consuming. A faster method is required for on-line or off-line image-guided radiotherapy, because of prostate motion, for patient throughput and efficiency. Therefore, we developed an automatic method to localize the prostate, based on 3D gray value registration. Methods and materials: A study was performed on conventional repeat CT scans of 19 prostate cancer patients to develop the methodology to localize the prostate. For each patient, 8-13 repeat CT scans were made during the course of treatment. First, the planning CT scan and the repeat CT scan were registered onto the rigid bony structures. Then, the delineated prostate in the planning CT scan was enlarged by an optimum margin of 5 mm to define a region of interest in the planning CT scan that contained enough gray value information for registration. Subsequently, this region was automatically registered to a repeat CT scan using 3D gray value registration to localize the prostate. The performance of automatic prostate localization was compared to prostate localization using contours. Therefore, a reference set was generated by registering the delineated contours of the prostates in all scans of all patients. Gray value registrations that showed large differences with respect to contour registrations were detected with a χ2

  9. Design and development of direct off line switch mode magnet power supply for high current proton ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High current power supply having rating 10 V/200 A is used for the confinement of the plasma. This plasma is used for the generation of high intensity proton beam that is used for the study of various beam dynamics. In this paper we will present the detail design feature of this magnet power supply including the dynamics of control system. The power supply is redesigned in the lab in order to provide better closed loop regulation and system robustness. PI/PID converter is designed optimally to provide better time response with adequate robustness. The topology of power supply is based on the isolated DC-DC converter (direct off line and full- bridge isolated buck converter topology with soft switching technique) which is generally used to avoid the interference of low power control board with the high power side. In order to obtain the regulated DC output voltage initially 230V AC is first rectified then filtered to obtain unregulated 350V DC. After that this 350V is switched at 20 KHz by full wave bridge inverter circuit using IGBT as a switch to give high frequency AC output. This AC Voltage is fed to primary terminals of ferrite core center tape step down transformers, which gives 10V AC. This AC voltage is finally rectified and filtered with low pass LC filter to obtain 10VDC. The current regulation is achieved using feedback control loop by comparing the output current (through DCCT) with stable reference voltage. After comparison an error signal is fed to built-in error amplifier of PWM IC (SG2524), which in turns varies the duty cycle depending upon the error signals which drive IGBT through Opto isolator (TLP 250). Soft switching also used to mitigate switching loss and possibly reduce the generation of EMI in Semiconductor devices. The experimental result is presented for the verification of mathematical analysis. (author)

  10. Application of off-line image processing for optimization in chest computed radiography using a low cost system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhogora, Wilbroad E; Msaki, Peter; Padovani, Renato

    2015-01-01

     The objective of this study was to improve the visibility of anatomical details by applying off-line postimage processing in chest computed radiography (CR). Four spatial domain-based external image processing techniques were developed by using MATLAB software version 7.0.0.19920 (R14) and image processing tools. The developed techniques were implemented to sample images and their visual appearances confirmed by two consultant radiologists to be clinically adequate. The techniques were then applied to 200 chest clinical images and randomized with other 100 images previously processed online. These 300 images were presented to three experienced radiologists for image quality assessment using standard quality criteria. The mean and ranges of the average scores for three radiologists were characterized for each of the developed technique and imaging system. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to test the difference of details visibility between the images processed using each of the developed techniques and the corresponding images processed using default algorithms. The results show that the visibility of anatomical features improved significantly (0.005 ≤ p ≤ 0.02) with combinations of intensity values adjustment and/or spatial linear filtering techniques for images acquired using 60 ≤ kVp ≤ 70. However, there was no improvement for images acquired using 102 ≤ kVp ≤ 107 (0.127 ≤ p ≤ 0.48). In conclusion, the use of external image processing for optimization can be effective in chest CR, but should be implemented in consultations with the radiologists. PMID:26103165

  11. Apparatus for eluting a daughter radioisotope from a parent radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for eluting a sterile daughter radioisotope from a parent radioisotope including a case, a generator having a supply of the parent radioisotope therein, a primary shield enclosing the generator for shielding against radioactive emissions from the parent radioisotope, and an annular wall extending up from the bottom of the case defining a compartment for reception of the primary shield thereby to hold the latter in position within the case is described. A vertical web extends between the annular wall and an exterior wall of the case. An auxiliary shield of suitable shielding material (e.g., lead) generally of the height of the primary shield is provided, this auxiliary shield having an inner cylindric surface conforming generally to the outer surface of the annular wall and having a slot therein for receiving the web. Thus, with the auxiliary shield positioned in the case adjacent the annular wall and with the web received by the slot, the auxiliary shield is held by the web in position in the case for shielding the user from excessive radioactive emissions from the generator in the event the radioactive emissions from the generator exceed the shielding capability of the primary shield

  12. Production and Development of Radioisotopes in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this paper is to review the current activities at HANARO for the radioisotope production and related research activities in Korea, Also, the future directions in radioisotope production and its applications are described. (author)

  13. Political-social reactor problems at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For better than ten years there was little public notice of the TRIGA reactor at UC-Berkeley. Then: a) A non-student persuaded the Student and Senate to pass a resolution to request Campus Administration to stop operation of the reactor and remove it from campus. b) Presence of the reactor became a campaign-issue in a City Mayoral election. c) Two local residents reported adverse physical reactions before, during, and after a routine tour of the reactor facility. d) The Berkeley City Council began a study of problems associated with radioactive material within the city. e) Friends Of The Earth formally petitioned the NRC to terminate the reactor's license. Campus personnel have expended many man-hours and many pounds of paper in responding to these happenings. Some of the details are of interest, and may be of use to other reactor facilities. (author)

  14. Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences: Accelerating Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists today rely on advances in computer science, mathematics, and computational science, as well as large-scale computing and networking facilities, to increase our understanding of ourselves, our planet, and our universe. Berkeley Lab's Computing Sciences organization researches, develops, and deploys new tools and technologies to meet these needs and to advance research in such areas as global climate change, combustion, fusion energy, nanotechnology, biology, and astrophysics

  15. Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences: Accelerating Scientific Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hules, John A

    2009-01-01

    Scientists today rely on advances in computer science, mathematics, and computational science, as well as large-scale computing and networking facilities, to increase our understanding of ourselves, our planet, and our universe. Berkeley Lab's Computing Sciences organization researches, develops, and deploys new tools and technologies to meet these needs and to advance research in such areas as global climate change, combustion, fusion energy, nanotechnology, biology, and astrophysics.

  16. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 1993 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This annual Site Environmental Report summarizes Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s (LBL`s) environmental activities in calendar year (CY) 1993. The purpose of this report is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. Its format and content are consistent with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  17. C. Judson King of UC Berkeley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, John

    2005-06-01

    In the middle of the UC Berkeley campus, next to the Main Library, South Hall is the last surviving building from the original campus, founded about 135 years ago. A tiny tree-shaded appendix to this venerated classical building houses Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education, directed by C. Judson King, former Provost and Senior Vice President--Academic Affairs of the ten-campus University of California and long-time Professor of Chemical Engineering at Berkeley. Jud came to Berkeley in 1963 as assistant professor of chemical engineering, following receipt of a doctor's degree from MIT and a subsequent short appointment as director of the MIT chemical engineering practice school station at what was then Esso (now Exxon) in New Jersey. His undergraduate degree is from Yale. Starting with his MIT doctoral dissertation on gas absorption, Jud has devoted much of his professional career to separation processes. His teaching and research activities have been primarily concerned with separation of mixtures with emphasis on liquid-liquid extraction and drying. As a consultant to Procter and Gamble, he contributed to the technology of making instant coffee. His life-long activities in hiking and camping stimulated Jud's interest in the manufacture of freeze-dried foods (e.g. turkey meat) to minimize the weight of his hiking back-pack. Jud is internationally known not only for his many research publications but even more, for his acclaimed textbook ''Separation Processses'' (McGraw-Hill, second edition 1980) that is used in standard chemical engineering courses in the US and abroad.

  18. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  19. Real Time On-line Space Research Laboratory Environment Monitoring with Off-line Trend and Prediction Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2006-01-01

    their g-level contribution to the environment. The system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many Increments of the space station for selected disturbance activities. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential system failure as well as for use by research scientists during their science results analysis. Examples of both real time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line trend analysis are presented in this paper. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen s Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  20. A global off-line model of size-resolved aerosol microphysics: I. Model development and prediction of aerosol properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Spracklen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A GLObal Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP has been developed as an extension to the TOMCAT 3-D Eulerian off-line chemical transport model. GLOMAP simulates the evolution of the global aerosol size distribution using a sectional two-moment scheme and includes the processes of aerosol nucleation, condensation, growth, coagulation, wet and dry deposition and cloud processing. We describe the results of a global simulation of sulfuric acid and sea spray aerosol. The model captures features of the aerosol size distribution that are well established from observations in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere. Modelled condensation nuclei (CN>3nm vary between about 250–500 cm-3 in remote marine boundary layer regions and are generally in good agreement with observations. Modelled continental CN concentrations are lower than observed, which may be due to lack of some primary aerosol sources or the neglect of nucleation mechanisms other than binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid-water particles. Remote marine CN concentrations increase to around 2000–10 000 cm (at standard temperature and pressure in the upper troposphere, which agrees with typical observed vertical profiles. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN at 0.2% supersaturation vary between about 1000 cm-3 in polluted regions and between 10 and 500 cm-3 in the remote marine boundary layer. New particle formation through sulfuric acid-water binary nucleation occurs predominantly in the upper troposphere, but the model results show that these particles contribute greatly to aerosol concentrations in the marine boundary layer. For this sulfur-sea salt system it is estimated that sea spray emissions account for only ~10% of CCN in the tropical marine boundary layer, but between 20 and 75% in the mid-latitude Southern Ocean. In a run with only natural sulfate and sea salt emissions the global mean surface CN concentration is more than 60% of that from a run with 1985 anthropogenic

  1. Radioisotope methodology course radioprotection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancement knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology, which has taken place during the last 50 years, after World War II finalization, is really outstanding. It can be safely said that this fact is principally due to the application of radioisotope techniques. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The radioimmunoanalysis is today a routine method in endocrinology and in general clinical medicine. The receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation of different origins, for therapeutic purposes, should not be overlooked. For these reasons, the importance to teach radioisotope methodology is steadily growing. This is principally the case for specialization at the post-graduate level but at the pre graduate curriculum it is worthwhile to give some elementary theoretical and practical notions on this subject. These observations are justified by a more than 30 years teaching experience at both levels at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1960 we began to teach Physics III, an obligatory pregraduate course for biochemistry students, in which some elementary notions of radioactivity and measurement techniques were given. Successive modifications of the biochemistry pregraduate curriculum incorporated radiochemistry as an elective subject and since 1978, radioisotope methodology, as obligatory subject for biochemistry students. This subject is given at the radioisotope laboratory during the first semester of each year and its objective is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to the biochemistry students, even

  2. Radioisotope x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and x-ray preferential absorption (XRA) techniques are used extensively for the analysis of materials, covering such diverse applications as analysis of alloys, coal, environmental samples, paper, waste materials, and metalliferous mineral ores and products. Many of these analyses are undertaken in the harsh environment of industrial plants and in the field. Some are continuous on-line analyses of material being processed in industry, where instantaneous analysis information is required for the control of rapidly changing processes. Radioisotope x-ray analysis systems are often tailored to a specific but limited range of applications. They are simpler and often considerably less expensive than analysis systems based on x-ray tubes. These systems are preferred to x-ray tube techniques when simplicity, ruggedness, reliability, and cost of equipment are important; when minimum size, weight, and power consumption are necessary; when a very constant and predictable x-ray output is required; when the use of high-energy x-rays is advantageous; and when short x-ray path lengths are required to minimize the absorption of low-energy x-rays in air. This chapter reviews radioisotope XRF, preferential absorption, and scattering techniques. Some of the basic analysis equations are given. The characteristics of radioisotope sources and x-ray detectors are described, and then the x-ray analytical techniques are presented. The choice of radioisotope technique for a specific application is discussed. This is followed by a summary of applications of these techniques, with a more detailed account given of some of the applications, particularly those of considerable industrial importance. 79 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains via off-line two dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shujing; Liu, Qi; Xie, Yixi; Zeng, Hualiang; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    An off-line two dimensional (2D) high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) strategy was successfully used for preparative separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains with different solvent systems for the first time in this paper. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 3:5:3:5 (v/v) was selected as the first dimension solvent system to purify quercetin (4) and kaempferol (5). The second dimension solvent system, ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water 7:3:10 (v/v), was used to isolate quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), rutin (2) and kaempferol 3-rutinoside (3). The purities of these compounds were all above 96.0% and their structures were identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the off-line 2D HSCCC is an efficient technique to isolate flavonoids compounds from grains. PMID:25976805

  4. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalia, Giulia; Coelli, Stefania; Biffi, Emilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting "building blocks" into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis. PMID:27239191

  5. Dosimetric consequences of the application of off-line setup error correction protocols and a hull-volume definition strategy for intensity modulated radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the consequences of a planning volume definition based on multiple CTs and the application of off-line setup error correction for the treatment of prostate cancer with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Further, to compare various setup correction protocols (SCP) by their influence on the average dose distributions. Materials and methods: A planning target volume (PTV) consisting of the bounding volume of prostate contours of five CTs (CTVhull) plus an additional margin of 5 mm and a virtual Rectumhull volume (the solid bounding volume of the five corresponding rectum contours) are used for treatment planning. Simulations of treatment courses with the non-parametric bootstrap method allow to estimate the distribution of the expected equivalent uniform dose (EUD). The impact of off-line setup error correction protocols is evaluated based on estimated EUD distributions. Results: Off-line SCP allow to achieve the intended prostate and rectum EUD and a reliable coverage of the CTV despite the reduced margins. The EUD of the virtual hull volumes is a good estimate for the EUD of prostate and rectal wall. Conclusion: Treatment planning based on Rectumhull and CTVhull plus setup margin as PTV in combination with SCP results in a robust and safe IMRT planning concept

  6. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting “building blocks” into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis.

  7. Present status of OAP radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope Production Program (RP), Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) is a non-profit government organization which responsible for research development and service of radioisotopes. Several research works on radioisotope production have been carried on at OAP. The radioisotope products of successful R and D have been routinely produced to supply for medical, agriculture and research application. The main products are 131I (solution and capsule), 131I-MIBG, 131I-Hippuran, 153Sm-EDTMP, 153Sm-HA, and 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical kits to serve local users. Radioisotopes are very beneficial for science and human welfare so as almost of our products and services are mainly utilized for medical purpose for both diagnosis and therapy. OAP has a policy to serve and response to that community by providing radioisotopes and services with high quality but reasonable price. This policy will give the opportunity to the community to utilize these radioisotopes for their healthcare. (author)

  8. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 1994 site environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1994 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the calendar year (CY) 1994. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the Laboratory's environmental management programs when measured against regulatory standards and DOE requirements. The report also discusses significant highlight and planning efforts of these programs. The format and content of the report are consistent with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program

  9. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 1994 site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The 1994 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the calendar year (CY) 1994. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the Laboratory`s environmental management programs when measured against regulatory standards and DOE requirements. The report also discusses significant highlight and planning efforts of these programs. The format and content of the report are consistent with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  10. Berkeley Lab's ALS generates femtosecond synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory team has succeeded in generating 300 fs pulses of synchrotron radiation at the ALS synchrotron radiation machine. Although this proof-of-principle experiment made use of visible light on a borrowed beamline, the laser 'time-slicing' technique at the heart of the demonstration will soon be applied in a new bend-magnet beamline that was designed specially for the production of femtosecond pulses of X-rays to study long-range and local order in condensed matter with ultrafast time resolution. An undulator beamline based on the same technique has been proposed that will dramatically increase the flux and brightness

  11. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  12. The radioisotopes and radiations program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This program of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina refers to the application and production of radionuclides, their compounds and sealed sources. The applications are carried out in the medical, agricultural, cattle raising and industrial areas and in other engineering branches. The sub-program corresponding to the production of radioactive materials includes the production of radioisotopes and of sealed sources, and an engineering service for radioactive materials production and handling facilities. The sub-program of applications is performed through several groups or laboratories in charge of the biological and technological applications, intensive radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and training of personnel or of potential users of radioactive material. Furthermore, several aspects about technology transfer, technical assistance, manpower training courses and scholarships are analyzed. Finally, some legal aspects about the use of radioisotopes and radiations in Argentina are pointed out. (M.E.L.)

  13. Automation Systems for Radioisotope Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 50 years the company Hans Waelischmiller GmbH (HWM) has worked in the field of nuclear technology worldwide and designed and manufactured equipment for nuclear installations as well as complete turnkey projects. This report deals with the activity of HWM in the field of production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals as well as in the handling of radioactive materials in nuclear medicine departments in hospitals. (author)

  14. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  16. Three new bricks in the wall: Berkeley 23, Berkeley 31, and King 8

    CERN Document Server

    Cignoni, Michele; Bragaglia, Angela; Tosi, Monica

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive census of Galactic open cluster properties places unique constraints on the Galactic disc structure and evolution. In this framework we investigate the evolutionary status of three poorly-studied open clusters, Berkeley 31, Berkeley 23 and King 8, all located in the Galactic anti-centre direction. To this aim, we make use of deep LBT observations, reaching more than 6 mag below the main sequence Turn- Off. To determine the cluster parameters, namely age, metallicity, distance, reddening and binary fraction, we compare the observational colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with a library of synthetic CMDs generated with different evolutionary sets (Padova, FRANEC and FST) and metallicities. We find that Berkeley 31 is relatively old, with an age between 2.3 and 2.9 Gyr, and rather high above the Galactic plane, at about 700 pc. Berkeley 23 and King 8 are younger, with best fitting ages in the range 1.1-1.3 Gyr and 0.8-1.3 Gyr, respectively. The position above the Galactic plane is about 500- 600 pc...

  17. Radioisotopes for therapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides made great impact in the history of nuclear sciences both at the end of 19th century with the discoveries of Becquerel and madame Curie and later in 1934, when Frederic Joliet and Irene Curie demonstrated the production of the first artificial radioisotopes, 30P, by bombardment of 27Al by alpha particles. The subsequent invention of cyclotron and setting up of nuclear reactor opened the floodgate for production of artificial radionuclides. Currently, majority of radionuclides are made artificially by transforming a stable nuclide into an unstable state and thus far over 2500 radionuclides have been produced artificially. Use of radionuclides in various fields immediately followed their production and last century has witnessed tremendous growth in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes, in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, food preservation, water resource management, environmental studies, etc. While radiation and radioisotopes are used both for diagnosis as well as for therapy in the field of medicine, therapeutic applications are among the earliest, which began as an empirical science in the beginning and developed into a well structured modality with time. (author)

  18. Berkeley Lab's ALS generates femtosecond synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, A L

    2000-01-01

    A team at Berkeley's Advanced Light Source has shown how a laser time-slicing technique provides a path to experiments with ultrafast time resolution. A Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory team has succeeded in generating 300 fs pulses of synchrotron radiation at the ALS synchrotron radiation machine. The team's members come from the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Although this proof-of principle experiment made use of visible light on a borrowed beamline, the laser "time-slicing" technique at the heart of the demonstration will soon be applied in a new bend magnet beamline that was designed specially for the production of femtosecond pulses of X-rays to study long-range and local order in condensed matter with ultrafast time resolution. An undulator beamline based on the same technique has been proposed that will dramatically increase the flux and brightness. The use of X-rays to study the c...

  19. Careers in Data Science: A Berkeley Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koy, K.

    2015-12-01

    Last year, I took on an amazing opportunity to serve as the Executive Director of the new Berkeley Institute for Data Science (BIDS). After a 15-year career working with geospatial data to advance our understanding of the environment, I have been presented with a unique opportunity through BIDS to work with talented researchers from a wide variety of backgrounds. Founded in 2013, BIDS is a central hub of research and education at UC Berkeley designed to facilitate and nurture data-intensive science. We are building a community centered on a cohort of talented data science fellows and senior fellows who are representative of the world-class researchers from across our campus and are leading the data science revolution within their disciplines. Our initiatives are designed to bring together broad constituents of the data science community, including domain experts from the life, social, and physical sciences and methodological experts from computer science, statistics, and applied mathematics. While many of these individuals rarely cross professional paths, BIDS actively seeks new and creative ways to engage and foster collaboration across these different research fields. In this presentation, I will share my own story, along with some insights into how BIDS is supporting the careers of data scientists, including graduate students, postdocs, faculty, and research staff. I will also describe how these individuals we are helping support are working to address a number of data science-related challenges in scientific research.

  20. Development of Off-line Programming System for Spray Robot%喷涂机器人离线编程系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其忠; 邹焱飚; 张铁; 周青松

    2013-01-01

    A concrete realization process of off-line programming system for industrial robot was analyzed.Based on the man-machine interface(MMI)of robot,according to the off-line programming system to realize the function as required as well as the actual demand by robot,the overall scheme of robot off-line programming system was determined and divided with some modules.In the three dimensional(3D)modeling software solidwork 2009 platform,the parts,assemblies and painting workpieces of robot were modeled in 3D.And the key parameter of assembly is parameterized with secondary factors simplified,and process for relation of assembly constraint added.%分析了机器人离线编程系统的具体实现过程,在机器人人机交互接口的基础上,根据离线编程系统所要实现的功能以及机器人实际需求,确定了机器人离线编程系统的总体方案,并对该方案进行总体模块划分.在Solidwork2009三维建模软件平台上,对机器人零件、装配体、喷涂工件进行三维建模,并对装配体进行关键尺寸参数化、次要因素简洁化以及添加装配约束关系的处理.

  1. Research trends in radioisotopes: a scientometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes or radionuclides are radioactive forms of elements and are usually produced in research reactors and accelerators. They have wide ranging applications in healthcare, industry, food and agriculture, and environmental monitoring. Following over five decades of vast experience accumulated, radioisotope technology has developed to a high degree of sophistication and it is estimated that about 200 radioisotopes are in regular use. This paper attempts to highlight the publication status and growth of radioisotope research across the world and make quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing the following features of research output based on Web of Science database during the period 1993-2012. (author)

  2. Medical radioisotopes for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are widely used in medicine (Nuclear Medicine) for diagnosis, palliation and therapy of heart disease, cancer, muscoskeletal and neurological conditions. The radioisotopes used are both reactor and cyclotron produced. The utilisation is currently growing and is expected to continue to grow over the next 10-20 years. The combination of radioisotope and delivery vehicle can be designed to meet the intended end use. This paper will deal with the main approaches to the use of radioisotopes for Nuclear medicine ad future prospects for the area

  3. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Affirmative Action Program. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.

  4. Quantitation of triacylglycerols in edible oils by off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Hu, Na; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-24

    In this investigation, off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column has been applied for the identification and quantification of triacylglycerols in edible oils. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this off-line two-dimensional separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column combined the features of traditional C18 and silver-ion columns, which could provide hydrophobic interactions with triacylglycerols under acetonitrile conditions and can offer π-π interactions with triacylglycerols under methanol conditions. When compared with traditional off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography employing two different chromatographic columns (C18 and silver-ion column) and using elution solvents comprised of two phases (reversed-phase/normal-phase) for triacylglycerols separation, the novel off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column can be achieved by simply altering the mobile phase between acetonitrile and methanol, which exhibited a much higher selectivity for the separation of triacylglycerols with great efficiency and rapid speed. In addition, an approach based on the use of response factor with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for triacylglycerols quantification. Due to the differences between saturated and unsaturated acyl chains, the use of response factors significantly improves the quantitation of triacylglycerols. This two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system was successfully applied for the profiling of triacylglycerols in soybean oils, peanut oils and lord oils. A total of 68 triacylglycerols including 40 triacylglycerols in soybean oils, 50 triacylglycerols in peanut oils and 44 triacylglycerols in lord oils have been identified and quantified. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data were analyzed

  5. The required number of treatment imaging days for an effective off-line correction of systematic errors in conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer -- a radiobiological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To use radiobiological modelling to estimate the number of initial days of treatment imaging required to gain most of the benefit from off-line correction of systematic errors in the conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Treatment plans based on the anatomical information of a representative patient were generated assuming that the patient is treated with a multi leaf collimator (MLC) four-field technique and a total isocentre dose of 72 Gy delivered in 36 daily fractions. Target position variations between fractions were simulated from standard deviations of measured data found in the literature. Off-line correction of systematic errors was assumed to be performed only once based on the measured errors during the initial days of treatment. The tumour control probability (TCP) was calculated using the Webb and Nahum model. Results: Simulation of daily variations in the target position predicted a marked reduction in TCP if the planning target volume (PTV) margin was smaller than 4 mm (TCP decreased by 3.4% for 2 mm margin). The systematic components of target position variations had greater effect on the TCP than the random components. Off-line correction of estimated systematic errors reduced the decrease in TCP due to target daily displacements, nevertheless, the resulting TCP levels for small margins were still less than the TCP level obtained with the use of an adequate PTV margin of ∼10 mm. The magnitude of gain in TCP expected from the correction depended on the number of treatment imaging days used for the correction and the PTV margin applied. Gains of 2.5% in TCP were estimated from correction of systematic errors performed after 6 initial days of treatment imaging for a 2 mm PTV margin. The effect of various possible magnitudes of systematic and random components on the gain in TCP expected from correction and on the number of imaging days required was also investigated. Conclusions: Daily

  6. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985

  7. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985.

  8. Radio-isotopic myocardial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non invasive study of the myocardium with radio-isotopes is effected either with radio-elements labeling on recently infarcted myocardium, such as PYP Tc 99m, or after I.V. injection of Tl 201 extracted by normal myocardium or after I.V. injection of radio-element which study the myocardial metabolism. The fixation of PYP Tc 99m, bordering that of calcium, appears 24 hours after the onset of the myocardial infarction; then it reduces and disappears a week later; its persistency gives evidence of an evolution to ventricular anevrism. The relatively low sensitivity and specificity of this test should induce to reserve if for precise cases. 201 Tl realizes a map of the myocardial flow because this radio-isotope reflects with damping the variations of coronary flow. The scintigraphy is made either after stress test or after I.V. injection of dipyridamole, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test is better than electrocardiographic exercise stress test. The predictive value of the test for a patient highly depends of the prevalence of the coronary disease for this patient; however the results of Tl scintigraphy are far from an ideal test; quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the image compared to the analogical image seems to improve sensitivity for detection of coronary disease. After myocardial infarction, its best use is to detect a left anterior descending stenosis after posterior or inferior infarction. Among the possible radio-elements of myocardial metabolism, scintigraphy with fatty acids opens interesting prospects for the study of the myocardial clearance of the radio-isotope, that reflects the global or regional myocardial metabolism

  9. Applications of radioisotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has large population which is engaged in agriculture or related activities. With many agro-climatic zones, diversity in crops and traditional largely plant food based diets, there is need to meet these and increase agricultural production in the face of increasing constraints. Radiations and radioisotopes can contribute significantly to these developments. Mutation breeding is very useful technique in Indian context. Basic technique can be applied where a radiation source or irradiation service and facility to grow few thousand plants are available. Radiation processing can save the valuable food which is subject to spoilage by microbes and insects. Value addition by export is possible by meeting the quarantine and hygienisation conditions

  10. A liquid xenon radioisotope camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaklad, H.; Derenzo, S. E.; Muller, R. A.; Smadja, G.; Smits, R. G.; Alvarez, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A new type of gamma-ray camera is discussed that makes use of electron avalanches in liquid xenon and is currently under development. It is shown that such a radioisotope camera promises many advantages over any other existing gamma-ray cameras. Spatial resolution better than 1 mm and counting rates higher than one million C/sec are possible. An energy resolution of 11% FWHM has recently been achieved with a collimated Hg-203 source using a parallel-plate ionization chamber containing a Frisch grid.

  11. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  12. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  13. Development of Radioisotope Tracer Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is aimed to develop the radiotracer technology for process optimization and trouble-shooting to establish the environmental and industrial application of radiation and radioisotopes. The advanced equipment and software such as high speed data acquisition system, RTD model and high pressure injection tool have developed. Based on the various field application to the refinery/petrochemical industries, the developed technology was transfer to NDT company for commercial service. For the environmental application of radiotracer technology, injector, detector sled, core sampler, RI and GPS data logging system are developed and field tests were implemented successfully at Wolsung and Haeundae beach. Additionally tracer technology were also used for the performance test of the clarifier in a wastewater treatment plant and for the leak detection in reservoirs. From the experience of case studies on radiotracer experiment in waste water treatment facilities, 'The New Excellent Technology' is granted from the ministry of environment. For future technology, preliminary research for industrial gamma transmission and emission tomography which are new technology combined with radioisotope and image reconstruction are carried out

  14. Decontamination of radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strippable coating method use phosphoric glycerol and irradiated latex as supporting agents have been investigated. The investigation used some decontaminating agents: EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid and potassium permanganate were combined with phosphoric glycerol supporting agent, then EDTA Na2, sodium citric, sodium oxalic and potassium permanganate were combined with irradiated latex supporting agent. The study was needed to obtain the representative operating data, will be implemented to decontamination the Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The experiment used 50x50x1 mm stainless steel samples and contaminated by Cs-137 about 1.1x10-3 μCi/cm2. This samples according to inner cover of Hot Cell material, and Hot Cell activities. The decontamination factor results of the investigation were: phosphoric glycerol as supporting agent, about 20 (EDTA as decontaminating agent) to 47 (oxalic acid as decontaminating agent), and irradiated latex as supporting agent, about 11.5 (without decontamination agent) to 27 (KMnO4 as decontaminating agent). All composition of the investigation have been obtained the good results, and can be implemented for decontamination of Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The irradiated latex could be recommended as supporting agent without decontaminating agent, because it is very easy to operate and very cheap cost. (author)

  15. Cosmogenic radioisotopes on LDEF surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. C.; Albrecht, A.; Herzog, G.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radioisotope Be-7 was discovered in early 1990 on the front surface, and the front surface only, of the LDEF. A working hypothesis is that the isotope, which is known to be mainly produced in the stratosphere by spallation of nitrogen and oxygen nuclei with cosmic ray protons or secondary neutrons, diffuses upward and is absorbed onto metal surfaces of spacecraft. The upward transport must be rapid, that is, its characteristic time scale is similar to, or shorter than, the 53 day half-life of the isotope. It is probably by analogy with meteoritic metal atmospheric chemistry, that the form of the Be at a few 100 km altitude is as the positive ion Be(+) which is efficiently incorporated into the ionic lattice of oxides, such as Al2O3, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, etc., naturally occurring on surfaces of Al and stainless steel. Other radioisotopes of Be, Cl, and C are also produced in the atmosphere, and a search was begun to discover these. Of interest are Be-10 and C-14 for which the production cross sections are well known. The method of analysis is accelerator mass spectrometry. Samples from LDEF clamp plates are being chemically extracted, purified, and prepared for an accelerator run.

  16. Implementation and workflow for PET monitoring of therapeutic ion irradiation: a comparison of in-beam, in-room, and off-line techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirin, Georgy; Braess, Henning; Fiedler, Fine; Kunath, Daniela; Laube, Kristin; Parodi, Katia; Priegnitz, Marlen; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    An independent assessment of the dose delivery in ion therapy can be performed using positron emission tomography (PET). For that a distribution of positron emitters which appear as the result of interaction between ions of the therapeutic beam and the irradiated tissue is measured during or after the irradiation. Three concepts for PET monitoring implemented in various therapy facilities are considered in this paper. The in-beam PET concept relies on the PET measurement performed simultaneously to the irradiation by means of a PET scanner which is completely integrated into the irradiation site. The in-room PET concept allows measurement immediately after irradiation by a standalone PET scanner which is installed very close to the irradiation site. In the off-line PET scenario the measurement is performed by means of a standalone PET/CT scanner 10-30 min after the irradiation. These three concepts were evaluated according to image quality criteria, integration costs, and their influence onto the workflow of radiotherapy. In-beam PET showed the best performance. However, the integration costs were estimated as very high for this modality. Moreover, the performance of in-beam PET depends heavily on type and duty cycle of the accelerator. The in-room PET is proposed for planned therapy facilities as a good compromise between the quality of measured data and integration efforts. For facilities which are close to the nuclear medicine departments off-line PET can be suggested under several circumstances.

  17. Characterization of the lignin signature in Lake Mead, NV, sediment: comparison of on-line flash chemopyrolysis (600 degrees C) and off-line chemolysis (250 degrees C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Spencer M; Nemr, Elkas L; Rudin, Mark

    2009-06-01

    The distribution of lignin in sediment is a useful tool for tracing the transport of land-derived organic matter in an aquatic environment. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) flash chemopyrolysis, or chemolysis followed by GC-MS analysis can be used for evaluating the origin of organic carbon in sediments. TMAH chemopyrolysis or chemolysis of organic matter produces a myriad of semi-volatile products. Among these products are methylated phenols which are an indirect measure of lignin in sediment. In this study, total organic carbon, elemental carbon, and lignin were measured in Lake Mead sediments. This study indicates that terrestrial runoff makes a contribution to Lake Mead sediments, and that this contribution is most apparent in sediment that is close to the Las Vegas Wash. Two chemolysis methods (on-line and off-line) were examined and compared for detection of lignin phenols. The results from these sediment cores indicate that comparable results can be obtained from the two approaches, although detection levels are significantly lower for the off-line approach. PMID:18427933

  18. Separation and purification of four compounds from Desmodium styracifolium using off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Qing; Yu, Jingang; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2013-10-01

    An off-line 2D high-speed counter-current chromatography technique in preparative scale has been successfully applied to separate and purify the main compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium styracifolium. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water at an optimized volume ratio of 1:2:1:2 v/v/v/v was used. Conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography was used as the first dimension, and the upper phase of the solvent system was used as the stationary phase in the head-to-tail elution mode at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min and a rotation speed of 900 rpm. Recycling high-speed counter-current chromatography served as the second dimension to separate an impure fraction of the first dimension. A total of four well-separated substances including vanillic acid (1), β-sitosterol (2), formononetin (3), and aromadendrin (4) were obtained, and their purities and structures were identified by HPLC-MS and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. The results illustrated that off-line 2D high-speed counter-current chromatography is an effective way to isolate compounds in complex samples. PMID:23939907

  19. What Made Berkeley Great? The Sources of Berkeley's Sustained Academic Excellence. Research & Occasional Paper Series CSHE.3.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslauer, George W.

    2011-01-01

    University of California (UC) Berkeley's chief academic officer explores the historical sources of Berkeley' academic excellence. He identifies five key factors: (1) wealth from many sources; (2) supportive and skilled governors; (3) leadership from key UC presidents; (4) the pioneering ethos within the State of California; and (5) a process of…

  20. Current Status of Radioisotope Applications in Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhatnagar

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Reviews the current status of radioisotope applications in Defence- R&D Establishments, Defence Inspectorates, Ordnance Factories, Public Sector Undertakings under the Defence Ministry, Army, Navy and Air Force Establishments and Military Hospitals. It also lists the users of film badge service in Defence. Training programmes in radioisotope applications in Defence conducted by DRDO organisations have also been highlighted.

  1. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  2. Role of radioisotopes in the study of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the use of nuclear techniques, particularly radioisotopes, in entomological research is less than a century old, the contribution of radioisotopes to the science of studying insects (Entomology) is indispensable. In fact, radioisotopes provided a very important and sometimes a unique tool for solving many research problems in entomology. This article discusses the most important and widely used applications of radioisotopes in studying insect pests. In particular, it concentrates on the subject of radioisotopes used in entomological research, methods of labeling insect with radioisotopes, half life of radioisotopes, and the role of radioisotopes in physiological, ecological, biological and behavioral studies of insects. (author)

  3. Activity calculation of radioisotopes in HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity calculating method and formulas of seven kinds of radioisotopes for High Flux Engineering Test REactor (HFETR) are given. The perturbation of targets to neutron fluence rate is considered while targets are put into the neutron fluence rate field of reactor core. All perturbing factors of seven kinds of radioisotopes being used in HFETR are presented. After considering the perturbation, the calculating accuracy of radioisotope activity has been raised 10%. The given method and formulas have ended the history of all activities estimated by experiences, except for that of 60Co, in the radioisotope production of HFETR. The conclusions are also useful and instructive for the production of radioisotopes in HFETR. (8 tabs.)

  4. Neutron-rich radioisotope production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses Australia's Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) and the applications of the range of radioisotopes it will produce. The ANSTO's RRR will produce radioisotopes that have medical., industrial and environmental applications. Medicinal radioisotopes would provide the nuclear medicine physicians and oncologists with the necessary tool to non-invasively diagnose and cure diseases, ranging from cancer to infections. Industrial radioisotopes provide the industrial community with high technology tools to evaluate and assess the status of high reliability equipment with respect to safety and functionality in a non-destructive modality. The current commercial radioisotope sources include 60Co, 169Yb and 192Ir with source strengths limited by the HlFAR neutron flux and capacity. These sources are primarily used for industrial X ray moisture, level and thickness gauging. The RRR will allow expansion of the commercial source strengths and allow ANSTO to meet the growing commercial Australasian market for radioactive sources

  5. Application of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To use of radioisotopes in the processes of receiving radiopharmaceutical diagnostic means it is widely know [1]. Radioactivity labeled chemical compounds, pharmacological kinetics of which allows one solving a concrete diagnostic problem in an organism are used in radio pharmaceutics. In spite of this choice of the radioisotope, possessing the most favorable nuclei-physical characteristics for it to be detected and minimization of beam loadings, be of great importance. Development of a method of introduction of a radioisotope also has important value, as it is included into chemical structure of a radiopharmaceutical preparation. One more way of use of radioisotopes in pharmaceutics is their use as a radioactive mark at a stage of creation of a new medical product. And in this case, all those moments, which are listed above, take place. Preparations labeling by radioisotopes are used basically for their studying pharmacological kinetics. In Institute of nuclear physics AS RU, in recent years, works are done on studying pharmacological kinetics of some new medical products, which have been synthesized in the Tashkent pharmaceutical institute. These preparations are on the basis of microelements with a complex set of properties possessing expressed biological activity and have great value in pharmaceutical science of Republic of Uzbekistan. Reception of labeled compounds of all preparations was carried out by a method of introduction of a radioisotope at a stage of their synthesis. The work presents the results of researches on synthesis and study of pharmacological kinetics of radioactively labeled preparations - PIRACIN, labeled by radioisotope 69mZn; FERAMED, labeled by radioisotope 59Fe; COBAVIT, labeled by radioisotope 57Co; VUC, labeled by radioisotope57Co

  6. Life sciences: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs.

  7. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

  8. Life sciences: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs

  9. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  10. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  11. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  12. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987

  13. The interface amplifier and timing generator unit for control of operation of an off-line time-resolved X-ray spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, J; Palmeirinha, A; Amorim, P; Duval, B; Varandas, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an on-site developed interface amplifier and timing generator unit for the control of operation of an X-ray spectrometer, aimed at obtaining off-line time-resolved pulse height analysis spectra, using a single channel of a digital transient recorder and a histogram algorithm. This unit, implemented in a low noise NIM module to be inserted between the amplifier and the transient recorder, generates a trigger pulse and time information for the digitizer, conditions the amplifier output signals to the digitizer input characteristics, reports the occurrence of pile-ups and prevents collisions between time and event pulses. Tests and operation on the TCV X-ray spectrometer have shown that the unit fulfils the design requirements.

  14. Overview of radioisotope production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are in widespread and increasing daily use throughout the world. Applications include medical diagnosis, treatment of cancer, sterilization of medical disposables, the perservation of food, and the hygienization of waste products. The unique production capabilities of Canadian research reactors and CANDU electrical generating stations have enabled Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to make an important contribution to the growth of this industry. The paper describes the production, processing, transportation and applications of the major radioisotopes in use today. The equipment required for the efficient use of these radioisotopes is described and the potential for growth is discussed

  15. Trace determination of tetracyclines in water samples by capillary zone electrophoresis combining off-line and on-line sample preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; Lupión-Enríquez, Isabel; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a sensitive and reliable method using capillary zone electrophoresis with UV detection has been developed for trace determination of tetracycline antibiotics in river, spring, and ground waters. A solid-phase extraction method using Oasis HLB was applied for off-line preconcentration and cleanup of water samples, in combination with an on-line preconcentration methodology named large volume sample stacking with polarity switching. Different parameters were optimized in order to obtain an adequate separation combined with the highest sensitivity, using 75 mM sodium carbonate (pH 10) and 1 mM EDTA as separation buffer, applying a voltage of 25 kV at 25°C. The samples were injected in water at 1 bar for 1 min, applying then -25 kV and starting the sample stacking. Sample matrix removal from the capillary was controlled by monitoring the electric current (when the 95% of the separation current is reached the stacking process is completed). The applied voltage was then switched from negative to a positive value of 25 kV in order to separate the compounds. Under optimum conditions, sensitivity enhancement factors ranged from 303 to 428 for the studied compounds. The combination of both off-line and on-line preconcentration procedures provided a total sensitivity enhancement factor about 20 000, obtaining detection limits from 67 to 167 ng/L. The precision (intra- and interday), expressed as %RSD was below 12%. Recoveries obtained from river, spring, and ground waters ranged from 87 to 96%. Thus, this procedure is suitable for monitoring these compounds in water samples. PMID:27135309

  16. Tracking hazardous air pollutants from a refinery fire by applying on-line and off-line air monitoring and back trajectory modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An industrial fire can emit hazardous air pollutants into the surrounding areas. • Both on- and off-line monitoring are needed to study air pollution from fires. • Back trajectory and dispersion modeling can trace emission sources of fire-related pollution. -- Abstract: The air monitors used by most regulatory authorities are designed to track the daily emissions of conventional pollutants and are not well suited for measuring hazardous air pollutants that are released from accidents such as refinery fires. By applying a wide variety of air-monitoring systems, including on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and off-line gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for measuring hazardous air pollutants during and after a fire at a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan on May 12, 2011, we were able to detect significantly higher levels of combustion-related gaseous and particulate pollutants, refinery-related hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride monomer, and dichloromethane, inside the complex and 10 km downwind from the fire than those measured during the normal operation periods. Both back trajectories and dispersion models further confirmed that high levels of hazardous air pollutants in the neighboring communities were carried by air mass flown from the 22 plants that were shut down by the fire. This study demonstrates that hazardous air pollutants from industrial accidents can successfully be identified and traced back to their emission sources by applying a timely and comprehensive air-monitoring campaign and back trajectory air flow models

  17. Combining asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with on- and off-line fluorescence detection to examine biodegradation of riverine dissolved and particulate organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Tak; Yang, Boram; Kim, Jin-Yong; Park, Ji-Hyung; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2015-08-28

    This study demonstrated that asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with on-line UV and fluorescence detection (FLD) and off-line excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy can be employed to analyze the influence of microbial metabolic activity on the consumption and production of freshwater organic matter. With the AF4 system, organic matter is on-line enriched during a focusing/relaxation period, which is an essential process prior to separation. Size-fractionated chromophoric and fluorophoric organic materials were simultaneously monitored during the 30-min AF4 separation process. Two fractions of different sizes (dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM)) of freshwater samples from three locations (up-, mid-, and downstream) along the Han River basin of Korea were incubated with the same inoculum for 14 days to analyze fraction-specific alterations in optical properties using AF4-UV-FLD. A comparison of AF4 fractograms obtained from pre- and post-incubation samples revealed that POM-derived DOM were more susceptible to microbial metabolic activity than was DOM. Preferential microbial consumption of protein-like DOM components concurred with enhanced peaks of chromophoric and humic-like fluorescent components, presumably formed as by-products of microbial processing. AF4-UV-FLD combined with off-line identification of microbially processed components using EEM fluorescence spectroscopy provides a powerful tool to study the relationship between microbial activity and composition as well as biodegradability of DOM and POM-derived DOM from different origins, especially for the analysis of chromophoric and fluorophoric organic matter that are consumed and produced by microbial metabolic activity. The proposed AF4 system can be applied to organic matter in freshwater samples having low concentration range (0.3-2.5ppm of total organic carbon) without a pre-concentration procedure. PMID:26233252

  18. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleimer, G.E. (ed.)

    1981-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data on air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring for 1980 are presented, and general trends are discussed.

  19. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data on air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring for 1980 are presented, and general trends are discussed

  20. Abstracts of the third conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 8-10 October, 2002 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting

  1. Abstracts of the second conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 3-5 October, 2000 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting. (A.A.D.)

  2. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleimer, G.E.; Pauer, R.O. (eds.)

    1990-08-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a multiprogram national laboratory managed by the University of California (UC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). LBL's major role is to conduct basic and applied science research that is appropriate for an energy research laboratory. The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1989 are presented, and general trends are discussed. 17 refs., 12 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986

  4. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983

  5. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986.

  6. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984

  7. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamar, D.A.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms, including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: 1) isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; 2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; 3) isotopes purchased cross- referenced with customer numbers; 4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and 5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1987.

  8. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984.

  9. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) is a multicenter, multiagency (with the Department of Energy (DOE)) program whose purpose is to manage the Science Mission...

  10. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles

  11. Radioisotope production at PUSPATI - five year programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the basic laboratory facilities for radioisotopes production at PUSPATI will be commissioned by September 1983. Work on setting up of production and dispensing facilities is in progress as the nuclides being worked on are those that are commonly used in medical applications, such as Tc-99m, I-131, P-32 and other nuclides such as Na-24 and K-42. Kits for compounds labelled with Tc-99m such as Stannous Pyrophosphate, Sulfur Colloid and Stannous Glucoheptonate are being prepared. The irradiation facilities available now for radioisotope production at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor include a central thimble (flux density 1 x 10 13 n.cm-2S-1) and a rotary specimen rack (flux density 0.2 x 1013 n.cm-1S-1). Irradiation schedules and target handling techniqes are discussed. Plans for radioisotope production at PUSPATI over the period of 1983-1987, based on present demand for radioisotope, are also explained. (author)

  12. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR)

  13. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    OpenAIRE

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear «piles», soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchas...

  14. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Lee, Ji Bok; Lee, Yeong Iil; Jin, Joon Ha; Beon, Myeong Uh; Park, Kyeong Bae; Han, Heon Soo; Jeong, Yong Sam; Uh, Jong Seop; Kang, Kyeong Cheol; Cho, Han Ok; Song, Hui Seop; Yoon, Byeong Mok; Jeon, Byeong Jin; Park, Hong Sik; Kim, Jae Seong; Jeong, Un Soo; Baek, Sam Tae; Cho, Seong Won; Jeon, Yeong Keon; Kim, Joon Yeon; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Ki Yeop; Yang, Jae Seung; No, Yeong Chang; Lee, Yeong Keun; Shin, Byeong Cheol; Park, Sang Joon; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kang, Iil Joon; Cho, Seong Ki; Jeong, Yeong Joo; Park, Chun Deuk; Lee, Yeong Koo; Seo, Chun Ha; Han, Kwang Hui; Shin, Hyeon Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Soon Chul; Shin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek; Park, Eung Uh; Kim, Dong Soo; Jeon, Sang Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-01

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR).

  15. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  16. Thirty years history of Japan Radioisotope Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The import of radioisotopes into Japan under occupation was permitted and their utilization was reopened in 1950. The Japan Radioisotope Association was established in May, 1951. At that time, the radioisotope committee in the science and technology administration council handled the import, the spread of utilization and the safety of radioisotopes as the administration authority. In the management of the Association, most attention has been paid to secure the autonomy. The Association is responsible to develop correctly the utilization of radioisotopes, and the autonomy of the Association is indispensable to accomplish it. The first import of isotopes was nine nuclides amounting to $3905, which were used in 25 organizations. In 1980, the Association handled the isotopes totaling 28 billion yen, and about 4500 business establishments used isotopes as of March, 1981. The development of the utilization of radioisotopes during 30 years has been really conspicuous. However, one of the important problems is the treatment of wastes. In order to solve this problem, the understanding of people is a key point. The knowledge of whole nation on atomic energy must be increased. (Kako, I.)

  17. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  18. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  19. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tejera, A.; Bulbulian, S.; Palma, F

    1991-10-15

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  20. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  1. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  2. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131I its rather short half life, for 137Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  3. BERKELEY: Farewell to the Bevatron/Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nearly a hundred current and former Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory employees gathered at the Bevatron accelerator on 21 February to watch Ed Lofgren turn off the beam for the last time. Lofgren, in charge of the venerable machine from its completion in 1954 until his retirement in 1979, pushed a button that someone long ago labeled ''atom smasher offer'', bringing to an end four decades of accomplishment in high energy and heavy ion physics. Owen Chamberlain, who shared the 1959 physics Nobel with Emilio Segré for the discovery of the antiproton at the Bevatron, was among those present at the closing ceremony. The shutdown came 39 years to the week after Bevatron beam first circulated, and a touching moment came just after Lofgren shut the machine down when the poignant strains of the ''Taps'' salute wafted out over the PA system. The Bevatron - or Bevalac, as it was called after being linked to the Super HILAC linear accelerator in the 1970s - made major contributions in four distinct areas of research: high energy physics, heavy ion physics, medical research and therapy, and space-related studies of radiation damage and heavy particles in space. As well as the discovery of the antiproton, the early years of the Bevatron saw classic studies of the kaon, leading to a deeper understanding of both strong and weak interaction physics. With Luis Alvarez' development of Donald Glaser's original bubble chamber idea into a prolific physics technique, the Bevatron was a major focus of the heady days of resonance hunting in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Most recently the Bevalac (Bevatron-SuperHILAC combination) pioneered relativistic heavy ion physics. The central focus of this research programme was the production and study of extreme conditions in nuclear matter. Highlights include the first definitive evidence of collective flow of nuclear matter at high temperatures and densities, studies of the nuclear

  4. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  5. A Kind of Analysis Method of Off-Line TTP Fair Non-Repudiation Protocol%一种离线TTP公平非否认协议的安全性分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬梅; 卿斯汉; 马恒太; 李树仁

    2011-01-01

    给出了一种离线TTP公平非否认协议的分析方法,离线TTP公平非否认协议得到了广泛的研究,针对离线TTP公平非否认协议的分析并不是那么广泛.针对离线TTP公平非否认协议具有协议簇的特点,将协议实例化,实例化后可以对单个协议实例的非否认性和有效性进行分析;通过扩展Kailar逻辑,增加时间相关限定词来表述协议的执行序列,用协议执行序列来表达和分析协议的公平性和时效性.利用该方法,对两种公平非否认协议进行分析,分析的结果表明CCD不符合公平性,而ZG的时效性不能够得到满足.%Off-line TTP fair non-repudiation protocols have been studied widely. Compared with online TTP fair non-repudiation protocol, off-line TTP fair non-repudiation protocols are analyzed rarely. Off-line TTP fair non-repudiation protocols are often composed by several subprotocols, which are defined as protocol cluster. In this paper, a kind of analysis method of off-line TTP fair nonrepudiation protocol is proposed. There are three main points in this paper. Firstly, according to the cluster properties of off-line TTP fair non-repudiation protocol, protocols are instanced. Through instancing, non-repudiation and effectiveness of off-line TTP fair non-repudiation protocol can be analyzed within each single instance. Secondly, as asynchronous communication, sending and receiving actions can not exactly reflect true events of protocol. Through refining the actions of participants, protocols can be represented as the participants' action sequence. And the participants'action sequence can be used to analyze the violation of execution. Thirdly, the time determiner is introduced to express and verify the timeliness property of the protocol. Finally, two off-line TTP fair non-repudiation protocols are analyzed, among which ZG off-line TTP protocol is composed by two subprotocols and CCD off-line TTP protocol is composed by three subprotocols. The

  6. RHIC off-line computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report was prepared in Sept 1992, RHIC/DET Note 8, also known as ROCOCO, which estimated the various computing resources which will be required by the RHIC experimental program. A study has now been undertaken to review technical issues associated with supplying these resources. This study, organized by the HEP/NP Computing Group but including other appropriate participants, addresses questions of technologies, manpower, cost and schedule. The following document is an interim summary of this study both in terms of discussions which have occurred and initial conclusions reached

  7. Development of cadmium/silver/palladium separation by ion chromatography with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection for off-line cadmium isotopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A separation method was investigated to perform off-line cadmium isotopic measurements on a 109Ag transmutation target. Ion chromatography (IC) with Q ICPMS detection (quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection) was chosen to separate cadmium from the isobarically interfering elements, silver and palladium, present in the sample. The optimization of chromatographic conditions was particularly studied. Several anion and cation columns (Dionex AG11 (R), CS10 (R) and CS12 (R)) were compared with different mobile phases (HNO3, HCl). The separation procedure was achieved with a carboxylate-functionalized cation exchange CS12 column using 0.5 M HNO3 as eluent. The developed technique yielded satisfactory results in terms of separation factors (greater than 5) and provides an efficient solution to obtain rapidly purified cadmium fractions (decontamination factors higher 100,000 for silver and palladium) which can directly be analyzed by multi collection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC ICPMS). By applying the proposed procedure, accurate and precise cadmium isotope ratios were determined for the irradiated 109Ag transmutation target. (authors)

  8. Determination of the total content of some sulfonamides in milk using solid-phase extraction coupled with off-line derivatization and spectrophotometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Kochuk, Elena V; Tolmacheva, Veronika V; Apyari, Vladimir V; Zolotov, Yury A

    2015-12-01

    A simple screening method for isolation and determination of the total content of some sulfonamides in milk using solid-phase extraction and a color reaction is described. This procedure is based on SPE of sulfonamides on hypercrosslinked polystyrene, elution with acetonitrile and off-line derivatization with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde in acetonitrile followed by spectrophotometric determination. The reaction produces intense violet-red color and can be easily used both for quantitation of sulfonamides using spectrophotometry and for naked-eye semi-quantitative estimation. Maximum absorption of the reaction product was determined at 540 nm. The Lambert-Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0.07-3.0 μg mL(-1) in eluate, with the squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9875-0.9995, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3-4%. The limits of SAs detection using preconcentration were of 0.02-0.03 μg mL(-1). The proposed method can be recommended as a routine screening method for quantitation of sulfonamides in milk. PMID:26041163

  9. Transactinide studies at U.C. Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical studies of the heaviest elements have a long-standing history at Berkeley. The Heavy Element Nuclear and Radiochemistry Group at LBNL conducts heavy element nuclear physics as well as transactinide chemistry studies. The new capabilities of the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS) have added to a further vitalization of the heavy element studies at LBNL. This talk gives an overview of the recent collaborative first ever chemical studies of elements 107, bohrium, and 108, hassium. A recoil transfer chamber (RTC) connected to the back end of the BGS was constructed and tested. With the RTC, compound nucleus evaporation residues (EVR) pass through a thin Mylar window at the BGS focal plane and are stopped in a gas, for gas-jet transport to remote chemical experiments; the transport gas has a substantially higher pressure than the gas in the BGS. The efficiency of the transport was tested with various EVR's and different chemical detection systems, such as the SISAK centrifugal aqueous/organic phase extraction system and the novel Cryogenic Thermo-chromatographic Separator (CTS) were used. The CTS is based on the high volatility at near-ambient temperature of the heavy metal oxides such as Osmium tetroxide, OsO4, the homologue of hassium tetroxide. The CTS consists of an assembly of two rows of silicon PIN-diodes arranged opposite to each other, thus forming a narrow rectangular channel through which the reaction gas flows. A decreasing thermal gradient ranging from room temperature to about minus 120 deg C is applied to the PIN-diode assembly. This results in the deposition of the heavy metal oxide on one of the detectors, where it is identified by alpha counting. Separation factor of 107 - 109 for actinides from the combined BGS-CTS system can be achieved. The successful combination of the BGS with chemical separation systems is a true breakthrough. It opens a new possibility to study more effectively the chemical behaviour of the heaviest elements by

  10. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  11. RADIOISOTOPE INVENTORY FOR TSPA-SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Leigh; R. Rechard

    2001-01-30

    The total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR), on Yucca Mountain, as a site (if suitable) for disposal of radioactive waste, consists of several models. The Waste Form Degradation Model (i.e, source term) of the TSPA-SR, in turn, consists of several components. The Inventory Component, discussed here, defines the inventory of 26 radioisotopes for three representative waste categories: (1) commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), (2) US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and (3) high-level waste (HLW). These three categories are contained and disposed of in two types of waste packages (WPs)--CSNF WPs and co-disposal WPs, with the latter containing both DSNF and HLW. Three topics are summarized in this paper: first, the transport of radioisotopes evaluated in the past; second, the development of the inventory for the two WP types; and third, the selection of the most important radioisotopes to track in TSPA-SR.

  12. RADIOISOTOPE INVENTORY FOR TSPA-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR), on Yucca Mountain, as a site (if suitable) for disposal of radioactive waste, consists of several models. The Waste Form Degradation Model (i.e, source term) of the TSPA-SR, in turn, consists of several components. The Inventory Component, discussed here, defines the inventory of 26 radioisotopes for three representative waste categories: (1) commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), (2) US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and (3) high-level waste (HLW). These three categories are contained and disposed of in two types of waste packages (WPs)--CSNF WPs and co-disposal WPs, with the latter containing both DSNF and HLW. Three topics are summarized in this paper: first, the transport of radioisotopes evaluated in the past; second, the development of the inventory for the two WP types; and third, the selection of the most important radioisotopes to track in TSPA-SR

  13. Production of radioisotopes using a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotron produced radioisotopes are generally neutron deficient and decay by EC or β+ emission. They find major applications in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The production processes involve rather sophisticated technology and the areas needing research and development work include nuclear data, targetry, chemical processing, remote control, automation and quality control. A comparison of the various parameters relevant to the production of radioisotopes using a nuclear reactor and a cyclotron is given. The cyclotron products are more expensive than the reactor products; they are, however, far superior to the latter as far as in-vivo functional studies are concerned. (author)

  14. Industrial applications of radioisotope techniques in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general review of applications of radioisotope techniques in the Polish industry for about 25 years is given. The radiotracer methods used in metallurgy, hydrometallurgy, glass industry, oil and petroleum industries, in material testing and in other industries are described. Neutron activation analysis methods as well as nuclear gauges for industry (thickness meters, density meters, conveyer belt weigher, acid concentration meters and others) are also presented. The economic advantages of industrial applications of radioisotope techniques are described too. 42 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs. (author)

  15. Radioisotope producer reactor: technical report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes activities in the year of 1991 related the Project of a New Conception for the Radioisotope Producer reactor (RPR). Results as well as proposals for future studies are presented. Chapter 1 describes investigations performed for the conception of the reactor core. Chapters 2 and 3 contain preliminary results of thermal-hydraulic calculations and accident analysis respectively. Chapter 4 describes the aspects of production of 99 Mo in the RPR, concluding the body of the paper. This initial effort will continue with the Radioisotope Producer Reactor Conceptual Project, to be carried out during the year of 92. (author)

  16. Radioisotopes in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After defining nondestructive testing (NDT) and comparing this concept with destructive testing, a short description is given of NDT methods other than radiologic. The basic concepts of radiologic methods are discussed and the principles of radiography are explained. Radiation sources and gamma radiography machines are next reviewed and radiographic inspection of weldings and castings is described. A brief description is given of the radiographic darkroom and accessories. Other radioisotope methods, such as neutron radiography, are shortly reviewed. Cost estimations for radioisotopic equipment conclude the report. (author)

  17. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982

  18. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983.

  19. The progress of radioisotope technology and application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinrong; Luo Zhifu

    2008-01-01

    The inception of radioisotope and its application in China are introduced. The research, development, produc-tion, application progress and the future development prospect of radioisotope and its products are described.

  20. UC-Berkeley-area citizens decry waste transfer from lab.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nakasato, L

    2002-01-01

    Residents are working to stop the transfer of potentially hazardous and radioactive material from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The lab has begun to dismantle the Bevatron which has been shut down since 1993 and says eight trucks per day will move material offsite (1 page).

  1. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleimer, G.E. (ed.)

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1986 are presented and general trends are discussed. Topics include radiation monitoring, wastewater discharge monitoring, dose distribution estimates, and ground water monitoring. 9 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Pass-Fail Grading at Berkeley: Facts and Opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Sidney

    The facts and opinions regarding pass/no pass grading at Berkeley discussed in this report are based on three sources of information. These sources include a survey of faculty conducted in the spring quarter 1970, a survey of undergraduate students in the winter quarter 1971, and the records routinely generated in the Registrar's Office for the…

  3. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1986 are presented and general trends are discussed. Topics include radiation monitoring, wastewater discharge monitoring, dose distribution estimates, and ground water monitoring. 9 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs

  4. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 1995--2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the details of the mission and strategic plan for Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during the fiscal years of 1995--2000. It presents summaries of current programs and potential changes; critical success factors such as human resources; management practices; budgetary allowances; and technical and administrative initiatives.

  5. Global off-line evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrological system used in the CNRM-CM6 climate model for the next CMIP6 exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharme, Bertrand; Vergnes, Jean-Pierre; Minvielle, Marie; Colin, Jeanne; Delire, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The land surface hydrology represents an active component of the climate system. It is likely to influence the water and energy exchanges at the land surface, the ocean salinity and temperature at the mouth of the largest rivers, and the climate at least at the regional scale. In climate models, the continental hydrology is simulated via Land Surface Models (LSM), which compute water and energy budgets at the surface, coupled to River Routing Model (RRM), which convert the runoff simulated by the LSMs into river discharge in order to transfer the continental fresh water into the oceans and then to close the global hydrological cycle. Validating these Continental Hydrological Systems (CHS) at the global scale is therefore a crucial task, which requires off-line simulations driven by realistic atmospheric fluxes to avoid the systematic biases commonly found in the atmospheric models. In the CNRM-CM6 climate model of Météo-France, that will be used for the next Coupled Climate Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) exercise, the land surface hydrology is simulated using the ISBA-TRIP CHS coupled via the OASIS-MCT coupler. The ISBA LSM solves explicitly the one dimensional Fourier law for soil temperature and the mixed form of the Richards equation for soil moisture using a 14-layers discretization over 12m depths. For the snowpack, a discretization using 12 layers allows the explicit representation of some snow key processes as its viscosity, its compaction due to wind, its age and its albedo on the visible and near infrared spectra. The TRIP RRM uses a global river channel network at 0.5° resolution. It is based on a three prognostic equations for the surface stream water, the seasonal floodplains, and the groundwater. The streamflow velocity is computed using the Maning's formula. The floodplain reservoir fills when the river height exceeds the river bankfull height and vice-versa. The flood interacts with the ISBA soil hydrology through infiltration and with

  6. An off-line strategy for constructing a patient-specific planning target volume in adaptive treatment process for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the efficacy of dose delivery and dose escalation for external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer, an off-line strategy for constructing a patient-specific planning target volume is developed in the adaptive radiotherapy process using image feedback of target location and patient setup position. Materials and Methods: We hypothesize that a patient-specific confidence-limited planning target volume (cl-PTV), constructed using an initial sequence of daily measurements of internal target motion and patient setup error, exists and ensures that the clinical target volume (CTV) in the prostate cancer patient receives the prescribed dose within a predefined dose tolerance. A patient-specific bounding volume to correct for target location and compensate for target random motion was first constructed using the convex hull of the first k days of CT measurements. The bounding volume and the initial days of CT measurements were minimized based on a predefined dosimetric criterion. The hypothesis was tested using multiple daily CT images by mimicking the actual treatment of both conventional 4-field-box and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on each of 30 patients with prostate cancer. For each patient, a patient-specific setup margin was also applied to the bounding volume to form the final cl-PTV. This margin was determined using the random setup error predicted from the initial days of portal imaging measurements and the residuals after correcting for the systematic setup error. Results: The bounding volume constructed using daily CT measurements in the first week of treatment are adequate for the conventional beam delivery to achieve maximum dose reduction in the CTV of 2% or less of the prescription dose, for at least 80% of patients (p = 0.08), and 4.5% or less for 95% of patients (p 0.1). However, for IMRT delivery, 2 weeks of daily CT measurements are required to achieve a similar level of the dosimetric criterion, otherwise the maximum dose

  7. LABORATORY SETUP FOR EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF INNOVATIVE ENERGY-EFFICIENT SYSTEMS’ EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES OFF-LINE POWER SUPPLY ON THE BASIS OF HELIOMODULUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braginets A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of laboratory setup is connected with a necessity of designing and experimental investigation of equipment examples for innovative energy efficient system of agricultural enterprises off-line power supply on the basis of helio moduluses and is stipulated by needs of efficient heat electro supply of agricultural enterprises working in climatic regions with low and short-term solar activity. Operating regimes, matching and justification of necessary elements for the construction of the energy efficient helio system and the most efficient their arrangement are determined based on preliminary experiments. Geographical location of agricultural enterprise (the principal checkpoints should be insolation intencity and solstice angle typical for the region and social-economic development level of the region should be taken into consideration at forming demands to the constructions and abilities of heat water supply helio modules. The necessity of investigations at laboratory setup with artificial heat sources, simulating solar heat, is explained by impossibility of experiments’ carrying out in the real nature conditions, notably because of weather inconstancy and climate in tote, because of impossibility of setups exact placement on ground location, because of helio collector’s modes of operation limitation by the range of solar activity only in the investigated region etc. The list of technological parameters and helio water heating process factors, which are measured and controlled during the experiments, is built into the designing of the setup. These parameters are based on the statistical data given by meteorological stations of late years. All that will ease the designing of manufacturing helio collectors and will allow to get more precise information, oriented to the maintenance of energy efficient equipment in different zones of researched region with highest possible usage of their potential. With a glance of foresaid, we

  8. Study of uranium +4 stabilization by the formation of a complex with a heteropolyanion ligand, for its off-lines analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the behaviour of uranium in oxidation state +4, during uranium/plutonium separation step of the PUREX process for reprocessing nuclear fuels, requires the availability of an efficient analytical method allowing the stabilization and off-line analysis of sample of aqueous and organic solutions containing this reagent. It was accordingly decided to develop a stabilization method using the heteropolyanion P2W17O6110-(PWO') as a selective ligand. Besides the stabilization effect, the complexation of uranium +4 results in the appearance of an intense and specific band on the visible absorption spectrum of the formed U(PWO)216-complex. This property made it possible to consider the sensitive spectrophotometric analysis of the sample. The work presented first helped to determine, in the presence of PWO, the characteristic thermodynamic data of the reaction involving uranium +4 and +6, plutonium +3 and +4, nitrous and nitric acids, and hydrazine. In the light of these results, it was possible to plan the development of the stabilisation method. The use of PWO thus helped (1) to design a method capable of stopping any reaction involving the uranium +4 / uranium +6 pair, and (2) to perform the simple analysis of uranium +4. The study presented in the second part uses the example of the U4+ cation to understand the reasons for the selectivity of the complexation of actinides +4 by PWO. Owing to the remarkable spectroscopic and magnetic properties of this cation, ti was possible to acquire data concerning the structure of the U(PWO)216- complex, both in solution and in the solid state. It was thus demonstrated that the geometry of the environment of U4+ (eight oxygen forming a cubic anti-prism), which is perfectly complementary to that of the 5f electron wave functions of the actinide, helps to explain the selectivity of the complexation of actinides +4. (author). refs., 46 figs., 40 tabs

  9. Test and evaluation of the in-line plutonium solution K-absorption-edge densitometer at the Savannah River Plant. Phase I. Off-line testing results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in-line, plutonium-solution, K-edge absorption densitometer has been developed at Los Alamos and is currently undergoing test and evaluation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The first phase of the test and evaluation (off-line instrument calibration and solution assays) was completed, and preparations are under way to install the instrument in-line, as soon as process schedules permit. Calibration data in the design concentration range of 25 to 40 g Pu/L demonstrate routine achievement of densitometry assay precisions of 0.5% or better in 40 min. Plutonium assays at concentrations outside the calibration range were investigated in an effort to define better the limitations of the instrument and address other possible assay situations at SRP. Densitometry precisions obtained for 40-min assays range from 3% to 5 g Pu/L down to 0.4% at 70 g Pu/L. At higher plutonium concentrations, the precision deteriorated due to increasing gamma-ray absorption by the solution. In addition, with actinide concentrations above approximately 100 g/L, the assay accuracy also suffered because of enhanced small-angle scattering effects in the large sample cell. Measurements on mixed U/Pu solutions demonstrated the feasibility of accurate plutonium assays with correction for the large uranium matrix contributions being determined from the measurement data. The 239240Pu weight fractions and 241Pu/239Pu and 238Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios can be determined. In a mockup of the in-line solution plumbing system, all assay sequences, error conditions, and interlock criteria were exercised and verified to be working properly

  10. Off-line TMAH-GC/MS and NMR characterization of humic substances extracted from river sediments of northwestern São Paulo under different soil uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic substances (HS) vary according to the physical and chemical factors present in the environment. Thus, the characterization of HS is very important because it improves the understanding of the groups that comprise the chemical structure. Sediment HS were extracted from four locations representative of sugar cane cultivation, pasture, urban area and the impoundment of the Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Power Plant. Characterization using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allowed us to infer that the HS from an area predominantly characterized by sugar cane cultivation (41.9%) and a typical rural area (35.0%) showed the highest aromaticity percentage. Using the off-line TMAH-thermochemolysis-GC-MS, we inferred that the HS of a typical rural area had a structure rich in plant waxes, plant biopolyester and a large amount of fatty acid methyl ester, which are related to the large amount of humic acid in the structure. The HS samples from the sugar cane cultivation area and the impoundment receiving all of the pollution load from the Turvo/Grande Hydrographic Basin (Bacia Hidrográfica do Turvo/Grande—BHTG) contained contributions from compounds rich in lipids and fatty acid methyl esters, highlighting the presence of the breakdown of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the area receiving the entire pollution load. We conclude that the HS extracted from the sediments of the Preto, Turvo and Grande rivers showed well-defined characteristics that varied depending on soil use and occupation, especially the HS extracted from sediments sampled in areas typically planted with sugar cane and rural areas, whose structures contained more aromatic groups. - Highlights: • The characterization of HS allows the understanding of the chemical structure. • HS of sediment in areas planted with sugar cane and rural areas contained more aromatic groups. • Influence of soil use and occupation on the chemical structure of the HS

  11. Off-line TMAH-GC/MS and NMR characterization of humic substances extracted from river sediments of northwestern São Paulo under different soil uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria; Pantano, Glaucia; de Toffoli, Ana Lúcia; Fontaine, Barbara; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro; Moreira, Altair Benedito; Bisinoti, Márcia Cristina

    2015-02-15

    Humic substances (HS) vary according to the physical and chemical factors present in the environment. Thus, the characterization of HS is very important because it improves the understanding of the groups that comprise the chemical structure. Sediment HS were extracted from four locations representative of sugar cane cultivation, pasture, urban area and the impoundment of the Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Power Plant. Characterization using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allowed us to infer that the HS from an area predominantly characterized by sugar cane cultivation (41.9%) and a typical rural area (35.0%) showed the highest aromaticity percentage. Using the off-line TMAH-thermochemolysis-GC-MS, we inferred that the HS of a typical rural area had a structure rich in plant waxes, plant biopolyester and a large amount of fatty acid methyl ester, which are related to the large amount of humic acid in the structure. The HS samples from the sugar cane cultivation area and the impoundment receiving all of the pollution load from the Turvo/Grande Hydrographic Basin (Bacia Hidrográfica do Turvo/Grande-BHTG) contained contributions from compounds rich in lipids and fatty acid methyl esters, highlighting the presence of the breakdown of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the area receiving the entire pollution load. We conclude that the HS extracted from the sediments of the Preto, Turvo and Grande rivers showed well-defined characteristics that varied depending on soil use and occupation, especially the HS extracted from sediments sampled in areas typically planted with sugar cane and rural areas, whose structures contained more aromatic groups. PMID:25460956

  12. Mechanised flow system for on-line microwave digestion of food samples with off-line catalytic spectrophotometric determination of cobalt at ng l-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Filho, E R; Arruda, M A

    1999-12-01

    A mechanised system for on-line slurry food sample digestion was developed and an off-line cobalt determination was performed. The stabilised slurry sample was introduced into an air carrier stream until reaching the digestion coils located inside a household microwave oven. Software written in Visual Basic 3.0 was developed to permit the transport of the slurry samples and the programming of the microwave oven and also the control of the mineralization valve. The proposed system was optimized for determination of cobalt in certified samples such as mussels, bovine liver and fish and also uncertified fish samples. The digestion parameters were established as 3 mol l-1 HNO3 for mussels, 3 mol l-1 HNO3 plus 0.16% v/v H2O2 for bovine liver and 12 mol l-1 HNO3 for fish employing maximum power for 5 min of microwave actuation. In the subsequent spectrophotometric method for the catalytic determination of cobalt, the Tiron and hydrogen peroxide concentrations were 1.8 x 10(-3) and 3.0 x 10(-4) mol l-1, respectively, and the sample residence time was 300 s as determined by an optimisation process. The proposed method features a linear range from 10 to 200 ng l-1 Co (r > 0.996) with detection and quantification limits of 1.7 and 5.5 ng l-1 Co, respectively. The precision, expressed as RSD, was 2.4% (n = 12) for repeatability and 5.2% (n = 10) for reproducibility and the accuracy of the proposed method was assessed by using certified samples and an alternative technique (ETAAS). PMID:10746313

  13. Off-line TMAH-GC/MS and NMR characterization of humic substances extracted from river sediments of northwestern São Paulo under different soil uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria, E-mail: amandatadini@hotmail.com [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Pantano, Glaucia; Toffoli, Ana Lúcia de [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Fontaine, Barbara; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sulla Risonanza Magnetica Nucleare (NMR) per L' ambiente, l' Agro-Alimentare ed i Nuovi Materiali, CERMANU, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); and others

    2015-02-15

    Humic substances (HS) vary according to the physical and chemical factors present in the environment. Thus, the characterization of HS is very important because it improves the understanding of the groups that comprise the chemical structure. Sediment HS were extracted from four locations representative of sugar cane cultivation, pasture, urban area and the impoundment of the Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Power Plant. Characterization using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allowed us to infer that the HS from an area predominantly characterized by sugar cane cultivation (41.9%) and a typical rural area (35.0%) showed the highest aromaticity percentage. Using the off-line TMAH-thermochemolysis-GC-MS, we inferred that the HS of a typical rural area had a structure rich in plant waxes, plant biopolyester and a large amount of fatty acid methyl ester, which are related to the large amount of humic acid in the structure. The HS samples from the sugar cane cultivation area and the impoundment receiving all of the pollution load from the Turvo/Grande Hydrographic Basin (Bacia Hidrográfica do Turvo/Grande—BHTG) contained contributions from compounds rich in lipids and fatty acid methyl esters, highlighting the presence of the breakdown of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the area receiving the entire pollution load. We conclude that the HS extracted from the sediments of the Preto, Turvo and Grande rivers showed well-defined characteristics that varied depending on soil use and occupation, especially the HS extracted from sediments sampled in areas typically planted with sugar cane and rural areas, whose structures contained more aromatic groups. - Highlights: • The characterization of HS allows the understanding of the chemical structure. • HS of sediment in areas planted with sugar cane and rural areas contained more aromatic groups. • Influence of soil use and occupation on the chemical structure of the HS.

  14. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described. (author)

  15. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  16. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979

  17. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979.

  18. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980.

  19. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventeenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory: Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  20. Hydrogeology and tritium transport in Chicken Creek Canyon,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Preston D.; Javandel, Iraj

    2007-10-31

    This study of the hydrogeology of Chicken Creek Canyon wasconducted by the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) at LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This canyon extends downhill fromBuilding 31 at LBNL to Centennial Road below. The leading edge of agroundwater tritium plume at LBNL is located at the top of the canyon.Tritium activities measured in this portion of the plume during thisstudy were approximately 3,000 picocuries/liter (pCi/L), which issignificantly less than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinkingwaterof 20,000 pCi/L established by the Environmental ProtectionAgency.There are three main pathways for tritium migration beyond theLaboratory s boundary: air, surface water and groundwater flow. Thepurpose of this report is to evaluate the groundwater pathway.Hydrogeologic investigation commenced with review of historicalgeotechnical reports including 35 bore logs and 27 test pit/trench logsas well as existing ERP information from 9 bore logs. This was followedby field mapping of bedrock outcrops along Chicken Creek as well asbedrock exposures in road cuts on the north and east walls of the canyon.Water levels and tritium activities from 6 wells were also considered.Electrical-resistivity profiles and cone penetration test (CPT) data werecollected to investigate the extent of an interpreted alluvial sandencountered in one of the wells drilled in this area. Subsequent loggingof 7 additional borings indicated that this sand was actually anunusually well-sorted and typically deeply weathered sandstone of theOrinda Formation. Wells were installed in 6 of the new borings to allowwater level measurement and analysis of groundwater tritium activity. Aslug test and pumping tests were also performed in the wellfield.

  1. How to find out in radioisotope methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is dealt with in sections entitled: tracing books by topic; radioisotope methodology cross reference structure; finding a review; journals and how to trace journal articles; abstract; theses and dissertations; research and development reports; critical reviews and information summaries; data books; dictionaries and encyclopedias; guides to the literature; whom to contact; expert advice, research in progress, institutions. (U.K.)

  2. Fuel selection for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of Radioisotope Thermoeletric Generator fuels is evaluated based on the amount of fuel discharged from selected power reactors. In general, the best alternatives are either to use Plutonium-238 produced by irradiation of Neptunium-237 generated in typical thermal reactors or to use Curium-244 directly separated from the discharged fuels of fast or thermal reactors. (author)

  3. Radioisotope methods for cardio-rehabilitation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-cardiography, radio-cyclography, and radioisotopic examinations of the pulmonary and coronary circulation are reviewed, including the instruments and labelled compounds applied to the measurements. The indications, the normal values and the information provided by the different methods are reported with special emphasis on ischaemic diseases, myocardial infarction and valve disorders. (L.E.)

  4. Application of artificial radioisotopes in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, various applications of the artificial radioisotopes in surface water and groundwater investigations are briefly reviewed with a few recent case studies. They are found to be extremely useful in understanding the hydrological processes and obtaining pertinent parameters such as dilution factors, dispersion coefficients, rate of sediment transport in surface waters and recharge rate, velocity and flow direction in groundwater systems. (author)

  5. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  6. The industrial application of radioisotopes in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 10 years, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission has conducted a wide-ranging program of radioisotope applications to solve industrial problems of local, regional or national importance. Most of the investigations have been concerned with the behaviour of large complex systems. Broadly, the work covers such economically important fields as flow studies, environmental studies and coastal engineering studies. (author)

  7. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E.G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  8. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk 131I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with 131I and 99mTc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new 131I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing 99Mo-99mTc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced 99Mo, research and development work on the preparation of 99mTc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  9. Radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in the various aspects of biological research. The following topics were presented: labelled compounds; conformation-function relationships of hormonal polypeptides and their spectroscopic study; neutron scattering and neutron diffraction for biological studies; high resolution autoradiography; radioimmunoassay; nuclear medicine; transfer of excitation energy in photosynthesis; radioagronomy; radiation preservation of food

  10. Radioisotope licence application: Fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide will assist you in completing and filing an application for a new licence or licence renewal for fixed nuclear gauges in accordance with the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and radioisotope licensing policies. It also provides some of the background information that you will require in order to safely use radioactive materials

  11. Production of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals. Pt. G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope products such as P-32, I-131, Tc-99m, Cr-51 and others are being in the Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat) for medical uses. Additionally, the development of the chromatographic gel-type Tc-99m generator, new method for I-131 production, inorganic ion exchanger is introduced. (N.H.A). 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  12. The control of radioisotopes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulations applicable to the control of radioisotopes in Canada are reviewed. The administrative procedures are described, the definition of atomic radiation workers clarified and the means for inspections and compliance indicated. An outline is provided of the main revisions currently under consideration. (author)

  13. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant

  14. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc

  15. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc.

  16. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, J.L.; Gano, S.R. (comp.)

    1976-01-01

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant. (TFD)

  17. Novel radioisotope applications in industry promoted by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, there is a lively activity in further development and use of radioisotope technology. Novel radioisotope applications in industry are promoted by the IAEA. Radioisotope technology is contributing significantly to improving and optimising process performance bringing an annual economic benefit to industry of several billion US$. Probably, an average benefit to cost ratio of 40: 1 is reasonably representative of radioisotope applications in industry. There are few short-term investments, which will give a return of this magnitude. The cost effectiveness of radioisotope applications should be widely promulgated to encourage industrialists to take full advantage of the technology. (author)

  18. Simulation of the transport of Rn222 using on-line and off-line global models at different horizontal resolutions: a detailed comparison with measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentener, Frank; Feichter, Johann; Jeuken, Ad

    1999-07-01

    The short-lived radionuclide Rn222 is emitted at a fairly constant rate from the continents and is a good surrogate for studying the transport of "air pollution" from polluted continental areas to clean, remote regions. The large concentration gradients of 2 3 orders of magnitude which exist between the continents and the remote atmosphere present a major challenge to the modelling of horizontal and vertical atmospheric transport. We use the global off-line tracer transport model TM3 at 3 different resolutions. Input to the model consists of meteorological data for the year 1993 obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The same meteorological data is used to constrain the climate model ECHAM4-T42-L19. Using these meteorological data, Rn222 simulations are used to evaluate and document model performance and associated uncertainties. High time-resolution measurements made at 2 continental stations, 2 stations under continental influence and 4 remote sites, and aircraft measurements obtained during the NARE aircraft campaign are used for a detailed comparison.Although in specific regions there are inter-model differences of up to a factor of 2 in the calculated boundary layer concentrations, these differences are not translated into a better performance of either model for the stations used for comparison. We generally obtain high correlations of model results and measurements; these range from r= 0.6 0.8 for the continental and coastal stations and 0.5 0.6 for the remote sites. Calculated mean concentrations and corresponding standard deviations generally agree favourably with observations, lending credibility to the usefulness of our models for evaluating transport of air pollutants from continental sources to remote regions. The main cause of model deviations is probably related to uncertainties in the meteorological input data set provided by the ECMWF model and to a lesser extent by our knowledge of the spatial distribution of

  19. Radioisotopes in Hydrology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing emphasis on the development of water resources poses problems which are of interest to all countries, both developing and advanced, where the demand for water is continuously rising. There is no doubt that greater efforts must be made to evaluate, control and develop water resources using all scientific means available and during recent years increasing attention has been directed to the supplementation of hydrological methods with radioisotope techniques. These techniques have already been applied to a number of problems and their potential usefulness demonstrated. Radioisotopes can be used for stream discharge measurements with an accuracy as good as that obtainable with conventional methods. They are also finding increasing application in the measurement of groundwater direction and velocity, the study of suspected interconnections between different sources of water, and the investigation of mixing processes in rivers and lakes. Radioisotope techniques have been used in different parts of the world for studying the transport of silt in rivers and harbours. Present research is directed towards making these investigations on a quantitative basis which, if successful, would be of great importance in the design of hydraulic structures. The method of finding out the age of groundwater by measuring its natural tritium content can be applied to the determination of the recharge rate of groundwater bodies, so enabling a more rational use of the groundwater reserves without fear of overexploitation. Current research is aimed at using carbon-14 for groundwater-dating to extend the age measurable by tritium. A Symposium on the use of radioisotopes in hydrology was organized by the Agency and held in March 1963 in Tokyo in co-operation with the Japanese Government, for whose material and other assistance and generous hospitality the Agency wishes to record its grateful appreciation. The Symposium was attended by about 100 participants from 14 countries and 5

  20. Separation of five compounds from leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees by off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with gradient and recycling elution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-05-01

    An off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography method combined with gradient and recycling elution mode was established to isolate terpenoids and flavones from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. By using the solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water with different volume ratios, five compounds including roseooside, 5,4'-dihydroxyflavonoid-7-O-β-d-pyranglucuronatebutylester, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavon, 14-deoxyandrographiside, and andrographolide were successfully isolated. Purities of these isolated compounds were all over 95% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified by UV, mass spectrometry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography with different elution modes is an efficient technique to isolate compounds from complex natural product extracts. PMID:25675944

  1. Calibration of the Berkeley EUV Airglow Rocket Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Daniel M.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Siegmund, Oswald

    1989-01-01

    The Berkeley Extreme-ultraviolet Airglow Rocket Spectrometer (BEARS), a multiinstrument sounding rocket payload, made comprehensive measurements of the earth's dayglow. The primary instruments consisted of two near-normal Rowland mount spectrometers: one channel to measure several atomic oxygen features at high spectral resolution (about 1.5 A) in the band passes 980-1040 and 1300-1360 A, and the other to measure EUV dayglow and the solar EUV simultaneously in a much broader bandpass (250-1150 A) at moderate resolution (about 10 A). The payload also included a hydrogen Lyman-alpha photometer to monitor the solar irradiance and goecoronal emissions. The instrument was calibrated at the EUV calibration facility at the University of California at Berkeley, and was subsequently launched successfully on September 30, 1988 aboard a four-stage experimental sounding rocket, Black Brant XII flight 12.041 WT. The calibration procedure and resulting data are presented.

  2. Annual site environmental report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1990 are presented, and general trends are discussed. The report is organized under the following topics: Environmental Program Overview; Environmental Permits; Environmental Assessments; Environmental Activities; Penetrating Radiation; Airborne Radionuclides; Waterborne Radionuclides; Public Doses Resulting from LBL Operations; Trends -- LBL Environmental Impact; Waterborne Pollutants; Airborne Pollutants; Groundwater Protection; and Quality Assurance. 20 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs

  3. Annual site environmental report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleimer, G.E.; Pauer, R.O. (eds.)

    1991-05-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1990 are presented, and general trends are discussed. The report is organized under the following topics: Environmental Program Overview; Environmental Permits; Environmental Assessments; Environmental Activities; Penetrating Radiation; Airborne Radionuclides; Waterborne Radionuclides; Public Doses Resulting from LBL Operations; Trends -- LBL Environmental Impact; Waterborne Pollutants; Airborne Pollutants; Groundwater Protection; and Quality Assurance. 20 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical manufacturing methods produce solar cells with an efficiency of 12-15%; and 14% efficiency is the bare minimum for achieving a profit. In work performed at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, CA, 5 10-486-577 1)--a US Department of Energy national laboratory that conducts unclassified scientific research and is managed by the University of California--scientist Scott McHugo has obtained keen insights into the impaired performance of solar cells manufactured from polycrystalline silicon. The solar cell market is potentially vast, according to Berkeley Lab. Lightweight solar panels are highly beneficial for providing electrical power to remote locations in developing nations, since there is no need to build transmission lines or truck-in generator fuel. Moreover, industrial nations confronted with diminishing resources have active programs aimed at producing improved, less expensive solar cells. 'In a solar cell, there is a junction between p-type silicon and an n-type layer, such as diffused-in phosphorous', explained McHugo, who is now with Berkeley Lab's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. 'When sunlight is absorbed, it frees electrons, which start migrating in a random-walk fashion toward that junction. If the electrons make it to the junction; they contribute to the cell's output of electric current. Often, however, before they reach the junction, they recombine at specific sites in the crystal' (and, therefore, cannot contribute to current output). McHugo scrutinized a map of a silicon wafer in which sites of high recombination appeared as dark regions. Previously, researchers had shown that such phenomena occurred not primarily at grain boundaries in the polycrystalline material, as might be expected, but more often at dislocations in the crystal. However, the dislocations themselves were not the problem. Using a unique heat treatment technique, McHugo performed electrical measurements to investigate the material

  5. Catalog of research projects at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Catalog has been created to aid in the transfer of technology from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to potential users in industry, government, universities, and the public. The projects are listed for the following LBL groups: Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Applied Science Division, Biology and Medicine Division, Center for Advanced Materials, Chemical Biodynamics Division, Computing Division, Earth Sciences Division, Engineering and Technical Services Division, Materials and Molecular Research Division, Nuclear Science Division, and Physics Division

  6. Catalog of research projects at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This Catalog has been created to aid in the transfer of technology from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to potential users in industry, government, universities, and the public. The projects are listed for the following LBL groups: Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Applied Science Division, Biology and Medicine Division, Center for Advanced Materials, Chemical Biodynamics Division, Computing Division, Earth Sciences Division, Engineering and Technical Services Division, Materials and Molecular Research Division, Nuclear Science Division, and Physics Division.

  7. Radioisotope scanning for the spinal cord tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope scanning with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate or 67Ga-citrate for the spinal cord tumors are reported. Six patients with spinal cord tumors including 2 ependymomas, 1 neurinoma, 1 metastatic medulloblastoma, 1 metastatic astrocytoma, and 1 metastatic pinealoma as well as 6 patients with non-neoplastic lesions were examined by this method. Two out of 6 cases with tumors showed positive scans, and two showed equivocal scans. This new method is different from myeloscintigraphy or radioisotope angiography as already reported. It directly demonstrates the tumor itself like brain scanning does and is very useful as a nontraumatic method for screening spinal cord lesions, especially in poor risk patients. Both the usefulness and the limitations of this method are discussed. (auth.)

  8. Radioisotope method for demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastroesophageal scintigraphy with 99mTc pertechnetate was performed in 17 patients for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux. Two of these patients had sclerodermia, 2 had undergone gastric resection for gastroduodenal ulcer, 3 had chronic gastroduodenitis, 5 - duodenal ulcer, 1 - gastric ulcer, 1 - gastric ulcer+hiatus hernia, 1 six-year-old child -duodenal ulcer and 2 infants - gastritis. 99mTv-sulphocolloid was orally introduced in dose 7,40 mBq for adults, 4,44 mBq for infants, 5,18 mBq for children younger than 14 years and 5,92 mBq for patients having undergone gastric resection. Gastroesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 4 patients, the data of the radioisotopic examination being verified by fibrogastroscopy. The radioisotopic method for demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux is an original, physiological and noninvasive method of low radiation load for demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux, requiring no intubation

  9. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m (99mTc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 (99Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  10. Radioisotopes development and production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of radioisotopes for use in medical, industrial and agriculture sector was began in 1982 after the commissioning the 1MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor. Production of Tc-99m using Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) extraction began in 1985 with the capacity about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99. By 1994, we produced Tc-99m generator using fission Molybdenum imported from Indonesia. Early 1990's, we assemble I-131 plant from Hungary for production of I-131 using TeO2 irradiated inour reactor but the yield are low. We have imported I-131 to meet the demand about 10 Ci/month. Development of Sm-153 EDTMP was began in 1994 and the trial production began in 1998. We also established the procedure for production of industrial and agriculture radioisotopes such as P-32, Na-24 and Au-198. (author)

  11. Research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in SINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief systematic account on the research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research (SINR) is presented. It comprehensively covers the following categories: 1. Radioisotopes produced by cyclotron; 2. Radioisotope-labelled compounds; 3. Radioisotope as source of energy converter; 4. Induced-radioisotope generation as a means for elemental analysis--the activation analysis; 5. Radioisotope equipped with electronic instrument for various application; and 6. Special usage of some radioisotopes

  12. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  13. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  14. Beneficial uses of radioisotopic waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities include efforts to: (1) develop a cost-effective radioisotope separation technology based on column separation techniques associated with the Sandia Solidification Process and (2) develop a broader technology for beneficial applications of the separated isotopes, including engineered radioactive sources and applications facilities and/or devices, and studies related to cost-effectiveness, safety, and security of these sources, facilities, and devices. (LK)

  15. Alternate methods for the production of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic clinical applications has increased in the past decade. The growth has been in two areas: the use of 99mTc for gamma-ray imaging and the use of 18F in positron emission tomography (PET). The 99mTc (6.01 h) is a daughter of the longer-lived precursor 99Mo (65.9 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors. Conversely, the isotopes for PET have been produced using cyclotrons at centralized hospital complexes. The economic potential of the radioisotope market has been demonstrated by the major producers of 99Mo this past year when they announced their plans to purchase two MAPLE reactors for the dedicated production of 99Mo. This market potential, coupled with the efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy to encourage the private, commercial production of radioisotopes that the government currently supplies, has provided motivation to investigate innovative technologies to produce both 99Mo and PET isotopes. Incentives for looking at alternate production methods include life-cycle cost and source portability for short-lived radioisotopes. This paper presents alternative production methods that could provide unique advantages for the production of 99Mo and tremendously higher availability of PET isotopes. We have examined the use of an existing high-current, linear accelerator for the production of 99Mo from the fission of depleted uranium and the production of short-lived isotopes used in PET using a portable source of low-energy antiprotons

  16. Utilization of radioisotopes in the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of radioisotopes utilization in the agriculture, such as, the use of gamma radiation for genetic improvement of plants; the use of C14 as tracer for comprehension of the vegetable physiology; the use of nitrogen and phosphorus isotopes in soil fertilization and plant nutrition; the use of radiation for inset sterelization and, measurement of the humidity and density of soils by neutron moderation and attenuation of gamma radiation, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  17. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  18. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  19. Quantitation of renal function using radioisotopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, J P; Ziessman, H A

    1993-03-01

    Radioisotopic methods are practical for clinical use because they do not require continuous intravenous infusion or urine collection. This obviously is of great advantage in infants and small children, in whom accurate urine collection is difficult, but the techniques apply to adults as well. The ability to determine individual kidney function is a major benefit. Accuracies of the radioisotopic techniques vary but generally are within clinically acceptable ranges. The need for accuracy and reproducibility can be balanced with the desire for speed and convenience when choosing among the different techniques. Methods that use plasma sampling provide greater accuracy and are recommended in cases of severe dysfunction, whereas methods such as Gates' camera method, which eliminates plasma samples, can be completed in minutes. Radioisotopic techniques are most useful in the ranges of mild to moderately decreased function, in which serum creatinine concentration is nondiagnostic, and although they are much less accurate at markedly low renal function levels, so is 24-hour creatinine clearance. In conclusion, radiopharmaceutical agents offer a wide array of possible techniques for simple, accurate, and noninvasive measurement of global as well as individual GFR and ERPF. PMID:8462269

  20. Radioisotope applications on fluidized catalytic cracking units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are used to trace the flow of all the phases of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking process in oil refineries. The gaseous phases, steam, hydrocarbon vapour and air, are generally traced using a noble-gas isotope, 41Ar, 79Kr or 85Kr. An appropriate tracer for the catalyst is produced by irradiating a catalyst sample in a nuclear reactor. The activation products,140La and 24Na provide appropriate radioactive 'labels' for the catalyst, which is reinjected into the FCC. An advantage of this approach is that it facilitates the study of the behaviour of different particle size fractions. Radioisotopes as sealed sources of gamma radiation are used to measure catalyst density variations and density distributions in critical parts of the unit. An important trend in radioisotope applications is the increasing use of the information they produce as inputs to or as validation of, mathematical process models. In line with the increasing sophistication of the models, the technology is undergoing continuous refinement. Developments include the investigation of more efficient, more convenient tracers, the introduction of systems to facilitate more rapid and comprehensive data acquisition and software refinements for enhanced data analysis

  1. Analysis of mathematical models of radioisotope gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope gauges as industrial sensors were briefly reviewed. Regression models of instruments based on various principles developed in Institute of Nuclear Research and Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology were analysed and their mathematical models assessed. It was found that for one - dimensional models the lowest value of standard error of estimate was achieved when calibration procedure was modelled by logarithmic function. Mathematical expressions for variance and mean value of intrinsic error for linear and non - linear one - as well as for multi - dimensional models of radioisotope gauges were derived. A conclusion was drawn that optimal model of calibration procedure determined by regression analysis method not always corresponds to the minimum value of the intrinsic error variance. Influence of cutting off of probability distribution function of measured quantity and its error at the lower upper limit of measurement range on variance and mean value of intrinsic error was evaluated. Feasibility study for application of some aspects of Shannon's information theory for evaluation of mathematical models of radioisotope gauges was accomplished. Its usefulness for complex evaluation of multidimensional models was confirmed. 105 refs. (author)

  2. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  3. NEW DIRECTIONS IN RADIOISOTOPE SPECTRUM IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    Recent studies have found the performance of commercial handheld detectors with automatic RIID software to be less than acceptable. Previously, we have explored approaches rooted in speech processing such as cepstral features and information-theoretic measures. Scientific advances are often made when researchers identify mathematical or physical commonalities between different fields and are able to apply mature techniques or algorithms developed in one field to another field which shares some of the same challenges. The authors of this paper have identified similarities between the unsolved problems faced in gamma-spectroscopy for automated radioisotope identification and the challenges of the much larger body of research in speech processing. Our research has led to a probabilistic framework for describing and solving radioisotope identification problems. Many heuristic approaches to classification in current use, including for radioisotope classification, make implicit probabilistic assumptions which are not clear to the users and, if stated explicitly, might not be considered desirable. Our framework leads to a classification approach with demonstrable improvements using standard feature sets on proof-of-concept simulated and field-collected data.

  4. Separation of radioisotopes from fuel reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology development of radioisotope production from fuel reprocessing high level wastes in Radioisotope Production Division is described. To develop the separation method for partitioning as the waste management and production of useful radioisotopes, the separation of 90Sr, 137Cs and rare earth elements by solvent extraction and ion-exchange has been mainly studied. Ion-exchange resin and HDEHP as the extracting agents were irradiated with a 60Co radiation source to examine their radiation resistances; Both are satisfactory in this respect. Strontium-90 and 137Cs could be separated in 99% purity from a 10l waste solution (about 2 Ci) by ion-exchange using nitric acid as the only eluant. A system of solvent extraction and ion-exchange to treat large volume of the waste was constructed in trial, and its cold test was carried out. The results were satisfactory, with a few points for further improvement. The scheme as it is can be scaled up for an experiment with about 1 KCi of the waste. (auth.)

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning of rooms 62-248 and 62-250 at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, G.

    1996-05-01

    This document details the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) process of Rooms 248 and 250 of Building 62 at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The document describes the D&D efforts for the rooms, their contents, and adjacent areas containing ancillary equipment. The rooms and equipment, before being released, were required to meet the unrestricted release criteria and requirements set forth in DOE orders 5400.5 and 5480.11, LBNL`s internal release-criteria procedure (EH&S Procedure 708), and the LBNL Radiological Control Manual. The radioactive material and items not meeting the release criteria were either sent to the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) for disposal or transferred to other locations approved for radioactive material. The D&D was undertaken by the Radiation Protection Group of LBNL`s Environment, Health and Safety (EH&S) Division at the request of the Materials Sciences Division. Current and past use of radioactive material in both Rooms 248 and 250 necessitated the D&D in order to release both rooms for nonradioactive work. (1) Room 248 was designated a {open_quotes}controlled area.{close_quotes} There was contained radioactive material in some of the equipment. The previous occupants of Room 248 had worked with radioactive materials. (2) Room 250 was designated a {open_quotes}Radioactive Materials Management Area{close_quotes} (RMMA) because the current occupants used potentially dispersible radioisotopes. Both laboratories, during the occupancy of U.C. Berkeley Professor Leo Brewer and Ms. Karen Krushwitz, were kept in excellent condition. There was a detailed inventory of all radioactive materials and chemicals. All work and self surveys were documented. The labs were kept extremely orderly, clean, and in compliance. In October 1993 Ms. Krushwitz received an award in recognition of her efforts in Environmental Protection, Health, and Safety at LBNL.

  6. 异步电机参数离线辨识改进算法%An Improved Off-Line Parameter Identification Algorithm for Induction Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺艳晖; 王跃; 王兆安

    2011-01-01

    In order to implement self-commissioning of the frequency-variable speed-adjustable system,an improved off-line parameter identification algorithm for induction motors(IMs) is proposed in this paper.Most of motor parameters which directly related to speed sensorless stator-flux-oriented vector control are estimated using the improved algorithm.Stator resistance is estimated by modified DC test.The equivalent control circuit of the DC test is obtained by analyzing switch states of the inverter.Rotor resistance and total leakage inductance are estimated by single-phase locked-rotor test.The stable operating condition of the single-phase test is also deduced by the phasor graph of the induction motor.Stator self-inductance is estimated by constant V/f no-load test.Stator frequency is compensated to eliminate possible oscillation of stator currents in V/f no load test.The stator voltages are constructed by DC voltage and PWM signal's duty ratios.The voltage errors due to inverter's dead time are also compensated according to motor current polarity.The experiments of parameter identification and speed sensorless vector control are performed on two induction motors with different rated power.All results indicate that the identification results are insensitive to DC voltage and furthermore the exactness of the estimated parameters can meet the requirements for the speed sensorless vector control.%为实现变频调速系统的自运行(self-commissioning),提出了一种异步电机参数离线辨识的改进算法,该算法能直接辨识出与无速度传感器定子磁场定向矢量控制相关的大部分电机参数。利用直流实验辨识定子电阻,并通过分析逆变器的开关状态,得到直流实验的等效控制电路。采用单相交流堵转实验辨识定子总漏感和转子电阻,并通过分析异步电机相量图得到单相交流堵转实验稳定运行的工作条件。恒压频比空载实验辨识定子自感,对电机定子

  7. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  8. Radioisotope techniques for problem-solving on refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly, refineries worldwide are recognizing the value of radioisotope technology in studying the operation of on-line plant. Using case studies, this paper illustrates the versatility of radioisotope techniques in a wide range of investigations: the density-profiling of distillation columns; the investigation of leaks on feed/effluent exchangers; on-line flowrate measurement; underground leakage detection. The economic benefits deriving from radioisotope applications are indicated

  9. Efficient, Long-Lived Radioisotope Power Generator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., (RMD) proposes to develop an alternative very long term, radioisotope power source with thermoelectric power conversion with...

  10. Technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil by a low power research reactor, are done. The importance of radioisotope utilization and controled radiations, in areas such as medicine, industry and cost evaluation for the production in nuclear reactors. In the cost evaluation of a radioisotope production reactor, the studies developed by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - DEN/UFMG were used. The information analysis justify the technical and economical availability and the necessity of the radioisotopes production in Brazil. (E.G.)

  11. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included

  12. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  13. The law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law regulates uses, sales and disposal of radioisotopes, uses of radiation generating apparatuses, disposal of materials contaminated with radioisotopes, and so on, in accordance with the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act, for public safety. Covered are the following: permission for and notification of the uses and permission for businesses selling and disposing of radioisotopes, and approval of designs concerning radiation hazard prevention mechanisms, obligations of the users and business enterprises selling and disposing of radioisotopes, the licensed engineers of radiation, organs, etc. for confirmation of the mechanisms, punitive provisions, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  14. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  15. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS...

  16. Community Relations Plan for Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has applied to the California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), for renewal of its Hazardous Waste Handling Facility Permit. A permit is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The permit will allow LBL to continue using its current hazardous waste handling facility, upgrade the existing facility, and construct a replacement facility. The new facility is scheduled for completion in 1995. The existing facility will be closed under RCRA guidelines by 1996. As part of the permitting process, LBL is required to investigate areas of soil and groundwater contamination at its main site in the Berkeley Hills. The investigations are being conducted by LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program and are overseen by a number of regulatory agencies. The regulatory agencies working with LBL include the California Environmental Protection Agency`s Department of Toxic Substances Control, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the East Bay Municipal Utilities District, and the Berkeley Department of Environmental Health. RCRA requires that the public be informed of LBL`s investigations and site cleanup, and that opportunities be available for the public to participate in making decisions about how LBL will address contamination issues. LBL has prepared this Community Relations Plan (CRP) to describe activities that LBL will use to keep the community informed of environmental restoration progress and to provide for an open dialogue with the public on issues of importance. The CRP documents the community`s current concerns about LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program. Interviews conducted between February and April 1993 with elected officials, agency staff, environmental organizations, businesses, site neighbors, and LBL employees form the basis for the information contained in this document.

  17. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1995 site environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1995 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the 1995 calendar year. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the environmental management programs. The report also discusses significant highlights and plans of these programs. Topics discussed include: environmental monitoring, environmental compliance programs, air quality, water quality, ground water protection, sanitary sewer monitoring, soil and sediment quality, vegetation and foodstuffs monitoring, and special studies which include preoperational monitoring of building 85 and 1995 sampling results, radiological dose assessment, and quality assessment

  18. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleimer, G.E. (ed.)

    1989-06-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is described. Data for 1988 are presented and general trends are discussed. In order to establish whether LBL research activities produced any impact on the population surrounding the laboratory, a program of environmental air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring was carried on throughout the year. For 1988, as in the previous several years, dose equivalents attributable to LBL radiological operations were a small fraction of both the relevant radiation protection guidelines (RPG) and of the natural radiation background. 16 refs., 7 figs., 21 tabs.

  19. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1995 site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balgobin, D.; Javandel, I.; Lackner, G.; Smith, C.; Thorson, P.; Tran, H.

    1996-07-01

    The 1995 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the 1995 calendar year. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the environmental management programs. The report also discusses significant highlights and plans of these programs. Topics discussed include: environmental monitoring, environmental compliance programs, air quality, water quality, ground water protection, sanitary sewer monitoring, soil and sediment quality, vegetation and foodstuffs monitoring, and special studies which include preoperational monitoring of building 85 and 1995 sampling results, radiological dose assessment, and quality assessment.

  20. Assembly Manual for the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, M

    2002-01-01

    The Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector consists of 3 main components that must be prepared separately before they can be assembled. These components are the scintillator, circuit board, and casing. They are described in the main sections of this report, which may be completed in any order. Preparing the scintillator paddles involves several steps--cutting the scintillator material to the appropriate size and shape, preparing and attaching Lucite cookies (optional), polishing the edges, gluing the end to the photomultiplier tube (optional), and wrapping the scintillator. Since the detector has 2 paddles, each of the sections needs to be repeated for the other paddle.

  1. High speed optical links between LLNL and Berkeley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennon, W.J.; Thombley, R.L.

    1994-08-08

    The Advanced Telecommunications Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with Pacific Bell, is developing an experimental high speed, four wavelength, protocol independent optical link for evaluating wide area networking interconnection schemes and the use of fiber amplifiers. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as a super-user, supercomputer, and super-application site, is anticipating the future bandwidth and protocol requirements to connect to other such sites as well as to connect to remote sited control centers and experiments. In this paper we discuss our vision of the future of Wide Area Networking and describe the plans for the wavelength division multiplexed link between Livermore and the University of California at Berkeley.

  2. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory upgrading approaches to existing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Plant Engineering Department instituted a seismic risk investigation and seismic upgrade program in 1970. This paper covers the upgrade of two buildings with dissimilar framing systems; Building No. 10, a World War II vintage heavy timber frame building, and Building No. 80, a steel frame structure constructed in 1954. The seismic upgrade task for both structures required that the buildings be kept in service during rehabilitation with a minimum of disruption to occupants. Rehabilitations were phased over two and three year periods with construction management and supervision performed by LBL Plant Engineering staff

  3. Lipoprotein subclasses in genetic studies: The Berkeley Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Williams, P.T.; Blanche, P.J.; Cavanaugh, A.; Holl, L.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Austin, M.A. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1992-10-01

    Data from the Berkeley Data Set was used to investigate familial correlations of HDL-subclasses. Analysis of the sibling intraclass correlation coefficient by HDL particle diameter showed that sibling HDL levels were significantly correlated for HDL{sub 2b}, HDL{sub 3a} and HDL{sub 3b} subclasses. The percentage of the offsprings` variance explained by their two parents. Our finding that parents and offspring-have the highest correlation for HDL{sub 2b} is consistent with published reports that show higher heritability estimates for HDL{sub 2} compared with HDL{sub 3}{minus} cholesterol.

  4. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is described. Data for 1988 are presented and general trends are discussed. In order to establish whether LBL research activities produced any impact on the population surrounding the laboratory, a program of environmental air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring was carried on throughout the year. For 1988, as in the previous several years, dose equivalents attributable to LBL radiological operations were a small fraction of both the relevant radiation protection guidelines (RPG) and of the natural radiation background. 16 refs., 7 figs., 21 tabs

  5. Assembly Manual for the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector consists of 3 main components that must be prepared separately before they can be assembled. These components are the scintillator, circuit board, and casing. They are described in the main sections of this report, which may be completed in any order. Preparing the scintillator paddles involves several steps--cutting the scintillator material to the appropriate size and shape, preparing and attaching Lucite cookies (optional), polishing the edges, gluing the end to the photomultiplier tube (optional), and wrapping the scintillator. Since the detector has 2 paddles, each of the sections needs to be repeated for the other paddle

  6. Assembly Manual for the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Michael

    2002-12-17

    The Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector consists of 3 main components that must be prepared separately before they can be assembled. These components are the scintillator, circuit board, and casing. They are described in the main sections of this report, which may be completed in any order. Preparing the scintillator paddles involves several steps--cutting the scintillator material to the appropriate size and shape, preparing and attaching Lucite cookies (optional), polishing the edges, gluing the end to the photomultiplier tube (optional), and wrapping the scintillator. Since the detector has 2 paddles, each of the sections needs to be repeated for the other paddle.

  7. USING DOE-2.1 AT LAWRENCE BERKELEY LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Energy Analysis Group.; Authors, Various

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this manual is to assist the DOE-2 user to run DOE-2 and its utility programs at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). It is organized to reflect the facts that every DOE-2 job run at LBL requires certain steps, and that there are options related to DOE-2 job runs available to any DOE-2 user. The standard steps for running a DOE-2 job are as follows: 1. Prepare a job deck 2. Process a job deck 3. Obtain standard output reports.

  8. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  9. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  10. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  11. The uses of radioisotope gauges in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope gauge consists basically of a sealed radioisotope source of radiation, a detector, and an electronic indicating unit for visually displaying the detector output. The degree of absorption or scattering of the radiation by a material, as measured with the detector, is used to measure properties such as thickness, density, composition and level; the different instruments being named after the property being determined, e.g. thickness gauge or level gauge. Depending on whether the source and detector are on the same or opposite sides of the material, the instruments are known as backscatter or transmission instruments respectively. They are further classified according to the type of radiation used, e. g. beta transmission thickness gauge or gamma backscattering density gauge. The physical properties which can be determined are: (a) Thickness, or mass per unit area, of homogeneous sheet materials such as aluminium or steel or of heterogeneous materials of constant composition such as paper or plastic; (b) Coating thickness, such as paper or textiles coated with rubber, plastic or abrasives; (c) Plating thickness, such as tin on steel; (d) Density of materials of constant thickness, such as liquids or slurries in a pipe, or of tobacco, in cigarettes; (e) Levels of solids or fluids in containers; (f) Elemental composition of certain materials; (g) Density of materials in large bulk, such as concrete, soil or rock strata. In addition to the above, the instruments are also used for such varied purposes as pressure gauges, flowmeters, torquemeters and as position indicators. Radioisotopes became available in quantity around 1947 from nuclear reactors and the first beta transmission thickness gauges were installed on paper mills about 1949

  12. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of 131I, 99Mo-99mTc, 32P, 51Cr, 153Sm, 46Sc, 192Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as 131I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for 99mTc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of 131I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of 99mTc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for 99mTc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable 99mTc generator using Zr-(99Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for 99mTc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for 99Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of 99mTc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with 153Sm and 131I such as 153Sm-EDTMP, 131I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  13. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  14. Self-reliance politics in radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN), owned by National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is a non-profit government institution that produces on a national scale more than 18 radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine. These radiopharmaceuticals are used in the diagnosis and treatment of more than 1.5 million people in Brazil. This level of production was achieved through the creation of new technologies and automation solutions, because of the difficulty and cost on importation of raw materials and labeling compounds ready for use. In Brazil, only CNEN has authorization to import, manipulate and distribute radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore, the quality of those radioisotopes must comply with international specifications and regulations. Much research and 40 years of improvements has won IPEN international approval for the radiopharmaceuticals that it produces, and quality standards and specifications are today as good as in any other developed country. IPEN has even developed a few solutions in radioisotope production for others countries, such as Cuba and soon Peru. The first step towards self-production was the acquisition of a cyclotron (Cyclone-30) and the improvement of the reactor power from 2 MW to 5 MW. Many technical visits were made to radiopharmaceutical institutions around the world with the purpose of bringing self-reliance and self-development solutions to IPEN. The international radiopharmaceutical community has always contributed to this effort, and only with their help our self-development and self-reliance could be possible. IPEN has ISO 9001-2000 certification and has made efforts to improve the installations in order to achieve Good Manufacturing Practice. Every effort we make today has the goal of making radiopharmaceuticals available for therapy at the most competitive price possible for our institution. (author)

  15. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the document is to list DOE's radioisotopes production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc

  16. Experience on radioisotope waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Jeong; Ju, Jun Sik; Kim, Chong Hyun; Lee, Byung Jik; Park, Hun Hwee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-01

    The number of institutions using radioisotopes (RI) is almost 800 in total and among them RI waste is generated from 496 institutions, mainly hospitals. The amount of waste to be collected is estimated to be about 800 drums per year. Waste storage and treatment facility are scheduled to be constructed within 1991 through the licensing procedure. Treatment equipment for compaction and solidification are designed and manufactured by the domestic technology. Other related equipment such as drums for collection and transportation vehicle are prepared. RI wastes from hospitals and research institutions have been collected on a trial basis since Aug. 28, 1990.

  17. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  18. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transport Trailer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System system 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the US Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, Code of federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware

  19. Experience on radioisotope waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of institutions using radioisotopes (RI) is almost 800 in total and among them RI waste is generated from 496 institutions, mainly hospitals. The amount of waste to be collected is estimated to be about 800 drums per year. Waste storage and treatment facility are scheduled to be constructed within 1991 through the licensing procedure. Treatment equipment for compaction and solidification are designed and manufactured by the domestic technology. Other related equipment such as drums for collection and transportation vehicle are prepared. RI wastes from hospitals and research institutions have been collected on a trial basis since Aug. 28, 1990

  20. Radioisotope hepatography in patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examination carried out by means of radioisotope hepatography with bengal-rose-iodine 131 in 69 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis associated with respiratory insufficiency of grades 1, 2, 3 at the phase of remission revealed disturbances of the absorptive-excretory function of the liver. A direct dependence was found between the intensity of disorder of the functionsl state of parenchymatous cells and degree of resperatory insufficiency in this category of patients. The disorders of the absorptive-excretory function of the liver were most pronounced in respiratory insufficiency of grade 3

  1. Software for the on-off-line A-A-T coincidence experiment with use of semiconductor detector of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In γ-spectra measurements with 200 cm3 HPGe-detector with energy resolution (FWHM) of 3.5 keV for α-rays 1.33 MeV 60Co, 60 cm3 Ge(Li)-detector with energy resolution of 1.9 keV for γ -rays 1.33 MeV 60Co, 2 cm3 HPGe-detector with energy resolution of 1.0 keV for α-rays 122 keV 57Co and planar 250 mm3 HPGe-detector with energy resolution of 0.5 keV for γ -rays 53 keV 133Ba. For accumulation and analysis of the experimental information the analog electronics produced companies ORTEC, CANBERRA, Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problem of JINR, units of the digital electronics of standard KAMAK, personal computers were used. The accumulation of information on the coincidence spectra was provided by record of each event (E1, E2, t)-coincidence (in list mode) and single spectra E1 and E2 that gave the broad possibilities for analysis result after completion experiment by means of the multiple sorting of information on spectra of the coincidences with installation the energy and time windows. In the report, a description of programs of the management and control of the on-off-line experiment designed at the begin 90-s being performed in Dubna by the YASNAPP-2 program [1-3] on the experimental complex for study nuclei far from the drip-line β-stability is given. The publication of the description of controlling programs is retard from publication of descriptions of the measuring equipment and result of the physical studies [4-6] due to in particular with creation in Institute of Nuclear Physics in Tashkent of the experimental complex γ-γ -coincidences, which can be used to accumulate the unpublished material by authors. The programs are formed in the Turbo-Pascal language with reference to the KAMAK-standard digital equipment and spectrometric equipment in standard NIM. It is properly to classify beforehand the programs in amount of 50 items: Program of the accumulation coincidence spectra of the type A-A-T with using the digital windows and ANC for 4096

  2. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  3. Environmental assessment for construction and operation of a Human Genome Laboratory at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) proposes to construct and operate a new laboratory for consolidation of current and future activities of the Human Genome Center (HGC). This document addresses the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental and human-health effects from the proposed facility construction and operation. This document was prepared in accordance the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (United States Codes 42 USC 4321-4347) (NEPA) and the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Final Rule for NEPA Implementing Procedures [Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR 1021].

  4. Berkeley extreme-ultraviolet airglow rocket spectrometer: BEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D M; Chakrabarti, S

    1992-09-20

    We describe the Berkeley extreme-UV airglow rocket spectrometer, which is a payload designed to test several thermospheric remote-sensing concepts by measuring the terrestrial O I far-UV and extreme-UV dayglow and the solar extreme-UV spectrum simultaneously. The instrument consisted of two near-normal Rowland mount spectrometers and a Lyman-alpha photometer. The dayglow spectrometer covered two spectral regions from 980 to 1040 A and from 1300 to 1360 A with 1.5-A resolution. The solar spectrometer had a bandpass of 250-1150 A with an ~ 10-A resolution. All three spectra were accumulated by using a icrochannel-plate-intensified, two-dimensional imaging detector with three separate wedge-and strip anode readouts. The hydrogen Lyman-alpha photometer was included to monitor the solar Lyman-alpha irradiance and geocoronal Lyman-alpha emissions. The instrument was designed, fabricated, and calibrated at the University of California, Berkeley and was successfully launched on 30 September 1988 aboard the first test flight of a four-stage sounding rocket, Black Brant XII. PMID:20733778

  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1997 Site Environmental Report Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 1997 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 1997. This report is structured into three basic areas that cover a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and the results of the surveillance and monitoring activities, including air quality, surface water, groundwater, sanitary sewer, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, radiation dose assessment, and quality assurance. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains the body of the report, a list of references, a list of acronyms and abbreviations, a glossary, Appendix A (NESHAPS annual report), and Appendix B (distribution list for volume I). Volume II contains Appendix C, the individual data results from monitoring programs. Each chapter in volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow

  6. Simulation of the Berkeley research reactor using DSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results have been obtained from a simulation of the TRIGA Mark III Berkeley Research Reactor (BRR) using DSNP. The BRR utilizes fuel that is a mixture of zirconium hydride and uranium hydride, with a hydride-to-metal ratio of 1.65 and a 235U enrichment of 28%. At Berkeley, version 3.4 of DSNP runs on an IBM 3081 Computer. The neutronic modules used to simulate the BRR were CNTRL1, NEUTR4, TPOWR4, CORTR4, and FDBEK4. The hydraulic loop consisted of modules LPLEN4, CORTR4, UPLEN4, PIPEUI, IHMXA1, and PIPEIL. As indicated from their names, several of the modules contained in library 1 were rewritten to incorporate a better model. The problem-description program was written to allow data entry from the console, and thus the FORTRAN program did not have to be recompiled for differing reactivity insertions. The decay heat module, GAMAR1, was not employed, since the ultimate objective of the simulation was to investigate operation of the reactor beyond its licensed limits

  7. Seismic Protection of Laboratory Contents: The UC Berkeley Science Building Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Comerio, Mary C.

    2003-01-01

    The research described in this report is a part of the Disaster Resistant University (DRU) initiative funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the University of California, Berkeley. The first phase of the Disaster Resistant University initiative produced a study of potential earthquake losses at UC Berkeley together with an analysis of the economic impacts. In that report, Comerio (2000) found that despite the extraordinary building retrofit program, the UC Berkeley cam...

  8. Radioisotopes in the training of medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the discovery of radioisotopes for the progress of science in general and that of biochemistry and physiology in particular has led us to provide experimental practice which enables medical students to become effectively acquainted with the properties and methods of use of radioisotopes, the measurement of their activity, and the possible risks involved in handling them. We have included in the exercises in quantitative determination for third-year medical students (the last pre-clinical year), practice in calibrating micropipettes using a 24Na solution prepared in the TRICO Centre's reactor by irradiating sodium carbonate with slow neutrons. The students make several GM-counter measurements of the activity of the stock solution over a period of time and of the activity of five samples taken with two different micropipettes. They then calculate, by measuring the decay in activity, the half-life of the isotope and relate their measurements to a reference time. In this way they calculate the volume of their micropipettes and the accuracy of the measurements. By means of a statistical analysis they compare the averages for the two pipettes and the accuracy of two operators. (author)

  9. Rhenium Radioisotopes for Therapeutic Radiopharmaceutical Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.-Y.; Pinkert, J.; Wang, S.-Y.

    1999-01-18

    The availability of therapeutic radioisotopes at reasonable costs is important for applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology, Rhenium-186 (Re-186) and rhenium-1 88 (Re-188) are two reactor-produced radioisotope which are attractive for a variety of therapeutic applications, Rhenium-186 has a half-life of 90 hours and decays with emission of a &particle with a maximum energy of 1.08 MeV and a 135 keV (9Yo) gamma which permits imaging. In contrast, Re- 188 has a much shorter half-life of 16.9 hours and emits a p-particle with a much higher energy of 2.12 MeV (Em=) and a 155 keV gamma photon (15Yo) for imaging. While Re-186 is unavailable from a generator system and must be directly produced in a nuclear reactor, Re-188 can also be directly produced in a reactor with high specific activity, but is more conveniently and cost-effectively available as carrier-free sodium perrhenate by saline elution of the alumina-based tungsten-188 (W1 88)/Re-l 88 generator system [1-2]. Since a comprehensive overviewofRe-186 and Re-188 therapeutic agents is beyond the scope of this &tended Abstrac4 the goal is to provide key examples of various agents currently in clinical use and those which are being developed for important clinical applications.

  10. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Medical Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains information necessary to medical officers concerned with the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the medical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  11. Renal function studies with radioisotopes: an appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioisotopes in renal disorders has grown out of the development of scintillation detectors and gamma cameras and the availability of appropriate radioactive pharmaceuticals. It is now time to approach these studies from a different point of view. What further information would the practising nephrologist or urologist, physician or surgeon like to know about patients' kidney function that is not easily obtainable by non-radioactive methods. He would like a simple and reliable measurement of individual renal function; a test to demonstrate the presence or absence of obstruction in a patient with oliguria or uraemia; some help as to whether nephrectomy or a more difficult restorative operation is better for the patient with hydronephrosis, calculus or renal artery stenosis; a measure of the degree to which an obstructive uropathy is causing an obstructive nephropathy; clarification of which kidney to operate upon first when bilateral obstructive nephropathy presents with uraemia; a quantitative index of the progress following an operation to relieve an outflow system disorder; a screening procedure for renal disorders in the hypertensive and other populations; a prognostic guide to the likely evolution of glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, a prediction of the onset of rejection in the renal transplant, particularly in the presence of acute tubular necrosis. This review attempts to define the extent to which renal function studies with radioisotopes meet or fail to meet these needs and to indicate areas for potential development. (author)

  12. Medical research with radioisotopes in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important program of research into the nature and causes of congenital haemolytic anaemias, notably the disease known as Mediterranean anaemia or Thalassaemia, which is a serious medical problem in the Mediterranean countries, is at present being carried out in the Department of Clinical Therapeutics of the University of Athens under a research contract awarded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This program is concerned with diseases in which there is an inherited defect or abnormality in the production of haemoglobin, the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells which is responsible for the carriage of oxygen in the blood. Two techniques have been widely used in the studies at the University of Athens. In the first of these, a radioisotope of iron, iron-59, is used to follow iron metabolism and haemoglobin production. Iron metabolism in the body is concerned largely with the synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobin, which consists of a protein, globin, linked to an iron containing substance, haeme. The second technique makes use of a radioisotope of chromium, chromium-51, to study the fate of the red cells in the blood. By performing simultaneous studies with iron- 59 and chromium-51, a detailed picture of haemoglobin synthesis and red cell production and destruction can be built up. Such investigations have been invaluable in establishing the characteristic patterns of different congenital haemolytic anaemias

  13. A Hydraulic Transfer System for Producing Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors are constructed mainly for producing radioisotopes, neutron beams and neutron irradiation research and so on. The research reactors generally have two separate area; one is the reactor area and the other is the radioisotopes (RI) production area. After various irradiation objects are irradiated in the reactor located in the reactor area, they are transferred to the RI production building for post-processing. The Hydraulic Transfer System (HTS) is one of RI production and utilization facilities of a research reactor. The HTS is for irradiating targets in the reactor core, and targets are transferred through pipes by hydraulic force. A similar system can be seen in other research reactor such as FRM II, JMTR, HFIR, etc. There are two parallel open-loops used to irradiate targets, and the HTS will circulate pool water to load/unload targets into/from the irradiation tubes and cool targets during irradiation. This paper contains the introduction and operation of the HTS. The HTS permits instantaneous irradiation activity during the reactor operation. It contributes to the RI production and utilization for public welfare, industrial applications and research areas

  14. Induced radioisotopes in a linac treatment hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When linacs operate above 8 MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect. The third category of spectrum has mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation in the linac components, the concrete walls and in the patient body. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. - Highlights: • Portland cement samples were located inside a treatment hall with a 15 MV linac. • Induced radioisotopes were measured with a NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. • 56Mn, 24Na, and 28Al were identified and the specific activity was estimated. • In a wedge, 56Mn was induced by the photoneutrons

  15. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  16. A Hydraulic Transfer System for Producing Radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Joonho; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Chungyoung; Lee, Jongmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Research reactors are constructed mainly for producing radioisotopes, neutron beams and neutron irradiation research and so on. The research reactors generally have two separate area; one is the reactor area and the other is the radioisotopes (RI) production area. After various irradiation objects are irradiated in the reactor located in the reactor area, they are transferred to the RI production building for post-processing. The Hydraulic Transfer System (HTS) is one of RI production and utilization facilities of a research reactor. The HTS is for irradiating targets in the reactor core, and targets are transferred through pipes by hydraulic force. A similar system can be seen in other research reactor such as FRM II, JMTR, HFIR, etc. There are two parallel open-loops used to irradiate targets, and the HTS will circulate pool water to load/unload targets into/from the irradiation tubes and cool targets during irradiation. This paper contains the introduction and operation of the HTS. The HTS permits instantaneous irradiation activity during the reactor operation. It contributes to the RI production and utilization for public welfare, industrial applications and research areas.

  17. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  18. Rhenium radioisotopes for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhenium-186 and rhenium-188 represent two important radioisotopes which are of interest for a variety of therapeutic applications in oncology, nuclear medicine and interventional cardiology. Rhenium-186 is directly produced in a nuclear reactor and the 90 hour half-life allows distribution to distant sites. The relatively low specific activity of rhenium-186 produced in most reactors, however, permits use of phosphonates, but limits use for labelled peptides and antibodies. Rhenium-188 has a much shorter 16.9 hour half-life which makes distribution from direct reactor production difficult. However, rhenium-188 can be obtained carrier-free from a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, which has a long useful shelf-life of several months which is cost-effective, especially for developing regions. In this paper we discuss the issues associated with the production of rhenium-186- and rhenium-188 and the development and use of various radiopharmaceuticals and devices labelled with these radioisotopes for bone pain palliation, endoradiotherapy of tumours by selective catheterization and tumour therapy using radiolabelled peptides and antibodies, radionuclide synovectomy and the new field of vascular radiation therapy. (author)

  19. Safety test of transport packages for radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Radioisotope Production, JAERI, has tested safety of type B(M), A and L packages according to the regulations of RI transportation. The type B(M) package weighing about 1800 kg. Used for transport of 192Ir(6540 Ci) and 32P(188 Ci) from reactors to the Radioisotope Production Laboratory, consists of a cylindrical plywood receptacle, aluminum honeycomb shock absorbers, steel framework and a 150 mm wall thickness drawer type lead container. Safety tests for type B(M) included 9 m high free drops in four postures, vertical, horizontal, corner and reverse, 1 m free drops on to an iron rod with in two postures, vertical and horizontal (the latter for punch test) and thermal test. The maximum acceleration in the punch test showed 735 G and in the 9 m drop test 2590 G. For thermal test of the whole package, a large muffle furnace was used. When the temperature of furnace reached 9200C, the package was inserted into it and heated for 30 min. During the test surface temperature of the lead container rose only by 19.10C. In 12.2 m free drop of type A and L package as safety test, 5 ml vials containing simulation RI solution retained their integrity without breakage. (author)

  20. Production of Short-Lived Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of the current literature and a bibliography given. Selected references are cited and comment made on the general techniques currently employed by short-lived radioisotope producers. A distinction is drawn between the large centrally-local high flux reactors and local reactors for producing short-lived radioisotopes; the complementary role of the two is pointed out as, for example, the need for obtaining very high specific activities in special off-site reactors or the need for high-speed transfers and fast processing in local reactors. The equipment and procedures used for irradiating target materials to produce short-lived radioisotopes in the three routinely-operated ORNL reactors are described, as well as those for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) now under construction at ORNL, which will have a maximum flux of 5 x 1015 n/cm2s. The use of the HFIR will permit production of certain short-lived radioisotopes of unprecedented specific activity. Techniques that have been developed for irradiating samples in various kinds of reactors ranging from the 1012n/cm2 s air-cooled, graphite reactor to the high flux (1014 - 1016) water-cooled, enriched uranium reactors are described. The requirements for sample irradiations in the various kinds of reactors, such as material, method of sealing, handling, method of heat removal, and kinds of sample materials, are discussed. Pneumatic transfer tubes are used for irradiations where cooling requirements are not great and fast transfer is desired. Hydraulic tubes are used for irradiation of samples with greater heat generation, although the speed of transfer is not as great as with the pneumatic tubes. The advantages in using enriched target materials in certain cases are pointed out and several illustrations are given. In some cases, where die target nuclide occurs in low abundance, such as Ca46 in calcium (0.003%), great advantage can be obtained by using enriched target materials. This may be of importance

  1. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  2. The use of radioisotope tracers in the metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope techniques have been widely used in the metallurgical industries for many years. They have been shown to be very suitable for studying large scale plant and, in many cases, they are the most suitable techniques for such investigations. Applications of radioisotope tracers to some specific metallurgical problems are discussed. (author)

  3. Radioisotope-thermographic studies in patients with breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides an analysis of the results of concomitant radioisotope-thermographic studies of 152 patients with malignant and benign breast tumors. The efficacy of concomitant radioisotope- thermographic studies in breast tumor diagnosis was evaluated. The efficacy of chemo- and radiotherapy was also evaluated

  4. Utilization of material testing reactor for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2000, JAEA (former JAERI) and CTC reached an agreement that we took over the radioisotope production from JAEA. We set up our facility in the Tokai Research and Development Center Nuclear Science Research Institute and started services. In this paper, we state present status of the production of radioisotopes in Japan and development activities in the future. (author)

  5. Guide to the safe handling of radioisotopes in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic tracers are frequently used in hydrological investigations. This manual provides recommendations on safety measures to be used in these investigations. The annexes provide lists of radioisotopic techniques that have been employed together with an indication of the quantities of isotopes used.

  6. Production and application of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals - status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given are the main data on the use of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medical applications. Shown are the methods for their routine production including the results obtained in the Laboratory for Radioisotopes (Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences). Particular emphasis is devoted to the trends in the development of the agents suitable for specific diagnostic or therapeutic applications. (author)

  7. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications

  8. Environmental Assessment for the proposed Induction Linac System Experiments in Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1087) evaluating the proposed action to modify existing Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to install and conduct experiments on a new Induction Linear Accelerator System. LBNL is located in Berkeley, California and operated by the University of California (UC). The project consists of placing a pre-fabricated building inside Building 51B to house a new 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator. A control room and other support areas would be provided within and directly adjacent to Building 51B. The accelerator system would be used to conduct tests, at reduced scale and cost, many features of a heavy-ion accelerator driver for the Department of Energy's inertial fusion energy program. Based upon information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  9. Medical Radioisotope Scanning, Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20-24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  10. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20 - 24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  11. Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal. [Testing of radioisotope imaging system in phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, H.

    1976-03-09

    Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including /sup 75/Se, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 43/K, /sup 130/I, and /sup 82/Br. Data processing methods are also described. (CH)

  12. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The concentration of radioisotopes to which the technical standards for transport outside enterprises are not applied is 0.002 micro-curie per gram. The radioisotopes which can be transported as L type transported goods are defined in detail, excluding explosive or spontaneously igniting radioisotopes. The quantity limit of radioisotopes which can be transported as A type transported goods is the values A1 and A2 defined in this rule. The permissible surface density defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency are 1/100,000 micro-curie per cm2 for the radioisotopes emitting alpha-ray, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per cm2 for the radioisotopes which do not emit alpha-ray. The leak quantity of radioisotopes specified by the Director General is 1/1,000,000 of A2 value for BM type transported goods and 1/1,000 of A2 value for BU type goods. The test conditions for each type of transported goods, dangerous goods, the limit of the number of transported goods and signs are stipulated, respectively. Permissible exposure dose is 1.5 rem a year for persons other than radiation workers. (Okada, K.)

  13. Development of radioisotopes and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utilizing HANARO and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The Ir-192 NDT sources of more than 50 Ci, equivalent in activity, are now available in KAERI and covers more than 90 % of the nationwide demand. For the commercial supply of Ir-192 industrial source, we developed irradiation target for mass-production and automatic fabrication system. The developed IR-Rigs have been used in production of various radioisotope and radiation sources in IR 1, 2 and CT irradiation holes. A Loop-Batch system for the mass-production of I-125 has been developed and tested its reliability and safety.The separation of I-125 formed from irradiated xenon gas was performed by column chromatographic technique using platinum coated on copper(PCC) granules as an adsorbent. For the preparation of I-125 seed, the retention of iodine on a ceramic rod coated with silver nitrate as an iodine absorbent was studied. The production possibility of Sr-89 using 89Y(n,p) and 88Sr(n,γ) in HANARO has been estimated. A new distillation process for P-33 production has been developed and applied for production of P-32. The current status of W-188/Re-188 generator production technology were reviewed. Main interests were given to the aspects of W-188 reactor production, irradiated targets reprocessing and generator loading technologies, such as alumina type and gel type generators. To develop the Yb-169 radiographic sources for industrial NDT application, molding machine which can apply fabrications of small pellets with various size and shapes was designed and manufactured. Automatic welding system and assembly technologies for Co-60 source fabrication were developed. The developed HDR Ir-192 source was tested for application in Microselectron [32P] γ - ATP has been developed using [32P] phosphoric acid produced by KAERI. Calibration sources for correcting of energy and detection efficiency

  14. The Measurement of Off- line Metacognitive Regulation and Its Application to Personnel Selection%离线元认知调节的结构探索与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎坚; 李一茗; 张厚粲

    2012-01-01

    The higher-level processes such as monitoring and controlling cognitive behavior have been pervasively emphasized, and metacognitive regulation has been regarded as one of the hot-points of contemporary psychological studies in recent years. Metacoguitive regulation is generally recognized as an advanced cognitive mechanism, which exerts a huge impact on cognitive effectiveness. Research on metacognitive regulation has important implications for theoretical development and practice. Metaeoguitive regulation is such a supreme ability that researchers want to distinguish individuals by their regulation levels. Howev- er, its conceptual structure is still unsettled. Nelson and Narens suggested that metacognitive regulation was composed of monitoring and control processes interactively, while Yeager split metacognitive regulation into two different parts, namely, (a) prediction and plan- ning, and (b) study techniques and their control. Both theories sound reasonable, but not convincible. According to the object, area and time of regulation, we broke metacognitive regulation down into two components: on-line regulation and off-line regulation. On-line regulation happens in the performance of a certain task, including monitoring and control of the problem solving processes, whereas off- line regulation takes place out of a certain task situation, reflecting an individualg self-regulation, planning and re-evaluation of his be- haviors on a global level. The purpose of the present study was to explore the psychometric structure of the off-line metacognitive regulation, and to develop an assessing instrument with high criterion-related validity. The data of this study were collected from a large-scale IT company in Bei- jing. In Study 1,226 employees participated in the preliminary test. By using a self-developed questionnaire, a three-factor structure of off-line metacognitive regulation was obtained, which included global-planning, awareness and generalization. After a

  15. Early History of Heavy Isotope Research at Berkeley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn T. Seaborg

    1976-06-01

    I have had the idea for some time that it would be interesting and worthwhile to put together an account of the early work on heavy isotopes at Berkeley. Of a special interest is the discovery of plutonium (atomic number 94) and the isotope U{sup 233}, and the demonstration of their fission with slow neutrons. This work served as a prelude to the subsequent Plutonium Project (Metallurgical Project) centered at the University of Chicago, in connection with which I have also had the idea of putting together a history of the work of my chemistry group. I have decided that it would be an interesting challenge to write this account on a day-to-day basis in a style that would be consistent with the entries having been written at the end of each day. The aim would be to make this history as accurate as possible by going back to the original records and using them with meticulous care.

  16. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine studies of the heart represent one of the fastest growing areas of research and clinical interest. Some years ago, nuclear medicine cardiac studies were limited to the evaluations of myocardial infraction. Developments in radiopharmaceuticals chemistry and instrumentation have made possible advances in cardiovascular nuclear medicine. Techniques and Radiopharmaceuticals no exist for the imaging of viable myocardium and the determination of myocardial tissue metabolism, as well as radionuclide angiography to obtain quantitative information of cardiac output, mean transit times, cardiac volumes, and ejection fractions. This paper will firstly describe that anatomy and physiology of the heart as to relate to the radiopharmaceuticals which will be discussed, and will secondly explore various radiopharmaceuticals which have been used for various purposes in cardiac imaging, than will explore radioisotopes which have been proposed for myocardial treatment

  17. Radioisotope heaters for spacecraft life support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future manned space flight requires the sanitary collection and disposal of biological wastes to minimize microbial contamination hazard. The recovery and reuse of water from such wastes are also necessary to reduce the weight of vehicles at launching and resupply logistics. The development and test of an engineering model, i.e. the completely integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy, are described. This is capable of collecting and processing the wastes from four men during 180-day simulated space mission. The sub-systems include collection of feces, trash and urine, water reclamation, the storage, heating and dispensing of the water, and the disposal of feces, urine residue and other non-metallic waste material by incineration. (Mori, K.)

  18. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  19. Radioisotope Power Systems Program: A Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan, mature research in energy conversion, and partners with the Department of Energy (DOE) to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. Recent programs responsibilities include providing investment recommendations to NASA stakeholders on emerging thermoelectric and Stirling energy conversion technologies and insight on NASA investments at DOE in readying a generator for the Mars 2020 mission. This presentation provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status and the approach used to maintain the readiness of RPS to support potential future NASA missions.

  20. Current status of radio-isotopes utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of radioisotopes were reviewed briefly in a categorized manner. In plant biochemistry, long lived radioactive carbon ,14C, was applied to clarify such metabolic processes as photosynthesis, respiration and protein synthesis, etc., while radioactive oxygen ,18O, was used to study the O2 generation mechanism. Radioactive phosphorus ,32P, was used to detect the amount, grain size of phosphatic fertilizer as well as the time and depth for better utilization. Radioactive sulphur ,35S, and nitrogen ,15N, could be of use in studies of protein metabolism in plants. Radioactive tracers of other minerals such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mo, B, and Co were also used to detect their specific role in plants. Use of radioactive isotopes in protein synthesis and transfer of genetic information was described. Radioactive iodine ,131I, binding capacity of milk proteins, and radio trace studies in the iodine turn over in the use of radioactive iodine were summarized. (Mukohata, S.)

  1. Radioisotope Power System Facility shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of calculations for the Radioisotope Power System Facility have been performed. These analyses have determined the shielding required for storage, testing, and transport of 238Pu heat source modules using the Monte Carlo code MCNP3B. The source terms and the assumptions used have been verified by comparison of calculated dose rates with measured ones. This paper describes the methodology used for shielding designs and the utilization of available variance reduction techniques to improve the computational efficiency. The new version of MCNP (MCNP3B) with a repeated structure capability was used. It decreased the chance for computer model errors and greatly decreased the model setup time. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  3. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  4. Emerging applications of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in the domain of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals has been very noteworthy over the past decade and played a major role in enhancing the Nuclear Medicine practice. A number of them have been employed in the day to day clinical practice and have benefited a large number of patients. For the purpose of systematic discussion, we shall classify into two major heads A. Recent advances in clinical applications of traditional radiotracers. B. Newer Radiopharmaceuticals and their applications. The latter could be further subdivided in to the following: (a) Diagnostic (includes i. PET radiopharmaceuticals and ii. Non-PET radiopharmaceuticals for conventional gamma camera imaging) and (b) Therapeutic advances. In the present communication, we shall explore the major developments emphasizing the country perspective

  5. Performance tuned radioisotope thermophotovoltaic space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend in space exploration is to use many small, low-cost, special-purpose satellites instead of the large, high-cost, multipurpose satellites used in the past. As a result of this new trend, there is a need for lightweight, efficient, and compact radioisotope fueled electrical power generators. This paper presents an improved design for a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) space power system in the 10 W to 20 W class which promises up to 37.6 watts at 30.1% efficiency and 25 W/kg specific power. The RTPV power system concept has been studied and compared to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) radioisotope, Stirling generators and alkali metal thermal electric conversion (AMTEC) generators (Schock, 1995). The studies indicate that RTPV has the potential to be the lightest weight, most efficient and most reliable of the three concepts. However, in spite of the efficiency and light weight, the size of the thermal radiator required to eliminate excess heat from the PV cells and the lack of actual system operational performance data are perceived as obstacles to RTPV acceptance for space applications. Between 1994 and 1997 EDTEK optimized the key converter components for an RTPV generator under Department of Energy (DOE) funding administered via subcontracts to Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) and EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies Laboratory (Horne, 1995). The optimized components included a resonant micromesh infrared bandpass filter, low-bandgap GaSb PV cells and cell arrays. Parametric data from these components were supplied to OSC who developed and analyzed the performance of 100 W, 20 W, and 10 W RTPV generators. These designs are described in references (Schock 1994, 1995 and 1996). Since the performance of each class of supply was roughly equivalent and simply scaled with size, this paper will consider the OSC 20 W design as a baseline. The baseline 20-W RTPV design was developed by Schock, et al of OSC and has been presented

  6. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1977 (plus the transition quarter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thirteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list gives ERDA's (now DOE) FY-1977 and transition quarter radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and United Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into four sections. Sect. I is an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers and their addresses. Sect. II is an alphabetical list of isotopes that are cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into the domestic and foreign categories. Sect. III is an alphabetical list of states and countries, and is also cross-referenced to customer numbers, indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users. Sect. IV summarizes the FY-1977 radioisotope shipment activities of laboratories in a comprehensive table providing an alphabetical listing of the isotopes and their suppliers. The shipments, quantities, and dollars are broken down for each isotope under the domestic, foreign, and project (ERDA facilities) categories, and the total figures for each isotope are also provided

  7. Recent developments in radiation equipment and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the technology of the uses of radiation equipment and radioisotopes, in which field Canada has long been a world leader. AECL Commercial Products has pioneered many of the most important applications. The development and sale of Co-60 radiation teletherapy units for cancer treatment is a familiar example of such an application and Commercial Products dominates the world market. Another such example is the marketing of Mo-99, which is produced in the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River, and from which the short-lived daughter Tc-99 is eluted as required for use in in-vivo diagnosis. New products coming into use for this purpose include Tl-201, I-123, Ga-67 and In-111, all produced in the TRIUMF cyclotron in Vancouver, while I-125 continues to be in demand for in-vitro radioimmunoassays. Radioisotopes continue to play an important part in manufacturing, where their well-known uses include controlling thickness, contents, etc., in production, and industrial radiography. The application of large industrial irradiators for the sterilization of medical products is now a major world industry for which Commercial Products is the main manufacturer. Isotopes are also used in products such as smoke detectors. Isotopes continue to find extensive use as tracers, both in industrial applications and in animal and plant biology studies. Some more recent uses include pest control by the Σsterile maleΣ technique and neutron activation and delayed neutron counting in uranium assay. The review concludes with an account of the development and prospects of AECL Commercial Products. (author)

  8. Status of the NASA Stirling Radioisotope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power conversion has been considered a candidate for radioisotope power systems for space for more than a decade. Prior to the free-piston Stirling architecture, systems were designed with kinematic Stirling engines that used linkages and rotary alternators to convert heat to electricity. These systems were able to achieve long life by lightly loading the linkages; however, the live was nonetheless limited. When the free-piston configuration was initially proposed, it was thought to be attractive due to the relatively high conversion efficiency, acceptable mass, and the potential for long life and high reliability based on wear-free operation. These features have consistently been recognized by teams that have studied technology options for radioisotope space power systems. Since free-piston Stirling power conversion was first considered for space power applications, there have been major advances in three general areas of development: hardware that has demonstrated long-life and reliability, the success achieved by Stirling cryocoolers in space, and the overall developmental maturity of the technology for both space and terrestrial applications. Based on these advances, free-piston Stirling convertors are currently being developed for space power, and for a number of terrestrial applications. They commonly operate with the power, efficiency, life, and reliability as intended, and much of the development now centers on system integration. This paper will summarize the accomplishments of free-piston Stirling power conversion technology over the past decade, review the status of development with regard to space power, and discuss the challenges that remain.

  9. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  10. Gas chemical investigation of hafnium and zirconium complexes with hexafluoroacetylacetone using preseparated short-lived radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile metal complexes of the group 4 elements Zr and Hf with hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfa) have been studied using short-lived radioisotopes of the metals. The new technique of physical preseparation has been employed where reaction products from heavy-ion induced fusion reactions are isolated in a physical recoil separator - the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator in our work - and made available for chemistry experiments. Formation and decomposition of M(hfa)4 (M = Zr, Hf) has been observed and the interaction strength with a fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon surface has been studied. From the results of isothermal chromatography experiments, an adsorption enthalpy of -ΔHa = (57±3) kJ/mol was deduced. In optimization experiments, the time for formation of the complex and its transport to a counting setup installed outside of the irradiation cave was minimized and values of roughly one minute have been reached. The half-life of 165Hf, for which conflicting values appear in the literature, was measured to be (73.9±0.8)s. Provided that samples suitable for α-spectroscopy can be prepared, the investigation of rutherfordium (Rf), the transactinide member of group 4, appears possible. In the future, based on the studies presented here, it appears possible to investigate short-lived single atoms produced with low rates (e.g., transactinide isotopes) in completely new chemical systems, e.g., as metal complexes with organic ligands as used here or as organometallic compounds. (orig.)

  11. A 5 MW TRIGA reactor design for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and preparation of commercial-scale quantities of radioisotopes has become an important activity as their medical and industrial applications continue to expand. There are currently various large multipurpose research reactors capable of producing ample quantities of radioisotopes. These facilities, however, have many competing demands placed upon them by a wide variety of researchers and scientific programs which severely limit their radioisotope production capability. A demonstrated need has developed for a simpler reactor facility dedicated to the production of radioisotopes on a commercial basis. This smaller, dedicated reactor could provide continuous fission and activation product radioisotopes to meet commercial requirements for the foreseeable future. The design of a 5 MW TRIGA reactor facility, upgradeable to 10 MW, dedicated to the production of industrial and medical radioisotopes is discussed. A TRIGA reactor designed specifically for this purpose with its demonstrated long core life and simplicity of operation would translate into increased radioisotope production. As an example, a single TRIGA could supply the entire US needs for Mo-99. The facility is based on the experience gained by General Atomics in the design, installation, and construction of over 60 other TRIGAs over the past 35 years. The unique uranium-zirconium hydride fuel makes TRIGA reactors inexpensive to build and operate, reliable in their simplicity, highly flexible due to unique passive safety, and environmentally friendly because of minimal power requirements and long-lived fuel. (author)

  12. Development and application of industrial radioisotope instruments in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radioisotope instruments are emerging as advanced monitoring, controlling and automation tools for industries in China. Especially the on-line analysis systems based on radioisotope instruments, referred to as nucleonic control systems (NCS), have more and more important role in the modernization and optimization of industrial processes. Over nearly four decades significant progress has been made in the development and application of radioisotope instruments in China. After a brief review of the history of radioisotope instruments, the state of the art of this kind of instruments and recent examples of their applications are given. Technical and economic benefits have resulted from the industrial applications of radioisotope instruments and the sales of products of their own in marketing. It is expected that along with the high speed growth of national economy, there will be greater demand for radioisotope instruments and nucleonic control systems in Chinese industry to promote the technological transformation and progress of traditional industries and to establish high-tech industries with technology-intensive products. Sustained efforts for the research and development of radioisotope instrument should be made to up-grade domestic instruments and to satisfy the needs of the smaller scale industries more common in China for low cost systems. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  13. Future radioisotope power needs for missions to the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NASA and DOE plan a cooperative team effort with industry, government laboratories and universities to develop a near term, low cost, low power (100 watt electric class), low mass (<10 kg), advanced radioisotope space power source (ARPS) and in the process reduce the plutonium-related costs as well. The near term is focused on developing an advanced energy converter to use with the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The GPHS was developed and used for the current radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Advanced energy converter technologies are needed as a more efficient replacement for the existing thermoelectric converters so that the space radioisotope power source mass and cost can be reduced. a more advanced technology space radioisotope power system program is also planned that addresses a longer-term need. Twenty first century robotic scientific information missions to the outer planets and beyond are planned to be accomplished with microspacecraft which may demand safe, even more compact, lower-power, lower-mass radioisotope power sources than those which can be achieved as a result of the near term efforts. The longer-term program focuses not only on converter technology but also on lower power, more compact radioisotope heat source technology and smaller, lower mass radioisotope heater units for second generation microspacecraft. This more ambitious, longer time-horizon focus necessarily occurs at this time on the technology R and D level rather than at the system technology level

  14. Utilization of radioisotopes and irradiation in crop protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing realization of the benefits which may be derived from the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in the different disciplines of crop protection research. Many investigations which might only be carried out with extreme difficulty or not all by conventional methods, could be pursued with relative ease. Radioisotopes and irradiation have been utilized in understanding the physiology and behaviour of pests and their biochemical processes and in consequence, have contributed beneficially to the development of better control techniques and more effective pesticides. On the environmental aspects, radioisotopic techniques have provided a useful tool in understanding the behaviour, metabolism and residues of pesticides in the environment. (author)

  15. Trends in indigenous radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioisotope Production Division (RIPD) of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology started producing radioisotopes for medical use in 1987, as soon as the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor started operation. There are 17 nuclear medicine centres in Bangladesh and the RIPD partially meets domestic demand for medical radioisotopes, the balance being imported. The RIPD routinely produces 131I solution and 99mTc generator and from October 2005 it was scheduled to substitute the import of these items by indigenous production. The RIPD is planning to establish a 99mTc cold kit manufacturing facility by 2007-2008. (author)

  16. Radioisotope Reduction Using Solar Power for Outer Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems have historically been (and still are) the power system of choice from a mass and size perspective for outer planetary missions. High demand for and limited availability of radioisotope fuel has made it necessary to investigate alternatives to this option. Low mass, high efficiency solar power systems have the potential for use at low outer planetary temperatures and illumination levels. This paper documents the impacts of using solar power systems instead of radioisotope power for all or part of the power needs of outer planetary spacecraft and illustrates the potential fuel savings of such an approach.

  17. Waste minimization in the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid-1970s the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program has been irradiating target materials to produce and recover radioisotopes for applications in medicine, environmental science, biology, physics, materials research, and other disciplines where radiotracers find utility. By necessity, the chemical processing of targets and the isolation of radioisotopes generates radioactive waste materials. Recent years have brought pressure to discontinue the use of hazardous materials and to minimize radioactive waste volumes. Substantial waste reduction measures have been introduced at the irradiation facility, in processing approaches, and even in the ways the product isotopes are supplied to users

  18. Characterizing string-of-pearls colloidal silica by multidetector hydrodynamic chromatography and comparison to multidetector size-exclusion chromatography, off-line multiangle static light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Amandaa K; Striegel, André M

    2011-04-15

    The string-of-pearls-type morphology is ubiquitous, manifesting itself variously in proteins, vesicles, bacteria, synthetic polymers, and biopolymers. Characterizing the size and shape of analytes with such morphology, however, presents a challenge, due chiefly to the ease with which the "strings" can be broken during chromatographic analysis or to the paucity of information obtained from the benchmark microscopy and off-line light scattering methods. Here, we address this challenge with multidetector hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC), which has the ability to determine, simultaneously, the size, shape, and compactness and their distributions of string-of-pearls samples. We present the quadruple-detector HDC analysis of colloidal string-of-pearls silica, employing static multiangle and quasielastic light scattering, differential viscometry, and differential refractometry as detection methods. The multidetector approach shows a sample that is broadly polydisperse in both molar mass and size, with strings ranging from two to five particles, but which also contains a high concentration of single, unattached "pearls". Synergistic combination of the various size parameters obtained from the multiplicity of detectors employed shows that the strings with higher degrees of polymerization have a shape similar to the theory-predicted shape of a Gaussian random coil chain of nonoverlapping beads, while the strings with lower degrees of polymerization have a prolate ellipsoidal shape. The HDC technique is contrasted experimentally with multidetector size-exclusion chromatography, where, even under extremely gentle conditions, the strings still degraded during analysis. Such degradation is shown to be absent in HDC, as evidenced by the fact that the molar mass and radius of gyration obtained by HDC with multiangle static light scattering detection (HDC/MALS) compare quite favorably to those determined by off-line MALS analysis under otherwise identical conditions. The

  19. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  20. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall program objective is to develop a high temperature variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) backup radiator, and integrate it into a Stirling radioisotope...

  1. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  2. Investigation of natural radioisotope activities in forest soil horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of radioisotopes were measured in samples of forest soil. The samples were collected in forests situated along the roads from Zloty Stok (Poland) to Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Each soil profile was separated into individual horizons and subhorizons. Activities of radioisotopes were measured in the sample of each soil horizon. Activities of the following radioisotopes were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry: 214Pb, 214Bi, 231Th, 235U, 212Pb, 212Bi and 228Ac. Distributions of the data concerning radioactivities were positively skewed. The lowest activity was found for 235U (median value was 2.25 Bq/kg) and the highest one for 228Ac (16.26 Bq/kg in median). In organic horizons activities of radionuclides were lower than in organic ones. Interrelation between activities was examined using ordinary and robust regression methods. It was found that activities of the radioisotopes were well correlated. (authors)

  3. Short course on the use of radioisotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the papers delivered at the short course on the use of radioisotopes in agriculture held in Pretoria, South Africa, 22-24 April 1981. The following topics were discussed: principles of nuclear physics and radioactivity; biological effects of radiation; regulatory control of radioisotopes; basic radiation protection procedures; radiation detectors and counting instrumentation; statistics of radioactive observations; use of the neutron moisture meter in soil moisture determinations; soil moisture content and soil density measurements by the gamma soil moisture meter; trace element analysis; application and use of radioisotopes as tracers in soil studies; applications of isotopes in plants for the study of absorption and transportation of mineral elements; applications of radioisotopes in zoological studies

  4. Synthesis and characterization of coordination polymer nanoparticles as radioisotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordination polymer nanoparticles (NPs) with gamma-emitting nuclide (Au-198), 411 keV, 675 keV, 822 keV and 1087 keV were prepared by coordination polymerization of the radioisotope Au3+ ions and 1,4-bis(imidazole-1-ylmethyl)benzene in an aqueous solution at room temperature for 3 h. Here, the radioisotope Au3+ ions were prepared by dissolution of Au-198 foil, which was prepared by neutron irradiation from the HANARO reactor, in KCN aqueous solution. The successful synthesis of the radioisotope coordination polymer NPs with 5±0.5 nm was confirmed via UV–vis spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDXS), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Gamma spectroscopy analysis. The synthesized radioisotope coordination polymer NPs can be used as radiotracers in science, engineering, and industrial fields

  5. Determining Molar Combining Ratios Using Radioisotopes--A Student Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines an experimental procedure in which an iodine radioisotope is used to determine molar combining ratios of lead and silver with the iodine. Tables and graphs show the definitive results that should be attainable. (CP)

  6. Safety Analysis for a Radioisotope Stirling Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting safety analyses of various lowpower Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) design concepts for the U. S. Department of Energy. These systems are electrical power generators converting thermal energy from plutonium (238Pu) decay to electrical energy via a Stirling cycle generator. The design and function are similar to the RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) used in space missions since the early 1960's, with a more efficient Stirling cycle generator replacing the proven thermoelectric converter. This paper discusses the methods the INL is employing in the safety analysis effort, along with the software tools, lessons learned, and results. The overall goal of our safety analyses is to determine the probability of an accidental plutonium release over the life of the generator. Historical accident rates for various transportation modes were investigated using event tree methods. Source terms were developed for these accidents including primarily impact, fire, and creep rupture. A negative result was defined as rupture of the tantalum alloy containment vessel surrounding the encapsulated plutonia pellet. Damage due to identified impact accidents was evaluated using non-linear finite element software tools. Material models, gathered from a wide variety of sources, included strain-rate and temperature dependencies on yield strength, strain hardening, and rupture. Both individual component and overall system simulation results will be validated by impact testing to be conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results from deterministic impact, fire, and creep rupture analyses were integrated into the probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment by correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. This approach presented challenges, which are addressed. Other significant issues include limitations of reliable material data at high temperatures and strain rates and development of a technique to

  7. Cores of production : reactors and radioisotopes in France

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the technologies used in radioisotope production in the French Atomic Energy Commission (the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique) between 1946 and 1958. Particular attention is given to the various instruments used for the bombardment of isotopes, including accelerators and reactors, and their relationship with the CEA’s radioisotope preparation laboratories. Ultimately, the vast majority of bombardments took place in research reactors. These versatile machines, and the isot...

  8. Legal regulations governing workplace monitoring in radioisotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal regulations governing workplace monitoring in radioisotope laboratories are presented and compared on the basis of the West German and Swiss Radiation Protection Ordinances and the pertinent EC standards. The following subjects are covered: Application of the fundamentals of radiation protection; requirements to be met for licenses to handle radioisotopes; classification of monitored areas; requirements on radiation monitoring. The possible consequences of the new ICRP recommendations are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Development of a auto-loading system for radioisotope liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A loading system with computer distant control for radioisotope liquor is developed. It's arm to avoid close operating to the radioactive in the radioisotope liquor. Microcontroller is used as control center, step motor and peristaltic pump as manipulator in this system. The product process is performed with real-time measurement and control. The system has many function including data storage, data query, printing, operator information management, et al. (authors)

  10. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Neilly, Brian; Allen, Sarah; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representative...

  11. The safe use of radioisotopes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is given a general look on the safe use of radioisotopes in South Africa. This include general information on the history and applications of radioisotopes. The main development of industrial nuclear techniques has been in the use of radioactive tracers for process dynamics studies. Nuclear techniques for elemental analysis have also been used successfully in the monitoring of those mining and industrial processes where concentration of specific elements are needed as control parameters

  12. KAERI's challenge to steady production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is a national organization in Korea, and has been doing many research and development works in radioisotope production and applications for more than 30 years. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166) for medical use and Ir-192 for industrial use. Various I-131 labeled compounds and more than 10 kinds of Tc-99m cold kits are also produced. Our multi-purpose reactor, named HANARO, has been operative since April of 1995. HANAKO is an open tank type reactor with 30 MW thermal capacity. This reactor was designed not only for research on neutron utilization but for production of radioisotopes. KAERI intended to maximize the radioisotope production capability. For this purpose, radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) have been constructed adjacent to the HANARO reactor building. There are four banks of hot cells equipped with manipulators and some of the hot cells were installed according to the KGMP standards and with clean rooms. In reviewing our RI production plan intensively, emphasis was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, development of new radiation sources for industrial and therapeutic use, and steady production of selected radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The selected items are Ho-166 based pharmaceuticals, fission Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. solution and capsules of I-131, and Ir-192 and Co-60 for industrial use. The status and future plan of KAERI's research and development program will be introduced, and will highlight programs for steady production. (author)

  13. Radioisotopes - where have we got to, where are we going ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid growth has been achieved and there are remarkable possibilities in various fields of radioisotopes and radiation. New applications in molecular biology, in nuclear medicine, and in biotechnology are opening further opportunities for the use of radioisotopes. In the industrial field too there is growth, as microprocessor techniques extend the usefulness of radioisotope methods. And radiation engineering is a success story of its own, as ever-increasing use is made of radiation processing and sterilization, and new horizons open for food irradiation. This paper begins by recalling how isotope technology developed from the research laboratory to become the industry-scale activity it is today. A section is devoted to describing the development of a new radioisotope industry during the period from the 1930s through 1960s, focusing on the growth in the areas of nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, isotope gauging and tracing, production control, industrial processing, and production of radioisotopes. After a brief review of the present it looks into the future to suggest the directions in which new developments may lie. In particular, remarkable growth is expected in such areas as molecular biology, biotechnology, radiography, gauging, process control, radiation processing, and radiation sterilization. A review is also made of the transport and disposal of radioisotopes. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Strategy for securing the national supply of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The global supply shortage of medical radioisotopes caused by the unscheduled shutdown of the aged reactors which supply over 90% of radioisotopes overall the world, has severely affected the normal healthcare system which depend on the technology of molecular imaging for diagnoses and therapy as well as the development of nuclear molecular imaging technology. Purpose: It is urgently needed to develop new alternative technologies to solve the problem of global radioisotope supply shortage. Methods: The proton cyclotron is a potential alternative technology to produce the 99mTc and the most of medical radioisotopes of clinical importance. Results: The quality of 99mTc produced by cyclotron, such as nuclide purity, specific activity and nonradioisotope impurities, has reached and/or exceeded that eluted from 99Mo/99mTc generator produced by reactor. Conclusions: It is the most operational and sustainable way to substitute the conventional global centralized supply by reactors with local centralized supply of radioisotopes by proton cyclotrons for securing the national supply of radioisotopes. (author)

  15. Berkeley lab checkpoint/restart (BLCR) for Linux clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Paul H.; Duell, Jason C.

    2006-09-01

    This article describes the motivation, design and implementation of Berkeley Lab Checkpoint/Restart (BLCR), a system-level checkpoint/restart implementation for Linux clusters that targets the space of typical High Performance Computing applications, including MPI. Application-level solutions, including both checkpointing and fault-tolerant algorithms, are recognized as more time and space efficient than system-level checkpoints, which cannot make use of any application-specific knowledge. However, system-level checkpointing allows for preemption, making it suitable for responding to ''fault precursors'' (for instance, elevated error rates from ECC memory or network CRCs, or elevated temperature from sensors). Preemption can also increase the efficiency of batch scheduling; for instance reducing idle cycles (by allowing for shutdown without any queue draining period or reallocation of resources to eliminate idle nodes when better fitting jobs are queued), and reducing the average queued time (by limiting large jobs to running during off-peak hours, without the need to limit the length of such jobs). Each of these potential uses makes BLCR a valuable tool for efficient resource management in Linux clusters.

  16. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, L.D. (ed.)

    1978-03-01

    The data obtained from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for the Calendar year 1977 are described and general trends are discussed. The general trend of decreasing radiation levels at our site boundary due to accelerator operation during past years has leveled off during 1977 and in some areas shows a slight but not statistically significant increase as predicted in last year's summary. There were changes in both ion beams as well as current which have resulted in shifts in maxima at the monitoring stations. The gamma levels are once again reported as zero. There is only one period of detectable gamma radiation due to accelerator operation. The annual dose equivalent are reported from the environmental monitoring stations since they have been established. Radiation levels at the Olympus Gate Station have shown a steady decline since 1959 when estimates were first made. The Olympus Gate Station is in direct view of the Bevatron and most directly influenced by that accelerator. Over the past several years the atmospheric sampling program has, with the exception of occasional known releases, yielded data which are within the range of normal background. The surface water program always yields results within the range of normal background. As no substantial changes in the quantities of radionuclides used are anticipated, no changes are expected in these observations.

  17. Berkeley lab checkpoint/restart (BLCR) for Linux clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the motivation, design and implementation of Berkeley Lab Checkpoint/Restart (BLCR), a system-level checkpoint/restart implementation for Linux clusters that targets the space of typical High Performance Computing applications, including MPI. Application-level solutions, including both checkpointing and fault-tolerant algorithms, are recognized as more time and space efficient than system-level checkpoints, which cannot make use of any application-specific knowledge. However, system-level checkpointing allows for preemption, making it suitable for responding to ''fault precursors'' (for instance, elevated error rates from ECC memory or network CRCs, or elevated temperature from sensors). Preemption can also increase the efficiency of batch scheduling; for instance reducing idle cycles (by allowing for shutdown without any queue draining period or reallocation of resources to eliminate idle nodes when better fitting jobs are queued), and reducing the average queued time (by limiting large jobs to running during off-peak hours, without the need to limit the length of such jobs). Each of these potential uses makes BLCR a valuable tool for efficient resource management in Linux clusters

  18. Status of the UC-Berkeley SETI Efforts

    CERN Document Server

    Korpela, Eric J; Bankay, Robert; Cobb, Jeff; Howard, Andrew; Lebofsky, Matt; Siemion, Andrew P V; von Korff, Joshua; Werthimer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    We summarize radio and optical SETI programs based at the University of California, Berkeley. The SEVENDIP optical pulse search looks for ns time scale pulses at visible wavelengths using an automated 30 inch telescope. The ongoing SERENDIP V.v sky survey searches for radio signals at the 300 meter Arecibo Observatory. The currently installed configuration supports 128 million channels over a 200 MHz bandwidth with ~1.6 Hz spectral resolution. SETI@home uses the desktop computers of volunteers to analyze over 160 TB of data at taken at Arecibo looking for two types of continuous wave signals and two types of pulsed signals. A version to be released this summer adds autocorrelation analysis to look for complex wave forms that have been repeated (and overlayed) after a short delay. SETI@home will soon be processing data of Kepler exoplanet systems collected at the GBT. The Astropulse project is the first SETI search for $\\mu$s time scale dispersed pulses in the radio spectrum. We recently reobserved 114 sky loc...

  19. Tiger Team assessment of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tiger Team Assessment of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) conducted from January 14 through February 15, 1991. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy with the status of environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs at LBL. The Tiger Team concluded that curtailment of cessation of any operations at LBL is not warranted. However, the number and breadth of findings and concerns from this assessment reflect a serious condition at this site. In spite of its late start, LBL has recently made progress in increasing ES ampersand H awareness at all staff levels and in identifying ES ampersand H deficiencies. Corrective action plans are inadequate, however, many compensatory actions are underway. Also, LBL does not have the technical expertise or training programs nor the tracking and followup to effectively direct and control sitewide guidance and oversight by DOE of ES ampersand H activities at LBL. As a result of these deficiencies, the Tiger Team has reservations about LBL's ability to implement effective actions in a timely manner and, thereby, achieve excellence in their ES ampersand H program. 4 figs., 24 tabs

  20. Tiger Team assessment of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    This report documents the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tiger Team Assessment of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) conducted from January 14 through February 15, 1991. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy with the status of environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs at LBL. The Tiger Team concluded that curtailment of cessation of any operations at LBL is not warranted. However, the number and breadth of findings and concerns from this assessment reflect a serious condition at this site. In spite of its late start, LBL has recently made progress in increasing ES H awareness at all staff levels and in identifying ES H deficiencies. Corrective action plans are inadequate, however, many compensatory actions are underway. Also, LBL does not have the technical expertise or training programs nor the tracking and followup to effectively direct and control sitewide guidance and oversight by DOE of ES H activities at LBL. As a result of these deficiencies, the Tiger Team has reservations about LBL's ability to implement effective actions in a timely manner and, thereby, achieve excellence in their ES H program. 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Utilization in Japan has been positioned, together with nuclear power generation, as one of the important cornerstones, and research and development and practical usage of it has been proceeded with steadily in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and so on. In the field of medicine, SPECT and PET facilities, radio-immunoassay, radiotherapy has come widely to practical use. In the field of agriculture and fisheries, improvement of breed, sterile insect technique have been implemented, and eradication of melon fly has been achieved. In the field of industry, it is expected that the practical use of neutron radiography technique and research and development of synthesizing high performance, high function materials are progressed. In the environment preservation area, a pilot test using electron beam to treat the exhaust gases out of coal fired power plants, city garbages combustion facilities, city high way tunnels in order to establish de- sulphur/de-nitrogen technique is carried out. As the international contribution in the field of radiation utilization, the cooperation with developing countries and the cooperation among advanced countries are reported. In this paper, a prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization is described. (J.P.N.)

  2. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA's last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini's 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn's atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft

  3. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  4. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. 1973 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it was considered an urgent task to provide users of radionuclides with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. The first edition of such a manual was published in 1958 and represented the first of the ''Safety Series'', a series of manuals and codes on health and safety published by the Agency. It was prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. This edition presents the second revision. In response to the suggestion made by some Member States, the term 'radioisotopes' has been changed to 'radionuclides' in the title and, as appropriate, in the text because the term 'radionuclides' includes the radioactive element itself as well as the isotopes. The series of manuals and codes published in the Safety Series and the Technical Reports Series give more complete advice to the user on specialized topics.

  5. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  6. Radioisotopes Identification Algorithm Based on Generic Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The homeland security market is seeking for advanced radiation detectors with improved isotope identification capability. This need is increasing due to the operational difficulties derived by the high probability of innocent alarm shielding and masking scenarios. The identification algorithm should focus on discrimination between Naturally Occurring radioactive Material (NORM) and medical isotopes from industrial sources or Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) following the standards for HLS. The SpecIdentifier software application developed to provide spectrum analysis and identification solutions for various types of detectors. The key requirement is identification of radio-isotopes included in standards for spectroscopic radiation detectors (SPRD).The process of isotope identification is based on spectrum analysis leaning on multi-parametric tests. The parameters include Peak-to-Compton ratio, FWHM (resolution), gain and other values. However, many obstacles are in the way to the proper determination of each parameter: Peak-to-Compton ratio varies with scintillator’s geometry; spectrum shape and resolution vary with scintillator’s physical properties; temperature dependency of scintillation light yield result in gain instability; non-proportionality in light yield as function of incident gamma energy; high count rates results in shift the calibration relation (gain)(4,5). These and other obstacles are considered by the proposed approach to the spectrum analysis and are implemented in the SpecIdentifier software

  7. Guidelines for the segregation characterization management of dry waste at Berkeley Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing and disposing of dry low level radioactive waste at Berkeley Lab. is problematic. The Waste Management Group must assure off site treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that dry waste from Berkeley Lab. is free of liquids and regulated metals (such as lead and mercury). RTR (Real Time Radioagraphy) used for waste to be rejected. This pamphlet helps to clarify dry waste management requirements that will ensure that Berkeley Lab. dry waste will be accepted for off site shipment. These issues are critical if we are to have an off site disposal option for your dry radioactive waste

  8. Failure of triga fuel cladding at the Berkeley Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 16, 1985, following a long maintenance shutdown, unusually high concentrations of radioisotopes were detected in the reactor-room air on a Constant Air Monitor (CAM) after two and a half hours of full power operation. It was thought that the activity could be coming from some contamination in the pool water. Thus the water was cleaned and the water conductivity was reduced fourfold. However, a full-power operation again showed high count rates on the CAM. A third test was conducted with a germanium detector. Following two hours of operation, three fission-product gasses were identified in the reactor-room air; Kr85, Kr37 and Kr88. Once again no unusual activities could be detected on the CAM filter, in the pool water, or in the demineralizer resins. It was concluded that the gasses must be coming from a leaking fuel element. Three old, instrumented elements with defective thermocouples were selected to be the first ones isolated from the core. After removing the elements, the reactor was operated at full-power for two hours with no abnormal activities detected. New standard elements were loaded and the reactor was again operated at full-power to confirm that no leaking element remained in the core. Since then, the reactor has been operated, with no abnormal activities detected. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Development of a radioisotope heat source for the two-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Edwin I.; McNeil, Dennis C.; Amos, Wayne R.

    1992-01-01

    Described is a radioisotope heat source for the Two-Watt Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) which is being considered for possible application by the U.S. Navy and for other Department of Defense applications. The heat source thermal energy (75 Wt) is produced from the alpha decay of plutonium-238 which is in the form of high-fired plutonium dioxide. The capsule is non-vented and consists of three domed cylindrical components each closed with a corresponding sealed end cap. Surrounding the fuel is the liner component, which is fabricated from a tantalum-based alloy, T-111. Also fabricated from T-111 is the next component, the strength member, which serves to meet pressure and impact criteria. The outermost component, or clad, is the oxidation- and corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy, Hastelloy S. This paper defines the design considerations, details the hardware fabrication and welding processes, discusses the addition of yttrium to the fuel to reduce liner embrittlement, and describes the testing that has been conducted or is planned to assure that there is fuel containment not only during the heat source operational life, but also in case of an accident environment.

  10. Survey of literature on dispersion ratio and collection ratio of radioisotopes in animal study using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of literature in the title was performed to know the actual status of the dispersion from excretion and expiration studies of radioisotopes since, at present, the probable dispersion ratio is assumed to be 100% in calculation for legally permitted use of radioisotopes which conceivably being far from the real status and being incompatible with the guideline for pharmacokinetic studies requiring the recovery of >95% of dosed radioactivity in balance study. There are two interpretations for the dispersion; it is the expiration ratio and it is the fraction unrecovered. Survey was done on 11 Japanese and foreign journals in 1985-1996 publishing most of pharmacokinetic studies and on 650 compounds in 358 facilities with 1,975 experiments in total. In those experiments, the total recovery of radioactivity was 95% in average, unrecovered fraction, 5% and expiration ratio, 2%. As for unclide, 14C, 3H, 125I and 35S were surveyed since they occupied 99.4% of the experiments and their dispersion was <5%. Rats were used in 70% of the experiments and the dispersion in all animal experiments was about 5%. Administration route was regardless of the dispersion. (K.H.)

  11. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1993--1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The FY 1993--1998 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory mission, strategic plan, scientific initiatives, research programs, environment and safety program plans, educational and technology transfer efforts, human resources, and facilities needs. The Strategic Plan section identifies long-range conditions that can influence the Laboratory, potential research trends, and several management implications. The Initiatives section identifies potential new research programs that represent major long-term opportunities for the Laboratory and the resources required for their implementation. The Scientific and Technical Programs section summarizes current programs and potential changes in research program activity. The Environment, Safety, and Health section describes the management systems and programs underway at the Laboratory to protect the environment, the public, and the employees. The Technology Transfer and Education programs section describes current and planned programs to enhance the nation's scientific literacy and human infrastructure and to improve economic competitiveness. The Human Resources section identifies LBL staff composition and development programs. The section on Site and Facilities discusses resources required to sustain and improve the physical plant and its equipment. The Resource Projections are estimates of required budgetary authority for the Laboratory's ongoing research programs. The plan is an institutional management report for integration with the Department of Energy's strategic planning activities that is developed through an annual planning process. The plan identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the National Energy Strategy and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the plan is coordinated by the Office for Planning and Development from information contributed by the Laboratory's scientific and support divisions.

  12. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1993--1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Joseph T.; Stroh, Suzanne C.; Maio, Linda R.; Olson, Karl R.; Grether, Donald F.; Clary, Mary M.; Smith, Brian M.; Stevens, David F.; Ross, Loren; Alper, Mark D.; Dairiki, Janis M.; Fong, Pauline L.; Bartholomew, James C.

    1992-10-01

    The FY 1993--1998 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory mission, strategic plan, scientific initiatives, research programs, environment and safety program plans, educational and technology transfer efforts, human resources, and facilities needs. The Strategic Plan section identifies long-range conditions that can influence the Laboratory, potential research trends, and several management implications. The Initiatives section identifies potential new research programs that represent major long-term opportunities for the Laboratory and the resources required for their implementation. The Scientific and Technical Programs section summarizes current programs and potential changes in research program activity. The Environment, Safety, and Health section describes the management systems and programs underway at the Laboratory to protect the environment, the public, and the employees. The Technology Transfer and Education programs section describes current and planned programs to enhance the nation`s scientific literacy and human infrastructure and to improve economic competitiveness. The Human Resources section identifies LBL staff composition and development programs. The section on Site and Facilities discusses resources required to sustain and improve the physical plant and its equipment. The Resource Projections are estimates of required budgetary authority for the Laboratory`s ongoing research programs. The plan is an institutional management report for integration with the Department of Energy`s strategic planning activities that is developed through an annual planning process. The plan identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the National Energy Strategy and the Department of Energy`s program planning initiatives. Preparation of the plan is coordinated by the Office for Planning and Development from information contributed by the Laboratory`s scientific and support divisions.

  13. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Institutional Plan FY 1994--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory mission, strategic plan, scientific initiatives, research programs, environment and safety program plans, educational and technology transfer efforts, human resources, and facilities needs. For FY 1994-1999 the Institutional Plan reflects significant revisions based on the Laboratory`s strategic planning process. The Strategic Plan section identifies long-range conditions that will influence the Laboratory, as well as potential research trends and management implications. The Initiatives section identifies potential new research programs that represent major long-term opportunities for the Laboratory, and the resources required for their implementation. The Scientific and Technical Programs section summarizes current programs and potential changes in research program activity. The Environment, Safety, and Health section describes the management systems and programs underway at the Laboratory to protect the environment, the public, and the employees. The Technology Transfer and Education programs section describes current and planned programs to enhance the nation`s scientific literacy and human infrastructure and to improve economic competitiveness. The Human Resources section identifies LBL staff diversity and development program. The section on Site and Facilities discusses resources required to sustain and improve the physical plant and its equipment. The new section on Information Resources reflects the importance of computing and communication resources to the Laboratory. The Resource Projections are estimates of required budgetary authority for the Laboratory`s ongoing research programs. The Institutional Plan is a management report for integration with the Department of Energy`s strategic planning activities, developed through an annual planning process.

  14. Proposed University of California Berkeley fast pulsar search machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the discovery of 1937+21 by Backer et al. (1982) there is much renewed interest in an all sky survey for fast pulsars. University of California Berkeley has designed and is in the process of building an innovative and powerful, stand-alone, real-time, digital signal-processor to conduct an all sky survey for pulsars with rotation rates as high as 2000 Hz and dispersion measures less than 120 cm-3 pc at 800 MHz. The machine is anticipated to be completed in the Fall of 1985. The search technique consists of obtaining a 2-dimensional Fourier transform of the microwave signal. The transform is effected in two stages: a 64-channel, 3-level digital autocorrelator provides the radio frequency to delay transform and a fast 128K-point array processor effects the time to intensity fluctuation frequency transform. The use of a digital correlator allows flexibility in the choice of the observing radio frequency. Besides, the bandwidth is not fixed as in a multi-channel filter bank. In the machine, bandwidths can range from less than a MHz to 40 MHz. In the transform plane, the signature of a pulsar consists of harmonically related peaks which lie on a straight line which passes through the origin. The increased computational demand of a fast pulsar survey will be met by a combination of multi-CPU processing and pipeline design which involves a fast array processor and five commercial 68,000-based micro-processors. 6 references, 3 figures

  15. Alternative method for 64Cu radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for 64Cu production based on a 64Ni target using an 18 MeV proton energy beam was developed. The studies on the optimisation of targetry for the 18 MeV proton bombardments were performed in terms of the cost-effective target utilisation and purity of the 64Cu product. The thickness-specific 64Cu yield (μCi/(μAxμm)) was introduced into the optimisation calculation with respect to cost-effective target utilisation. A maximum target utilisation efficacy factor (TUE) was found for the proton energy range of 2.5-13 MeV with corresponding target thickness of 36.2 μm. With the optimised target thickness and proton energy range, the 64Ni target thickness saving of 45.6% was achieved, while the overall 64Cu yield loss is only 23.9%, compared to the use of the whole effective proton energy range of 0-18 MeV with target thickness of 66.6 μm. This optimisation has the advantage of reducing the target amount to a reasonable level, and therefore the cost of the expensive 64Ni target material. The 64Ni target electroplated on the Au-Tl multi layer coated Cu-substrate was a new and competent design for an economic production of high quality 64Cu radioisotope using an 18 MeV proton energy cyclotron or a 30 MeV cyclotron with proton beam adjustable to 18 MeV. In this design, the Au coating layer plays a role of protection of 'cold' Cu leakage from the Cu substrate and Tl serves to depress the proton beam energy (from 18 MeV to the energy optimised value 13 MeV). The ion exchange chromatographic technique with a gradient elution was applied to improve the 64Cu separation with respect to reducing the processing time and control of 64Cu product quality.

  16. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β- - 47Sc, 67Cu - β+ - 44Sc, 64Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, 68Ge/68Ga - and α emitters - 211At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - natCu or natNi - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the natTi(p,X)47Sc and 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  17. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samejima, Natsuki; Ikeda, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Satoru

    1989-05-01

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. (author).

  18. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, N; Ikeda, K; Yokoyama, Y; Hirata, S

    1989-05-01

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting 99mTcO4- into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. PMID:2674500

  19. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting 99mTcO4-into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. (author)

  20. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers.