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Sample records for berghei-infection induces volume-regulated

  1. Effect of the histaminergic antagonist over the pulmonary oedema growth in P. berghei - infected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of histaminergic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of pulmonary oedema observed in p. berghei - infected mice was investigated. Histamine concentrations in plasma and whole blood of infected and normal mice were determined by radioenzymatic assay during the seven days of the infection. Elevated plasma and whole blood histamine levels were found at the last stages of infection (sixth day and seventh day) after intraperitoneal injection of parasitized erythrocytes, showing a close temporal correlation between the development of the oedema and the elevation of the circulating histamine concentrations. The participation of H 1 and H 2 receptors in the increase in vascular permeability (IVP) induced by histamine was also verified. (author)

  2. Protective Effects of Tinospora crispa Stem Extract on Renal Damage and Hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nutham, Narain; Sakulmettatham, Sakuna; Klongthalay, Suwit; Chutoam, Palatip; Somsak, Voravuth

    2015-01-01

    Renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria are associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress condition induced by malaria infection is involved in its pathology. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tinospora crispa stem extract on renal damage and hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei infection. T. crispa stem extract was prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 1...

  3. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

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    J. N. Boampong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg in ICR mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Xylopic acid exerted significant (P<0.05 effects on P. berghei infection similar to artemether/lumefantrine, the standard drug. Furthermore, it significantly (P<0.05 reduced the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced fever in Sprague-Dawley rats similar to prednisolone. Xylopic acid therefore possesses prophylactic and curative antimalarial as well as antipyretic properties which makes it an ideal antimalarial agent.

  4. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

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    Suthin Audomkasok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  5. Fluoride Induces a Volume Reduction in CA1 Hippocampal Slices Via MAP Kinase Pathway Through Volume Regulated Anion Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jaekwang; Han, Young-Eun; Favorov, Oleg; Tommerdahl, Mark; Whitsel, Barry; Lee, C. Justin

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of cell volume is an important aspect of cellular homeostasis during neural activity. This volume regulation is thought to be mediated by activation of specific transporters, aquaporin, and volume regulated anion channels (VRAC). In cultured astrocytes, it was reported that swelling-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation is required to open VRAC, which are thought to be important in regulatory volume decrease and in the response of CNS to trauma and excitotoxicit...

  6. Protective Effects of Tinospora crispa Stem Extract on Renal Damage and Hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutham, Narain; Sakulmettatham, Sakuna; Klongthalay, Suwit; Chutoam, Palatip; Somsak, Voravuth

    2015-01-01

    Renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria are associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress condition induced by malaria infection is involved in its pathology. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tinospora crispa stem extract on renal damage and hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei infection. T. crispa stem extract was prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess renal damage and hemolysis, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and hematocrit (%Hct) levels were then evaluated, respectively. Malaria infection resulted in renal damage and hemolysis as indicated by increasing of BUN and creatinine and decreasing of %Hct, respectively. However, protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. In conclusion, T. crispa stem extract exerted protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria infection. This plant may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment. PMID:26600953

  7. Protective Effects of Tinospora crispa Stem Extract on Renal Damage and Hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narain Nutham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria are associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress condition induced by malaria infection is involved in its pathology. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tinospora crispa stem extract on renal damage and hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei infection. T. crispa stem extract was prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 1×107 parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess renal damage and hemolysis, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, and hematocrit (%Hct levels were then evaluated, respectively. Malaria infection resulted in renal damage and hemolysis as indicated by increasing of BUN and creatinine and decreasing of %Hct, respectively. However, protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. In conclusion, T. crispa stem extract exerted protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria infection. This plant may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  8. Antiplasmodial activity of Xanthium strumarium against Plasmodium berghei-infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Sanjeev; Bagai, Upma; Vashishat, Nisha

    2012-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic leaves extract of traditional medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium in Plasmodium berghei-infected BALB/c mice along with phytochemical screening and acute toxicity test to support its traditional medicinal use as a malaria remedy. The ethanolic leaves extract of X. strumarium (ELEXS) 150, 250, 350 and 500 mg/kg/day demonstrated dose-dependent chemosuppression during early and established infection long with significant (p strumarium as malarial remedy and indicate the potential of plant for active antiplasmodial components. PMID:21847597

  9. Chloroquine encapsulated in malaria-infected erythrocyte-specific antibody-bearing liposomes effectively controls chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei infections in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Owais, M; Varshney, G C; Choudhury, A.; S. Chandra; Gupta, C M

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of liposomes as drug carriers in the treatment of drug-resistant rodent malaria was examined after covalently attaching F(ab')2 fragments of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb), MAb F10, raised against the host cell membranes isolated from the Plasmodium berghei-infected mouse erythrocytes, to the liposome surface. The antibody-bearing liposomes thus formed specifically recognized the P. berghei-infected mouse erythrocytes under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. No such spec...

  10. Modification of oxidative status in Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes by E-2-chloro-8-methyl-3-[(4'-methoxy-1'-indanoyl-2'-methyliden]-quinoline compared to chloroquine

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    Juan Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available E-2-chloro-8-methyl-3-[(4'-methoxy-1'-indanoyl-2'-methyliden]-quinoline (IQ is a new quinoline derivative which has been reported as a haemoglobin degradation and ß-haematin formation inhibitor. The haemoglobin proteolysis induced by Plasmodium parasites represents a source of amino acids and haeme, leading to oxidative stress in infected cells. In this paper, we evaluated oxidative status in Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes in the presence of IQ using chloroquine (CQ as a control. After haemolysis, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione cycle and NADPH + H+-dependent dehydrogenase enzyme activities were investigated. Lipid peroxidation was also assayed to evaluate lipid damage. The results showed that the overall activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were significantly diminished by IQ (by 53.5% and 100%, respectively. Glutathione peroxidase activity was also lowered (31% in conjunction with a higher GSSG/GSH ratio. As a compensatory response, overall SOD activity increased and lipid peroxidation decreased, protecting the cells from the haemolysis caused by the infection. CQ shared most of the effects showed by IQ; however it was able to inhibit the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase. In conclusion, IQ could be a candidate for further studies in malaria research interfering with the oxidative status in Plasmodium berghei infection.

  11. Pharmacodynamic evaluation for antiplasmodial activity of Holarrhena antidysentrica (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (Neemb) in Plasmodium berghei infected mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jadhav Priyanka; Lal Hingorani; Kshirsagar Nilima

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of aqueous extracts of plants selected based on the symptomology mentioned in Ayurveda. Methods: The aqueous extracts of Holarrhena antidysentrica (H. antidysentrica) (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (A. indica) (Neemb) for their antiplasmodial potential in Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) infected mice was assessed using Peters four day suppressive test. Both the extracts were administered at 2 dose levels, full dose (1 000 mg/d) and minimized dose (200 mg/d). 106 P. berghei infected RBCs were injected on day ’0’ and treated from day ’0’ till day ’3’ post-infection. Tail blood smears were collected, giemsa stained and analyzed. The mice were observed for survival and parasitemia was assessed till 50% of mice in control survived. Results: It was observed that the percentage of parasitemia increased gradually in all the groups, with maximum in control group (Day 3-35, Day 9-46.98) and minimum in Chloroquine arm (Day 3-14.06, Day 9-19.92). The percentage of parasitemia was compared using Mann-Whitney U test depicting that all test groups exhibited reduction in parasitemia as compared to control (P-value<0.002 for all groups). These groups showed similar percentage of survival as Chloroquine. Conclusions: The present investigation demonstrated the anti-plasmodial effects of H. antidysentrica and A. indica, which are two most commonly used medicinal plants in Ayurved for treatment of fever.

  12. Differential gene expression in abdomens of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, after sugar feeding, blood feeding and Plasmodium berghei infection

    OpenAIRE

    Romans Patricia A; Kern Marcia K; Hillenmeyer Maureen E; Lobo Neil F; Dana Ali N; Collins Frank H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Large scale sequencing of cDNA libraries can provide profiles of genes expressed in an organism under defined biological and environmental circumstances. We have analyzed sequences of 4541 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from 3 different cDNA libraries created from abdomens from Plasmodium infection-susceptible adult female Anopheles gambiae. These libraries were made from sugar fed (S), rat blood fed (RB), and P. berghei-infected (IRB) mosquitoes at 30 hours after the bloo...

  13. Volume Regulation in Epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    We review studies on regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and regulatory volume increase (RVI) of major ion and water transporting vertebrate epithelia. The rate of RVD and RVI is faster in cells of high osmotic permeability like amphibian gallbladder and mammalian proximal tubule as compared to...... amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...

  14. Volume regulated anion channel currents of rat hippocampal neurons and their contribution to oxygen-and-glucose deprivation induced neuronal death.

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    Huaqiu Zhang

    Full Text Available Volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC are widely expressed chloride channels that are critical for the cell volume regulation. In the mammalian central nervous system, the physiological expression of neuronal VRAC and its role in cerebral ischemia are issues largely unknown. We show that hypoosmotic medium induce an outwardly rectifying chloride conductance in CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. The induced chloride conductance was sensitive to some of the VRAC inhibitors, namely, IAA-94 (300 µM and NPPB (100 µM, but not to tamoxifen (10 µM. Using oxygen-and-glucose deprivation (OGD to simulate ischemic conditions in slices, VRAC activation appeared after OGD induced anoxic depolarization (AD that showed a progressive increase in current amplitude over the period of post-OGD reperfusion. The OGD induced VRAC currents were significantly inhibited by inhibitors for glutamate AMPA (30 µM NBQX and NMDA (40 µM AP-5 receptors in the OGD solution, supporting the view that induction of AD requires an excessive Na(+-loading via these receptors that in turn to activate neuronal VRAC. In the presence of NPPB and DCPIB in the post-OGD reperfusion solution, the OGD induced CA1 pyramidal neuron death, as measured by TO-PRO-3-I staining, was significantly reduced, although DCPIB did not appear to be an effective neuronal VRAC blocker. Altogether, we show that rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons express functional VRAC, and ischemic conditions can initial neuronal VRAC activation that may contribute to ischemic neuronal damage.

  15. Antagonistic antimalarial properties of pawpaw leaf aqueous extract in combination with artesunic acid in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

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    L.O. Onaku, A.A. Attama, V.C. Okore, A.Y. Tijani, A.A. Ngene & C.O. Esimone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Artemisinins, the main stay in the treatment of malaria are used in combinationswith other antimalarials to forestall resistance, as artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs. However, ACTsare expensive and some of the non-artemisinin components are not well-tolerated by patients. There areseveral folkloric and scientific proofs of the efficacy of herbal remedies for malaria. Mature leaves of Caricapapaya is widely used to treat malaria in several African countries. An ACT involving a medicinal herb extractor its active constituent(s will provide an indigenous alternative/herbal ACT.Methods: Mature fresh leaves of Carica papaya were grounded and macerated in cold distilled water for 24 hand the extract (PCE was stored in the refrigerator for seven days. Fresh extracts were made as needed. Theantiplasmodial activity of PCE and/or artesunic acid were determined by using the Peter’s 4-day suppressivetest in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. The ED50 and ED90 were calculated from the dose-responserelationships.Results: The combination of 50 mg/kg of PCE and 15 mg/kg of artesunic acid produced a significant reductionof parasitemia (81.25%, compared to 50 mg/kg PCE alone (37.7%. The mean survival time of the combinationsof PCE and 15 mg/kg of artesunic acid, and PCE alone followed a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 of PCEshowed that it has a very good activity. The isobolar equivalent (IE calculated from the ED90 of PCE incombination with artesunic acid showed that the interaction was antagonistic.Interpretation & conclusion: Although pawpaw alone was found to have a very good activity, its combinationwith artesunic acid is antagonistic. Combinations of artemisinins and pawpaw show little promise forcombination therapy development.

  16. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  17. Schizonticidal effect of a combination of Amaranthus spinosus L. and Andrographis paniculata Burm. f./Nees extracts in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

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    Tiwuk Susantiningsih

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amaranthus spinosus and Andrographis paniculata are traditionally used as antimalarial herbs, but the combination of both has not yet been tested. The aim of this study was to determine the schizonticidal anti-malaria effect of a combination in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.Methods: Male mice (Balb/c strain weighing 28-30 g, 7-8 weeks old, were randomly devided into 5 groups of 4 animals each. Group A: controls (nil and 4 treatment groups (B, C, D, and E. Group B: Amarathus 10 mg/kgBW, group C: Andrographis 2 mg/kgBW, group D: combination of Amaranthus + Andrographis 10 mg + 2 mg/kgBW. All treatment with plant extracts was administered orally, once per day for 7 days. Group E was given chloroquine 10 mg/kgBW, once a day orally, for 3 days.Results: The body weigh increased only in group D, hemoglobin concentration increased significantly vs controls (p < 0.05 in treatment groups C, D, and E, and blood schizonticidal activity was seen in all treatment groups, highest at almost 90% in groups D and E. Survival rate was 100% in all groups.Conclusion: The combination of Amaranthus and Andrographis (10 mg + 2 mg/kgBW exerts the same blood schizonticidal activity as chloroquine 10 mg/kgBW. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:66-70Keywords: Amaranthus spinosus, Andrographis paniculata, Balb/c mice, Plasmodium berghei, schizonticidal effect

  18. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed by a...... discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...

  19. AN IN-VIVO EVALUATION OF ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTED BALB/c MICE

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    L.A. Oseni* and G.M. Akwetey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infections in the tropical regions of the world. The increased resistance of the parasite to many available antimalarials backs the need to develop novel antimalarial drugs with effective mode of action. Several plants with antiplasmodial properties have been proved as sources for novel antiplasmodial compounds. Azadirachta indica has widely been reported for its medicinal properties. The leaf extract is used in folklore medicine to treat malaria. Previous in vitro studies has shown that the leaf extract of A. indica possess antiplasmodial properties. In the current research, the antiplasmodial activity of both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of A. indica (ALEAI and ELEAI respectively were studied in vivo using Plasmodium berghei infected BALB/c mice at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day dosages. The extracts were also screened for phytochemicals using standard methods. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, reducing sugars, flavonoids and polyphenols in both extracts. Both ELEAI and ALEAI demonstrated significant antiplasmodial activity in vivo against plasmodium berghei in a dose-dependent manner. During early infection, oral administration of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day dosages of ELEAI caused chemosuppression of 56.96, 63.15 and 69.60% respectively on day four and a chemosuppression of 69.65, 75.76 and 78.32 % respectively on day six. Similar dosages of ALEAI respectively caused chemosuppression of 56.96, 59.89, 69.49% on day four and 64.42, 70.23 and 77.41% on the sixth day. These values were statistically significant (P < 0.001 as compared to negative control. The LD50 of the ELEAI was found to be greater than 1g/kg body weight of naive mice. Results from the present study therefore confirm that A. indica leaf contains active antiplasmodial compounds and therefore can be very useful in the search for new antimalarial drugs.

  20. Mechanisms of volume regulation in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum, a cell wall-less bacterium, must confront the problem of colloid osmotic swelling. Cell volume was determined by optical density and intracellular water measurements. Transmembrane pH and electrical gradients were determined by the distribution of the weak acid benzoate and lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium respectively. Cells incubated in sodium chloride without glucose exhibited a progressive fall in ATP over several hours. When ATP fell below 40 uM the cells swelled, leaked protein and became permeable to inulin. Subsequent addition of glucose induced shrinkage and restored the original permeability properties. Energized cells exhibited an electrochemical gradient of protons of up to 130 mV, inside negative and alkaline. The proton-ATPase inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), which collapsed the chemical and electrical components of the proton gradient, induced rapid swelling despite high ATP levels thus implicating the proton gradient in volume regulation. Either the pH gradient or the membrane potential could maintain volume. Energy-dependent sodium efflux in exchange for protons was demonstrated in sodium-loaded cells using radioactive sodium and 9-aminoacridine fluorescence to follow sodium and proton translocation respectively

  1. Ion Channels Involved in Cell Volume Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume...... regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation...

  2. Cell volume regulation in goldfish intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, J A

    1981-11-01

    1. Ion and water content of goldfish intestinal mucosa, stripped free from muscular layers were measured under various incubation conditions. 2. Ouabain induces an increase in cation content that is electrically compensated for by chloride. The increase in solute content is accompanied by an increase in water content. 3. When extracellular chloride is partially replaced by sulphate, ouabain does induce cell shrinkage. 4. Anoxia induces a rapid increase in cell volume that is restored by oxygenation of the incubation solution. Ouabain prevents the restoration of volume. 5. It is concluded that the classical ouabain-sensitive Na/K pump participates in the maintenance of cellular volume. We suggest that the constancy in volume after ouabain poisoning as is reported for many tissues might be due to a low chloride conductance of its membranes. 6. Anisotonic media (range: 0.6-1.2 isotonicity), made by variation on mannitol concentration, induce changes in cell water content that deviates from the simplified van't Hoff equation by about 10%. No change in water content after the initial increase was found. 7. We conclude that goldfish enterocytes do not possess a mechanism for rapid volume readjustment. PMID:7322833

  3. Intracellular Ca2+ responses and cell volume regulation upon cholinergic and purinergic stimulation in an immortalized salivary cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aure, Marit H; Røed, Asbjørn; Galtung, Hilde Kanli

    2010-06-01

    The water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) seems to play a key role in salivary fluid secretion and appears to be critical in the cell volume regulation of acinar cells. Recently, the cation channel transient potential vanilloid receptor 4 (TRPV4) was shown to be functionally connected to AQP5 and also to cell volume regulation in salivary glands. We used the Simian virus 40 (SV40) immortalized cell line SMG C10 from the rat submandibular salivary gland to investigate the effect of ATP and the neurotransmitter analogue carbachol on Ca(2+) signalling and cell volume regulation, as well as the involvement of TRPV4 in the responses. We used fura-2-AM imaging, cell volume measurements, and western blotting. Both carbachol and ATP increased the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+), but no volume changes could be measured. Inhibition of TRPV4 with ruthenium red impaired both ATP- and carbachol-stimulated Ca(2+) signals. Peak Ca(2+) signalling during hyposmotic exposure was significantly decreased following inhibition of TRPV4, while the cells' ability to volume regulate appeared to be unaffected. These results show that in the SMG C10 cells, simulation of nervous stimulation did not induce cell swelling, although the cells had intact volume regulatory mechanisms. Furthermore, even though Ca(2+) signals were not needed for this volume regulation, TRPV4 seems to play a role during ATP and carbachol stimulation. PMID:20572856

  4. Aquaporin expression and cell volume regulation in the SV40 immortalized rat submandibular acinar cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ann-Kristin; Galtung, Hilde Kanli

    2007-03-01

    The amount of aquaporins present and the cellular ability to perform regulatory volume changes are likely to be important for fluid secretions from exocrine glands. In this work these phenomena were studied in an SV40 immortalized rat submandibular acinar cell line. The regulatory cell volume characteristics have not previously been determined in these cells. Cell volume regulation following hyposmotic exposure and aquaporin induction was examined with Coulter counter methodology, radioactive efflux studies, fura-2 fluorescence, and polymerase chain reaction and Western blot techniques. Cell volume regulation was inhibited by the K(+) channel antagonists quinine and BaCl(2) and the Cl(-) channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenypropylamino)benzoic acid. A concomitant increase in cellular (3)H-taurine release and Ca(2+) concentration was also observed. Chelation of both intra- and extracellular Ca(2+) with EGTA and the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 did not, however, affect cell volume regulation. Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in hyperosmotic conditions and downregulated upon return to isosmotic solutions, but were reduced by the mitogen-activated ERK-activating kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126. A 24-h MEK inhibition also diminished hyposmotically induced cell swelling and cell volume regulation. In conclusion, it was determined that regulatory volume changes in this immortalized cell line are due to KCl and taurine efflux. In conditions that increased AQP5 levels, the cells showed a faster cell swelling and a more complete volume recovery following hyposmotic exposure. This response could be overturned by MEK inhibition. PMID:17021794

  5. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K+ and Cl- conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchange systems

  6. Hemorrhagic shock impairs myocardial cell volume regulation and membrane integrity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro myocardial slice technique was used to quantitate alterations in cell volume regulation and membrane integrity after 2 h or hemorrhagic shock. After in vitro incubation in Krebs-Ringer-phosphate medium containing trace [14C]inulin, values (ml H2O/g dry wt) for control nonshocked myocardial slices were 4.03 /plus minus/ 0.11 (SE) for total water, 2.16 /plus minus/ 0.07 for inulin impermeable space, and 1.76 /plus minus/ 0.15 for inulin diffusible space. Shocked myocardial slices showed impaired response to cold incubation. After 2 h of in vivo shock, total tissue water, inulin diffusible space, and inulin impermeable space increased significantly for subendocardium, whereas changes in subepicardium parameters were minimal. Shock-induced cellular swelling was accompanied by an increased total tissue sodium, but no change in tissue potassium. Calcium entry blockade in vivo significantly reduced subendocardial total tissue water as compared with shock-untreated dogs. In addition, calcium entry blockade reduced shock-induced increases in inulin diffusible space. In vitro myocardial slice studies confirm alterations in subendocardial membrane integrity after 2 h of in vivo hemorrhagic shock. Shock-induced abnormalities in myocardial cell volume regulation are reduced by calcium entry blockade in vivo

  7. Cell volume regulation in epithelial physiology and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The physiological function of epithelia is transport of ions, nutrients, and fluid either in secretory or absorptive direction. All of these processes are closely related to cell volume changes, which are thus an integrated part of epithelial function. Transepithelial transport and cell volume re...... transporters and channels with key physiological functions in epithelia and known roles in the development of cancer in these tissues. Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be discussed.......The physiological function of epithelia is transport of ions, nutrients, and fluid either in secretory or absorptive direction. All of these processes are closely related to cell volume changes, which are thus an integrated part of epithelial function. Transepithelial transport and cell volume...... regulation both rely on the spatially and temporally coordinated function of ion channels and transporters. In healthy epithelia, specific ion channels/transporters localize to the luminal and basolateral membranes, contributing to functional epithelial polarity. In pathophysiological processes such as...

  8. Volume regulation and renal function at high altitude across gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Haditsch

    Full Text Available We investigated changes in volume regulating hormones and renal function at high altitudes and across gender.Included in this study were 28 subjects (n = 20 males; n = 8 females. ages: 19 - 65 yrs, who ascended to a height of 3440m (HA1, on the 3rd day and to 5050m (HA2, on the 14th day. Plasma and urinary creatinine and urinary osmolality as well as plasma levels of plasma renin activity (PRA, Aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone (ADH, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP were measured. The plasma volume loss (PVL was estimated from plasma density and hematocrit. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was measured based on nocturnal (9 hour creatinine clearance; this was compared with various methods for estimation of GFR.The mean 24-hour urine production increased significantly in both sexes across the expedition. But PVL reached significance only in males. No changes in Na+ in plasma, urine or its fractional excretion were seen at both altitudes. Urinary osmolality decreased upon ascent to the higher altitudes. ADH and PRA decreased significantly at both altitudes in males but only at HA2 in females. However, no changes in aldosterone were seen across the sexes and at different altitudes. ANP increased significantly only in males during the expedition. GFR, derived from 9-h creatinine clearance (CreaCl, decreased in both sexes at HA1 but remained stable at HA2. Conventional Crea[p]-based GFR estimates (eGFR showed only poor correlation to CreaCl.We report details of changes in hormonal patterns across high altitude sojourn. To our knowledge we are not aware of any study that has examined these hormones in same subjects and across gender during high altitude sojourn. Our results also suggest that depending on the estimation formula used, eGFR underestimated the observed decrease in renal function measured by CreaCl, thus opening the debate regarding the use of estimated glomerular filtration rates at high altitudes.

  9. RhoA exerts a permissive effect on volume-regulated anion channels in vascular endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carton, Iris; Trouet, Dominique; Hermans, Diane;

    2002-01-01

    Cell swelling triggers in most cell types an outwardly rectifying anion current, I(Cl,swell), via volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs). We have previously demonstrated in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells that inhibition of the Rho/Rho kinase/myosin light chain phosphorylation......'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) or C3 exoenzyme had no effect on VRACs in caveolin-1-expressing Caco-2 cells. We conclude that the Rho pathway exerts a permissive effect on VRACs in CPAE cells, i.e., swelling-induced opening of VRACs requires a functional Rho pathway, but not an activation of the Rho pathway....

  10. Plasmodium berghei: immunosuppression of the cell-mediated immune response induced by nonviable antigenic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, plasmodial antigens were examined for their ability to suppress the cellular immune response during lethal Plasmodium berghei infection. Splenic enlargement and the number and function of white spleen cells were assessed after injection of normal mice with irradiated parasitized erythrocytes (IPE) or with parasitized erythrocytes (PE) membranes. Both IPE and PE membranes caused splenomegaly and an increase in the number of splenic white cells with concurrent alteration of the relative proportions of T cells and macrophages. The percentage of T lymphocytes was fractionally diminished, but there was a marked increase in Lyt 2.2 positive (suppressor and cytotoxic) T subsets and in the number of splenic macrophage precursors. The pathological enlargement of the spleen was induced by various plasma membrane-derived antigens containing both proteins and carbohydrates. Splenocytes of mice injected with liposomes containing deoxycholate-treated PE or PE fractions showed both diminished interleukin 2 production and a decreased response to mitogen. It appears that some of the changes in the cellular immune response during P. berghei infection are a consequence of the massive provision of a wide spectrum of antigens, capable of suppressing the immune response. Thus, it may be appropriate to evaluate the possible negative effect of parasite epitopes that are candidates for vaccine

  11. Plasmodium berghei: immunosuppression of the cell-mediated immune response induced by nonviable antigenic preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, A.; Frankenburg, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, plasmodial antigens were examined for their ability to suppress the cellular immune response during lethal Plasmodium berghei infection. Splenic enlargement and the number and function of white spleen cells were assessed after injection of normal mice with irradiated parasitized erythrocytes (IPE) or with parasitized erythrocytes (PE) membranes. Both IPE and PE membranes caused splenomegaly and an increase in the number of splenic white cells with concurrent alteration of the relative proportions of T cells and macrophages. The percentage of T lymphocytes was fractionally diminished, but there was a marked increase in Lyt 2.2 positive (suppressor and cytotoxic) T subsets and in the number of splenic macrophage precursors. The pathological enlargement of the spleen was induced by various plasma membrane-derived antigens containing both proteins and carbohydrates. Splenocytes of mice injected with liposomes containing deoxycholate-treated PE or PE fractions showed both diminished interleukin 2 production and a decreased response to mitogen. It appears that some of the changes in the cellular immune response during P. berghei infection are a consequence of the massive provision of a wide spectrum of antigens, capable of suppressing the immune response. Thus, it may be appropriate to evaluate the possible negative effect of parasite epitopes that are candidates for vaccine.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of volume-regulated anion channel blocker DCPIB on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ammar ALIBRAHIM; Li-yan ZHAO; Christine You-jin BAE; Andrew BARSZCZYK; Christopher LF SUN; Guan-lei WANG; Hong-shuo SUN

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the role of swelling-induced activation of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) in a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury model using the selective VRAC blocker 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on5-yl) oxobutyric acid (DCPIB).Methods:Cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury was induced in 7-day-old mouse pups with Rice-Vannucci method.Prior to the onset of ischemia,the animals were ip administered DCPIB (10 mg/kg).The animals were sacrificed 24 h afterwards,coronal sections of the brains were cut and the areas of infarct were examined using TTC staining and an image-analysis system.Cultured PC12 cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 4 h.The cellular viability was assessed using Cell Counting Kit 8.Intracellular chloride concentration [Clˉ]i was measured using 6-methoxy-N-ethylquinolinium iodide.Results:DCPIB-treated mice showed a significant reduction in hemispheric corrected infarct volume (26.65%+2.23%) compared to that in vehicle-treated mice (45.52%+1.45%,P<O.O01).DCPIB-treated mice also showed better functional recovery as they were more active than vehicle-treated mice at 4 and 24 h post injury.In cultured PC12 cells,DCPIB (10 μmol/L) significantly reduced OGD-induced cell death.Moreover,DCPIB (20 μmol/L) blocked hypotonic-induced decrease in [Clˉ]i in PC12 cells of both control and OGD groups.Conclusion:The results further support the pathophysiological role of VRACs in ischemic brain injury,and suggest DCPIB as a potential,easily administrable agent targeting VRACs in the context of perinatal and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

  13. Volume regulation by human lymphocytes. Role of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes regulate their volumes in hypotonic solutions. In hypotonic media in which Na+ is the predominant cation, an initial swelling phase is followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) associated with a net loss of cellular K+. In media in which K+ is the predominant cation, the rapid initial swelling is followed by a slower second swelling phase. 86Rb+ fluxes increased during RVD and returned to normal when the original volume was approximately regained. Effects similar to those induced by hypotonic stress could also be produced by raising the intracellular Ca++ level. In isotonic, Ca++-containing media cells were found to shrink upon addition of the Ca++ ionophore A23187 in K+-free media, but to swell in K+-rich media. Exposure to Ca++ plus A23187 also increased 86Rb+ fluxes. Quinine (75 microM), an inhibitor of the Ca++-activated K+ pathway in other systems blocked RVD, the associated K+ loss, and the increase in 86Rb+ efflux. Quinine also inhibited the volume changes and the increased 86Rb fluxes induced by Ca++ plus ionophore. The calmodulin inhibitors trifluoperazine, pimozide and chlorpromazine blocked RVD as well as Ca++ plus A23187-induced volume changes. Trifluoperazine also prevented the increase in 86Rb+ fluxes and K+ loss induced by hypotonicity. Chlorpromazine sulfoxide, a relatively ineffective calmodulin antagonist, was considerably less potent as an inhibitor of RVD than chlorpromazine. It is suggested than an elevation in cytoplasmic [Ca++], triggered by cell swelling, increases the plasma membrane permeability to K+, the ensuing increased efflux of K+, associated anions, and osmotically obliged water, leading to cell shrinking

  14. In vitro effect of various xenobiotics on trout gill cell volume regulation after hypotonic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguen, I; Prunet, P

    2001-08-01

    Their functions and localisation can expose gill cells to volume changes. To maintain their vital functions, these gill cells must regulate their own volume after cellular swelling or shrinkage. Recently, we showed that rainbow trout pavement gill cells in primary culture have the capacity to regulate their own volume after cellular swelling induced by hypotonic shock. This so-called regulatory volume decrease (RVD) is associated with intracellular calcium increase, which occurs as a transient peak followed by a plateau when maintained a hypotonic condition. Return to an isotonic medium restores baseline [Ca2+]i level. In this study, the effect of different xenobiotics on cellular swelling induced RVD and its calcium signal was investigated in trout pavement gill cells in primary culture. These cells were exposed to different pollutants after confluent epithelium was obtained. After 36 h in xenobiotics exposure in vitro, cellular volume and intracellular calcium concentration were measured. Nonylphenol poly- and di-ethoxylate were lethal at concentrations of 10 and 100 microM, respectively. With 10 microM of the diethoxylate form, cells did not die but, unlike non-treated cells, burst during hypotonic shock (2/3rd strength Ringer solution). With 1 microM nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPnEO), RVD and [Ca2+]i were reduced. Copper (10 and 100 microM) had no significant effect on gill cell volume regulation. However, the heavy metal modified calcium response to hypotonic shock by inhibiting return to baseline level under isotonic conditions. 10 microM prochloraz and 2,4-dichloroaniline had no effect on cell morphology, volume and [Ca2+]i concentration. With 100 microM, however, prochloraz was lethal and dichloroaniline increased baseline [Ca2+]i. These results indicate that the effects observed on gill cells are consistent with the known toxic properties of the molecules tested, thus confirming the validity of primary culture to investigate the toxic effects of

  15. Role of AQP2 in activation of calcium entry by hypotonicity: implications in cell volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizia, L; Flamenco, M P; Rivarola, V; Capurro, C; Ford, P

    2008-03-01

    We previously reported in a rat cortical collecting duct cell line (RCCD(1)) that the presence of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in the cell membrane is critical for the rapid activation of regulatory volume decrease mechanisms (RVD) (Ford et al. Biol Cell 97: 687-697, 2005). The aim of our present work was to investigate the signaling pathway that links AQP2 to this rapid RVD activation. Since it has been previously described that hypotonic conditions induce intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) increases in different cell types, we tested the hypothesis that AQP2 could have a role in activation of calcium entry by hypotonicity and its implication in cell volume regulation. Using a fluorescent probe technique, we studied [Ca(2+)](i) and cell volume changes in response to a hypotonic shock in WT-RCCD(1) (not expressing aquaporins) and in AQP2-RCCD(1) (transfected with AQP2) cells. We found that after a hypotonic shock only AQP2-RCCD(1) cells exhibit a substantial increase in [Ca(2+)](i). This [Ca(2+)](i) increase is strongly dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and is partially inhibited by thapsigargin (1 muM) indicating that the rise in [Ca(2+)](i) reflects both influx from the extracellular medium and release from intracellular stores. Exposure of AQP2-RCCD(1) cells to 100 muM gadolinium reduced the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) suggesting the involvement of a mechanosensitive calcium channel. Furthermore, exposure of cells to all of the above described conditions impaired rapid RVD. We conclude that the expression of AQP2 in the cell membrane is critical to produce the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) which is necessary to activate RVD in RCCD(1) cells. PMID:18094031

  16. Intracellular Na+ inhibits volume regulated anion channel in rat cortical astrocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minieri, L.; Pivoňková, Helena; Harantová, Lenka; Anděrová, Miroslava; Ferroni, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 3 (2015), s. 286-300. ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR GA13-02154S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : volume-regulated anion channels * intracellular sodium * cell volume Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.281, year: 2014

  17. Combined effects of light and water stress on chloroplast volume regulation.

    OpenAIRE

    McCain, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance technique was used to measure changes in the water content of Acer platanoides chloroplasts in leaf discs that had reached osmotic equilibrium with external solutions either in the dark or under exposure to light. Results showed that chloroplast volume regulation (CVR) maintained constant water content in the chloroplasts over a range of water potentials in the dark, but CVR failed when the water potential fell below a critical value. The critical potential was lo...

  18. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current IClswell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The IClswell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates IClswell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect IClswell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on IClswell

  19. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pasquier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp. The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading, we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  20. The volume-regulated anion channel is formed by LRRC8 heteromers – molecular identification and roles in membrane transport and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Tobias

    2015-09-01

    Cellular volume regulation is fundamental for numerous physiological processes. The volume-regulated anion channel, VRAC, plays a crucial role in regulatory volume decrease. This channel, which is ubiquitously expressed in vertebrates, has been vastly characterized by electrophysiological means. It opens upon cell swelling and conducts chloride and arguably organic osmolytes. VRAC has been proposed to be critically involved in various cellular and organismal functions, including cell proliferation and migration, apoptosis, transepithelial transport, swelling-induced exocytosis and intercellular communication. It may also play a role in pathological states like cancer and ischemia. Despite many efforts, the molecular identity of VRAC had remained elusive for decades, until the recent discovery of heteromers of LRRC8A with other LRRC8 family members as an essential VRAC component. This identification marks a starting point for studies on the structure-function relation, for molecular biological investigations of its cell biology and for re-evaluating the physiological roles of VRAC. This review recapitulates the identification of LRRC8 heteromers as VRAC components, depicts the similarities between LRRC8 proteins and pannexins, and discussed whether VRAC conducts larger osmolytes. Furthermore, proposed physiological functions of VRAC and the present knowledge about the physiological significance of LRRC8 proteins are summarized and collated. PMID:25868000

  1. Swelling-Activated Anion Channels Are Essential for Volume Regulation of Mouse Thymocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Z. Sabirov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Channel-mediated trans-membrane chloride movement is a key process in the active cell volume regulation under osmotic stress in most cells. However, thymocytes were hypothesized to regulate their volume by activating a coupled K-Cl cotransport mechanism. Under the patch-clamp, we found that osmotic swelling activates two types of macroscopic anion conductance with different voltage-dependence and pharmacology. At the single-channel level, we identified two types of events: one corresponded to the maxi-anion channel, and the other one had characteristics of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR chloride channel of intermediate conductance. A VSOR inhibitor, phloretin, significantly suppressed both macroscopic VSOR-type conductance and single-channel activity of intermediate amplitude. The maxi-anion channel activity was largely suppressed by Gd3+ ions but not by phloretin. Surprisingly, [(dihydroindenyloxy] alkanoic acid (DIOA, a known antagonist of K-Cl cotransporter, was found to significantly suppress the activity of the VSOR-type single-channel events with no effect on the maxi-anion channels at 10 μM. The regulatory volume decrease (RVD phase of cellular response to hypotonicity was mildly suppressed by Gd3+ ions and was completely abolished by phloretin suggesting a major impact of the VSOR chloride channel and modulatory role of the maxi-anion channel. The inhibitory effect of DIOA was also strong, and, most likely, it occurred via blocking the VSOR Cl− channels.

  2. Role of volume-regulated and calcium-activated anion channels in cell volume homeostasis, cancer and drug resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Sauter, Daniel Rafael Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Volume-regulated channels for anions (VRAC) / organic osmolytes (VSOAC) play essential roles in cell volume regulation and other cellular functions, e.g. proliferation, cell migration and apoptosis. LRRC8A, which belongs to the leucine rich-repeat containing protein family, was recently shown to be...... an essential component of both VRAC and VSOAC. Reduced VRAC and VSOAC activities are seen in drug resistant cancer cells. ANO1 is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed on the plasma membrane of e.g. secretory epithelia. ANO1 is amplified and highly expressed in a large number of carcinomas...... important cellular functions as well as their role in cancer and drug resistance....

  3. The amine-containing cutaneous irritant heptylamine inhibits the volume-regulated anion channel and mobilizes intracellular calcium in normal human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoux, Matthieu; Colomban, Cécile; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

    2007-06-01

    Many amines are skin irritants and cause contact dermatitis. However, little is known about their mechanisms of action in keratinocytes except that they induce the release of the inflammatory mediators cytokines and ATP. Here, we tested whether volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) in primary cultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes are modulated by the referenced amine-containing cutaneous irritant heptylamine. Under isotonic conditions, we isolated the VRAC current (I(VRAC)) from other conductances using a high Ca(2+)-buffering internal solution. I(VRAC) ran up after patch rupturing and reached a plateau within 15 min. It was reversibly and dose-dependently inhibited by heptylamine with an IC(50) value of 260 microM. Cell-swelling caused by the application of a hypotonic solution increased 2.7-fold I(VRAC) and reduced the inhibition of VRAC by heptylamine with a dose-response curve shifted approximately 10-fold to the right. In addition, we showed, using cell-attached patch recordings, that adding heptylamine to the bath inhibited VRAC activity. This suggests that heptylamine diffuses into the membrane to inhibit VRAC. Finally, we demonstrated that heptylamine induced Ca(2+)-store depletion and that VRAC inhibition was not caused by the increase in cytosolic Ca(2+). Taken together, these results identify heptylamine as a blocker of VRAC and suggest that Ca(2+)-store depletion may be involved in mechanisms of irritant contact dermatitis caused by heptylamine. PMID:17384225

  4. Curcumin-arteether combination therapy of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice prevents recrudescence through immunomodulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palakkod G Vathsala

    Full Text Available Earlier studies in this laboratory have shown the potential of artemisinin-curcumin combination therapy in experimental malaria. In a parasite recrudescence model in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA, a single dose of alpha,beta-arteether (ART with three oral doses of curcumin prevented recrudescence, providing almost 95% protection. The parasites were completely cleared in blood with ART-alone (AE or ART+curcumin (AC treatments in the short-term, although the clearance was faster in the latter case involving increased ROS generation. But, parasites in liver and spleen were not cleared in AE or AC treatments, perhaps, serving as a reservoir for recrudescence. Parasitemia in blood reached up to 60% in AE-treated mice during the recrudescence phase, leading to death of animals. A transient increase of up to 2-3% parasitemia was observed in AC-treatment, leading to protection and reversal of splenomegaly. A striking increase in spleen mRNA levels for TLR2, IL-10 and IgG-subclass antibodies but a decrease in those for INFγ and IL-12 was observed in AC-treatment. There was a striking increase in IL-10 and IgG subclass antibody levels but a decrease in INFγ levels in sera leading to protection against recrudescence. AC-treatment failed to protect against recrudescence in TLR2(-/- and IL-10(-/- animals. IL-10 injection to AE-treated wild type mice and AC-treated TLR2(-/- mice was able to prolong survival. Blood from the recrudescence phase in AE-treatment, but not from AC-treatment, was able to reinfect and kill naïve animals. Sera from the recrudescence phase of AC-treated animals reacted with several parasite proteins compared to that from AE-treated animals. It is proposed that activation of TLR2-mediated innate immune response leading to enhanced IL-10 production and generation of anti-parasite antibodies contribute to protective immunity in AC-treated mice. These results indicate a potential for curcumin-based combination therapy to be tested for prevention of recrudescence in falciparum and relapse in vivax malaria.

  5. Gene expression changes in the salivary glands of Anopheles coluzzii elicited by Plasmodium berghei infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinheiro-Silva, R.; Borges, L.; Coelho, L.P.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; do Rosário, V.; de la Fuente, J.; Domingos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, SEP 23 2015 (2015), s. 485. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anopheles coluzzii * Salivary glands * Plasmodium berghei * Sporozoite * RNA-seq * Glucose transporter * RNAi Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  6. Plasmodium berghei infection in mice: effect of low-level ozone exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Molteni, K.H.

    1984-07-01

    Animal and human studies have accumulated that report erythrocyte effects from inhaled ozone (O/sub 3/). It was the purpose of this research to demonstrate the effects of O/sub 3/ exposure on the course of parasitemia in mice. A study was designed utilizing Plasmodium berghei, a murine malarial parasite host-specific for rodents, as the specific pathogen. The purpose of this project was to study mortality and percent parasitemia in the A/J mouse first infected with P. berghei and then exposed to low levels of ozone.

  7. Membrane-associated phosphoproteins in Plasmodium berghei-infected murine erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Normal and Plasmodium berghei (NYU-2 strain)-infected murine erythrocytes display substantially different patterns of plasma membrane phosphoproteins phosphorylation. Intact erythrocytes (normal and parasite infected) incubated with 32Pi and isolated washed erythrocyte plasma membranes incubated with gamma-32P-ATP were analyzed for phosphoproteins by SDS PAGE and autoradiography. Two new phosphoproteins of molecular weight 45,000 (pp45) and 68,000 (pp68), which are absent in normal erythrocyt...

  8. Effects of the methanolic seeds extract of Carica Papaya on plasmodium Berghei infected mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amazu LU; Ebong OO; Azikiwe CCA; Unekwe PC; Siminialayi MI; Nwosu PJC; Ezeani MC; Obidiya OS; Ajugwo AO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The leaves extract of Carica Papaya(C.Papaya)papaya has been shown to possess antimalarial ac-tivity,thus this work aims at finding out if the plants antimalarial activity is present in or extended to the seeds.Methods:The seeds of C.papaya were collected from its fruit,air dried for 5 days and ground into fine powder.80.65 g of the powder was then soaked for 48hours in 300 mL of methanol.Filtration was carried out using Whatman No.1 filter paper.The filtrate was evaporated to dryness by a three-day continuous heating on a hot plate of 30℃.The dry extract yield was scraped out of the Petri dish weighed and refrigerated until re-quired.The percentage extract yield was calculated out from the initial powder weight.A preliminary phyto-chemical study was done by re-dissolving the appropriate amount of the dry extract in distilled water and appro-priate test reagent added.The LD50 of the seeds of C.papaya was carried out using arithmetic method.Swiss albino Mice of both sexes and of average weight of 1 8-25 g were used as animals for antimalarial activity.They were housed in standard animal house,fed on Rats/Mice pellets and had non restricted excess to both feed and water throughout the 60day study period.While the non pregnant female Mice were used as test animals,the male animals were used as malaria parasite donors.Precautions were taken to ensure that all animals in the study groups were free from infection with Eperythrozoon coocoides.The female animals were then divided into three main groups (A-C)of 25 animals per group.Group A was used for malaria suppressive study (early in-fection-day 0-3)and was further subdivided to 5subgroups (a-e)of 5animals per group.Group B was used for malaria curative study (established malaria infection-day 3-7)and was further subdivided to 5subgroups (a-e) of 5animals per group.Group C was used for malaria prophylactic study (repository-4days treatment prior to malaria parasite infection)and was also further subdivided into 5subgroups (a-e)of 5animals per group.At the appropriate time,50 mg/kg/day,1 00 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day of crude extract of C.papaya were administered orally to the different subgroups(b-d)within the three main groups.One subgroup(a)in each main group also received orally,5 mg/kg/day of chloroquine phosphate as positive control while one subgroup (e)in each main group also received orally,0.2 mL /kg/day of distilled water as negative control.Malaria parasites infected red blood cells numbering 1 ×1 07 and suspended in 0.2 mL of physiological saline was inoc-ulated intraperitoneally,to each animal of the subgroups (a-d)in each of the three main groups at the appro-priate time.Blood smears were made from animals'tail,stained with Lieshman and examined microscopically at 100 ×for the presence of malaria parasite.Percentage malaria parastaemia was calculated as well as average percentage malaria parasitaemia suppression.Results:Extraction yield of 25.29% was obtained while the LD50 was 620 mg/kg.The phytochemistry showed the richly presence of alkaloids,as well as glycosides,car-bohydrates,resins,fats and fixed oils.The suppressive study at doses of 200,100 and 50mg/kg/day showed 53.02%,43.43% and 19.83 % suppressive activity against Plasmodium berghei respectively.This activity compared to that of chloroquine,a standard antimalaria drug that gave 95.95% suppressive anti-parasitaemia. The prophylactic study at doses of 200,100 and 50 mg/kg/day showed 63.85%,61.12% and 48.08% pre-vention to malaria parasitaemia respectively as against 94.78% showed by chloroquine.The curative study however,at doses of 200,100 and 50 mg/kg/day failed to suppress malaria parasitaemia with a mean survival range of 6-8days as against 27.2 days showed by chloroquine.The seeds extract of C.papaya showed a signifi-cant malaria parasitaemia suppressive activity (P≤0.05).These activities are dose dependent and compara-ble to those of Chloroquine phosphate.Conclusion:The results above suggest that the seeds extracts of C.pa-paya possess antimalarial activity like the leaf extracts.The antimalarial activity may be attributable to the richly presence of alkaloids and or the presence of its proteolytic enzyme (Papain).The present finding justi-fies the inclusion of the seeds of C.papaya in the treatment of malaria by local herbalists.The seeds extracts therefore,if well purified and characterized may be used in treatment of very early plasmodiasis as well as a good prophylactic drug in human.This work at the moment is limited to animals,thus clinical trials in humans is be recommended particularly,when C.papaya seeds are non harmful /non toxic.

  9. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Boampong; Ameyaw, E. O.; B. Aboagye; Asare, K.; Kyei, S; Donfack, J. H.; Woode, E.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg) in ICR mice infected wi...

  10. In Vivo Hemozoin Kinetics after Clearance of Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Frita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemozoin (Hz is released into the blood stream after rupture of infected red blood cells (iRBCs at the end of each parasite replication cycle. This free Hz is ingested by circulating and resident phagocytes. The presence of Hz in tissues after clearance of infection has been previously reported. Still, little is known about the kinetics of Hz in vivo, during and after Plasmodium infection. It is particularly important to understand Hz kinetics after malaria infections as it has been reported that Hz is associated with impairment of immune functions, including possible consequences for coinfections. Indeed, if Hz remains biologically active for prolonged periods of time inside immunocompetent cells, the potential consequences of such accumulation and presence to the immune system should be clarified. Here, using several independent methods to assess the presence of Hz, we report the long-term in vivo kinetics of Hz in diverse organs in a murine model of malaria infection.

  11. ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF CRYPTOLEPIS SANGUINOLENTA BASED HERBAL CAPSULES IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTED MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy C. K. Tay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two Cryptolepis sanguinolenta based herbal capsules prepared at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine, Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, were evaluated for antiplasmodial activity using Plasmodium berghei in mice. The herbal capsules were evaluated for chemosuppressive activity on an early infection as well as for possible repository activity in which each mouse was infected with a standard inoculum of 106 parasitized RBCs. Chloroquine and Amodiaquine were used as standard drugs. The results indicate that the herbal capsules possessed significant blood schizontocidal activity following chemosuppression of parasitemia in treated mice compared to the untreated control groups. The herbal based capsules of C. sanguinolenta have both schizontocidal as well as repository activity and may be useful in the treatment and prevention of malaria.

  12. Aquaporin 2-increased renal cell proliferation is associated with cell volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giusto, Gisela; Flamenco, Pilar; Rivarola, Valeria; Fernández, Juan; Melamud, Luciana; Ford, Paula; Capurro, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that in renal cortical collecting duct cells (RCCD(1)) the expression of the water channel Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) raises the rate of cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in this process, focusing on the putative link between AQP2 expression, cell volume changes, and regulatory volume decrease activity (RVD). Two renal cell lines were used: WT-RCCD(1) (not expressing aquaporins) and AQP2-RCCD(1) (transfected with AQP2). Our results showed that when most RCCD(1) cells are in the G(1)-phase (unsynchronized), the blockage of barium-sensitive K(+) channels implicated in rapid RVD inhibits cell proliferation only in AQP2-RCCD(1) cells. Though cells in the S-phase (synchronized) had a remarkable increase in size, this enhancement was higher and was accompanied by a significant down-regulation in the rapid RVD response only in AQP2-RCCD(1) cells. This decrease in the RVD activity did not correlate with changes in AQP2 function or expression, demonstrating that AQP2-besides increasing water permeability-would play some other role. These observations together with evidence implying a cell-sizing mechanism that shortens the cell cycle of large cells, let us to propose that during nutrient uptake, in early G(1), volume tends to increase but it may be efficiently regulated by an AQP2-dependent mechanism, inducing the rapid activation of RVD channels. This mechanism would be down-regulated when volume needs to be increased in order to proceed into the S-phase. Therefore, during cell cycle, a coordinated modulation of the RVD activity may contribute to accelerate proliferation of cells expressing AQP2. PMID:22786728

  13. Distinct expression/function of potassium and chloride channels contributes to the diverse volume regulation in cortical astrocytes of GFAP/EGFP mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešová, Jana; Rusňáková, Vendula; Honsa, Pavel; Pivoňková, Helena; Džamba, Dávid; Kubista, Mikael; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), e29725. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GD309/08/H079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell volume regulation * GFAP/EGFP * ischemia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology; FH - Neurology (BTO-N) Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  14. Dynamics of chest wall volume regulation during constant work rate exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takara, L.S.; Cunha, T M; Barbosa, P.; M.K. Rodrigues; Oliveira, M. F.; Nery, L E; J.A. Neder

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the dynamic behavior of total and compartmental chest wall volumes [(VCW) = rib cage (VRC) + abdomen (VAB)] as measured breath-by-breath by optoelectronic plethysmography during constant-load exercise in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirty males (GOLD stages II-III) underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test to the limit of tolerance (Tlim) at 75% of peak work rate on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinf...

  15. Dynamics of chest wall volume regulation during constant work rate exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takara, L.S.; Cunha, T M; Barbosa, P.; M.K. Rodrigues; Oliveira, M. F.; Nery, L E; J.A. Neder

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the dynamic behavior of total and compartmental chest wall volumes [(V CW) = rib cage (V RC) + abdomen (V AB)] as measured breath-by-breath by optoelectronic plethysmography during constant-load exercise in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirty males (GOLD stages II-III) underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test to the limit of tolerance (Tlim) at 75% of peak work rate on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Exercise-induced dynamic hyper...

  16. Cytokine response to pregnancy-associated recrudescence of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice with pre-existing immunity to malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Hviid, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background During childhood, residents of areas with stable transmission of Plasmodium falciparum parasites acquire substantial protective immunity to malaria, and adults therefore rarely experience clinical disease episodes. However, susceptibility to infection reappears in pregnant women, particularly primigravidae. This is due to appearance of antigenic parasite variants that are restricted to pregnancy. Variant-specific immunity also governs pregnancy-associated recrudescence of Plasmodiu...

  17. Cytokine response to pregnancy-associated recrudescence of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice with pre-existing immunity to malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Hviid, Lars

    2013-01-01

    During childhood, residents of areas with stable transmission of Plasmodium falciparum parasites acquire substantial protective immunity to malaria, and adults therefore rarely experience clinical disease episodes. However, susceptibility to infection reappears in pregnant women, particularly pri...

  18. Dynamics of chest wall volume regulation during constant work rate exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Takara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the dynamic behavior of total and compartmental chest wall volumes [(V CW = rib cage (V RC + abdomen (V AB] as measured breath-by-breath by optoelectronic plethysmography during constant-load exercise in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirty males (GOLD stages II-III underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test to the limit of tolerance (Tlim at 75% of peak work rate on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation was considered to be present when end-expiratory (EE V CW increased in relation to resting values. There was a noticeable heterogeneity in the patterns of V CW regulation as EEV CW increased non-linearly in 17/30 "hyperinflators" and decreased in 13/30 "non-hyperinflators" (P < 0.05. EEV AB decreased slightly in 8 of the "hyperinflators", thereby reducing and slowing the rate of increase in end-inspiratory (EI V CW (P < 0.05. In contrast, decreases in EEV CW in the "non-hyperinflators" were due to the combination of stable EEV RC with marked reductions in EEV AB. These patients showed lower EIV CW and end-exercise dyspnea scores but longer Tlim than their counterparts (P < 0.05. Dyspnea increased and Tlim decreased non-linearly with a faster rate of increase in EIV CW regardless of the presence or absence of dynamic hyperinflation (P < 0.001. However, no significant between-group differences were observed in metabolic, pulmonary gas exchange and cardiovascular responses to exercise. Chest wall volumes are continuously regulated during exercise in order to postpone (or even avoid their migration to higher operating volumes in patients with COPD, a dynamic process that is strongly dependent on the behavior of the abdominal compartment.

  19. Dynamics of chest wall volume regulation during constant work rate exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, L.S.; Cunha, T.M.; Barbosa, P.; Rodrigues, M.K.; Oliveira, M.F.; Nery, L.E. [Setor de Função Pulmonar e Fisiologia Clínica do Exercício, Disciplina de Pneumologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neder, J.A. [Setor de Função Pulmonar e Fisiologia Clínica do Exercício, Disciplina de Pneumologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    This study evaluated the dynamic behavior of total and compartmental chest wall volumes [(V{sub CW}) = rib cage (V{sub RC}) + abdomen (V{sub AB})] as measured breath-by-breath by optoelectronic plethysmography during constant-load exercise in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirty males (GOLD stages II-III) underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test to the limit of tolerance (Tlim) at 75% of peak work rate on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation was considered to be present when end-expiratory (EE) V{sub CW} increased in relation to resting values. There was a noticeable heterogeneity in the patterns of V{sub CW} regulation as EEV{sub CW} increased non-linearly in 17/30 “hyperinflators” and decreased in 13/30 “non-hyperinflators” (P < 0.05). EEV{sub AB} decreased slightly in 8 of the “hyperinflators”, thereby reducing and slowing the rate of increase in end-inspiratory (EI) V{sub CW} (P < 0.05). In contrast, decreases in EEV{sub CW} in the “non-hyperinflators” were due to the combination of stable EEV{sub RC} with marked reductions in EEV{sub AB}. These patients showed lower EIV{sub CW} and end-exercise dyspnea scores but longer Tlim than their counterparts (P < 0.05). Dyspnea increased and Tlim decreased non-linearly with a faster rate of increase in EIV{sub CW} regardless of the presence or absence of dynamic hyperinflation (P < 0.001). However, no significant between-group differences were observed in metabolic, pulmonary gas exchange and cardiovascular responses to exercise. Chest wall volumes are continuously regulated during exercise in order to postpone (or even avoid) their migration to higher operating volumes in patients with COPD, a dynamic process that is strongly dependent on the behavior of the abdominal compartment.

  20. Dynamics of chest wall volume regulation during constant work rate exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the dynamic behavior of total and compartmental chest wall volumes [(VCW) = rib cage (VRC) + abdomen (VAB)] as measured breath-by-breath by optoelectronic plethysmography during constant-load exercise in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirty males (GOLD stages II-III) underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test to the limit of tolerance (Tlim) at 75% of peak work rate on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation was considered to be present when end-expiratory (EE) VCW increased in relation to resting values. There was a noticeable heterogeneity in the patterns of VCW regulation as EEVCW increased non-linearly in 17/30 “hyperinflators” and decreased in 13/30 “non-hyperinflators” (P < 0.05). EEVAB decreased slightly in 8 of the “hyperinflators”, thereby reducing and slowing the rate of increase in end-inspiratory (EI) VCW (P < 0.05). In contrast, decreases in EEVCW in the “non-hyperinflators” were due to the combination of stable EEVRC with marked reductions in EEVAB. These patients showed lower EIVCW and end-exercise dyspnea scores but longer Tlim than their counterparts (P < 0.05). Dyspnea increased and Tlim decreased non-linearly with a faster rate of increase in EIVCW regardless of the presence or absence of dynamic hyperinflation (P < 0.001). However, no significant between-group differences were observed in metabolic, pulmonary gas exchange and cardiovascular responses to exercise. Chest wall volumes are continuously regulated during exercise in order to postpone (or even avoid) their migration to higher operating volumes in patients with COPD, a dynamic process that is strongly dependent on the behavior of the abdominal compartment

  1. Hypotonicity and cell volume regulation in shark rectal gland: role of organic osmolytes and F-actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyadeh, F N; Mills, J W; Kleinzeller, A

    1992-03-01

    Hypotonic stress (reduction of external tonicity from approximately 900 mosM and 295 mM NaCl to approximately 600 mosM and 135 mM NaCl) produced a relatively slow regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland cells. During the 5-h experiment, cell K+ content remained unchanged; cell content of Na+ and Cl- dropped in the initial swelling phase by some 50% (reflecting the corresponding reduction in medium NaCl), and then remained unchanged during volume recovery phase. Also, cellular fluxes of 86Rb+ and urea were not affected by hypotonic stress. However, hypotonicity enhanced 10- to 20-fold the efflux of organic cell osmolytes taurine, betaine, and trimethyloxamine, and this accounted for the loss of osmotically obliged water during RVD. Enhancement of osmolyte efflux by hypotonic stress was abolished by readjusting the low-Na+ saline to isotonicity (approximately 900 mosM) with innocuous cations (choline+, Li+, or N-methylglucamine+). The results suggest that reduction of medium tonicity may be the determinant for the RVD response to hypotonic stress. The above properties of the observed RVD were also displayed when studying changes on cell F-actin at the basolateral cell face; hypotonic stress (medium with 135 mM NaCl) produced a rapid disappearance of fluorescence related to this cytoskeletal component, whereas no such changes were seen in low-Na+ salines made isotonic with choline or N-methylglucamine chloride nor in a saline made hyposmolar by omitting urea. Hence, hypotonicity is required to affect F-actin organization (depolymerization?). These changes of F-actin fluorescence are transient; they were completed within 5-10 min of hypotonic stress, and afterwards a gradual reconstitution of cell F-actin organization was seen. The above observations are consistent with the assumption that, in shark rectal gland cells, transient loss of cytoskeleton (F-actin) organization at the basolateral cell face, induced by hypotonicity

  2. Protective antibody and CD8+ T-cell responses to the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein induced by a nanoparticle vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The worldwide burden of malaria remains a major public health problem due, in part, to the lack of an effective vaccine against the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. An effective vaccine will most likely require the induction of antigen specific CD8(+ and CD4(+ T-cells as well as long-lasting antibody responses all working in concert to eliminate the infection. We report here the effective modification of a self-assembling protein nanoparticle (SAPN vaccine previously proven effective in control of a P. berghei infection in a rodent model to now present B- and T-cell epitopes of the human malaria parasite P. falciparum in a platform capable of being used in human subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To establish the basis for a SAPN-based vaccine, B- and CD8(+ T-cell epitopes from the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP and the universal CD4 T-helper epitope PADRE were engineered into a versatile small protein (∼125 amino acids that self-assembles into a spherical nanoparticle repetitively displaying the selected epitopes. P. falciparum epitope specific immune responses were evaluated in mice using a transgenic P. berghei malaria parasite of mice expressing the human malaria full-length P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (Tg-Pb/PfCSP. We show that SAPN constructs, delivered in saline, can induce high-titer, long-lasting (1 year protective antibody and poly-functional (IFNγ(+, IL-2(+ long-lived central memory CD8(+ T-cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these Ab or CD8(+ T-cells can independently provide sterile protection against a lethal challenge of the transgenic parasites. CONCLUSION: The SAPN construct induces long-lasting antibody and cellular immune responses to epitope specific sequences of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP and prevents infection in mice by a transgenic P. berghei parasite displaying the full length PfCSP.

  3. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: Roles of inorganic ions and taurine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carina Goswami; Nirmalendu Saha

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (–80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures, respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25–30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 ± 0.54 mol/g liver) due to activation of Ba2+- and quinidine-sensitive K+ channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl¯ (4.35 ± 0.25 mol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68 ± 0.37 mol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride- and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78 ± 0.65 mol/g liver), and also Cl¯ (3.72 ± 0.25 mol/g liver). The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine, an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 ± 0.38 mol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 ± 0.45 mol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4′-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures, thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier.

  4. Evidence for functional interaction of plasma membrane electron transport, voltage-dependent anion channel and volume-regulated anion channel in frog aorta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi P Rao; J Prakasa Rao

    2010-12-01

    Frog aortic tissue exhibits plasma membrane electron transport (PMET) owing to its ability to reduce ferricyanide even in the presence of mitochondrial poisons, such as cyanide and azide. Exposure to hypotonic solution (108 mOsmol/kg H2O) enhanced the reduction of ferricyanide in excised aortic tissue of frog. Increment in ferricyanide reductase activity was also brought about by the presence of homocysteine (100 M dissolved in isotonic frog Ringer solution), a redox active compound and a potent modulator of PMET. Two plasma-membrane-bound channels, the volume regulated anion channel (VRAC) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), are involved in the response to hypotonic stress. The presence of VRAC and VDAC antagonists–tamoxifen, glibenclamide, fluoxetine and verapamil, and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS), respectively–inhibited this enhanced activity brought about by either hypotonic stress or homocysteine. The blockers do not affect the ferricyanide reductase activity under isotonic conditions. Taken together, these findings indicate a functional interaction of the three plasma membrane proteins, namely, ferricyanide reductase (PMET), VDAC and VRAC.

  5. Possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S F; Hoffmann, E K

    2002-01-01

    Osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) elicited translocation of myosin II from the cytosol to the cortical region, and swelling elicits concentration of myosin II in the Golgi region. Rho kinase and p38 both appeared to be involved in shrinkage-induced myosin II reorganization. In...... effects on F-actin. The subsequent F-actin depolymerization, however, appeared MLCK- and PKC-dependent, and the initial swelling-induced F-actin depolymerization was MLCK-dependent; both effects were apparently secondary to kinase-mediated effects on cell volume changes. NHE1 in EATC is activated both by...

  6. Acquired cisplatin resistance in human ovarian A2780 cancer cells correlates with shift in taurine homeostasis and ability to volume regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of cancer and develops through reduced drug accumulation and an increased ability to avoid drug-induced cell damage, cell shrinkage, and hence initiation of apoptosis. Uptake and release of the semiessential amino acid taurine contribute to...... cell volume homeostasis, and taurine has been reported to have antiapoptotic effects. Here we find that volume-sensitive taurine release in cisplatin-sensitive [wild-type (WT)] human ovarian cancer A2780 cells is reduced in the presence of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor bromenol lactone, the 5......-induced cell death in RES A2780 cells correlates with an increased accumulation of taurine, due to an increased taurine uptake and a concomitant impairment of the volume-sensitive taurine release pathway, as well an inability to reduce cell volume after osmotic cell swelling. Downregulation of volume...

  7. Examination on the protein profiles of salivary glands of P. berghei infected anopheles Sp. post gamma irradiation using SDS-PAGE technique for developing malaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporozoite is a step of malaria parasitic live cycle that is most invasive and appropriate vaccine candidate. Result of experiments showed that malaria vaccine created by attenuating Plasmodium sp sporozoites with gamma rays was proven more effective. Study on the effects of irradiation to the profiles of protein in vaccine development is also important. The aim of this research was to examine the protein profile of salivary glands in sporozoite infected Anopheles sp post gamma irradiation using Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique. Examination covered the infection of Anopheles sp with Plasmodium sp, maintenance of infected mosquitoes for 14-16 days to obtain sporozoites, in vivo - in vitro irradiation of mosquitoes, preparation of salivary glands, electrophoresis on 10% SDS-PAGE, and Commassie blue staining. Results showed a different protein profile of infected and non infected salivary glands of Anopheles sp. There was additional protein band numbers at higher dose of irradiation (200 Gy) from sporozoite protein of P. berghei (MW 62 kDa). However, no difference of the profiles of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) observed among gamma irradiation doses of 150, 175 and 200 Gy. These results provide basic information that would lead to further study on the role of sporozoite proteins in malaria vaccine development. (author)

  8. Antimalarial potential of kolaviron, a biflavonoid fromGarcinia kola seeds, againstPlasmodium bergheiinfection in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adaramoye Oluwatosin; Akinpelu Tolulope; Kosoko Ayokulehin; Okorie Patricia; Kehinde Aderemi; Falade Catherine; Ademowo Olusegun

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimalarial potential of kolaviron(KV), a biflavonoid fraction from Garcinia kolaseeds, againstPlasmodium berghei(P. berghei) infection inSwiss albino mice. Methods:The study consists of seven groups of ten mice each.GroupsⅠ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ were normal mice that received corn oil,KV1 and chloroquine(CQ), respectively.GroupsⅣ,Ⅴ,Ⅵ and Ⅶ were infected mice that received corn oil,CQ,KV1 andKV2, respectively.CQ,KV1 andKV2 were given at10-,100- and200-mg/kg daily, respectively for three consecutive days.Results:Administration ofKV1 andKV2 significantly(P<0.05) suppressedP. berghei-infection in the mice by85% and90%, respectively, whileCQ produced87% suppression relative to untreated infected group after the fifth day of treatment.Also,KV2 significantly(P<0.05) increased the mean survival time of the infected mice by175%.The biflavonoid prevented a drastic reduction inPCV from day 4 of treatment, indicating its efficacy in ameliorating anaemia.Significant(P<0.05) oxidative stress assessed by the elevation of serum and hepatic malondialdehydewere observed in untreatedP. berghei-infected mice.Specifically, serum and hepatic malondialdehyde levels increased by 93% and78%, respectively in the untreated infected mice.Furthermore, antioxidant indices, viz; superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, gluathione peroxidase and reduced gluathione decreased significantly(P<0.05) in the tissues of untreatedP. berghei-infected mice. KV significantly(P<0.05) ameliorated theP. berghei-induced decrease in antioxidant status of the infected mice.Conclusions:This study shows that kolaviron, especially at200 mg/kg, has high antimalarial activities inP. berghei-infected mice, in addition to its known antioxidant properties.

  9. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. After acute swelling, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which involves the activation of KCl cotransport and of channels mediating K(+), Cl(-), and taurine efflux. Conversely, after acute shrinkage...... regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...

  10. Cell volume regulation: physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, I H; Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2008-01-01

    Cell volume perturbation initiates a wide array of intracellular signalling cascades, leading to protective and adaptive events and, in most cases, activation of volume-regulatory osmolyte transport, water loss, and hence restoration of cell volume and cellular function. Cell volume is challenged....../hypernatremia. On the other hand, it has recently become clear that an increase or reduction in cell volume can also serve as a specific signal in the regulation of physiological processes such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, proliferation and death. Although the mechanisms by which cell volume...... perturbations are sensed are still far from clear, significant progress has been made with respect to the nature of the sensors, transducers and effectors that convert a change in cell volume into a physiological response. In the present review, we summarize recent major developments in the field, and emphasize...

  11. Two Distinct Modes of Hypoosmotic Medium-Induced Release of Excitatory Amino Acids and Taurine in the Rat Brain In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Haskew-Layton, Renée E.; Alena Rudkouskaya; Yiqiang Jin; Feustel, Paul J.; Kimelberg, Harold K.; Mongin, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of physiological and pathological factors induce cellular swelling in the brain. Changes in cell volume activate several types of ion channels, which mediate the release of inorganic and organic osmolytes and allow for compensatory cell volume decrease. Volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC) are thought to be responsible for the release of some of organic osmolytes, including the excitatory neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate. In the present study, we compared the in vivo prop...

  12. Role of the cell membrane in volume regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism for the stimulation of Na+ efflux in swollen cells was studied in red cells with increased and decreased cell volume. Results suggest that this response is the result of an increased affinity of the system for Na+ caused by reduced inhibition by intracellular K+ resulting from simple dilution during swelling, and a direct effect of membrane stretching on conformation of the transport system. (U.S.)

  13. Cellular pressure and volume regulation and implications for cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Sun, Sean X

    2013-08-01

    In eukaryotic cells, small changes in cell volume can serve as important signals for cell proliferation, death, and migration. Volume and shape regulation also directly impacts the mechanics of cells and tissues. Here, we develop a mathematical model of cellular volume and pressure regulation, incorporating essential elements such as water permeation, mechanosensitive channels, active ion pumps, and active stresses in the cortex. The model can fully explain recent experimental data, and it predicts cellular volume and pressure for several models of cell cortical mechanics. Moreover, we show that when cells are subjected to an externally applied load, such as in an atomic force microscopy indentation experiment, active regulation of volume and pressure leads to a complex cellular response. Instead of the passive mechanics of the cortex, the observed cell stiffness depends on several factors working together. This provides a mathematical explanation of rate-dependent response of cells under force. PMID:23931309

  14. Cellular Pressure and Volume Regulation and Implications for Cell Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Sun, Sean X.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, small changes in cell volume can serve as important signals for cell proliferation, death, and migration. Volume and shape regulation also directly impacts the mechanics of cells and tissues. Here, we develop a mathematical model of cellular volume and pressure regulation, incorporating essential elements such as water permeation, mechanosensitive channels, active ion pumps, and active stresses in the cortex. The model can fully explain recent experimental data, and it pr...

  15. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  16. The Impact of Nanochloroquine on Restoration of Hepatic and Splenic Mitochondrial Damage against Rodent Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajit Tripathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The applications of nanotechnology to pharmacology are the potential appliance of biodegradable polymers and convection-enhanced drug delivery in the diagnostics and treatment of diseases. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide that has attracted significant scientific interest during the last two decades. The present study was to evaluate the possible effects of chitosan tripolyphosphate conjugated nanochloroquine against Plasmodium berghei infection on select makers of oxidative damage and antioxidant status in mitochondria of liver and spleen. P. berghei infection was developed in Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection of 200 µL of infected blood. Parasite-infected mice were treated with chloroquine and nanoconjugated chloroquine. Superoxide radical generation, nitrate level, and oxidized glutathione were increased significantly (P<0.05 in the mitochondria of infected group as compared to control group, and reduced glutathione level, activity of SOD, GPx, GR, and GST, and mitochondrial transmembrane potential were decreased significantly (P<0.05, which were increased or decreased significantly (P<0.05 near to normal in nanoconjugated chloroquine treated group than chloroquine treated group. So, the findings may suggest the advantageous role of nanoconjugated chloroquine against the P. berghei induced oxidative damage in hepatic and splenic mitochondria.

  17. Apolipophorin-III mediates antiplasmodial epithelial responses in Anopheles gambiae (G3 mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipophorin-III (ApoLp-III is known to play an important role in lipid transport and innate immunity in lepidopteran insects. However, there is no evidence of involvement of ApoLp-IIIs in the immune responses of dipteran insects such as Drosophila and mosquitoes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the molecular and functional characterization of An. gambiae apolipophorin-III (AgApoLp-III. Mosquito ApoLp-IIIs have diverged extensively from those of lepidopteran insects; however, the predicted tertiary structure of AgApoLp-III is similar to that of Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm. We found that AgApoLp-III mRNA expression is strongly induced in the midgut of An. gambiae (G3 strain mosquitoes in response to Plasmodium berghei infection. Furthermore, immunofluorescence stainings revealed that high levels of AgApoLp-III protein accumulate in the cytoplasm of Plasmodium-invaded cells and AgApoLp-III silencing increases the intensity of P. berghei infection by five fold. CONCLUSION: There are broad differences in the midgut epithelial responses to Plasmodium invasion between An. gambiae strains. In the G3 strain of An. gambiae AgApoLp-III participates in midgut epithelial defense responses that limit Plasmodium infection.

  18. Apolipophorin-III Mediates Antiplasmodial Epithelial Responses in Anopheles gambiae (G3) Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Hun; Oh, Seung Han; Kumar, Sanjeev; Noh, Mi Young; Lee, Yong Seok; Cha, Sung-Jae; Seo, Sook Jae; Kim, Iksoo; Han, Yeon Soo; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Background Apolipophorin-III (ApoLp-III) is known to play an important role in lipid transport and innate immunity in lepidopteran insects. However, there is no evidence of involvement of ApoLp-IIIs in the immune responses of dipteran insects such as Drosophila and mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We report the molecular and functional characterization of An. gambiae apolipophorin-III (AgApoLp-III). Mosquito ApoLp-IIIs have diverged extensively from those of lepidopteran insects; however, the predicted tertiary structure of AgApoLp-III is similar to that of Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm). We found that AgApoLp-III mRNA expression is strongly induced in the midgut of An. gambiae (G3 strain) mosquitoes in response to Plasmodium berghei infection. Furthermore, immunofluorescence stainings revealed that high levels of AgApoLp-III protein accumulate in the cytoplasm of Plasmodium-invaded cells and AgApoLp-III silencing increases the intensity of P. berghei infection by five fold. Conclusion There are broad differences in the midgut epithelial responses to Plasmodium invasion between An. gambiae strains. In the G3 strain of An. gambiae AgApoLp-III participates in midgut epithelial defense responses that limit Plasmodium infection. PMID:21072214

  19. Antimalarial activity of Ageratum conyzoides in combination with chloroquine and artesunate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ukwe Chinwe V; Ekwunife Obinna I; Epueke Ebele A; Ubaka Chukwuemeka M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the suppressive and curative activity of aqueous leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (A. conyzoides) in combination with chloroquine and artesunate, respectively against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Methods: Using malaria (Plasmodium berghei) infected albino mice of both sexes, aqueous extracts of A. conyzoides in combination with chloroquine and artesunate were tested for antimalarial activity, respectively. Four-day suppressive test and Rane's curative test were carried out. Results: Suppressive tests showed significant dose dependent reduction in parasitemia level produced by the extract-chloroquine and extract-artesunate combinations. Suppressive activities of both extract-drug combinations were greater than the individual drugs alone. Extract-chloroquine (100:5) produced the highest suppressive effect (98% suppression). Curative tests showed absolute survival in two extract-drug combinations. Two extract-drug combinations produced higher curative effects than the individual drugs alone. The highest dose combinations of extract-chloroquine (100:5) and extract-artesunate (100:5) produced absolute parasitemia clearance (cure) in the infected mice. Conclusions: The study indicated that aqueous extract of A. conyzoides had the ability to potentiate the antimalarial activity of chloroquine and artesunate against induced plasmodiasis in mice. It contributes a lot in the malaria endemic and poverty stricken tropics.

  20. Essential role of NKCC1 in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) mediates electroneutral transport of 2Cl- coupled with Na+ and K+ across the plasma membrane, and plays crucial roles in Cl- uptake into the cells, homeostasis of cellular Cl-, and cell volume regulation. However, we have very limited information on the roles of ion transporters in neurite outgrowth in neuronal cells. In the present study, we report the role of NKCC1 (an isoform of NKCC) in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma PC12D cells. The expression level of NKCC1 protein was increased by NGF treatment. Knock-down of NKCC1 by RNA interference (RNAi) drastically diminished the NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Transfection of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged rat NKCC1 into cells for clarification of intracellular localization of NKCC1 revealed that the EGFP-rNKCC1 was mainly localized in the plasma membrane at growth cone during neurite outgrowth. These observations suggest that NKCC1 plays a fundamental role in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth of PC12D cells

  1. Efficient monitoring of blood-stage infection in a malaria rodent model by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Agnes; Albuquerque, Inês S; Butykai, Adam; Kezsmarki, Istvan; Hänscheid, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Global research efforts have been focused on the simultaneous improvement of the efficiency and sensitivity of malaria diagnosis in resource-limited settings and for the active case detection of asymptomatic infections. A recently developed magneto-optical (MO) method allows the high-sensitivity detection of malaria pigment (hemozoin) crystals in blood via their magnetically induced rotational motion. The evaluation of the method using synthetic $\\beta$-hematin crystals and P. falciparum in vitro cultures implies its potential for in-field diagnosis. Here, we study the performance of the method in monitoring the in vivo onset and progression of the blood stage infection using a malaria mouse model. We found that the MO method can detect the first generation of intraerythrocytic parasites at the ring stage 61-66 hours after sporozoite injection demonstrating better sensitivity than light microscopy and flow cytometry. MO measurements performed after treatment of severe P. berghei infections show that the clear...

  2. The inhibitor of volume-regulated anion channels DCPIB activates TREK potassium channels in cultured astrocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minieri, L.; Pivoňková, Helena; Caprini, M.; Harantová, Lenka; Anděrová, Miroslava; Ferroni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 5 (2013), s. 1240-1254. ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : two-pore-domain potassium channels * patch clamp * neuroprotection Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.990, year: 2013

  3. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia;

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red...... cell function. The present study demonstrates that oxygenated RBCs in all major groups of reptiles exhibit no or a very reduced RVI upon ~ 25% calculated hyperosmotic shrinkage. Thus, RBCs from the snakes Crotalus durissus and Python regius, the turtle Trachemys scripta and the alligator Alligator...... mississippiensis showed no statistically significant RVI within 120 min after shrinkage, while the lizard Tupinambis merianae showed 22% volume recovery after 120 min. Amiloride (10- 4 M) and bumetanide (10- 5 M) had no effect on the RVI in T. merianae, indicating no involvement of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) or...

  4. Paradoxes of body fluid volume regulation in health and disease. A unifying hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, R W; Niederberger, M

    1994-01-01

    The body's normal homeostasis is maintained by the integrity of the excretory capacity of the kidneys. In advanced cardiac failure, however, the avidity of the renal sodium and water retention contributes to the occurrence of pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, the kidneys again fail to excrete the amounts of sodium and water ingested, thus leading to ascites and peripheral edema. The signals for this renal retention of sodium and water in a patient...

  5. Cell Volume Regulation and Signaling in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocytes and Adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Kathrine; Larsen, Susanne; Novak, Ivana;

    2011-01-01

    osmotic cell shrinkage (RVI), accompanied by increased swelling-activated taurine efflux. However, caveolin-1 distribution was not detectably altered after osmotic swelling or shrinkage, and caveolae integrity, as studied by cholesterol depletion or expression of dominant negative Cav-1, was not required...... had no detectable effect on InsR, yet increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes exhibit greatly accelerated RVD and RVI responses and increased swelling-activated taurine efflux compared to pre-adipocytes. Furthermore, in pre-adipocytes, Cav-1/caveolae integrity...

  6. Inducing autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Lea M; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Andersen, Jens S.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal-mediated catabolic process, which through degradation of different cytoplasmic components aids in maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival during exposure to extra- or intracellular stresses. Ammonia is a potential toxic and stress-inducing byproduct of glutamine...... catabolism, which has recently been found to induce autophagy in an MTOR independent way and support cancer cell survival. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomics was applied to investigate the initial signaling events linking ammonia to the induction of autophagy. The MTOR inhibitor rapamycin was used...... as a reference treatment to emphasize the differences between an MTOR-dependent and -independent autophagy-induction. By this means 5901 phosphosites were identified of which 626 were treatment-specific regulated and 175 were coregulated. Investigation of the ammonia-specific regulated sites...

  7. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  8. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  9. PAPEL DO ÓXIDO NÍTRICO NAS ALTERAÇÕES DO ESTADO REDOX EM CAMUNDONGOS INFECTADOS COM O Plasmodium berghei

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Danilo R.; Percario, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    PhD. Thesis containing research data related to the article "INHIBITION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHESIS BY DEXAMETHASONE INCREASES SURVIVAL RATE IN Plasmodium berghei-INFECTED MICE", to be published in Malaria Journal.

  10. Extrachromosomal inducible expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, Douwe M; Van Haastert, Peter J M; Eichinger, L.; Rivero, F.

    2013-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are very convenient for proteins that induce strong side effects such as retardation of growth or development and are essential for the expression of toxic proteins. In this chapter we describe the doxycycline-inducible expression system, optimized for the controlled exp

  11. Two distinct modes of hypoosmotic medium-induced release of excitatory amino acids and taurine in the rat brain in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée E Haskew-Layton

    Full Text Available A variety of physiological and pathological factors induce cellular swelling in the brain. Changes in cell volume activate several types of ion channels, which mediate the release of inorganic and organic osmolytes and allow for compensatory cell volume decrease. Volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC are thought to be responsible for the release of some of organic osmolytes, including the excitatory neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate. In the present study, we compared the in vivo properties of the swelling-activated release of glutamate, aspartate, and another major brain osmolyte taurine. Cell swelling was induced by perfusion of hypoosmotic (low [NaCl] medium via a microdialysis probe placed in the rat cortex. The hypoosmotic medium produced several-fold increases in the extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate and taurine. However, the release of the excitatory amino acids differed from the release of taurine in several respects including: (i kinetic properties, (ii sensitivity to isoosmotic changes in [NaCl], and (iii sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, which is known to modulate VRAC. Consistent with the involvement of VRAC, hypoosmotic medium-induced release of the excitatory amino acids was inhibited by the anion channel blocker DNDS, but not by the glutamate transporter inhibitor TBOA or Cd2+, which inhibits exocytosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to taurine release, we studied its release properties in cultured astrocytes and cortical synaptosomes. Similarities between the results obtained in vivo and in synaptosomes suggest that the swelling-activated release of taurine in vivo may be of neuronal origin. Taken together, our findings indicate that different transport mechanisms and/or distinct cellular sources mediate hypoosmotic medium-induced release of the excitatory amino acids and taurine in vivo.

  12. Antibiotic induced meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with antibiotic induced meningitis, one following penicillin with seven episodes, are reported on--the first well documented description of penicillin induced meningitis. In this patient episodes of headache and nuchal rigidity appeared with and without CSF pleocytosis. Two patients had a total of five episodes of antibiotic induced meningitis after trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) administration. The features common to all three patients were myalgia, confusion ...

  13. High extracellular K(+) evokes changes in voltage-dependent K(+) and Na (+) currents and volume regulation in astrocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neprašová, Helena; Anděrová, Miroslava; Petřík, David; Vargová, Lýdia; Kubinová, Šárka; Chvátal, Alexandr; Syková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 453, č. 6 (2007), s. 839-849. ISSN 0031-6768 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/1172; GA ČR GA305/06/1316; GA MŠk 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Astrogliosis * GFAP * Hypotonic stress Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.842, year: 2007

  14. Isoniazid-induced alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, K. B.; Kumar, V.; Vishvkarma, S.; R Shandily

    2011-01-01

    Isoniazid is a safe and very effective antituberculosis drug. Antimitotic agents routinely cause alopecia. Drug-induced alopecia is usually reversible upon withdrawal of the drug. Isoniazid, thiacetazone and ethionamide are the antituberculosis drugs which have been associated with alopecia. Isoniazid-induced alopecia was observed in one case and confirmed by the finding that hair growth resumed when drug removed from the regimen.

  15. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  16. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  17. Mania induced by opipramol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhungil Firoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants have propensity to induce manic switch in patients with bipolar disorder. Opipramol is an atypical anxiolytic and antidepressant drug which predominantly acts on sigma receptors. Although structurally resembles tricyclic antidepressant imipramine it does not have inhibitory action on the reuptake of norepinephrine/serotonin and hence it is not presumed to cause manic switch in bipolar depression. Here, we describe a case of mania induced by opipramol, in a patient with bipolar affective disorder who was treated for moderate depressive episode with lithium and opipramol and we discuss neurochemical hypothesis of opipramol-induced mania.

  18. Thrombocytopenia - drug induced

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the condition is called drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. Heparin, a blood thinner, is the most common cause ... bleeding Bleeding when you brush your teeth Easy bruising Pinpoint red spots on the skin ( petechiae )

  19. Topological Induced Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We propose a topological model of induced gravity (pregeometry) where both Newton's coupling constant and the cosmological constant appear as integration constants in solving field equations. The matter sector of a scalar field is also considered, and by solving field equations it is shown that various types of cosmological solutions in the FRW universe can be obtained. A detailed analysis is given of the meaning of the BRST transformations, which make the induced gravity be a topological field theory, by means of the canonical quantization analysis, and the physical reason why such BRST transformations are needed in the present formalism is clarified. Finally, we propose a dynamical mechanism for fixing the Lagrange multiplier fields by following the Higgs mechanism. The present study clearly indicates that the induced gravity can be constructed at the classical level without recourse to quantum fluctuations of matter and suggests an interesting relationship between the induced gravity and the topological qu...

  20. LASER-INDUCED PHOTODISSOCIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, N.

    1985-01-01

    The richness of the field of laser-induced photodissociation is pointed out. Some of the recent works in this area comprising theoretical, computational as well as experimental research are discussed.

  1. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat (macular) and depigmented, but maintains ...

  2. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  3. Terahertz field induced electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in sub-wavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  4. Terahertz Induced Electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in subwavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  5. Terahertz Induced Electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2014-01-01

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in subwavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  6. Isoniazid-induced alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K B Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoniazid is a safe and very effective antituberculosis drug. Antimitotic agents routinely cause alopecia. Drug-induced alopecia is usually reversible upon withdrawal of the drug. Isoniazid, thiacetazone and ethionamide are the antituberculosis drugs which have been associated with alopecia. Isoniazid-induced alopecia was observed in one case and confirmed by the finding that hair growth resumed when drug removed from the regimen.

  7. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    OpenAIRE

    Molis, Marc A.; Molis, Whitney E.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a phenomenon of airway narrowing that occurs during or after exercise or physical exertion. This condition has been reported in a range of sporting activities but is most common in participants of cold-weather sports (eg, Nordic skiing) and indoor sports (eg, ice-skating and swimming). Traditionally, the terms exercise induced-asthma (EIA) and EIB have been used interchangeably; however, more recent evidence suggests that these entities are sepa...

  8. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, S.; Suss, M. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bercovici, M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, ...

  9. Paroxetine-induced galactorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Prannay; Chavan, B.S.; Das, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced galactorrhea has been reported with agents such as antidopaminergic antiemetics, antipsychotics, etc., with few case reports of galactorrhea with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including paroxetine, being reported in last few decades. Prolactin levels have been found to be either raised or normal in these cases. We here report a case of paroxetine induced galactorrhea in a 48-year-old female patient of obsessive compulsive disorder, having hyperprolactinemic and euprola...

  10. Noise induced Hopf bifurcation

    OpenAIRE

    Shuda, I. A.; Borysov, S S; A.I. Olemskoi

    2008-01-01

    We consider effect of stochastic sources upon self-organization process being initiated with creation of the limit cycle induced by the Hopf bifurcation. General relations obtained are applied to the stochastic Lorenz system to show that departure from equilibrium steady state can destroy the limit cycle in dependence of relation between characteristic scales of temporal variation of principle variables. Noise induced resonance related to the limit cycle is found to appear if the fastest vari...

  11. Diet induced thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp KR

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Resu...

  12. Diarylheptanoids Rich Fraction of Alnus nepalensis Attenuates Malaria Pathogenesis: In-vitro and In-vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Archana; Yadav, Deepti; Mohanty, Shilpa; Cheema, Harveer Singh; Gupta, Madan M; Darokar, Mahendra P; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2016-06-01

    Diarylheptanoids from Alnus nepalensis leaves have been reported for promising activity against filariasis, a mosquito-borne disease, and this has prompted us to investigate its anti-malarial and safety profile using in-vitro and in-vivo bioassays. A. nepalensis leaf extracts were tested in-vitro against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum NF54 by measuring the parasite specific lactate dehydrogenase activity. Among all, the chloroform extract (ANC) has shown promising anti-plasmodial activity (IC50 8.06 ± 0.26 µg/mL). HPLC analysis of ANC showed the presence of diarylheptanoids. Efficacy and safety of ANC were further validated in in-vivo system using Plasmodium berghei-induced malaria model and acute oral toxicity in mice. Malaria was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of P. berghei infected red blood cells to the female Balb/c mice. ANC was administered orally at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day following Peter's 4 day suppression test. Oral administration of ANC showed significant reduction of parasitaemia and increase in mean survival time. It also attributed to inhibition of the parasite induced pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as afford to significant increase in the blood glucose and haemoglobin level when compared with vehicle-treated infected mice. In-vivo safety evaluation study revealed that ANC is non-toxic at higher concentration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26969854

  13. Drug-induced panniculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, G; Torti, S; D'Ospina, R M; Pezzini, C

    2014-04-01

    A substantial number of all panniculitides fails to recognize a specific etiology, and that is true also for a relatively frequent type of panniculitis, such as erythema nodosum (EN). Between the recognized causative factors of panniculitides, infectious, physical agents, autoimmune mechanisms and neoplastic disorders are well known. On the contrary, the role of drugs as inducers of panniculitides is marginally considered, and their report limited to anecdotal observations, often without due histopathological support. Since the clinical and histopathological features of drug-induced panniculitides are indistinguishable from those caused by other agents, the causative relationship may be demonstrated by the history of previous drug intake and by clinical improvement after drug discontinuation. We reviewed the currently reported descriptions of drug-induced panniculitis, including a few exemplificative original observations. EN results as the most frequently reported drug-induced panniculitis. Among the causative drugs of EN a variety of medications, with disparate, or even opposite, mechanisms of action are reported, thus limiting the understanding of the pathogenesis. Common causative drugs include oral contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiobiotics and leukotriene-modifying agents. Unfortunately, in several cases, the diagnosis of drug-induced EN is done on clinical findings alone. In those cases, the lack of histopathological support does not allow to define a precise clinicopathological correlation on etiologic grounds. Drug-induced lobular and mixed panniculitides, including eosinophilic panniculitis, are even more rarely described. Reported causative agents are glatiramer acetate, interferon beta and heparin (at sites of injections), and systemic steroids, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and BRAF with subcutaneous fat involvement at distance. In view of the recent introduction of new classes of drugs, attention should be paid to disclose their

  14. Induced Norm Control Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time-invariant lin......This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time......-invariant linear systems,all related to induced norms. A packing system has also beendeveloped to make the writing of code less cumbersome....

  15. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest;

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer...... is above 100%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has...

  16. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  17. Optically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Shen, Zhenhua; Cao, Jianjun; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Light-matter-light interactions serve as the backbone technology of all-optical information processing for both on-chip and long-haul communication purposes. The representative example of electromagnetically induced transparency has its unique ability of optically controlling transparency windows with relative low light in atomic systems, though its practical applications are limited due to rigid experimental requirements. Here we demonstrate a new form of optically induced transparency in a micro-cavity by introducing four-wave mixing gain in order to couple nonlinearly two separated resonances of the micro-cavity in ambient environment. A signature Fano-like resonance is also observed owing to the nonlinear interference of two coupled resonances. Moreover, we show that the unidirectional gain of four-wave mixing can lead to non-reciprocal transmission at the transparency windows. Optically induced transparency may offer a unique platform for a compact, integrated solution to all-optical processing and quant...

  18. Rosuvastatin-induced pemphigoid.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murad, Aizuri A

    2012-01-01

    Statins are widely prescribed medications and very well tolerated. Rosuvastatin is another member of this drug used to treat dyslipidaemia. It is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Immunobullous disease is usually idiopathic but can be drug-induced. Both idiopathic and iatrogenic forms share common clinical and immunohistological features. The authors report a case of pemphigoid induced by rosuvastatin, a commonly prescribed medication. To our knowledge, there is limited report on rosuvastatin associated with pemphigoid in the literature.

  19. Metformin induced acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis frequently presents with abdomen pain but may presents with various skin manifestations as rash and rarely, pancreatic panniculitis. Metformin, one of the most effective and valuable oral hypoglycemic agents in the biguanide class was linked to acute pancreatitis in few cases. Here, we report a case of metformin induce acute pancreatitis in young healthy man with normal renal function.

  20. Methacholine induced headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratala, C; Gea, J G; Aguar, M C; Grau, S; Espadaler-Medina, J M; Broquetas, J M

    1995-03-01

    A lung function technician developed episodes of headache, probably related to the use of methacholine. The headache disappeared with breathing 100% oxygen. Cholinergic agents are known to induce headaches but the mechanism remains unclear. Vascular factors could be implicated. PMID:7660351

  1. Pentazocine-induced agranulocytosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Meg; Hyland, Robert H; Norman, Conolly

    1984-01-01

    A 46-year-old man with pentazocine-induced agranulocytosis is described. In previously reported cases of a complete absence of mature neutrophils in the peripheral blood and bone marrow the patients had undergone marrow-depressing treatment with radiation and antineoplastic drugs. This case is unique in that the patient had complete agranulocytosis without predisposing factors.

  2. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  3. Radiation-induced pneumothorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. Radiation-induced pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis

  5. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic respon

  6. Photo-induced luminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Catalá Icardo, Mónica; Martínez Calatayud, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is a critical review dealing with the characteristics, reaction mechanisms and photoproducts, instrumentation and analytical applications of the photo-induced either chemiluminescence or fluorescence. Special attention is paid to the determination of pesticides by continuous-flow methodologies. The paper is divided into several sections covering the most relevant published papers.

  7. Lupus induced by medicaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a 55 years old female patient who consulted by fever syndrome, artralgias and the presence of high tittles positives antinuclear antibodies. She had arterial hypertension in treatment with captopril. We suspected the clinical diagnoses of drug-induced lupus; the withdraw of captopril was associated with the remission of the clinical and laboratory manifestations

  8. Imatinib-induced pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varma Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced pancreatitis is a rare but serious complication of many drugs, some of which have been well documented. Here we present a case of a middle-aged man with chronic myeloid leukemia who developed acute pancreatitis after being initiated on imatinib mesylate. The case history, the pharmacodynamics, uses, and adverse effects of imatinib mesylate are discussed in detail.

  9. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H;

    2014-01-01

    trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three...

  10. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is…

  11. Drug-induced uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    London, Nikolas JS; Garg, Sunir J; Moorthy, Ramana S; Cunningham, Emmett T

    2013-01-01

    A number of medications have been associated with uveitis. This review highlights both well-established and recently reported systemic, topical, intraocular, and vaccine-associated causes of drug-induced uveitis, and assigns a quantitative score to each medication based upon criteria originally described by Naranjo and associates.

  12. Olanzapine induced hyperprolactinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Nayak; Virupaksha Devaramane; Deepak Mallya; Panambur V Bhandary

    2013-01-01

    Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic is widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Though olanzapine is an efficacious antipsychotic it has been associated with many adverse effects like weight gain, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, etc necessitating its discontinuation. Here, we present two cases of hyperprolactinemia induced by olanzapine. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000): 836-837

  13. Sulphasalazine induced renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Dwarakanath, A D; Michael, J.; Allan, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Two men with longstanding ulcerative colitis who were treated with sulphasalazine for several years and who developed chronic renal failure are reported. Renal biopsy specimens showed histological changes consistent with drug induced chronic intestinal nephritis. Extensive investigation made other causes of chronic renal failure unlikely. One of these patients underwent renal transplantation, the other has impaired but stable renal function.

  14. Radiation Induced Fermion Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, S.; M. W. Evans; Recami, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Dirac equation is solved for two novel terms which describe the interaction energy between the half integral spin of a fermion and the classical, circularly polarized, electromagnetic field. A simple experiment is suggested to test the new terms and the existence of radiation induced fermion resonance.

  15. Muon-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of recent experimental results on negative-muon-induced fission, both of 238U and 232Th, is given. Some conclusions drawn by the author are concerned with muonic atoms of fission fragments and muonic atoms of the shape isomer of 238U. (author)

  16. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  17. Noise-induced linearisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dykman, Mark; Luchinsky, D. G.; Mannella, R.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Short, H. E.; Stein, N. D.; Stocks, N. G.

    1994-01-01

    It is found that the response of a nonlinear dynamical system can be linearised, and its frequency dispersion diminished, by the addition of external noise of sufficient intensity. Taking as an example an overdamped bistable system driven by a low-frequency periodic field, this noise-induced linearisation is investigated through analogue electronic experiments. The wider implications are considered.

  18. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard. PMID:23846903

  19. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  20. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is ... I find additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound ...

  1. Exercise-induced purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelet, Albert-Adrien

    2004-01-01

    Exercise-induced purpura (EIP) occurs on the lower legs after unusual or major muscular activity, as in marathon runners or as after long walks, especially in the mountains in hot weather. In leisure walkers, patients are otherwise healthy females. There is no relation with chronic venous disorder. Erythematous, urticarial or purpuric plaques arise on the lower leg, usually sparing the skin compressed by socks. Symptoms include itch, pain and a burning sensation. Histopathology demonstrates leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The lesions fade after some days, with frequent relapses at further muscular exercises and may be prevented in some cases by compression, intake of venoactive drugs and local application of steroids. EIP is not uncommon, even if very few descriptions have yet been published. It appears to be consecutive to venous stasis induced by an acute failure of the muscle pump of the calf and thermoregulation decompensation, after a prolonged and unusual exercise, such as running or walking in hot weather. PMID:15178910

  2. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic...... measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  3. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic...... measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  4. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-04-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia are extremely common conditions and diagnostic errors may occur. A thorough patient history, in conjunction with confirmatory patch testing with a bulb sliver and tuliposide A exposure, can prevent misdiagnosis. We report a case of Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity misdiagnosed as an unresolved tinea manuum infection in a patient evaluated for occupational exposure. PMID:25024947

  5. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  6. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  7. Curvature-induced dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Debus, J -D; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J

    2015-01-01

    By inspecting the effect of curvature on a moving fluid, we find that local sources of curvature not only exert inertial forces on the flow, but also generate viscous stresses as a result of the departure of streamlines from the idealized geodesic motion. The curvature-induced viscous forces are shown to cause an indirect and yet appreciable energy dissipation. As a consequence, the flow converges to a stationary equilibrium state solely by virtue of curvature-induced dissipation. In addition, we show that flow through randomly-curved media satisfies a non-linear transport law, resembling Darcy-Forchheimer's law, due to the viscous forces generated by the spatial curvature. It is further shown that the permeability can be characterized in terms of the average metric perturbation.

  8. Ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent to combat various infections. The adverse profile of quinolones includes gastrointestinal symptoms, which are the most frequent, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hematologic abnormalities are less common. We report a rare case of ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction in a 57 year old female patient with complaints of rashes over the axilla, upper limb and back, abdomen, thorax associated with exfoliation of skin all over the axilla associated with severe itching. Based on history and clinical examination patient was diagnosed as ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction and was successfully treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. Pharmacovigilance should be a part of patient care in order to reduce occurrence of adverse drug reaction and also encourage practitioners in reporting so as to gather more and more data regarding adverse drug reactions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 349-351

  9. Chemotherapy induced Hyponatraemia

    OpenAIRE

    Yeoh, Kheng-Wei; Camilleri, Philip; Patel, Kinnari

    2010-01-01

    We present a case report of chemotherapy induced renal salt wasting syndrome (RSWS) that was initially diagnosed and managed as syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), based on osmolality values as well as hydration status. The patient was receiving chemotherapy for metastatic testicular cancer. Progressive deterioration of electrolyte balance prompted the diagnosis of RSWS. This was confirmed by a high urinary sodium concentration, a simple but important investig...

  10. Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hankinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This case describes a scenario of lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Phytophotodermatitis is a dermatitis caused after the skin is exposed to photosensitizing compounds in plants and then exposed to sunlight. Many common plants including citrus fruits, celery, and wild parsnip contain these photosensitizing compounds which cause phytophotodermatitis. It is important for a physician to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may often be misdiagnosed as other skin conditions including fungal infection, cellulitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and even child abuse.

  11. Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Andrew; Lloyd, Benjamin; Alweis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This case describes a scenario of lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Phytophotodermatitis is a dermatitis caused after the skin is exposed to photosensitizing compounds in plants and then exposed to sunlight. Many common plants including citrus fruits, celery, and wild parsnip contain these photosensitizing compounds which cause phytophotodermatitis. It is important for a physician to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may often be misdiagnosed as other skin conditions including fungal infection, cellulitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and even child abuse. PMID:25317269

  12. Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hankinson, Andrew; Lloyd, Benjamin; Alweis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This case describes a scenario of lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Phytophotodermatitis is a dermatitis caused after the skin is exposed to photosensitizing compounds in plants and then exposed to sunlight. Many common plants including citrus fruits, celery, and wild parsnip contain these photosensitizing compounds which cause phytophotodermatitis. It is important for a physician to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may often be misdiagnosed as other skin conditions including fung...

  13. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Huili (Grace); Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  14. Doxycycline induced Esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Karakus Yilmaz; Erdem Cevik

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis is a hazardous condition such as acid reflux of esophageal mucosa, infection, systemic diseases, radiation, drugs and trauma. Drug- induced esophagial injury (DIEI) is a disease with the use of variety of drugs that caused serious damage and ulcer in the mucosa of the esophagus. The most commonly implicated drugs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), chloride and especially antibiotics. Thirty-six year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with...

  15. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia ar...

  16. Olanzapine induced hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Nayak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic is widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Though olanzapine is an efficacious antipsychotic it has been associated with many adverse effects like weight gain, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, etc necessitating its discontinuation. Here, we present two cases of hyperprolactinemia induced by olanzapine. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 836-837

  17. Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Seifollah Beladi Mousavi

    2014-02-01

    The standard approach to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with the administration of full intravenous isotonic saline before and after cisplatin administration. Although a number of pharmacologic agents including sodium thiosulfate, N-acetylcysteine, theophylline and glycine have been evaluated for prevention of nephrotoxicity, none have proved to have an established role, thus, additional clinical studies will be required to confirm their probable effects.

  18. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    P S Satheesh Kumar; Anita Balan; Arun Sankar; Tinky Bose

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concer...

  19. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Alimi, David

    2015-01-01

    David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have resi...

  20. Gold induced enterocolitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C W; Haboubi, N Y; Whorwell, P.J.; Schofield, P. F.

    1986-01-01

    A case of gold associated enterocolitis is described. A review of all 27 previously reported cases revealed that the syndrome induced has common characteristics. The reaction occurs within three months of instituting gold therapy, is characterised by profuse diarrhoea and vomiting with abdominal pain, fever, and sometimes eosinophilia. Petechial changes are prominent on endoscopy and the endoscopic and histological features of the gut lesion do not resemble inflammatory bowel disease. The ove...

  1. OXYTOCIN INDUCED NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common causes of health problems, observed in 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants in the first week of life . Hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity in severe condition. Some studies suggests that liberal use of oxytocin for inducing labour is one of the factor which lead to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oxytocin and neonatal bilirubin levels with spontaneous vaginal delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : 100 full term parturients were selected for this study. The subjects were divided into two groups. 50 healthy babies of women who had oxytocin induced labour and 50 healthy babies of women with normal vaginal delivery following spontaneous onset of labour formed the control group. Neon atal serum bilirubin was measured on day 1, 3 and 5 after delivery. Bilirubin was measured by spectrophotometry. Data was analysed in ms excel sheet using spss 19.0v. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired‘t’ test. RESULTS: There was significant i ncrease in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group compared to control group on day 1 and 3. There was insignificant increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group on day 5. However the level of serum bilirubin is within normal limits as bilirubin level normally rises on till 4 th day and decreases thereafter. CONCLUSION: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may be due to oxytocin administration by continues IV infusion which results in erythrocyte swell and rupture. Increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin i nduced group is within physiological limits

  2. Cold-induced metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic response in infants and several animal species. In adult humans, however, its role is less clear. Here we explore recent findings on the role and variability of nonshivering thermogenesis in adults. Rece...

  3. Inducement prizes and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Brunt, Liam; Lerner, Josh; Nicholas, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We examine prizes as an inducement for innovation using a novel dataset of awards for inventiveness offered by the Royal Agricultural Society of England from 1839 to 1939. At annual shows the RASE held competitive trials and awarded medals and monetary prizes (exceeding one million pounds in current prices) to spur technological development. We find large effects of the prizes on contest entries, especially for the Society’s gold medal. Matching award and patent data, we also detect large eff...

  4. Glycerol-induced hyperhydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Marvin L.; Lyons, Timothy P.; Mcnamara, M. Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance of euhydration is essential for maximum work performance. Environments which induce hypohydration reduce plasma volume and cardiovascular performance progressively declines as does work capacity. Hyperhydration prior to exposure to dehydrating environments appears to be a potential countermeasure to the debilitating effects of hypohydration. The extravascular fluid space, being the largest fluid compartment in the body, is the most logical space by which significant hyperhydration can be accomplished. Volume and osmotic receptors in the vascular space result in physiological responses which counteract hyperhydration. Our hypothesis is that glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) can accomplish extravascular fluid expansion because of the high solubility of glycerol in lipid and aqueous media. A hypertonic solution of glycerol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, results in mild increases in plasma osmolality and is distributed to 65 percent of the body mass. A large volume of water ingested within minutes after glycerol intake results in increased total body water because of the osmotic action and distribution of glycerol. The resulting expanded extravascular fluid space can act as a reservoir to maintain plasma volume during exposure to dehydrating environments. The fluid shifts associated with exposure to microgravity result in increased urine production and is another example of an environment which induces hypohydration. Our goal is to demonstrate that GIH will facilitate maintenance of euhydration and cardiovascular performance during space flight and upon return to a 1 g environment.

  5. Sildenafil induced priapism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, T; Hayakawa, K; Miyaji, K; Ishikawa, H; Hata, M

    1999-11-01

    A 53 year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for persistent priapism, which had been induced by 200 mg (usual dose 25-50 mg) of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) three days earlier. He had a history of erectile dysfunction and had undergone penile injection therapy elsewhere; however, he had not used injection therapy this time. He obtained sildenafil personally without a doctor's prescription. He had not taken any other drugs that affect the metabolism of sildenafil, nor did he have any medical complications that might induce priapism. Since needle aspiration and irrigation were ineffective as first line therapy, surgical treatment was indicated to relieve the condition; a incision of tunica albuginea of both corpora cavernosa was made, and vigorous irrigation of saline washed out the blood clots. This is the first case report of priapism induced by sildenafil. Although this drug can be obtained through private commerce, it should be used under professional guidance as its abuse may lead to severe morbidity. PMID:11933312

  6. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Efficient monitoring of the blood-stage infection in a malaria rodent model by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Ágnes; Rebelo, Maria; Molnár, Petra; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Butykai, Adam; Kézsmárki, István

    2016-03-01

    Intense research efforts have been focused on the improvement of the efficiency and sensitivity of malaria diagnostics, especially in resource-limited settings for the detection of asymptomatic infections. Our recently developed magneto-optical (MO) method allows the accurate quantification of malaria pigment crystals (hemozoin) in blood by their magnetically induced rotation. First evaluations of the method using β-hematin crystals and in vitro P. falciparum cultures implied its potential for high-sensitivity malaria diagnosis. To further investigate this potential, here we study the performance of the method in monitoring the in vivo onset and progression of the blood-stage infection in a rodent malaria model. Our results show that the MO method can detect the first generation of intraerythrocytic P. berghei parasites 66–76 hours after sporozoite injection, demonstrating similar sensitivity to Giesma-stained light microscopy and exceeding that of flow cytometric techniques. Magneto-optical measurements performed during and after the treatment of P. berghei infections revealed that both the follow up under treatment and the detection of later reinfections are feasible with this new technique. The present study demonstrates that the MO method – besides being label and reagent-free, automated and rapid – has a high in vivo sensitivity and is ready for in-field evaluation.

  8. Production, fate and pathogenicity of plasma microparticles in murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima El-Assaad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In patients with cerebral malaria (CM, higher levels of cell-specific microparticles (MP correlate with the presence of neurological symptoms. MP are submicron plasma membrane-derived vesicles that express antigens of their cell of origin and phosphatidylserine (PS on their surface, facilitating their role in coagulation, inflammation and cell adhesion. In this study, the in vivo production, fate and pathogenicity of cell-specific MP during Plasmodium berghei infection of mice were evaluated. Using annexin V, a PS ligand, and flow cytometry, analysis of platelet-free plasma from infected mice with cerebral involvement showed a peak of MP levels at the time of the neurological onset. Phenotypic analyses showed that MP from infected mice were predominantly of platelet, endothelial and erythrocytic origins. To determine the in vivo fate of MP, we adoptively transferred fluorescently labelled MP from mice with CM into healthy or infected recipient mice. MP were quickly cleared following intravenous injection, but microscopic examination revealed arrested MP lining the endothelium of brain vessels of infected, but not healthy, recipient mice. To determine the pathogenicity of MP, we transferred MP from activated endothelial cells into healthy recipient mice and this induced CM-like brain and lung pathology. This study supports a pathogenic role for MP in the aggravation of the neurological lesion and suggests a causal relationship between MP and the development of CM.

  9. Efficient monitoring of the blood-stage infection in a malaria rodent model by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Ágnes; Rebelo, Maria; Molnár, Petra; Albuquerque, Inês S; Butykai, Adam; Kézsmárki, István

    2016-01-01

    Intense research efforts have been focused on the improvement of the efficiency and sensitivity of malaria diagnostics, especially in resource-limited settings for the detection of asymptomatic infections. Our recently developed magneto-optical (MO) method allows the accurate quantification of malaria pigment crystals (hemozoin) in blood by their magnetically induced rotation. First evaluations of the method using β-hematin crystals and in vitro P. falciparum cultures implied its potential for high-sensitivity malaria diagnosis. To further investigate this potential, here we study the performance of the method in monitoring the in vivo onset and progression of the blood-stage infection in a rodent malaria model. Our results show that the MO method can detect the first generation of intraerythrocytic P. berghei parasites 66-76 hours after sporozoite injection, demonstrating similar sensitivity to Giesma-stained light microscopy and exceeding that of flow cytometric techniques. Magneto-optical measurements performed during and after the treatment of P. berghei infections revealed that both the follow up under treatment and the detection of later reinfections are feasible with this new technique. The present study demonstrates that the MO method - besides being label and reagent-free, automated and rapid - has a high in vivo sensitivity and is ready for in-field evaluation. PMID:26983695

  10. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made. PMID:21548454

  11. Duxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukund Joshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of cancer patients has greatly increased over the last 20 years. However, to achieve this result, a considerable price has been paid in terms of the side-effects associated with the intensive anticancer treatment. Cardiotoxicity of anticancer drugs is a serious problem. It is defined, by the National Cancer Institute, as the and ldquo;toxicity that affects the heart. and rdquo; This definition not only includes a direct effect of the drug on the heart, but also an indirect effect due to enhancement of hemodynamic flow alterations or due to thrombotic events. Cardiotoxicity can develop in a subacute, acute, or chronic manner. The risk for such effects depends upon: cumulative dose, rate of drug administration, mediastinal radiation, advanced age, younger age, female gender, pre-existing heart disease and hypertension. Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin (DOX, cause serious cardiac side-effects. Acute tachyarrhythmias and acute heart failure (HF may occur after high doses, but these reactions are now rare due to changed dosage schemes (e.g. slower infusion with the aim to prevent this. However, the sub-acute or chronic cardiac effects of anthracyclines remain a clinical problem. Clinically, anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity manifests itself as left ventricular failure, which develops insidiously over months to years after completion of the anthracycline based chemotherapy and may result in congestive HF. The mechanism of anthracyclin induced cardiotoxicity is not totally unraveled. It is likely that the decline in myocardial function is related to apoptosis of cardiac myocytes that occurs apparently at random in the myocardium. Anthracyclin induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the presence of intracellular iron, impaired homeostasis of intracellular iron and calcium (that may facilitate the apoptosis induced by the ROS have been put forward as mechanisms. Cardiac protection can be achieved by limitation of the

  12. [Drug-induced dyschromatopsias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdriel, G; Manent, P J

    1982-01-01

    Drug-induced dyschromatopsias are defined as functional or objective alterations of color sense following drug treatment. Drug induced chromatopsias are characterized by a perception of white surfaces as colored and occur following modifications of normally transparent structures or alterations of the chorioretina or higher centers. Digitalic intoxication is responsible for incorrect perception of yellow or blue; the retinal origin of the disorder is confirmed by electroretinograms and histologic modifications in the photoreceptor synapses. Santonin in doses exceeding 1 cg is associated with various color misperceptions due to injury to a peripheral neuron or problems of rhodopsin formation. Some sulfas and antibiotics may cause misperception of yellow, and the anticonvulsant drug Tridione may cause an almost complete disappearance of some colors. Chromotopsias of central origin due to direct action on cerebral neurons are rare but may follow use of phenacetine or atropine. Drug induced dyschromatopsias are more common and may be the initial symptoms of various kinds of drug intoxication. Various simple and reliable tests enable the practicing clinician to detect such disorders at an early stage. Synthetic antimalarial drugs derived from chloroquine and used in longterm treatment of rheumatism or during antimalarial prophylaxis, indomethacine, and the phenotiazins may cause dyschromatopsias due to retinal intoxication. Oral contraceptives diminish the chromatic perception in 20% of cases according to 1 author, and often cause deficits of blue-yellow perception. Disulfiram, certain antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, nystatin, isoniazide, and other drugs may cause dyschromatopsias due to alterations in the optical fibers. Ethambutol is the most harmful to color perception; its effects are usually but not always reversible on discontinuation of the drug. Systematic tests of color perception should be administered prior to and during treatment with any drug known to

  13. -induced continental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

  14. Laser induced plasma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Nak Bae; Woo, Hyung Joo; Kim, Joon Kon; Kim, Gi Dong; Choi, Han Woo; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Shim, Sang Kwun [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    When the pulsed laser is focused onto a small spot of a solid surface, an optically induced plasma is formed at this surface. This plasma will be formed when the laser power density exceeds the breakdown threshold value of the solid surface. The interaction of high power laser light with a target or solid materials have been an active topic not only in plasma physics but also in the field of analytical chemistry. Recently, LIPS(laser induced plasma spectroscopy) has been applied many kinds of sample analysis including solid, liquid and gas analysis. LIPS has a advantage of the minimal sample preparation required for a solid sample and ability to analyze conducting as well as nonconducting materials, multi-elemental analysis. But this method has a poorer sensitivity than several competing atomic spectroscopic methods and semiquantitative analysis. Numerous factors affect the ablation process, including the laser pulse properties, such as pulse width, spatial and temporal fluctuations of the pulse and laser power fluctuations. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the sample also influence the ablation process. We studied LIPS with Nd:YAG second harmonic 532 nm and the induced plasma temperature was studied by observing the emission intensity of Fe(I) line and the plasma temperature of the different kind of samples were calculated using Boltzmann plotting method under same laser condition. Using the above experimental results, LIPS has been applied for the analysis of the elemental distribution mapping of the polished rock section. For the elemental mapping analysis, XY stage controlled by step motor and PC were used and 5 x 5 mm element image was obtained. For the quantitative analysis, rock standard samples were analyzed and Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Si and Sr calibration curve were obtained. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  15. Sitagliptin-induced hemolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekur Ragini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sitagliptin is a newer oral hypoglycemic drug of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor class. It appears to be a promising newer oral hypoglycemic agent. The advantages are the absence of hypoglycemia when used as monotherapy and they cause less gain weight. We report a case of sitagliptin-induced hemolysis, a rare side effect, not reported in the literature. As sitagliptin is widely used in type 2 diabetes mellitus physicians should be aware of the possibility of this rare but potentially serious adverse drug reaction.

  16. Induced mutations in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

  17. Induced skeletal mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a large-scale experiment that, by means of breeding tests, confirmed that many dominant skeletal mutations are induced by large-dose radiation exposure. The author also discusses: (1) the major advantages and disadvantages of the skeletal method in improving estimates of genetic hazard to man; (2) future uses of the skeletal method; (3) direct estimation of risk beyond the first generation using the skeletal method; and (4) the possibility of using the skeletal method as a quick and easy screen for chemical mutagens

  18. [Neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrański, T

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in subjective aspects of therapy and rehabilitation focused the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychopharmacologists on the mental side effects of neuroleptics. For the drug-related impairment of affective, cognitive and social function the name of neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) is proposed. Patients with NIDS appear to be indifferent to the environmental stimuli, retarded and apathetic. They complain of feeling drugged and drowsy, weird, they suffer from lack of motivation, feel like "zombies". The paper presents description of NIDS and its differentiation from negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and subjective perceiving of extrapyramidal syndromes. PMID:7652089

  19. Cephalexin induced cholestatic jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Rao, Mana; Jasdanwala, Sarfaraz; Mathur, Ajay; Eng, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Cephalexin is a very commonly prescribed orally administered antibiotic which has many potential side effects. Amongst these cholestatic jaundice has been infrequently reported as an adverse reaction. We present a case of a 57-year-old male who exhibited features of cholestatic jaundice including elevated liver function tests (LFTs) after taking cephalexin and showed improvement on removal of the offending agent. During this time he was symptomatically treated with cholestyramine. Complete resolution of LFTs was seen in four weeks. Cephalexin induced cholestasis is rare and hence requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25180107

  20. Bowthruster-induced damage

    OpenAIRE

    Schokking, L.A.; Janssen, P.C.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The stability of stones in propeller-induced jet wash is still difficult to predict. Especially the trend of bowthrusters increasing in size and power in sea going ships (especially ferries) over the last years may be a reason for concern when dealing with the protection of slopes and beds. But also ships used in inland navigation are using bowthrusters more intensively. Because of high costs of crew, many inland navigation ships try to sail with a minimum of crew. In order to allow mooring w...

  1. Nonlinearity Induced Critical Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Nireekshan; Gupta, S Dutta

    2013-01-01

    We study a critically coupled system (Opt. Lett., \\textbf{32}, 1483 (2007)) with a Kerr-nonlinear spacer layer. Nonlinearity is shown to inhibit null-scattering in a critically coupled system at low powers. However, a system detuned from critical coupling can exhibit near-complete suppression of scattering by means of nonlinearity-induced changes in refractive index. Our studies reveal clearly an important aspect of critical coupling as a delicate balance in both the amplitude and the phase relations, while a nonlinear resonance in dispersive bistability concerns only the phase.

  2. Trauma Induced Coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Johansson, Per; Meyer, Martin Abild Stengaard;

    2013-01-01

    It remains debated whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a different coagulopathy compared to non-TBI. This study investigated traditional coagulation tests, biomarkers of coagulopathy and endothelial damage in trauma patients with and without TBI. Blood from 80 adult trauma patients were...... sampled (median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury) upon admission to our trauma centre. Plasma/serum were retrospectively analysed for biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (protein C, activated protein C, tissue...

  3. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimi D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have residual salivary gland function. Unfortunately, it is well established that in most cases radiotherapy destroys most of the salivary gland and associated salivary secretions.     

  4. Induced superconductivity in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heersche, Hubert B.; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Oostinga, Jeroen B.; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2007-07-01

    Graphene layers, prepared by mechanical exfoliation, were contacted by superconducting electrodes consisting of a titanium-aluminium bilayer. Quantum hall measurements in the normal state confirmed the single layer nature of the graphene samples. Proximity induced supercurrents were observed in all samples, below 1 K. Using a backgate, the Fermi energy could be swept from valence to conduction band via the Charge neutrality point, demonstrating supercurrents carried by holes and electrons, respectively. Interestingly, a finite supercurrent was also observed at the charge neutrality (or Dirac) point, where the density of carrier states vanishes. Our results demonstrate phase coherence in graphene.

  5. Chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedan, Ahmed; Vilholm, Ole Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy (CIPN) is a common, but underestimated, clinical challenge. Incidence varies depending on many factors that are equally as important as the type of chemotherapeutic agent itself. Moreover, the assessment of CIPN is still uncertain, as several of the most...... frequently used scales do not rely on a formal neurological evaluation and depend on patients' reports and examiners' interpretations. Therefore, the aim of this MiniReview was to introduce the most common chemotherapies that cause neuropathy, and in addition to this, highlight the most significant...

  6. Sulphasalazine Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Şanlı

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is one of the most dangerous drug reactions. Mortality and morbidity is increased by consequent systemic organ involvement. Maculopapular eruptions are the most common lesions accompanying DIHS, however, the morphology of skin lesions may vary. The most common cause of DIHS is the use of aromatic anticonvulsant drugs. However, one must not forget that other drugs may also cause DIHS. Early recognition of the condition is the most important step in the treatment. Herein, we present a case of DIHS triggered by sulphasalazine and associated with pustular eruption and maculopapular eruption.

  7. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Kross

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals.

  8. Ouabain-Induced Cytoplasmic Vesicles and Their Role in Cell Volume Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, M. A.; E. Morgante; A. Russo; van Rossum, G. D.; Tafani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular swelling is controlled by an active mechanism of cell volume regulation driven by a Na+/K+-dependent ATPase and by aquaporins which translocate water along the osmotic gradient. Na+/K+-pump may be blocked by ouabain, a digitalic derivative, by inhibition of ATP, or by drastic ion alterations of extracellular fluid. However, it has been observed that some tissues are still able to control their volume despite the presence of ouabain, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms of cel...

  9. Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing. PMID:26314514

  10. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  11. Cytokinin activity induced by thidiazuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J C; Katterman, F R

    1986-06-01

    The diphenylurea derivative thidiazuron induces a variety of cytokinin responses. Levels above 5 x 10(-9) molar and 4 x 10(-7) molar stimulate maximum soybean callus growth and radish cotyledon expansion, respectively. A wider range of dose response related effects follows thidiazuron induced tobacco plant regeneration. Analysis of soybean callus extracts strongly suggests that thidiazuron treatment creates an accumulation and/or synthesis of purine cytokinins, able to induce the growth, expansion and regeneration, mentioned above. PMID:16664878

  12. Uncertainty-induced quantum nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-xiong; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan

    2014-01-01

    Based on the skew information, we present a quantity, uncertainty-induced quantum nonlocality (UIN) to measure the quantum correlation. It can be considered as the updated version of the original measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN) preserving the good computability but eliminating the non-contractivity problem. For 2×d-dimensional state, it is shown that UIN can be given by a closed form. In addition, we also investigate the maximal uncertainty-induced nonlocality.

  13. Migraine induced by hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Britze, Josefine;

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura is prevalent in high-altitude populations suggesting an association between migraine aura and hypoxia. We investigated whether experimental hypoxia triggers migraine and aura attacks in patients suffering from migraine with aura. We also investigated the metabolic and vascular...... response to hypoxia. In a randomized double-blind crossover study design, 15 migraine with aura patients were exposed to 180 min of normobaric hypoxia (capillary oxygen saturation 70-75%) or sham on two separate days and 14 healthy controls were exposed to hypoxia. Glutamate and lactate concentrations in...... the visual cortex were measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The circumference of cranial arteries was measured by 3 T high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. Hypoxia induced migraine-like attacks in eight patients compared to one patient after sham (P = 0.039), aura in three and...

  14. Trastuzumab-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglin, Maya; Cutro, Raymond; Mishkin, Joseph D

    2008-06-01

    Trastuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of advanced breast cancer. It improves survival and increases response to chemotherapy. The major side effect of trastuzumab is cardiotoxicity manifesting as a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, either asymptomatic or with signs and symptoms of heart failure. Although reversible in most cases, cardiotoxicity frequently results in the discontinuation of trastuzumab. The objective of this review is to summarize facts about trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity and to highlight the areas of future investigations. We searched PubMed for trials involving trastuzumab used as an adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, including the metastatic breast cancer setting, and focused on cardiotoxicity. PMID:18514938

  15. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  16. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  17. Induced abortion in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

    1993-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

  18. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  19. Induced seismicity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segall, P.

    1997-09-18

    The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

  20. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  1. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  2. Tibolone induced Bullous pemphigoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal. R. Tandon, Annil Mahajan* & Sudhaa Sharma**

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present first ever report of Bullous pemphigoid induced by Tibolone, a STEAR (Selective tissueestrogenic activity regulator that has progestogenic, some androgenic as well as estrogenic effects prescribedas an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy for treatment of climacteric symptoms in one ofthe 51 year old postmenopausal women with one and half year duration since menopause with previoushistory of use of estrogen progesterone pills during her active sexual life. The mechanism for this ADR isnot well understood. But possible explanation could be progesterone activity of the drug leading to autoimmunityas reported previously. The present patient was managed by dechallenge of drug, local, oral corticosteroidsand injectable, methotrexate, along with folic acid and antibiotic coverage fearing anemia andsecondary infections.

  3. [Radiation-induced cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, B

    1998-01-01

    The induction of malignant diseases is one of the most concerning late effects of ionising radiation. A large amount of information has been collected form atomic bomb survivors, patients after therapeutic irradiation, occupational follow-up and accidentally exposed populations. Major uncertainties persist in the (very) low dose range i.e., population and workers radioprotection. A review of the biological mechanisms leading to cancer strongly suggests that the vast majority of radiation-induced malignancies arise as a consequence of recessive mutations of tumour-suppressor genes. These mutations can be unveiled by ageing, this process being possibly furthered by constitutional or acquired genomic instability. The individual risk is likely to be very low, probably because of the usual dose level. However, the magnitude of medical exposure and the reliance of our societies on nuclear industry are so high that irreproachable decision-making processes and standards for practice are inescapable. PMID:9868399

  4. Anticoagulant induced leukoagglutination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low leukocyte count secondary to leukocyte aggregation caused by an ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) occur in both benign and malignant disorders. We report a 71-year-old male patient who was admitted to the hospital with acute chest infection. Complete blood count (CBC) collected in ETDA tube and analyzed by sysmex instrument (SE/9500) revealed low hemoglobin level of 9.4g/dl, white blood cell (WBC) count of 8.2x109/L. Peripheral blood smear review shows multiple leukocyte aggregation (one clump in each field). When we asked for another blood sample in citrate anticoagulant, the CBC showed WBC count of 11.8x109/L and neutrophils of 6.26x109/L. This is a case of low leukocyte count secondary to leukocyte aggregation induced by EDTA. (author)

  5. Discreteness induced extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira; da Silva, Linaena Méricy

    2015-11-01

    Two simple models based on ecological problems are discussed from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown how discrepant may be the results of the models that include spatial distribution with discrete interactions when compared with the continuous analogous models. In the continuous case we have, under certain circumstances, the population explosion. When we take into account the finiteness of the population, we get the opposite result, extinction. We will analyze how these results depend on the dimension d of the space and describe the phenomenon of the "Discreteness Inducing Extinction" (DIE). The results are interpreted in the context of the "paradox of sex", an old problem of evolutionary biology.

  6. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  7. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  8. Radiation induced nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nanometer-size silicon clusters have been attracting much attention due to their technological importance, in particular, as promising building blocks for nano electronic and nano photonic systems. Particularly, silicon wires are of great of interest since they have potential for use in one-dimensional quantum wire high-speed field effect transistors and light-emitting devices with extremely low power consumption. Carbon and metal nano structures are studied very intensely due to wide possible applications. Radiation material sciences have been dealing with sub-micron objects for a long time. Under interaction of high energy particles and ionizing radiation with solids by elastic and inelastic mechanisms, at first point defects are created, then they form clusters, column defects, disordered regions (amorphous colloids) and finally precipitates of another crystal phase in the matrix. Such irradiation induced evolution of structure defects and phase transformations was observed by X-diffraction techniques in dielectric crystals of quartz and corundum, which exist in and crystal modifications. If there is no polymorphism, like in alkali halide crystals, then due to radiolysis halogen atoms are evaporated from the surface that results in non-stoichiometry or accumulated in the pores formed by metal vacancies in the sub-surface layer. Nano-pores are created by intensive high energy particles irradiation at first chaotically and then they are ordered and in part filled by inert gas. It is well-known mechanism of radiation induced swelling and embrittlement of metals and alloys, which is undesirable for construction materials for nuclear reactors. Possible solution of this problem may come from nano-structured materials, where there is neither swelling nor embrittlement at gas absorption due to very low density of the structure, while strength keeps high. This review considers experimental observations of radiation induced nano-inclusions in insulating

  9. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations. ...

  10. Sparfloxacin induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh M

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a life-threatening cutaneous adverse drug reaction. TEN is known to occur with the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, but only four cases of sparfloxacin induced TEN have been reported to the WHO database. This is another case report of sparfloxacin induced TEN.

  11. Gadolinium induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Perrin, H; Glaser, B; Pienkowski, M; Peron, J M; Payen, J L

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. The two most common causes are alcohol use and biliary stones. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis are rare (1.4-2%). In this present study, we present a case of recurrent acute pancreatitis induced by a specific magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) contrast agent called gadobenate dimeglumine. PMID:23395575

  12. Drug-induced pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000104.htm Drug-induced pulmonary disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... take longer to improve. Some drug-induced lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, may never go away. Possible Complications Complications ...

  13. Gold-induced lung disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyd, J.; Simmeran, A.

    1983-01-01

    A 70-year-old female with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis developed interstitial pneumonitis while on chrysotherapy. The reversibility of lung disease and favourable response to steroid treatment support the diagnosis of gold-induced lung disease and distinguish this entity from other forms of interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The relevant literature related to gold-induced lung disease is briefly reviewed.

  14. Methaemoglobinemia Induced by MDMA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. W. Verhaert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 45-year-old man with a blank medical history presented at the emergency room with dizziness and cyanosis. Physical examination showed cyanosis with a peripheral saturation (SpO2 of 85%, he did not respond to supplemental oxygen. Arterial blood gas analysis showed a striking chocolate brown colour. Based on these data, we determined the arterial methaemoglobin concentration. This was 32%. We gave 100% oxygen and observed the patient in a medium care unit. The next day, patient could be discharged in good condition. Further inquiry about exhibitions and extensive history revealed that the patient used MDMA (3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine, the active ingredient of ecstasy. Conclusion. Acquired methaemoglobinemia is a condition that occurs infrequently, but is potentially life threatening. Different nutrients, medications, and chemicals can induce methaemoglobinemia by oxidation of haemoglobin. The clinical presentation of a patient with methaemoglobinemia is due to the impossibility of O2 binding and transport, resulting in tissue hypoxia. Important is to think about methaemoglobin in a patient who presents with cyanosis, a peripheral saturation of 85% that fails to respond properly to the administration of O2. Because methaemoglobin can be reduced physiologically, it is usually sufficient to remove the causative agent, to give O2, and to observe the patient.

  15. Carbimazole-induced agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old lady with hyperthyroidism for past 1½ years was initially on Carbimazole 20 mg orally then changed to 30 mg (during Hysterectomy but was taking 10 mg for last 1 year. She had intermittent fever with severe B/L bifrontal headache since 3 weeks. Routine investigations showed anaemia, neutropenia, leucopenia and CRP elevation. Peripheral smear showed normocytic normochromic anaemia with Rouleaux formation, leucopenia with 2% atypical cells and mild thrombocytosis. Widal test, RA factor (Rheumatoid factor test, Ig M (Immunoglobulin M dengue, Ig M Lepto, TORCH infections (Toxoplasmosis, Other (Syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes infections, ANA (Antinuclear antibody screen cANCA (Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and pANCA (Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies tests were negative. Bone marrow aspiration showed normo to hypercellular marrow with 15% atypical cells and plasma cells. Multiple myeloma workup was done. Carbimazole was withheld. Conclusion: Drug induced agranulocytosis occurs with in 1-2 months of taking the antithyroid medication but onset delayed by 1½ year. De-challenge resulted normalization of blood parameters.

  16. RIS - radiation induced superheroes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We all know & love our Superheroes. Whether we realised it or not when we were kids growing up watching or reading 'Faster than a locomotive...' or ...'he does whatever a spider can...' , the fantasy of these cool hero characters was created, in one way or another, by the influence of RADIATION. Our Radiation Induced Superheroes include such greats as Superman, Spiderman & the Incredible Hulk. There were other lesser known ones which didn't make the cut with this 'bit of fun' poster. Others include names like The Fantastic Four: Mr Fantastic, The Invisible Woman, The Human Torch & Thing - all exposed to high-level cosmic radiation during an outer space scientific mission. Superpowers such as the element of 'Radiation Control' are available to characters like Metallo - a Superman adversary & Ultron - a baddie in the Avengers comics. We all know that the physics makes these characters complete works of fiction, but it's fun to watch their TV shows (Superman is STILL on TV in 'Smallville'), movies go without saying - dozens of them around & still being created & some of us even still read the comics!

  17. Chloroquine-induced pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghahowa S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine-induced pruritus remains one of the most common side-effects in the use of chloroquine in the prophylaxis and treatment of uncomplicated malaria before the advent of artemisinin-based combination therapies. It has been reported to vary from a tolerable to intolerable intensity among susceptible individuals resulting in disruption of treatment and development of resistance to the drug thus leading to therapeutic failures as reported. This scourge is quite challenging due to the complex physiologic mechanism that has not been fully elucidated. Factors observed to be responsible in the induction of pruritus such as age, race, heredity, density of parasitaemia; impurities in formulations, plasmodial specie, dosage form and metabolites have been discussed in this review. Efforts to ameliorate this burden have necessitated the use of drugs of diverse pharmacological classes such as antihistamines, corticosteroids and multivitamins either alone or as a combination. This review is to look into the use of chloroquine retrospectively, and consider its re-introduction due to its safety. Efficacy can be attained if the pruritic effect is resolved.

  18. Induced mutations in castor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important oilseed crop in India. To create variability mutations were induced in two cultivars 'TMV5' (maturing in 130-140 days) and 'CO1' (perennial type). Gamma rays and diethyl sulphate and ethidium bromide were used for seed treatment. Ten doses, from 100 to 1000 Gy were employed. For chemical mutagenesis five concentrations of mutagenes from 10 to 50 mM were tried. No economic mutants could be isolated after treatment with the chemical mutagens. The following economic mutants were identified in the dose 300 Gy of gamma rays. Annual types from perennial CO 1 castor CO 1 is a perennial variety (8-10 years) with bold seeds (100 seed weight 90 g) and high oil content (57%). Twenty-one lines were isolated with annual types (160-180 days) with high yield potential as well as bold seeds and high oil content. These mutants, identified in M3 generation were bred true in subsequent generations up to M8 generation. Critical evaluation of the mutants in yield evaluation trials is in progress

  19. Discreteness inducing coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Consider two species that diffuse through space. Consider further that they differ only in initial densities and, possibly, in diffusion constants. Otherwise they are identical. What happens if they compete with each other in the same environment? What is the influence of the discrete nature of the interactions on the final destination? And what are the influence of diffusion and additive fluctuations corresponding to random migration and immigration of individuals? This paper aims to answer these questions for a particular competition model that incorporates intra and interspecific competition between the species. Based on mean field theory, the model has a stationary state dependent on the initial density conditions. We investigate how this initial density dependence is affected by the presence of demographic multiplicative noise and additive noise in space and time. There are three main conclusions: (1) Additive noise favors denser populations at the expense of the less dense, ratifying the competitive exclusion principle. (2) Demographic noise, on the other hand, favors less dense populations at the expense of the denser ones, inducing equal densities at the quasi-stationary state, violating the aforementioned principle. (3) The slower species always suffers the more deleterious effects of statistical fluctuations in a homogeneous medium.

  20. Neutron induced electron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 μm in 24 μm of aluminum at a resolution of 32 μm. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  1. Measures induced by units

    CERN Document Server

    Panti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The half-open real unit interval (0,1] is closed under the ordinary multiplication and its residuum. The corresponding infinite-valued propositional logic has as its equivalent algebraic semantics the equational class of cancellative hoops. Fixing a strong unit in a cancellative hoop -equivalently, in the enveloping lattice-ordered abelian group- amounts to fixing a gauge scale for falsity. In this paper we show that any strong unit in a finitely presented cancellative hoop H induces naturally (i.e., in a representation-independent way) an automorphism-invariant positive normalized linear functional on H. Since H is representable as a uniformly dense set of continuous functions on its maximal spectrum, such functionals -in this context usually called states- amount to automorphism-invariant finite Borel measures on the spectrum. Different choices for the unit may be algebraically unrelated (e.g., they may lie in different orbits under the automorphism group of H), but our second main result shows that the cor...

  2. Doxycycline induced Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Karakus Yilmaz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis is a hazardous condition such as acid reflux of esophageal mucosa, infection, systemic diseases, radiation, drugs and trauma. Drug- induced esophagial injury (DIEI is a disease with the use of variety of drugs that caused serious damage and ulcer in the mucosa of the esophagus. The most commonly implicated drugs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, chloride and especially antibiotics. Thirty-six year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with odynophagia during swallowing and complaining of retrosternal pain. One week before 100 mg doxycycline (2x1 PO for therapeutic abortion were prescribed. It was learned that in the third day of the initiation of medication, the patient\\'s symptoms began and stopped using drug by the fourth day due to advers effect of drugs, but her symptoms didn’t regressed although she didn’t use them. Endoscopy appointment was taken, proton pump inhibitor and antiacid treatment was given, than patient was discharged from the emergency department. In the endoscopy, 20 mm segment esophageal ulcer was seen approximately in the 30.th cm of the esophagius. DIEI is a relatively common, although under-recognized, so this case was presented for remainding DIEI to emergency medicine personals and reweiving its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  3. Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo

  4. Molecular mechanisms of induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic analysis has revealed that radiation and many chemical mutagens induce in bacteria an error-prone DNA repair process which is responsible for their mutagenic effect. The biochemical mechanism of this inducible error-prone repair has been studied by analysis of the first round of DNA synthesis on ultraviolet light-irradiated phiX174 DNA in both intact and ultraviolet light-irradiated host cells. Intracellular phiX174 DNA was extracted, subjected to isopycnic CsCl density-gradient analysis, hydroxylapatite chromatography and digestion by single-strand-specific endonuclease S1. Ultraviolet light-induced photolesions in viral DNA cause a permanent blockage of DNA synthesis in intact Escherichia coli cells. However, when host cells were irradiated and incubated to induce fully the error-prone repair system, a significant fraction of irradiated phiX174 DNA molecules can be fully replicated. Thus, inducible error-prone repair in E.coli is manifested by an increased capacity for DNA synthesis on damaged phiX174 DNA. Chloramphenicol (100 μ g/ml), which is an inhibitor of the inducible error-prone DNA repair, is also an inhibitor of this particular inducible DNA synthesis. (author)

  5. Ionizing radiation induced cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently it was believed that the cataract (opacity of the eye lens) is a deterministic effect with a dose threshold of several Gray in dependence on the exposure conditions. Studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the vicinity of Chernobyl, of American radiologic technologists, astronauts, and patients after having received several computer tomographies of the head region, however, have shown that this assumption is not correct. It had been overlooked in the past that with decreasing dose the latency period is increasing. Therefore, the originally available studies were terminated too early. The more recent studies show that, in the case of a threshold existing at all, it is definitely below 0.8 Gy independently of an acute or a chronic exposure. All studies, however, include 0 Gy in the confidence interval, so that the absence of a dose threshold cannot be excluded. The German Commission on Radiological Protection (Strahlenschutzkommission, SSK) suggested therefore among others: targeted recording of the lens dose during activities which are known to be associated with possible significant lens exposure, examination of the lens should be included as appropriate in the medical monitoring of people occupationally exposed to radiation, if there is potentially high lens exposure, adoption of research strategies to develop a basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying radiation induced cataracts. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) actually assumes a threshold dose of 0.5 Gy and, based on this assumption, has recommended in 2011 to reduce the dose limit for the eye lens from 150 mSv in a year to 20 mSv in a year for people occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. (orig.)

  6. Laxative-induced rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Merante

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Merante1, Pietro Gareri2,3, Norma Maria Marigliano2, Salvatore De Fazio2, Elvira Bonacci1, Carlo Torchia1, Gaetano Russo1, Pasquale Lacroce1, Roberto Lacava3, Alberto Castagna3, Giovambattista De Sarro2, Giovanni Ruotolo11Geriatrist, Geriatric Unit “Pugliese-Ciaccio” Hospital, Catanzaro, Italy; 2Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance Unit, Mater Domini University Hospital, Catanzaro, Italy; 3Geriatrist, Operative Unit Elderly Health Care, Catanzaro, ItalyAbstract: The present study describes a case of laxative-induced rhabdomyolysis in an elderly patient. An 87-year-old woman was hospitalized for the onset of confusion, tremors, an inability to walk, and a fever that she had been experiencing for 36 hours. She often took high dosages of lactulose and sorbitol syrup as a laxative (about 70 g/day. During her physical examination, the patient was confused, drowsy, and she presented hyposthenia in her upper and lower limbs, symmetric and diffuse moderate hyporeflexia, and her temperature was 37.8°C. Laboratory tests revealed severe hyponatremia with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, and metabolic alkalosis. Moreover, rhabdomyolysis markers were found. The correction of hydroelectrolytic imbalances with saline, potassium and sodium chlorure, calcium gluconate was the first treatment. During her hospitalization the patient presented acute delirium, treated with haloperidol and prometazine chloridrate intramuscularly. She was discharged 12 days later, after resolution of symptoms, and normalized laboratory tests. Over-the-counter drugs such as laxatives are usually not considered dangerous; on the other hand, they may cause serum electrolytic imbalance and rhabdomyolysis. A careful monitoring of all the drugs taken by the elderly is one of the most important duties of a physician since drug interactions and

  7. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  8. Seizures induced by playing music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherling, W W; Hershman, L M; Miller, J Q; Lee, S I

    1980-09-01

    A 67-year-old organist and minister with diabetes mellitus had stereotyped focal seizures of the left lower face, jaw, and neck. Attacks occurred spontaneously or were induced when he played a specific hymn on the organ. The seizures were not induced by reading, singing, hearing, or playing the hymn silently. The patient had interictal weakness of the left lower face and left side of the tongue. Focal seizures were recorded on an electroencephalogram (EEG) at the right temporofrontal area. This patient illustrates partial seizures induced by playing music. PMID:6775246

  9. Entanglement Induced by Tailored Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Cirone, Markus A

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a system consisting of two spatially separated quantum objects, here modeled as two pseudo-spins, coupled with a mesoscopic environment modeled as a bosonic bath. We show that by engineering either the dispersion of the spin boson coupling or the environment dimensionality or both one can in principle tailor the spatial dependence of the induced entanglement on the spatial separation between the two spins. In particular we consider one, two and three dimensional reservoirs and we find that while for a two or three dimensional reservoir the induced entanglement shows an inverse power law dependence on the spin separation, the induced entanglement becomes separation independent for a one dimensional reservoir.

  10. Noise-induced coherent switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN ZhanJiang; ZHANG Jiadun; ZHOU TianShou

    2008-01-01

    Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example, we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability. We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch, and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch, but also can amplify a weak input signal. In addition, we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.

  11. Noise-induced coherent switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example,we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability.We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch,and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch,but also can amplify a weak input signal.In addition,we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.

  12. Eigenvalue Conditions for Induced Subgraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harant Jochen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Necessary conditions for an undirected graph G to contain a graph H as induced subgraph involving the smallest ordinary or the largest normalized Laplacian eigenvalue of G are presented.

  13. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and still participate at the highest levels of competition. One example is Amy Van Dyken, a world ... is generally not active and avoids participating in sports, he or she may have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction ...

  14. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  15. Tachycardia-induced Cardiomyopathy (Tachycardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The term tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy or tachycardiomyopathy refers to impairment in left ventricular function secondary to chronic tachycardia, which is partially or completely reversible once the tachyarrhythmia is controlled. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy has been shown to occur both in experimental models and in patients with incessant tachyarrhythmia.Data from several studies and from case reports have shown that rate control by means of cardioversion, negative chronotropic agents, and surgical or catheter-based atrioventricular node ablation, resulted in significant improvement of systolic function.The diagnosis of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is usually made following observation of marked improvement in systolic function after normalization of heart rate. Clinicians should be aware that patients with unexplained systolic dysfunction may have tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, and that controlling the arrhythmia may result in improvement of systolic function.

  16. Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; Meyboom, Ronald H B; Egberts, Antoine C G

    2004-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia can have several causes, including the use of certain drugs. The mechanism behind drug-induced thrombocytopenia is either a decrease in platelet production (bone marrow toxicity) or an increased destruction (immune-mediated thrombocytopenia). In addition, pseudothrombocytopenia, an in vitro effect, has to be distinguished from true drug-induced thrombocytopenia. This article reviews literature on drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia, with the exception of thrombo-haemorrhagic disorders such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. A literature search in PubMed combined with a check of the reference lists of all the retrieved articles resulted in 108 articles relevant to the subject. The drug classes that are most often associated with drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia are cinchona alkaloid derivatives (quinine, quinidine), sulfonamides, NSAIDs, anticonvulsants, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and diuretics. Several other drugs are occasionally described in case reports of thrombocytopenia; an updated review of these case reports can be found on the internet. A small number of epidemiological studies, differing largely in the methodology used, describe incidences in the magnitude of 10 cases per 1 000 000 inhabitants per year. No clear risk factors could be identified from these studies. The underlying mechanism of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia is not completely clarified, but at least three different types of antibodies appear to play a role (hapten-dependent antibodies, drug-induced, platelet-reactive auto-antibodies and drug-dependent antibodies). Targets for drug-dependent antibodies are glycoproteins on the cell membrane of the platelets, such as glycoprotein (GP) Ib/IX and GPIIb/IIIa. Diagnosis of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia may consist of identifying clinical symptoms (bruising, petechiae, bleeding), a careful evaluation of the causal relationship of the suspected

  17. The Surgically Induced Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A.; Herndon, David N

    2013-01-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes which induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress respo...

  18. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply non-linear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatio-temporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to...

  19. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mignan, A

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid ...

  20. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground...

  1. Flash photography-induced maculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Veugelen, Tim; Coutteel, Carine; Leys, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report a flash photography-induced maculopathy.Methods: A professional photographer blinded himself accidentally and he consulted 3 days after the event with a scotoma in his dominant left eye. A unilateral acute light-induced maculopathy with hemorrhage was observed. The lesion was studied with colour photography, fluorescein and indocyanin angiography, autofluorescence imaging and repeated optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Results: At age 43, this professional pho...

  2. Inducible chemical defences in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Heyttyey, Attila; Tóth, Zoltán; Buskirk, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is extremely widespread in the behaviour, morphology and life-history of animals. However, inducible changes in the production of defensive chemicals are described mostly in plants and surprisingly little is known about similar plasticity in chemical defences of animals. Inducible chemical defences may be common in animals because many are known to produce toxins, the synthesis of toxins is likely to be costly, and there are a few known cases of animals adjusting their t...

  3. Centromeric nucleosomes induce positive supercoils

    OpenAIRE

    Furuyama, Takehito; Henikoff, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Centromeres of higher eukaryotes are epigenetically maintained, however, the mechanism that underlies centromere inheritance is unknown. Centromere identity and inheritance require the assembly of nucleosomes containing the CenH3 histone variant in place of canonical H3. Whereas H3 nucleosomes wrap DNA in a left-handed manner and induce negative supercoils, we show here that CenH3 nucleosomes that are reconstituted from Drosophila histones induce positive supercoils. Furthermore, we show that...

  4. Radiation induced diarrhoea - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced diarrhoea is an acute side effect of radiotherapy treatment to the pelvic area, experienced by nearly all patients. This paper will explore the patho-physiological rationale of diarrhoea, the causes of radiation-induced diarrhoea, the factors that influence the severity and occurrence, and the treatment of diarrhoea in relation to the radiotherapy setting, by analysing the current literature and will conclude by outlining future directions in this field. Copyright (2004) Australian Institute of Radiography

  5. Anisotropy-induced Fano resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Novitsky, Andrey; Gao, Lei; Dong, Jian-Wen; Luk'yanchuk, Boris

    2012-01-01

    An optical Fano resonance, which is caused by birefringence control rather than frequency selection, is discovered. Such birefringence-induced Fano resonance comes with fast-switching radiation. The resonance condition $\\varepsilon_t< 1/\\varepsilon_r$ is revealed and a tiny perturbation in birefringence is found to result in a giant switch in the principal light pole induced near surface plasmon resonance. The loss and size effects upon the Fano resonance have been studied Fano resonance is s...

  6. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  7. Clindamycin-induced hypersensitivity reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulloch, Marilyn N; Baccas, Jonathan T; Arnold, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced anaphylaxis is an unpredictable adverse reaction. Although it may occur with any medication, antibiotics induce more cases of anaphylaxis than any other medication class with most cases being induced by β-lactam antibiotics. Clindamycin is an antibiotic with good gram-positive and anaerobe coverage which is often used in patients with β-lactam allergies. We report the case of a 46-year-old female who experienced anaphylaxis after a dose of intravenous (IV) clindamycin. Following treatment with methylprednisolone, epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and albuterol, the patient stabilized. The patient's score on the Naranjo's algorithm was 8 (probable); a score of 9 (definite) limited only by absence of drug re-challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clindamycin-induced anaphylaxis where the patient was not exposed to any other agent that may have triggered the response, the first case in the United States, and only the third documented case in the literature. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for drug-induced anaphylaxis in all medications. PMID:26216470

  8. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  9. Flash photography-induced maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veugelen, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a flash photography-induced maculopathy. Methods: A professional photographer blinded himself accidentally and he consulted 3 days after the event with a scotoma in his dominant left eye. A unilateral acute light-induced maculopathy with hemorrhage was observed. The lesion was studied with colour photography, fluorescein and indocyanin angiography, autofluorescence imaging and repeated optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging. Results: At age 43, this professional photographer was blinded by the flash light of his camera and subsequently realized he had a scotoma in his dominant eye. Three days after the event visual acuity (VA was 20/70 and an acute light-induced maculopathy was noted. Another three days later, VA was 20/50 and the lesions were less prominent. After one month, the photographer still had problems making sharp pictures, VA was 20/25 and a macular scar was observed. During further follow-up, he regained full vision and experienced no professional problems. Conclusions: This case illustrates that the light of flash photography can accidentally hit an eye and induce a light-induced maculopathy.

  10. Astrocyte volume regulation in the cortex of eGFP/GFAP mice during ischemia – real-time 3D morphometry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anděrová, Miroslava; Benešová, Jana; Hock, Miroslav; Neprašová, Helena; Prajerová, Iva; Chvátal, Alexandr

    Vienna, 2006. A014.1. [Forum of European Neuroscience /5./. 08.07.2006-12.07.2006, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/1316; GA ČR GA305/06/1464 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Synaptic transmission and excitability * Glia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  11. The speed of swelling kinetics modulates cell volume regulation and calcium signaling in astrocytes: A different point of view on the role of aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Maria Grazia; Sparaneo, Angelo; Gargano, Concetta Domenica; Spray, David C; Svelto, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio; Scemes, Eliana; Nicchia, Grazia Paola

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory volume decrease (RVD) is a process by which cells restore their original volume in response to swelling. In this study, we have focused on the role played by two different Aquaporins (AQPs), Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), in triggering RVD and in mediating calcium signaling in astrocytes under hypotonic stimulus. Using biophysical techniques to measure water flux through the plasma membrane of wild-type (WT) and AQP4 knockout (KO) astrocytes and of an astrocyte cell line (DI TNC1) transfected with AQP4 or AQP1, we here show that AQP-mediated fast swelling kinetics play a key role in triggering and accelerating RVD. Using calcium imaging, we show that AQP-mediated fast swelling kinetics also significantly increases the amplitude of calcium transients inhibited by Gadolinium and Ruthenium Red, two inhibitors of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels, and prevented by removing extracellular calcium. Finally, inhibition of TRPV4 or removal of extracellular calcium does not affect RVD. All together our study provides evidence that (1) AQP influenced swelling kinetics is the main trigger for RVD and in mediating calcium signaling after hypotonic stimulus together with TRPV4, and (2) calcium influx from the extracellular space and/or TRPV4 are not essential for RVD to occur in astrocytes. PMID:26413835

  12. Cholesterol modulates the volume-regulated anion current in Ehrlich-Lettre ascites cells via effects on Rho and F-actin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Hougaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Else K;

    2006-01-01

    swollen cells, this reduction was prevented by cholesterol depletion, which also increased isotonic Rho activity. Thrombin, which stimulates Rho and causes actin polymerization, potentiated VRAC in modestly swollen cells. VRAC activity was unaffected by inclusion of a water-soluble PtdIns(4,5)P(2...

  13. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mignan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  14. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non- Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  15. Metal-induced apoptosis: mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past decade has seen an intense focus on mechanisms of apoptosis. Many important observations on the various signaling pathways mediating apoptotic cell death have been made and our understanding of the importance of apoptosis in both normal growth and development and pathophysiology has greatly increased. In addition, mechanisms of metal-induced toxicity continue to be of interest given the ubiquitous nature of these contaminants. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the apoptotic pathways that are initiated by metals, mainly established (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, beryllium) and possible (lead, antimony, cobalt) human carcinogens. Increased understanding of metal-induced apoptosis is critical to illuminate mechanisms of metal-induced carcinogenesis, as well as the potential of metal species (arsenic) as chemotherapeutic agents

  16. The surgically induced stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A; Herndon, David N

    2013-09-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes that induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Burn injuries provide an extreme model of trauma induced stress responses that can be used to study the long-term effects of a prolonged stress response. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to confer improved chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  17. Surface-induced evaporative cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Min; Yan Bo; Cheng Feng; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of surface-induced evaporative cooling on an atom chip are investigated. The evolutions of temperature, number and phase-space density of the atom cloud are measured when the atom cloud is brought close to the surface. Rapid decrease of the temperature and number of the atoms is found when the atom-surface distance is < 100 μm. A gain of about a factor of five on the phase-space density is obtained. It is found that the efficiency of the surface-induced evaporative cooling depends on the atom-surface distance and the shape of the evaporative trap. When the atoms are moved very close to the surface, severe heating is observed, which dominates when the holding time is > 8 ms. It is important that the surface-induced evaporative cooling offers novel possibilities for the realization of a continuous condensation, where a spatially varying evaporative cooling is required.

  18. Drug-induced renal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane Shahrbaf, Fatemeh; Assadi, Farahnak

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity are more common among infants and young children and in certain clinical situations such as underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Drugs can cause acute renal injury, intrarenal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders. Certain drugs can cause alteration in intraglomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease and renal scarring. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity tends to occur more frequently in patients with intravascular volume depletion, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and sepsis. Therefore, early detection of drugs adverse effects is important to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Preventive measures requires knowledge of mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, understanding patients and drug-related risk factors coupled with therapeutic intervention by correcting risk factors, assessing baseline renal function before initiation of therapy, adjusting the drug dosage and avoiding use of nephrotoxic drug combinations. PMID:26468475

  19. Isoniazid-Induced Recurrent Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mattioni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Drug induced pancreatitis are rare but potentially serious. Thus, drug withdrawal is warranted. Case report A 79-year-old woman who was treated with antituberculosis therapy for 5 weeks was admitted to our unit for pancreatitis. Usual etiologies of pancreatitis were eliminated. Because of vomiting, antituberculosis therapy was withdrawn and symptoms disappeared. Eight days later, the same treatment was reintroduced and the patient presented recurrent pancreatitis; thus, treatment was withheld again followed by disappearance of clinical and biological abnormalities. Two days later, a treatment without isoniazid was reintroduced and no recurrence of symptoms was observed. Conclusions We have experienced a case of isoniazid induced pancreatitis. This is a rare cause of pancreatitis but potentially fatal thus recognition of drug induced pancreatitis and definitive withdrawal of the drug is required.

  20. Late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Velayudhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm 3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported.

  1. Metal-induced crystallization fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zumin; Mittemeijer, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Metal-Induced CrystallizationAtomic Mechanisms and Interface Thermodynamics of Metal-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors at Low TemperaturesThermodynamics and Kinetics of Layer Exchange upon Low-Temperature Annealing Amorphous Si/Polycrystalline Al Layered StructuresMetal-Induced Crystallization by Homogeneous Insertion of Metallic Species in Amorphous SemiconductorsAluminum-Induced Crystallization: Applications in Photovoltaic TechnologiesApplications of Metal-Induced Crystallization for Advanced Flat-Panel DisplaysLaser-Assisted Meta

  2. Validating induced seismicity forecast models - Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraly-Proag, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Doetsch, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. In this study, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models; this test bench can be used for model development, model selection, and ensemble model building. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-For\\^ets 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models: Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity (SaSS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). These models incorporate a different mix of physics-based elements and stochastic representation of the induced sequences. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. Generally, HySei forecasts the seismicity rate better after shut-in, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distri...

  3. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  4. Interacting Induced Dark Energy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrehbakhsh, Amir F.

    2016-01-01

    Similar to the idea of the brane world scenarios, but based on the approach of the induced matter theory, for a non--vacuum five--dimensional version of general relativity, we propose a model in which the conventional matter sources considered as all kind of the matter (the baryonic and dark) and the induced terms emerging from the extra dimension supposed to be as dark energy. Then we investigate the FLRW type cosmological equations and illustrate that the model is capable to explain respect...

  5. Radiation-induced intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meritxell Mollà; Julián Panés

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induces an important inflammatory response in the irradiated organs, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and vascular changes that are the main limiting factor in the application of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer. Recently, a considerable investigative effort has been directed at determining the molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces leukocyte recruitment, in order to create strategies to prevent intestinal inflammatory damage. In these review, we consider current available evidence on the factors governing the process of leukocyte recruitment in irradiated organs, mainly derived from experimental studies, with special attention to adhesion molecules, and their value as therapeutic targets.

  6. Induced polygenic variation in lentils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study at the Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwa Vidyalay, India microsperma and macrosperma types of lentil seeds were irradiated with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kR of gamma rays to study the nature and magnitude of induced variation in various polygenic traits in both lentil types. Data were recorded for seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, number of pods/plant, 100-seed weight, plant height, time to 50% flowering (days), and time to maturity (days). A sufficient genetic variability was induced for most polygenic traits in both lentil types. However, macrosperma type was found more radio-sensitive

  7. Induced modules over group algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, Gregory

    1990-01-01

    In 1898 Frobenius discovered a construction which, in present terminology, associates with every module of a subgroup the induced module of a group. This construction proved to be of fundamental importance and is one of the basic tools in the entire theory of group representations.This monograph is designed for research mathematicians and advanced graduate students and gives a picture of the general theory of induced modules as it exists at present. Much of the material has until now been available only in research articles. The approach is not intended to be encyclopedic, rather each topic is

  8. Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-RenLiu; Qian Liu; Jing Li; Sulpicio G. Soriano

    2011-01-01

    1 IntroductionMillions of newborn and infants receive anesthetic,sedative and analgesic drugs for surgery and painful procedures on a daily basis.Recent laboratory reports clearly demonstrate that anesthetic and sedative drugs induced both neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive deficits in laboratory models.This issue is of paramount interest to pediatric anesthesiologists and intensivists because it questions the safety of anesthetics used for fetal and neonatal anesthesia[1-2].In an attempt to summarize the rapidly expanding laboratorybased literature on anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN),this review will examine published reports on the characterization,mechanisms and alleviation of this phenomenon.

  9. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  10. Snowfall induced by corona discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Jingjing; Li, Ruxin; Du, Shengzhe; Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Yonghong; Tian, Ye; Bai, Yafeng; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Wang, Jingwei; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, S L; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated for the first time the condensation and precipitation (or snowfall) induced by a corona discharge inside a cloud chamber. Ionic wind was found to have played a more significant role than ions as extra Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). 2.25 g of net snow enhancement was measured after applying a 30 kV corona discharge for 25 min. In comparison with another newly emerging femtosecond laser filamentation method, the snow precipitation induced by the corona discharge has about 4 orders of magnitude higher wall-plug efficiency under similar conditions.

  11. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    assessments of environmental impacts as well as the economic viability of proposed road projects, especially in situations where there is a latent demand for more road capacity. This has been illustrated in the present paper by an assessment of travel time savings, environmental impacts and the economic...... model calculations included only a part of the induced traffic, the difference in cost-benefit results compared to the model excluding all induced traffic was substantial. The results show lower travel time savings, more adverse environmental impacts and a considerably lower benefitcost ratio when...... ways of dealing with congestion and environmental problems in urban areas....

  12. Pump cavitation and inducer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of past work on sodium pump development and cavitation studies executed mainly for SNR 300 were reported earlier. Among the requirements for large sodium pumps are long life (200000 hours up to 300000 hours) and small size of impeller and pump, fully meeting the process and design criteria. These criteria are the required 'Q, H, r characteristics' in combination with a low NPSH value and the avoidance of cavitation damage to the pump. The pump designer has to develop a sound hydraulic combination consisting of suction arrangement, impeller design and diffuser. On the other hand the designer is free to choose an optimal pump speed. The pump speed in its turn influences the rotor dynamic pump design and the pump drive. The introduction of the inducer as an integral part of the pump design is based on following advantages: no tip cavitation; (possible) cavitation bubbles move to the open centre due to centrifugal forces on the fluid; the head of the inducer improves the inlet conditions of the impeller. The aim of an inducer is the increase in the suction specific speed (SA value) of a pump whereby the inducer functions as a pressure source improving the impeller inlet conditions. With inducer-impeller combinations values up to SA=15000 are realistic. With the use of an inducer the overall pump sizes can be reduced with Ca. 30%. Pumps commonly available have SA values up to a maximum of ca. 10000. A development programme was executed for SNR 300 in order to reach an increase of the suction specific speed of the impeller from SA 8200 to SA 11000. Further studies to optimize pumps design for the follow up line introduced the 'inducer acting as a pre-impeller' development. This programme was executed in the period 1979-1981. At the FDO premises a scale 1 2.8 inducer impeller combination with a suction specific speed SA=15000 was developed, constructed and tested at the water test rig. This water test rig is equipped with a perspex pipe allowing also visualisation

  13. Interacting Induced Dark Energy Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrehbakhsh, Amir F

    2016-01-01

    Similar to the idea of the brane world scenarios, but based on the approach of the induced matter theory, for a non--vacuum five--dimensional version of general relativity, we propose a model in which the conventional matter sources considered as all kind of the matter (the baryonic and dark) and the induced terms emerging from the extra dimension supposed to be as dark energy. Then we investigate the FLRW type cosmological equations and illustrate that the model is capable to explain respectively the deceleration and then acceleration eras of the universe expansion with an interacting term between the matter and dark energy.

  14. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply non-linear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatio-temporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the geometrical description of the spatio-temporal patterns of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope and provides an alternative physical approach to poroelasticity for the modelling of induced seismicity. The applicability of the proposed geometrical approach is illustrated for the case of the 2006, Basel enhanced geothermal system stimulation experiment. Applicability to more problematic cases where the stress field may be spatially heterogeneous is also discussed.

  15. Eye changes induced by radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents some features of the radium induced eye syndrome observed in beagles, including the prominence of intraocular pigmentary lesions and compares these with the results of rodent studies (Onychomys leucogaster) featuring a heavily pigmented uvea, and with the radiation syndrome reported in humans. (author)

  16. Microwave Induced Transparency in Ruby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report experimental observations of field-induced transparency in a solid medium. Absorption reduction of 20% was observed in ruby using a magnetic field for the creation of closely spaced lower levels and a microwave field for the coupling of these states. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. UV-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed

  18. SPS Ion Induced Desorption Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will give a study about the induced desorption from heavy ion (Indium ion run from week 45 in SPS T4-H8 area) impacting LHC type graphite collimator. 4 different samples are located in the 4 chambers 90° one to each other: pure graphite, graphite with copper coating, graphite with NEG coating, 316LN stainless steal (reference).

  19. Methotrexate-induced pulmonary toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubovic, Baruch D; Andrea Donovan; Webster, Peter M; Shear, Neil H.

    2013-01-01

    Methotrexate is a widely used medication with an array of recognized side effects. The present report describes a case of methotrexate-induced pneumonitis in a patient with psoriasis, and demonstrates the hallmark clinical and investigational findings that support this infrequently encountered diagnosis. The ensuing discussion reviews the pathogenesis, management and prevention of this adverse drug reaction.

  20. Transdermal hyoscine induced unilateral mydriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, Breffni

    2012-03-20

    The authors present a case of unilateral mydriasis in a teenager prescribed transdermal hyoscine hydrobromide (scopolamine) for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. The authors discuss the ocular side-effects associated with this particular drug and delivery system and the potential use of transdermal hyoscine as an antiemetic agent in this group.

  1. Induced geometry from disformal transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Fang-Fang, E-mail: ffyuan@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Huang, Peng, E-mail: huangp46@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-05-11

    In this note, we use the disformal transformation to induce a geometry from the manifold which is originally Riemannian. The new geometry obtained here can be considered as a generalization of Weyl integrable geometry. Based on these results, we further propose a geometry which is naturally a generalization of Weyl geometry.

  2. Finite temperature induced fermion number

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    The induced fractional fermion number at zero temperature is topological (in the sense that it is only sensitive to global asymptotic properties of the background field), and is a sharp observable (in the sense that it has vanishing rms fluctuations). In contrast, at finite temperature, it is shown to be generically nontopological, and not a sharp observable.

  3. Photodistributed Telangiectasia Induced by Amlodipine

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Ji Won; Bang, Chan Il; Yang, Bo Hee; Han, Sung Hyub; Song, Hee Jin; Lee, Hyeon Sook; Shin, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Gwang Seong

    2011-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers are widely used antihypertensive drugs, which are uncommonly associated with cutaneous reactions, such as pruritus, urticaria, or alopecia. Photosensitivity presenting with telangiectasia has rarely been described. We present here a case of photodistributed telangiectasia induced clinically by amlodipine and histologically by enlarged capillaries in the upper dermis without signs of vasculitis.

  4. Microcracks and Overpressure- Induced Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed M. Al - QAHTANI

    2001-01-01

    The microfractures and natural fractures studies have a great significance in the hydrocarbon accumulation exploration and can be a good supporter for wide geophysical study on the major structures. This paper is a brief review on microcracks and overpressure- induced fracture. It is to discuss different views on the mechanism of fractures in the subsurface of the earth.

  5. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  6. Microscopic Description of Induced Fission

    OpenAIRE

    Schunck, N

    2013-01-01

    Selected aspects of the description of neutron-induced fission in 240Pu in the framework of the nuclear energy density functional theory at finite temperature are presented. In particular, we discuss aspects pertaining to the choice of thermodynamic state variables, the evolution of fission barriers as function of the incident neutron energy, and the temperatures of the fission fragments.

  7. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in Gille

  8. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  9. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  10. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Page Content Article Body A growing number of adoptive mothers are interested in breastfeeding their babies through induced lactation. Prescription Medications No ...

  11. Taxane-Induced Peripheral Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Velasco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxane-derived agents are chemotherapy drugs widely employed in cancer treatment. Among them, paclitaxel and docetaxel are most commonly administered, but newer formulations are being investigated. Taxane antineoplastic activity is mainly based on the ability of the drugs to promote microtubule assembly, leading to mitotic arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Peripheral neurotoxicity is the major non-hematological adverse effect of taxane, often manifested as painful neuropathy experienced during treatment, and it is sometimes irreversible. Unfortunately, taxane-induced neurotoxicity is an uncertainty prior to the initiation of treatment. The present review aims to dissect current knowledge on real incidence, underlying pathophysiology, clinical features and predisposing factors related with the development of taxane-induced neuropathy.

  12. The Surgically Induced Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes which induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to improve chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  13. Gyromagnetically Induced Transparency of Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Allen, Jeffery; Allen, Monica; Shvets, Gennady

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that the presence of a (gyro) magnetic substrate can produce an analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in Fano-resonant metamolecules. The simplest implementation of such gyromagnetically induced transparency (GIT) in a metasurface, comprised of an array of resonant antenna pairs placed on a gyromagnetic substrate and illuminated by a normally incident electromagnetic wave, is analyzed. Time reversal and spatial inversion symmetry breaking introduced by the dc magnetization makes metamolecules bianisotropic. This causes Fano interference between the otherwise uncoupled symmetric and antisymmetric resonances of the metamolecules giving rise to a sharp transmission peak through the otherwise reflective metasurface. We show that, for an oblique wave incidence, one-way GIT can be achieved by the combination of spatial dispersion and gyromagnetic effect. These theoretically predicted phenomena pave the way to nonreciprocal switches and isolators that can be dynamically controlled by electric currents.

  14. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  15. Electrochemical Oscillations Induced by Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟俊红; 贺占博

    2003-01-01

    A new type of electrochemical oscillation induced by surfactant was observed in experiments. The electrochemical system is a Daniell cell with a copper rod in CuSO4 aqueous and an aluminum rod in Al(NO3)3 aqueous as electrodes. The surfactants are CTAB, TX-100, SLS. The addition of trace surfactant solution by a micro-syringe made the original monotonously changing electrochemical system produce obvious periodic phenomena. At the mean time, the copper ion selective electrode and Hg2SO4 reference electrode were used to monitor the copper electrode reaction and determine its rate constant k of first order reaction. According to the experimental results of electrode reaction kinetics, the possible mechanism was found to be the polarization induced from the directional adsorption of trace surfactant on the electrode surface. That is the electrochemical oscillations.

  16. Coherent-state-induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogyan, A.; Malakyan, Yu.

    2016-04-01

    We examine electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an ensemble of cold Λ -type atoms induced by a quantum control field in multimode coherent states and compare it with the transparency created by the classical light of the same intensity. We show that the perfect coincidence is achieved only in the case of a single-mode coherent state, whereas the transparency sharply decreases, when the number of the modes exceeds the mean number of control photons in the medium. The origin of the effect is the modification of photon statistics in the control field with increasing the number of the modes that weakens its interaction with atoms resulting in a strong probe absorption. For the same reason, the probe pulse transforms from EIT-based slow light into superluminal propagation caused by the absorption.

  17. Methadone Induced Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadi Saifan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL caused by opiate abuse or overuse has been well documented in the medical literature. Most documented case reports have involved either heroin or hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Recently, case reposts of methadone induced SSHL have been published. Case Report. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who developed SSHL after a methadone overdose induced stupor. He was subsequently restarted on methadone at his regular dose. On follow-up audiometry exams, he displayed persistent moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss bilaterally. Discussion. This case is notable because unlike all but one previously reported case, the patient—who was restated on methadone—did not make a complete recovery. Conclusion. Methadone overuse in rare cases causes SSHL.

  18. Gyromagnetically induced transparency of metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander B; Allen, Jeffery; Allen, Monica; Shvets, Gennady

    2014-03-21

    We demonstrate that the presence of a (gyro) magnetic substrate can produce an analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in Fano-resonant metamolecules. The simplest implementation of such gyromagnetically induced transparency (GIT) in a metasurface, comprised of an array of resonant antenna pairs placed on a gyromagnetic substrate and illuminated by a normally incident electromagnetic wave, is analyzed. Time reversal and spatial inversion symmetry breaking introduced by the dc magnetization makes metamolecules bianisotropic. This causes Fano interference between the otherwise uncoupled symmetric and antisymmetric resonances of the metamolecules giving rise to a sharp transmission peak through the otherwise reflective metasurface. We show that, for an oblique wave incidence, one-way GIT can be achieved by the combination of spatial dispersion and gyromagnetic effect. These theoretically predicted phenomena pave the way to nonreciprocal switches and isolators that can be dynamically controlled by electric currents. PMID:24702414

  19. Radiation-induced thermoacoustic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention provides a new technique for obtaining information non-invasively on the composition and structures of a material or body by detecting radiation-induced thermoacoustic image features. This is accomplished by utilizing the acoustic wave generated by sudden thermal stress. The sudden thermal stress is induced by a pulse of radiation which deposits energy causing a rapid, but very small, rise of temperature (typically, ΔT approximately 10sup(-6) - 10sup(-5) deg C). The radiation may be ionizing radiation, such as high energy electrons, photons (x-rays), neutrons, or other charged particles or it may be non-ionizing radiation, such as R.F. and microwave electromagnetic radiation and ultrasonic radiation. The choice of radiation depends on the nature of the body to be imaged and the type of information desired

  20. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  1. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  2. Rice Breeding with Induced Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plant breeder may utilize the genetic variability from available natural resources, he may build up variability through hybridization, he can induce variability through mutagen treatments or he may use a combination of any of the three for the improvement of crop plants. A number of improved varieties of rice have been developed through mutation breeding. It is shown, how a breeder may utilize mutation induction to achieve successfully his breeding objectives. (author)

  3. MRI-induced retrocalcaneal bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, J.L.; Dijk, C.N. van [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maas, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-10-01

    This case report describes a patient with acute retrocalcaneal bursitis, which developed after MRI examination of the ankle. The sagittal T2*-weighted gradient echo sequence revealed an extensive susceptibility artifact in the area surrounding the Achilles tendon near its insertion at the os calcis. This artifact was caused by postsurgical metallic particles. We postulate that these particles were mechanically stimulated by the magnetic field and induced the inflammatory response. (orig.)

  4. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  5. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Radi Shahien; Vetaly Vieksler; Abdalla Bowirrat

    2010-01-01

    Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of asepti...

  6. Laser-induced chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classical model for the interaction of laser radiation with a molecular system is derived. This model is used to study the enhancement of a chemical reaction via a collision induced absorption. It was found that an infrared laser will in general enhance the rate of a chemical reaction, even if the reactants are infrared inactive. Results for an illustrative analytically solvable model are presented, as well as results from classical trajectory studies on a number of systems. The collision induced absorption spectrum in these systems can be written as the Fourier transform of a particular dipole correlation function. This is used to obtain the collision induced absorption spectrum for a state-selected, mono-energetic reactive collision system. Examples treated are a one-dimensional barrier problem, reactive and nonreactive collisions of H + H2, and a modified H + H2 potential energy surface which leads to a collision intermediate. An extension of the classical model to treat laser-induced electronically nonadiabatic collision processes is constructed. The model treats all degrees of freedom, molecular, electronic and radiation, in a dynamically consistent framework within classical mechanics. Application is made to several systems. Several interesting phenomena are discovered including a Franck-Condon-like effect causing maxima in the reaction probability at energies much below the classical threshold, laser de-enhancement of chemical reactions and an isotope effect. In order to assess the validity of the classical model for electronically nonadiabatic process (without a laser field), a model problem involving energy transfer in a collinear atom-diatom system is studied, and the results compared to the available quantum mechanical calculation. The calculations are in qualitative agreement

  7. Noise-induced hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska; Adrian Davis

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medic...

  8. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  9. Warfarin-Induced Skin Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kakagia, Despoina D.; Papanas, Nikolaos; Karadimas, Efthimios; Polychronidis, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is an infrequent complication occurring in individuals under warfarin treatment who have a thrombophilic history or after administration of large loading doses of warfarin particularly without simultaneous initial use of heparin. A 62-year-old lady developed skin necrosis 4 days after initiating warfarin therapy of 5 mg daily without initial co-administration of heparin. The patient had a normal clotting profile. Skin necrosis progressed to eschar formation afte...

  10. Field Induced Spin Density Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Chaikin, P

    1996-01-01

    The Field Induced Spin Density Waves (FISDWs) found in organic conductors represent a unique series of transitions which meld the one-dimensional physics of the Peierls instability with the two-dimensional physics of the Quantum Hall Effect. This paper presents a pedagogical introduction to the FISDW's in the Bechgaard salts, along with recent experimental results on related high magnetic field phenomena.


  11. Cocaine-Induced Recurrent Leukoencephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    González-Duarte, Alejandra; Williams, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine-induced leukoencephalopathy is a rare neurological complication. It is most likely related to the substances used to adulterate the cocaine. Levamisole is one of the most common adulterants of cocaine and causes reversible leukoencephalopathy. Patients display severe neurological symptoms that resolve at termination of the exposure. MRI shows diffuse white matter involvement with sparing of the U fibers, without brain stem or cerebellar involvement. We describe the case of a woman wit...

  12. Tachycardia-Induced Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Jitenbhai J; Whittaker, Charles T

    2007-01-01

    Heart failure associated with tachyarrhythmias can very often be reversed by dealing with the underlying tachyarrhythmia. Typically characterized by left ventricular dilation and subsequent systolic dysfunction, this disorder can be caused by both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, most commonly chronic atrial fibrillation. Whereas for most cardiomyopathies there is little that can be done to reverse the progression of the disease, in tachycardia-induced heart failure the patient's often deb...

  13. Chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Oana

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis, entitled Chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes, is being submitted in the alternative format, by Oana Calina Lindner to The University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, School of Psychological Sciences. The thesis consists of five empirical studies, written in article formats and three connecting chapters. The General introduction in Chapter 1, places the thesis in the context of late effects research in can...

  14. Acoustically-Induced Electrical Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    We have observed electrical signals excited by and moving along with an acoustic pulse propagating in a sandstone sample. Using resonance we are now studying the characteristics of this acousto-electric signal and determining its origin and the controlling physical parameters. Four rock samples with a range of porosities, permeabilities, and mineralogies were chosen: Berea, Boise, and Colton sandstones and Austin Chalk. Pore water salinity was varied from deionized water to sea water. Ag-AgCl electrodes were attached to the sample and were interfaced to a 4-wire electrical resistivity system. Under computer control, the acoustic signals were excited and the electrical response was recorded. We see strong acoustically-induced electrical signals in all samples, with the magnitude of the effect for each rock getting stronger as we move from the 1st to the 3rd harmonics in resonance. Given a particular fluid salinity, each rock has its own distinct sensitivity in the induced electrical effect. For example at the 2nd harmonic, Berea Sandstone produces the largest electrical signal per acoustic power input even though Austin Chalk and Boise Sandstone tend to resonate with much larger amplitudes at the same harmonic. Two effects are potentially responsible for this acoustically-induced electrical response: one the co-seismic seismo-electric effect and the other a strain-induced resistivity change known as the acousto-electric effect. We have designed experimental tests to separate these mechanisms. The tests show that the seismo-electric effect is dominant in our studies. We note that these experiments are in a fluid viscosity dominated seismo-electric regime, leading to a simple interpretation of the signals where the electric potential developed is proportional to the local acceleration of the rock. Toward a test of this theory we have measured the local time-varying acoustic strain in our samples using a laser vibrometer.

  15. Late onset startle induced tics

    OpenAIRE

    Tijssen, M.; Brown, P.; Morris, H.; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor tics were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The tics developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex tics may occur in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, but have not been described in late onset Tourette's syndrome. Such tics must be distinguished from psychogenic myoclonus and the culture bound startl...

  16. Photo-induced isotopic fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Charles E.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic method for the analysis of photo-induced isotopic fractionation. The physical basis for this fractionation mechanism centers on the fact that isotopic substitution alters the energy levels, molecular symmetries, spin statistical weights and other fundamental molecular properties, producing spectroscopic signatures distinguishable from that of the parent isotopomer. These mass-dependent physical properties are identical to those invoked by Urey to explain stabl...

  17. Electromagnetically Induced Quantum Holographic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min; Ma, Hong-Yang; Zheng, Chun-Hong; Chen, Li-Bo

    2016-05-01

    We study the quantum holographic imaging of one-dimensional electromagnetically induced grating created by a strong standing wave in an atomic medium. Entangled photon pairs, generated in a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, are employed as the imaging light to realize coincidence recording. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, we find that both the amplitude and phase information of the object can be imaged with the characteristic of imaging nonlocally and of arbitrarily controllable image variation in size.

  18. MANAGEMENT OF PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Anjana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH is a global problem and complicates approximately 10-17% of pregnancies and is therefore most common medical problem requiring special attention in the intrapartum period. Hypertension may, of course, precede pregnancy, but more commonly develops during it in which case blood pressure levels can change very quickly. The increase of BP rarely starts before 20 weeks, but may be a major problem by the third trimester (24-36 weeks. Pregnancy induced hypertension, although a common complication of pregnancy must not be taken lightly. It becomes very essential for a treating physician to know in detail about this particular complication of pregnancy. If PIH is detected early with prompt and effective treatment, the features disappear completely and the prognosis is not unfavourable, both for the mother and the baby. The primary objective of treatment in women with severe hypertension and preeclampsia is to prevent cerebral complications such as encephalopathy and haemorrhage. The threshold for treatment is usually a sustained diastolic blood pressure of 110 mm Hg or higher. Antihypertensive drugs can affect the foetus either indirectly, by lowering uteroplacental blood flow, or directly, by influencing the umbilical or foetal cardiovascular circulation. In patients with mild to moderate hypertension, both chronic and pregnancy induced, methyldopa treatment improves the maternal outcome. Among the different antihypertensive drugs that have been reported to be effective, safe and well tolerated during pregnancy, many clinical trials and studies conclusively state that methyldopa represents the more suitable option in pregnancy induced hypertension. In this article we have briefly gone through the various aspects of hypertension, stressing importance on its rising incidence globally and in India.

  19. Noise-induced quantum transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Barik, Debashis; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the problem of directed quantum transport induced by external exponentially correlated telegraphic noise. In addition to quantum nature of the heat bath, nonlinearity of the periodic system potential brings in quantum contribution. We observe that quantization, in general, enhances classical current at low temperature, while the differences become insignificant at higher temperature. Interplay of quantum diffusion and quantum correction to system potential is analyzed for various r...

  20. Plant domestication by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Advisory Group Meeting was convened to consider possibilities and limitations of induced mutation technology for the purpose of domestication, to discuss the methodology, identify target species, and to define the character changes required. The meeting took place in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from 17-21 November 1986. This publication contains the review papers as well as the results of discussions in the form of conclusions and recommendations. As a supplement, a bibliography has been added. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. [DRESS syndrome induced by ciprofloxacine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoun, Rym; El Aïdli, Sihem; Zaïem, Ahmed; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Kastalli, Sarrah; Daghfous, Riadh

    2015-04-01

    The Drug rash with hypereosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, or hypersensitivity syndrome, is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. It has been exceptionally described with ciprofloxacin. We report a 47-year-old-woman who developed DRESS syndrome, 2 days after taking ciprofloxacin for a urinary infection. She had a generalized maculopapular rash, severe rhabdomyolysis, liver involvement, renal failure and hypereosinophilia. Clinical symptoms had completely resolved after ciprofloxacin withdrawal. Renal failure has decrease after short corticosteroid treatment. PMID:25680964

  2. Efficient treatment of induced dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonett, Andrew C; Pickard, Frank C; Shao, Yihan; Cheatham, Thomas E; Brooks, Bernard R

    2015-08-21

    Most existing treatments of induced dipoles in polarizable molecular mechanics force field calculations use either the self-consistent variational method, which is solved iteratively, or the "direct" approximation that is non-iterative as a result of neglecting coupling between induced dipoles. The variational method is usually implemented using assumptions that are only strictly valid under tight convergence of the induced dipoles, which can be computationally demanding to enforce. In this work, we discuss the nature of the errors that result from insufficient convergence and suggest a strategy that avoids such problems. Using perturbation theory to reintroduce the mutual coupling into the direct algorithm, we present a computationally efficient method that combines the precision of the direct approach with the accuracy of the variational approach. By analyzing the convergence of this perturbation series, we derive a simple extrapolation formula that delivers a very accurate approximation to the infinite order solution at the cost of only a few iterations. We refer to the new method as extrapolated perturbation theory. Finally, we draw connections to our previously published permanent multipole algorithm to develop an efficient implementation of the electric field and Thole terms and also derive some necessary, but not sufficient, criteria that force field parameters must obey. PMID:26298123

  3. UV-induced cutaneous photobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissert, S; Granstein, R D

    1996-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) present in sunlight is a major environmental factor capable of affecting human health and well being. The organ primarily affected by UVR is the skin, which is composed of a variety of different cell types. Here, UVR is needed for production of active vitamin D as well as producing undesirable effects such as sunburn, premature cutaneous photoaging, and promoting skin cancer development. Depending on the radiation dose, UVR influences virtually every cutaneous cell type investigated differently. Since the end of the nineteenth century, sun exposure has been known to induce skin cancer, which is now the human malignancy with the most rapidly increasing incidence. In several experimental models, mid-range UVR has been demonstrated to be the major cause of UV-induced cutaneous tumors. The stratospheric ozone layer protecting the terrestrial surface from higher quantum energy solar radiation is being damaged by industrial activities resulting in the possibility of increased UVR exposure in the future. Investigations in the field of experimental dermatology have shown that within the skin an immunosurveillance system exists that may be able to detect incipient neoplasms and to elicit a host responses against it. This article reviews the literature on studies designed to investigate the effects of UVR on cutaneous cellular components, with special focus on the immune system within the skin and the development of UV-induced cancer. PMID:8994803

  4. YAP Induces Human Naive Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human naive pluripotent stem cell (PSC state, corresponding to a pre-implantation stage of development, has been difficult to capture and sustain in vitro. We report that the Hippo pathway effector YAP is nuclearly localized in the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. Overexpression of YAP in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs promotes the generation of naive PSCs. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA can partially substitute for YAP to generate transgene-free human naive PSCs. YAP- or LPA-induced naive PSCs have a rapid clonal growth rate, a normal karyotype, the ability to form teratomas, transcriptional similarities to human pre-implantation embryos, reduced heterochromatin levels, and other hallmarks of the naive state. YAP/LPA act in part by suppressing differentiation-inducing effects of GSK3 inhibition. CRISPR/Cas9-generated YAP−/− cells have an impaired ability to form colonies in naive but not primed conditions. These results uncover an unexpected role for YAP in the human naive state, with implications for early human embryology.

  5. Induced mutation of Dendrobium orchid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrobiiim orchids serve as the main orchid cut flower export of Malaysia. The wide range of colour and forms presently available in the market are obtained through hybridisation. Induced mutation breeding program was initiated on a commercial variety Dendrobium 'Sonia Kai' to explore the possibilities of obtaining new colour and forms. Matured seeds from self pollination were cultured and irradiated at 35 Gy at the protocorm-like bodies (PLBS) stage. Selection of induced mutations was done after the first flowering of the plants regenerated from the irradiated protocorms. Results showed changes in flower colour, shape and size. Most of these chances are expressed in different combinations in the petals, sepals and lip of the flowers. Thus, resulting. in a very wide spectrum of mutations. Some of these chances are not stable. To date, mutants that showed stable characteristics changes are grouped into 11 categories based on flower colour and form. These results show that the combination of its vitro technique and induced mutation can be applied in orchid breeding to produce new interesting and attractive variety for the market

  6. Induced mutations in sorghum improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of different aspects of mutagen sensitivity, considering the importance of such factors as genotypic constitution of the material, pre- and post-treatment modifications, type of mutagen and dose, techniques of handling the material and treatment procedures to maximize the induction of mutations together with the scope of induced mutations in sorghum improvement is presented. Hydrazine was found to be a more effective and efficient mutagen for inducing chlorophyll and viable mutations in sorghum than ethyl methanesulphonate, methyl methanesulphonate or γ-rays. Ethyl methane-sulphonate among the alkylating agents and nitroso methyl urea among nitroso compounds were the most potent mutagens. The efficient radiation dose was within the 20-35 kr range whereas 0.015M was the effective dosage for hydrazine and ethylmethane sulphonate. The combination treatments of various physical and chemical mutagens failed to yield significant increase in the recovery of mutations, while cysteine post-treatments of γ-irradiated and hydrazine-treated material reduced seedling injury, seed sterility and increased the recovery of viable mutations compared to single treatments. There is scope for induced mutations in solving some of the current problems of sorghum improvement such as, increasing the recombination potential of tropical X temperate crosses, improving the nutritional quality of grain and forage sorghums, diversification of male sterile cytoplasmic sources, better understanding of mechanism of apomixis and augmenting the levels of resistance to sorghum insects, pests and diseases. (author)

  7. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S. [GSI, Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/{mu}m) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  8. Mutations induced by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different ultraviolet (UV) wavelength components, UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (200-280 nm), have distinct mutagenic properties. A hallmark of UVC and UVB mutagenesis is the high frequency of transition mutations at dipyrimidine sequences containing cytosine. In human skin cancers, about 35% of all mutations in the p53 gene are transitions at dipyrimidines within the sequence 5'-TCG and 5'-CCG, and these are localized at several mutational hotspots. Since 5'-CG sequences are methylated along the p53 coding sequence in human cells, these mutations may be derived from sunlight-induced pyrimidine dimers forming at sequences that contain 5-methylcytosine. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) form preferentially at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine when cells are irradiated with UVB or sunlight. In order to define the contribution of 5-methylcytosine to sunlight-induced mutations, the lacI and cII transgenes in mouse fibroblasts were used as mutational targets. After 254 nm UVC irradiation, only 6-9% of the base substitutions were at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine. However, 24-32% of the solar light-induced mutations were at dipyrimidines that contain 5-methylcytosine and most of these mutations were transitions. Thus, CPDs forming preferentially at dipyrimidines with 5-methylcytosine are responsible for a considerable fraction of the mutations induced by sunlight in mammalian cells. Using mouse cell lines harboring photoproduct-specific photolyases and mutational reporter genes, we showed that CPDs (rather than 6-4 photoproducts or other lesions) are responsible for the great majority of UVB-induced mutations. An important component of UVB mutagenesis is the deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine within CPDs. The mutational specificity of long-wave UVA (340-400 nm) is distinct from that of the shorter wavelength UV and is characterized mainly by G to T transversions presumably arising through mechanisms involving oxidized DNA

  9. Mutations induced by ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Gerd P. [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States)]. E-mail: gpfeifer@coh.org; You, Young-Hyun [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States); Besaratinia, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The different ultraviolet (UV) wavelength components, UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (200-280 nm), have distinct mutagenic properties. A hallmark of UVC and UVB mutagenesis is the high frequency of transition mutations at dipyrimidine sequences containing cytosine. In human skin cancers, about 35% of all mutations in the p53 gene are transitions at dipyrimidines within the sequence 5'-TCG and 5'-CCG, and these are localized at several mutational hotspots. Since 5'-CG sequences are methylated along the p53 coding sequence in human cells, these mutations may be derived from sunlight-induced pyrimidine dimers forming at sequences that contain 5-methylcytosine. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) form preferentially at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine when cells are irradiated with UVB or sunlight. In order to define the contribution of 5-methylcytosine to sunlight-induced mutations, the lacI and cII transgenes in mouse fibroblasts were used as mutational targets. After 254 nm UVC irradiation, only 6-9% of the base substitutions were at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine. However, 24-32% of the solar light-induced mutations were at dipyrimidines that contain 5-methylcytosine and most of these mutations were transitions. Thus, CPDs forming preferentially at dipyrimidines with 5-methylcytosine are responsible for a considerable fraction of the mutations induced by sunlight in mammalian cells. Using mouse cell lines harboring photoproduct-specific photolyases and mutational reporter genes, we showed that CPDs (rather than 6-4 photoproducts or other lesions) are responsible for the great majority of UVB-induced mutations. An important component of UVB mutagenesis is the deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine within CPDs. The mutational specificity of long-wave UVA (340-400 nm) is distinct from that of the shorter wavelength UV and is characterized mainly by G to T transversions presumably arising through mechanisms

  10. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad TALEBIAN*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Goudarzi RM, Mohammadzadeh M , Mirzadeh AS. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:66-68. AbstractVincristine (VCR is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies.The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms’ tumor, treated by vincristine (0/067 mg/kg/day and dactinomycin (0/045 mg/kg/day after surgery. Three weeks after treatment, he presented with bilateral ptosis.Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis with normal pupillary reflex and eye movement. He received 3.015 mg cumulative dose of vincristine before development of ptosis.Treatment with pyridoxine (150 mg/m2 p.o. BID and pyridostigmine (3 mg/kg p.o. BID started as neuroprotective agents, and after 7 days the problem disappeared.The treatment continued for 6 weeks and there were no signs of ptosis or a recurrence in follow up 2 months later. References:Toopchizade V, Hosseini M, et al. Electrophysiological signs of neuropathy caused by vincristine. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 2010 Autumn;31(3; 19-25.Gursel E.S. Vincristine-Induced Unilateral Ptosis in a Child. Pediatr Neurol 2009; 41:461-463.Ngamphaiboon N, Sweeney R, Wetzler M, Wang ES. Pyridoxine treatment of vincristine-induced cranial polyneuropathy in an adult patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia: Case report and review of the literature. Leuk Res. 2010 Aug;34(8:e194-6.Lash SC, Williams CP, Marsh CS, Crithchley C, Hodgkins PR, Mackie EJ. Acute Sixth-Nerve Palsy After Vincristine Therapy. Journal of AAPOS 2004 Feb;8(1: 67-8.Bay A, Yilmaz C, Yilmaz N, Oner AF. Vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy. Indian J Pediatr. 2006 Jun;73(6:531-3.Tuxen M K, Hansen SW. Complication of treatment, Neurotoxicity secondary to antineoplastic

  11. Alternate blade cavitation on inducer; Inducer no kogoyoku cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, M. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Huang, J.; Zhang, J.

    1996-08-25

    Concerning a flat-helical inducer with two blades, examinations on suction performance, cavitation development and internal flow conditions of the impeller were performed. As the suction pressure is reduced, the balanced cavity development on both blades is destroyed. Alternate blade cavitation, in which cavity development evolves on one blade while weakens on the other, can occur. When the alternate blade cavitation occurs, the theoretical and actual pump heads can decrease quickly. The following investigations were conducted to determine how this phenomenon develops. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  13. Sad Music Induces Pleasant Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI eKAWAKAMI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all to 4 (very much. The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  14. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    TALEBIAN, Ahmad; Razeieh GOUDARZI; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Goudarzi RM, Mohammadzadeh M , Mirzadeh AS. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1):66-68. AbstractVincristine (VCR) is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies.The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms’ tumor, treated by vincristine (0/0...

  15. Local conformity induced global oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Li, Wei; Hu, Gang; Zheng, Zhigang

    2009-04-01

    The game ‘rock-paper-scissors’ model, with the consideration of the effect of the psychology of conformity, is investigated. The interaction between each two agents is global, but the strategy of the conformity is local for individuals. In the statistical opinion, the probability of the appearance of each strategy is uniform. The dynamical analysis of this model indicates that the equilibrium state may lose its stability at a threshold and is replaced by a globally oscillating state. The global oscillation is induced by the local conformity, which is originated from the synchronization of individual strategies.

  16. Sunitinib-induced thrombotic microangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Noronha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunitinib-induced thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA is a secondary TMA caused by sunitinib. Despite the extensive use of sunitinib in patients with renal cell carcinoma and other malignancies, little is known about this complication of sunitinib. No clinical trials of sunitinib have studied this complication in any group of patients. We here review the normal physiology of vascular endothelial growth factor in the kidney, and discuss the pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory manifestations, pathological changes in the kidney, and the management of this uncommon complication of sunitinib.

  17. Plasma generation induced by triboelectrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Michelsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    A gas discharge plasma can be induced by triboelectrification around a sliding contact. The detailed physical mechanism of triboelectrification is unknown, but an empirical classification scheme can be referred to in practice. It is reported that intense ultra-violet emission from a plasma is...... observed adjacent to the sliding contact, of which the location has a gap ranging from approximately 1 μm to 11 μm. When the gap is short enough, a theory predicts that the breakdown voltage can monotonically decrease with a decrease in the gap. However, when the gap is comparable to electron’s mean free...

  18. Metasone furoate induced acneiform eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ravishankar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acne is the chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, characterized by the formation of comedones, erythematous papules and pustules. Steroid induced acne is an acneiform eruption characterized by sudden onset of follicular papules and pustules shortly after starting topical or oral corticosteroid. Here, we report a case of a 25-year-old female patient who presented herself to the Dermatology out-patient department with the complaints of acne all over the face after the application of mometasone furoate ointment. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 736-737

  19. CRBRP flow induced vibration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program to assure the structural adequacy of Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBRP) components during its planned 30 years of operation is described. The program includes (1) an assessment of reactor components relative to their susceptibility to FIV, (2) designing to minimize component excitation due to Fluid induced vibrations (FIV), (3) scale model tests to measure structural response during simulated operating conditions and (4) preoperational tests. An overview of the CRBRP test program is described. Additionally, details of scale model testing of reactor internals and the steam generator is described in more detail. (author)

  20. Clozapine-induced late leukopenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Latif, Z

    2012-03-01

    A patient with a 28-year history of schizophrenia was treated with a wide range of antipsychotic medications since diagnosis. She had experienced no clinically significant symptomatic relief until she commenced treatment on clozapine. Her psychotic symptoms, self care, and general sense of well-being improved significantly. After 6 years of successful treatment, she developed leukopenia and clozapine was discontinued. The following issues will be discussed in the article: rechallenge with clozapine following leukopenia during previous therapy and the choice of and haematological monitoring needs with other antipsychotic medications after clozapine-induced blood dyscrasia.

  1. Neutrino induced 1-pion production

    CERN Document Server

    González-Jiménez, R; Van Dessel, N; Pandey, V; Jachowicz, N

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-induced pion production constitutes an important contribution to neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections at intermediate energies. A deep understanding of this process is mandatory for a correct interpretation of neutrino-oscillation experiments. We aim at contributing to the ongoing effort to understand the various experimental results obtained by different collaborations in a wide range of energies. In particular, in this work we analyze recent MiniBooNE and MINERvA charged-current neutrino 1-pion production data. We use a relativistic theoretical approach which accounts for resonant and non-resonant 1-pion production contributions.

  2. Laser Induced Surface Chemical Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinespring, Charter D.; Freedman, Andrew

    1990-02-01

    Studies of the thermal and photon-induced surface chemistry of dimethyl cadmium (DMCd) and dimethyl tellurium (DMTe) on GaAs(100) substrates under ultrahigh vacuum conditions have been performed for substrate temperatures in the range of 123 K to 473 K. Results indicate that extremely efficient conversion of admixtures of DMTe and DMCd to CdTe can be obtained using low power (5 - 10 mJ cm-2) 193 nm laser pulses at substrate temperatures of 123 K. Subsequent annealing at 473 K produces an epitaxial film.

  3. Metronidazole-Induced Cerebellar Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Sabat, Shyam; Thamburaj, Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Metronidazole is a very common antibacterial and antiprotozoal with wide usage across the globe, including the least developed countries. It is generally well-tolerated with a low incidence of serious side-effects. Neurological toxicity is fairly common with this drug, however majority of these are peripheral neuropathy with very few cases of central nervous toxicity reported. We report the imaging findings in two patients with cerebellar dysfunction after Metronidazole usage. Signal changes in the dentate and red nucleus were seen on magnetic resonance imaging in these patients. Most of the cases reported in literature reported similar findings, suggesting high predilection for the dentate nucleus in metronidazole induced encephalopathy.

  4. Metronidazole-induced cerebellar toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agarwal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole is a very common antibacterial and antiprotozoal with wide usage across the globe, including the least developed countries. It is generally well-tolerated with a low incidence of serious side-effects. Neurological toxicity is fairly common with this drug, however majority of these are peripheral neuropathy with very few cases of central nervous toxicity reported. We report the imaging findings in two patients with cerebellar dysfunction after Metronidazole usage. Signal changes in the dentate and red nucleus were seen on magnetic resonance imaging in these patients. Most of the cases reported in literature reported similar findings, suggesting high predilection for the dentate nucleus in metronidazole induced encephalopathy.

  5. Atorvastatin-induced acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Prasanna R.; Kanav Khera; Girish Thunga; Manjunath Hande; Gouda, Siddalingana T. G.; Anantha Naik Nagappa

    2011-01-01

    Atorvastatin-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the rare adverse effects available in the literature. We report a case of 53-year-old patient developed AP after treatment with atorvastatin monotherapy which resolved after drug withdrawal. Extensive workup on AP failed to reveal any other etiology for it. To our knowledge, this is one of the rare case reports of AP caused due to atorvastatin monotherapy and it further strengthens the fact that statins may cause AP. There is need of cont...

  6. Single particle-induced latchup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the single-event latchup (SEL) hard failure mode encountered in electronic device applications involving heavy ion environment. This phenomenon is specific to CMOS technology. Single-event latchup is discussed after a short description of the effects induced by the interaction of a heavy ion with silicon. Understanding these effects is necessary to understand the different failures. This paper includes a description of the latchup phenomenon and the different triggering modes, reviews of models and hardening solutions, and finally presents new developments in simulation approaches

  7. Topologies induced by group actions

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce some canonical topologies induced by actions of topological groups on groups and rings. For $H$ being a group [or a ring] and $G$ a topological group acting on $H$ as automorphisms, we describe the finest group [ring] topology on $H$ under which the action of $G$ on $H$ is continuous. We also study the introduced topologies in the context of Polish structures. In particular, we prove that there may be no Hausdorff topology on a group $H$ under which a given action of a Polish gro...

  8. Protostellar Collapse Induced by Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebelle, P.; Whitworth, A. P.; Gladwin, P. P.; Andre, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the evolution of low-mass, isothermal, molecular cores which are subjected to an increase in external pressure $P\\xt$. If $P\\xt$ increases very slowly, the core approaches instability quite quasistatically. However, for larger (but still quite modest) $dP\\xt/dt$ a compression wave is driven into the core, thereby triggering collapse from the outside in. If collapse of a core is induced by increasing $P\\xt$, this has a number of interesting consequences. (i)...

  9. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, Ole Jakob; Christensen, Alex Alban; Zedan, Ahmed;

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by medication, and various descriptions have been applied for this condition. In this MiniReview, the term 'drug-induced peripheral neuropathy' (DIPN) is used with the suggested definition: Damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system caused by a chemical...... substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of a disease. Optic neuropathy is included in this definition. A distinction between DIPN and other aetiologies of peripheral neuropathy is often quite difficult and thus, the aim of this MiniReview is to discuss the major agents associated with...

  10. Atorvastatin-induced acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna R Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atorvastatin-induced acute pancreatitis (AP is one of the rare adverse effects available in the literature. We report a case of 53-year-old patient developed AP after treatment with atorvastatin monotherapy which resolved after drug withdrawal. Extensive workup on AP failed to reveal any other etiology for it. To our knowledge, this is one of the rare case reports of AP caused due to atorvastatin monotherapy and it further strengthens the fact that statins may cause AP. There is need of continued reporting of such a rare adverse effect of atorvastatin for increasing awareness and to manage and avoid the same.

  11. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Fan; Barbi, Joseph; Pardoll, Drew M.

    2012-01-01

    Naïve T cells activated by antigen-presenting cells (APC) can be differentiated into at least four major types of T-helper (TH) cells: TH1, TH2, TH17 and inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg) based on their unique cytokine production profiles and characteristic functions. 1 TH1 produce interferon-γ (IFNγ) and are important for protective immune responses to intracellular viral, bacterial and parasitic infection. TH2 cells produce interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-23 and are critical for controlli...

  12. Sertraline induced acute mandibular dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Raveendranathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been linked with the occurrence of drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, and akathisia. Here, we describe a patient with a diagnosis of emotionally unstable personality disorder and depression who developed severe mandibular dystonia with sertraline in the absence of concurrent prescription of medications, which have potential action on the dopaminergic system. This case highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of this alarming acute adverse effect with sertraline, which is conventionally considered to be well-tolerated and safe.

  13. Laser induced nuclear waste transmutation

    OpenAIRE

    Hirlimann, Charles

    2007-01-01

    When producing electricity that collects the mass energy that is available at the time of the induced disintegration of radioactive elements, other unstable elements are produced with half-life span durations ranging from less than one second to hundreds of thousands of years and which are considered as waste. Managing nuclear waste with a half-life of less than 30 years is an easy task, as our societies clearly know how to keep buildings safe for more than a century, the time it takes for th...

  14. Two conventional PKC isoforms, α and βI, are involved in the ATP-induced regulation of VRAC and glutamate release in cultured astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Rudkouskaya, Alena; Chernoguz, Artur; Haskew-Layton, Renée E.; Mongin, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) are activated by cell swelling and are permeable to inorganic and small organic anions, including the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate. In astrocytes, ATP potently enhances VRAC activity and glutamate release via a P2Y receptor-dependent mechanism. Our previous pharmacological study identified protein kinase C (PKC) as a major signaling enzyme in VRAC regulation by ATP. However, conflicting results obtained with potent PKC blockers prompte...

  15. Dispersive mudslide-induced tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rubino

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear nested model for mudslide-induced tsunamis is proposed in which three phases of the life of the wave, i.e. the generation, far-field propagation and costal run-up are described by means of different mathematical models, that are coupled through appropriate matching procedures. The generation and run-up dynamics are simulated through a nonlinear shallow-water model with movable lateral boundaries: in the generation region two active layers are present, the lower one describing the slide descending on a sloping topography. For the intermediate phase, representing wave propagation far from the generation region, the hydrostatic assumption is not assumed as appropriate in general and, therefore, a nonlinear model allowing for weak phase dispersion, namely a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, is used. This choice is made in order to assess the relevance of dispersive features such as solitary waves and dispersive tails. It is shown that in some realistic circumstances dispersive mudslide-induced tsunami waves can be produced over relatively short, distances. In such cases the use of a hydrostatic model throughout the whole tsunami history turns out to give erroneous results. In particular, when solitary waves are generated during the tsunami propagation in the open sea, the resulting run-up process yields peculiar wave forms leading to amplified coastal inundations with respect to a mere hydrostatic context.

  16. Neutrino-induced nuclear excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belusevic, R.

    1995-04-01

    We present an improved, compared to that of Belusevic and Rein, theoretical value of the cross section for the neutrino-induced nuclear excitation of iron. This result is based on a measurement of the photoabsorption cross section on the same nucleus, which can be related to the transverse part of the neutrino cross section via the conserved vector current hypothesis. The longitudinal part is related to the pion absorption cross section through the partial conservation of the axial-vector current, and thus reflects the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. A general formula for the excitation cross section is derived, which is valid for both low and high incident neutrino energies. When caused by a weak neutral current, this process may play an important role in core-collapse supernovae. It can also be detected using low-temperature techniques with the purpose of cosmological and weak-interaction studies. A new estimate of the cross sections for neutrino-induced nonscaling processes described by Belusevic and Rein is discussed in the context of two experiments using iron targets, but at very different beam energies.

  17. Neutrino-induced nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an improved, compared to that of Belusevic and Rein, theoretical value of the cross section for the neutrino-induced nuclear excitation of iron. This result is based on a measurement of the photoabsorption cross section on the same nucleus, which can be related to the transverse part of the neutrino cross section via the conserved vector current hypothesis. The longitudinal part is related to the pion absorption cross section through the partial conservation of the axial-vector current, and thus reflects the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. A general formula for the excitation cross section is derived, which is valid for both low and high incident neutrino energies. When caused by a weak neutral current, this process may play an important role in core-collapse supernovae. It can also be detected using low-temperature techniques with the purpose of cosmological and weak-interaction studies. A new estimate of the cross sections for neutrino-induced nonscaling processes described by Belusevic and Rein is discussed in the context of two experiments using iron targets, but at very different beam energies

  18. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  19. Induced Gravity II: Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Einhorn, Martin B

    2016-01-01

    As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an $SO(10)$ gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking $SO(10)$ to $SU(5){\\otimes}U(1),$ while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale $v$. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action, and a {\\bf positive} dilaton $(\\hbox{mass})^2$ from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed ...

  20. Inducible competitors and adaptive diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beren W. ROBINSON, David W. PFENNIG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the causes of diversification is central to evolutionary biology. The ecological theory of adaptive diversification holds that the evolution of phenotypic differences between populations and species––and the formation of new species––stems from divergent natural selection, often arising from competitive interactions. Although increasing evidence suggests that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate this process, it is not generally appreciated that competitively mediated selection often also provides ideal conditions for phenotypic plasticity to evolve in the first place. Here, we discuss how competition plays at least two key roles in adaptive diversification depending on its pattern. First, heterogenous competition initially generates heterogeneity in resource use that favors adaptive plasticity in the form of “inducible competitors”. Second, once such competitively induced plasticity evolves, its capacity to rapidly generate phenotypic variation and expose phenotypes to alternate selective regimes allows populations to respond readily to selection favoring diversification, as may occur when competition generates steady diversifying selection that permanently drives the evolutionary divergence of populations that use different resources. Thus, competition plays two important roles in adaptive diversification––one well-known and the other only now emerging––mediated through its effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity [Current Zoology 59 (4: 537–552, 2013].

  1. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  2. Wind-induced ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  3. Neutrino-induced meson productions

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Satoshi X

    2015-01-01

    We develop a dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model for neutrino-nucleon reactions in the resonance region, by extending the DCC model that we have previously developed through an analysis of $\\pi N, \\gamma N\\to \\pi N, \\eta N, K\\Lambda, K\\Sigma$ reaction data for $W\\le 2.1$ GeV. We analyze electron-induced reaction data for both proton and neutron targets to determine the vector current form factors up to $Q^2\\le$ 3.0 (GeV/$c$)$^2$. Axial-current matrix elements are derived in accordance with the Partially Conserved Axial Current (PCAC) relation to the $\\pi N$ interactions of the DCC model. As a result, we can uniquely determine the interference pattern between resonant and non-resonant amplitudes. Our calculated cross sections for neutrino-induced single-pion productions are compared with available data, and are found to be in reasonable agreement with the data. We also calculate the double-pion production cross sections in the resonance region, for the first time, with relevant resonance contributions and c...

  4. [Autoimmune hepatitis induced by isotretionine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos Lopez, Roxana; Ciliotta Chehade, Alessandra; Scavino, Yolanda; Morales, Alejandro; Tagle, Martín

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a teenage patient with the diagnosis of drug induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient is a 16 years old female, with the past medical history of Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism controlled with levothyroxine, who started treatment with Isotretionin (®Accutane) 20 mg q/12 hours for a total of 3 months for the treatment of severe acne. The physical examination was within normal limits and the results of the laboratory exams are: Baseline values of ALT 28 U/L, AST 28 U/L. Three months later: AST 756 U/L, ALT 1199U/L, alkaline phosphatase 114 U/L, with normal bilirrubin levels throughout the process. The serology studies were negative for all viral hepatitis; ANA titers were positive (1/160) and igG levels were also elevated. A liver biopsy was performed, and was compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Corticosteroid therapy was started with Prednisone 40 mg per day one week after stopping the treatment with isotretionin, observing an improvement in the laboratory values. We describe this case and review the world literature since there are no reported cases of Isotretinoin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27131947

  5. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer

  6. Geomagnetically induced currents in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljanen Ari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in the European high-voltage power grids based on 1-min geomagnetic recordings in 1996–2008 and on 1-D models of the ground conductivity have been derived in the EURISGIC project (European Risk from Geomagnetically Induced Currents. The simplified yet realistic power grid model indicates that large GIC can occur anywhere in Europe. However, geomagnetic variations are clearly larger in North Europe, so it is the likely region of significant GIC events. Additionally, there are areas in the North with especially low ground conductivities, which further tend to increase GIC. The largest modelled GIC values at single substations in 1996–2008 are about 400 A in the Nordic Countries, about 100 A in the British Isles, about 80 A in the Baltic Countries, and less than 50 A in Central and South Europe. The largest GIC event in the period studied is the Halloween storm on 29–30 October 2003, and the next largest ones occurred on 15 July 2000 and 9 November 2004.

  7. Drug-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-01-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16341287

  8. Drugs induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferian, Andrei; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Savale, Laurent; Günther, Sven; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification, PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly appetite suppressant drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used but are also considered as possible risk factors for PAH. Dasatinib, a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, in part reversible after its withdrawal. Recently several studies raised the potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. Other possible risk factors for PAH include: nasal decongestants, like phenylpropanolamine, dietary supplement - L-Tryptophan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, pergolide and other drugs that could act on 5HT2B receptors. Interestingly, PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drugs induced PAH. PMID:23972547

  9. Minocycline suppresses morphine-induced respiratory depression, suppresses morphine-induced reward, and enhances systemic morphine-induced analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mark R Hutchinson; Northcutt, Alexis L.; Chao, Lindsey W.; Kearney, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Loram, Lisa C.; Rozeske, Robert R; Bland, Sondra T.; Maier, Steven F.; Gleeson, Todd T.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest that opioids can activate immune-like cells of the central nervous system (glia). This opioid-induced glial activation is associated with decreased analgesia, owing to the release of proinflammatory mediators. Here we examine in rats whether the putative microglial inhibitor, minocycline, may affect morphine-induced respiratory depression and/or morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference). Systemic co-administration of minocycline significantly attenuated morphi...

  10. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of aseptic meningitis due to amoxicillin, and then review the literature on this rare idiosyncratic event which may occur after local or systemic drug administration. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Seven days before admission he had a dental and gingival inflammation. He was treated with two oral doses of 500 mg daily of amoxicillin for one week. The seventh day he awoke with the complaints that prompted hospital admittance. Amoxicillin was stopped 1 day before his admission. From his history we knew of two similar episodes: The first episode was after a dental procedure 3 months before this incident. He had received a 1-week course of postprocedure amoxicillin of 500 mg daily and had similar headache, fever, and chills during the entire course of treatment. He wasn’t admitted to the hospital, because he stopped taking amoxicillin and he felt spontaneous pain relief after taking symptomatic pain treatment. The second episodes was 6 months after his first admission, he had been admitted to our hospital with the same symptoms. Amoxicillin was stopped and changed with intravenous (IV ceftriaxone (CTRX for 10 days due to suspected partial untreated meningitis. The patient improved rapidly within 2 days and was discharged from the hospital. On the basis of these three confirmed episodes of meningitis after recurrent exposure to amoxicillin, with repetitive negative testing for viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial

  11. Radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma of the oropharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor originating from smooth muscle cells, which most frequently develops in the myometrium and in the gastro-intestinal tract. Reviewing the international literature, radiation-induced sarcoma arise in 0.035 to 0.2 % of all irradiated patients. Especially in the head and neck region, radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma is an extremely rare lesion. The authors report a case of a radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma of the tonsillar region of the oropharynx in a 51-year-old male patient, who had undergone radiation therapy of this region 38 years before. The lesion was treated by radical surgery. Diagnostic steps, histological presentation and therapy are described in detail and the literature concerning radiation induced malignancies in general as well as radiation induced leiomyosarcoma in particular is reviewed. The highlights of this case are an extremely uncommon location and a rare pathological entity of radiation induced malignancies.

  12. The airway microvasculature and exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S. D.; Daviskas, E

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that exercise induced asthma is a result of "rapid expansion of the blood volume of peribronchial plexi" (McFadden ER, Lancet 1990;335:880-3). This hypothesis proposes that the development of exercise induced asthma depends on the thermal gradient in the airways at the end of hyperpnoea. The events that result in exercise induced asthma are vasoconstriction and airway cooling followed by reactive hyperaemia. We agree that the airway microcirculation has the potential for ...

  13. Cavitation-Induced Fusion: Proof of Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Fomitchev-Zamilov, Max I.

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation-induced fusion (also known as bubble fusion or sonofusion) has been a topic of much debate and controversy and is generally (albeit incorrectly) perceived as unworkable. In this paper we present the theoretical foundations of cavitation-induced fusion and summarize the experimental results of the research conducted in the past 20 years. Based on the systematic study of all available data we conclude that the cavitation-induced fusion is feasible, doable, and can be used for commerc...

  14. A Visual Observation of Cavitating Inducer Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Kamijo, Kenjiro; Shimura, Takashi; 渡辺, 光男; WATANABE, Mitsuo; 上条, 謙二郎; 志村, 隆

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments on the instability of a cavitating inducer, which is considered to be closely related with the POGO phenomena in liquid propellant rockets. The present experiment employed a high speed camera for visual observations. The dynamic pressure of both the inducer upstream and downstream was also measured. The difference between rotating cavitation and cavitation induced low cycle oscillations was examined. The cavities moved around the periphery of the...

  15. Diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin)-induced chronic pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit Ramakant; Dixit Kalpana; Nuwal Paras; Banerjee Arunima; Sharma Sidharth; Dave Lokendra

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced respiratory diseases are difficult to diagnose and therefore usually not identified, probably underestimated and under-reported. We report a case of diphenylhydantoin/phenytoin-induced chronic pulmonary disease in a 62-year-old male patient presenting with progressive dyspnea, eosinophilia, and pulmonary abnormalities. The importance of drug history in clinical history-taking and early diagnosis of drug-induced respiratory diseases is emphasized so as to prevent permanent pulmona...

  16. Diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin-induced chronic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced respiratory diseases are difficult to diagnose and therefore usually not identified, probably underestimated and under-reported. We report a case of diphenylhydantoin/phenytoin-induced chronic pulmonary disease in a 62-year-old male patient presenting with progressive dyspnea, eosinophilia, and pulmonary abnormalities. The importance of drug history in clinical history-taking and early diagnosis of drug-induced respiratory diseases is emphasized so as to prevent permanent pulmonary damage.

  17. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Heidi L. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change—the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010—clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design and apply such prizes. This paper aims to review and synthesize the academic literature on innovation inducement prizes, to clarify what has been learne...

  18. Plant improvement by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic variability is required for the plant breeder to select better traits. Mutation induction by radiation and other mutagens is a means of altering genes and creating genetic variability for the breeder. A list is given of the number of mutant varieties of vegetables, fruits and ornamental flowers. Data given in the tables show that using induced mutations, 227 improved varieties of agricultural crops have been developed and released to farmers in 35 different countries. The IAEA has been involved in fostering mutation breeding since its foundation through training and direct research support. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division has published the Mutation Breeding Newsletter for plant breeders all over the world to keep abreast with developments in this field

  19. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Nuclear dynamics induced by antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Reaction dynamics in collisions of antiprotons on nuclei is investigated within the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics model. The reaction channels of elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange and inelastic collisions of antiprotons on nucleons have been included in the model. Dynamics on particle production, in particular pions, kaons, antikaons and hyperons, is investigated in collisions of $\\overline{p}$ on $^{12}$C, $^{20}$Ne, $^{40}$Ca and $^{181}$Ta from a low to high incident momenta. It is found that the annihilations of $\\overline{p}$ on nucleons are of importance on the dynamics of particle production in phase space. Hyperons are mainly produced via meson induced reactions on nucleons and strangeness exchange collisions, which lead to the delayed emission in antiproton-nucleus collisions.

  1. Canagliflozin-Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica; Begum, Tahmina; Smalligan, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are relatively new antihyperglycemic agents that lower renal glucose reabsorption. They are used as adjunctive therapy to standard diabetes treatment. Case Report: We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and sudden-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Use of canagliflozin, a SGLT-2 inhibitor, was determined to be the cause of the DKA. The patient ultimately recovered after 5 days in the intensive care unit. She was changed to long- and short-acting insulins and instructed to avoid canagliflozin. Conclusion: Although SGLT-2 inhibitors are effective at lowering a patient’s hemoglobin A1C, physicians must be aware of the rare but dangerous potential adverse effect of inducing DKA. This article reports an illustrative case and presents a review of the literature.

  2. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases. PMID:27276725

  3. Linezolid-induced optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Karuppannasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many systemic antimicrobials have been implicated to cause ocular adverse effects. This is especially relevant in multidrug therapy where more than one drug can cause a similar ocular adverse effect. We describe a case of progressive loss of vision associated with linezolid therapy. A 45-year-old male patient who was on treatment with multiple second-line anti-tuberculous drugs including linezolid and ethambutol for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB presented to us with painless progressive loss of vision in both eyes. Color vision was defective and fundus examination revealed optic disc edema in both eyes. Ethambutol-induced toxic optic neuropathy was suspected and tablet ethambutol was withdrawn. Deterioration of vision occurred despite withdrawal of ethambutol. Discontinuation of linezolid resulted in marked improvement of vision. Our report emphasizes the need for monitoring of visual function in patients on long-term linezolid treatment.

  4. Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Radwell, Neal; Piccirillo, Bruno; Barnett, Stephen M; Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen vast progress in the generation and detection of structured light, with potential applications in high capacity optical data storage and continuous variable quantum technologies. Here we measure the transmission of structured light through cold rubidium atoms and observe regions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use q-plates to generate a probe beam with azimuthally varying phase and polarisation structure, and its right and left circular polarisation components provide the probe and control of an EIT transition. We observe an azimuthal modulation of the absorption profile that is dictated by the phase and polarisation structure of the probe laser. Conventional EIT systems do not exhibit phase sensitivity. We show, however, that a weak transverse magnetic field closes the EIT transitions, thereby generating phase dependent dark states which in turn lead to phase dependent transparency, in agreement with our measurements.

  5. Load-induced inattentional deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Dana; Lavie, Nilli

    2015-02-01

    High perceptual load in a task is known to reduce the visual perception of unattended items (e.g., Lavie, Beck, & Konstantinou, 2014). However, it remains an open question whether perceptual load in one modality (e.g., vision) can affect the detection of stimuli in another modality (e.g., hearing). We report four experiments that establish that high visual perceptual load leads to reduced detection sensitivity in hearing. Participants were requested to detect a tone that was presented during performance of a visual search task of either low or high perceptual load (varied through item similarity). The findings revealed that auditory detection sensitivity was consistently reduced with higher load, and that this effect persisted even when the auditory detection response was made first (before the search response) and when the auditory stimulus was highly expected (50 % present). These findings demonstrate a phenomenon of load-induced deafness and provide evidence for shared attentional capacity across vision and hearing. PMID:25287617

  6. Lattice Induced Transparency in Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Lattice modes are intrinsic to the periodic structures and their occurrence can be easily tuned and controlled by changing the lattice constant of the structural array. Previous studies have revealed excitation of sharp absorption resonances due to lattice mode coupling with the plasmonic resonances. Here, we report the first experimental observation of a lattice induced transparency (LIT) by coupling the first order lattice mode (FOLM) to the structural resonance of a metamaterial resonator at terahertz frequencies. The observed sharp transparency is a result of the destructive interference between the bright mode and the FOLM mediated dark mode. As the FOLM is swept across the metamaterial resonance, the transparency band undergoes large change in its bandwidth and resonance position. Besides controlling the transparency behaviour, LIT also shows a huge enhancement in the Q-factor and record high group delay of 28 ps, which could be pivotal in ultrasensitive sensing and slow light device applications.

  7. Fenofibrate-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazufumi Dohmen; Hiromi Tshibashi; Chun Yang Wen; Shinya Nagaoka; Koji Yano; Seigo Abiru; Toshihito Ueki; Atsumasa Komori; Manabu Daikoku; Hiroshi Yatsuhashi

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Fenofibrate is a member of such fibrate class agents as bezafibrate and it work as a ligand of PPARα, and also shows a potent triglyceride-lowering effect. The elevation of aminotransferase levels has been frequently observed after the administration of fenofibrate and this phenomenon is considered to be non-pathological because fenofibrate activates the gene expression of the aminotransferases. Recently, fenofibrate has been used not only for hypercholesterolemia but also for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)[1,2]. However, the occurrence of liver injury induced by fenofibrate has not yet been reported written in the English literature. We herein report a rare case of liver injury due to the oral use of this drug.

  8. Laser induced nuclear waste transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Hirlimann, Charles

    2016-01-01

    When producing electricity that collects the mass energy that is available at the time of the induced disintegration of radioactive elements, other unstable elements are produced with half-life span durations ranging from less than one second to hundreds of thousands of years and which are considered as waste. Managing nuclear waste with a half-life of less than 30 years is an easy task, as our societies clearly know how to keep buildings safe for more than a century, the time it takes for the activity to be divided by a factor of 8. High-activity, long-lasting waste that can last for thousands of years or even longer, up to geological time laps, cannot be taken care of for such long durations. Therefore, these types of waste are socially unacceptable; nobody wants to leave a polluted planet to descendants.

  9. [Drug-induced Cognitive Impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Moeko; Yamada, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    Elderly people are more likely than young people to develop cognitive impairments associated with medication use. One of the reasons for this is that renal and liver functions are often impaired in elderly people. Dementia and delirium (an acute confused state) are known to be associated with drug toxicity. Anticholinergic medications are common causes of both acute and chronic cognitive impairment. Psychoactive drugs, antidepressants and anticonvulsants can cause dementia and delirium. In addition, non-psychoactive drugs such as histamine H2 receptor antagonists, corticosteroids, NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and cardiac medications, may cause acute or chronic cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent are essential for the prevention of drug-induced dementia and delirium. PMID:27056860

  10. Mechanically induced degradation of diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the wear of diamond occurring during frictional sliding contact between diamonds. In the introduction, a literature survey on friction, wear and polishing behaviour of diamond, with some emphasis on the anisotropy, is presented and earlier work is discussed. A review of the existing theories is given, a new hypothesis is proposed and key-experiments for verification are identified. Electron microscopical techniques such as High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) imaging and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy are described as they were employed to study the nature of the surface damage and the debris which is formed during sliding contact. The results of these experiments indicate that a transformation from diamond to graphite may take place during shearing contact of diamonds. A microscopic model, which is a further refinement of the hypothesis, is developed and its prediction on the orientation dependency for shear-induced graphitisation is found to correspond to the observed anisotropy in the friction, wear and polishing behaviour of diamond. The model, based on c transformation of sp3-coordinated carbon into sp2-coordinated carbon due to excessive distortions of the diamond bonds, is used to describe phenomena occurring during macroscopic experiments. A HREM study of controlled ion beam bombarded Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD) Diamond is presented to demonstrate the broader applicability of the model. It is found that during the ion bombardment a mechanically induced graphitisation, as opposed to a thermally activated transformation, may occur locally on collision with the CVD diamond. Two types of diamond-graphite interfaces were observed: (111) planes of diamond parallel to the a-b planes of graphite and (111) planes of diamond, smoothly within the plane, connected to a-b planes of graphite. The thesis concludes with a summary of the results, conclusions and recommendations for further work. (author)

  11. Diabetes mellitus induces bone marrow microangiopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Siragusa, Mauro; Quaini, Federico; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Alphen, Floris P. J.; Graiani, Gallia; Spinetti, Gaia; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Prezioso, Lucia; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The impact of diabetes on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment was not adequately explored. We investigated whether diabetes induces microvascular remodeling with negative consequence for BM homeostasis.

  12. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thrombocytopenia Platelet Factor 4 Antibody Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Platelet Count , Serotonin Release Assay, Heparin-induced Platelet Aggregation All content on Lab Tests Online has been ...

  13. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina;

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...

  14. Methimazole Induced Cholestatic Hepatitis: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bunyamin Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a very common endocrine disease. MMI-induced cholestatic hepatitis is a rare complication. Cholestatic hepatitis usually recovers completely with the discontinuation of MMI. In this case report, we report a cholestatic hepatitis case which was induced with methimazole in a patient who used methimazole with toxic multinodular goiter diagnosis and was completely recovered with discontinuation of the drug.

  15. Radiation induced carcinoma of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced carcinoma of the middle ear is rare. Only four cases have been reported; an additional case is now described. The treatment approach for radiation induced carcinoma of the middle ear has not yet been established. Radiation therapy for advanced cases is discussed as an alternative to surgical treatment. Previous reported cases are reviewed

  16. Mechanisms of metal-induced centrosome amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amie L; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-12-01

    Exposure to toxic and carcinogenic metals is widespread; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. One potential mechanism for metal-induced carcinogenicity and toxicity is centrosome amplification. Here we review the mechanisms for metal-induced centrosome amplification, including arsenic, chromium, mercury and nano-titanium dioxide. PMID:21118148

  17. Molecular fragmentation induced by a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidis, Constantine E.; Ledingham, Kenneth W. D.; Kilic, H. S.; McCanny, T.; Singhal, Raghunandan P.; Smith, D.; Langley, Andrew J.

    1998-07-01

    The 90 femtosecond laser induced fragmentation at 375 nm for a number of different nitro-molecules is compared to that induced by a nanosecond laser at the same wavelength by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The potential of femtosecond laser mass spectrometry for analytical purposes is discussed.

  18. Mechanisms of Metal-Induced Centrosome Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to toxic and carcinogenic metals is widespread; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. One potential mechanism for metal-induced carcinogenicity and toxicity is centrosome amplification. Here, we review the mechanisms for metal-induced centrosome amplification, including arsenic, chromium, mercury and nano-titanium dioxide.

  19. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developments in proton induced X-ray emission analysis are reviewed. Techniques for analyzing thick and thin samples of different origin are described. Discussions on the application of proton induced X-ray emission analysis in different fields, comparison of the sensitivity of this method with other analytical techniques, its limitations and possible improvements are presented

  20. Cholestasis and pneumonitis induced by gold therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, J M; Perez, T; Hautefeuille, P; Tonnel, F; Colombel, J F; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1989-12-01

    The authors describe the association of gold salt-induced cholestasis and lymphocytic alveolitis proved by liver biopsy and broncho-alveolar lavage. To our knowledge this is the third case report on the combination of liver disease and pulmonary infiltration induced by gold compounds. PMID:2612124

  1. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  2. Mechanisms of chemical-induced porphyrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergeld, E.K. Fowler, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 45 selections. Some of the titles are: Genetic Regulation of the Heme Pathway; Porphyrins in Urine as an Indication of Exposure to Chlorinated Hydrocarbons; Mechanisms of PCB-induced Porphyria and Yusho Disease; and Lead-Induced Abnormalities of Porphyrin Metabolism: The Relationship with Iron Deficiency.

  3. Induced corepresentations of locally compact quantum groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kustermans, Johan

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the construction of induced corepresentations in the setting of locally compact quantum groups and prove that the resulting induced corepresentations are unitary under some mild integrability condition. We also establish a quantum analogue of the classical bijective correspondence between quasi-invariant measures and certain measures on the larger locally compact group.

  4. Topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone-induced vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Songur, Abdullah; Serdaroglu, Server; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2016-08-01

    Topical immunotherapy made by diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) is an alternative treatment that can be used safely and efficaciously in recalcitrant alopecia areata patients. DPCP-induced vitiligo is a rare, but documented, unwanted side effect. The real mechanism of DPCP-induced vitiligo is not well known. PMID:26963903

  5. Clustering of noise-induced oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Fomin, A I; Postnov, D E;

    2001-01-01

    The subject of our study is clustering in a population of excitable systems driven by Gaussian white noise and with randomly distributed coupling strength. The cluster state is frequency-locked state in which all functional units run at the same noise-induced frequency. Cooperative dynamics of this...... regime is described in terms of effective synchronization and noise-induced coherence....

  6. Uridine prevents fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuc T Le

    Full Text Available Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD(+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1, and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA. Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD(+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

  7. Aircraft induced contrail cirrus over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Condensation trails (contrails) and aircraft induced cirrus are nowadays a common feature at the mid latitude skies. Previously the impact of aircraft induced cirrus changes has been roughly estimated from observed decadal trends in cirrus cover but the direct attribution of observed cirrus changes to changes in aviation activity remains uncertain. In this paper the amount of additional cirrus induced from spreading contrails in humid air is estimated from the direct correlation between observed cirrus cover derived with suitable methods from METEOSAT data and aviation flight density reported by EUROCONTROL at high spatial and temporal resolution from June 22 to July 27, 1998 and September 27 to October 21, 2000. The results indicate that the aircraft induced cirrus cover over Europe is about ten times larger than that of linear contrails in the same region. Radiative forcing from the additional cirrus may be more than 10 times higher than that of linear contrails and aviation induced CO{sub 2} increases. (orig.)

  8. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  9. Gravity's Rainbow induces topology change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we explore the possibility that quantum fluctuations induce a topology change, in the context of Gravity's Rainbow. A semiclassical approach is adopted, where the graviton one-loop contribution to a classical energy in a background spacetime is computed through a variational approach with Gaussian trial wave functionals. The energy density of the graviton one-loop contribution, or equivalently the background spacetime, is then let to evolve, and consequently the classical energy is determined. More specifically, the background metric is fixed to be Minkowskian in the equation governing the quantum fluctuations, which behaves essentially as a backreaction equation, and the quantum fluctuations are let to evolve; the classical energy, which depends on the evolved metric functions, is then evaluated. Analyzing this procedure, a natural ultraviolet cutoff is obtained, which forbids the presence of an interior spacetime region, and this may result in a multiply connected spacetime. Thus, in the context of Gravity's Rainbow, this process may be interpreted as a change in topology, and in principle it results in the presence of a planckian wormhole. (orig.)

  10. Radiation-induced gene responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5' region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression

  11. Hydrogen-induced cracking: 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a strong motivation for understanding the factors controlling zirconium hydride reorientation under stress because of the important role this plays in hydrogen-induced crack growth and/or crack initiation in zirconium and its alloys, particularly under thermal cycling conditions. Following an approach developed by Sauthoff, an analysis of the orienting effect of external stress on the nucleation, growth and coarsening of γ- and delta-zirconium hydride precipitates in zirconium and its alloys is presented. The analysis is based on a previous theoretical study of some of the factors affecting hydride solubility in stressed and unstressed solids. Expressions are derived for the effect of stress on nucleation, growth and coarsening. We conclude, on the basis of these that the preferential orientation of hydride precipitates under stress is most efficient during the nucleation stage. The reason for this is that the overall driving force for nucleation, for the chosen parameters and the usual experimental conditions, is fairly small. Therefore, the driving force for orientating under stress can be a substantial fraction of the overall driving force. The analysis shows that hydride growth is unlikely to play a role in preferential orientation, but coarsening could be important under carefully chosen experimental conditions, which may be relevant to the hydride-cracking process

  12. Wheat improvement by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic constitution of the allohexaploid Triticum aestivum offers enormous opportunities of induction and exploitation of mutations for qualitative as well as for quantitative characters. The paper presents and discusses experimental data on the evolution of Mutant 115 with reference to the improvement of grain yield and related characters. The mutant produced significantly (P >= 0.05) higher grain yield than the commercial varieties (Pak-70 and Mexi-Pak) and the mother cultivar (Nayab). In the zonal trials conducted on Government farms and farmer's fields, Mutant 115 gave 10% and 25% more yield than Pak-70 and Mexi-Pak respectively. The stability parameters of the mutant were computed. The mutant was characterized by having b > 1.0 and medium s.e. (b). The mutant exhibited resistance to Puccinia graminis tritici and Puccinia recondita. The technological properties of the mutant were at par with the existing commercial varieties. The radiation treatment also removed two original defects of the mother cultivar Nayab viz. apical sterility and red grain colour. Induced mutations can thus be exploited successfully for the improvement of contemporary wheat cultivars. (author)

  13. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  14. A simple model inducing QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Aref'eva, I Ya

    1993-01-01

    A simple lattice model inducing a gauge theory is considered. The model describes an interaction of a gauge field to an $N\\times N$ complex matrix scalar field transforming as a field in the fundamental representation. In contrast to the Kazakov-Migdal model the model contains only the linear interaction between scalar and gauge lattice fields. This model does not suffer from extra local U(1) symmetries. In an approximation of a translation invariant master field the large N limit of the model is investigated. At large N the gauge fields can be integrated out yielding an effective theory describing an interaction of eigenvalues of the master field. The reduced model exhibits phase transitions at the points $\\beta_{\\bar {cr}}$ and $\\beta _{\\underline{cr}}$ and the region $(\\beta_{\\bar{cr}}, \\beta_{\\underline{cr}})$ separates the strong and weak regions of the model. To study the behaviour of the model at large $N$ in more systematic way the quenched momentum prescription with constraints for treating the large...

  15. Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Reinert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat curable diseases such as germinative tumors and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The major limitation of bleomycin therapy is pulmonary toxicity, which can be life threatening in up to 10% of patients receiving the drug. The mechanism of bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP involves oxidative damage, relative deficiency of the deactivating enzyme bleomycin hydrolase, genetic susceptibility, and the elaboration of inflammatory cytokines. Ultimately, BIP can progress to lung fibrosis. The diagnosis of BIP is established by the combination of systemic symptoms, radiological and histological findings, and respiratory function tests abnormalities, while other disorders should be excluded. Although the diagnosis and pathophysiology of this disease have been better characterized over the past few years, there is no effective therapy for the disease. In general, the clinical picture is extremely complex. A greater understanding of the BIP pathogenesis may lead to the development of new agents capable of preventing or even treating the injury already present. Physicians who prescribe bleomycin must be aware of the potential pulmonary toxicity, especially in the presence of risk factors. This review will focus on BIP, mainly regarding recent advances and perspectives in diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Microwave induced optical nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis studies a new technique, called microwave induced optical nuclear polarization (MIONP). It is applied to obtain high nuclear polarizations via photo-excited triplet states in molecular crystals. Conventional dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments are performed on samples doped with centres that are paramagnetic in the ground state. Important drawbacks of conventional DNP techniques can be overcome by using MIONP. The only difference is that centres are used which are paramagnetic in an optically excited state and diamagnetic in the ground state. Two possible mechanisms for DNP are discussed: the solid effect and thermal mixing. Then the optical and magnetic properties of the phenanthrene triplet state are considered. A description is given of the X-band spectrometer used for the study of the processes underlying MIONP. A detailed description is given of the 75 GHz spectrometer which was constructed especially to obtain high nuclear spin polarizations. The effects of modulation of the magnetic field and the microwave frequency on the DNP rate are studied. In order to obtain high nuclear spin polarizations by MIONP, experiments were performed at a microwave frequency of 75 GHz, a magnetic field of about 2.7 T and a temperature of 1.4 K. They show that under these experimental conditions a proton spin polarization of 42% can be achieved by MIONP in the system fluorene C13H10 doped with phenanthrene C14D10. (Auth.)

  17. Laser-induced plasma temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of great importance to explore the evolution of laser-induced plasma (LIP) properties, especially plasma temperature, with regard to variations of experiment conditions in both theoretical study and routine applications. By investigating the influence of various factors on plasma temperature, one can gain knowledge about the processes in plasma and adjust experimental conditions to obtain optimum analytical performance. Herein the fundamental theories and calculation methods of LIP temperature via spectroscopic approaches are briefly reviewed. Its temporal and spatial evolutions together with several influencing factors are discussed, such as laser parameters, ambient surrounding, and physical and chemical properties of the sample. The results summarized exhibit the general trend that LIP temperature increases with increasing laser wavelength, pulse width, laser energy, background gas pressure, and sample hardness. On the other hand, it decreases with time elapsing and distance from sample surface. Moreover, plasma temperature generated in argon surrounding is higher than that in other gas species, and the rank of temperature values generated from different samples exhibits a general tendency of Cu > Fe > Ni ≈ Al ≈ glass ≈ rock. Additionally, LIP temperature tends to increase as lens focal point approaches sample surface, and the plasma confinement effect in sample cavity is significant in altering plasma temperature. Various explanations are given to interpret these temperature behaviors. - Highlights: • Fundamental theories and calculation methods of LIP temperature are reviewed. • Influences of various factors on LIP temperature are discussed. • Various explanations are given to interpret the temperature behaviors

  18. Propylthiouracil-induced autoimmune disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Paiaulla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a condition characterized by excessive production of thyroid hormones. Propylthiouracil (PTU is commonly used as first line drug in the management of hyperthyroidism. This is a case report of 24-year-old female, a known case of hyperthyroidism since 4 years, who came with a history of fever and myalgia since 3 days and dyspnea with coughing out of blood since 1 day. Patient was taking PTU (100 mg per day since 4 years for hyperthyroidism. Patient was immediately intubated for type-II respiratory failure. Diagnosed to be having PTU-induced autoimmune disease. PTU was stopped and treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Clinical features improved over a period of 8 days and discharged home successfully. Having a high suspicion for the onset of autoimmune disease in hyperthyroidism patients who are on PTU therapy and timely treatment with immunosuppressants and supportive care along with the withdrawal of the drug can make a difference in morbidity and mortality.

  19. Mantle superplumes induce geomagnetic superchrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay

    2015-07-01

    We use polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos to quantify the hypothesis that the modulation of geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, results from changes in core heat flux related to growth and collapse of lower mantle superplumes. We parameterize the reversal frequency sensitivity from numerical dynamos in terms of average core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reverse Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic require a core heat flux equal to or higher than present-day. Possible links between GPTS transitions, large igneous provinces (LIPs), and the two lower mantle superplumes are explored. Lower mantle superplume growth and collapse induce GPTS transitions by increasing and decreasing core heat flux, respectively. Age clusters of major LIPs postdate transitions from hyper-reversing to superchron geodynamo states by 30-60 Myr, suggesting that superchron onset may be contemporaneous with LIP-forming instabilities produced during collapses of lower mantle superplumes.

  20. Mantle superplumes induce geomagnetic superchrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eOlson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We use polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos to quantify the hypothesis that the modulation of geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, results from changes in core heat flux related to growth and collapse of lower mantle superplumes. We parameterize the reversal frequency sensitivity from numerical dynamos in terms of average core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reverse Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic require a core heat flux equal to or higher than present-day. Possible links between GPTS transitions, large igneous provinces (LIPs, and the two lower mantle superplumes are explored. Lower mantle superplume growth and collapse induce GPTS transitions by increasing and decreasing core heat flux, respectively. Age clusters of major LIPs postdate transitions from hyper-reversing to superchron geodynamo states by 30-60 Myr, suggesting that superchron onset may be contemporaneous with LIP-forming instabilities produced during collapses of lower mantle superplumes.

  1. Anatomopathological Changes Induced by Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Tirziu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi or mycetes represents the biggest group of microorganisms from the entire biologic system (nearly 250.000 species, very widespread in nature. They are inferior vegetal organisms, heterotrophic, lacking chlorophyll or other trophic pigments, which grow up on live organic substrates or on decaying substrates. The intensive researches from the last two decades had proved that only 30 – 40% from the total number of fungi species is capable to synthesize some toxic metabolites, and, among this species, only 60 species had proved to be dangerous for human or animals. Researches about mycotoxins action upon factors that interfere with the natural or acquired immunity are relatively recent and most of them refer to aflatoxins. The immune-suppression phenomena rely on morphological and histological modifications of lymphoid organs, changes of blood parameters, changes of functional capacity of humoral and some cellular factors. The presence of mycotoxins in feed causes major economic losses, either by their direct action (defined by disease state or indirectly, by affecting the specific and nonspecific resistance of the organism. In the present study we studied the effect of aflatoxins upon the main organs involved in immune response, pathological changes induced by mycotoxins. To determine the influence of mycotoxins on food conversion, weighings were made at the beginning and the end of the experimental period.

  2. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  3. Bortezomib-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouraoui Elouni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dear Sir, Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and indicated for patients with multiple myeloma refractory to at least one prior therapy [1]. The most common adverse effects of bortezomib include hematological toxicities (especially transient thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal disturbances, peripheral neuropathy, fatigue, fever, dyspnea, rash, and myalgia [2]. We herein present the first case of acute pancreatitis induced by bortezomib. A 58-year-old female was treated with vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone for a myeloma. She had no history of dyslipidemia or alcohol abuse. In relation to the relapse of the myeloma, two doses of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 were administered intravenously at a 4-day time interval. Concomitant medications in our patient included dexamethasone, levothyroxine for hypothyroidism, and paracetamol. Two days later, she presented because of abdominal pain of medium intensity localized in the epigastrium for which she was hospitalized. On admission, the patient had normal vital signs without fever. Abdominal examination revealed only mild epigastric tenderness. There was no rigidity or guarding. There were no palpable abdominal masses. The remainder of the examination was normal. A laboratory work-up showed a normal blood cell count and did not demonstrate hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia or hypercalcemia. A liver test, renal function, serum electrolytes and blood sugars were all normal.

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; Barbi, Joseph; Pardoll, Drew M.

    2012-01-01

    Naïve T cells activated by antigen-presenting cells (APC) can be differentiated into at least four major types of T-helper (TH) cells: TH1, TH2, TH17 and inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg) based on their unique cytokine production profiles and characteristic functions.1 TH1 produce interferon-γ (IFNγ) and are important for protective immune responses to intracellular viral, bacterial and parasitic infection. TH2 cells produce interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-23 and are critical for controlling extracellular parasites such as helminthes. TH17 cells are responsible for expelling extracellular bacteria and fungi through secretion of IL-17a, IL-17f and IL-22.2 These cells however are perhaps better known for their propensity to drive autoimmune responses. Tregs including naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTreg) play important roles in the suppressive control of both innate and adaptive immunity in vivo.3,4 PMID:22754770

  5. [Drug-induced ventricular tachycardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchier, J P; Fauchier, L; Babuty, D; Breuillac, J C; Cosnay, P; Rouesnel, P

    1993-05-01

    Certain drugs can induce ventricular tachycardia (VT) by creating reentry, ventricular after potentials or exaggerating the slope of phase 4. These may or may not be symptomatic, sustained or non-sustained and have variable ECG appearances: monomorphic or polymorphic, bidirectional, torsades de pointes. They risk degenerating into ventricular flutter of fibrillation and have been held responsible for the increased mortality observed unexpectedly in some long-term treatments. The drugs responsible are mainly those used in cardiology, probably due to predisposing circumstances (cardiomegaly, cardiac failure, previous severe ventricular arrhythmias, therapeutic associations, metabolic abnormalities). These include primarily the antiarrhythmic drugs (IA, IC, sotalol and bepridil), digitalis, sympathomimetics and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. These complications may be toxic or idiosyncratic, in patients with or without cardiac disease, and may also occur with other drugs: vasodilators and anti-anginal drugs (lidoflazine, vincamine, fenoxedil), psychotropic agents (phenothiazine and imipramine), antimitotics, antimalarials (chloroquine) or antibiotics (erythromycin, pentamidine). The prognosis is severe and the treatment is often difficult which makes prevention, helped by repeated surface ECG (or Holter monitoring), very important with careful assessment of patients at risk. PMID:8267504

  6. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad TALEBIAN*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Goudarzi RM, Mohammadzadeh M , Mirzadeh AS. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:66-68. Abstract Vincristine (VCR is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies. The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms’ tumor, treated by vincristine (0/067 mg/kg/day and dactinomycin (0/045 mg/kg/day after surgery. Three weeks after treatment, he presented with bilateral ptosis. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis with normal pupillary reflex and eye movement. He received 3.015 mg cumulative dose of vincristine before development of ptosis. Treatment with pyridoxine (150 mg/m2 p.o. BID and pyridostigmine (3 mg/kg p.o. BID started as neuroprotective agents, and after 7 days the problem disappeared. The treatment continued for 6 weeks and there were no signs of ptosis or a recurrence in follow up 2 months later.

  7. Naproxen-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharif Ali; Jason D Pimentel; Chan Ma

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to induce liver injury. Patterns of the injury usually range from mild elevations of liver enzymes to sometimes severe fulminant hepatic failure. Likewise, naproxen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID that was introduced in 1980 and has been available as an over-the-counter medication since 1994, but has rarely been reported to cause liver injury. METHODS: We treated a 30-year-old woman with jaundice and intractablepruritusthatdevelopedshortlyaftertakingnaproxen. We reviewed the medical history and liver histopathology of the patient as well as all previously published case reports of naproxen-associated liver toxicity in the English language literature. RESULTS: The liver biochemical profile of the patient revealed a mixed cholestasis and hepatitis pattern. Consecutive liver biopsies demonstrated focal lobular inflammation, hepatocyte drop-out, and a progressive loss of the small interlobular bile ducts (ductopenia). The biopsy performed two years after onset of the disease showed partial recovery of a small number of bile ducts; however, 10 years passed before the biochemical profile returned to near normal. CONCLUSIONS:  Naproxen-associated liver toxicity remains a rare entity, but should be considered in any patient presenting with cholestasis shortly after its use. Liver injury is most commonly seen in a mixed pattern characterized by cholestasis and hepatitis. The resulting liver damage may take years to resolve.

  8. Vibration-Induced Droplet Atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. K.; James, A.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal management is critical to a number of technologies used in a microgravity environment and in Earth-based systems. Examples include electronic cooling, power generation systems, metal forming and extrusion, and HVAC (heating, venting, and air conditioning) systems. One technique that can deliver the large heat fluxes required for many of these technologies is two-phase heat transfer. This type of heat transfer is seen in the boiling or evaporation of a liquid and in the condensation of a vapor. Such processes provide very large heat fluxes with small temperature differences. Our research program is directed toward the development of a new, two-phase heat transfer cell for use in a microgravity environment. In this paper, we consider the main technology used in this cell, a novel technique for the atomization of a liquid called vibration-induced droplet atomization. In this process, a small liquid droplet is placed on a thin metal diaphragm that is made to vibrate by an attached piezoelectric transducer. The vibration induces capillary waves on the free surface of the droplet that grow in amplitude and then begin to eject small secondary droplets from the wave crests. In some situations, this ejection process develops so rapidly that the entire droplet seems to burst into a small cloud of atomized droplets that move away from the diaphragm at speeds of up to 50 cm/s. By incorporating this process into a heat transfer cell, the active atomization and transport of the small liquid droplets could provide a large heat flux capability for the device. Experimental results are presented that document the behavior of the diaphragm and the droplet during the course of a typical bursting event. In addition, a simple mathematical model is presented that qualitatively reproduces all of the essential features we have seen in a burst event. From these two investigations, we have shown that delayed droplet bursting results when the system passes through a resonance

  9. Induced Power of the Helicopter Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    A simplified rotor model was used to explore fundamental behavior of lifting rotor induced power at moderate and high advance ratios. Several rotor inflow theories, including dynamic inflow theory and prescribed-wake vortex theory, together with idealized notional airfoil stall models were employed. A number of unusual results were encountered at high advance ratios including trim control reversal and multiple trim solutions. Significant increases in rotor induced power (torque) above the ideal minimum were observed for moderately high advance ratio. Very high induced power was observed near and above unity advance ratio. The results were sensitive to the stall characteristics of the airfoil models used. An equivalent wing analysis was developed to determine induced power from Prandtl lifting line theory and help interpret the rotor induced power behavior in terms of the spanwise airload distribution. The equivalent wing approach was successful in capturing the principal variations of induced power for different configurations and operating conditions. The effects blade root cutout were found to have a significant effect on rotor trim and induced power at high advance ratios.

  10. [Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Raluca

    2014-01-01

    The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

  11. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  12. Induced gravity and Planck zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with an asymptotically free gauge theory with dynamical symmetry breaking and a mass hierarchy, we investigate the Adler-Zee formula for the induced gravitational constant. We study the two-point function psi(q2), constructed with the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. First, we show that if the zeros of psi are at a mass scale significantly below the leading scale, then G/sub ind/ -1 = 0 (m/sub zero/ 2) making it impossible to get a realistic G/sub ind/ from the Adler-Zee formula with low-mass zeros. Next we use the Jensen formula to derive a sum rule for Vertical Barm/sub zero/Vertical Bar. The analysis of this sum rule coupled with the result above leads to a dilemma with only one reasonable resolution. To get a realistic G/sub ind/ from the Adler-Zee formula, psi(q2) must have a pair of complex-conjugate zeros at q2 = M02 +- 2iνM0, where M0 is large and of the maximal scale and ν/M0-1. It gives a lower bound, which with our previously derived general upper bound gives [π2/4(ln10)288] C/sub psi/M02-1 2/288) C/sub psi/M02, where C/sub psi/ is the anomaly coefficient, a number easily determined by low-order perturbation theory for any group

  13. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  14. Self-induced polarization anisoplanatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, James B.

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests that the astronomical science data recorded with low F# telescopes for applications requiring a known point spread function shape and those applications requiring instrument polarization calibration may be compromised unless the effects of vector wave propagation are properly modeled and compensated. Exoplanet coronagraphy requires "matched filter" masks and explicit designs for the real and imaginary parts for the mask transmittance. Three aberration sources dominate image quality in astronomical optical systems: amplitude, phase and polarization. Classical ray-trace aberration analysis used today by optical engineers is inadequate to model image formation in modern low F# highperformance astronomical telescopes. We show here that a complex (real and imaginary) vector wave model is required for high performance, large aperture, very wide-field, low F# systems. Self-induced polarization anisoplanatism (SIPA) reduces system image quality, decreases contrast and limits the ability of image processing techniques to restore images. This paper provides a unique analysis of the image formation process to identify measurements sensitive to SIPA. Both the real part and the imaginary part of the vector complex wave needs to be traced through the entire optical system, including each mirror surface, optical filter, and all masks. Only at the focal plane is the modulus squared taken to obtain an estimate of the measured intensity. This paper also discusses the concept of the polarization conjugate filter, suggested by the author to correct telescope/instrument corrupted phase and amplitude and thus mitigate6, in part the effects of phase and amplitude errors introduced by reflections of incoherent white-light from metal coatings.

  15. Neutrino-recoil induced desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear decay induced 37Cl ion desorption from the electron capture decay 37Ar→37Cl+ν is reported for the first time. A mixture of one part 36Ar and ∼5x10-5 parts 37Ar (36/37Ar) is physisorbed on a gold-plated Si wafer kept at 16 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The time of flight (TOF) of recoiled 37Cl ions is measured using coincidence techniques. The observed kinetic energy distribution of the 37Cl ions is approximately Gaussian in shape, with a maximum at ∼9.0 eV and a full width at half-maximum of ∼3 eV. Considering the binding energy of physisorbed 37Ar is ∼80 meV, the 9-eV peak energy compares well with that of the gas-phase value, where conservation of the energy and momentum fixes the kinetic energy of 37Cl ions at 9.54 eV. Using a combination of TOF and retarding field energy analysis, the charge states of detected ions for 1 ML (monolayer) of 36/37Ar are determined as 53%+1e, 21%+2e, and 26%+ne, where n≥3. The fraction of decaying 37Ar atoms which emerge from the surface as positive 37Cl ions is found to be 10%. Finally, a strong charge exchange reaction between a 37Cl ion and near-neighbor atoms causes a Coulomb explosion within the multilayers, increasing the kinetic energy of desorbing ions by as much as ∼7 eV

  16. Induced Gravity and Topological Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We construct an induced gravity (pregeometry) where both the Newton constant and the cosmological constant appear as integration constants in solving field equations. By adding the kinetic terms of ghosts and antighosts, an action of the induced gravity is transformed to a topological field theory. Moreover, by solving field equations of the topological field theory in the FRW universe, we find an inflation solution. The present study might shed some light on a close relationship between the induced gravity and the topological quantum field theory.

  17. Laser-induced damage in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ristau, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated to users and developers of high-powered systems, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials focuses on the research field of laser-induced damage and explores the significant and steady growth of applications for high-power lasers in the academic, industrial, and military arenas. Written by renowned experts in the field, this book concentrates on the major topics of laser-induced damage in optical materials and most specifically addresses research in laser damage that occurs in the bulk and on the surface or the coating of optical components. It considers key issues in the field of hi

  18. Cavitation-Induced Fusion: Proof of Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Fomitchev-Zamilov, Max I

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation-induced fusion (also known as bubble fusion or sonofusion) has been a topic of much debate and controversy and is generally (albeit incorrectly) perceived as unworkable. In this paper we present the theoretical foundations of cavitation-induced fusion and summarize the experimental results of the research conducted in the past 20 years. Based on the systematic study of all available data we conclude that the cavitation-induced fusion is feasible, doable, and can be used for commercial power generation. We present the results of our own research and disclose a commercial reactor prototype.

  19. Cellular basis of radiation-induced fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrosis is a common sequela of both cancer treatment by radiotherapy and accidental irradiation and has been described in many tissues including skin, lung, heart and liver. The underlying mechanisms of the radiation-induced fibrosis still remain to be resolved. In the present review we tried to illustrate the basic cellular mechanisms of radiation-induced fibrosis based on the newest findings arising from molecular radiobiology and cell biology. Based on these findings the cellular mechanism of radiation-induced fibrosis can be seen as a multicellular process involving various interacting cell systems in the target organ resulting in the fibrotic phenotype of the fibroblast/fibrocyte cell system

  20. Electromagnetic surface wave induced magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femtosecond laser induced electromagnetic surface waves, supported by a gold overlayer on top of a magnetic iron garnet (IG) single-crystalline film, are demonstrated to induce a change in the magnetic anisotropy of the IG. This effect is found to be similar to the previously reported photo-induced magnetic anisotropy in this material. However, its dependence on the polarization of the light and orientation of the magnetization is found to be different. This electromagnetic surface wave control of the spins opens new interesting possibilities for all-optical ultrafast control of the magnetization at a nanometre length scale.

  1. Electromagnetic surface wave induced magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guyader, L [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirilyuk, A; Rasing, Th [IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Smolyaninov, I I [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)], E-mail: loic.leguyader@psi.ch

    2009-05-21

    Femtosecond laser induced electromagnetic surface waves, supported by a gold overlayer on top of a magnetic iron garnet (IG) single-crystalline film, are demonstrated to induce a change in the magnetic anisotropy of the IG. This effect is found to be similar to the previously reported photo-induced magnetic anisotropy in this material. However, its dependence on the polarization of the light and orientation of the magnetization is found to be different. This electromagnetic surface wave control of the spins opens new interesting possibilities for all-optical ultrafast control of the magnetization at a nanometre length scale.

  2. Laser treatment of experimentally induced chronic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerino, M. R.; Baranauskas, V.; Guerino, A. C.; Parizotto, N.

    2000-02-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on the inflammatory process induced in the articular cartilage of the right knee of guinea pigs. Through electron microscopy analysis it was possible to identify the induced arthritis in the articular cartilage and its modification after the laser treatment. The laser radiation promoted a reduction in the proliferation of the inflammatory cells in the damaged tissue and also induced the formation of cartilage bridges that tied the destroyed parts favoring the formation of a repaired tissue in the injured cartilage.

  3. Epidural Naloxone to Prevent Buprenorphine Induced PONV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural infusion of local analgesic and opioid are commonly used for postoperative pain relief. This combina-tion gives excellent anlgesia but nausea and vomiting remains a major concern. Low dose epidural naloxone prevents PONV induced by spinal opioids like morphine, fentanyl and sufentanil. However, it is not known that epidural naloxone administration prevents PONV induced by epidural buprenorphine. We have reported three cases of major abdominal operation in which lowdose epidural infusion of naloxone releived the symptom of buprenorphine induced severe PONV and improved the quality of analgesia.

  4. An Overview of Bortezomib-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Meregalli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The boronic acid dipeptide bortezomib, able to induce tumor cell death by degradation of key proteins, is the first proteasome inhibitor drug to enter clinical practice. It is employed as first-line treatment in relapsed or resistant multiple myeloma (MM patients. However, bortezomib often induces a dose-limiting toxicity in the form of painful sensory neuropathy, which can mainly be reduced by subcutaneous administration or dose modification. In this review we focus on the current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of bortezomib-induced neuropathy to allow further studies in animal models and humans, including analysis of clinical and pharmacogenetic aspects, to optimize the treatment regimens.

  5. Hypotonicity induced K+ and anion conductive pathways activation in eel intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, M G; Giordano, M E; De Nuccio, F; Nicolardi, G; Hoffmann, E K; Schettino, T

    2005-01-01

    electrogenic V(te) and I(sc) responses to hypotonicity resulted from the activation of different K+ and anion conductive pathways on the apical and basolateral membranes of the epithelium: (a) iberiotoxin-sensitive K+ channels on the apical and basolateral membrane, (b) apamin-sensitive K+ channels mainly on...... the basolateral membrane, (c) DIDS-sensitive anion channels on the apical membrane. The functional integrity of the basal Cl- conductive pathway on the basolateral membrane is also required. The electrophysiological response to hypotonic stress was completely abolished by Ca2+ removal from the Ringer...... activation of 'emergency' systems of rapid cell volume regulation is fundamental in their physiology. The aim of the present work was to study the physiological response to hypotonic stress in a salt-transporting epithelium, the intestine of the euryhaline teleost Anguilla anguilla. Eel intestinal epithelium...

  6. Antimalaria Effect of the Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus platyphylla Del

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isma'il Shittu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimalarial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla Del was evaluated against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Nontreated, experimental control mice died of fulminant parasitemia from day 7 to 9 post-infection but mice treated with the extract at 300 mg/kg showed markedly reduced parasitaemia bouts of 43.50% and a mean survival time of 28 days postinfection. The plant extract prevented a drastic reduction in PCV showing its efficacy in ameliorating anaemic conditions in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Histological examination of liver tissues of treated and untreated mice further supports the antimalaria potential of this plant. This observation validates the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.

  7. Cavitation mode analysis of pump inducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The onset of cavitation causes head and efficiency a main pump to be reduced significantly and generates vibration and noise. In order to avoid these phenomena, the inlet of the pump is fitted with a special rotor called an inducer, which can operate satisfactorily with extensive cavitation. The motivation of this study is to find out cavitation modes from the inducer inlet pressure signals and event characteristics from outlet ones at various operating conditions. The cavitation modes are analyzed by using a cross-spectral density of fluctuating pressures at the inducer inlet. The time-frequency characteristics of wall pressures downstream of the inducer are presented in terms of event frequency, its duration time, and number of events by using the Choi-Williams distribution

  8. Proximity induced superconductivity in bilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordaz, Julien; Wu, Fan [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Wolf, Michael; Beckmann, Detlef [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute for Solid-State Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Danneau, Romain [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Proximity induced superconductivity effect occurs when graphene is connected with close enough superconducting electrodes. Observations of Andreev reflection and induced supercurrents flowing through graphene sheets have already been reported in graphene. However, these effects have not been explored in bilayer graphene so far. By applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to open a gap in a bilayer graphene. This can be achieved in practice by designing a top gate in addition to the usual back gate. Our devices are produced on top of sapphire wafers by using transfer techniques and standard electron-beam lithography. The bilayers are sandwiched between two atomically flat hexagonal boron nitride multilayers which are both used as gate dielectric. By inducing a band gap into a bilayer graphene connected by two superconducting leads, the supercurrent could be switched off inducing a superconductor-insulator transition.

  9. Muramyl dipeptide-induced adjuvant arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, S.; Tanaka, A.

    1980-01-01

    Muramyl dipeptide, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, induced adjuvant arthritis in WKA rats when injected in a water-in-oil emulsion prepared with Freund incomplete adjuvant (Difco), but not when emulsified with Drackeol and Arlacel A.

  10. Eddy-current-induced multipole field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-varying magnetic fields of magnets in booster accelerators induce substantial eddy currents in the vacuum chambers. The eddy currents in turn act to produce various multipole fields that act on the beam. These fields must be taken into account when doing a lattice design. In the APS booster, the relatively long dipole magnets (3 meters) are linearly ramped to accelerate the injected 325 MeV beam to 7 GeV. Substantial dipole and sextupole fields are generated in the elliptical vacuum chamber from the induced eddy currents. In this note, formulas for the induced dipole and sextupole fields are derived for elliptical and rectangular vacuum chambers for a time-varying dipole field. A discussion is given on how to generalize this derivation method to include eddy-current-induced multipole fields from higher multipole magnets (quadrupole, sextupole, etc.). Finally, transient effects are considered

  11. Radiation induced carcinoma of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone induced by high dose radiation therapy. Several important surgical techniques are stressed which serve to make this procedure far safer in the avoidance of catastrophic hemorrhage

  12. Radiation-induced carcinoma of the penis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with carcinoma of the penis were treated with interstitial radiation. They were cured of their disease for 17 and 21 years respectively and then developed radiation-induced tumours. (author)

  13. Animal models of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Darryl R; Clark, Abbot F

    2015-12-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases and conditions. While unmatched in their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, GC therapy is often associated with the significant ocular side effect of GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and iatrogenic open-angle glaucoma. Investigators have generated GC-induced OHT and glaucoma in at least 8 different species besides man. These models mimic many features of this condition in man and provide morphologic and molecular insights into the pathogenesis of GC-OHT. In addition, there are many clinical, morphological, and molecular similarities between GC-induced glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), making animals models of GC-induced OHT and glaucoma attractive models in which to study specific aspects of POAG. PMID:26051991

  14. Levofloxacin-induced acute anxiety and insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kandasamy; D Srinath

    2012-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones can cause adverse neuropsychiatric side effects, which are more common in older age. We present three cases of levofloxacin-induced acute anxiety and insomnia in young adults. In all the cases, discontinuation of levofloxacin immediately lead to remission.

  15. A case of dapsone induced methaemoglobinaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, D

    2008-09-01

    We present a case of dapsone induced methaemoglobinaemia that occurred in a patient who presented to the Emergency Department of a University Hospital. It is an uncommon condition that requires specific and urgent treatment in severe cases.

  16. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari;

    2014-01-01

    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...

  17. Proximity induced superconductivity in bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proximity induced superconductivity effect occurs when graphene is connected with close enough superconducting electrodes. Observations of Andreev reflection and induced supercurrents flowing through graphene sheets have already been reported in graphene. However, these effects have not been explored in bilayer graphene so far. By applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to open a gap in a bilayer graphene. This can be achieved in practice by designing a top gate in addition to the usual back gate. Our devices are produced on top of sapphire wafers by using transfer techniques and standard electron-beam lithography. The bilayers are sandwiched between two atomically flat hexagonal boron nitride multilayers which are both used as gate dielectric. By inducing a band gap into a bilayer graphene connected by two superconducting leads, the supercurrent could be switched off inducing a superconductor-insulator transition.

  18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced hydrocephalus in hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn, D F; Chinookoswong, N; Wang, J

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocephalus was induced in neonatal hamsters after intracerebral inoculation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Examination of the ependyma from affected animals by electron microscopy did not reveal mycoplasma. However, in an ependymal organ culture system, M. pneumoniae cytadsorbed to ependymal cells.

  19. Subsurface Airflow Induced by Natural Forcings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu J. Jiao; LI Hai-long

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface air flow can be induced by natural processes, such as atmospheric or barometric pressure changes, water table fluctuations, topographic effects, and rainfall infiltration. Barometric pressure fluctuations are the most common cause of subsurface air flow, which can be significant under favourable geological conditions. This process has been studied most extensively because of its application to passive soil vapor extraction. Soil air flow induced by water table fluctuations can be significant, particularly where the fluctuations are of high frequency, for example, in tidal-influenced coastal areas. Topographic effects can lead to strong subsoil air flow in areas with great elevation differences. Rainfall infiltration usually produces only weak airflow. Air flow induced by these natural processes has important environmental and engineering implications. Among the different processes, air flow induced by tidal fluctuations has been studied the least, although it has exciting applications to coastal engineering projects and environmental remediation.

  20. Sotalol-induced torsade de pointes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulos, A.; Manoudis, F.; Filindris, A.; Metaxas, P.

    1981-01-01

    The authors report a case of torsade de pointes atypical ventricular tachycardia in a patient with chronic renal failure and hypertension treated with sotalol hydrochloride which they believe induced the arrhythmia. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:7301675

  1. Birefringence-induced losses in interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, W.; Rüdiger, A.; Schilling, R; Strain, K.; Danzmann, K.

    1994-01-01

    In interferometers one conceivable loss mechanism is depolarization of the light by inherent or thermally induced birefringence in optical substrates or coatings. The magnitude of this effect is determined quantitatively and compared with the losses due to thermal lensing.

  2. Hyaluronic Acid Inhibits Polycation Induced Cellular Responses

    OpenAIRE

    lalenti, A.; Lanaro, A.; Brignola, G.; Marotta, P; Di Rosa, M.

    1994-01-01

    Positively charged macromolecules cause a variety of pathological events through their electrostatic interaction with anionic sites present on the membrane of target cells. In the present study we have investigated the effect of hyaluronic acid, a negatively charged molecule, on rat paw oedema induced by poly-L-lysine as well as on histamine release from rat mast cells and nitric oxide formation from rabbit aorta, both induced by this polycation. The results indicate that hyaluronic acid is a...

  3. Paliperidone Induced Hypoglycemia by Increasing Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Tsubasa; Riku, Keisen; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Kanai, Koji; Omura, Yumi; Takada, Hiromune; Matunaga, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with schizophrenia who developed persistent hypoglycemia following paliperidone administration. After discontinuing paliperidone, the hypoglycemia resolved, but symptoms of diabetes emerged. Therefore, it appears that the hypoglycemia induced by paliperidone may mask symptoms of diabetes. Paliperidone may induce hypoglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This report could help elucidate the relationship between atypical antipsychotics and glucose metabolism. PMID:27478670

  4. Induced gravity from curvature density preserving diffeomorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    We construct not only an induced gravity model with restricted diffeomorphisms, that is, transverse diffeomorphisms that preserve the curvature density, but also with full diffeomorphisms. By solving the equations of motion, it turns out that these models produce Einstein's equations with a certain Newton constant in addition to the constraint for the curvature density. In the limit of the infinite Newton constant, the models give rise to induced gravity. Moreover, we discuss cosmological solutions on the basis of the gravitational models at hand.

  5. Induced Gravity and Topological Quantum Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We construct an induced gravity (pregeometry) where both the Newton constant and the cosmological constant appear as integration constants in solving field equations. By adding the kinetic terms of ghosts and antighosts, an action of the induced gravity is transformed to a topological field theory. Moreover, by solving field equations of the topological field theory in the FRW universe, we find an inflation solution. The present study might shed some light on a close relationship between the ...

  6. Photo-Induced Micellization of Block Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Kuwayama; Eri Yoshida

    2010-01-01

    We found novel photo-induced micellizations through photolysis, photoelectron transfer, and photo-Claisen rearrangement. The photolysis-induced micellization was attained using poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene)-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PBSt-b-PSt). BSt-b-PSt showed no self-assembly in dichloromethane and existed as isolated copolymers. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that the copolymer produced spherical micelles in this solvent due to irradiation with a high-pressure mercury lamp ...

  7. DESIGN PARAMETERS OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR INDUCER

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇAK, Saim

    1998-01-01

    Design characteristics of centrifugal compressor impellers working with compressible fluids are analyzed, and the design parameters of inducer are defined. The effects of incidence, deviation and deflection angles, relative eddy, rotating stall and Mach number are investigated. The relation between minimum relative Mach number of inducer and flow angle is investigated and it is observed that the minimum Mach number occurs for flow angle values between -680 and -520 . In the design, the effect...

  8. Can Monopoly Unionism Explain Publicly Induced Retirement?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, Casey B.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been suggested that trade unions take actions and favor public policies that reduce the quantity of labor so that union members might enjoy greater labor incomes. Can this explain the prevalence of generous public pension programs inducing retirement? I suggest not, by formalizing the monopoly unionism model and showing how labor's interest in reducing the quantity of labor cannot explain why the old are induced to retire rather than discouraging work among workers of all ages. Di...

  9. Induced murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Zeumer, Leilani; Reeves, Westley H; Morel, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Induced mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been developed to complement the spontaneous models. This chapter describes the methods used in the pristane-induced model and the chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) model, both of which have been extensively used. We will also outline the specific mechanisms of systemic autoimmunity that can be best characterized using each of these models. PMID:24497358

  10. Induced mutations - a tool in plant research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings include 34 papers and 18 brief descriptions of poster presentations in the following areas as they are affected by induced mutations: advancement of genetics, plant evolution, plant physiology, plant parasites, plant symbioses, in vitro culture, gene ecology and plant breeding. Only a relatively small number of papers are of direct nuclear interest essentially in view of the mutations being induced by ionizing radiations. The papers of nuclear interest have been entered as separate and individual items of input

  11. Light-shift-induced photonic nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, FGSL; Hartmann, M. J.; Plenio, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new method to produce self- and cross-Kerr photonic nonlinearities, using light-induced Stark shifts due to the interaction of a cavity mode with atoms. The proposed experimental set-up is simpler than in previous approaches, while the strength of the nonlinearity obtained with a single atom is the same as in the setting based on electromagnetically induced transparency. Furthermore our scheme can be applied to engineer effective photonic nonlinear interactions whose strength inc...

  12. Noise Induced Phenomena in Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti, D.; Giuffrida, A; Denaro, G.; Pizzolato, N; Curcio, L; Spagnolo, B.; Mazzola, S.; Basilone, G.; Bonanno, A.

    2015-01-01

    Noise through its interaction with the nonlinearity of the living systems can give rise to counter-intuitive phenomena. In this paper we shortly review the noise induced effects in different ecosystems. The transient dynamics of these ecosystems are analyzed through generalized Lotka-Volterra equations in the presence of multiplicative noise, which models the interaction between the species and the environment. We find noise induced phenomena such as quasi-deterministic oscillations, stochast...

  13. Exercise induced asthma and endogenous opioids.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, R C; Bachman, M.; Rochat, T.; Egger, D; Haller, R.; Junod, A F

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of endogenous opioid peptides in the plasma are increased during exercise and these substances have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma induced by chloropropramide and alcohol in diabetic patients. This work was undertaken to determine whether exercise induced asthma might be mediated by endogenous opioids. Plasma beta endorphin, met-enkephalin, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were measured in five asthmatic patients and five normal volunteers b...

  14. Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mabu Shareef

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine with prominent anticonvulsant action than other members of the group at equisedating doses. It especially blocks pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. Other important actions include anxiolysis. Common adverse effects to Clonazepam include drowsiness and lethargy. In this submission we report a case of Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash in a 30 year old female treated for panic disorder. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 647-649

  15. Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mabu Shareef; P. Sai Krishna; Naser A. Tadvi; C. Dinesh M. Naidu

    2013-01-01

    Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine with prominent anticonvulsant action than other members of the group at equisedating doses. It especially blocks pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. Other important actions include anxiolysis. Common adverse effects to Clonazepam include drowsiness and lethargy. In this submission we report a case of Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash in a 30 year old female treated for panic disorder. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000): 647-649

  16. Medium-induced multi-photon radiation

    OpenAIRE

    MA, Hao; Salgado, Carlos A.; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    We study the spectrum of multi-photon radiation off a fast quark in medium in the BDMPS/ASW approach. We reproduce the medium-induced one-photon radiation spectrum in dipole approximation, and go on to calculate the two-photon radiation in the Moli\\`{e}re limit. We find that in this limit the LPM effect holds for medium-induced two-photon ladder emission.

  17. Delayed chromosomal instability induced by DNA damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, B A; Morgan, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation can result in gene mutation, gene amplification, chromosome rearrangements, cellular transformation, and cell death. Although many of these changes may be induced directly by the radiation, there is accumulating evidence for delayed genomic instability following X-ray exposure. We have investigated this phenomenon by studying delayed chromosomal instability in a hamster-human hybrid cell line by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. We examined ...

  18. How does relativity affect magnetically induced currents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R J F; Repisky, M; Komorovsky, S

    2015-09-21

    Magnetically induced probability currents in molecules are studied in relativistic theory. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) enhances the curvature and gives rise to a previously unobserved current cusp in AuH or small bulge-like distortions in HgH2 at the proton positions. The origin of this curvature is magnetically induced spin-density arising from SOC in the relativistic description. PMID:26243659

  19. Spin-current induced electric field

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, QF; Guo, H; Wang, J

    2003-01-01

    We theoretically investigate properties of the induced electric field of a steady-state spin-current without charge current, using an 'equivalent magnetic charge' method. Several general formula for the induced electric field are derived which play the role of 'Biot-Savart law' and 'Ampere's law.' Conversely, a moving spin is affected by an external electric field and we derive an expression for the interaction torque.

  20. Epidural Naloxone to Prevent Buprenorphine Induced PONV

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Jadon; S S Parida; Swastika Chakroborty; Amrita Panda

    2008-01-01

    Epidural infusion of local analgesic and opioid are commonly used for postoperative pain relief. This combina-tion gives excellent anlgesia but nausea and vomiting remains a major concern. Low dose epidural naloxone prevents PONV induced by spinal opioids like morphine, fentanyl and sufentanil. However, it is not known that epidural naloxone administration prevents PONV induced by epidural buprenorphine. We have reported three cases of major abdominal operation in which lowdose epidural infus...

  1. Induced Higgs couplings and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that spontaneous symmetry breaking can arise in a non-Abelian gauge theory free of quartic scalar couplings only if fermions are present in the theory. A sufficiency condition is developed for positivity of the induced PHI4-potential as PHI→infinity. The same condition guarantees the existence of asymptotically free positive-eigenvalue solutions to the renormalization group equations for running coupling constants. Correspondence is established between ''eigenvalue'' and induced-potential approaches toward total asymptotic freedom. (author)

  2. Shock wave induced vaporization of porous solids

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Andy H.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; O'Keefe, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Strong shock waves generated by hypervelocity impact can induce vaporization in solid materials. To pursue knowledge of the chemical species in the shock-induced vapors, one needs to design experiments that will drive the system to such thermodynamic states that sufficient vapor can be generated for investigation. It is common to use porous media to reach high entropy, vaporized states in impact experiments. We extended calculations by Ahrens [J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2443 (1972)] and Ahrens and O'...

  3. Medium-induced multi-photon radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hao; Salgado, Carlos A [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Tywoniuk, Konrad [Lund University (Sweden)

    2011-01-01

    We study the spectrum of multi-photon radiation off a fast quark in medium in the BDMPS/ASW approach. We reproduce the medium-induced one-photon radiation spectrum in dipole approximation, and go on to calculate the two-photon radiation in the Moliere limit. We find that in this limit the LPM effect holds for medium-induced two-photon ladder emission.

  4. Nutritional Support for Exercise-Induced Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Tipton, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is one method to counter the negative impact of an exercise-induced injury. Deficiencies of energy, protein and other nutrients should be avoided. Claims for the effectiveness of many other nutrients following injuries are rampant, but the evidence is equivocal. The results of an exercise-induced injury may vary widely depending on the nature of the injury and severity. Injuries typically result in cessation, or at least a reduction, in participation in sport and decreased physical ...

  5. Risk of miscarriage after previously induced abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Sithiravel, Cindhya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The risk of miscarriage is approximately 15 % of clinically recognized pregnancies, most of them appearing in first trimester. Miscarriage is known to be a distressing event in a woman s life. Hence, it would be in the patients favor to find any association which reduces the risk of miscarriage. On the other hand, it is estimated that 30 – 50 % of all women undergo at least one induced pregnancy termination in their lifetime, making any link between miscarriage and induc...

  6. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  7. Bacterial Gibberellins Induce Systemic Resistance of Plants

    OpenAIRE

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA; I. A. GRINEVA; T. L. SKAKUN; L. E. SADOVSKAYA

    2014-01-01

    It is generally agreed today that some rhizosphere bacteria can ensure induced systemic resistance to pathogens. In this paper we tested the ability of gibberellins produced by rhizosphere non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aurantiaca to induce systemic resistance to alternariosis agent – Alternaria brassicicola – in oilseed rape plants.Oilseed rape (Brássica nápus) is one of the most promising oil-bearing croppers. It allows improving the supply of population with vegetable oil, animal and ...

  8. Transcription Factor Oscillations Induce Differential Gene Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, Keng Boon; Yio, Wee Kheng; Surana, Uttam; Chiam, Keng Hwee

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular protein levels of diverse transcription factors (TFs) vary periodically with time. However, the effects of TF oscillations on gene expression, the primary role of TFs, are poorly understood. In this study, we determined these effects by comparing gene expression levels induced in the presence and in the absence of TF oscillations under same mean intracellular protein level of TF. For all the nonlinear TF transcription kinetics studied, an oscillatory TF is predicted to induce ge...

  9. Nutritional Interventions for Cancer-induced Cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Gullett, Norleena P.; Mazurak, Vera; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-induced cachexia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer treatment. Cancer research and development continues at an aggressive pace and yet a degree of cancer-induced cachexia is experienced by up to 80% of advanced stage cancer patients. Unfortunately, there are no established treatment regimens for this condition. Weight loss and fatigue consistently appear in patient oncologic histories and progress notes. However, few oncologists fully understand the pathol...

  10. Incidence of Metoclopramide-induced Methemoglobinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Emine; Yücel YÜZBAŞIOĞLU; Semra ASLAY; Coşkun, Figen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Methemoglobinemia could be a congenital or acquired condition. It causes clinical conditions ranging from simple cyanosis to hypoxia, lactic acidosis and death. Several cases of metoclopramide-induced methemoglobinemia both in infants and adults have been reported in literature. We aimed to investigate the incidence of metoclopramide-induced methemoglobinemia in our emergency department (ED). Methods: Adult patients who were admitted to the ED with renal colic, peripheral vertigo,...

  11. Penicillin-induced lysis of Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, T A; Callaway, M D

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 cells with concentrations of penicillin G within a relatively narrow range resulted in substantial lysis. This penicillin-induced lysis was dependent upon cell density and pH of the lysis medium. Other oral streptococci (Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus rattus, and Streptococcus cricetus) also demonstrated substantial levels of penicillin-induced lysis under appropriate conditions. Lesser degrees of lysis were seen in a related organism, Streptococc...

  12. Can Natural Sunlight Induce Coherent Exciton Dynamics?

    OpenAIRE

    Olšina, Jan; Dijkstra, Arend G.; Wang, Chen; Cao, Jianshu

    2014-01-01

    Excitation of a model photosynthetic molecular aggregate by incoherent sunlight is systematically examined. For a closed system, the excited state coherence induced by the sunlight oscillates with an average amplitude that is inversely proportional to the excitonic gap, and reaches a stationary amplitude that depends on the temperature and coherence time of the radiation field. For an open system, the light-induced dynamical coherence relaxes to a static coherence determined by the non-canoni...

  13. Anomaly-induced charges in baryons

    OpenAIRE

    Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji; Iida, Hideaki; Ishii, Takaaki; Maezawa, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We show that quantum chiral anomaly of QCD in magnetic backgrounds induces a novel structure of electric charge inside baryons. To illustrate the anomaly effect, we employ the Skyrme model for baryons, with the anomaly-induced gauged Wess-Zumino term (\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) E_i B_i. Due to this term, the Skyrmions giving a local pion condensation ((\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) \

  14. Whence Induced Demand: How Access Affects Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, David; Kanchi, Seshasai

    2000-01-01

    Additional highway capacity, by increasing travel speed, affects the individual share of time within a 24-hour budget allocated to various activities (time spent at and traveling to home, shop, work and other), some activities will be undertaken more, others less. This paper extends previous research that identified and quantified induced demand in terms of vehicle miles traveled, by considering questions of what type of demand is induced and which activities are consequently reduced. This pa...

  15. Do Process Innovations Induce Product Ones?

    OpenAIRE

    Battaggion, Maria Rosa; Tedeschi, Piero

    2006-01-01

    We study the relationship between process and product innovations in vertically differentiated duopolies. A process innovation can lead two competing firms to improve the quality of their goods introducing a product innovation. In fact, a cost reducing innovation has two effects: it spurs production and it enhances price competition. The former effect induces both firms to increase quality. The latter encourages differentiation, inducing low quality firm to decrease it. Therefore, high qualit...

  16. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernenkov Yu.V.; Nechaev V.N.; Stasova Yu.V.; Tereshenko V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART); to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies), from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced p...

  17. Calpain Activator Dibucaine Induces Platelet Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent calpains are a family of cysteine proteases that have been demonstrated to play key roles in both platelet glycoprotein Ibα shedding and platelet activation and altered calpain activity is associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Calpain activators induce apoptosis in several types of nucleated cells. However, it is not clear whether calpain activators induce platelet apoptosis. Here we show that the calpain activator dibucaine induced several platelet apoptotic events including depolarization of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, up-regulation of Bax and Bak, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine exposure. Platelet apoptosis elicited by dibucaine was not affected by the broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. Furthermore, dibucaine did not induce platelet activation as detected by P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding. However, platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin or α-thrombin, platelet adhesion and spreading on von Willebrand factor were significantly inhibited in platelets treated with dibucaine. Taken together, these data indicate that dibucaine induces platelet apoptosis and platelet dysfunction.

  18. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  19. Radiation- induced aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of ionizing radiation to induce aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells has been investigated experimentally in the laboratory mouse using a variety of cytogenetic and genetic methods. These studies have provided unambiguous evidence of induced nondisjunction in both male and female germ cells when the effect of irradiation is screened in meiotic cells or preimplantation embryos. In contrast, however, cytogenetic analyses of post-implantation embryos and genetic assays for induced chromosome gains have not found a significant radiation effect. These apparently contradictory findings may be reconciled if (a) radiation induces tertiary rather than primary trisomy, or (b) induces embryo-lethal genetic damage, such as deletions, in addition to numerical anomalies. Either or both of these explanations may account for the apparent loss during gestation of radiation-induced trisomic embryos. Extrapolating from the information so far available, it seems unlikely that environmental exposure to low doses if low dose rate radiation will result in a detectable increase in the rate of aneuploidy in the human population. (author)

  20. Dexrazoxane exacerbates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Mattan; Tzabari, Moran; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Infertility induced by anti-cancer treatments pose a major concern for cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DXR) has been previously shown to exert toxic effects on the testicular germinal epithelium. Based upon the cardioprotective traits of dexrazoxane (DEX), we studied its potential effect in reducing DXR-induced testicular toxicity. Male mice were injected with 5  mg/kg DXR, 100  mg/kg DEX, combination of both or saline (control) and sacrificed either 1, 3 or 6 months later. Testes were excised and further processed. Glutathione and apoptosis assays were performed to determine oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the effects of the drugs on testicular histology and on spermatogonial reserve. DXR and the combined treatment induced a striking decline in testicular weight. DEX prevented DXR-induced oxidative stress, but enhanced DXR-induced apoptosis within the testes. Furthermore, the combined treatment depleted the spermatogonial reserve after 1 month, with impaired recovery at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This resulted in compromised sperm parameters, testicular and epididymal weights as well as significantly reduced sperm motility, all of which were more severe than those observed in DXR-treated mice. The activity of DEX in the testis may differ from its activity in cardiomyocytes. Adding DEX to DXR exacerbates DXR-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:26329125